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Yeftm Gordon and Dmitriv Komissarov

Copyright@2002YefimGordonandDmitriy Komissarov

First publishedin theUK in 2002

by Airlife PublishingLtd

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The authors wish to expresstheir gratitude to Nigel Eastwayof the RussianAviation Research
Trust (RART), who, asusual,providedassistance with photosfrom his extensivearchive;to Sergey
Komissarovwho also suppliedseveralpreviouslyunpublishedphotos; to Andrey Yurgensonfor
the line drawingsand sergeyYershovfor the excellentcolour sideviews.

Introduction 9
1 Breedingthe Beagle 1l
2 The Il-28 Family 22
3 The Beaglein Service 73
4 BeaglesWorld-wide 92
5 The Il-28 in Detail 118
Appendix I Acronymsand Glossary t26
AppendixII Detail Plans r29
Index t42


@ {ft*

T hclittrroltsSovieta irc r alic 1es igner ' Ser gc v Vlac linr ir .o r 'i c h I l v L r s h i r r . t l . r e f b r - r l l c l e r o f . O K B . 2 4 0 a n d t h e c f c a t o f
oLltstandin-q aircralj incltrclingthc Il-2Elactical bon-rber. ' .\r,r!r'rLrtul DntirtitKortti.tsurot lrtltitt,t

T ike the other Allied nations, the Soviet Union in the enemy'stactical area were to be made by tacti-
I was very active designing new types of cal (i.e. light) bombers. Development work on jet
I-Jweapons and militarv technoloeiesin the tactical bombers in the USSR was probably kicked
early yearj after the SecondWorld War.-The advent off in 1945 by the design bureau led by Arkhip
of the turbojet engine affected first and foremost Mikhailovich Lyulka which was then working on
fighter design. Jet fighters enjoyed top priority, the 1,300kgp (2,865lb st) TR-1 axial-flow turbojet
while jet bombers were in effect relegatedto second - the first indigenous jet engine to reach the hard-
place,although the turbojet inevitably found its way ware stage.(Pre-war projects developed by Lyulka
to bombersas well. Having examinedGerman war remained paper engines.The only other jets avail-
booty aircraft and the state of Nazi Germany's able to Soviet aircraft designers at the time were
aeronauticalresearch,US, British and Soviet air- reverse-engineered versionsof the German turbo-
craft designersreachedthe sameconclusion: indige- jets the BMW 003 and JunkersJumo 004.)
nousjet designswere needed.Researchin this field Jet bombers were under developmentat OKB-
eventually led to masterpiecesof aviation engineer- 156led by Andrey NikolayevichTupolev,OKB-240
ing, such as the North American F-86 Sabre and led by SergeyVladimirovich Ilyushin and OKB-51
Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-l5 (NATO code name led by PavelOsipovichSukhoi. Even OKB-1 led by
Fagot) fighters, the English Electric Canberra the German war booty designerBrunolf W. Baade
bomber and, some time later, the Boeing B-52 joined the race.l
Stratofortress, Tupolev Tu-16 Badger and Tu-95 Early studiesby Ilyushin in this direction resulted
Bear heavy bombers.(The latter is admittedly a tur- in the ll-22 (the first aircraft to carry this designa-
boprop aircraft; however, turboprops are gas tur- tion),r the first Soviet four-jet bomber. It had a cir-
bine enginesas well, so the Tu-95 deservesmention, cular-sectionfuselage,shoulder-mountedstraight
to o .) wings, a conventional tail unit, a tricycle landing
The well-known Soviet Ilyushin Il-28 tactical
bomber can also be regardedas an extraordinary
aircraft. Few jet fighters of the time could keep up I OKB = opl,tno-konstrooktorskovcby,uro experimental design
bureau. The number is a code allocated lor security reasons.
with the Il-28 in terms of production. 2 The desi gnati onw as reusedmuch l ater fbr a purpose-bui l tai r-
According to contemporarySovietmilitary strat- borne command post versi onof the Il - I 8D turboprop ai rl i ner
egy,conventionaland nuclearstrikesagainsttargets (N A TO code name C oot; the Il -22 w as code-namedC oot-C ).

Thell-22 was the Ilyushin OKB's first jet bomber. Though not a successfuldesign,lessonslearnedwith it accounted in a
large degreefor the successof the I l-28. ( Sargc: Kontissarot
l0 . lrvusHrNL-28 Bt,tr;tt

The experimental 'aircraft 71' (Tu-12) bomber which was a straightforward development of the Second World War-
vintage Tu-2. ( Ycli,t,

gear with a twin-wheel nose unit and large single be merely 865 km (537 miles) and the top speedat
mainwheels.The TsAGIT l-A-10 aerofoil was uti- 7,000m (22,965ft) was 718 km/h (388kt) insteadof
lized on the inner wings and the TsAGI l-V- l0 aero- the required 800 km/h. Hence the Ilyushin OKB
foil on the outer wings, with a 12 per cent chosenot to submit the aircraft for State acceptance
thickness-to-chordratio in both cases.The four trials; all further developmentwork was discontin-
TR-l turbojets were carried almost entirely ahead ued and the sole prototype was relegated to the
of the wing leadingedgeon short horizontal pylons; Bureau of New Hardware (a division of the
this was a first in world jet aircraft design. Ministry of Aircraft Industry), where it could be
All the bombs were to be carried internally,and studied by leading industry experts.The Il-22 was
the largest weapon carried by the ll-22 was a no more than a stepping stone to more efficient
3,000 kg (6,613 lb) bomb, which was also the air- designs.
craft's maximum ordnance load. The defensive Meanwhile, Tupolev came up with the Tu-77
armament comprised a pair of Berezin B-20E experimentalbomber (aka Tu-12), a heavilymodi-
20 mm (.78 calibre) cannon in an electricallypow- fied Second World War-vintage Tu-2 with two
ered remote-controlleddorsal barbetteand a single turbojets and a tricycle landing gear, and later the
23 mm (.90 calibre) Nudelman/Sooranov NS-23 Tu-73iTu-78iTu-81/Tu-89family. The last aircraft in
cannon in an ll-KU-3 tail turret designedin-house.' the serieswas eventually to see limited production
Another NS-23 cannon was mounted on the star- and serviceas the Tu-14 (NATO code name Bosun).
board side of the forward fuselage,firing forward. The German team led by Baade refined the Junkers
The five-man crew consisted of two nilots seated EF l3l project which culminated in the Type 140,
side by side in an extensivelyglazednose lreminis- an experimental bomber with forward-swept wings.
cent of the Boeing B-29 Superfortress),a naviga- Sukhoi built a prototype of the Su-10 four-jet
tor/bomb aimer, a gunner/radio operator who light bomber, but it was scrappedwithout ever being
worked the dorsal barbette,and a tail gunner. flown when OKB-51 was dissolvedin 1949.There
According to the project the ll-22 was to have a was yet another contendeq Vladimir Mikhailovich
range of 1,250 km (776 miles) with a 2,000 kg Myasischchevwith his VM-24 (aka RB-17) four-
(4,409lb) nominal bomb load. The maximum take- turbojet bomber project. However, it never materi-
off weight was 24,000kg (52,910lb) and the never- alized becauseMyasischchevwas out of favour with
exceedspeedwas set at 800 kmlh (432 kt), or Mach Soviet leaderJosef Stalin and consequentlyhis proj-
0 .1 5 . ects receiveda thumbs-down at the time. This was
Development and prototype construction pro- basically the situation in which the Il-28 was born
ceeded extremely fast; piloted by two brothers, the Soviet Union's first operational jet bomber,
Vladimir and Konstantin Kokkinaki. the 11-22 which entered service with the YYS (Voyenno-
made its maiden flight on 24 July 1947. However, vozdooshnyyeseely [Soviet] Air Force) in 1949.
tests quickly showed that its performance was
clearly inadequate mainly because the engines.
which suffered from teething troubles, had to be 3 TsAGI = Tsentrahl'n!y aero- i ghidrodinamicheskiy institoot -
deratedto 940 kgp (2,072Ib st). Hence the MTOW Central Aerodynamics & Hydrodynamics Institute, named
after Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovskiy.
had to be limited to 20,000 ke (44,091lb) for the 4 KU stands l'<trkournvayu fstrelkovayal oostunovku tail bar-
manufacturer's flight tests.The range turned out to bette.
BngprING THEBa,qcm

f[lh. Il-28 projectwas conceivedin late 1947. appropriatedefensivemanoeuvres. Besides, the use
I On 3l Octoberthat year SergeyV. Ilyushin of only a singletail turretreducedemptyweightand
I wrote to the then Minister of Aircraft improvedaerodynamicefficiency.
Industry,Nikolay A. Bulganin,proposingatactical Yet designinga new tail turret turned out to be
bomber poweredby two Rolls-RoyceNene I cen- quite a challenge;the engineershad to meet strin-
trifugal-flowturbojets,with a first flight datetenta- gentspecifications whilekeepingthe unit'sweightto
tivelysetfor July 1948.This tight schedulewasdue a minimum.The Il-22'stail turret turned out to be
in no smallpart to the experience accumulated with too sluggish;a newpowerdriveand remotecontrol
the Il-22 which would allow the new bomberto be systemhad to be developed.The result was the
developedquickly.The objectivewas to achievea highlyeflicientIl-K6 ball turret2- originallymount-
performance far superiorto that of thell-22and the ing the same NS-23 cannon which were later
projectedtl-24 bomber (againthe first aircraft to replacedby Nudelman/RichterNR-23s with 225
use this designation).r This was made possibleby rpg. The new weaponshad the samecalibrebut a
reducing the crew and rethinking the defensive muchhigherrateof fire (850roundsperminutever-
armamentconcept. sus550rpm for the earliermodel).
The Il-28'sgeneralarrangement wassimilarto its The Il-K6 wasthefirst Sovietelectrohydraulically
predecessor's. However, the aircraft was rather poweredremote-controlled turret; it had a travers-
smaller and differed in a number of important ing angleof +70oand an elevatingangleof +60oto
respects.This was becauseof the new bomber's -40o.In normalmodethecannonmovedat a rateof
higherspeedanddifferentserviceconditions:unlike 15-17"per second,the motion increasingto up to
the ll-22, the Il-28 was designedto operatemainly 36o per secondin boost (emergency)mode. The
from tacticalairfieldswith unpavedstrips. powerdriveenabledtheturretto operateadequately
The crew was reducedto three - pilot, naviga- at airspeedsin excessof 1,000km/h (555 kt). At
tor/bombaimerand tail gunner/radiooperator.The 340kg (7501b),the turretwasrelativelylightweight.
decisionto eliminatethe co-pilot and forwardgun- By comparison,the DK-3 turret usedon the Tu-4
ner was dictatedfirst of all by the limited mission Bull bomber (a reverse-engineered Boeing B-29)
time of a tactical bomber. At a cruising speedof had traversingand elevatinganglesof only +lQ',
650-750km/h (361*416kt) a sortiewould typically whileweighingnearly390kg (8601b).
last 2 or 2.5 hours - four hours at the most. An The power drive of the Il-K6 turret was built
autopilotwouldbeinstalledto easethepilot'swork- around an unorthodoxswivellinghydraulicpump
load duringcruise. unit driven by two 5 kW electricmotors.The out-
The armamentwould probablybestbe described put of thepumpsand hencethemotion speedof the
now, becausethe Il-28 was,as one Russianwriter cannondependedon the angleat which the pump
put it, 'designedaroundthe tail'- or, to be precise, unit wastilted;with thepump unit in a neutralposi-
the tail turret.Trialsof thell-22 had shownthat the tion the turret remainedmotionless.This made it
remote-controlleddorsal barbette was inefficient possibleto dispense with slidevalves,reservoirs and
becausethe tail unit createdlarge blind sectors. other unreliablecomponents,resultingin a simple
Also, the gunner'sstation was locatedwell away and safehydraulicsystem.The ammunitionboxes
from the barbette;hencesomeareaswherethe can- werebuilt into the bodv of the turret. allowinsthe
non could be brought to bear on the target were
concealedfrom the gunner'sview by the wingsand
fuselage.Various armament arrangementswere I A derivative of the Il-22 powered by four 3,300 kgp
studied.Eventuallytheengineers decidedthat a sin- (7 ,275lb st) Mikulin AM-TKRD-01 turbojets and equipped
gle tail turret offeredadequateprotectionagainst with an Il-KU-4 twin-cannon tail turret. The desisnation was
laler reusedfor the Il-24N long-range ice reconna-issanceair-
enemyfighter attacks from the rear hemisphere, craft - another spin-off of the Il-18D.
providingthe traversing/elevating angleand speed 2 Once again, K stands for kormovaya strelkovaya oostanovka
of the cannonwereincreased and the bombermade - tail barbette.
l2 . Ir-vusnrN
Ir-28 Bntcrc.

