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MAPÚA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Department of Mechanical
Engineering

Experiment No. 1
Performance Test of a Hydraulic Ram

OBJECTIVES:

• To familiarize ourselves with hydraulic ram


• To be able to know its basic components, function, operation as well
as its application
• To be able to determine its discharge capacity and efficiency

THEORY AND ANALYSIS:

Hydraulic ram is a machine for raising water by means of the energy of the moving
water of which a portion is to be raised. When the rush of water through the main pipe d
shuts the valve at a, the momentum of the current thus suddenly checked forces part of
it into the air chamber b, and up the pipe c, its return being prevented by a valve at the
entrance to the air chamber, while the dropping of the valve a by its own weight allows
another rush through the main pipe, and so on alternately.

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram


The hydraulic ram is a special type of pump that uses the kinetic energy of
moving stream of fluid; usually water, to raise a portion to a higher pressure or
elevation.

A section of a typical hydraulic ram is shown in figure 1. It consists of an air


chamber H, to which is connected the discharge pipe I. There is a check valve G
opening into the air chamber from the lower chamber A into which water is brought
by the pipe S. There is a waste valve at B. This valve is weighted and opens inward.
By means of a nut J on the stem of this valve, the lift or amount of opening of the
valve can be regulated. When water is supplied to the ram, it escapes through the
waste valve B with a velocity corresponding approximately to the head under which
the water is supplied. The effect of this velocity head is to reduce the pressure on the
upper side of the valve so that it becomes unbalanced and closes suddenly.

The momentum of the column of water in the pipe S becomes sufficient to open
the valve G and will discharge some water into the discharge pipe I against a
considerable head. As soon as the pressures become equalized, the valve G closes,
the waste valve B opens, and water from the supply pipe is again wasted. This
alternate action is produced with regularity, and as a result the water in the supply
pipe acquires a certain “backward and forward” wave motion.

This apparatus is usually tested by measuring the supply and the discharge
heads, the weight of water discharged through the delivery pipe (W1) and that
passing through the waste valve (W2). Then the available energy in the water is (W1 +
W2) hs. ;

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram


Where: hs = is the supply head
W1hd = useful work
hd = discharge head

Then the efficiency of the ram is:

W1Hd
E=
(W1 + W2 )Hs

FORMULA:
W1Hd WH
E= = 1 d
(W1 + W2 )Hs W3Hs
W1 = Weight of water delivered in the drum
W2 = Weight of water wasted in the concrete tank
W3 = Weight of water supplied in the drive pipe
= W1 + W2

Hd = Dynamic discharge head


P V
2

= d + d + hf d
δ 2g
Hs = Dynamic suction head

hs = Height of water in the supply tank – friction loss


= hs -hfs
l V2
where: hf s = f d 2g

LIST OF APPARATUS

1 Hydraulic ram Steel tape/Meter stick


.
Pressure gauge Concrete tank
Platform scale Steel drum

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram


Stop watch Steel tank

PROCEDURES

1. Maintain the level of the main supply tank by allowing water to flow from
the auxiliary tank
2. Measure the initial level of waste water in the concrete tank
3. Measure the tare weight of the discharge drum
4. Place the discharge hose directly to the discharge drum
5. For trial 1, open the quick release supply valve and gate valve and
simultaneously with the stop watch
6. Maintain a desired pressure by throttling the discharge valve
7. Duration of each trial is for one (1) minute
8. Count the number of clacking during the trial
9. After the duration of the trial, close the quick release supply valve and the
gate valve of the auxiliary tank
10. Measure the final weight of water discharged in the drum and the final
level of waste water in the concrete tank
11. For trial 2, adjust the frequency setting of the ram
12. For the rest of the trials, vary the frequency and repeat the above step by
step procedure
13. Compute all the necessary requirements needed to complete the data

SETUP OF APPARATUS
sheet

WHERE:
A. Discharge Pressure Gauge B. Globe Valve
C. Platform Scale D. Discharge Tank
E. Depth Scale F. Discharge Pipe

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram


G. Waste Water Reservoir H. Float
I. Standard Elbow J. Hydraulic Ram Pump
K. Quick Opening Valve L. Suction Pipe
M. Main Supply Water Tank

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram


FINAL DATA SHEET

TRIAL FRE Pd Hw Wd Ww Ws Qs Qd Hs Hd EFF


Q psi ft Kg/min Kg/min Kg/min cfs cfs ft ft %

Dimension of the Waste Water Tank: __________ Pipe Diameter at the Suction: ______________
Pipe Diameter at the Discharge: ______________

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram


EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram
SAMPLE COMPUTATION

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram


SETUP OF APPARATUS

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram


DISCUSSION

• What is a Hydraulic Ram


Hydraulic ram, a machine for raising water by means of
the energy of the moving water of which a portion is to
be raised. When the rush of water through the main pipe
d shuts the valve at a, the momentum of the current thus
suddenly checked forces part of it into the air chamber b,
and up the pipe c, its return being prevented by a valve
at the entrance to the air chamber, while the dropping of
the valve a by its own weight allows another rush
through the main pipe, and so on alternately.

Hydraulic ram pumps are water-lifting devices that are


powered by filling water. Such pumps work by using the
energy of water falling a small height to lift a small part
of that amount of water to a much greater height.
The main and unique advantage of hydraulic ram pumps
is that with a continuous flow of water, a hydraulic pump
operates automatically and continuously with no other
external energy source - be it electricity or hydrocarbon
fuel.

It imparts absolutely no harm to the environment


Hydraulic ram pumps are simple, reliable and require
minimal maintenance. All these advantages make
hydraulic ram pumps suitable to rural community water
supply mud backyard irrigation in developing countries.

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram


QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

1. What is a Hydraulic Ram?


2. What is the method of operation of a Hydraulic Ram?
3. What are the advantages of the Hydraulic Ram?
4. Discuss briefly the operation of the Hydraulic Ram?
5. How does impulse develop in the Hydraulic Ram?

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram


CONCLUSION

After the experiment that we have done, I can say that we


were able to familiarize ourselves using the Hydraulic
Ram. We were able to have the knowledge about is basic
component, function, operation and its application. And
also we were able to compute its discharge capacity and
efficiency.

In referring with the experiment, when a moving mass of


water was suddenly stopped, this explains that the
Hydraulic ram lifts water by utilizing the impulse
developed.

It only shows that a relatively large amount of water must


be available at moderate head to lift a small volume to
higher head.

I also conclude that the lesser the amount of waste


water the greater the frequency. As the Hydraulic ram is
said to be wasteful of water, it is also advantageously
employed in situations where no other source of power is
available.

The possible source of error is in the pumping flow rate. I


suggest that there must be desired pumping flow rate
through the delivery pipe to the destination. And should
have constant water flow and must be 3 feet away from
the pump location

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram


EXPERIMENT NO. 1 Performance Test of Hydraulic Ram