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Nomb.1. 9 _ MECHANICK EXERCISES: OR, The Dodtrine of Handy-Works. ‘The ART of JOTNERT. Defwition. ‘Oynery, is an Art Manual, whereby feveral Pieces of J yn eid ad nck eer ty hee, i Lines, Squares, Miters, or ayy Bevel, hard foal oem one intve Piece. Explanation By Jirsight Lives, 1 mean, that which, in Joynes’s Language, is called'a Jen, "That is, ‘Two Piotes of Wood ac Slr (chat ts Bind, )or elie chey are Pared, that i, dhe regulates tha hinder the do fing ofthe two: Pieces are cut off with a Perng Ch fie hey ae Shar, of Pred, (a8 T fii) 10 exade fy daighe, that when they ate fet upon one ano- thes, lige ‘tal pot "be. iercdbewist them. ‘This they call Siting of « Jot, oF Paring to Joint, betaute theft ewo Pieces ae with Glew come imonly joined together, either to make a” Board tread enough for dei purpofe, or to () Clanp one peo wand een of ar pine of wood keep i hom ein, ox warping, By Spares | me the mag of Frame either fo ree of Sich ik, wh she Pani 60 Joiners. Newb. 1. Feo pisces of wood athvart wo ote pics of ‘wood, fo as the four Angles of the Frame may comply with the Spare, marked D. By Miters are meant the joining of ewo pieces of wood, fo as the Joint makes halfa Square, and does comply with the Miter Square, marked E, Bya Bevil is meant any other Angle: As Frames that may be made of Pentagoe, Hexagon, Oflagon, Bc. Figures. § x. The Names of Joyners Ts deferibed, In Plate TH A AWakBoch The Hak ‘gm lay Bande ‘ox other Stuf flat again, wl ‘ate ¢ Trying of Paining. The Bench-Screw (on ts hither Ede9 oo ‘Screw Boardsin whilft the edges of them are Plaining. cor 4 Shootings and then the other edge of the Board is {et upon 2 Pin or Pins (if the Board be fo long as to reach to the other Zez) put into the Holes marked ‘adaaa down the Legs ofthe Bevo; which Pir or Pins may beremoved into higher or ower fles,s thebreadh of the Board thall require: So then, the BenchSrew ‘keeps the Board clofe tothe edge of the Beveb, and the Pins in the Legs keep ie to its height, that it may and Aeldy wat he oer ege working upon : Fria the of a Joint, if the Bos ot its exit poftion, bur fakes, or srmbles uncer the: Flin Your Joint will very hardly be wuly tight, AThe’ Hold-faf . let pretty look into round holes marked 258660, in the Bass Its lfce sto kespthe work fat upon’ the Ber, whil-you either Sa, Teanant, Moriefi, ot Sometimes Plein upon ic, Ge. Te performs this office with the knock of an Zfanmer, ‘or Mallet, wpon the bead of its for the Beak of it be- ing Nim: Joinery. 6 ing made crboked downwards, the end of the Beat Eling upon the fat of the Bev, keeps the, ead Of the Haldfgt above the fa ofthe Bec, and the ae’ in the Ber the Sbonk is let into being bored t down, and. wie enough to le the olall Ply alitle, the Fead of the Hoof being knock, Ee poin of che Beak tcows che Shenk alope in che Ine la he Bah and pein buckle ha ag the of fe on the es ofthe Berlin ts Freie hard ape te oppestie hoe ofthe under Supercies of the Beach, and'To by the point of the Beck, the Shonk of the 7/léf s Wedge 4 between che wpe lg, aod ts oped edge of the round hole inthe Bk’ Sometimes a dele Sere {sfixed vothefde ofthe exch, apat ® 3 or fomecimes its frthe Cleef is lid an edge upon the dar of te Beach, and fated with an Zl, or, fomctimes, to on the Ber A Male. §2, BBBBBBB Planes of feveral Sorts: as, Br A Fee Plane. @ The Tore. &'The Moth. ¢ The Wedge. d The Iron. ¢ The Sele. f The Forewend. ¢ The Britth. fg b The Steck. All together .Ploses Ie is ‘alld the Fore Plain becaute i i ued before you come tp work ier vith the Smt Pla, ox vith the Foyer. The edge of its Iranis nov ground upon the igh,as the Seu Pline, and the Joyter te, but rifes_with a Convex-Arch in the middle of its for its Office being to prepare the Seuff for ether’ the Smoothing Pla, oF the Jeynter, Workmen fet the edge ‘of t® Raver than the edge cither of the Smoothing Plaze, fr the Joynter; and thould the Zron of the Plane be, grouid to a fraighe edge, and it be fee never fo lete Ranter on one end of the edge than on the other, the Ranker end would ( bearing 2s then upon a point) ia Ry ‘working 6“ Aoineey, Nnb. The working, dig Gutters on the Surface of the Sruf'; but this Zroe (Being greed to a Convex Arch) though it ‘hould be feta litle Renter on one end ofits edge than on the other, would not make Gurters on the Surface ‘ofthe Stuf, but (atthe moft but) lite hollow dawks onthe Sif, and that more or les, according as the Plies grord more ot lls aching. Nor isi the Office of this Plave to fnotb the Sef, but only (as T faid) co prepare it, thatis, to take off the ieregular Rings, whether on the fides, of in the middles and cherelote tis Jer fomevhar Rant thie ena ce the inregularties the fooner off the Sruf, that the ‘Smathing Plone, or the Jeyater, may afterwards the ‘eafice work it Try. The manner of 7rying fhall be taught, when Tcome to Treat of the ule of the Rule ‘You muftnote, that as Itold you in Smithing, New 1. fal x4y 155 16, it was the office ofthe cul tut d File to ‘ake off the prominent isegularites the Hanmer made in the. Forging, €c. and that you were not to filethem more away than you need, fo the fame {Causion so be given you inthe fing of this Fore Plone in Joyery, for the reafon there alledged in Smiths whether; to avoid repetition, I referr you ; only wid this ofidcaon, hat here Sie, Wat eeae ter wrought upoa, and there a coure File the Tol; but ow Wd ithe mutter, and & Corer Foe ea the Tol. §.3 Of feting the Fro. When you ét the Zrov of the Fere-Plaxe, confider the Stuff you are to work upon, vis" Whether it be hard, oxo, ox Curling, as Jyners ell Crofograi'd Staf’s Whit be bard, or curing, You mult not Jer the im Nonb. We Joinery. 6 Tron very rank, becaule a Man's frength will not cut deep into ard dan it be not hard wed, ue carling, ot bwotty, and the Iron Ronkfer, you may in deel vork wih ill you come to" Oe foe ‘Gur, but then you may either tee your Sf, or break theedge of your Zon; ‘you may. preccive areafon to jer the Tron fire for’ curling, and bvotty Saft But ifyou ask me how raek your Zrov ought to be fe Lanes, your Wood bef, and Your Sea fre, and frowy, that is, evenly temper’ all the way, you ty fr tae ir fo thea hating ofthe iced of an old coined Shilling, but fearce thicker; whereas, if Your Staff be bard, or carling, oF buy, you fhall fearce be able to take a fhaving off thé thicknels of and old Grou, Therefore you maf examine che Tem of your Stuf, by cafy trials, how the Plone wi eck on iy tad fe pour Ion acondgly. Aad ‘obierve this as a General Rule, that the Zrn'a of the Jfore-Plainis, forthe irik working with it, to be fer ‘8 ran as you can make good Work with; and ‘thar for fp mer pon the Britchof the Steck, and afterwards upon the Wedge; for this knocking upon the Brite, if you knock ‘hard enough, ‘twill rate the Jon lice, and Jeti fires if you knock not hard enough,” you ‘mutt knock agiin, till the Zon do rife; but if you kknock’too hard it will rae the Zon fo much, that its edge will rife above the Sele into the Mosh of the Steck, and confequently not couch the Stuf therefore you muft knock foftly at fic, tll, by try als, you find the Zon rifes toa convenient frenef. But as this knocking on the Britch raifes the rn, {it alo ais and lofes the wees therfore (aires &, Aoineey. Nid. I, faid) whenever you. knock upon the Britch, you mut allo kok upon the ned, 0 fillen the on agin If you have saifed the edge of the fren too fre, you mutt knock foflly upon the licad of the Zw, and then again upon the wedge, and this you may fometimes do fveral times, tll you ft your Zrw £0 A convenient feng. When you have occafion to take yout Jrov out of the Stack to rub ity that is, to whet it, you may Knock pretty “fnare blows upon the Stack, beoween the Mth and the Fereend, t0 loofen the ned, and confequenty the fron. Thefe ways of frting, are ufed to all other Plains as well as Foreplaes. Inthe uling ‘of this, and indeed, all other Plo, You muft bogin at the hinder end’ of the Sif, the Grain of the wood laying along. the length of the Bench, and Plain. forward, til you come to the fore-end, unleS the Stuf proves Crjngraiv'd, in any ae of ts length for then you mat tora, your Stuf, to Plain it the contrary way, (0 far as it rons Crofegrai dy And in Plaining, you mutt, a once, lean hard upon the Plow, and alfo thru ie very hard forwards, not leing the Plone cotter to, o¢ Rom Jouyards, ll you have made'a Steak the whole lengeh of the Siaf. And this fometines, if your Sug be long, will require. your making two ot tree Reps forwards, ee you come to the fore-end ofthe Staff: But if it do, you mutt come back, and begin again at the farther end, by” the fide of the lat in Seroak, and fo comin, your feral lyst ining, tll ‘the whole upfide of the Sea be ne nf the Sea And if the Staf'be broad you are to Plain upon, and it morpalittle with the Onin, ‘or be any 4 ‘crook Newb. Te ‘goinero. 65 ‘crooked in the breadth, you mult then turn the Grae athwarethe Work-Bevcb, and Plane upon the Cr Grain. For, if your work be hollow in the middle, yyou mutt Pais both the Bearing fides thinner, xi they come to a Try with the middle. Then turn the other fide of your work, and working till Crfi- grain'd, work away the middle, till it come 7ry with the ewo fides. ‘This way of Crof-Graivtd working, is, by Work- men, called Traverfing. “Thus have you, in gencral, the ufe of all the other loner: But the wie of thofe Planes, that are defign- ced. for other particular purpofes I thall thew, as they comein Order. § 4 Ofthe Jower. Ba. ‘The Joyter is made fomewbat longer than the Foreploie, and hath its Sele pesielly aight, from end to end. Its office is to ee Cae “and ft an edge. prfoGly fraight, and noe at tel od i ta aay hikes eipedaly wheaa fot isco be flor. Therefore the Hind. muft be cared all along the whole lenge, vwithan epal basing weight, and fo cxadly che, nt upeghtto the edges of the Board chat nether fide of the Plane encline either inward or outwards, but thar the whole breadth be exadly. Square on both its fides; fuppofing. ics fides ftraight: fo will two edges of two boards, when thus jbvt, lic fo cxadly Ha and fqiare upon one. anotie, that Lghe mile fe cone. Bowie i J 8 Counted a piece of good, worknanlip in 2 Jorcr, to have we ‘craft of bearing his hand fo curiowfly en, the whole length of a fog Boasts and yeti « ‘oinerp. on 4 bot a thighe ro tho, Practice hath inaed. the Hand eo. The omer is allo uled to Try Tables Sh (lige oe a ce ce ch ead orks and then joners work, a3 ell upon the Zee wihi, ssw the Gh of the Nor an along Iyer Comerif, that they may be the mote af fd of the fame of their Works . Its Zran malt be Jer vey fre, fo fae, chaz when yor wink with one Bye i that end the age file of the Zon is kt co the other Eye, there gps paar litle above an hai bread ef the edge ove the fierce of the joe ofthe Panes and length of the edge mule postecty fg with aie Bech of ee fe ofthe: For the Ure ag then well wedg'd up and you working Wek the Plane thus fry have the greats affrance hat the Iv amo it oe i te sy od cn ‘quently you have the es danger tha the Joye is Srroughe out of faigh. he §5. The Ufeof the Serite-Hack, The Serike-Block marked B3. is a Plane thorter than the Joyter, having its joe made exa@ly’ fa, and flaight, and’is ufed for’ he footing of a Shore ‘opt; becaufe it is more handy than the long Joye= er. ‘Iris allo uféd for the framing, and ficting the Joints of Miters and Bevels; but then ic is ufed in a different’ manner from other Planers For ifthe Mic er and Bevel you are to fit be final, you imutt hold i very fteddy in your left hand, with the Sole of it ‘upwards, and its fore-end towards your right hand = and you’ mult hold your work in your right hand very ‘eddy : Then apply the fawn Mitere or fawn, Bevel end of your Stuff, to te fore-end of the Strike~ Bick, Kink Me otnery. 