customary belt feed and tightening mechanismsto the single mainwheelsturned through 90' by means
be dispensedwith, which again made for higher reli- of a simple mechanical link to lie flat in the bottom
ability. of the nacellesbeneaththe jetpipe (behind the com-
The turret was electricallycontrolled by means of bustion chambers). Incidentally, here the Ilyushin
a highly reliableand precisepotentiometrictracking OKB made a virtue out of necessity:the landing
system. Targeting was done by a computing gun- gear struts were noticeably longer than on thell-22,
sight which automatically made adjustmentsfor the giving a large ground clearanceunder the fuselage
target's motion, shell velocity and trajectory, can- and easing the bomb-loading procedure. ln con-
non traversing angle, flight altitude and airspeed. trast, the 11-22had a very small ground clearance,
The sight receivedfeedback from the turret to mini- needing to be jacked up when 2,500 kg (5,51I lb)
mize miscoordination between the two. Thus, mis- and 3,000kg (6,613lb) bombs werehooked up.
coordinationin the horizontal planewas threetimes To meet the high speed requirementthe Il-28's
lessthan the limit setby generaloperationalrequire- wings employed a new TsAGI SR-5S high-speed
mentsof the time. aerofoil developedunder the guidance of Yakov M.
The Il-28 also featured two fixed forward-firing Serebriyskiy and Maria V. Ryzhova - again with a
NR-23 cannon with 100rpg installedon both sides 12 per cent thickness-to-chord ratio. This enabled
of the nose on quick-releasemounts. These were the bomber to reach a maximum speed of Mach
fired by the pilot and could be removed by simply 0.82 at 7,000-8,000m (22,965 26,246 ft) without
disconnectingan electricalconnectorand turning a any adverseeffects on stability and control charac-
locking lever. teristics caused by shock wave formation. The pro-
The decisionto useonly a singlepower turret and vision of simpleslottedflaps assuredthe Il-28 good
reduce the crew to three enabled the designersto field performance.
make the Il-28'sfuselagenearly3.5 m ( I l ft 5.79in.) The high designspeedscalledfor a swepttail unit
shorter than that of the ll-22 and reducewing area which ensuredgood stabilityand handling through-
by 13.7m1 (147.3sq. ft), which led to a significant out the speedrange.The tail unit employed symmet-
reductionin empty weight. Hencethe secondmajor rical aerofoil sections with a slightly higher
difference was the powerplant. The basic projected thickness-to-chordratio than that of the Il-22. The
size and weight allowed the new bomber to be pow- fin was swept back 4lo at quarter-chord,while the
ered by two Rolls-Royce Nenes rated at 2,270 kgp stabilizerswere sweptback 30"; this delayeddanger-
(5 ,0 0 0l b s t ) . ous Mach buffeting to a speed well above the air-
The Nene, which entered licence production in craft's never-exceed speed. In addition, the
the USSR rn 1947 as the Klimov RD-45,r had by sweepbackincreasedthe rudder and elevator arm,
then reached a high degree of reliability and which allowed the area and weight of the tail sur-
boasted a 25-30 per cent lower specific fuel con- facesto be reduced.
sumption as compared to the TR-1. On the other One of the complaintsvoicedby the ll-22's pilots
hand, a major drawback of this engine was its large during flight testsconcernedthe flight deck glazing
diameter, caused by the centrifugal compressor. (which was blendedentirely into the nose contour
This, and the necessityto keep the air intakes as far ii laB-29). The curved glazing panels distorted the
away from the ground as possible in order to avoid view and generated annoying reflections, and the
foreign-objectdamage(FOD) - a must sincethe air- heavy framework created numerous blind spots.
craft was to operate from dirt airstrips led the Since the Il-28 would be flown by a single pilot, the
designersto mount the enginesin nacellesadhering engineersprovided him with a fighter-type cockpit
directly to the lower surface of the wings (i.e. with- enclosedby a sideways-openingbubble canopy with
out pylons). a bullet-proof windscreen.The extensivenose glaz-
For centre-of-gravity reasons the engines were ing was still there of necessity, but now the
located well forward in the nacelles.Thus, the large navigator/bomb aimer had the glazed nose all to
diameter of the engine'scompressor and the small himself.
jetpipe allowed the main gear units to be relocated The crew was seatedin two pressurizedcompart-
from the fuselage to the engine nacelles,giving a ments - one for the pilot and navigator/bomb aimer.
wide track which was a bonus on semi-prepared the other for the gunner/radio operator. At low alti-
strips. The shock struts were attached to the tudes thesewere pressurizedby the slipstream;from
nacelles'main frames,and as they retracted forward 1,700m (5,580ft) upwards the compartments\r'ere
sealedoff and pressurizedby engine bleed air via lll-
ters.The pressurizationsystemwas combined u'ith
3 RD= reuktivnyy dvigutal' jetengine the heating and ventilation systems.The cockpit
BngpotNctne Bo,lcm.13

and navigator's compartment were equipped with de-icing systemsand put it to good use when work-
upward-firing ejection seats;ejection was triggered ing on the Il-28. The turbojet enginespowering the
byjettisoning the canopy or entrance hatch respec- aircraft supplied lots of bleed air, enabling the
tively. The gunner baled out via the ventral entrance engineers to quickly create the most efficient de-
hatch; the hatch cover doubled as a shield protect- icing systemof the time. This was the Soviet Union's
ing him from the slipstream. first automatic hot air de-icing system;it was light-
As had been the case with the Il-22, the ll-28's weight, reliable and simple to operate and had no
wing panels and tail surfaceshad a manufacturing parts disrupting the airflow This feature greatly
joint running along the chord line. Each half of the improved the bomber's combat efficiency and flight
unit consistedof a number of panels incorporating safety in adverseweather - particularly becausethe
stringers and ribs. This allowed different panels to relatively thin aerofoils used in the wings and tail
be manufactured simultaneously at different work- unit made icing much more dangerous than in the
stations while improving working conditions; noisy caseof slower piston-enginedaircraft utilizing thick
and labour-intensive manual riveting was replaced aerofoils.
with high-quality machine riveting. All-weather and night-flying capability was
The fuselagewas also designedin two halveswith ensuredby the provision of a comprehensiveavion-
a manufacturingjoint running the full length of it: it ics and communications suite which enabled the
went together just like a plastic model kit! For the crew to navigatethe aircraft and detect, identify and
hrst time in Soviet aircraft production, al1structural destroy ground targets without maintaining visual
members of the fuselage were readily accessible, contact with the ground. The avionicssuite included
allowing riveting and assembly operations to be an OSP-48instrument landing system(lLS) for use
mechanized and various internal equipment to be in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC).
fitted quickly and efficiently. The fuselagewas also The ground part of the system included two range
divided lengthwiseinto four sections,facilitating the beacons, three marker beacons. communications
installationof equipment in bays which would not radios and an HF or VHF radio direction finder to
be accessibleonce the structure was fully assembled. facilitate approach and landing in bad weather.The
Finally, the fuselage had longitudinal recesseson system'scomponents installed on the aircraft com-
both sidescovered by removableskin panels.These prised an ARK-5 Amur (a river in the Soviet Far
facilitated installation of all wiring and pipelines East; pronounced like the French word amour)
during manufacturing, as well as checking them and automatic direction finder, an RV-2 Kristall
replacing faulty components in service.This feature (Crystal) low-altitude radio altimeter and an
reducedpre-flight check time and enhancedcombat MRP-48 Dyatel (Woodpecker) marker beacon
efficiency. receiver.'The OSP-48 was fairly simple and had few
The slight weight penalty (about 4 per cent) components,which renderedthe ground part suit-
incurred by the new technology more than paid off. able for use on ud hoc tactical airfields (in truck-
The surface finish was significantly improved; mounted form). The aircraft was also equippedwith
labour intensity was cut by 25 30 per cent for pro- an AP-5 autopilot and an identification friend-or-
duction airframes and by 30-40 per cent for internal foe (IFF) transponder.
equipment installation. As a result, the twinjet Unlike the Il-22, the Il-28's normal bomb load
bomber was hardly more complicated to build than was 1,000kg(2,204lb); the maximum bomb load in
a tactical fighter. Also, this allowed Ilyushin to overload condition remained the same at 3,000 kg
avoid a problem which affected some early Soviet (6,613lb). The bomb bay locatedin the centrefuse-
jets - the propensity to uncommanded bank at high lage featured four bomb cassettesand one beam-
airspeeds,called val'ozhka in Russian. (This prob- type bomb cradle.The former could carry bombs of
lem, which had manifested itself on the 50-500 kg (110 1,102 lb) calibre, while the latter
Mikoyan/Gurevich MiG-9 Fargo and the MiG-15 was designed for bombs weighing from 1,000 to
Fagot-A, was caused by aerodynamic asymmetry 3,000 kg (2,204-6,612 lb).
causedby the wings having slightly different aerofoil In visual meteorological conditions (VMC) the
sectionsbecauseof insufficiently high manufactur- navigator/bomb aimer used an OPB-5S optical
ing accuracy.This structural asymmetry meant that
the wings produced different amounts of lift; this
was not critical at low speeds, but as airspeed 4 OSP = oboroodovaniyeslepoyposahdki-blind landingequip-
increasedthe differencebecameappreciable.) ment; ARK = avtomaticheskiy rahdiokompas - ADF; RV =
rahdiovysotomer radio altimeter; MRP = rzarkemy-y rahdio-
The Ilyushin OKB had accumulated a lot of preeyomnik. The MRP-48 has also been designated
design and operational experience with hot air Khrizantema (Chrysanthemum) in some sources.
14 . Ir-vusurN
lt-28 Br,tcr.r-.

bomb sight (opticheski):pritsel bontburdirovochnyy) craft was so strong that he decidedto carry on with
which enabled him to take aim automatically at the 11-28and build a prototype at his own risk all
stationary and moving targets in level flight. the more so becausethe Soviet Air Force was in des-
Interestingly,the navigatorhad to leavehis ejection perateneed of a tactical bomber meeting the strin-
seat and sit sidewayson a specialjump seat in the gent new requirements.(lt is worth noting here that
extremenoseon the starboardside to usethe sight. Ghenrikh Vasilyevich Novozhilov, who succeeded
The OPB-5S computed the sighting angles and Ilyushin as the OKB's head in 1970, started his
dropped the bombs automatically at the correct career at the Ilyushin OKB by taking part in the
moment by meansof an electricreleasemechanism. preparationof the I1-28prototype'smanufacturing
The sightwas gyrostabilizedto preventthe aircraft's drawings.)The Il-28 was not officially included in
manoeuvresfrom affecting bombing accuracyand the Ministry of Aircraft Industry's experimental
linked to the autopilot, enabling the navigator to aircraft constructionplan until l2 June 1948,when
set the aircraft's course on its bombing run. In the Soviet Union's Council of Ministers issued
IMC . bom b- aim ingw a s a s s i s te db y th e PS BN -M directive No. 2052-804to this effect one month
search/bomb-aiming radar (pribor slapovrt beforethe prototype was rolled out.
bontbomctahniyai nuvigahtsii- blind-bombing and Bearing no serial or even national insignia, the
navigationaldevice)with a 360' field of view. The prototype (poweredby authenticRolls-RoyceNene
radar was located in the aft fuselagejust ahead of turbojets imported from the UK) commenced
the gunner's station and enclosed by a flush ground tests at Moscow-Khodynka on 29 May
dielectricfairing. 1948. On I July the aircraft was dismantled and
truckedto the Flight ResearchInstitutenamedafter
Mikhail M. Gromov (LII Lyotno-issledovatel'skiy
Taking a risk in.\titoot)in Zhukovskiy, south of Moscow, where
General DesignersSergeyV. Ilyushin approvedthe most Soviet aviation OKBs had their flight test
Il-28 advanceddevelopmentproject on l2 January facilities.V. N. Boogaiskiywas assignedengineerin
1948,giving the go-aheadto completea setof man- chargeof the flight tests.
ufacturing drawings and start prototype construc- The company chief was as good as his word: the
tion. By then, however,Tupolev'sOKB-I56 the bomber took to the air for the first time on 8 July
SovietUnion's leadingauthority in bomber design 1948w i th Il yushi nOK B chi ef testpi l ot V l adi mi r K .
had receivedan assignmentto design and build a Kokkinaki at the controls: N. D. Sorokin was the
similar jet-poweredtactical bomber. OK8-240 had /light engincer(.sit' obviously the navigator) and
no suchassignment.Still, Ilyushin'sbelief in his air- B. A. Yerofevevwas the radio operator.Kokkinaki

The Rolls-RoyceNene-poweredfirst prototype of the Il-28 was totally devoid of markings. Note the complex framework
of the cockpit canopy and the flush installation of the navigation/bomb-aiming radar. r Yelim
BnssorNcrup Bt'tctp. 15

Tupolev's'aircraft 73',the three-enginedforerunner of the Tu-14 bomber; note the air intake
andnozzleof the centre
engine.This configuration was to change soon... ( yeJimGordonart.hive

waspleasedwith the aircraft'shandling,sayingthat

the Il-28waseasyto fly, both duringtake-offand in _ The Il-28 had good directional and lateral stability
throughout its operational envelope.When properly
cruise,and climbedwell. trimmed the aircraft flew stably in level fligtLt
Speakingof serials,until the mid-1950sSoviet even when the controls were released.Low-speed
military aircraft had three- or four-dieit serial handling was quite good, with no tendencyto stall
numbers. Theseallowedmoreor lesspositiie identi- or spin. Straight and level flight with one dead
fication,sincethey tied in with the aircraft'scon- engine was no problem either, the yaw being easily
structionnumber- usuallythe lastoneor two digits countered without excessiveloads on the rudder
of the batchnumberplusthe numberof the aircraft pedals.
in thebatch. The aircraft had good field performance and
In 1955,however, the VVS switched(probablvfor could operate from existing airbases and tactical
securityreasons) to the currentsystemof two-digit airfields. At a normal gross weight of 17,220kg
tqctical codeswhich, as a rule, are simply the air- (37,9631b),the take-off run wasjust 560m ( l ,837ftj
craft'snumberin the unit operatingit, makingposi- if the aircraft was fitted with two pSR-1500-15iet-
tive.identificationimpossible.Three- or foui-digit assistedtake-off (JATO) rocketsTwith a l3-second
tactical codes are rare and are usually *o.n by burn time developing 1,600kgp (3,52j lb sr) each.
development aircraftonly,in whichcasetheystill tiL The Il-28 could easily operate from dirt strips; in
in with the c/n or fuselagenumber(manufacturer's fact, the test pilots expresslyrecommendedoperat-
linenumber)..At the sametime thestarinsisniaon ing the bomber from dirt strips in order to prolong
the aft fuselagewere deleted,remaininsin the the tyres' servicelife.
wings and vertical tail only. So far, hoieveq no During manufacturer's flight tests the Nene-
SovietAir ForceIl-28swith pre-1955 serialsrelated pgwgled first prototype attained a top speed
to the cin havebeenidentified. of 833 kmlh (462 kt) ar 5,000 m 06.404 fr).
and reached Mach 0.79 ar 7.000 8.000 m
(22,966 26,246ft). The test pilors reported that the
5 The official title of Soviet OKB hearls. aircraft behavednormally at thesespeedsand could
6 On military transport aircraft, however, three-digit tactical go even faster if appropriate changes were made.
codes do not relate to the c/n or l/n; they are the lisr three of
the fiormer civil registration (many Soviet/RussianAir Force Hence the OKB set about streamlinins the airframe
transports were,and still are, quasi-civilian). and installing more powerful engines.
7 PSR = porokhovaya startovaya raketa - solid-fuel rocket The Tu-73 and Tu-78 trijet bomber prototypess
booster. were undergoing manufacturer's flight tests at the
8 The Tu-73 was powered by two RR Nenes in wing-mounted
nacellesand one RR Derwent V in the rear lusetie. On the
same.time.One day General Designer Andrey N.
otherwise identical Tu-78 these were replaced bv two RD_ Tupolev saw the Il-28 prototype at the airfiel,Cof
45Fs and one RD-500 respectively (rhe RD-500 was the LII. Being, by many accounts, an ill-tempered per-
licence-builtversion of the Derwent). son and a man w ho di d not careabout competi i i on
16. f r-vusnrN
L-28 Be,tctz

