Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 32

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The dignity of humans (person) is tied very closely to work. And when we
work well, when we recognize the dignity of other human beings as they work, we
essentially elevate the ordinary to the level of the engagement of the divine.
In the course of the industrial development of revolution there was tend to be
the elevation of the material above the man. And this created much tension in
Europe as such philosophical re-examination of the relationship between the work
and the man was considered. This struggle for the honour of labour has essentially
been rooted in the fact that man was designed to work for his goodness: The subject
of work was man; man was not the object of work.
My argument therefore is to increase or grow our skills and value such that
the coincidence of our values and our skills elevate us to the point where we are not
subject to capital but where we keep capital under subjugation and use capital to
improve the quality of life we live.
It is in the quest of achieving this goal and objective that the Student
Industrial Work Experience Scheme was inaugurated to create an avenue for
students in tertiary institution to acquire practical industrial exposure in their
respective discipline during the course of their studies. Such exposure, as was
envisaged would prepare students to fit, more readily into the industrial work
environment after their academic career.
Take for example the I T (Information Technology) world where I belong,
there be many who after their four or five years in school (University) come out to
the society to be completely computer novice as against those who do not even see
the four walls of a university but got an informal education in a computer centre just
because there was an exposure to the practicality of the job in the outside (the
competitive market world) world. Nevertheless I embarked on an extensive training

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
1
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
and relationship during my industrial attachment period at the Information
Communication Technology Centre (ICTC) Uniport.

1.2 HISTORY OF THE INFORMATION COMMUNICATION AND


TECHNOLOGY CENTRE (I.C.T.C)
The Information Communication and Technology Centre started in
the mid 1990s as NUNET. It was located in the CORDEC building
and was made up of 2 departments Administrative and M.I.S.
(Management information System)-cramped in only four 11 by 12
rooms and the equipment being used was low grade even by those
standards. Coupled with that, staff technical man-power and know-
how was very poor. By late 2000, the University Administration
recognized the need for an up-to-date internet network and sourced
for funds for the project.
Shell and the MacAuthur Foundation offered to put up a befitting
Internet centre for the school. The Information Communication and
Technology Centre ultramodern complex was commissioned by the
then Group managing Director of N.N.P.C. Engr. Funso Kupolokun
on 14th April, 2004. The centre was constructed and equipment
supplied by Shell Petroleum Development Company (S.P.D.C.) under
the Shell/N.N.P.C./Agip/ELF Joint venture and in collaboration with
the MacAuthur Foundation.
With state-of-the-art equipment, in terms of the construction and
furnishing of the building and supply of computers, the dire need for
Internet access could not be over emphasized. Then the African
Virtual University (AVU), a group committed to providing high-
quality and cheap Internet access for African Universities, came to
their aid due to their partnership with the MacAuthur Foundation.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
2
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
The AVU-provided Internet access is via satellite through IntelSat
with a bandwidth of 3.5MB uplink and 5MB downlink.
Since 2004, the University has steadily improved its services to staff,
students and the general public with a mandate to improve the
computer literacy level of the University community. Currently,
various training programs are run in response to needs by students
and staff alike. Programs like the basic Microsoft office (which
includes word, power Point, access, excel, etc) to Matlab and
AutoCAD for engineering sciences, S.P.S.S. for the statistically
inclined to COMPTIA A+ for the hardware buffs and BASIC
programming. The centre has about 24 full time employees and
about 5-9 part-time workers depending on the period and training
offered.
Perhaps it was due to its superior facilities and technical know-how
that the Nigerian Communication Commission and digital Bridge
Institute, at a recently organized training at the Centre in December,
2006, declared it the best I.C.T. centre in the country.
Currently, the contract for the linking of all academic buildings on
the university campus to the internet via cables has been completed.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
3
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
Chairman
Steering
commity

director

Principal
Assistant Finance
Registrar Officer

Technical Trianing Administr M. I. S.


Unit ative Staff icafe

Postgradu Staff Students


Software Evaluation Undergra ate Quality
Record Records
duat Cafe Cafe Control
Support

Hardware
Support Instructors

Course
Development

Fig. 1 I.C.T.C. ORGANISATIONAL CHART

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
4
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
1.4 VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

1.4.1 Technical Support Unit


The technical support unit is responsible for making sure that all
matters related to hardware components of the centre are in good
working condition. Their duties also include configuring and testing
software for users. Hence, the unit handles hardware and software
matters as it relates to the smooth running of the centre.