6 Block, and fo theaft it hard and upright forwards, «ill i pals over the edge ofthe Jen, fo thall the edge of the Zon, with feveral of thele thrufts continued, cat or pain of yout Jif the roughness thar the Te of your Saw made: Buc if your work bef big that you cannot well weild ic’in your right hand, you mull fer the end of your, work in, the Bol= fren, and Plain upon it with a fishing Plane. $6. The Ufe of he Smoothing Plane. ‘The Smovthing-Plone marked B 4. mutt have its ros for very fire,, ecaule its. Offs is to finoorhen sie Work om tole Ineguisss the Pew le. § 7. The Uf ofthe Rabber-Plane. he fee Pe mace 5, pc ofthe y raBoard, or other Stuf, aight, that i, ie dben eo te Bours the he Cig of ne ther Board alfo cut down in the fame matiner, may fic and join into the Square of the fit board thus cut away: And when two Boards are thus lapped fon the edges over one another 5 this pping over is called Reblerring. "The Rebler-Planeis alfo fometimes, ued to ftrikea Faia ina pice of Hldings 25 Akal be thewed in ics ‘Proper place. “Thue fides of the Zron are not inclofed in the Stack, of this Plane, 25 the fore-going Plones arc, but thes ‘Tron i allas broad as the feck is thick, that the ver angles of the ele of the Jr may. nr be born ‘of the jiuf, to hinder the ftraight and fquare cure fing i dova nor doth it diver is faving 2¢ 3 © caaevo on tt Wind. T. hon the top of the Sick as the other Plies do Buck hath ts arb on che hes ofthe Pe ele livers its thavings there Its Zev is comm anlachbeoad. = ae ies §8. TheUjerf tke Plow. The Plow marked B 6. isa narrow Rabbet-P! with fome additions to its ufc tro uses See marke ¢2(yet fom of thm lve the upper a Etc wich the Hind.) Thele Severe Rote Sone to fuare Mortelis in tho fect, marked &4. They axe about feven or eight Inches long, and land faighe and fquare onthe farther fide of the facts ant wee two aves have fholders on the higher fide of the flock, reaching down tothe wooden le of che Plane, for cher. ‘isalfo an Zrox fale belonging to the Plow.)'To the boctom a hee two eles 8, irene with Iron Rivers, a ence (as workmen call it) which comes clofe under the Woden foley and its depth reaches below the Tos fae a halfan ee the Zron of the Plo ery harrow, and the fides of it towards the bottom are nocto be inclofed in the flock, for he ae rea fin ne was given the fuller Pa thee ‘on the Jct islet ia, and fongly nailed, an Ieee Plane of the” thickae Of the Pokcinon, fa Rea tat breadth will ot be flrong caough to cndors the force the lower end of the Plow-Iron is put to: This How si fie le fucka a the fined Item vers have feveral Plows, Oe of tie Pw ico plow a nacow fu Groen the cge of Boa whch s hus paren, ‘The Board is fet an edge with one ‘end in the Bench frew, Nath her eit in oP & ferew, andits sé upon a Pin, or Pins, put into Seer ate Holos in the Lag, oe Leg of he Be, fach an Hole, or Holes, a5 will, molt conveniently for height, fcthe breadth ofthe Board: Ten the Fore of "Plow is fe to that diftance off the Iron-Plate of the Plow, thac you intend the Grove fhall ie offthe ‘edge of the Board: As if you would have the Grove Tiefalfan inch off the Board, chen the eo fice amt, with the Malet, be knocked the Morcfis in ‘the lck, till the Fence flands half an Inch off the Iron Plates and ifthe fives are fred (iff enough in the ‘Morte®s of the flock, it will keep at that diftance whit syou plow the Grerve: For the Fevce( lying lower than eis car ainda gta Uy will lie Ether edge of che Boar and fo keep the row ofthe Ploo all the length of the Board at the fame di- ‘lance, fom the edge of the Board that the Zron of the loo hath fiom the. Fence. Therefore your Plow being thus fie plow the Gree a8 you work with eet ‘Planes, only 28 you lad hold on theockof other Pones when you ufé them, now you muft lay hold of the two fiver and theit folders, and fo theuft your Plow forwards, sil your Groove be made to yout depth. Tf the Stoves go not fit enough in the Mores ‘of the Stock, you mutt ftiffen chem, by knocking a Title wooden ‘wedge between the Staves and theie Moccefles. 5.9. Of Molding-Plancs. Te ae foveal other Plc in ue amet Joyners,_ a lngplanes 38, the Reid, th Tia sh Oce, the pil, te adler pin, the Grocvingplone, ‘of thefe they have fe veal fos, vi from Half aquarte ofan Toc, co La 7” ‘ainery, NenteM. an Inch anda Hale. “They are ufed as other Poner aren the Planing of Stu, you mult ule «1 whofe Iretshave different Mountings; and that accor dling to the hardncls, or fofenels of the Wood, you ave {0 Work upon: For ifthe wood be hard, the Zraw mult and more upright than ie need do, if the wood be fofe: For fof Wood, as Deal, Peartre, Bex ‘le, &c. The Iron is fee fo make an Angle of 45 de. ees, with the Sole of the Plone: But if it be very fard ‘wood you are to Plain upon, 2s. Box, Flory, Ligum Vita, &, Ie i fer to 80" degrees, and fone. times gute ueight: fo dia ete had. Woods ae, indeed, more properly faid’ to be Scraped, "than Phained. Bur before you come to ule your Planes, you mult ‘know how to grind, and wher them, for the) are not fo feed when they are’ bought, bue every Works ‘man accommodates them to his purpofe, as if i be anhard wood he is to work on, he grinds his Bf? soa more obeufé Angle than he would do for fofe Wood. The Bafl, oF Angle, an Iron is ground to, to work {on foft Wood is about 12 Degrees, and for hard wood about 18, oF 20 Degrees. Where note, That the more accute, of thinner, the Bef is, the beer and finoor ther the Zrow cuts, and the mote obeufe and thick: gy the flronger the Edge isto work upon hard Work. S10. Of Grinding and Wetting the Tm, and ether Edge Tools When you grind your Zor, place your two Thumbs snder the rat and your Fingers of oth hands {he Zen, and fo clap down your Zrorto the floss, Wace ing Nonb. Soineey. z it to that Angle with the Store you intend the Burl alt haves hep the Fora ts Soa eee either mounting, or liking, ts ends ll the while the the Stone is timing’ about; And when you lithe Zr ofthe Stone, t0 fe ii be ground to Your mindy ific benor, you muft be fare you place the Ire again inthe fame position on the Store ic had before; for ele you will makea double Bf on yout Iron: But if ic be Aue fet on the Sone, and edly kept to that Paiiom, Your Bafl will be Hola, and the fale your Grid. ore is, the hollower i will be. You may know when itis well Ground, by theeveane®, and enienels of the cee allcheway. —- ving ground your Jrer, you mult finoothen the age ince ha Good fin Were, hag ha the edge of your em upwards in. your lft hand, and Your Wersone in your right, nd having fit tpt wpe ‘an your Stone to wet it, apply ico the Bef of your rei in fach a Pofition, that it may bear upon the whole breadth of the’ Bef; and fo working. the ‘Stone over the Bafi, you will quickly wea: the courter Feng. of the Grindstone ‘MT ci edge on the fide: ‘Then turn the fat fide of the dre, and ap- DY the Stone fat to ic, tll you have worn off the ourfe gratings of the Grisdsfone, on that fide too. Joyners often grind their Far upon a fat Grind ove alfo: And then they hold the Jrw alfo in thee ine fame pore asi ie-Were to be ground nthe Hand Grind owes yer then infead of cpg the, Zror ‘on one place of the Sto, they thruh ie hard firaighe forwards, almot the lengeh of the Story and draw it lighter foaight back ageing Keeping ie all the while ar the fame Angle with the {upertces of the Stones and then fmoothen its edge with n oineep. Neb. 1. with the W7letsloe, a8 fic had been ground upon the ound Grivdeflor. "And this they do {0 often, till they frave rubbed the hollownefs of the Buf to a flat, and then they grind ic again upon the round Grind= "on. eis Onde and Mange of Settings Grinding and Smoothing a Bafl and Edge, is alio uied in all other Edge-Toals Jomers whe. § 10. Of Chiflels of feveral Sorts. “Ad ff of Formers. Faemrt matkod Cx, C 3, are of feveral fe. ‘They are called Formers, betaufe they are ufed be- fore the Pering-Chifel, even as the Fore-Plave is used blbce the Sowtling-Plae. "The Sinf you ae v0 ork pon being Bl bel, (si al ew in ts proper uct) You mut at the cige of the mer, Tile "wich the fibed fons. with is” Bafl furvaids, at ie may brea, and” older of Chips from. your Work, as the Edge cuts it. And you muft bear the Helve of the Farmer a litle ine Yards over the Stuf, that the Former do not at frlt ‘cut flraight down,” but a little outwards: For, fhould you veneer co cut ftright.down at che ffl, ‘you might with a negligent or tnluckly knock with the Mallet, drive ee of ‘the Former under the work, and fo cut, before you are aware, more off the ‘under ide than the upper fide of your Work, and fo (perchance) fpoil it Therefore “you ay imake fred cong, > cut ic enighe down ‘by litte and litle, ll your work is made ready for the Parimg-Chifel,” When itis uled, the Efe of ie is knocktupon with a Maer, to drive. the edge into thesia. ae htt Bond. Te Aoineey, 7 Sax. Of the Paring-Chittl, The ParingChifel matked C a. " foe and ios ge: its ace eo fellow ae A, mersand to pore off = a ee Te is noe knockt upon with the afer, Blade is clafped upon the out fide of the Tindemett Joints of the fore and litle fingers, by the clutch cf infide of the middle and third fagers of the right Hand, and fo ieee binge upon Se ose ee andthe top of the Helve placed again the hollow afte Infide of the night hhotdee, ‘with prefling the ce Hele, the edge pe say Seta” UE SHE and way idling, may feena a oltre co annage an Iron Talis and yet see ‘fon of the contriver of thixPofture is to be approved For, thauld Workmen hold the Blade of Faring Chifel i their whole hand, they nmuft ci ther hold’their hand pretty near the /Ye/ve, where ey cannot well “mannage the Zea!, or they mutt ic prety near che edge, where the outde ofthe one ved eee line they arc to Pare inn" Buc this pia al Workmen ‘22 ac i ou dnd Price oth inure them tor doe would, they could not well ave it. S12. Of ehe Skew-Former. The Stew-Former marked C4, is feldom ufed omer, bu Elen site Anges, with g Gite wae ec Sac Ml oF ther $33. + ‘Joinery. Nimb. . $13. Ofte Mortei-Chiflel “The Morte Chifel marked Cs. is 2 narrow hifel, Tove hath its Blade much thicker, and confe~ quently flronger (char it may endure "the heavier lows with the alee) than other Cbifels have, fo that in grinding it to an edge, itis ground to a very. broad Buf, as you may fee in the Figure, Its Office isto cut deep fuare holes, called Mortefes, ina piece ‘of Wood. Joyners ufe them of feveral Breadths ac- cording a5 the Breadths of their Moriefes may re- quire. $14. Ofebe Gouge. ects Grae mate, i Of epg round 5c, for the euting fch Wood ass to be Rounded, or Hollowed. Thefe feveral forts of Chifels Joyners have of fe- vveral Sizes, that chey may be accommodated to do fe- veral Sizes of Work. (MECHANICE iA mol Nimb. Wh s MECHANICK EXERCISES: oR, The Doétrine of Handy.Worl Continued in the ART of FOTN ERT. S x5. Of the Squate, and its U7. HE Spuare, marked D, is two adjunct Sides of a Geometrical Square. a ‘The Handle. B The Tongue. ¢ The Over Spare. d The Imer Square.” Kor Joyner’s ule, it is made of ewo pieces of wood, the one about an Inch thick, and the other about a quarter of an Inch. thick ? Thefe two picces are feverally shor exadily fraighe, and have eh of their Side paral to se of there own Sides. ‘The thick Pice (called the Handle ) hath a Mortels in it, as long within a quarter of aa Jnch, as the thin piece called the Tongue ) is broad, and filly fo wide, as to contain the thicknels ofthe Tongue. ‘The Tongue is faftued into the Mores of the Handle with Glew and wooden pins, fo as the ‘vo outer fides (and then confequently” the two ine ne fides) may fland at right Angles with one. an. other. ‘The Reafon why the Handle is fo much thicker than the Tongue, i, becaufe the Handle Mould on fither fide become a Fence to the Tongue. And the reafon why che Tongue hath not its whole bcadth let into’ the end of the Handle is, becaufe hey may with lef care ftrike a line by the fide of a M thin 76 Foinees, Numb. ML. athin than a thick piece: For if infead of holding the Nand upright when they ftike a line, ehey rould hold it never fo little inwards, the thank of a Pricker falling againt the top edge of the Handle, ‘would throw the Poine of a Bricker father out than thin piece would : to avoid whicir Inconvenience, the ‘Tongue is lee about half an Tnch out of che end ‘of the Handle, peliate: Reon is, Tha if with fen fiking he ricker againfe the "Tongue it Becomes ragged, or uneven, they can with le rouble plane ic again when the tuff is all che Way of aa equal ftrengeh, than they can, if cograin'd Sholders be alec any part of it. Its ule is for the ftriking of Lines {yuare either to other Lines, or to ftraight fides, and to ery che fyuare- nels of their Work by; As if they would flake Lin uae toa fide they have alcady or; They apply the infide of the Handle elofe to the fide thot, and lay the Tongue flat upon the work, then by the ous of the Tongue, they diay with Picker, a fraight linc: this 15 called Seritine, or drawing of 4 Spare. Or, if they would Try the fquarenc{s of 4 Piece of uf thor on two adjoining fides, they ape Dy the inde of che, Handle and Tongue othe ose ‘of the fluf, and if the outfides of the ftuff do ail he way ape in Lie ith the ifs ofthe Square, itis true Square. Or if they would cry the Seivard fquaencs of work, they apply the mio ote files of the Square to the inides of the work. § 16, Nort. I. ‘joinere, Pr § 16. The manner of Plaining ond Trying a piece of ‘Staff fuse. We will take, for Example, a Piece of Scuff eal Hed a Quarter, which is commonly two Inches thick, fou Inches broad, and feven Foot long. To plane this Square, lay one of its broad fides’ upon the Bench, with one of its ends fhov'd pretty hard into the Teeth of the Beach-hook, that it may lie the feddier. ‘Then with the Fore-Plane, as you were ‘aught § 2. Nender. 