(to say the least), Tupolev was openly scornful at best results were attained with tyres made of
first. 'Humph! Whose bastard child is this?' he perlone, a synthetic rubber, which lasted for more
asked the technicians working on the aircraft. than l00landings.
However, after examining the competitor's product Apart from the powerplant, the secondprototype
closelyand studying the specificationshe had a long differed from future production ll-28s in avionics
talk with his aides,and it was easyto seethat he was and equipment fit. The aircraft was equipped with
very displeased.The reason for Tupolev's displeas- RSB-5 and RSU-10 radios, an SPUF-3 intercom,
ure was obvious: on their jet bombers the Tupolev an MRP-46 marker beacon receiver,AFA-BA and
engineers had copied the defensive weapons AFA-33/50 or AFA-33/75 aerial cameras, two
arrangement of the piston-enginedTu-2, which led GSN-3000 generators,three sets of KP-14 breath-
to excessivelylarge overall dimensions, an exces- ing apparatuswith 8-litre(l.76 imp. gal.) liquid oxy-
sively large crew and henceexcessiveweight, not to gen bottles, an RUSP-4SILS, etc."'
mention the decidedly complex powerplant. The After the successful completion of the initial
ultimate Tu-81 (Tu-14) and Tu-89 (Tu-14T) dis- flight test programme, the second prototype was
pensedwith the centre engine and two remote-con- turned over to the Soviet Air Force Research
trolled gun barbettes in favour of a single tail Institute (NII VVS - Naoochno-issledovutel'skiy
gunner'sstation- inspiredby the Il-28, no doubt. institoot voyenno-vozdooshnykh see[) for State
On 30 December1948the secondprototype Il-28 acceptance trials, which lasted from February to
powered by production RD-45F engines" entered April 1949.The formal act of acceptancewas signed
flight test,againflown by Vladimir Kokkinaki. New on 18 May.
models of tyres were tested concurrently with the The specifications of the RD-45F-powered sec-
aircraft itself, as the original ones were totally worn ond prototype 11-28attained at the State acceptance
out after just ten landings on concretestrips.The trials are detailedin Table 1.

Table l. RD-45F-poweredsecondprototype;specificationsattained in State acceptancetrials

Length overall 17.45m (57ft 3 in.)

Height on ground 6.0m ( l 9 ft 8.22i n.)
Wing span 21.45m (70lt 4.48in.)
Wing area 60.8mr (653.76 sq.ft)
Wing loading 288kg/m' ( 1,400lb/ftr)
Power loading at sealevel 3.38kg/kgp(lb/lbst)
Normal all-up weight 17,500kg (38,s80lb)
Maximum all-up weight 20.000kg (44,091 lb)
Fuel load 6,300kg (13,888 l b)
Top speed: at sealevel 750km/h(405.4kt)*
a t 5 ,750 6, 000m ( 18, 864 19, 685f t ) 843km/h(455.67 kt)
at 10,000m (32,808ft) 820km/h (443.24kt)
Landing speed 178km/h(96.2kt)
Rate of climb: at sealevel 10.9m/sec(2,145ftlmin)
at 5,000m (16,404ft) 8.3m/sec(1,633ftlmin)
at 10,000m (32,808ft) 3.6m/sec(708ft/min)
Time to height: 5,000m 8.6mi n
10,000m 22.6min
Range: 1,8l 5km(l ,127mi l es)
at 20 ,0 0 0 k g T OW5,,0 0 0 ma n d 5 4 2 k m /h(293
at 20,000kg TOW, 10,000m and 546km/h (295kt) 2,370km (1,472miles)
Enduranceat 10,000m cruisingaltitudeand 546km/h cruisingspeed 4 hr 13min
Take-offrun 1,150m (3,713lt)1650 m (2,132ft)**
Take-offdistance 2,540m (8,333ft)/990m (3,248ft)**
Landingdistance 1,730m (5,678f0***
* Speedlimitedat altitudesup to 1,750m (5,741ft) owingto 2,'700kglm'(13,122lb/ft')dynamicstrengthlimit.
{<* Without boosters/with two PSR-1500-15 JATO bottles.
*'<*'With a 13,500
kg(29,7621b) landingweight.
BnpporNcrl:p Bo,qcrc. 17

Table2. Performancecomparisonbetweenthe Il-28 andTu-14

Tu-14 It-28
Empty weight,kg (lb) 14,940(32,936) 12,795(28,207)
All-up weight, kg (1b):
normal 2r,000(46,296) 18,400(40,564)
in overload configuration 25,350(55,886) 21,069(46,448)
maxlmum 25,350(55,886) 23,069(50,87s)
Top speedat take-off power/normalAUW, km/h (kt):
at 5,000m (16,404ft) 84s(4s6.7s) 8e3(482.7)
at 10,000m (32,808ft) 8l l (438.37) 850(459.45)
Top speedat take-off power/maximumAUW, km/h (kt):
at S/L 774(4r8.37) 800(432.43)
at 5,000m (16,404ft) 823(444.86) 8s7(463.24)
at 10,000m (32,808ft) 773(4r7.83) 823(444.86)
Serviceceilingat normal AUW, m (ft) n,200(36,745) (40,3s4)
Maximum rangeat 10,000m/normal AUW, km (miles) 2,870(1,782) 2,415(1,500)
Take-off run, m (ft) (3,937)
1,200 e65(3,166)
Landing run, m (ft) I,100(3,609) 960(3,14e)
Bombload,kg (lb):
normal (2,204)
1,000 r,000(2,204)
maximum (6,613)
3,000 3,000(6,613)

Table2givesa performance comparisonof the Il-28 Finally, on 14 May 1949a specialcommission

and Tu-14.Note that the figuresstatedfor the Il-28 chairedby Stalin himself analysedthe test results
differ from thosein Table 1; however,in both cases and compared the performanceof the two types.
they originate from official documents.A possible Accordingto llyushin, after examiningthe reports
explanationis that different examplesof the Beagle carefully and listening to his military advisers,
wereinvolved- or that whoeverpreparedthe com- Stalin picked the Il-28. Howeveq Ilyushin was
parativetable was not very honest,doctoring the requestedto increasethe speedof productionair-
figuresto benefitthe Il-28. craft immediatelyto 900km/h (486kt) by re-engin-
ing the Il-28 with more powerfuland fuel-efficient
The T[-14 wasbeingtestedconcurrently;the Powers Klimov VK-1 turbojets;Councilof Ministersdirec-
That Be wereto choosebetweenthe two, so that in tive No. 1890-700to this effect appearedon the
effectIlyushinand Tupolevhad a flyoff, eventhough sameday.(It makesyou wonderif the pro-Ilyushin
the term was unknown in the SovietUnion at the lobby had preparedthe directivein advance,fore-
time.Hencethe WS top brasswasin a turmoil; some seeingthis victory!)The VK-1 wasa versionof the
of the generalsand marshalslobbiedfor the Tu-14, RD-45F upratedto 2,700kgp (5,950lb st). As a
which had somewhatlongerrange,while otherssup- consolationprize,Tupolevwasrequested to develop
portedthe Il-28, which wasmucheasierto build and a versionof the Tu-14(likewisepoweredby VK-ls)
operate.The discussionragedon at ministeriallevel; for the Naval air arm.
the chief of NII WS denouncedthe Il-28 and
strongly urged the Minister of Aircraft Industry
Nikolay A. Bulganin, to give the go-aheadfor the Definingandrefining
Tu-14.Still, evenBulganinfailedto resolvethe issue. Building on the resultsof numerouswind tunnel
tests at TsAGI, the Ilyushin OKB developednew
enginenacellesfor the productionVK-l-powered
9 F = forseerovannyy - tprated. form of the Il-28. Unlike the prototypes'nacelles,
l0 AFA = aerofotoapparaht - aircraft camera; KP = kislorodnyy which werebulgedaround the middle,the new ones
preebor - oxygen equipment. weredistinctly area-ruled,the waistbeingnarrowest
l8 . f lyusHrN L-28 Brrctr.

In designingthe 'aircraft 8l', a derivativeof the '73'and '78'trijets which enteredproduction as the Tu-14, the Tupolev
OKB clearly borrowed Ilyushin's defensivearmament concept employed on the Il-28. ( yalitrt Gorthtnurchiv1

where the wing sectionwas at its thickest.This sig- minor changeswere made to the hydraulic system
nificantly reduced harmful interference between and the nosewheel steering actuator/shimmy
wing and nacelle, especiallyat transonic speeds, damper. The fuselagefuel cellswere equipped with a
resulting in a major improvement in the ll-28's nitrogen pressurizationsystemto reduce the danger
performance.(As a point of interest,in the USA of explosionif hit by enemyfire, enhancingsurvlv-
the area rule was formulated in parallel by ability. The angular cockpit windscreenof the pro-
R. Whitcomb, but did not find practical use until totypes gave way to a more streamlined one
1954, when Convair brought out the F-102 Delta featuringan ellipticalTriplex windshieldand curved
Daggerinterceptor.) sidelights,and the frame of the hinged canopy por-
Other changeswere made after the initial flight tion was simplified by introducing a two-piece
tests and State acceptancetrials. The PSBN-M blown transparency. The navigator's glazing was
radar was relocated from the aft fuselageto a posi- also modified.
tion immediately after the nosewheelwell in order The pre-production Il-28 powered by VK-ls
to improveits operatingconditionsand enclosedby commenced flight tests on 8 August 1949;the crew
a teardrop-shapedradome. The rudder's horn bal- was the same as on the day of the type's maiden
ance was enlarged to reduce rudder forces. Some flight a year earlier. At a normal gross weight of

An uncoded pre-production Il-28 powered by Klimov VK- I enginesin area-ruled nacelles.This view illustrates well the
sleeklines of Ilyushin'sjet bomber. / yt'Jint


T hree-qu arte rsre arview oft hes am eair c r af t , s howingt heIl - K 6 b a l l t u r r c t . t t t l i u r c i o r t h n u r t h i t t , )

18,400kg (40,564lb), the aircraft had a top speedof W i th a 1.000kg (2,204l b)normal bomb l oad and a
9 0 6 km / h ( 503k t ) at 4, 0 0 0m ( 1 3 ,1 2 3ft). T h e p i l o ts 21,000kg(46,296Ib)MTOW the Il -28 had a maxr-
noted the aircraft was stableat any speed;control mum range of 2,455 km (1,525 mi l es) and w as
forcescould be trimmed down easily.At the maxi- generally superior in performance to the piston-
rnum allowedspeedof Mach 0.78the back pressure enginedTu-2 which was the mainstayof the VVS's
on the control column gradually increased;then, if tacticalbomber forceat the timc.
clevator trim remained unchanged, the load On 24 A ugust 1949 thc producti on-standard
reversed"the control column would move forward VK-l-powered aircraft was handed over fbr State
and the aircraft would tend to go into a dive. If ele- acceptance trials and passed thcm with l1ying
vator trim was selectedup, the aircraft could reach col ours. On l 6 S eptemberthe S tate C ommi ssi on
Ma ch 0. 81or 0. 82.but th i s c a u s e ds e v e reMa c h b u f- recommendedthat production be startedforthwith,
l-et,warning the pilot to slow down. The produc- and so it was.Starting in September1949,it entered
tion-standardIl-28'stop speedat variousaltitudesis production at three major aircrafi l'actories:No. 30
indicatedin Table 3. Znamya truda (Banner of Labour. pronounced

Table 3. Production-standardll-28's top speedsat variousaltitudes

Indicatedairspeed Mach number

at cruisepower at lull at cruise power at tirll

military power military powcr

sealevel 786km/h 800km/h 0.642 0.655

(424.86kt) (4 3 2 .4k3t)
4 .5 0 0 m ( 14, 763it ) 846km/h 900km/h 0.73 0.776
(457.29kt) (4 8 6 .4k8t)
5.250m (17.224
fI) 848km/h 897km/h 0.738 0.782
(4 s 8 .3 k7t) (4 8 4 .8k6t)
8.000m (26.246fI) 837km/h 876km/h 0.759 0.19
(452.43 kt) (4 7 3 .5k1t)
I 2,000m (39.370
ft) 7 1 0k m /h 805km/h 0.67 0.75'.7
(3 8 3 .7k8t) (4 3 5r.5 k t)
20 . Irvussrx lL-28 BEAGLE

Individualfactory constructionnumbersystems
System1: 4 Red,c/n 50301106: 50 yearof manufacture(1950);
30 = MoscowMachineryPlant(MMZ) No. 30;
II batchnumber;
06 numberof aircraftin the batch(up to 100?).