1.4.2 Training
This unit is responsible for all training of staff, students and
companies wishing to use the facility to train their staff. The unit
organizes training based on the need of students and staff or a
specific organization. Instructors are mainly in-house, professionals
of international repute are invited to fill in. the department
comprises of course development, evaluation and instructors.
1.4.3 M.I.S.
The M.I.S. Means Management Information System. This
department is mainly concerned with staff and student records. It is
one of the oldest departments of the centre and as a result, one of
the slowest in adapting to radical changes. Currently, it is still in the
computerization of students and staff records dating from the
inception of the university till date. As a result, a lot of its work is
still in what we describe as analog phase. That is their records are
still being traced through physical files, and folders heaped in
stacks.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
5
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
1.4.4 iCafe
This is the most popular department. It is as name an Internet cyber
café with state-of –the art facilities for surfing the World Wide Web
and research. This is also the most active in terms of versatility of
work experience and revenue generation for the centre.

1.4.5 Administration
The Administrative unit is responsible for coordinating the activities
of all the various department. It ensure that all departments
function in oneness with the others while it also administers the
Centre budget from year to year and is answerable to the Senate of
the University of Port Harcourt through the director.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
6
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
CHAPTER TWO

2. THE ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT DURING THE I.T. PERIOD


The SIWES period which normally is supposed to be for 24 weeks
was cut short of two weeks due to the end of year school break and
as such I spent 22 weeks in the Information Communication
Technology centre (ICTC) as my training period, nonetheless several
experience and skills were acquired during this period and this
involves the basics of computer (i.e Microsoft office), Essential of
Networking which is on the hardware area and Web designing for
the software coding. And on these areas I will briefly comment on.

2.1 COMPUTER BASICS


Considering the computer bases I was brushed through the
Windows 2000 at a glance. This is very important because several
applications that work on the system (computer) has to do with
windows, I will look at it under the following areas.
A. Components and selection method.
B. Starting the use of windows 2000.
C. Accessories.
D. Explorer, my computer.

A. Components and Selection Method


Considering the Windows 2000 desktop (i.e the background screen),
It looks cluttered and almost inviting, this gives the least amount of
hassle and without a detailed technical knowledge of Windows 2000
one can work with the applications (word processors, databases etc)

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
7
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
it contains. The following are some of the of Windows 2000
properties.
i. The Start Icon: The start icon provides a launch point for all the
applications, such as word-processor, spreadsheet, databases etc.
clicking, on the start icon displays a list of options. The programs
that can be used, such as Microsoft word will be displayed in a sub-
list if the mouse pointer is moved to program.
ii. The Task bar: the task bar (normally positioned at the bottom of
the screen) provides a constant view of applications that are running
on the system and provides an easy way to switch between them.
The Taskbar provides a holding place for displaying icons of all
applications that are running. As more programs are opened the
taskbar will automatically resize its icons.
iii. My Computer: All of the main aspects concerning configuration
and access to the computer resources, such as the hard disk and
diskettes (floppy disk) are contained within the My Computer group.
Double clicking on any drive within this group will display window
containing further information about the selected item.
iv. Title Bar: Title bar is displayed along the top of almost all
programs, applications. Folder and dialog box windows. It is used to
display information such as the name of the application (or folder)
and the document you are working on.
v. The Scroll Bars: When a program or folder is needed to display
information within a window scroll bars are used, they are displayed
along the bottom and right side of the window. Using the scroll bars
makes it possible to move to any position within the document.
Vi. Maximize, Minimize, Restore and Close Buttons: The close,
Maximize, minimize and restore button are located at the top right
hand corner of every window when you click on the maximize button

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
8
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
the window expands to cover the entire screen. The minimize button
reduces the windows to an icon within the task bar and Restore
button returns the window to its original size. The close button is
used to close a program window or dialog box.
vii. Dialog Box: Dialog boxes are to display information and allow
easy selection of options. A simple dialog box may prompt you for a
YES or NO response when performing a task such as saving
changes, when closing a file, How ever when performing complex
selections such as choice of font or character size Windows 2000
uses multiple boxes. There are other different boxes, the text box
which allows the input of text into dialog boxes, the list boxes which
presents a pick list of entries on screen that can be selected by
clicking the mouse over the required entry. The drop-down list
boxes- This gives a downward display on the right or left with list of
options to chosen. Last are the check boxes and radio boxes.