2. Plane off the roughnel the Saw feat the Pr, and’ work thae fide of the Quarter 4s Mraghtin i length and brah as You can with the Fore-Plane 5 which you may give a pretty fhekseiPthe ce ote rot Lave Mew a te Way upon the work, yee you may tey by taking up your work, and applying one end ofit to one Eye, ‘hil’ you ‘wink with the other, and obferve if any Hollow, or Davks be in the length; if not, ou may. conclude prety trae: For the work thus Reid. the Eye will diem premy neadly.” Or, for Bore certainty, you may. apply the, eg of te evo foot Rule, of fathera Rule thor the full length of the Quarter to your work, and if ic agree all the ‘way with the Rule, you may conclude it is ftraighe in lengeh. Bucif you find ic not ftraight, you mutt ill with the Fore-Plane work off thole Rifings that bear the edge of the Rule off any part cf the, Stuff: ‘Then try ifthe Breadth be prey Mraight, if ic Be (che Dawks the roughnef the Fore Plane made cepted) the ir office of the Fore Plane is perform’ IFit be not, you mut frighten the Breadth as you did che Length. But though this Quarter be thus plained flraight in length and breadth, yet becaufe the Iron of the Ma Fore: 8 Joinery. Numb. Th. Fore Plane for ics fet working the fui fx Rank, and therefore makes great Dawks inthe Stull yo Ia helo you Fre Pans yay re taught § 3. Newer. 2. and witht thea Work downe: ‘en allt to the boctom of thas Dawhes hen itagain a5 before, and it you find ic Tey all che wah, youmay, with the Joyner, or Smoothiag, Plane, Boe Tather with the Joynter, go over ie agtin, co work ou the iregularties of the fine Foe Planes, “ee the Iron of the Fore-Plan being ground to a” Rf inthe middle, as has been Ihowel 2 Nud.x tho it bevery fae ft, wil yer leave fome dawks ine Suufoe the Joymer, of inooching Plane, to. work ous,_hus the ft tde of the Quater wil be Having hus Teyed one fide of che Quarter fraighe and flat, apply the inde of the Panic o-it, and if one of the “adjoining fides of che Quarter, comply" alfo with the nfde of the Tongue allthe way, you neal only noth that adj fide: But if ie donot fo comply, tha is i ke fot fquare co the fr fide, whieh you wll knoe by the riding of the infe of the “Fongue, upon “ond of the edges, orfome other pare betcen the sige, youmufy withthe Fore-Plane Rank-fee plane sey, ihat fluff’ which bears off the infie of the Tonge fee renin all he way wih te ings be grat, you may, for guickaes, hew away the Rtgs with the Hatcher: “hut thea you week have acare you lee not the edge of your’ Htc eat too deep into the Muy Lit you “caer ipl yore Seu, By making cfc, it be aeay Pal enough; orifit have fublance enough, make. yout felf more labour to get out thofe Hatcher fvaks with che Plane than you need. Then take. off the roughnel3. Wind. We Foineew. 9 roughnefS the Hatchet made with the Fore-Plane Rank-fec, then fine fe, and aft ofall with the Joyn- ‘er, oF fmoothing Plane: $0 is the fecond fide alfo fined. To work, the thi fide, fe the Oral of she Gage exaélly to that width from the Gage, that you inend the Bradth of the” Quart “when ‘wroughe) fhall have, which, in this our Example, is four Inches, bue will be fomewhae le, becaufe Working it true will diminifh the Stuff: ‘Therefore fliding the Oval on the Staf, meafure on your Inch Rule ‘fo much lef than foue Inches, 28 you. think your fluff diminithes in. working: Meafite, I fay, Keorcen he. Oval and the Took your fae: Toe the fit profer, your Oval ‘tind’ too far “from the Tooth, hold che Oval in your hand, and knock the: Tooth end of your Staff upon the Work-Bench, till it fland near enough : IF the Oval fland too near, Kknock the other end of the Sta’ upon the Work= Bench lire fi. Then: apply the fat of the Oval to the fecond wrought fide of your Seaif, {& as the Tooth may reach athwart che breadth ‘of the’ Seu? upon the fir fide, and keeping the Oral clofe againft the ficond fide, prefs the Tooth fo. hard down, that by drawing the Gage in this pofluce alt along’ the length of the Quarter, the Tooth may Bike a Linen lke, manierupan the fie oy fice to the fir, viz. the Fourth fide, Gage another line oppofte to the’ fit gaged line, and Work your Seuif down to thofe ewo Gaged lines on the third fide, cither with Plsining along, cr with Hewing, and afer wards Plaining, as you were taught to Work the fe- cond fi ‘To Work the fourth fde, er the Tooth ofthe Gage tots exact diflance from the Oval, viz. evo. Inches. ‘wanting ‘Joinere. Nit. We % mach as you think the ftuf diminish’ in . and apply the fat of the Oval to each fide of the fir fide, and Gage as before ewo lines, one -on the feeond, the other on che thied “wrought fide. Work your fuff then down on the fourth fe to thole tro Gage lines, ett wih Paining alone, of with ‘Hewing, and afterwards Plaining, as you were taught ro work thefeond ide bs $17. To Frame so Quarters Square inte one sanotber. You mut take care in Morteffing and ‘Tennanting, thatas nearas you can you equallize the frength of he fides ofthe Mort co the length of che Ten. rant, Ido not mean that the ftuf thould be ofan equal Subflance, for that is not cquallizing flrength : But the equallizing frengch muft be. confidered with tefpedt co the Quality, Pofition and Subfiance of the ‘Scuff: As fyou were to makea Tennant upon a piece ofFur, anda Morets to resve i ina picce of Oak, aadehe Fur and Oak have both the fame ize; The ‘Tennane therefore made upon this piece of Fur, muft be conliderably bigger thana Tennant need be’ made of Oak, becauté Fur ismucha weaker wood then Oak, and ‘therefore ought to havea greater Subftance to cquallize the fength of Oak. And for Potton, the Shorter the fluf thatthe. Tennant is made on, the lets Violence the Tennant i fubject to. Befides, iis eafer 1 fplit wood with the grain, than to brake wood crofs the grain; and therefore the fame wood when pofited as a'Tennant is tronger than the fame wood of the fame fze when potted aga Mott: fr the inje Fy, a Morefs is subject co is, fpliting with the grain f the wood, which, without good care, ie will often do Kunb. The Joinery. . ar do in working s but che force that mutt injure a Tens sant, mutt offend it crofs the grain of the wood, ia ‘hich potion willbe nde vik, ‘When two picces of Wood, of the fame qual fabflance (asin this ow Example) are eleeed to ‘make onthe onc a Tennant, and in the other a Mor- ef. IF you make the Mortels too wide, the fides of the Motels will be weaker than the ‘Tennant ; of, if too narcow, the Tennant that mutt fc the Mor: ref, will be weaker than the fides that contain the ‘Momels: And if one be weaker then the other, the weakeft will give way t0 the flrongeft, when an carer ip oe us Thee yo may fee 2 ncceffity of equallizing the frengtl fone 0 the other, 25 nears you can. But bcaufeno Rule is extant to do it by, nor can’( for many con fiderations, I think, )be made, therefore this eqialli= of frengeh, muft be refered to-the Judgment of the Operator. Now to the work. ‘The Morte(s to be made is ina Quarter four Inches ‘broad. In this cafe Workmen make the Morte(san Jnch wide, fo that an Inch and an half Scuf? remains on citer fet, “Therefore your Saf bing Sa 2s was taught in the lat Seétion, fee the Oval of the Gage an Inch and an half off the Tooth, and gage with i, on either fide your Scuf, a traight line at tat diftance feom the end you intend the Mortets all be, thea- open. your Compailes to two Inches, and prick off that diflance in one ofthe lines, for the ength of the Mortefs: then lay the infde of the Hane dle of the: Square’ to one fide-of the Stuff, and upon Both the packs fueceivly, and with, your Pricer draw ftraight lines through them by the fide of tbe Tongue fo all the bounds of your Mor be Miruck ut on the Quarter. If your Motels. go - * through: & “oincee. Ni, through the Quarter, draw the fame Tins on the op. poles de of the Quareey, thus, Tura tn‘ Cusster lg, an aply sh tide ofthe Handle fe Square, tothe ends ofthe former dean lines, and by The fide of the Tongue draw two lines onthe edge of the Quarter hen tn the Quarter again we Sts other broad (de upwands, ani apy she infide of the Handle of the Square to the ets of the lat lines" deava on the edge, and by the fe oF the ‘Tonguc, daw eo lins on this broad fide alte ‘Thele two lines (ityour quarcer was ely fare) fhal be exaftly oppo tothe tv ins drawn on the fit broad de ofthe quareer forthe length of the Mores: And foe the. wiith of the Mores Gage this de allo, 28 you did the fj chen forthe Tetan, Cage on th Zl ofthe Quare:Jou end the Tennane tall be made, ce fame lines ou id for the Mores. And bectuf the Quarer isco Tnches thick, prick ffom the end cro Inches, and applying the inde of the Handle of the Square to te hae of the Guar, an the Tonge to it Psy ea by the fide ofthe Tongue alin. through that fide the ‘Quarter; then eu the othe fides ofthe Quarter extively, and draw lies. athwar cach fe the Que tex, a8 you were taught co deaw the optic lines for the More “Then place the edge ofthe Inch-Morsi-Chifel with ts afl om yous and the Hive bearing ale Ue towaeds you, ishia. one halfguacer of Inch ff one end Of the fuck: Morte and vii your ‘Malle: Knock bard upon i, il you find the Da of fhe Chill will no longer force the chips out ofthe Mores; then emove te Chil to the echer ond ofthe More, and: work, as with the fi en, il the is ava gs Ts ver avy the nd. oinery. 3 the Staff berween the two Ends, and begin 9 Bt one of the ends, and then a the othe, Sad work dlecper inco the’ Moree, then again beowecn bots and %0 work deeper by degree, “ail you have wrought the More through, of (if not through) fo the sexended dephe; then with the Morel-Chic fel work nearer the drawn. fines ac the ends of the ‘More, (or before you were dred to. work but within ‘half a qusrcr of an Inch of the deawa fines.) by. laying light blows’ ont til you have sade ie ft t0 pate imooth with a narrow Paring ‘Chife, and ‘then pare the ends, a5 you Were aight ge ar ete Pag CHL then wih te Broad Pasing-Chitl, pare the fides of the Mores juft co the Struck ‘likes f0 is the Monel, fat Thea To work the ‘Tennant, lay the other Quarter on ‘edge, upon your Work-Bench, and fate it with the Hlidjat, as you were taught Se&.1. Then with the ‘Tennant, Saw a licele without _ the —Struck-line towards the end: you mutt not Saw juft upon the Struckeline, becaufe the Saw cuts rotgh: ~Befides, you muft leave fome Stuff to pare away fiooth co the Struck-line, that the Stile (Ghat is, the upright Quarter) may make a clote Joint with the Rail (that > is) the lower Quarce: Sav therefore right dowa with the Tennant-Saw, juft almoft to the gaged lines for the thicknefS of the TTennanc, and have a care sp hee, Bade of he Sw Sraely opi wen turn the oppofite fide of the Quarter Wars, and work a you Were taught to work the fit ide. ‘Then with the Paring-Chifel, pare the Work clofe to the gaged lines for the Tennant. Then hhow it fis the Morte: If ie be not pared enough N awa 4 Aoineep. Numb Th. away, you mutt Pare ie winere it Beas, that is, cks, But if you thould chance to have made it too nts; you hive Spall your wetk + Theteore you a at how nectay ic oc vo make te Mond toe wis at fic, ore Tomunttoonatows “Then with the Picreer pierce two holes through the fides, or checks of the Mortefs, about half an toch a end one. an feos ‘Tennant ico the Morey and fer icupight by anak, ing the Angle of the outer Square eth Nagas vo Quarts make, and whl Your ike see about the. inides of che Pierced holes pen the Tenant. Then take the’ Tenant sotae ee tnd, Pie vo holes with the me Bs about thicknels of a hiling above the Prieked. holes ‘ox the Tennant, cac it neuer the oer of he ee ane, chit the Pins you te to deine dns may Gey the holder ofthe Tent the cote tothe dat ie fof che Quarter die Mowe is mde. Thane fe’ Parg- Chiff make ‘two’ Ps fomewioe roe ing, fill big enoughy and fetng’ dhe ovo Qusres agin, Soars, as belie, Drive te Pins fiat the ees“ : JE you make another Square, as you did this; and ‘make allo a Tennant on cach us-Tennanted aad ot the Stiles, and another Moztefs.on the top and bortom Rais you may pt tem together, and sake Pee Frame of then’ $18. Ofthe Miter Square. ud is 7. The Miter fqvare marked E, hath (as the Square) pt Handle marked, one Inch thick, and thee Inches anda ‘Tongue marked &, ofabour the Sime Handle and he Tongue (asthe Sq) haye ‘breadth: the Bonde Seine. 