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Stress concentration

y y y z x z x z x
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z
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Stress concentration y y y z x z x z x

Validity of Paterson’s formula

Stress concentration factor for an ellipse (Paterson) :

K tg = 1 + 2 b

a

with b horizontal axis, a vertical axis for a vertical tension on the plate.

type of geometry

1 + 2 b

a

Finite Element

circle, a=b=1mm

3

3.018

ellipse, a=0.4mm ; b=1.mm

6

5.995

ellipse, a=2.5mm ; b=1.mm

1.8

1.821

Comparison between circle and "flat" hole

Comparison between circle and "flat" hole

sig22 contour plot sig_inf = 100MPa

circle

r=1mm

y

z

11

x

y z 1 1 x   3 3 5 6 7 8 1 e + 0
y z 1 1 x   3 3 5 6 7 8 1 e + 0
 

33

56

78

1e+02 1.1e+02

1.2e+02

1.4e+02

1.7e+02

1.9e+02

0

22

44

67

89

1.3e+02

1.6e+02

1.8e+02

2e+02

 

y

min:-5.537470 max:301.772552

z x

Sat Mar 3 15:16:51 2001 /home/gc/COURS/2.002/lab4/Square/circle.ps
Sat Mar 3 15:16:51 2001 /home/gc/COURS/2.002/lab4/Square/circle.ps

circle (max=301 MPa)

sig22 contour plot sig_inf = 100MPa

ellipse b=1mm, a=0.4mm

0

y

z

x

11

33

56

78

1e+02 1.1e+02

1.2e+02

1.4e+02

1.7e+02

1.9e+02

 

22

 

44

67

89

1.3e+02

1.6e+02

1.8e+02

2e+02

 

y

min:-8.112257 max:599.511902

z x

Sat Mar 3 15:16:34 2001 /home/gc/COURS/2.002/lab4/Square/ellipX.ps
Sat Mar 3 15:16:34 2001 /home/gc/COURS/2.002/lab4/Square/ellipX.ps

flat (max= 599 MPa)

Comparison between circle and "elongated" hole

Comparison between circle and "elongated" hole

sig22 contour plot sig_inf = 100MPa

circle

r=1mm

y

z

11

x

y z 1 1 x   3 3 5 6 7 8 1 e + 0
y z 1 1 x   3 3 5 6 7 8 1 e + 0
 

33

56

78

1e+02 1.1e+02

1.2e+02

1.4e+02

1.7e+02

1.9e+02

0

22

44

67

89

1.3e+02

1.6e+02

1.8e+02

2e+02

 

y

min:-5.537470 max:301.772552

z x

Sat Mar 3 15:16:51 2001 /home/gc/COURS/2.002/lab4/Square/circle.ps
Sat Mar 3 15:16:51 2001 /home/gc/COURS/2.002/lab4/Square/circle.ps

circle (max=301 MPa)

sig22 contour plot sig_inf = 100MPa

ellipse b=1mm, a=2.5mm

0

 

y

 

z

x

11

33

56

78

1e+02 1.1e+02

1.2e+02

1.4e+02

1.7e+02

1.9e+02

 

22

44

67

89

1.3e+02

1.6e+02

1.8e+02

2e+02

 

y

min:-7.905968 max:182.130478

z x

Sat Mar 3 15:17:28 2001 /home/gc/COURS/2.002/lab4/Square/ellipY.ps
Sat Mar 3 15:17:28 2001 /home/gc/COURS/2.002/lab4/Square/ellipY.ps

elongated (max=182 MPa)

Stress concentration for a circular hole

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

(50.*(2.+(1./x)**2 + 3.*(1./x)**4)) fine mesh coarse_quad mesh coarse-lin mesh 1 2 3 4 5 6
(50.*(2.+(1./x)**2 + 3.*(1./x)**4))
fine mesh
coarse_quad mesh
coarse-lin mesh
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

σ 22 profile on the ligament for a 1mm circular hole in a 10mm×10mm plate with various meshes

Stress concentration for a circular hole (zoom)

320

300

280

260

240

220

200

180

160

140

120

(50.*(2.+(1./x)**2 + 3.*(1./x)**4)) fine mesh coarse-quad mesh coarse-lin mesh 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
(50.*(2.+(1./x)**2 + 3.*(1./x)**4))
fine mesh
coarse-quad mesh
coarse-lin mesh
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2

σ 22 profile on the ligament for a 1mm circular hole in a 10mm×10mm plate with various meshes (zoom)

Stress concentration for various hole shapes

600 circle a=1mm flat a=0.4mm 550 high a=2.5mm 500 450 400 350 300 250 200
600
circle a=1mm
flat a=0.4mm
550
high a=2.5mm
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
stress in the ligament (MPa)

distance to the center (mm)

σ 22 profile on the ligament for a 3 types of hole in a 10mm×10mm plate (σ =100MPa), b=1mm