B. Starting the Use of the Windows 2000


As I have said before the start menu contains the various categories
where the applications and work are stored, but to get to the various
sub-categories we will need to position the mouse over the category
to automatically open the next sub-category. These are some of the
groups in the start menu viz:
i. Start icon-Programs: The programs groups have access to all
sub-groups that is created or which may be created. You can
automatically open the applications that have a right pointing arrow
next to them positioning your mouse on the arrows displaying more
programs.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
9
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
ii. Start Icon Recent document: The document group with in the
start menu contains a list of recent open file. Selecting any
document will automatically open the file.
iii. Start Icon-Setting: Here one can directly access the control
panel and printer folders also to access the core system
configuration utilities, This way is particularly useful when an
application is already in the background and you want to make
quick change.

C. Accessories
Under the Accessories we have the WordPad which is a cut-down
version of the Microsoft word, this is because WordPad does not
support many of the advanced features found within Word. Other
accessories are the Paint that offers the services of manipulating
graphics and pictures and store them in a Paint format. Other
accessories include the calculator, clock.
D. Explorer, My Computer
My Computer makes it possible in accessing the hard disk of the
system, the O.S (Operating System) has a way of using a system of
drive letters to serve as logical pointers to the different physical
storage facilities you access called drives e.g drive D, E, F, G and
even H as the case may be from which it is possible to access all files
in it.
Combination of different files in one place on each drive for the
purpose of organization is called the folder (also referred to as
directories). A system of hierarchical folders within folders that
represent the hard disk are often referred to as the directory tree,
in the same way the very top of the file system is know as he root
directory.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
10
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
Both the Explorer and the My Computer objects allow you to
expose your files stored on disk. The Explorer window displays
folders in the left-hand pane and the content of the folders in the
right-hand pane. The Explorer is not installed on the windows 2000
desktop by default, but My Computer on the other hand, which is by
default installed as an icon on the desktop opens a new window
displaying the contents of a folder.

2.2 NETWORKING ESSENTIALS


Before servers can provide services to clients, communication
between the two computers must be established. Beyond the cables
connecting the computers together, numerous processes operate
behind the scene to keep things running smoothly. For these
processes to operate smoothly in diverse networking environment
the computing community has to settle on several standards and
specification that defines the interaction and interrelation of the
various component of the network architecture, and this begins with
the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model among
others.
2.2.1 THE OSI REFERENCE MODEL
This model was founded or released in 1984 by the international
standard organization (ISO). The model provides useful structure for
defining and describing the various processes underlying network
communication. This OSI model organizes communication protocols
into seven levels or layers which take care of different level of
communications. They are illustrated as follows.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
11
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical

Network medium
Fig.2.1
THE OSI MODEL OF SEVEN LAYERS

Communication Among Layers: When information is passed within


the OSI each protocol layer adds it’s own information for the
message being sent. This information takes the form of a header
added to the beginning of the original message. The sending always
goes down the OSI model while the receiving is the opposite. In
summary information between layers is passed along vertically while
information between computers is
essentially horizontal.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
12
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
Fig, 2.2 Interrelationship between different systems
With different Operating System

Fig. 2.3

A. OSI Physical Layer


This layer does not defined the media to be used, but is concerned
with all aspects of transmitting and receiving of data on the net work
i.e. it does not say what the cable should be like. This layer defines
several characteristics of the physical network which include the
following.
 Physical structure network (Physical topology)
 Specification for using the medium (out the medium itself)
 Bit transmission, encoding and timing
Component that operates at this layer is called Repeaters.
Repeaters don’t filter or interpret signals instead it repeats
(regenerates) a signals to avoid attenuation which is the loss of a
signal strength

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
13
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
Fig. 2.4