The c/n is stencilledon the fuselage

noseand sometimes
underthehorizontaltail aswell.

System8: unknown, cln43051230l:. 4 in-houseversiondesignator:izdelie (product)4 = Il-28R;

30 = M M ZN o.30;
5I yearof manufacture( 195I );
23 batchnumber;
0l numberof aircraft in the batch.

System3: I 2 Red,c/n 53005I I 2: 5 in-houseversiondesignator:izdeliye(product) 5 = Il-28, izdeliye6 = ll-

3 yearof manufacture(1953);
Q = MMZ No. 30 (thefirst digit is omittedfor securityreasonsto confuse
051 batchnumber;
12 numberof aircraftin the batch(up to 100?).

The c/n is sometimes

stencilledon the fuselage
noseand underthehorizontaltail.

System4:l84Black,c|n5901207: 5 yearofmanufacture(1955);
9 - Irkutsk aircraftfactoryNo. 39 (thefirst digit is omittedfor security
012 batchnumber;
07 numberof aircraft in the batch.

System5: codeunknown,c/n 6450301: 64 factorynumber(Voronezhaircraftfactory);

50 yearof manufacture(1950);
3 batchnumber;
0l numberof aircraftin the batch.

System6: 0l Red,c1n2402101: 2 yearof manufacture(1952);

y', = Voronezhaircraft factory No. 64 (the first digit is omitted for security
021 batchnumber;
0l numberof aircraftin the batch.

The c/n is sometimes

stencilledon thefin or underthehorizontaltail.

System7: unknown,c/n 0416601: 04 batchnumber;

166 factory number(Omsk aircraft factory);
0l numberof aircraftin the batch.

System8: 33 Red,c|n56605702: 5 yearof manufacture (1955);

66 = Omsk aircraft factory No. 166(the first digit is omitted for security
057 batchnumber;
02 numberof aircraft in the batch.

The c/n is sometimes

underthe horizontaltail.
BnEEorNcrse.Bntctt .21


=:i---fr ;#* u


-' '--!
a;; -'
.- -
- ' - Y3- -

T h e l l -2 8 r v as built by s ev e ra l S o v i e ta i rc ra ftfa c to ri e s .Thesetw o

B eagl es,26B l ueand2TB l ue,w eremanufacturedbyth
MoscowMachineryFactoryNo. 30;the formeraircraftcarriesthecln 55006424 on the nose./ yt,lirtt

znahmyatroodah)at Khodynka airfield right in the StandardsCo-ordinatingCommittee(ASCC) ini-

centreof Moscow,No. 64 in Voronezhand No. 166 tially allocatedthe codenameButcherto the Il-28.
in Omsk- startedgearingup to build the Il-28.A However,this was promptly changedto Beagleto
fourth factory,No. 39 in lrkutsk,alsobeganIl-28 avoidconfusionwith the TupolevTu-16medium
productionshortlyafterwards(seenext chapter).rl bomber,whichwascode-named Badser.
Each factory had its own constructionnumber
system(s),explainedon page20:
ll S ome sourcesstate the Il -28 w as al so bui l t by pl ants N o. I,
After the type'sfirst publicappearance
at the 1950 N o. l 8 (both i n K ui byshev,now S amara)and N o.23 i n Fi l i ,
May Day parade in Moscow, NATO's Air then a suburb of Moscoq but this appearshighly unlikely.
Tup Ir-28 FaurY

ll-28 Beagle bomber

l-flh. basic bomber version was built in Four shut-off valves were introduced in the fuel
I Moscow, Voronezhand Omsk; the first pro- system to seal off a punctured tank in the event of
I duc t ion air c ra ft l e ft th e Mo s c o w p ro d u c ti o n battle damage, preventing loss of fuel (eventually
line in March 1950.The aircraft was built in huge the Beaglegot self-sealingfuel tanks, which theoret-
numbers(no fewer than 6,316copiesof all versions ically took careof the problem).Fuel cell No. 3 was
were built in the USSR alone in 1950 5!), becoming divided into cells Nos. 3,A and 3B; the capacity of
one of the most prolific types in servicewith the these cells was carefully calculated in order to pre-
VVS. MMZ No. 30 in Moscoq which was the main serve the CG position as the fuel was burned off,
manufacturerof the type,turned out more than 100 obviating the need for fuel transfer.
aircraft per month at peak periods. (Note: Some sourcesclaimed that the CG shift
Various improvements were introduced in the problem associatedwith fuel burn-off was still there
courseof production.Among other things,the Il-28 and was,in fact, the Il-28'sonly major shortcoming
receivedmore effectiveformation lights for station- which was never eliminated,becauseof the lack of
keeping during flights of bomber formations at an automatic fuel transfer systemmaintaining CG
night. The cockpit windshield receivedan electric position. Sincethe forward fuel cellsaccommodated
de-icingsystem,and hot air de-icingwas introduced more fuel than the rear fuel cells. the ll-28's CG
on the engineair intake leadingedges.Optically flat gradually shifted forward. This was especially
windshield sidelightswere tested (probably on an unwelcomeduring landing;the pilot had to keepan
uncoded examplewith the cln 52005714)in an effort eye on the fuel meters and activate the fuel transfer
to reducedistortionsand improvecockpit visibility, pump at the right moment. The pump worked
but this feature was apparently not fitted to stan- slowly,and as the pilot had to concentrateon flying
dard production aircraft. the aircraft during the landing approach he often


The Il-28 incorporatedvariouschangesmade in the courseof production; among other things,the transparencyimme-
diately aft of the cockpit where the DF aerial was locatedwas replacedby an opaque dielectric fairing. ( yelimGonton
. 23


( i .rl .trrtrrl ti r<

A t rio o l ' r c c l - c o t l c c l B c u { lc clr .r iscsin V lir lr tr ir tio n . t YL ,tirrt

\ng:-- -**ua*

-51 llluc.


T his vieli illustratcstlie c lc an linc s ol- t hc Bc z r glcas

. u' ell u s t h c l u r g c c l i a n r c t c r - o l 't h c n c i n c n u c e l l c s .
Kot t t i.s:urtty rtn It i v t
24 . Ir-yusHrNL-28 Btaau.

ThisIl-28,30Red,is unusual in havingthreenon-stan- l0 Red,anotherIl-28 bristlingwith non-standardaerials.

dardrod aerialsundertheaft fuselage.( yefim
) ( Sergey and Dmitriy Komissarov arthive )

forgot to turn it off in time. As a result,the CG the OSP-48ILS was replacedby a more advanced
would now be too far aft and the aircraft assumed SP-50Materik (Continent)ILS.
an excessivelynose-highattitude,with high angles Table 4 details the changesintroducedat the
of attack which weredifficult to counterby elevator productionlines.
input. To make up for the missingsystem,11-28 For the development of the Il-28 bomber,Sergey
pilots would ask the navigatorsto remind them to V. Ilyushin, M. F. Astakhov, Valeriy A. Borog,
switchoff thepump in time.) V. N. Boogaiskiy,N. F. Zotov, A. Ya. Levin,
New ejectionseatswerefitted, replacingthe ear- G. M. Litvinovich,M. I. Nikitin, B. V. Pavlovskiy,
lier model;thesefeaturedleg restraints,a facepro- K. V. Rogov,Ye.I. Sankovand V. A. Fyodorovwere
tectionvisor and a seatbelt tighteningmechanism. awardedthe prestigiousStalinPize (2nd Class)on
Finally,a brakeparachutewasprovidedto shorten 12 March 1951 for outstandinginventionsand
the landingrun; this featurewastestedon Il-28 c/n improvements in the field of machinerydesign.
2007'pursuantto a Ministry of Aircraft Industry The basicbomber soon evolvedinto a rangeof
(MAP) order of ll January1951.Howeve! every- specializedversions which expandedthe Beagle's
thing comesat a price,and thesemodificationswere combatpotentialperceptibly.
expectedto increaseempty weight by 240 kg (529
lb). Hence Ilyushin engineerstook measuresto
achievean identicalweightreduction,lighteningthe
rear fuselagestructure,tail unit and Il-K6 turret, I Only the batch number and number of aircraft in the batch
removingthe anti-flutter weightsfrom the wings, were stated in MAP documents; however, considering the
etc.Additionally, air bleedvalveswereincorporated time when the order was issued, the aircraft was probably
in the enginenacellesto preventenginesurge,and Moscow-built and the full c/n may be 50302007.

Table4. Manufacturingchangesintroducedat productionlines

Modification Incorporated (starting with aircraft c/n ...)

PlantNo. 30 Plant No. 64 PlantNo. 166

Round ventilationwindow movedfrom hingedcanopy 50301408 all aircraft all aircraft
sectionto port windshieldsidelightto improvevisibility (from c/n (from c/n
and canopystrength;ventilationwindow reducedin 6450001 0016601
diameterand glazingthicknessreducedfor better onwards) onwards)
Anti-flutterweightsbetweenwing ribs28 and32 deleted 5300s00s 3402701 36603509
Anti-sursebleedvalvesinstalled 5030I 801 6450301 0416601
THBIl-28 Farlrry . 25

A night-time shot of a typical production Beagle.( yclirnGortton



The unserialledprototype of the Il-28U trainer undergoing
evaluationwith the SovietAir Force in early 1950. yji,tt
Gor&n urchiyt

*.*!.- e;.t

Another unserialledexample,this time a production Masc,ot.( yefint


Il-28U Mascot trainer

Specializedversions began appearing before long.
such an aircraft; development work began in
Predictably, the first of theie *a, 1 conversion
S_eptember1949, and on 14 October Seigey V
trainer easing the transition from Second World
Ilyushin approved the advanced developmeni proj_
War-vintagepiston-enginedtypesto thejet bomber.
ect of the Il-28U trainer (oochehnyy-triining, used
Th e OK B was im m ed i a te l yi a s k e d w i th c re a rrn s
attributively)poweredby VK-l engines.
26. Ilvusttrr'rlt-28;r.t

- g;,.- (l|I....,:lb

S ov ic tA i r l i r r c c l l - l l l L J E 5Rcd co n tcsin to la n d . r tttir tt( iortl ottrrrrtti rr

Thc I l- 28U er r o n c o L rs lcya l l c d U II-2 8 i n s o n rc i n thc stancl al dcockpi t.A ccordi ngto sol tl eW estcrn
so L l rc c s dillc r ed l} o m th e b a s i cb o rtrb e ro ri rra f i l v ruuthors. w hat l l yLrshi ndi cl w as thc bcst w ay to rl l l l t
i rr h i r v ingu nc \ \ r ' l ()\cg l a l ' tc d trrr i n p l l rc ' ctrl ' tl rr' thc sl cck l i nes of- thc l l -2u; thc resul t certai nl y
cxtens iv c lyglaz c dna v i g a to r' s ta ti o n(u p to l ' u s c l a gc l ookcribi zarrc.bLrtboth tl retrai neeand the i nstruc-
l l 'a n - rNo.
c 6) . I t inc o rp o ra tc cth l c i n s tru c to r' sc o c k- tol cnjoycclan unrcstrictcdf icld ol- view.
p i t wit h a s t c ppc dw i n d s c rs e nra . th c r l i k e th c l l i g h t Thc trai ncc' scockpi t w as vi rtual l y i denti cal tct
cl e ckol- ar rair linerc tt ttri tri u tu rL : tra i r.repei l o t s a t
tl'tc lhat ol' tlrc standarclbclntbcrcxccDtfbr u cr"rt-outin

' {f# .*.-!.,-

- .,..-WkF

This vicl" ol'87 Red showsclearlvthat thc illustol lackcd armantent ancl radar. i lt,lint (ior&rnurchitLt
Tue Il-28 F,qvnv . 27

the instrument panel permitting visual contact with No. 30 production line, for conversion into the
the instructor, which required some of the flight Il-28U prototype. Piloted by Vladimir K.
instruments to be relocated. The front cockpit fea- Kokkinaki, the trainer took to the air on l8 March,
tured a complete set of flight controls and instru- with B. A. Goloobev as flight engineer and
ments; the instructor had complete control over the B. A. Yerofeyevas radio operator; A. P.Vinogradov
trainee'sactions and could take over if necessaryby was the engineerin charge of the flight tests.
flipping some switches,barring the trainee from fly- It was soon discovered that performance and
ing the aircraft. handling were virtually identical to that of the stan-
All armament and bomb-aiming equipment, dard bomber, exceptfor the marginally better climb
including the radar, were deleted. Still, the Il-28U rate. The ll-28u was stable throughout its flight
could be used for training gunners/radio operators, envelope,remainingwell balancedat Mach 0.78. It
for which the former gunner's station was suitably performed all manoeuvres the bomber version was
equipped. The capacity of the fuel system was to make; turns with 70-80' bank could be made
reducedto 6,600 lit. (1,452 imp. gal.) and the fuel without any trouble and the aircraft gained 2,000 m
load to 5,500kg (l2,l25lb). To maintain CG posi- (6,560ft) during a yo-yo manoeuvre.Flying the air-
tion the Il-K6 tail turret was substitutedby 250 kg craft from the instructor's seat was just as simple
(551 lb) of ballast on the prototype. According to and enjoyable as from the rear cockpit. Like the
OKB calculations,production aircraft were to have other versions, the trainer could be fitted with
200 kg (440 lb) of ballast,but it was found possible PSR-I 500-15 JATO boosters.
to reducethis to 130kg (286 lb). The specifications of the Il-28U prototype
Other changes included removal of the RV-10 obtained at the manufacturer'sflisht testsare indi-
radio altimeter and the fuel tank inert gas pressur- cated in Table 5.
ization system.The Il-28U was equipped with an
RSIU-3B radio (instead of the bomber's RSU-5), The manufacturer'sflight test programme was com-
an AP-5 autopilot, a Bariy-M (Barium-M) IFF pleted on 30 March 1950. By then a bomber regi-
transponder,an SPU-5 intercom, an RV-2 radio ment commandedby Lt-Col A. A. Anpilov, Hero of
altimeter and a Materik-B ILS with SD-l distance- the SovietUnion, was taking deliveryof production
measuringequipment. Il-28 bombers. Therefore it was decided to hand
On 21 February 1950 a standard Beugle was over the Il-28U prototypeto that unit for evaluation
delivered to Ilyushin's experimental shop at in order to speed up conversion training. This
Khodynka (llllz No.240), straight off the MMZ enabledAnpilov's unit to achieveinitial operational

Table5. Il-28U prototypespecifications

obtainedat manufacturer's
flight tests
Length overall 17.65m (57ft 10.88 i n.)
Height on ground 6.0m ( l 9 ft 8.22i n.)
Span 21.45m (70ft 4.48in.)
Wing area 60.8m' (653.76 sq.ft)
Wing loading 288kg/m'(1.400lb/ft')
Power loading at sea level 3.25kg/kgp(lb/lbst)
Operatingempty weight 11,760 kg (25,92s1b)*
Normal all-up weight I 7,560kg (38,7l 2 l b)
Payload 5,800kg ( 12.786 l b)
Fuel load 5,500kg (12,125 l b)
Top speed: at 3,000m (9,842ft) 843km/h(455.67 kt)
at 5,000m (16,404ft) 820km/h (443.24kt)
Rate of climb at sealevelwith a 17,020kg(37,522Ib) TOW 17.0m/sec(3,345ft/min)
Climb time to 5,000m with a 17,020kg TOW 5.5mi n
Maximum range with a 17,020kg TOW 2,400km ( 1,490miles)
Take-off run 800m (2,624lt)**
Landing run I,170m (3,838 ft)' r' *
* With 250kg (551lb) of ballast.
{<t' IlyushinOKB data.
28 . IrvusnrlrrIr-28 BetcLe

An Il-28U makesa flypastduringa military parade,flankedby two MiG-19PFarmer-Ball-weatherinterceptors.