8 Ihave both their fides parallel'to théitowh fides. ‘The ‘Haandle(as the fquare) hath in the midale of is narrowett Side a Moree init, of an equal depht, the whole length ‘of the Handle: Into this Moreefs is fitted one end of the Tongue, but the end of che Handle sft Bereld offto make an Angle of 45 Degrees with its infide. This Tongue is (as the Suare) Pin'd and Glewed into the Mortefs of the Handle. Tris ufed for ftriking a Miterline, as the Square is co-ftike a Square-line, by applying the Infde of the Handle o che cide of the Ghar, or Ban, You are to work upon; and then by fiiking a ling by the fide of the Tongue: For that line fhall bea Mitr line. And if upon two Battzns you Qrike tvo fuch lines, and Saw-and Pare’ them juft off inthe Hines, when the flats of thofe ewo fawn ends are ap- plied to one another, the out and infide of the Bat tens, will form themfelves into the Figure of a are, “Thus Pidture Frames, and looking Glafe-ftames, are commonly made, as by'a more full Example you may fee in the nexe Seétion. § 19. Ofte Bevil. As the Square is made to frike an Angle of 9 Degrees, and the Miter an Angle of 45 degrees, fo the Bevil (matked F) having sits Tongue ‘movable upon a Center, may be fet to ftrike Angles of any greater, or effec, numbers of Degrees, according 23 You openthe Tongue wider from, or fhue it cloler to ithe Handle, It is ufed as the Square, and the Miter, and will pesform the Offices of ‘them both, though it be nor perpfely made for either: bu for the fring 4iuch Bevil lines, as one part of your work mult be cut Na away, 86 Foineww. Neb. i. ‘yvayto, to make it join with another partof your work: Foy Fsample, We will propofe to make a Frame for a Pidture, Looking-Glats, &c, containing eight Mraight Sides ; ou may quickly perceive chat all the ends of thete eight fides mut be cut to Bevils, and what Bevils they muft be, you will, find if you deferibe: upon a fimooth flat Board, a Circle of amy bignefs, but the larger the better:’Divide this Circle into cight gyal ars, and fom every pine draw a Line tothe ter: Draw alfo fhraight lines from every poine to its next point: Then lay the infide of the Handle ‘of your Bevil exaétly upon any one of thee ftaighe fines, fo.8 the Angle made by the infide of the Handle, and the infide of the Tongue, lie exattly at the very Angle made by this fraight line, and the Se. ‘miDiametral line proceeding from the Center, and move the Tongue nearer, or farther off the’ Handle, uill the infide of the ‘Tongue and the infide of the Handle, lie exaétly upon thofe two lines, fo fall your ei Bef at Then having fitted your Picees to your Seance tng, Sick your Picker ay nee he itward Cons net of your Picces.as your ftuf will bear, and_ apply. the infde of your handle slfo Yo te Gur Mat ox Pisces, dd fas the inde ofthe Tongue may drawn home to the Pricker. For then lines drawn ‘on thofe Pieces by the infide of the Tongue, fall be the lines the Picces muft be eut in, tov make thee ight Pieces join evenly together by the fides of ach other's Bevil: ‘Thea with the Strike-block finooth the ends of the Bevils, as you were caught in the Seétion of the Strike-Block. If you fave a Board on the Back-fide of this Frame, you may Glew. the backlides of thete Pieces, piece: Nims. I. oinere. ty coe by pisce wo the Board; but fr you mut fe Them to an exad compliance of every Devil with kee Macch, nd when they arefo Ral, ave OO Nails elo to the oudide of every pec, but dave tot the Nails decp into she Bostd,becaule when the Frane is fir, end. Glened, of oerwife te ned, You mutt draw the Nals out agin, For hele als’ sre only imended to fer for Fone to ee and fc each piece lato is proper pace, before the Whole Frame is faltned togees, And Mould you tor thus Fence them, thoegh by “your Efe. you mmghe judge you feed the Bevily adly, yer one piste Being sever fo lice out of is due’ olen, Would dee the nex piese more out, and that the how, sill the lat, the lat pice’ would not join, br ther be too fore or t00 Tong, or fand tos such out, orin, of ele ro open, 00 elle on the ue, or ifide. Buti you have_no Board on the backfde, your sft, win you Saw the Deviling. Angles upos the fae nds fps not eta he ove end of cre pices, bur aout ball way though che dep or tke, je ten with Your Chill cher pie, or elie pare the uper fide ofthe Fuure end at aay tothe Bev, and fy eave pare oF of ee fuare cd of your pce, o lap under the pce as Joined eo.” For Example, In Fig. 3. Pate 5.28 is she fare end of the ice, and cis the Beril you, werk the pice to. ere you mutt work aay fo much of the thick nef ofthe Rvare end, ss is Compehened.becween ‘ands, fo cat you wl fe the Trangle #5 tbe trough avay ‘alt way down the thcknes of the Sra and fo wll the “Thingle a Bebe lee for the cher half chicknf of the Seu But hat end ofthe pee 88 Joinere. Next. 1, piece mark’d 1, which joins to. the picce mark’d 2, ‘mut, upon its Bevilteoak, be fan quice off, and its tunderfide mutt have the fame Triangle wrought into it, juftfo fit as to receive the Triangle in piece 2, and ju deep, as that when the Trang oa pee», is fied into the Triangle in piece x, the Supericies ‘ofboth the pieces may be even with one another. And. thus you may lap thie eads of every piece into one another, ‘Thele ‘Triangles at the ends of the picces you may ‘Glew into one another, but if you think Glewing alone not ftrong enough, you may Pierce an hole paar he imer olge of te Frame, bocase the Teangle hath there moft fabance of fluff; and afterwards Bin, 4 as you aretanghe wo Pin the Ral and Sale together in Set. 17. This way of Lapping over, is fometimes ufed alfo, for fquare Mites, or other Angular Frames. § 20. Ofthe MiterBox. ‘There is another way ufed by Joyness that make many Frames, to fave themflves the labour of Drawing, or fiking out of Squares, Miters, and feveral Bevils ‘upon their Stuff : And this is with a Tool called a MitersBox, dcferbed in Plate 5. Fig. 2, Ieiscompoted of two pieces of Wood, of an Inch thick: each, as A the wright piece, Bthe Boom piece. The Upright Picce is nailed upright, falt upon the Boreom-Picce. ~And this Upright-pice hath on its uppce fie the Miter Lines fuck with the Miter fuare, a8 de, om the left Thand, and ¢ bon the sight hand on thelé two Mier lines the edge ofthe Saw isfet, and a kerf made ftaight dlown the upright piece, as from de on the lef hand to J, and from gb on the right hand to.” Ia like mane ner Nomb,Te ‘eines, & net any other Bevis Arack upon the upper fe oF the uprighe piewe with the Bevil, ‘es £70n the leg hand ant on she right, On thee ono Bes vil lines the edge ofthe Saw is ft anda ke? made Tight down the prgit piste, as fiom f to los aad om gf 1. oy nak many Bt vilsas you pleae on she upaghe pies, ofthe Mitce Boxy Bevls co join Francs of ther ve, Ber ke ven, eight des, and the manner to make them fo aay number of fides, wasn pare taught ia the lat Sein. For 35 there you were direct to divide the Circe int cighe esual pars, becaufe ight Was the number of fies, we propted to make ha Fam onli of; So, if for any number of fides you dns the Cirle int che ame eal pars, and wark a5 you Weretheedreced, you may ft wha Berl the ies Inu have chaemakea Frame tac conffsefany numbce orf Solo fo Saving ofany Bacten or other fall pecs face: Strike at poi on he upp let He bsg ls ia Might hae to yan ae fight down the upper pice, toe ‘The maner how thle Rec are fawn faghe down with. grate! cenainy ib, thus, Apply he Inf of the Handle of dhe tuate to the Ubpexide ofthe upg Pew, fo gst Tongue eet that end of at Mite, Devi, of flare line ruck through she upper file of the MiteBox, and wih the Bricker fluke a line. clofe by the fide of the Tongue, through that fide of the Upright. pieces Tum the Tongue to the other fide of the upeghe piece, and apply the infide ofthe Handle ot the Ear coche ther end ofthe Miter, evil o Square line, and. with the Prckerflke”alfo& line lofe By te fe of te Tongue rgh tht fe the prighe 30 Joinere. Noh Upeighepioe, Thee tro. lin flruck on ether fide eT etighe pes, all be aline on each Rea the edge of che Saw mft run, co faw i aight down. § ax. ofthe Gage. The Gage mark'd G. (in Plore 4) The Oval b is fee xed flif Upon the Sraf'¢, that ie may be fee nearer cx fare ftom the Tot is Oe i to Gage a ine parallel to any firight fide. Teis ued for Gags Femans, and for Gaping Seu to an ual chick When you ufe it, you mutt fer the Ozu! to the ine tended Diftance from the Teeth: Ifthe Oval fland too near the Tooth, Hold the Oval in your right hand, and knock the hinder end of the Staff upon the Work-bench, till it remove to its juft diftance from the Tooth: If it fland too far off the Tooth, knock the fore end of the, Staff (viz. che Tooth end) Lilli remove to its juft diftance from the Tooth + If the Oval fide not ftiffenough upon the Scaff, you may flea isbyfeiking awooden wedge beeen the Mor. te(3 and the Staff: So may you apply the fide of the ‘Oval next the Tooth, to thie fide of any Table, of any other ftraight fide, with the Tooth Gage a line alll (or of equal diane )allche way fiom that Gan. Of the Piercer. ‘The Piercer H, in Plate 4. hath «the Head, bthe Pad, ethe Steck, d the Bitt. Its office is well known, shat Tneed fay litle roit. Only, you muft rake care to Keep the Bit ftaight tothe Hiole you pierce, left ‘you deform the Hole, or break the Bist. ‘You Nab. TE, ‘You ough to be provided with Bits of eral fies, roucaght to i Sie into fo many Fadage eas Fer izes, S25. Of the Gimblet. ‘The Ginblet és marked I, in Plare 4. Ithath a We atthe end ofits Bi, Its Office iso make a round foe in, thofe places of your ‘work wher, the fack ‘of the Piercet by reafor of its own tholder, or a folder, o Batting out upon the work wll oe rn abouc, "les Handle is held ina clutched hand, and ies Bic ewifted tif into your work. You muft have hem of feveralfzes. Sag. Ofthe Augre, The ‘Augre marked K in Plete 4. hath a a the Handle, # the Bit. Ks Office isto make gree round hole." When you fe the ff you work ‘upon is commonly iaid low under you, that you may the eafier ule your upon it: For in withing the Bic about by the force of both your hhands, on each end of the Handle one, it cuts great chs ef the af Yo mall bar your engi ight to the end of the Bie; as with Ee $25. Ofthe Hatcher. The Hatchet is marked L, in Plate 4. Is uisis fo well known (even to the toft unintelligent) thae Taeed not ule many words on ic, yet thus much will fay, Its ule is to Hew the’ ircegulaiies off fuch pieces of ftuff which may be fooner Hewa than Sawn, ° Whea oe ‘Joinery. Nemb. Mt. ‘When the Edge is downwards, anil the’ Handle to- wards you, the right fde ofits Edge muft be Ground to a Bevil, {0 a5 to make an Angle of about 12 De- grees with the leit fide of itz and afterwards fer With the Whetftone, as the Irons of Planes, @e. § a6. The Ufe ofthe Saw in general In my former Esercifs, didnot each you hov chute the Tools a Smith vas o ules Beau i 4 Soih’sofce to make thom s And beeaute insole Exeroes Veveated of taking Tron work, and SeeeL work in general, and the ‘iaking and” excelleny of fome Tools ia particular, which “might fone 435 2 genecal Notion for the Knowledge of al Sms Workmanhhip, efpeally to thofe that thoull cone cen les wi Sting = But to thle that fall concein themisives with Joinery” and aot with Smiching se will be neceflry thaeT ach them how eo chule thee Tools thar art made by Smith, thac they may ufe them with more eafe and dligh and make both qpicker and nearer work wih cht All fous of Ses, fr oyners fy are fld in moft Tron-mongess Thops, bu efpeilly in Foes ine, Lar uke tho that eee Se (for fome are made ‘of Iron) for Steel of tilt harder and flonger than Iron: You may know the Sic om Henson ths, ‘The Secor te generally ground bright and foooth, and ac (che ticnels ofthe Bie confided) tonger data Son Sows: Busthe TronSaer are only Harsmeeandicl, and therfore if ehey-ould be fo hard, yee they ean tot be fo fino, as ithe ieregulicics of he Bam inet were wel takenff with che Grindione + Ser ibe fee fom faws, and very. well Hanmerel, ‘ant Tooth ion be T ‘foinecp. 93 finoothly Ground, (that is, evenly Ground, )you ma know if it be well Hammered by the ‘tif bending ot it, and if it be well Ground, (that is, evealy Ground, ) i will not bend in one pare of more than in ano- ther; for if it do, ic i afign chat pate where it bends oli the oo much, Ground vay, oF oo thin Forged in that place: But if it bend into a regu- Ferbow all the way, and be fil the Bales it cannot be too ftiff; becaufe ehey are but Eftmmertardned ad thre aca Bot hee they fall under tnskilful hands, bue never break, tunlefS they have been often bowed in that place, ‘The edge whercon the Teeth are, is always made thicker than the back, becaufe the back follows the Badge, and ifthe Edge fhould’not make a prety wide Kea, ifthe back do not ftrike inthe Kerf, yer by never f little irtegulic bearing, or twifting “of the thand awry, it might 1 flop, a8 to bow the Sam 5 and (as I fad before) with often bowing iewill break at laft. When Workmen light of a good. Blade thus ualified, chey mater not much whether dhe Teeth ‘Fe fharp o deep, or fet eo ther mind: for vo make hom fo, is a Task they take co themfelves : And thus they” perform it: ‘They wedge the blade of the Saw hard into the Whetting-Blck, marked P, in Plate 4. with the handle towards their left band, and the end of the Saw to the righ, thea with & fivcefuare Fle they “begin atthe ek hand cd, Teaning harder upon the fide of the file o9 the right thand, than on chat fide to the left hand; fo that they flethe upperfde of the Tooth ofthe Saw a-flopeto- wards the right hand, and the underfide of the Tooth 4 litle a‘flope towards the left, oF, almoft downright Having led one Tooth cus, all the reft mutt be fo fed. Then wich the Semsre, marked Ovin Plat 4 2 hy Pr ‘oinees. Nenb. th. they er the Teeth of the Saw: that is, they pur one of the Notches marked vw ofthe ref bendcen the Bin two ‘Teeth on the Blade ofthe Sem, and then tum the Handle Hortzontally a lite sbove upon the Notch towards the end of the Sum; and hat at ‘once turn the firft Tooth, fomewhar towards you, Sind. the Second ‘Tooth from you ‘Then. skipping iro Tooth, i put ong of che nowhes ofthe Web bexween the tied and fourth “Teeth on the Bade of the Sav, and then (as before) cum the Han. lea lide about upon the nowh towaeds the cad of the Sa, and that tums the thied Tooth fomethst fowanls you, and the Fourth fomevhar fom you; ‘Thus you mult skip evo Tecth ata time, and tama theW/fef wll all che ‘Teeth ofthe Sow are ers Thi Seving of the Teeth of the Sew (as Weskmen call i) ist make the Kerf wide caough for the Back to follow the edges and is Set Rando for fof, cats, heap Saf, than for hard, fine, and eal Sof fr the Reser che Tooth s fe, the mote Stelis wated inthe Ketan Bec, the Sf eR eva require greer labour to fer avayagreat deaf of ard ser than it wild to tear away Bude of the Se a ‘The PinSan, is See fo Rank for cout fu, 5 to, make a Ker of almot a quarer of an Inch, bug for fine and cofty uff they fei nee to fave Suu ‘The WhipeSen is St Sonehat fine than the PirSave the Howd-San, and the Compaf-San, fee than the WhipsSew; Buc the Temont-Sav, Franesfas, and the Baoan, te. are et fi, and have thle Teeth But very litle turned: over the fides of thir Dades: So that Kegf made by them, is felom above hala halt ‘quarter ofan Inch. ‘he reafon Why the Teeth are isd to an Angle, pointing, Non. 1. Joinees. 