B. OSI Date Link Layer Concept


Real messages consist not of single bits but of meaningful groups of
bits. The Data Link layer receives messages called Frames from
upper layers. A primary function of the Data Link layer is to
disassemble these frames into bits for transmission and then to
reconstruct the frames from bits received. It has other functions as
well such as addressing, error control and flow control for a single
link between network devices. To achieve these tasks the Data Link
is sub-divided into two sub-layers. The Media Access Control (MAC)
which takes care of the means by which multiple derives share the
same media channel for transmission of information, it also provides
addressing information for communication between network devices.
The second is the Logical Link Control (LLC) this maintains links
between communicating devices.
 Error and flow control at Data Link Layer: Flow Control
determines the amount of data that can be transmitted at
given time period. Flow control prevents the transmitting
device from over whelming the receiver. While Error Control
detects errors in received frame and request, retransmission of
frame. Later I found out that error control occurs in other
layers but that deal with at the Data Link layer consist of

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
14
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
conformation that the receiving computer gets all that tthe
sending computer transmitted.
A device called a Bridge operates at this level, it is a connectively
devices can filter unwanted signal for a particular network segment
with the help of the physical addresses the frames carry with them
there by avoiding flooding.

Fig.2.5

C. OSI Network Layer


The Network layer handles communication with device on logically
separated network that are connected to form inter-network, since
inter-networks can be large, the Network layer utilizes routing
algorithm that guards packets from their source to their destination

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
15
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
network. The Network layer manages the process of addressing and
delivering packet to inter-networks.
The Network layer unlike the Data Link layer uses logical network
address to rout packets to specific networks on an inter-network,
and these logical network addresses are assigned during
configuration of the network, this means that as a network engineer
each network address must be unique on a given inter-network.
Another addressing done by the network layer well know addressing
e.g service addressing.
The complexity and versatility of the network layer addressing
gives rise to two different communication modes more sophisticated
in passing messages across the networks and both are recognized by
OSI. These are Connection-oriented mode, and connectionless
oriented modes. For the Network layer, it has the Router as its
connectivity device. The information available at the network layer
gives a router for more sophisticated packet delivery capabilities
than the Bridge. A Bridge separates LAN(Large Area Network)
segment without changing the LAN address but the Router deals
with not just the LAN segment but with inter-networks.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
16
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
Fig.2.6
D. OSI Transport Layer
The transport layer interacts with the network layer’s connection-
oriented and connectionless service and provides some of the
essential control features some of these function are:
 Repackaging: When large messages are divided into segments
for transmission, this Transport layer does the work of
repackaging the segments when they are received before
reassembling the original message.
 Error control: When segment are lost during transmission or
when segment have duplicate segment ID’s, the Transport

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
17
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
layer will initiate error signal. It also detects corrupted
segments.

E. OSI Session Layer


This layer manages dialog between two computers by establishing,
managing, and terminating communication and this dialogs can
take three forms:
 Simplex dialogs: These dialogs are responsible for one way
data transfer only, an example is the fire alarm.
 Half-duplex dialog: these dialogs are two-way data transfer in
which the data flows in only one direction at a time by CB
radio greater
 Full duplex dialog: This third type of dialog allows two-way
simultaneous data transfer by providing each device with a
separate communication channel.

F. OSI Presentation Layer


The presentation layer deals with the syntax or grammatical rules
needed for communication between two computers. The presentation
layer converts system. Specific data from the Application layer into a
common machine independent format that supports a more
standardized design for lower protocol layer.

G. OSI Application Layer


This layer is concerned with providing services on the network which
including file service, print services, application services, such as
data services, managing services and directory services among
others.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
18
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
2.2.2 TRANSMISSION MEDIA
The TM (Transmission medium) makes possible the transmission of
electronic signals which can be either digital or analog from one
computer to another. These electronic signals express data value in
the form of binary (on/off) impulse which are the basis of all
computer information. Then signals are transmitted between devices
on the network using some form of transmission media (cables or
radio) which have the following attributes:
 Cost
 Installation
 Bandwidth
 Band usage (base band or broad band)
 Attenuation
 Immunity from electromagnetic interference (EMI)

2.2.3 CABLE MEDIA


Under the cable media we will looked at the following cables which
are
 Coaxial cable
 Twisted-pair cable
 Fabric-optic cable
1. The coaxial cable: which is the first types of cables used in
LAW as shown in figure (2.7) it got its name from the fact that two
conductors share a common axis
example of which is the television
cable and it has the following
components. Fig.2.7