An Il-28U about to become airborne. The picture does not show how close the bird on the risht is to the aircraft.
( Ydint Gordon urthiv )

capabilityin time to participatein the 1950May were assignedNATO code names in the miscella-
Day paradein Moscow(whichof coursewaslargely neous aircraft category at the time - a practice later
a matter of prestige);the trainer prototype took discontinued; accordingly the Il-28U was code-
part in this parade, together with production named Mascot. On production Il-28Us the empty
Beagles.Then the I1-28Uwas turned over to NII operatingweight rose to I1,900 kg (26,234Ib) and
WS for Stateacceptance trialswhichtook placeon the all-up weight to 17,700kg (39,021lb), reduction
13 27 May; the act of acceptance was signedby in ballast notwithstanding.
SovietAir ForceC-in-C Air MarshalP.F. Zhigarev The transition from the Il-28U to the bomber ver-
on 8 June. sion did not require additional training. The report
The typeenteredlarge-scale productionatMMZ of the State commission said that a pilot with
No. 30 pursuantto an MAP orderof 2l July 1950 350-400 hrs' total time on anything from the
(all Il-2SUswerebuilt in Moscow),and remained Polikarpov Po-2 ab initio trainer to the Tu-2 bomber
the principaltrainerfor Sovietand WarPactactical could fly the Il-28 solo after only two to four flights
bomber pilots well into the 1970s.Soviettrainers on the trainer version. The Naval Air Arm (AVMF
. 29
Tun Il-28 Faurrr-v

Stillsfroma motionpictureshowingan Il-28Uin action.( Stt'gt.t und Dni I r'i t' Ko nt i ssu rot, u x l ti t't' )

- Aviahtsiya voyenno-morskovo flotu) also operated The Ilyushin OKB delivereda set of manufactur-
the Mascot: the first naval aviation unit to receive ing documentsfor the ejectiontrainer to MMZ No.
the Il-28U in October 1951was the 943rd MTAP 30 on 5 March 1954.Unfortunately it is not known
(minno-torpednyy aviupolft - minelaying and tor- how many Mu,yc'ots,if any, were built in this config-
pedo-bomberregiment). uration.

Il-28U ejectiontrainerversion Il-28R tactical reconnaissance

On 10 December 1953 the Minister of Aircraft On 5 March1950 another
Industry issued an order concerning the develop- ered by VK-l engineswas deliveredto MMZ No.
ment of a version of the Il-28U speciallymodified 240 for conversioninto the prototype of the Il-28R
for training Beuglc crews in ejection techniques. (fsanolyot-] ra:vedchik) reconnaissance aircraft.
This aircraft's raison d'?tre was that the crews were The unserialled aircraft entered flight test on
apprehensiveabout the bomber's first-generation l 9 A pri l 1950, one month and one day after
ejectionseat,fearing seriousinjuries in the eventof the first flight of the Il-28U, flown by pilot
an ejectionat low altitude or on landing,when most Vladimir K. Kokkinaki, flight engineerI. B. Ktiss
accidentshappen.It was necessaryto overcomethis and radio operator B. A. Yerofeyev.Once again
p sych o logic al
obs t ac l ea n d b u i l d u p th e p i l o ts ' c o n - A. P.Vinogradovwas in chargeof the flight tests.
fidence in the aircraft. The Il-28R was intended for tactical photo

The prototype of the Il-28R photo reconnaissanceaircraft. ( yt'firnGorrton

3 0 . In us r r r .lrr - 28B t . cGtr

iJ",n., view of the Il-28R prototype.Note the twin rod aerialson the upper f uselage.( y,/intGontonur<hit,L,)

reconnaissance (PHOTINT) to meet the obiectives freezingat high altitude; the night cameras,how-
o l fro nt s ( in a war s c e n a ri o ).fl e e tsa n d a i r a rm i e s . ever,did not havesuch containers.
For day reconnaissance the aircraft could carry a To extend range the capacity of the fuel system
PHOTINT suite comprising two AFA-33/100 or w as i ncreasedto 9,550 l i t./8,000 kg (2,10t i mp.
AFA-33/75 cameras on AKAFU mounts in the gal.llT,6361b).This was done by installinga 750lit.
forward and centre parts of the (former) bomb ( 165imp. gal.) long-rangetank in the aft portion of
bay for high/medium-altitude photography, one the bomb bay,which requiredthe standardfuelcell
AFA-33/20 or AFA-42120 (AFA-RB/20) down- No. 3 to be removed,and two 950 lit. (209 imp. gal.)
ward-looking camera in the rear part of the bomb drop tanks at the wingtips.As comparedto the stan-
bay and one AFA-33/50 or AFA-33/75 camera dard bomber, this amounted to 1,650lit. (363 imp.
mounted obliquely on the port side in a special gal.) of additional fuel.rThe increasedmissiontime
camera bay in the aft fuselage.Alternatively, some (up to five hours) necessitatedthe provisionof addi-
aircraft were fitted with two AFA-421100 or tional oxygen for the crew.
AFA-42175camerason the forward mount. Depending on the equipment fit the reconnais-
For night reconnaissancethe Il-28R carried sance version's MTOW was 22,685-22,720 kg
either two NAFA-3S/50 cameras or one (50,01I 50,088lb). Thereforethe main landing gear
NAFA-MK-75 (or NAFA-MK-50) camera in the units were reinforced and fitted with bigger wheels
forward part of the bomb bay. The rest of the bay measuri ng1,260x390mm (49.6x 15.35i n.) i nstead
was occupiedby twelve 50 kg (110 lb) FotAB-50-35 of the usual 1,150x 355 mm (45.27x 13.97i n.);
flare bombs;' this number was reduced to six if a besides,the landing gear was actuated hydraulically,
long-range fuel tank was fitted. The bombs were not pneumatically, and retracted in just eight
dropped using an NKPB-7 bomb sight which could
be usedat up to I 1,500m (37,729ft). (It should be
noted that one Russian sourcegives rather different 2 NAFA = nothno! aerofotoappuraht - aircraft camera lbr
data: three AFA-33 cameras with varying focal night operations; AKAFU = uytomaticheskuyakacha)'usch-
t'hayas,vaaerofotoustanovka automatic tilting mount for
lengths (100, 75 and 20 cm) and one AFA-RB
aircraft cameras; FotAB = .fbtograJicheskav-uaviahomba .
camera for day sorties and two NAFA-3S cameras photo bomb (i.e. flare bomb lor aerial photography); SAB =
for night sorties, assisted by FotAB-100-60, svetyascltchuyuaviabomba flarebomb.
FotAB-50-35. SAB-100-55 or SAB-100-35 flare 3 Some sourcesquoted a figure of 2,660 lit. (585.2imp. gal.) of
additional fuel. Also. some documents state that the addi-
bombs.) The cameraswere installed in snecial con-
tional fuselagerank held 760I]|'. (167.2imp. gal.), making for
tainers heated by air from the cockpit heating and a total i nternal fuel vol ume of 9,560 l i t. (2,103.2i mp. gal .),
pressurizationsystem to prevent the lubricant from and the drop tanks eachhel d 900 l i t. (198 i mp. gal .).
32 . IrvussrNIt-28 Bntcrc

seconds- much faster than on the standard bomber. similar to that of the basic bomber,exceptthat
The higher gross weight of the Il-28R also led the rangein high-altitude cruiseincreased to 3,150km
designersto introduce a unique feature minimizing (1,702nm); the combatradius740km (400nm) at
wear and tear on the tyres: the mainwheels were 5,000m (16,404ft) and 1,140km (616 nm) at
spun up automatically by hydraulic motors when 10,000 m (32,808ft). Indicatedairspeed waslimited
the gear was extended. According to the crews, to 750 km/h (416kt) at up to 4,000m (13,123ft),
this resulted in an exceptionally smooth touch- and Mach 0.78 above that altitude. Kokkinaki
down. reported that handling and cockpit visibility
Owing to the installationof cameracontrols the remainedunchanged.High-speedaerialphotogra-
starboard fixed NR-23 cannon had to be deleted as phy at variousaltitudesdid not affectpiloting tech-
a weight-saving measure.The PSBN-M radar was niques.The autopilot, as well as the heatedand
sometimes removed as well; in that case I l0 kg pressurized cockpits,reducedcrewfatigue,which is
(242.5 |b) of ballast was carried in the navigator's especially importantfor a reconnaissance aircraft.
compartment for CG reasons.Some changes were Initial flight testingwas completedon 29 June
made to the avionics fit: the reconnaissanceversion 1950.After passingthe Stateacceptance trialson 23
featured a Magniy-M (Magnesium-M) IFF inter- November,the Il-28R wasorderedinto production
rogatol an RSB-5 communications radio with a on 8 Decemberl95l andjoinedthe VVS inventory.
US-P receiver,an RSIU-3 command radio, an Initially the reconnaissance version was built in
SPU-5 intercom, RV-2 and RV-10 radio altimeters, Moscow,but from 1953onwardsIl-28Rproduction
an SP-50 Materik ILS, etc. For overwater flights waspassedon to aircraftfactoryNo. 39 in lrkutsk,
the I1-28R could carry an LAS-3 inflatable rescue whichhadpreviously built theTu-14T.
dinghy (lodka avareeyno-spasahtel'naya)in the The performanceof the production Il-28 and
bomb bay; this could be dropped by either the Il-28Ris comparedin Table6.
pilot or the gunner and inflated automaticallyby a
rip cord. The field performanceof the bomber and recon-
The performance of the Il-28R was broadly naissance versionsis comoaredin Table7.

Table 6. Performancecomparison:productionIl-28 and Il-28R

Emptyweight,kg (lb) 12,120(28,042) t3,250(29,2r0\

All-upweight,kg (lb):
normal 18,400(40,564) (44,13s)
in overloadconfiguratton 22,000(48,500) (49,581)
Fuel capacity,lit. (imp. gal.) (1,760)
8,000 9,550(2,101)
Top speed,km/h (kt) e02(487) 816(413)
at altitude,m (ft) 4,s00( 14,763) 5,000(16,404)*
Serviceceiling, m (ft) 12,400(40,682) (40,354)
Time to serviceceiling, mrn 42
Range,km (miles):
at 5,000m (16,404 ft) 1,790(1,111) 2,020(r,242)
cruisingat, km/h (kt) 556(300) s47 (295)
at 10,000m (32,808ft) (1,s21)
2.450 2,780(1,126)
cruisingat, km/h (kt) 698(377) 610(362)
at 10,000 m (32,808 ft) (1,602)
2,s80 3,040(1,888)
cruisingat, km/h (kt) 6e0(373) 670(362)
* The Il-28R's indicated airspeedbelow 4,000 m ( 13,123 ft) was limited to 750 km/h (405 kt); the Mach limit above
4.000m was 0.78.
THp Ir--28Fevrry.33

Table 7. Comparison of field performance: bomber and reconnaissanceversions

rofl kg(lb) Unstickspeed, Take-off run, Landing speed, Landing run,

km/h (kt) m (ft) km/h (kt) m (ft)
a) paved runway
[-28 20,100(44,312) 240(r29) l,400(4,593) 200-20s (4,921)
r-28R r9,800t22,200 259t274 |,610t2,rs0 220-225 (5,315)
(43,650t48,941) (1 4 0 /1 4 8 ) (5,28217,0s3) (1te-t2t)
runway(dirt strip)
b) unpaved
r-28 (44,312)
20,100 240(t2e) (5,s77)
1,700 200-205 t,200(3,937)
Il-28R r9,800t22,200 259t274 1,720t2,300 220-22s (4,265)
(43,650t48,941) (140/148) (s,643t7,546) (l 19-l 2l )

II-28RTR ELINT aircraft II-28REB (?)ECM aircraft

Apart from the Il-28R PHOTINT aircraft, Another specialized versionwas intendedfor elec-
the Beagle also had an electronic intelligence tronic countermeasures(ECM). Some sources
(ELINT) versiondesignatedII-28RTR ([samolyot] claim the aircraft was designated II-28REB
rahdiotel&nicheskoyrazvedki) reconnaissanceair- (rahdioelektronnayabor'bah - ECM). The main
craft poweredby VK-l engines.Outwardlyit could identification feature of this version was the
be identifiedby a secondteardrop-shaped dielectric cylindrical wingtip pods reminiscent of the
fairing installedin lieu of the faired-overbomb bay Il-28R's drop tanks, but featuringdielectricfront
doors.The II-28RTRwassuppliedto both the WS and rear portions concealingemitter antennas.
and the air forcesof someof the SovietUnion's The ECM version was also supplied to
allies,includingCzechoslovakia and Hungary. Czechoslovakia.