9s pointing towards the end of the Som, and not to- wards the handle of the Sam, ot diredlly ftraight beeween the handle and end of the Sav, i3, Becaufe the Saw is defigncd to cut only in its wards; Man having in that adivity more to rid, and Command of his hands to. guide his Work, than he can have in drawing back his Saw, and therefore when he draws, back his San, the Work-men bears it lightly off the unfawn Sea's which is an_eafe to is labour, and enables him the longer to continue his feveral Progeeffios of the Sax. Mafter-Workmen, when they diced any of their Underlins to faw fich a piece of Stuf, have feveral Phrafes for the fawing of it: They feldom fay Saw ‘that piece of Staffs But Draw the Saw throagh its Give that piece of Stuffa kerf Lay a kerf in that piece of Stuf’; and fomecimes, (but mot unpeoperly, ) Cu, oF ‘Slit that piece of Ruf For the Saw cannot properly befaid to cut, of fit the Stuff but it rathee breaks oc tears away fuch pars of the Seu from the whole, a5 the points of the ‘Teeth prick into, and thefe parts ic fo tears away are proportionable 10 the inenefs, or ranknefs of the Setting of the Teeth. ‘The Excellency of Sawing is, to keep the kert cxaétly in the line, marked ott to be Savsn, withous wriggling on either, or both fides; And fright through the Stuff, as Work-men call it; that is, ina Geometrical Term, perpendicularly through’ the upper and undertide, if your Work require it, as moft work docs: But if your work be to be Sawn upon a Bevil, as fome work fometimes is, then you are to obferve thar Bevil all the length of the Saif, Sap 96 Joineve. Bom Te § a7. The Ue ofthe Pit-Saw, marked M, a Plate 4, “The PitsSaw is not only ufed by thofe Work-men that make Sawing Timber and Boards their whole Dafinefs, batis allo for finall masters ufed by Joyn= fers, when what they have to do, may perkaps be as foon done at home, as they can curry’ ot fend it to the Sawyers. ‘The manner of thei’ working. is both alike, for ifit be a Board they would fit of a piece of Timber, or if they would take any fquare, Quarter, of Batten, Ge, off, they fit fer off theit ‘Stanclin: For Example, If it be an Inch ( or more, orlef) they would take off a piece of Scuff, they. open the poins of their Compas to an Inc mex fure on their Rule, and fo much more 2s they ree- kon the kerf of the Saw will make, and from on fide of their Stuff they fe off ac either end of the Su, the Diftance of ‘the points of theie Compallés ; at ths eels they make with the oins of their is a prick at either end. of the Scuff; Then. with Chaulk they ‘whiten a line, by the Chaulk” pretty hard upon it; "Then ‘one holds the line at one end upon the prick made there, and the other ftrains the line presty {tif up- fon the prick at the other end; then Whilft che line is thus ftrain’d, one of them between his Fine gee and Thumb draws the middle of the line di redlly upright, to a convenient height (that it iy, iin bed enough down ) and hen es ic go. again, fo that it fifty applies to its ft pole ton, and fikes fo frongly saint te Saf, has the du, or atoms ofthe Cialk thar were ribhed into the Line, fhake out of i, and remain upon the ‘Scuff And thus alfo ehey mark the underfide of their Scuff: This is called Lining ofthe Stufs And the ‘Stull Numb. Ue Joinery. oF Su cut into thot Lines thall be called ucl-Seaf, becaufe the Compafies that prickt the Stuff, were opened wider by Gre wid of the kef han anToch stale upon the Raley Dor hud the" Compatis fea opened but an Tach exaétly, thar "piooe Savn off fhould, in Workmen's Language, have been calcd Jechict, techy ging to wniedianl thet Sis half che breadth ofthe Let thinner han an Ths ‘And thus they call all ther Scantling 2 Jrches 2 Je= te 3 lube Ses Sats or Prat. Wika "wo Werkrges ar not at hand to hold the line at both ends, he that lines i, trikes one poine of 1s Compal, oe onetime a Pricker, vy a Nae aflpe tovanls da ad aco the prick ft od pochs the noote at the end of his line over bis Compaen, Ge. goesto the other end, and fhrains his line om chat prick, and ftrikes it as before. "The Stuff being thus lined is fttned with wedg- es over the Pir, (if the Joyner be. accommadared with a Pit) if he have none, he makes fhift with To high ames a le" move tran Man high in flead, {called great Trafels) with four Legs, thefe Legs ftand fpreading outwards, that they may fland the femer: Over thele two Trfels the Stats lid, and femly fftned that it hake not. Its outer fide from whence the Pricks were fet off muft be Perpendicular, which you mutt ty by a Plombling. Fer fould the wp edge of that le hang never fo fide over the bottom elge, or the bottom edge for leo vous ab she cay edge, the Scandia Jeu Saw off would not be of an equal thicknefs on the Teper Boom "Bec the Si 9 work ca ip popentclac, “Then with the Pssuw they ene ea the one end eee the Farcmoe ry ae Tops andthe Pitman under hms, the Topaan ob- ops andthe rma Po Joinery. Nonb. ferving to guide the Saw exa@ly in the line: and ~ Wwitall dating the. Sow fomevhar. vars. him when the Saw goes. downs and the Pitemon drawing it with all his ffcength perpendicularly “down; but snot fo low that the upper and lower handles of the Saw fink below both thei managements : ‘Then bearing the Teeth of the Saw a litle off the Stuff, the Zopmax draws the Saw up agaio, and the Pitoman alts, ot eafes him in it, and thus they con inue faving on till the Saw has run through the whole length upon the Stuff Bue when the kerf is. made 0 long, that by the working of the Saw the Pieces of Stuff on cither fide will thake againit one another, and fo more, I, hiner the cafe ‘rogrels of the Saw, they “drive a” Wedge fo far in ther ket as_ they dare do for far of ipliting dhe ovide the Saw frer and eafce oe ff: This Wedging. they’ cont: ‘Stuf This Welging. they’ conc suc fo of asthey find occafion SY MECHANICR Nani tt » MECHANICK EXERCISES: on, The Do€trine of HandyWorks. Continued inthe ART of FOTNERT. $28. ThefeoftheWhip-Saw, marked N in Pate 4. HE WhipsSev is fed by Joyner, to Saw fach ‘greater of Stuff that the Hand-Saw will sot cally reath though; when they aie‘ te Seat is laid upon the Zraffel, marked O in Plate 5. in the ‘Angles of it. ‘Then two Men takes each aa handle ‘of ‘the Saw; He to whom the Teeth of the Saw ims, drawing to him, and the other. thruting him: And (as before) che Saw having run its length, is lifted gently over the Seuffto recover ano, the oak of the Sar $29. The sfeof the Hand-Saw merkedD, ‘the Frame or Bow Saw, the Tennant ‘Saw, marked O in Plate 4. Thefe Saws are acommodated for a fingle Man's » and cut forward a5 the other Saws do. The ‘of the Checks made to the Frame-Saw is, by twifted Cord and Tongue in the middle, to ww the upper ends of the Checks elofer together, the lower end of the Cheeks may be drawn wider afinder, and ffrain the Blade ofthe Sarthe . The Temont-San, being thin, hath 2 Backto =P ic feom bending. pretties a ez P §30. The S30. The Off ofthe Compati-Savr, marked Q Plate 4. The CompsfiSar thogld not have its Teeth Set, as other Sans have; but the edge of it thould be made fo broad, and the back fo chin, thar it may ally follow the broad edge, without having is “Fecth Set: for ifthe Tooth be Set, the blade mutt be thin, or elfé the Teeth will not bow over the Blade, and if it be thin, (confidering the Blade is fo nar- row) it will not be fog and therefore the edge’ muft be made tread, and theback thin, thar the Back may havea wide Rexf to. comin. $31. Of the Rake marked D in Plate 5. The uf of the Rele is to-meafire Feet, Inches, and parts of Inches, which, for chat Purpofe, are ‘marked upon the far and finocth fides ofthe Pale, and fsumbred with Inches, and hach every Inch divided ino evo balan evry half into to quae, and every into two half-quarers fo that every Inch is divided into eight equal parts; And thefe Inches. are numbred fom one end of the Ale to the och; which commonly isin all 24 Inches whichis a Two Foot Rule. They have commonly ‘both Board and ‘Timber esti, Ge. marked upon them, for the, fading Both the fuperfcial and iolid Coareat of Board or ‘Timber: The wfe of which Lines and Tables ba ving: Neoid IL. Joinees. tor i fare length ‘with ic, oF to draw a. ftraight the fide of i, orp Tay te Sign, foun of chit Work : ir Work by. 3 ‘one of its igesio hc thc wre i et Wonks sad their Eye 25 clots as they can, to fe ifthey can fox lighe benween the edge ofthe Rae and theic Work: Af they. cannoc, they conclude thei work is 77, and well wroughe. § 32. Of the Conipales macked E in Plate 5. 4s The Jone, bb the Cheeks of che Joynt, cc the ‘Shanks, dd the Potts, Theie Office is to defcribe ‘Ciscles, and fes off Diftances from their Rule, or any ‘other meafire, to thc Work. E | z 5 iF ure i 33+ Of he Glew-pot marked Fin Plate 5: ‘The Glempet is commonly made of good thick Lead, aiurby te fiaee may reat see he thatthe Glew Chil not (as Work-men fay when i cools} ‘when itis tobe ufed. S 34. Of Chuling axd Boiling Glew. The clearett, driet, and moft tranfpurent Glew is the belt: whea you boil it, break ie with. your Hammer into mall picces, and put it into 2 clean ‘Skillet, or Pipkin, by a0 means > foe that vil fpoil che clammines of the Glew, put co ie Pa ‘auch 10 Joineee. Nob. Th such Waret a8 is convenient to diffolve the Glew, and to make it, when it is hor, about the thicknels of the White of an Egg: the quantity of water cane not beafigned, becauie ofthe diferent quality thee is in Glew keep i firing wht itis meng. snd et ie not flick to the Gdes or bottom of the Vell: ‘When ie is well boiled, pour ic into your Glew-pot so but et your Glew-por be vey lean.” Wh ie iseold, and you would heat it again in. your Glew. or, you mift take great care that it burn not eo the fides of bottom of the Glew-pot, for thar burning ther euens toa thick hard skin, or elfe to a burnt Ginderlike Subfance, which if itmingle with the Glew, will Spoil it all; becaufe by its Subftance i will Sear the evo Joints you are to Glew together, off ‘When (with often heating) the Glew grows too thick, ‘You may pur more water to its but then you mut Bake ic very hot, lett vie Glew and Water donot wholly incorporate. ~ Some Joyners will (when theie Glew is too thick ) put Small. Beer into it, thinking it flrengehens it Thave tied it, and could never find it fo, bue think itsather makes the Glew weaker, efpecally if the ‘Small Bees chance to be new, and its Yelk not well fertled from it, or fo ftale, that ic be either Dreggy, ‘or any whit mingled with the Seilings ofthe Cod S 35+ 0fUfing the Glew. Your Glew mult be very warm, for then ic is thinneft, and asi chills, ie chickens: witha final Brus you mutt Sinear the Glew well “upon the Joint of each piece you ae to Glew, togethers And before ‘you fer them asthey are to ftand, you muftjoftle them Nob. 1. Joinery. 