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
19
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
Coaxial cable
i. A center conductor
ii. An outer conductor
iii. A insulator layer
iv. A plastic encasement

2. Twisted cable: Twisted-pair cable consists of two strands of


copper wire twisted together. The twisting reduces the sensitivity of
the cable to EMI and also reduces the tendency to radiate radio
frequency noise that interfere with a near by cable and electronic
component. Two types of twisted-pair are used in LANs shielded and
the unshielded twisted cable

Fig.2.8 Shielded twisted cable

3. Fiber-Optic Cable: Fiber optic cable among others is the ideal


cable for data transmission. Not only does this types of cable
accommodate extremely high bandwidth, but also present no
problems with EMI and is durable. The
cable runs as long as several kilometers
but has a disadvantage of high cost and
installation difficulties.
Fig. 2.9 Optical fibre cable.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
20
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
2.2.4 NETWORK TOPOLOGY
Topology refers to the way in which the computers are connected in
a network. Each topology is suited for specific tasks and has its own
merits and demerits. The choice of topology is dependent on the
number and type of equipments being used and the cost. There are
5 major network topologies viz:
 Bus
 Ring
 Mesh
 Star
 Hybrid
i. Bus topology: A Bus network is set up by connecting all of the
nodes to a single line, and the nodes connect only to the bus.
However, most bus networks later began to use a specialized central
node called a Hub to make the practice of attaching nodes easier.
The major demerit is that any break in the cable will cause all nodes
on the cable to loose connection to the network.
ii. Ring topology: This is a connection of computer in series next to
next. If a signal intended for a system is passed, each system in the
series bounces it along in sequence until it reaches the destination.
An advantage of the ring is that the number of transmitters and
receivers can be cut in half.
iii. Mesh topology: In a mesh topology, there are at least two
nodded with two or more paths between them. This is similar in
some ways to a grid network. In a true mesh topology every node has
a connection to every other node in the network. A major demerit of
the mesh is that alternate connections or routes exist between
nodes incase one goes down.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
21
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
iv. Star topology: The star topology reduces the chance of network
failure by connecting all of the systems to a central node. When
applied to a bus-based network, this central hub rebroadcasts all
transmissions received from any peripheral node to all peripheral
nodded o the network, sometimes including the originating node.
v. Hybrid topology: Hybrid network uses a combination of two or
more topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not
have one of the standard forms. For example, a star networks
connected together with bus topology exhibit hybrid network
topology

Mesh

Bus Ring

Star

2.2.5 NETWORK ADAPTER CARD


A network adapter card links the PC with the network cabling
system. The network adapter card fits into one of the PCs expansion
slots. The card has one or more user accessible parts to which the
network cabling medium is connected, it plays a very vital role in the
network which is to prepare and send data from a computer to the
transmission medium this data when in side the computer, travels
along bus of a computer in parallel form. The network card must

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
22
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
convert these signals coming into it the computer to be in the
parallel form so as to be understood by the computer in the same
way the card must convert the parallel signal in the computer to a
serial signal that can travel across transmission medium.
Installation Network Adapter Card.

This installation procedure for the Network adapter card will depend
on the card itself and the operating system of the computer or the
hardware platform but the steps are basically the same. To install
the card:
i. Physically plug the card into the expansion slot configuring
Jumper and Dip switches as required.
ii. Install the network k adaptor card driver
iii. Configure the OS so that the network adaptor card doesn’t
Conflict with other device.
iv. Bind the network adaptor to the required protocol.
v. Attach the network cable to the card.

2.3 WEB DESIGNING (SOFTWARE CODING)

The Internet is a very big thing these days and every one wants to
have a presence on it. It is an avenue for people can buy, sell and
even advertise themselves. Today we have e-commerce, e-banking, e-
learning etc. But these Web pages have what is called source codes
where the underground design and coding is done. Viewers and
visitors to the Web site only see the finished work of the design.
What is a design? In its simplest sense means how a Web page
looks. The organization, the easy navigation, the number of words

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
23
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
and every thing else on the page contributes to the overall design of
the page. A well designed page is one that is easy to look at, inviting,
and does not bother the viewer. Nevertheless good design is
incredibly tough. The designer must design the page before creating
it (ie having a plan).
The inner working of the Web page is created using HTML(Hypertext
Make -up Language). This is a language that is used to describe
what will be displayed on screen. The HTML itself is not actually
shown on screen, but talks to the computer behind the scene. The
computer changes the HTML into human language and image, and
displays it on screen.