A HungarianAir ForceII-28RTRELINT aircraft,showingclearlythe dielectricteardropfairing over ELINT equip-

ment aft of the standard radome. ( yefimGordonarchive,
34 . It-vusHINL-28 Bt.tot.n

L,' .:t....,i-:.,:.rlil.l3:,
;.. hF '

A CzechAir Forceexampleol'the ECM version sometimesreferred to as I l-28R EB . ( Yt'finGottknun )

Il-28 radiation reconnaissance aircraft w ei ghed627 kg(1,382Ib) and had a243kg (5351b)
The Soviet Air Force's 647th Special Composite Beforedropping the torpedo the navigatorset its
Support Air Regimentoperatingin support of the travel depth (2 8 m|6.5-26 ft), chargedthe torpedo's
7l st Nuclear WeaponsProvingGround in Totskoye, condensersand began the run-in to the target as
OrenburgRegion,operatedtwo ll-28sfitted with air usual. At the appropriate moment the bomb sight
sampling pods for radiation reconnaissance. automatically triggered the drop mechanism.One
Compressed-airbottles were installedin the bomb second later the small propeller-shapeddrag para-
bays to pressurize the cockpits, ensuring that chute deployed and the torpedo descendedverti-
radioactiveproducts would not enter. As an addi- cally, dropping quickly like a bomb' The main
tional protective measure the cockpit walls were parachute deployed at 500 m (1,640 ft), reducing
lined with lead, and radiometerswere provided for descentspeed.It separatedafter the torpedo entered
the crew. Together with similarly modified aircraft the water, then the foreplanes were brought into
and helicopters of various types, these Beaglesflew play to turn the torpedo horizontally and werejetti-
through radioactiveclouds in the wake of nuclear ioned immediately afterwards. Then the solid-fuel
tests,measuring radiation levels. rocket motor fired and the torpedo acceleratedto
58 68 kt (107 130 km/h); by comparison,conven-
Il-28 torpedo-bomberconversion tional torpedoes with steam turbines could not
travel faster than 40-45 kt. Time from drop to
The AVMF also operated the Beagle after August impact was only about 35 seconds,which left the
1951; this aircraft suitedthe SovietNavy betterthan target no time for evasiveaction.
the Tu-14, being lighter and more agile.lnitially the The chief shortcoming of the RAT-52 was the
naval Il-28s were operated in standard bomber con- rocket motor's short burn time, resulting in a range
figuration; however, as early as I June 1950 the of only 550 600 m ( I ,804-1,968ft), which took the
Council of Ministers orderedthe developmentof a bomber uncomfortably close to the target (within
torpedo-bomberversion.The bomb bay was modi- range of the ship's air defences).On the other hand,
fied to carry one RAT-52 rocket-propelled torpedo
internally. Developed by NII-2,a this weapon was
conceived as a homing torpedo, but the guidance 4 Later became the State Research Institute of Aircrafi
system was considered too complicated and was Systerns(GosNII AS
version' The torpedo d ovut el'.sk i1,inst ito ot ar i (1t seeonnyk h sist em).
deleted in the production
. 35
THUlr-28 F.c\,rrrr'



An Il-28 convcrtcclitrlo a torpcdo-bomtrcris about to bc loaclcclwith u RAT--52lorpcclo.Notc 1hc lirrcpluncson

rrttscb|inging thc lorpcclointo lcvcl uttiluclcalicr splashclowl.r. (;t)tttt)il
, )i,/r)ii !rtttitt)


l0 Rcd. another Bca.qlccotrvcrtedlbr pleparcd lor a mission (notc lircl hoses).r ttlirtt(i.nt.rt
36 . Ir-vusrrrx
lt-28 Bt-,.tr;r,t



Thc sccondprototypc ol' thc pulposc-built Il-28T tolpcclo-bonrbcr.Thc non-stanclardnoscglaziug is clcarly
arc thc irngulurcockpitwinclshiclcl (i,uhtrttrcltirl
anclunclcrnoscblislcr lirr thc PTN--52optical si-uht.r )i,/nri

th e t or pedo c oul d b e d ro p p c d a t a n y a l ti tu de does (i .c. 450 mrn/l l .l i t" i brc. 1954 rnodel ,
b e t ween1. 500m ( 4 ,9 2 0fi ) a n d th e a i rc ra l i ' ss c r\i cc MAN = ltorpedul urotlcrttizecrt)vtnnu.t'u, utiuLsiott-
ce ilingat a s peedo f L rpto 8 0 0 k m /h (4 4 4k t). w h i ch rttt.ttr,
niikot'.t'sottluyu updatedaircraft torpcdo for
was of par t ic ula r i mp o rta n c e fb r j c t to rp c d o- l ow -ul ti tudeattacks)w hi ch i t w i shedto useon thc
bombcrs.Live drops at the Sovict Navy's tcst range Il -28.H ow ever.i t turned out that the bombcr' shi gh
sh owc d a k ill pr o b a b i l i ty o l ' l 7 3 8 p c r c c n t i n a speed rendered these torpedoes unsuitablc. Thc
si nglc - t or pedo at t a c k . weapon had to undergo a lengthy upgradc pro-
Dur ing t r ials h e l d o u th c Bl a c k S c a i n gramme.emergi ngi n 1956as the 45-56N T torpedo
Se pt em berNov c mb c r 1 9 5 2 "T u -l 4 T a n d rro d i fied (NT = nizlto)'atorpefuttuetahnivclow-altitudetor-
Il-28 torpedo-bombers sr-rccessfully dropped 54 pcdo attack)w hi ch coul d be droppedat 120 230 nr
RA T - 52 t or pedoe s ,b o th i n e rt a n d l i v e ; ta rg c t i ng (393 t 54 fi) and 550 600 kmlh (291 324 kt).
was done us ingan O P B-6 S Rs i g h to n b o th a i rc ra fi .
Thc RAT-52 was officially included in thc AVMF
(first useof
Il-28T torpedo-bomber
i n v c nt or yon 4 F eb ru a ry1 9 5 3 .It c o u l d b c c a rri c dby
TLr-l4T torpedo-bombers and convcrtcd Il-28s
(deliveriesof the latter began the sameyear). With Apparently the cnginecrswcre aware of the short-
one torpedo thc rnodified Il-28T had an 18,400kg comings of thc quick-fir torpedo-bomberconver-
(40.564 lb) TOW and a top speed ol' 906 km/h sion all along, becausedevelopmentof a dedicated
(503 kt); serviceceiling and range were 12,500n-r torpedo-bornber,designatedIl-28T (torpadonoset.s).
(4 1. 010f t ) and 2. 4 0 0k m ( 1 .4 9 0m i l e s )re s p e c ti v el y. also began in 1950.The mock-up rcview commls-
However. the converted Il-28 had some senous sion signedthe act of acceptanceon 7 July that year. carried only about one third of its The aircraft was intended for high- and low-alti-
designpayioad and could not carry other modelsof tude torpedo attacks and minelaying. It differed
torpedoesinternally,as they weretoo long to fit into fiom standard Il-28s and those convertedinto tor-
the standard bornb bay. Also, the Soviet NavzilAir pedo-bombersprimarily in having a weaponsbay
Arm had largestocksof pre-war45-36MAN torpe- l engthenedfrom 4.18 m (13 l t 8.56 i n.) to 6.66 m
Tsn Ir--28Fnurry. 37

il I


The same aircraft. pictured most probably at Moscow-Khodynka, with an Il-12 airliner in the background.The c/n
50301104is visibleon the nose.( yalim

(21 ft 10.2in.) and havingthe wings moved back 100 The normal ordnance load was 1,000 kg
mm (3.93in.), with appropriatechangesto the fuse- (2,204lb), which permitted carriage of one torpedo
lagestructure.The modificationof the weaponsbav of various models (45-36AVA.TAS. TAV. RAT-52
and the provision of an LAS-3 .escu. dinghy or A-2), or two AMD-500 anti-shippingmines,or
requiredchangesto fuel cellsNos. 2,3 4 and 5. This oneA MD -1000, A MD -M orType A mi ne.If neces-
reduced internal fuel capacity from 8,000 lit. sarythe Il -28T coul d carry up to 3,000kg (6,613l b)
(1 ,7 6 0i m p. gal. )t o 4, 77 0 ti t. (1 ,2 6 9 .4i m p . g a l .)a n d of weaponsat the expenseof a reducedfuel load
the fuel load from 6,600 kg (14,550lb) to 5,080kg and hence shorter range. In that case possible
(l l ,l 9 9 lb) . T o c om pen s a tefo r th i s th e Il -2 8 T h a d weaponsconfigurationsweretwo 45-46AMV torpe-
provisionsfor 950 lit. (209 imp. gal.) tip tanks,each does total l i ng 1,940kg (4,2761b),or one 1,500kg
h o l d i n g7 50 k g ( I , 653lb ) o f fu e l , a s o n rh e Il -2 8 R . (3,306lb) TOZ torpedo, or one I ,100 kg (2,425lb)
The starboardfixed NR-23 cannon and its round A MD -1000 mi ne, or four A MD -500 mi nes (2,000
counter were deleted, as was the AFA-33175 (or k914,409lb), or two Serpeymines (2,500 kg/5,511
NAFA-MK) camera. Instead. rwo AFA-BA/400 lb), or two Lira (Lyre) mines (1,940kgl4,276lb), or
vertical camerasand an AKS-l hand-driven crne- two Desnamines(1,500kg).s
camera were installed to record the strike results. Despite the relocatedwings, the externaldimen-
Other new equipmentitems includeda Magniy IFF sions were identical to those of the I1-28R. The
interrogator, a PTN-45 low-altitude sighl (pritset Il-28T could be refitted and usedas a conventional
torpednyy nizkovysotnyy sight optimized for low- bomber with a bomb load equal to that of the stan-
leveltorpedo drops) and a separatepp-l high-alti- dard Beuglt,.
tude sight also used for dropping anti-shipping Prototypeconversionwascompletedin 1950.The
mines;a Model 1010electricheaterwas providedto first prototype Il-28T (c/n 50301106) first flew on
defrost the sighting window of the PTN-45. Some
of the existing equipment items were relocated,and
additional armour protection was provided for the 5 The meaning ol the name Scryey is not known but it sounds
pilot and navigator. suspiciouslylike an anagram of Pcrsey(Perseus).
38 . IrvusurNlt -28BBrcLn

Table8. Il-28T specifications

Manufacturer's Manufacturer's State acceptance
estimates flight tests trials

Wing loading,kg/m:(lbhq. ft) 308(1,4e7) 308(1,497) 308(1,4e7)

Powerloading at S/L, kg/kgp (lb/lb st) 3.4 3.48 3.48
Emptyweight,kg (lb) 13,085 (28,847) 13,370 (29,41s) 13,370(29,475)
Normal AUW, kg (1b) 18,400(40,564) 18,760 (41,358)* t8,763(4r,364)*
MaximumAUW, kg (lb) 21,330(47,023) 21,620(47,663)* 21,630(47,685)*
Landingweight,kg (lb) 1 3 ,8 40(30,51l) n.a. n.a.
Internalfuel load,kg (1b) 3,600(7,936) 3,800(8,377) 3,800(8,377)
Fuelload with tip tanks,kg (lb) 6,580(14,506) 6,475(14,274) 6,48s(14,296)
Payload,kg (lb): normal 5 ,3 1 5(t 1,717) 5,390(l l,882) 5,390(l 1,882)
maxlmum 8,245(t8,t76) 8,250(18,187) 8,260(18,209)
Top speed(with tip tanks),km/h (kt):
at 1,000m (3,280ft) n.a. 802(433.5) 785/800**
at 5,000m (16,404ft) n.a. 874(472.4) 8271877**
at 10,000m (32,808ft) n.a. 836(451.8) 802/840**
Landingspeed,km/h (kt) n.a. n.a. 178(e6.2)
Rateof climb,m/sec(ftlmin):
at S/L n.a. 13.4(2,637) 14.7(2,8e3)
at 5,000m n.a. 7.8(1,53s) e.05(1.781)
at 10.000m n.a. 2.3(4s2) 3.3(64e)
Climb time.min: to 5.000m n.a. 8.0 7.1
to 10,000 n.a. 26.4 2t.4
Serviceceiling,m (ft) n.a, 1,s00 (37,729) l l,950(39,206)
Maximumrangewith tip tanksand one 2 ,2 0 0(1,366)* * * 1,64412,221# 2,t49(t,334)##
45-36AMVtorpedo,km (miles) (r,02vr,379)
Endurancewith tip tanksand one n.a. 3 hr 03mini 3hr 29minl
45-36AMVtorpedo,km (miles) 3hr33min# 3hr41.5minff{
Take-offrun, unassisted,m (ft) n.a. 875/1,4s0 t 950/1,395
(2,87014,7s7) (3,n614,s76)
Take-off run with JATO bottles,m (ft) n .a. 770(2,s26) I l,020(3,346)I
Take-offdistance, m (ft)
unassisted, n .a. 1,570t2,460 | 2,00012,630lI
(5,l sl/8,070) (6,s6u8,628)
Take-off distancewith JATO bottles,m (ft) n.a. l,3oo(4,265) I 2,410(7,906)I
Landingrun, m (ft)n.a. n.a. e40(3,084) II
Landing distance,m (ft) n.a. n.a. 2,t2s(6,97r)
* With one45-36AMVtorpedo.
*'k At N (enginespeed)= 11,200rpm/11,560rpm respectively.
**{' With a 1,000kg(2,2041b)weaponsload at 10,000-12,700 m (32,808-41,666f0.
At 5,000m(16,404fty543kn/h (293k0 and 10,000m (32,808ft)l645kmlh(348kt) respectively.
At | 0,000m (32,808ft) and 652km/h (352kt) with a 21,632kg97,689Ib) AUW.
I With an 18,768kg (41,3751b) normalAUW anda2l,620kg(47,663Ib) maximumAUW.
ll With an 18,760kg ( 4l ,357lb) normalAUW and a 21,620kg (47,663lb) maximumAUW.
with a 22,100ks(48,721Ib)TOVI
** With a 15,000kg (33,068lb) landingweight.
i++ At 10,000m (32,808ft) and 6521569 km/h (3521307 with a 21,632kg(47,689lb)AUVI
kt) respectively
Tur Il-28 Favty .39