103 fone upon the other, that the Glew may very welt touch and take hold of the Wood; and tha tie Glow on cach Joints may well incorporate. ‘Then itthe wo Joines a5 they muft fland ; And when you fet them by to dry, let the one fland upright upon the others Forif they fland alope, the weight of the Stuff when it leans upon two exream edges, may make one end of the Joint Open, $36. Of he Waving Engine. hs Wing agin lin le. Fa. Bath ABa long fGoare Plank, of about {en Sac €s broad, fire Foot long, and an Inch and. hale Shick: All'long the length of this Plank on the Biddle berween the evo fies, runs 2 adler, of ie is feen at C pon this Rubber ries'a Bled, Swi Grovee in its Under fides This, Block = our three Inches fare, and ton daches lng, he Ying neat he hinder Gnd of i'a wooden Pande gong Trough ie of aboor on: Inch Diamecry 25 B ES ‘At the Forcend of this, Block acd 2 View fomewhat larger than great Hand-Vice as at Fs The Gece inthe Block is made ft to revive the Rabbet on e'Phank Ache ches col fie Dhak it el = are rong pies of wood, about fx Tacs highy Sr Fre ack eae a laces Hike ih iar wale Not oon the Top, a HL. Upan the top of thi Square piss is frong Sure ac Iron Cole, fomevhac ‘ofl ited om Bring wo, Male. Sats ited. vo Fema Seren, to fre. again thar part ofthe, Woo Pie unmorcefed at the Topr mated Ty tat fe say draw the ion Colle lard again the Irom et ant she tectco marked Q. and keep i ftif aguinft the fore-fide of Se ceaieaea “Phes, markel Ly when the piece 958 fos coovenr eighth; anon the tie file the fyuare wooden Piece is fcai another leon few, having to the end of ts thank fltned a round Iron Plate which lies within he hollow ofthis wooden pine, td cane Da teams 5 Bue (have dtiibed ie a pare, as ac M. Peg gies Nua lad sc M, onthe ches Pices. On she farther fide of the wooden Piceis fed a Wooden Screw called a Anal, a8 at N. Through hither fide of te fquare Wooden Pee Piece of Iron, abour three quarters of sd ope gr of Tach th, feanding on edge upon bu itp field a ae lly ty Ieshither end comes throught the wooden ieee, 2t ©, and is farther end on the oppotte fde'of the iE jin the hollow fquare of the wooden piece ftands an Jren, as at Q, whofe lower end is cut {nto the form of the Molding you intend your woek ‘hall have. Inthe fore fide of this wooden Piece is a fquare hole, S836R, lel the Meth head fo ‘this Engine belongs a chin fat piece of Wood, about an Inch anda quarer Wosd, and 23 Jong as the Rabbet: It is disjunct from the En- gine, and in Fig. 8. is marked $, called the Rack: Je ath its under flat cur into thofe fathioned ‘waves you intend your work hall have : The hol= low of chefé waves are made to comply with the round edge of flat Plate of Icon marken O (deferi- bed before) for when one end of the Riglet you ave wih ee Vie, Sirewed toe pa ide of Nonb, He Aoineey. rey the Rack, and the other end put through the. Mouth of the wooden Picec, a5 at TT, fo25 the hollow of the wave on the underside of the Rack ‘may lie upon the round edge of the lat Iron Plaue fer on edge, as at O, and che Iron Qy is flrong fitted. down upon the Riglet> ‘Thea if you. lay hold of the Handles of the Block DE, and ftrongly draw by them, the Rack and the Rigle will bot toge- fide through the Mouth of the wooden Piece: And as the Rounds of the Rack ride over the round. edge of the fat Iron, the Rack and Rigler will mounc upto the Iron Q, and as the Rounds of the Waves ‘on the under fide of the Rack flies off the Iron on lg, he Rack and Riglet ill Gia and fo i a sgrellion (or more ) twill on its Taree he frm othe feyeal waves on he weet fide ofthe Rack, and alfo the form, or Molding, tha is: ‘on the edge of the bottom of the Tren, and fo at once: the Riglet will be both molded and waved. Bur before you draw the Rack through the Engine, You mutt conlider the office of the Knob N, and the ‘office of the Tron. Serew M; For by thom the Rack is Ferewed evenly under the Iron Q. And you mult be careful that the Groove of the Block flip not off the: Rabbet on the Plank: For by thefe Screws, and the Haber and Grom, your work will Be eveay gaged all the way (as I faid before ) under the edge ofthe Tron Q. and keep it fom fling cicherto the night, oz Jefe hand, as you draw ic ehrough the Engine. $37. Of Wainfeoring Reems. AAA (in Plate 7.) ‘The Stiles. B The B: 2 ‘The Lover Rail. D "The Su-Bafe. EE The Middle Hat, o& Ras. E The Frigerail. G The UperRuil 106 ‘oinece. Bind. H The Coice. The Lying Panel. K The Lage Pamcl, the Fre Peal in Wainkoxing of Rooms thee is for the mot but two hughes ef Panacluféd; unles the Room to be Wainkore! be abore ten oot high, ts foe are eleen or evel Fooe high and thot thes Flights of Pannc are fed: As L'The Lyng Pane abotethe Rae, K ‘The Large Panel above he hdd Bails Aad L The Prige Pond! above the Frige Ral “Tus Price Railisto have ame beahche Mergent ofthe sit hath; The Mss faa hacheommenly Sve Ealing ofthe Margen of the Si vi one Woah above the Sadie and the oaher below che Suede, A the Ur att Lover Rl ave all ach the fing ‘readth woh the Margent of the ie “Thofe Moldings sbove the Prick-lineon the Top, as By ate caled the Cone Seni (and isi in Low Ronse i 10 Bue or Serb le, and then the Me nk Loves fa eal nt Bel Fore Nd all notbe above a third pare more than the Marge ofthe Bas andthe Laver-Rell younay amkeoreiertee ee You fee convenient ‘They are Commonly dboue thre Techs and anal or fut faches broad, Yat i no ules Foci Works ake ol sat Path "You may (if you will) adora the outer edges ofthe Siler and Rete with a inal ldngs Andon nay (fyou will) Beviaway the outer ges ofthe Pose, aleve a Table in che middle ofthe Panel Numb. 1. Joinere: io7 An Explanation of Teas fed emorg Jers Wien et bognto Prine thet aes, maths Home Terms in ony with periar Eaters (as Primers all tem) thus 20° Bi tending She hater end of thee Exeriés, to have expsned the ‘Terms hole Leers reixrd to> But upon confer ation tat thote Terms might often te ued in is Bikar, wien de upc Later vas oof fg, and perhaps ts potion (were) foqgotens f eve Fi mind” and tout the See Lees afl, ee, and inkead of thofe References give You this Alphabetical Table of Terms, by which Sou nay alwaysimore rexily find the Explanation, chovgt You often mese with the Term, A Architrave. Sex Plate 6, isthe Architrave Molding: “Auge § 24. Plat 4 fig. Ke B. Buje, See Plate 6, b. And Plate 7. B. Bead. See Pate 6.4. Bedomolding, See Plate 6. d. Bef. The Ball is an angle the edge of a Tool is ‘ground away to. See fol. 71. Batten. Isa Scantling of uf either evo, three or four Inches Broad : and is feldom above an Inch thick and che length unlimmitted. Beak, The end of the Hold-fut, See fol. 60, 61. Barhscem. Soe Pate 4. Ag. and fl. 6 Bevil. Any floping Angle that is not a fquare, is called a Bev, See fo 60 85. $ 19. and Place 4, F Bitt, Soe § 22. Bafa, Plate 4. 0. c 308 ‘oinep. Kom. T. c Capita. See Plate 6, g. GaP. Scat id vo Calo warp, when by itsown droughch or moiturs, or the dough ot mote of the Ait, or other assident, it ae ie fase ek ftraightnets. Clanp. When a Piece of Boa is ftted with the Grain fo the ead of another piece of Board rok, fe Grain the fie Board is Cldape "Thus thesis Tables are commonly Clamp fo. peeterve tee heen warping, Compal. S20 fl. 9. and Plas 4. fig. Re Gre See ad Bi 7H i. Crfearcinedsap. ai is Ceofefeaited when Bough of tome: Branch fhoots otto a as Ae ‘Teunk of the Tre; For the bough or bree an ing forwards, the Grain ofthat brah foots ern allo, aad f rans acrols the Grain of ie recs aad if they ‘he well grown together, f will ares petsived in fome A, bc working yer ted fox of ag rant Kt, an cally ‘perceived, ‘and itt grew up young’ ey a rath thn lead ofa Rabeyon ell gad sa inthe Sec wins wrought, Ciningcog. We che Bough or Branch tha fhoges cut ofthe Trunk ofa Tret be large and he het thac place fawn fomeat alope’ when tha at comes under che Plans you will fda Larne tee ¢ Casing ‘on thatplace upon the Stuf set ges Aeaght, progres of the Plane the lyon will car wit sed le oc the Grn and cae more or I 25 the Bough grew inthe youth ofthe Thee ores more or lets tprigh, or “le oping coe ake nea ox was fav fo Such Seu dre isclled Gren Sg. B Nod. ‘oinero. i09 D. Deorsafe. Is the Fram‘d work about the Door. DoublesScree. See fol. 60. Plate 4. fig. g- on the Work-bench A. Facies See Plate 6, b, Font, SE§ 8: Uieofthe Plow, and PL 4. fg. B 6. ‘Finesér. The Irons of Planes ate fet Fine, or Rank. ‘They are fr fine, when they and fo thallow below the lble of the Plane, chat in working they cake off thin thaving. See §°3. Flt Fre: See PEE. ps orePlane. See § 2 4Br. Forme Seta: tad Pate 4. G5. Frame. Sce fol. 59, 60- Frame Saw, Soe §'28. and Plate 4. O. Freeh. See 8 3. Pig bee Pia p Friefe Pamel. Sce Plate 7. L. Friefe Ruil. See plate 7. Frony lage. See $ 3. c. Gage, See § 21. and Pate 4. Ginklet. See $23. and Plate 4 L Canes See $14.08. Gre, Seofal by. H Hanmer-bard. See Nu 1. 658. Tiadie, See § 15. and Pate 4.2. Bards. See8 3. Q Hateber. Fd Soinere. Nawb I. Hatchet. See § 25. Plate 4 1. Head. Soo § 22. Pate 4. Ha. Hold fip. Soe §x.Plate 4. Ad. Lok, See § 1. Phace 4. Ab. Flask, See Pate 6, ». 1 Fmersfnare. See § x5. andPlate 4.D d Joint. See fol 59. Jointer. Sco $°4. and Plae 4. B 2. ‘ron, See § 2. and Plate 4. BY d. Kk Kerf. The Sawneaway flit beewe = ERE a pebewen ee pa Knob. See § 36. fol. x04. and P Ie SesBitesse, "#18 Pe 5: Be. 7 Ne L Large Pavacl, See Plate 7. K Dyin Peel, Se late 7.1 er Rail. See Place 7. M, Margent. See Plate 7.at AAA the fla breadth of the Sciles befdes the Moldings, is called the the sais i, called the Margent of th Middle Reil. See Plate 7 EE, Miter. See fl. 6. Miter Box, Scc-$ 20. and Plate 5. fig. 1. Mae pre, Sie 88, and Pa ls. veral wroughi-work made with Planes on wood, is called Moldings. “hig Planes.” Seog AB" SPREE. Marten Nemb. Te Joinery. mer Mortfi. Ts afguare hole cut ina piece of fff, to ‘entertain a Tennant fir to it. See $17. ‘Mortefs Chifel. See § x3. and Plate 4.C.5. ‘Mouth, Soc § +.B 7. «The Mouth. °. Ogee, See Plate 6.¢; Oral, See § 21. and Plate 4. G.f- Onter Square. See § 15. and Plate. 4. De. P. Pad. See § 22.and Plate 4. Hd. Parnel. Yo pe 1K Lare Pannels, bur diftin~ ithed by theie pofitions. Beare. The finch cutting with the Paring-Chifel is callol Per Paring-Chifel. See 6 x1. and Plate 4. C2. Pilajter, See Plate 6. f. Peircer, See § 22. aad Plate 4. H. Phra The Saye that wotks in hei, is called the Pieman, PitsSaiv. The Pit-Saw is a great Saw fitted. into & quare Frame; a8 in Plate 4. Mis Pit-Saw. ‘Planchier. In Plate 6. berween d and eis the Planchier.. Ph Soa Plo, See 68. and Place 4 Pricker, Ig valgacly called an Awl: yer for Joyne ers ule it hath mott commonly a fqvare blade, which Grew the Wood beer than a ound Blade wil becaufe the fuare Angle in curing it about breaks the Grain, and fo the Wood isin leis danger offlie= ring. R Rablet. Seo 7. Rablet Plane, Sco § 7. and Plate 4. B 5. ack See Plate 5. Fig. 8. Read £36. Rall, See Dlate 7. AAA. Rank. The Iron of a Plane is fad to be (er Rawk, when its edge ftands {0 far below the Sole of che lane, cha in working i willeake off thick faving, ce 5. Tabs, Soe Rank. Reage, “The fide of any work that runs ftraighe, Without breaking into angles, is faid to ror Rene? ‘Thus theRailsand Pannels of one aight fide of Winns feoting is fai to rom Range. ARetern, The fide that falls away from the Fore- fide of any Straight or Rank-work, is. called ‘the Return, Rigier. Ts fat thin quare piece of Wood : Thus the pieces that are intended to make the Frames for fal idtures. before they are Molded are called Riglets. "Rad, See fol. 94. Ss. Sae-wreft. See $ 26 fol. 94. and Plate 40. ‘Scantln. The fize thae your Stuff is iazended to be cutie, Scribe. When Joyners are to fit a fide of a piece of Seuff again the fide of fome our plese of Stu acl the fide of the piece of Seuff they are to fit to is nor regular; To make thefe two pieces of Stuf join clofe foal che way, they, Sr i (a8 they phrate it, ) thus; They lay the piece of Stu they intend to Fe Sribe Nenb. Th. Joinery, ny Scribe cote aganft the other piece of Seaff they intend to Scribe to, and open their Compalfs to the widelt diftance, thefe two pieces of Stuff bear off each other = “Then (the Compas moving fff in thet Join) hy bear the’ point of one of he thanks againtt the fi they intend to Scribe to, and with the point of the other thank, they draw line upon the Stuff-to be Seribed ; and then the points of the Compallés re= ‘maining unremov'd, and your hand carried evenly along hy the fide ofthe picce to be Seribed to, that ine feib= ‘upon the piece intended to be Scribed, fhall be pax rallel to the irregular fide intended to be Secibed to And if you work away your Stuff exaétly to that lin, When thefe ewo pieces ate put together, they thal feem_ Joint. ‘Stoot a Joint. See fo. 59. Skeweformer. See § x2, and Plate 4. C 4. Smoatbing Plone, See'$ 6. and Plate 4B 4. Sole. Sec Plate 4.B 7.48. The under-fideot a Plane is called the Sof. Square, See § 15.and Plate 4. D. Staff. Sco § 21. and Plate 4. Gc. Staves, Seo 8. and Plate g. BO. aa. Stile. The upright Pieces AA in Pl. 7, are Stiles, Stock. Soe §°23, and Plate 4. Hic. ‘Stop. In Plate 6 kate Stet. ‘Sif: The Wood that Joyners work upon they call in general Stuf: ‘Su-lafe. In Plate 7.D isthe Sub. Sweling-Frief. In Plate 6. rie the Swellingsfiefe rT. Table. in Place 6.f isthe Table, Teper. AML tores of Stuff or Work that are fnalleeat . one ing oinery. Nod tne end than atthe