2.3.1 THE ELEMENTS OF A PAGE


A Web page is made of many difference parts connected and
organized into a complete product that the visitor can browse
through. Let us look at two parts for now
The Header : The first major part of a Web page is the header.
Although the Header is important it has little presence on the page.
It consist of the title bar of the Web page shown at the top of the
browser and its icon in the task bar of the Windows

The Body: The body is the main paart of the HTML document,
within the body, every thing that appears on the screen can be
found. The elements within the body are Heading, Forms, Tables
and multimedia also these elements are all displayed on the Web
page by soft ware development called coding using Hypertext
Multimedia Language (HTML). Below are the summaries of different
tools of HTML called tags and their functions.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
24
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
<B> </B>
This tag makes the affected text bold
and darker, see <STRONG> </STRONG>.

<BGSOUND> </BGSOUND>
This tag allows you to play background sound files in Internet
Explorer.

<BLOCKQUOTE> </BLOCKQUOTE>
This tag sets a section of text away from the margins.You can nest
these tags to indent even further.

<BODY> </BODY>
This tag encloses the entire actual text and code that appears on
the screen in the HTML document.

<BR>
This tag adds a line break to the page

<DD> </DD>
This tag defines an item within a defini-
tion list.

<DIV> </DIV>
This tag allows you to align more than one paragraph at a time.

<DL> </DL>
This tag sets up a definition list.
<DT> </DT>
This tag creates an item that will be defined within a definition
list.

<EM> </EM>
This tag makes the affected text italicized, or tilted slightly, see <I>
</I>.

<EMBED> </EMBED>
This tag allows the embedding of other types of files directly into a
page, includ-
ing both sound and video.

<FONT> </FONT>
This tag allows you to adjust the font size, face, and color

<FORM> </FORM>

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
25
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
This tag tells the browser that a form is about to be created, and
also explains what action the form will take.

<HEAD> </HEAD>
This tag contains information that is
embedded in the page but does not actu-
ally appear on screen.The most important item in the header is the
title, which
appears on the browser icon.

<HTML> </HTML>
This tag encloses the entire HTML por-
tion of your Web page; in most cases it is the first tag in the source.

<I> </I>
This tag makes the affected text italicized, or tilted slightly, see
<EM></EM>.
<IMG>
This tag tells the browser that there is an image to be
displayed.The SRC attribute is required

<INPUT>
This tag tells the browser which control should be created
within the form and what it should do.

<LI> </LI>
This tag defines the items within a list.

<LINK>
This tag allows you to add externally linked style sheets to
your page.

<OL> </OL>
This tag sets up an ordered (numbered)
list.

<P> </P>
This tag begins a new paragraph.

<S> </S>
This tag draws a strikethrough line through the affected
text.

<SPAN> </SPAN>

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
26
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
This tag allows you to add style sheets to as much text as
necessary.

<STRONG> </STRONG>
This tag makes the affected text bold and darker, see <B> </B>.

<STYLE> </STYLE>
This tag is used to define the style sheets
for the entire Web page in the <HEAD>
section.

<TABLE> </TABLE>
This tag encloses the entire table and allows the browser to display
the following row and column tags.

<TD>
This tag creates a new data cell in a table.

<TEXTAREA> </TEXTAREA>
This tag creates an elongated text box that allows the user to enter
in lengthy comments.
<TITLE> </TITLE>
This tag defines the title of the page, and places that title in the
name of the
browser at the top of the screen and also in the system taskbar.

<TR>
This tag creates a new row in a table.

<U> </U>
This tag underlines the affected text.

<UL> </UL>
This tag sets up an unordered (bullet point) list.