Table 9. Torpedo attack configuration

Ordnancetype 45-364M TAS A-2 45-364MV

Quantity I I I 2
Ordnanceweight,kg (lb) 1,043(2,29e) (3,379)
1 ,5 3 3 61s(1,3s5) 2,128(4,691)
Fuelload,kg (1b) 6,48s(r4,296) 6,485(14,296) 6,485(t4,296) s,550( I 2,235)
Take-offweight,kg (1b) 21,600(47,6t9) 22,090(48,699) 2r,063(46,435) 2t,63s(47,696)

Table 10. Minelaying configuration

Ordnancetype AMD-500 AMD- Lira Seroev Desna IGDM

I 000 (on BD-4 rack)
Qu a n ti ty 24l12t 2 I
Ord n a nc e 1, 018 2 ,0 1 8 1 ,0 1 8 988 1,958 1,268 2,518 768 1.518 1,268
weight,kg (lb) (2,244) (4,448) (2.244) (2,t78) (4,316) (2,795) (5,s5t) ( 1,6e3) (3,346) (2,794)
Fuelload, 6,485 5,550 6,485 6,485 5,700 6,485 4.800 6,485 6,I 50 6,485
!s(lbl (14,296) (t2,23s) (14,296)(14,296) (12,566) (14,296) (10,582)(14,296)(13,558)(14,296)
TOW'kg ( lb) 2t , 57s 2 t ,6 4 0 2 1,s 75 2 l ,s 4 5 Zl ,616 21,825 21,0s4 2t,325 21,626 2t.825
(47,s64) (47,707)(47,s64)(47.497) (47,6s4) (48,us) (46,503)(47,0t2) (47,676)(4 8r,r5 )

8 January l95l with Vladimir K. Kokkinaki at the the AVMF arsenal,followed by the 45-56NT tor-
controls; N. D. Sorokin was the flight engineerand pedo two years later. Both types were powered by
A. P. Vinogradov was the engineerin charge of the steam enginesand were carried by the Tu- | 4T along
flight tests.The second prototype (c/n 50301104) with the RAT-52. In order to standardizethe arma-
joined the programme on l2 March 1951,making ment carried by Soviet torpedo-bombers and
its maiden flight from Khodynka again at the increasetheir punch, it was decidedto upgradethe
hands of Vladimir K. Kokkinaki. Outwardly the Il-28sthen in service.
Il-28T prototypes differed from standard Beaglesin To this end a standardIl-28 toroedo bomber was
having a small Perspex blister under the nose retrofitted with two external BD-4T torpedo racks
accommodating the lower part of the PTN-45 sight, (hahlochnyy derzhahtel' beam-type [weapons]
a non-standard navigator's glazing framework and rack). The increasedpayload meant that the centre
a non-standardangular cockpit windshield with a fuselage frames had to be reinforced. The aircraft
rectangular windscreenand optically flat sidelights. was also fitted with the new PTN-55 low-altitude
The manufacturer's tests were completed on l7 sight, albeit incomplete, which was concurrently
April 1951 (the test report was endorsedsix days being testedon a modified Tu-14T.This allowedthe
later). Then the Il-28T was submitted to the Soviet navigator to programme the torpedo to move in a
Navy's ResearchInstitute No. 15 for State acceDt- zigzag (this feature was believed to increasekill
ance trials, which proceededfrom 7 June to 25 July probability but demandeda substantialincreasein
l95l and also went successfully.In August 1951the the torpedo's range) and feed target data into the
complete set of manufacturing documents was torpedo's control module up to the moment of
transferred to one of the production factories; the release.
type enteredlimited production and servicewith the The modified aircraft - which, rather confusingly,
AVMF.. For this achievementa group of OKB-240 was again designatedIl-28T could carry three
employeeswas again nominated for the Stalin Prize. RAT-52 torpedoes (two externally and one inter-
The specifications of the Il-28T are given in nally) or two 45-54VT or 45-36NT torpedoesexter-
Table 8. nally; alternatively,two AMD-500 anti-shipping
mines could be carried externally. The weapons
Tables9 and l0 detail the Il-2ST's weaponsoptions. were dropped at altitudes of 40,400 m (l3l f ,312
ft) and speedsof 360-800km/h (200 444krJ.
However, the Navy was displeased,claiming the
Il-28T torpedo-bomberconversion(second
useof designation)
6 Some sources,though. claim the Il-28T did not enter produo-
In 1954theimproved
torpedo(i.e.450mm tion becauseof the protracted development ol the 45-56NT
calibre, 1954 model, YT - vysotnoyetorpedometah- torpedo and the inability to carry two RAT-52 torpedoes
niye -high-altitude torpedo attack) was included in internally.
40 . IrvusurnIt-28 Br,totr

required modifications were too extensive.Besides,

the high-drag external stores impaired the aircraft's
performance and causedsome restrictions on pilot-
ing techniques. Rotation at take-off became very
difficult; the aircraft experiencedseverevibration at
high speed, almost certainly caused by the turbu-
lence generated by the external torpedo racks.
Tailplane buffet was commonly encountered in a
shallow dive when two torpedoeswere carried exter-
nally; if one torpedo was carried it generated so
much drag as to render turns in the opposite direc-
tion impossible.
The aircraft completed its trials programme in This Beagle,with a non-standard deepradomeand drop
tanks, is probably an Il-28N (ll-28A) nuclear-capable
1955. All its shortcomings notwithstanding, the
bomber. ( YclimGonlonurchivc1
Navy expected to modify some of its I1-28sto this
standard. However, this conversion programme
never materialized because the 11-28was getting
long in the tooth and the Soviet bomber and tor-
pedo-bomber force was re-equipping with the more dropped, with a day's interval in each case,between
modern Tu-I6. Still, the PTN-55 sieht did find its 29 Septemberand 5 October 1954.Allin allthe test
way into service. programme involved more than fifty flights, fifteen
of which were weapon drops; the safety of landing
with an unused bomb was checked, among other
Il-28N (Il-28A)nuclear-capable
bomber things.
The Soviet military doctrine of the early 1950s After the successfulcompletion of the trials the
demanded that tactical aviation was to possess RDS-4 enteredproduction;so did the nuclear-capa-
nuclear capability. Several types of small tactical ble version of the Beagle, which was designated
nuclear weapons, including the RDS-4 Tat'yana If-28N (nositel' lspetsboyepripahsul- carrier of
bomb, were under development at the time, and the special, i.e. nuclear, munitions). Apart from the
Soviet government issueda directive demanding the changesto the bomb bay, the aircraft differed from
development of new tactical bombers capable of the standard bomber in having an updated avionics
delivering them. However, this would clearly be a suite. The PSBN-M ground-mapping radar was
time-consumingprocess,so it was decidedto mod- replaced by an RBP-3 unit (rahdiolokutseeonnyy
ify existing aircraft in servicewith the WS, includ- bombardiyovochnyy pritsel - radar bomb sight) in a
ing the Il-28, for the nuclearrole. much deeper radome.' It indicated headings,dis-
First, two Il-28s were specially modified by tance to ground waypoints, altitude abovesuch way-
OKB-30 (the design bureau of MMZ No. 30) for points, ground speed and aircraft position. The
testing the RDS-4 according to the specifications bomb bay was provided with a heating system to
passedby OKB-l l, which had developedthe bomb. keep the nuclear bomb's systemsfrom freezing up,
Among other things, the modification involved heat and the cockpits featured shutters protecting the
insulation and heating of the bomb bay, installation crew from the flash of the nuclear explosion. An
of special equipment to monitor the weapon's sys- RSIU-5V UHF communications radio, a US-8
tems status,as well as test equipment to measurethe receiver,and RV-18 and RV-2 radio altimeters were
parameters of the explosion, including cine-cam- fitted. The electricalsystemwas modified to include
eras capturing the development of the famous PO-3000 (main) and PO-3000A (reserve) single-
mushroomcloud. phaseAC transformers.
The first drop of an RDS-4 from the Il-28 took The I1-28N's empty weight was 13,040 kg
place on 23 August 1953. On that occasion the (28,141lb) 150kg (330 lb) more than the standard
bomb was in the so-calledcheck configuration with bomber's;TOW was 18,550kg (40,895lb). The CG
data link sensors and a conventional warhead. had shifted slightly aft, but this had virtually no
The aircraft was flown by pilot V. I. Shapovalov, effect on the aircraft's handling and performance.
navigator/bomb aimer A. V. Koz'minykh and gun- Forty-two Il-2SNs were briefly deployed to Cuba
ner/radio operator B. S. Soodakov.The weapon was in1962 during the Cuban missilecrisis.This version
droppedat I 1,000m (36,089ft), detonatingsuccess- is sometimes referred to as Il-28A (ahtomnyy -
fullv at the oresetaltitude. Four RDS-4 bombs were atomic, i.e. nuclear-capable).
Tse ll-28 Favty.4l

It-28S tactical bomberproject 'aircraft 82' (Tu-82) swept-wingtactical bomber

In 1949 50 OKB-240 sought ways of further (which,incidentally,closelyresembled
improving the design of the basic il-Zg. The marn il-28S).
objective was to increase the bomber's speed and
ra n g e .T his was t o be a c h i e v e db y ma ti n g th e e x i s t_ II-28RM experimental tactical
ing fuselage and tail surfaces with all-iew winss reconnaissance aircraft
swept back 35oat quarter-chord and installine
powerful and fuel-efllcientKlimov VK_5 c.-ntrifu_ -oi. Meanwhile,the Ilyushin OKB attemptedto intro_
gal-flow turbojets. The VK-5 was a derivativeof the d.ucethe new VK-5 powerplanton productionver_
production sionsof the straight-wingIl-2g. Severalgovernment
YK-1A uprated to 3,100 kgp (6,g34 lb directivesand MAP orderswereissuedlenvisagrng
st) for take-off and2,760kgp (6,0g4Ib sljfor cruise,
differing mainly in having a more efficient comores_ the installation of VK-5s on all three princioa-i
versionsof the Bcagla conventional 'bombeq
sor; the engine'sdry weight and external dimeniions
remained unchanged.This undoubted achievement torpedo-bomber and reconnaissance aircraft.
was made possible by the use of new heat_resistant The last version receivedthe highest priority,
ullglt, a higher turbine temperature and more sincethe WS wasdesperate to extendthe ieachof
efficient cooling. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) its tacticalreconnaissance aircraft.The pHOTINT
was 6 per cent lower than that of the production aircraft then under developmentat the Mikoyan
VK-IA. (OKB-I55) and yakovlev (OKB-115) dejign
bureauxwerea priori handicappedby inadequate
_ However, preliminary design studies showed that
the swept-wing Il-28S (strelovidnoye krylo _ swepr range, being derived from tactical fishters; con_
wings) offered no significant advantagesover the versely,the Il-28R and .aircrafrZa'ltu_Zb, tne
production Beagle. Moreover, the incoiporation of PHOTINT versionof the Tu-14)were basedon
new wings would incur major technologicalprob_ bo^mbers designedto havemuch longerrange.The
lems. Hence developmentof the Il-2gS-wasaban_ 3, (1,863mile)rangerargetwasto behet by
doned - a decision later proved correct by the chief installingmorefuel-efficient eneines.
competitor's negativeexperience.The Tupolev OKB On 3 August1951theCouncilof Ministersissued
had achieved scant successwith the experimental directiveNo. 2817-1388ss, orderingthe develop_
ment of the Il-28RM {,samolyoT-lra:vedchik,
modifitse,erovannyy - reconnaissanceaircraft,
7 Some sourcesclaim the Il-28N was outwardly identical modified)poweredby VK-5 engines.
standard bomber.
to the The deadline
for submission for Stateacceptance trialswassetat



The Il-28RM prototype; note the angular cockpit windshield. ( yefittt

4 2 . 1r -rr-s r r r rI r - 28B i ro l



t'l'i ''
;'i' illi:i'
*.' .i+^a
,." ,.\rgH '.'l:
',1 ' ' l);,a*:r ; ir-"';
- r-n.lS8l"i

*F"ti, .*..4{ffi#1lT*l*,{; :;?;$ffi

T hc sa nrca ircn rli with t hc dr op t ank s lc r . r . r ov crccl,v c alin gt h c v c r t i c a l l yc u 1 - o l l 'w i n e l i p sw i t h d r o l 'rt a n k l i t t i n g s i n s l c a col i
rvin gtipla ilings .r lilit t r( ir t r &t t t t t r c lt iv )
thc usr,ral

Head - o r r v i e w o f t h e ll- 2 8 RM . i Itlittt ( jo n lo rut n h ir t,)