othér, and diminith gradually from the bigget end, is Lid 10 be Tape. “Temant. "TS°a fquare end fited into a Moret. Seea7. “mane Sew. in Plate 4. O. would bea Tennant Sa, were the fat of the Blade tutned where the edge thee ands. : “Tongue. Soe § 16. nd Plate 4. D Jucth, See 6 x1-and Dae 4° G a. amet Okc Say sh opposed e fopman, “Tires See. and Plate 4.B 1 Tresor, So fl 65. Trafel. Seefol 97, and Plate 5. Fig. 5- Tig. See 13. v. Vans-Corvice, SeePlate 6. ¢. Opper Cornice. See Plate 6.t. w. Warp. The fame that Cattis. Woving Engine. See § 36.and Plate 5. Wedge, See § >. and Plite 4... Whettin- Block. Sce Plate g. P. Whp-Sae. See Plate 4. N. Wrefl. See § 26.and Plate 4. ‘hos mucho oiery. ‘The hues will (God willing ) be of Carpentry. Nonb. UH. its MECHANICK EXERCISES: oR, The Dottrine of Handy Works. Applied to the ART of Howf-Carpentr. Eing now come to exercife upon the Carper ‘ters Trade, itmay be expected, by fome, that ould it upou arcitine i being fo abfolutely ncceffary’ for Builders vo be ace spaced with: Burmy Antes co themis, ‘that there are fo many Books of Architeéture extant, and in them the Rules fo well, fo eopiouly, and 15 ccompleatly, handled, that itis ncedle(S for me to fay aay thing of tha Science: Nor do think any man that fhould, can do more than colleét out of theit ' Books, and perhaps deliver their Meanings in his own Words. Belides, archiredtureisa Mathematical Science, and therefore different from my prefene undertaking which are (as by my Tittle ) Mechanick Exereifes ‘yet bocaufe Books of Architedture areas necc(ary fora Builder to underftand asthe ufe of Tools; and leftfome Builders fhould not know how to enquire for them, “fal athe lamer nd of Crperrygive You the Names ‘oF fome Authors, efpecially fach as are printed in the Englith Tongue. ‘Some may perhaps alfo think it had been more Proper for mein che Eris ro have incodued R are 16 ‘eoue-cacyentey, Nand. H. Capenty before Jeynery, becate Necedity (the Mo- thee of favention ) did doublets compel our Fores thers in the begining to ule the eonvenieney of the ff rather chan the exravaganey ofthe lal T con. Fels, Tconfidered ie my fel and had in my own rex fon’ been pesfuaded roi, but that Lalfo confidered, that the Rules they hoch werk by. are upon te mat- ferthe fame, inSovinge Moteling. Teron, Scridig, Porn, Plaine, Morin t. and hkewit the Tod they work with che fame, chough foe of chem fome= ‘what flronger for Carpemer fe than they: need Be Firforners: beetle Joyners work more cuiculy, and olfeve the Roles more’ craely than, Carpemers need do, And therefor! fay ie waa, that began with Joy- ners before Carpentry ; for he that knows hov to week fasoufly, mays when be fi, wock flighty whey as they that ae taghe co work more roughly, do With srctee dificult peforn more curious and rie work, ‘Tims we fee Joyners work their Tables exactly fad fet and ot icf fo oe ta he whole ‘Table thes all one piece: But che Flows Ca lay are alfo by the Rule of Carpentry tobe lait Bar and Teheran thal yee well enoteh Bal shone a ‘exadly fat and tooth asa Table. ‘Yer though the Rules Joyness and Carpescers work by ae fo near the fame, and the Tools they. Work Sid an St ey wack yon he anc ye tee are many Requifies proper toa Carpenter, epoca 4 Maller Carpenter) tht Joyner need tats Teste no tice of, which afer U have ceiebed the Carpenters Tools'chat are not expreft among the Joynses fall Speak vo. St Nenb il, Routecarpentep. ny Sx. Of feveral Tous wed in Carpentry, thet are st afed in Fynery. aud fh of He ae Asc marked in Pate 8. is (a8 you fee) difer ent from what the Joyners Hatchet is, both in fze sindform; theirsbeinga lighe Hatchet, withaBaliledge ‘on is lee fide, ecaufé itis to beuféd with one hand, and therefore’ hath a thore Handle: Buc the Carpen. ters x being to hew great Stuff is made mich deeper and heavier, and its edge tapering into the middle of its Blade. it hatha long Handle, beeaufe itis uled with both their hands, co fquare or bevel theie Time ‘When they ufe the Ax, the Timber hath commonly fame Buk erg ld ds at ache that he ee ofthe Ax may be in lefs danger of fisting aco the ground, when they hew nas the Coton ote eee fd they ommoniy tant on tac idee Tea they upon $2. Of te Mdz, anditsafe le Ads marked B in Plate 8, hath its Blade made thin, and fomewhacarching. As the Ax hath ics ige parallel to iss Handle, fo the Adz hath its edge athware the Handle, and is ground voa Ballon ts tte fide toits outer edge: wherefore when its buntthey cannot well grind it, unleis they take its Helve out of ies Eye. Is general ufe is to take thin Chips off Timber or Boards, and totake offthofe iregularities tht the Ax by reaion of is form eansor well come ary and that a Plain (chough rank fe) will not make riddance enough with, Re ie 118 Thoutecarpentey. Nid. TT, Tt is moftufed for the taking off the iregularities on the framed work ofa Floor, when it is framed and pin'd ogether, and laid on its places for that lying fatunder them, the edge of the Ax being. parallel ro its Handle (Cas aforefaid) cannot come at the irregularities to take them off; but: the d= having its edge athware the Handle will. "Again, upon fome Pofts framed upright, and range with other framed work clofe eo i, the ed ‘ofthe Ax cannot come at the ieregularities (for reafon aforeaid ) bur the de will. And che like forthe regulates of ramed work ona Ceing, Then they work upon the framed work of a Floor, they take the end of the Handle in both their hands, placing themfelves diettly before the ty, ata Fnall ditance, a litle with both their Legs, 20 prevent danger from the edge ofthe dz, and fo By de- rs lew ofthe irpularity Dut ifthey ew upon an Upp, they and diet before “They fometimes ufe the d= upon fnall thin Scuff, to make it thinner, (but this is many times when the ‘Ax, or fome other properer Tool, lies not at hand ) and then they lay their Stuff upon the Floor, and hold ‘one end of t down with the Ball of the Foot, if che ‘Stuff be long enough; ifnot, with the ends of their ‘Toes, and fo hew it lightly away to their fizc, or form, ‘or both. Si Non. ——-autecarpentep. 19 S 3. Of Carpenters Chills in general "Hough Carpenters for this Sine work ule all the forts of Chie deferibed in Exercie 4. yet are slot thofe fort of Clifels trong enough for their zough- ‘erand_ more commen work, and therefore they aifo ue a ftronger forc of Chifels and diftinguih them by the name of Socke:-Ctiféls : For whereas thofe Chie fel Joyners ufe_ have their wooden heads made hol. ‘ow to receive the Iron Sprig above the Shoulder of the Shank, Carpenters have their Shank made with an ellen Secket atts top, to receive a firong wooden Sprig, made to fit into that Socket, with a fquare Shoulder above it, the thicknefs of the Iron ofthe Socket, or fomewhat more; which makes it much more firong, and able to endure the heavy blows ofthe Afalle they lay upon the head of the Ciel. And the Shanks and Blades ace made frongc fr Carpenter ule han they are for Joyners. Of chele Socket Ohifels they have of the feveral forts Aeferibed in Joinery, though not all feverally diltine ‘guithed by their names; for they call them /lf-ch, Threeuarter-Inch Chifels, Inch and half, Twelich, 10 Tiree Ich Chie aceon tote ead othe Bids Bur their Ufes are the fame mentioned in Joinery, though the manner of ufing them befomewhat differ ‘ent t00: For, as I told. you in Joincry, the Joyners re the ele of the Blade into the Seu, with the ength of theit Shoulders, but the Carpenters with the force of the blows ofthe Mallet. And the Joy- ners guide their Chifels differeny from what the Car- ppntrs dotheir Sacer Chifels; for the Joyners hold etribed in ind. the Shank and Blade of their Chifels, as 1 120 ‘houte-Carpenter. » Nemb M, Nand. 4, eit. x1, but the Carpenters hold the Shank ‘of their Chiféls in their clutched left hand, and bea: upon fhe Head wich the Aller in the right. See the Figure of the Socket Che in Pate 8.C. withits Head « out of the Socket. $4. Ofthe Ripping Chile, and its af "He Ripping Chifel deferibed Plate 8.1. isa Seee fet Chifely and is about an Inch ‘broad, and Fath a bluae edge. Its edgehath nota Bij, as almoft all other Chifels have, and therefore would more pro- erly be called a Wedge than a Chie. But moft coms Bondy Capen tan old calf hf or Rpg, Tks offices not to cut Wood, as others do, but to rip ‘or tear two pieces of wood faltned together from one another, by” entering the blunt edge of it between ‘thetwo'pigees, and then knocking hard with the Mal- Jet upon the head of the Hand, till you drive. the thicker pare of it between the ewo pieces, and 10 force the power that holds them together (beit Nails, of otherwife) to lee go their hold: For its blunt ‘edge thould be made of Stel, and well tempered, 10 that if you knock with ftrong blows of the Mallee the Chifels edge upon a Nail (though of fome conic erable fublanice) ie may cut or brake it hore afuns er. Ifyou cannot, at once, placing the Rippin <1 pare the two pieces, you mutt ule two Ripping-Chife ls, placing the fecond at the xemotelt entrance in the breach, and driving. that home will both open the breach wider, and loofen the frkt Ripping-Ciifel, fo” that you may take it out again, and place it farther in the beach And fo you mull eontiaue edging fr- ‘thee Numb. 1. outestarpentep. rar ther and farcher, tll you have feparated your intended cis fometimes uféd when Carpenters have commit ted error in their work, and muftundo whae chey did, to mend it. But itis generally ufed in all Alterations, and old work. S 5. Of the Drav-kni, and ite ne "He Draw-bife defevibed Plate 8. Eis feldom ufed about Houfe-uilding, but for the making Fome forts of Houfhold-ftuff; as the Legs of Crick: 5, the Rounds of Ladders, the Rails to lay Cheefe oF Bacon on, &. ‘When they wleit, they feroneend oftheit work a+ gainft their Breaft, and the other end againf cheie Work ch, or fome hollow angle that may keep it fom fip= ping, ‘and fo prfling the work alice hard with their Breaftagainft the Bench, to kesp ie {teddy inits poftion, they with the Hlandles of the Dran-twe in both theit hhands, enter the edgeof the Dran-kvife into the work, and draw Chips almoft the leageh oftheir work, an fo fmoothen ie quickly. $6. Of Hook-Pins, and their wf. He Hook-Pin is deferibad Plate 8. F. a the Pis, B the Let, ¢ the Head. Is office is to pin the Fraine of a Floot or Frame of a Roof together, whilft icis framing, or whilft i is fing into its poftion. They have many of thele Loot-Pias to drive into the feveral angles of the Frame. Thefe they dive into the Pin-holes, through the Morteffes and Tenzants, ‘and being made taper, do with a Hammer foking en the ma Route-carpentey. Ned, I, the bottom of it Knock it out again or they moft commonly frike under the Hook, and f0 knock it out. ‘Then if the Frame lic in its place, they pin it up with wooden Pins. 57. Ofthe Level, and its xe. He Level deferibed Plate 8. G. athe Level, & the Plumber, the Plamboline, dd the Perpendin Gitar mark’d from the top to the bottom of the Board. The Level is from two to ten foot long, that it may. each over a confiderable length of che Work. If the Plonbelixe ang julk upon. the Perpendicular d dy when the Level ii fet fat down upon the work, the work ig Level: But ifit hang on either fide the Per= perdicdar, the Floor, ot Work, muft be raifed on that fide, till the Plonbsline hang’ exaétly upon the Per= pendicuar. $8. Ofthe Plumbeline, and its wf le Plamblive is defeibed Plate 8. H. a the Line Revi, b the Line. Ye is ufed to ery the up- right flanding of Potts, or other work thatis to fland Perpendicular to the Ground Plot; and then they raw off fo much Line as is necelary, and fatten the eft of the Line there, upon the Line’ftow! with a Sipe knot, that no more Line turn off: They hold the end ‘ofthe Line between theic Finger and Thumb half the Diameter of the Line Rew! off one corer of the Pott, ‘or Work, and if the Line and Corner of the Poft be llel_to each other, the Poft is upright: Bue if The Poft be not purl tothe Lin, but ts Bottom ‘ands more than half the Diameter of the Live Rot Nimb.TL. ——— Rantoreatyentee. 3 fiom the Lin, the Pott hangs fo much over the bot- tom ofthe Poft on tha fide the Linebears off, and muft be forced backwards ill the fide of the Poft and the Line become. paalel to cach other. Bur if the bot- tom ofthe comer ofthe Poft_fbands our from the top of the Lier, the Poft mutt be forced forwards to comply With the Lie. S 9. Ofthe Hammes, aed ite wf. Hammer is deferibed Plate 8. 