<TH>
This tag creates a new header tag in a
table.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
27
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
CHAPTER THREE

3.1 POWER PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED DURING IT PERIOD

Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) and its attendant power


issues have overwhelming effects on ICT firms.
These firms run their machines and devices for 24 hours daily,
throughout the year. These machines need powering and the
epileptic power supply by PHCN puts a snag to this.
Huge amounts are incurred as bills for the running maintenance of
the private plants in order to ensure all-round service delivery.
Unfortunately the ICTC falls into the category of such firms, worst
still the Center does not have a power plant but depends on the
large UPS for power when there is no power supply supply from
PHCN. This in turns causes frequent break down of the UPS and
conquently hinder the operation of the Centre.

PERSONNEL MATTERS
Information and Communication technology is a rapidly changing
and advancing area of technology because of the demands for real-
time and prompt information.
In order to meet up with these ever changing trends in this sector,
the personnel who are deployed to manage the network and
attendant services have to be adequately and regularly trained in
order for them to keep up with the latest trends of service provision.
This issue of training was really lacking as it has to do with the IT
students and in some cases absent.
Also, the IT students are not motivated as there is no take home pay
and incentives to encourage them. A poorly motivated staff cannot

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
28
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
deliver to the optimum and this in the long run affects the nature of
service rendered.

3.2 RELEVANCE OF SIWES PROGRAM


The relevance of the program can be itemized as follows,
1. It provides a platform that enables Nigerian Undergraduates
to acquire skills and relevant Experiences while in the
course of their study.
2. It serves to arm the undergraduates with the attitude and
methods to work, thus helping them integrate quickly in to
the larger market after the course of study.
3. It gives students the opportunity to put their theoretical
knowledge to practice, thus bridging the gap between the
University and the market world.
4. The student, after the experience, is able to fit the society as
the students mind will have been settled on the area where
he/she can be more useful to the society.
5. The program helps the economy of the nation as the quality
of graduates entering the market is highly improved not
only by the University but also by the Industrial Training.
6. It exposes the student to contacts in the industry, thus
allowing for ease of flow of ideas between the student and
his superiors

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
29
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 GENERAL APPRAISAL


The importance of Industrial Training cannot be over emphasized
and should be promoted seriously. Although the scheme is a
welcome one, it is worthy of note that it was not entirely devoid of
certain bottle-necks.
Issues like placement, stipend and welfare and commitment to
imparting the practical knowledge where not always easy to come by
as the student has to be very forceful in his bid to make sure that he
is not left in the dark.

4.2 WAYS OF IMPROVING THE SCHEME.


I would suggest that both the university and the SIWES get actively
involved in the issue of placement as this is not always easy to come
by.
Also a reasonable minimum stipend and welfare package should be
enforced on the companies as allowance to the trainees as this will
serve to cater for transportation to and fro the office and lunch so
that the trainees don’t get discouraged.
As concerns the issue of placement for undergraduates, I agree that
there has been an increase in the number of institutions as well as
students who seek placement compared to when the scheme started.
I would suggest that the Federal Government and concern bodies
wade into the matter, by seeing to it that Technical Skills Acquisition
Centers for Undergraduates are built in every State of the Federation
and it will serve the purpose of accepting Undergraduates who are
experiencing difficulty securing placement in Companies.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
30
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
This will help lessen the pains Students have to go through while
ensuring that rigorous training procedures are upheld for students
not in Companies.

4.3 ADVICE TO FUTURE PARTICIPANTS


The Office environment is not like the campus where a lot of things
are at the disposal of the student and thus taken for granted.
Therefore, if the student will have a rewarding experience.
- Then he/she should have a drive to learn and be forceful
about it.
- The student should be very observant, attentive, dutiful and
obedient as he/she unwittingly sells his/her personality
and strength to the outside world.
- The student should not shy away from practical and time-
taking jobs as they serve to give the necessary skill.
- He/she should be very inquisitive and be submissive.
- The student should dress appropriately, be punctual, and
also a good listener to orders.

4.4 ADVICE TO SIWES MANAGERS


The Managers are really doing a good job of co-coordinating the
program.
They can enhance it by seeing to it that students under the scheme
get to submit monthly reports to designated areas where they would
be drilled based on the content of the report. This will make the
students to be much involved and thus imbibe the tenets of the
training.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
31
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/
The Managers should see to it that Companies which refuse
acceptance of Students and who refuse to pay the minimum
allowance are penalized.

This page was created using Nitro PDF SDK trial software.
32
To purchase, go to http://www.nitropdf.com/

Оценить