1. a the Face, b the Clan, cethe Pex atthe return fides of the Claw. ‘his Too! was forgot to be deferibed in Joynery, though they ule Alanmers too, and therefore Tring i in here. Its chief ufe is for driving Nails inro work, and draw. ‘ng Nails out of work. "There is requiced. a pretty skill in driving a Nail; for if (when you fet the point of a Nail) you be riot curious in obferving to frike the flat fae of the Hanmer iculary down upon the Perpendi- cular ofthe Shank, the Nail (ualets it have good en- france) will lar fide, or bow, or break; and then ‘you will be forced to draw it oue again with the ‘Claw ofthe Hemmer. Therefore you may fee a reafon when you buy a Hemmer, to chufe one with atrue Rat Face. Allele ick i omnes fet among.fome (eat would be thought cunning Carpenters) privately 10 ch the baton se ‘Nat witha lie Eas ad then lay a wager with a flranger to the Trick, that he fall oc deve that Nal up co the Head wick many blows. ‘The ftranger thinks he thallaffuredly win, bat docs affiredly lofes for the ZYammer no fooner touches the Head of the Nail, but inflead of entring the wood s it 14 Beukecarpentey. New’. NT, JeGies away, aoewithflanding his usmofe caren fii ing it downright, $ 10. Of the Commander, and its of. He Conmonder is defeibed Piare 8. K. Ie is indeed buta very great wooden Malet, with an ile abou thre foot log, to ue in both the hands. Ie is ufed to kndck on the Corners of Framed work, se i hk pln “Tes lo lo ee fall wooden Piles into the ground, ©. or where grea ter Engines may be fpared. e $12. Of the Crow, and its uf. He Crow is deferibed in Plate 8.1L. athe Suit, BB the Clams, ¢ the Pikewrd. Ieis wed asa Lever to {© fife up the ends of grcat heavy Timber, when either a Bauk, or a Rover isto be lad under it; and then they ctrut the Claws Between the Ground and the Timber, and laying a Bauk, or fome fuch ftuf behind the Cro, they draw the other end ofthe Shank backwards, and ft raile the Timber. § ¥2 Oftle Drug, and its. He Drag defribed Plate 9. A. is made fomewhae like a low narrow Care. Ie is ufed for the carriage imber, and then is drawn by the Handle a a by ‘wo oF moremen, according asche Weight ofthe Timber ‘may require. There are alfo fome Engines ufed in Carpentry, for the management of their heavy Timber, and hard Le Rink. ponteeaepenten. ny Labour, us. the Jac, the Chal, to which belongs Paulie ‘and ‘Tackle, &t. ‘Wedges, Rowles pest Serews, Ge. Bue hall give your an account of them when I comeco cheexplantion of Terms at thelaterend or arpenry. $ 15, Ofthe Tenfoot Rod, and thereby tmeafve ‘aed deere he Ground-ploe E fhall begin thereforé'to meafire the Groind- pls co which Carpenters ule emf Reon ition, Which is a Rod aboue an Inch fquare, and tea foot Jong ; being divided into een equal pats, cack, containing one Toot, even as the Tiwfore Rule den Feribed in Exerife 6. $13. is divided into 2g equal ‘arts, and their Sub-divitions. With this Red they meafure the length and breadth ‘of the Gromdplot into Feet, and if there be old In- ches, they meafure them withthe Twe-fvt Rie. Their tmeafize they note down upon pice of papce, and hhaving confidered the fituation of the Sides, Zaft, Web, ‘North, and South, they dravy on Paper thet fe- vera Sides accordingly, by a final Sale ciher elected, or lfé made for that pirpofe. ‘They may el their Tivefot Rule for fome' plots; for an Inch and an half may commodiouily terve to fee off one Foot on fome finall Growd:plots, and then you have the Inches to that Foot adbualy divided by the Marks forthe half quarters on the Tivnfor Rae. But, this large Scale will fearce frve to deferibe a Grovnd:plor above ten Foot in length, becaufea finall fhect of Paper is not above 15 of 16 Inches long, and therefore one feet ‘of Paper’ will not contin it, ifthe Gromdplot be lone fs Therefore if you make very hal qian of 4 2 inch ny outecorpentey. Nid. TH, jt Bies away, nocwithitanding his uemoft care in firik- ing it down-sight § 10. Of the Commander, and its 4. fe Commonder is defribed Plate 8. K. Ie is indeed buta very great wooden MZer, with an fndle about three foot long, to ule in both the hands. Tes ufed co kndck on the Corners of Framed work, to fe them into ther potion. Te is alfo ued vo deive {imal wooden Piles into the ground, Ge. ox where grea- ter Engines may be fpared. f § 12. Of the Crow, and its uf. le Crow i deferibed in Plate 8. L. a the Slisnk, B& the Claws, ¢ the Fikevend. Tei ufed a8 a Lever to 1 life up the ends of gcac heavy Timber, when cithera Bauk, or a Rowler isto be laid under it; and chen chey thrufl the Cisms beeween the Ground and the Timber, and laying a Bank, or fome fitch fluff behind the Craw, they draw the other end ofthe Shank backwards, and f0. raile the Timber. G 2 Oftke Drug, and its xf He Drag deferibed Plate 9. A. is made fomewhat like alow narrow Carr. Tes ufed for the caria of Timber, and_ then is drawn by the Handle a 2, by ‘wo or moremen, according asthe weight ofthe Timber ‘may require. ‘There are alfo fome Engines ufed in Carpentry, for the management of their heavy Timber, and haed Le Nionb. 1. ‘houteCarpentep. ny Labour, viz, the Jack, the Crzb, t0 which belongs allies ‘and “Tackle, &c. Wedges, Rovers, great Screws, &c. Butl thall give you an aecoune of them ‘when come to the explanation of Termsar the later end cof Carpentry. § 13. Of the Ten-foot Rod, and thereby tomeofire and deferibe the Ground-plot. .fhall begin therefore to meaflice the Gromed- ‘let, to which Carpenters ufea Tenor Red or ‘expedition, whichis 2 Rod aboae an Inch fguare, and ten foot long ; being divided into ten equal pares, acl, pare containing one foot, even as the Tivefoar Rule de~ fered in Exercife 6. § 13. is divided into 24 equal pares, and their Sub-divifions. ‘With chis Red they ‘meafure the length and breadth of the Graund-plot into Feet, and if there be odd. In- ches, they meafire them with heeft Role. The tmeafute they note down, upon a piece a Having conhdered the fiuation of the Sie ZoP, Weft, North, and South, they draw on Paper theie fe- veral Sides accordingly, by a final Sele, cither eleéted, or elfe made for hac purpofe. ‘They may clett thei Tuofost Rule foc fome plots: for an Inch and an half may commodioully terve to fee off one Foot on fome fall Gromdzplots, anxl then you have te Inches 0 that Foot actually divided by the Marks forthe half quarters on the Tivfoot Rule. But this large Scale will fearce ferve to deferibe a Groud-pot above ten Foot in length, becaufea fiall het of Paper is not above 15 of x6 Inches long, and therefore one thees ‘of Paper will not. contain i ifthe Groexdzpler be lon ase: Therefore if you make every half quarter of au 16 ‘eoutecanpentey. Non. 1 Tnch robe a Scale for eyo Tnches,athoetof Paper will titans Fn gh Anyone ny al Stare ofan Tach co bea Seale forfour Inches, fhe I Paper wll contain 4o Foot. And thu by ciminiie fg che Sut, the thee of Paper will conan grater rnb of Fee Bot having cther deed, ore mae your Scat, you ae to pen your Conpates to the number of Fece on your Seale your Gremdplet hath in length, and then waster thar ilance to you Paper, an to daw a lage Line becween the vo Poinsy andar thae teaight Line with of, Wf, North oc Sat, acoing he tan of hae the rd repre. Then again open your Compal ro {iSlinr of Fearon Sane See Se of he ning fides conne, and trans tha ditance foto yout Paper, and dra’a ine between the two pont, and holt ftuation of af, Wey Nah, Seb as bee fore. Do the like bythe oxher hess and if either a Ga, cay Adios, beaadochelingonany file of your Grndlor, you mult deeb i alo Propordonaby. "Phen you are to confder what Aparnents, o Par tions, co make en your Grendel or cond, oc third ery, and to them off fom your Seas, b= fg eur del ee," oe cap, Sippel, your Gramptr be slong Tare, 50 Powe in leapt and 20 Toe wide: This Grier yl tonta i ts lngsh ew good Rooms ana Ward be findie 10 Foor lng. you will, you may divide the 4o Foor into wo equal pars, > will each: Room. todo Foor fare: Oryou may make the Rooms ext the Brot desper, or hallone, and leave tee Imundes for the BackeRoom As fare’ the fro Room Newb. 1. ‘Route carpenter, rer Room is 25 Foot, and the Back-Room 15 Foot deep, andafecing off of 8 Foor broad and 10 Foot long ‘aking our ofthe Yard, for aBurtery below fairs (it you will) and Clofets above flats over it. Bue whar Widdh and depth fever you intend your Rooms fall have, you muft open your Compaffes to that num- ber of Fest on your Scale, and fer off that Diflance on the Za? We, North, oF South, Line, according to the Simation of that fide it repeefents on your Gromd= plot, IE you fecis off the Eaf Line, you mutt alfo fee it off on the Wef'; ifou the North Line, you mutt alfo fet it off on the Sixth Line: Becaufe between the wo ‘Settings off on the af and We? Lines, or North ot ‘South Lines, you mult draw aftraight Line of the Jength of your intended Partition. And in this man- nee you muft from every Partition draw. Line im its proper place on the Paper, by meafuring the Di- ‘lances each Partition muft have from the: outfide of the Groundeplot. "And thus you are alfo.to deferibe By your Seale ‘Your Front, and feveral fides of the Carcafe allow= ng the Principal Poli, Pols, Exterduces, Quarterings, Bruces, Gables, Dears, Windows, and Ornaments, theit feveral fzes, and tei poftions by the Seale: Bach fide upon a Paper by it Felf: UnlefS. we thal fappote ‘our Mafter-Woekman to underftand Perfpettve s for for then he may, 02 fig pee of Paper, defer the ‘whole Building, as i foal appear to the Eye at any af figned flation. S14, Of Foundations. ‘Aving drawn the Draft, the Mater Workman is; H firt-to caufe the Cellars to be dug, if the Houfe- have Cellars. And then to try the Ground, that. Beall ore ofan cual frmnel, that when the weight 38 oufecarpenteg. Neb, ‘of the Building is fee upon it, it may not fink in any Bat_ut te, Ground be hollow or wks i ty lace, he flrengchens it, fometimes by well rammis Edown, and feveling ic aguin with good dey Earthy Lime-Core, Rubbith,” Ge, or fometimes with ram ming in Seones, or fometimes with well Planking it 5 for oft fecurely by driving in Piles. But driving i of Piles is feldom ufed for Timber Houles, but for Stone, ‘or Brick Houfes, and thar bar in few places of Eng: Tend either, but where the Ground proves fem, oF moor. "Thercfore a farther account fhall be given Of Foundations, when I come to excrcife upon” Mise Sonny, Be “Thenare the Celer-Wallstobe brought up by aBrick- Layer with Bricks fo final Houfes two Bricks thick, for bigger two and an half Bricks thick, or three or four Bricks thick, according to the bignels ofthe Houfe, and ‘ualiryot the Groune, 261 al thew whea I come to Exereife on Bricklaying. But ithe Houle be dfignd to have no Cellars (as many Countey-Houfes have not ) yet for the beter fearing the Foundation, and preferring, the Tinber from rotting, Matter-Workmen will eau thee, or four, or five cours of Bricks tbe lid tony thei Grom ‘plates upon that Foundation. ‘The Foundation being made good, the Mater-work- ‘man appoints his under-workmen thie feveral Seavelins, for Growndeplates, Prinipal Pot, Pols, Breffimmers, Girders, Trimmers, Foyfs, &e. which they cut fare, and fame theie ‘Timbers to,as has been taught in the Aeveral Exerifes upon Joyner, (whither T refere you) and there them up, each in his proper place, accord ing to the Draft. ‘The Nenb. I Youtecaryentey. 9 ‘The Daft of a Foundation I have deferibed in Plate 10, according toa Scale of eight Foot nan Inch; where you have the Front A B 20 Foot long, the fides AC and BD 50 Foot long. The Shop, or fft Room, EE 25 Foot (as aforefaid) deep. I make the firft Room a Shop, becaufe Tintend to defeibe slyploindons, Stal &. though you may Build according to any other urpofe the’ Aitching, or Back Room FF 15 Foot deep. A Battry, ot Cleft, taken ont of the Tard, marked G, 10 Foot decp, aad'8 foot wide. “Ha Setting af inthe Tard, 4 Foot fquare for the Houfeof Ofer. I Lesving tng in the Shop fora Se2irCie 6 foot, and x1 foot. the Tard. L the Sivé-lole x foot tquare. M Lesving ana) in the Aitching 6 foot deep, and 4 foot wide for the I do not deliver this Draft of Partitions for the moft_commodious for this Ground-plot, nor is the Houfe fet out defigned for any particular’ Inhabitants Which is one main purpofe to ‘be confidered of te Matter-Workman, before he make his Draft; for Gentlemays houfe muft noe be divided as 2 Shop. keeper's, not all Shop-keepers Houfes alike + for forne ‘Trades require a decper, others may defpence with a fallower Shop, and fo'an inconvenience may arife in both. For if the Shop be fhallow, the’ Front Rooms upvrards. ought wo be thallow alfo: becaute by the Mick Rules of Arebitedare, all Partitions of Rooms ought to ftand dieeétly over one another = for ifyour Slop fands in an emineat Street, the Front Roonis are commonly more Airy than the Back Rooms and always’ more commodious for obfer- Ving publick Paflages in the Stree, and in that re- {pet ‘ic will be inconvenient to make the Front ‘coms hallow : But if you have a fair Profp backwards of Gardens, Fields, @c. (which feldom hap~ pes x30 ‘geute-carpentee. Newb. WM. in Cities ) then it may be convenient to make your Back-Rooms the larger for Entertainment, Ge. But 1 fall run no fareher into this Argument: forI thal Jeave the Mafteravorkman to confult Books of Arebi- teflue, and more particularly the Builder, which, in this cafe, they all ought to do. MECHANICK