TsE L--28 Favry .43

Table11. I|-28RM specifications

Manufactureros State acceptance

flight tests trials
Length overall 17.65
m (57ft 10.88 i n.)
Heighton ground 6.0m (19ft 8.22in.)
Span 21.45m (70ft 4.48in.)
Wing area 60.8m':(653.76 sq.ft)
Wing loading,kg/m,(lb/ft,) 321(1,560) n.a.
Powerloadingat sealevel,kgikgp (lb/lb sQ 3.12 n.a.
Operatingemptyweight,kg (lb) 13,485(29,728) 13,467(29,689)
Normal all-upweight,kg (lb) 19,500(42,989) 20,200(44,532)
MaximumAUW (with drop tanks),kg (lb) 22,950(s0,s9s) 22,930 (50,551)
Fuelload,kg (lb):
internal 5,030(l 1,089) 5,030(l t,089)
with drop tanks 8,250(18,187) 8,200(t 8,077)
Payload,kg (lb):
normal 6,015(13,260) 6,0r5(13,260)
_ in overloadconfiguration(with drop tanks) 9,467(20,870) n.a.
Top speed,km/h (kt):
at4,250m (13,943 ft) 926/n.a. n.a.
at 5,000m (16,404
ft) 877t851 n.a.
(474.01460.0)*'k 89I /863
at 6,600m (21,653
ft) n.a, (481.62t466.48)**
at 7,000m (22,965ft') n.a. (n.a.1466.48)**
at 10,000m (32,808ft) 862t827 n.a./841
.0)** (n.a.1454.59)**
Rateof climb,m/sec(ftlmin):
at sealevel 24.5| 17.0 (4,821 *
I 3,34s)* n.a.
at 5,000m (16,404ft) | 5.4t10.3(3,030t2,027)** n.a.
at 10,000 m (32,808ft) 6.613.4(1,299t669)** n.a.
Climb time,min:
to 5,000m(16,404ft) 4.216.15** 6.21n.a.* *
to 10,000 m (32,808ft) 12.419.3** 18.0/n.a.* *
Serviceceiling,m (ft) 13,050n2,175 12,500/11,500
(42,814t39,944)** (41,010t37,729)**
Rangewithout drop tank separation,
km (miles) 3,007(1,867)# 2,090(1.298)##
Rangewith drop tank separation,
km (miles) 3,042t3,254 3,250(2,018)I
Endurancewithout drop tank separation 4hr40mi n# n.a.
Endurancewith drop tank separation 4hr 39.5minl n.a.
4 hr 49.5min t
Take-off run, m (ft) 963t1,233 995il,295
lt (3,264t4,248)
m (ft)
Take-offdistance, |,807
t2,477 2,030t2,400
tt (6,660t7,874)
It('* At take-offpower(N 11,560rpm); otherdatafor N = I1,200rpm.
With normal/maximumAUw - 19,700122,570kg(43,430149,2sy'tU) respectivelyduringmanufacturer,s flight tests
and20,200122,930 kg(4a,532150,551lb) respectively
duringStateacceptance trials.
L Igy ?1'900kg (50,705lb), cruisealtitudeio,ooom (32,s0;8
ft) and cr'uisingspeed670km/h (362.l6kt).
t# Igy 22,930k9(50,1f1 lb), cruisealtitudes,0oom1io,4o4ft) and cruising*speed 560km/h tjoi]
i lgy rg000 kg (50'70slb), cruisealtitude10,000/10,500 12,:50om1ri,aoal:+,44841,0r0ft) andcruisingspeed
695 kmlh (368.64137
9'!21 5.67kt) respectively.
ff With normalimaximum TOW respectivelv.
I At optimumcruisealritudeand cruisingspeed665km/h (359.45kt).
44 . IrvussrNlr-28 BntcLt

Table12. Il-28 VK-S-powered
Manufacturer'sfl ight tests State acceptancetrials
c/n 52003701 c/n 52ffi3719 c/n 52003701 c/n 52003719
Lengthoverall 17.65m (57ft 10.88in.)
Span 21.45m (70ft 4.48in.)
Wing area 60.8m'?(653.76 sq.ft)
Wing loading,kg/m' (lb/ft') 308(1,4e6) 3l l (l ,5l l ) 322(r,s6s)
Powerloadingat sealevel,kdkgp (lb/lb st) 3.2 3.l 6
Operatingemptyweight,kg (lb) t3,3s0(29,43r) 13,560
Normal all-upweight,kg (lb) 18,7t0(41,247) 18,920
MaximumAUW (with drop tanks),kg (lb) 24,090(53,108)24,300(s3,s7r) 24,0s0
Fuelload,kg (lb):
internal 3,800(8,377) 3,800(8,377) 3,800(8,377) 3,800(8,377)
with drop tanks (17,636) 8,000
8,000 (17,636) 8,150
(t7,967) 8,050(17,746)
Payload,kg (lb):
normal 5,360(l 1,816) 4,360(9,6t2) 6,487(14,301) 6,485(14,296)
maximum r0,740(23,677) r0,740
Top speedat 19,300kg(42,548Ib)AUW
andN = I1,560rpm,km/h(kt):
at S/L 800(432.43)* 800(432.43)* 800(432.43)* 800(432.43)*
at 2,850m (21,653 ft) 9r7(495.61) n.a. n.a. n.a.
at 3,000m (22,965ft) n.a. 9r8 (496.21) 9tr (492.43) 900(486.48)
at 4,000m (13,943 ft) n .a. 921(497.83) n.a. n.a.
at 5,000m (16,404ft) 900(486.48) 918(496.21\ n.a. n.a.
at 10,000m (32,808ft) 828(447.s6) n.a. 844(456.2r) 844(4s6.2r)
Landingspeed,km/h (kt) r8 9(102) 186(100.5) n.a. n.a.
Rateof climb at 19,300kg (42,548Ib)AUW
and N = I1,250rpm, m/sec(ftlmin):
at sealevel 2t.s(4,23r) le.5(3,837) n.a. n.a.
at 5,000m t3.9(2,73s) t3.r(2,s78) n.a. n.a.
at 10,000m 6.s(r,279) 6.7s(r,328) n.a. n,a.
Climb time at 19,300kg AUW and
N = 11,250 rpm,min:
to 5,000m 4 .85 5.25 n.a. n,a.
to 10,000m 13.3 13.8 14.0 14.0
Effectiverangewith drop tanksand 2,000kg 3 ,0 0 0(1,863) (1,863) 2,710
3,000 (1,683) 2,670(t,6s8)
(4,409Ib)of bombs,km (miles)
Technicalrangewith drop tanksand 2,000kg (1,870)** 2,820t3,020
3 ,1 0 0(1,925)* 3,012 # 2,79012,980 ##
of bombs,km (miles) (r,7sur,870)(l ,733l r,850)
Technicalrangewithout drop tanksandwith 1,298(806)*** 1,309 (1,870)
I n.a. n.a.
I ,000kg (2,204lb)of bombs,km (miles)
Endurancewith drop tanksand 2,000kg of 4 hr 51min* 4 hr 33min** n.a. n.a.
Endurancewithout drop tanksand with 2 hr 07 min 'r"'* 2 hr 02minf n.a. n.a.
1,000kg of bombs
Take-off run, m (ft):
with normalTOW e20(3,018) 94s(3,100) 1,000(3,280) r,0s0(3,444)
withmaximumTOW 1,4r0(4,626)I t,430(4,69r)fi r,370(4,494) r,360(4,462)
Take-offdistance,m (ft):
with normalTOW (6,561) r,760(s,774)
(6,151) 2,000
1 ,8 7 5 r,9s4(6,4r0)
with maximumTOW 2,s2s(8,284)| 2,708(8,884)
tt 2,4ts(7,e23) 2,34s(7,6e3)
Landingrun, m (ft):
no airbrakes 9r3(2,99s) n.a. 660(2,165) 800(2,624)
airbrakesdeployed 607(r,991) s24(r,7r9) 550(1,804) 660(2,r6s)
Landing distance,m (ft):
no airbrakes 1,692(s,551) n.a. n.a. n.a.
airbrakesand brakeparachutedeployed r,2ss(4,117) (3,618) n.a. n.a.
THe Ir--28Fevny.45

March 1952 a tight schedulewhichprovedimpos- enginedbombervariantwasinitiatedby Councilof

sibleto maintain.The unserialledII-28RM proto- Ministers(CofM) directiveNo. 5329-2088ss of 29
type (c/n 52003714) first flew on 17 February1952, December 1952 and MAP order No.lss of I
but the manufacturer'sflight testswere not com- January1953.
pleteduntil 12 April (the test report was signedon The two prototypeswere convertedfrom stan-
29 Aprll); thus the Stateacceptance trials did not dard Moscow-built Il-28s (c/ns 52003701and
commenceuntil l0 July.The trials wereduly com- 52003719).Pursuantto the above-mentioned CofM
pletedon l5 January1953. directivethe first prototypewasto be transferredto
The I1-28RM featuredthe latest version of the LII for testing,while the other aircraft was to be
intendedpowerplant- the VK-5E (ekonomichnyy , deliveredto NII VVS in April 1953for Stateaccept-
fuel-effrcient),incorporating additional measures ancetrials.
aimed at reducingthe SFC. This enginepassedits Apart from the engines,the bombershad a few
Stateacceptance trials concurrentlywith the aircraft other changes.Both aircraft had wingstakenfrom
itself.The new enginesnecessitated a redesignof the the Il-28R, with wingtip drop tanksto extendtheir
enginebearers andenginenacellestructure, theengine range. The second prototype featured enlarged
controlsystemhad to bemodifiedand thelowerskins 1,260x 390mm (49.6x 15.35in.) mainwheels bor-
of theouterwingsstiffened.No changesweremadeto rowed from the Il-28R and an automaticwheel-
thearmamentandequipment. brake system,while the first prototype retained
Nevertheless, the good performanceof the air- standard1,150x 355mm (45.27x 13.97in.)main-
craft and its powerplantdid not help.Because of the wheels.The 12-4-30DC batterieswerereplacedby
scrappingof the Il-28SandTu-93projectsfor which new I2SAM-25batteriesand movedforwardto the
the new enginewas primarily intended(the Tu-93 radarbayto shift the CG forward.
was a VK-5 poweredversion of the Tu-14), the The defensivearmamentwasidenticalto that of
VK-5 did not enterproduction- and henceneither the standardIl-28,comprisingtwo nose-mounted
did the II-28RM.Besides, it wasclearby thenthat NR-23swith 100rpg and two NR-23swith225 rpg
axial-flow turbojets were superior to centrifugal- in the tail turret.The normal bomb load and the
flow engines. maximumbomb load were1,000kg(2,204Ib)and
The specifications of the Il-28RM aredetailedin 2,000kg (4,409lb) respectively.
TableI 1. Both aircraft were completedwithin a short
timescaleand duly tested;the manufacturer's flight
testsreportwasendorsed on 28 April 1953,and the
Il-28 experimental tactical bomber with Stateacceptance trials report exactlythreemonths
later. The specificationsof the VK-5-powered
VK-5 engines bomberprototypesaregivenin Table12.
The next version of the Beagle to be powered by
VK-5s was the regular bomber. Logically this air- On 10 September 1953NII VVS concludedthat it
craft should have been designated Il-28M, but no would be advisableto launch seriesproductionof
separatedesignationwas allocated for some reason, the VK-S-poweredIl-28. However,the upgraded
and the designation Il-28M was eventually used for bomberdid not enteroroductionfor the reasons
another version (seebelow). Development of the re- statedabove.

Notesto Table12:
* TOW 24,170kg(53,284lb), cruisingspeed650km/h(351.3kt) andcruisealtitude10,500-l3,200 m
(34,44843307 rt).
** TOW 24,330kg(53,637lb),cruisingspeed680km/h(367.5kt) andcruisealtitude10,50013,100 m
x't.FTOW 18,710 kg (41,247lb), cruisingspeed650km/h(351.3kt) andcruisealtitude10,000 m (32,808
I TOW 18,920kg (41,710lb), cruisingspeed700km/h(378.3kt) andcruisealtitude10,000 m (32,808
# TOW 24,050k9(53,020 lb),cruisingspeed668km/h(361.0kt) andcruisealtitude10,000 m/l0,000 12,000
(32,808/32,808-39,370 ft).
# # T O W 24, 220k g (5 3 ,3 9 5 1 b ),c ru i s i n g s p e e d 668km/h
(361.0kt)andcrui seal ti tudel 0,000m/10,000
(32,808/32,80839,37 0 ft).
t Tow 23,800kg (52,469lb).
tt k g (s 2 ,e l 0 1 b ).
T oW 24, 000
46. Ir-vusurN
L-28 Brtcu.

4 Red, the Il-28TM torpedo-bomber prototype, photographed during trials in 1953.( Yalint

:) t

Another view of the II-28TM; the c/n 50301106 reveals the aircraft was converted from the first prototype ll-28T.
I Yelim Gonlon urthiye )

II-28TM experimental
torpedo-bomber whatever the cost. OKB-240 managed to complete
the prototype within the stated timescale by con-
The Il-28TM torpedo-bomber (torpedonosets verting one of the Il-28T prototypes (c/n
modiJitseerovannyy)was the last of the three Beagle 50301106).8 The installation of VK-5 engineswith
variants modified to take the VK-5 engine. It was new extension jetpipes led to several associated
developed in accordance with CofM directive No. changes.The front parts (detachableengine cowl-
72l8rs of 22 May 1953 and Ministry of Defence ings) and rear parts of the nacelleswere modified,
Industry (MOP - Ministerstvo oboronnoypromysh- the electric wiring inside the nacelleswas rerouted
lennosti) order No. 295ssof 27 May. The schedule and the engine cooling ducts were modified.
stipulated by the government was extremely tight: Changes were also made to the engine controls, a
the prototype was to be handed over to the Navy's
ResearchInstitute No. 15 in just one month.
In those days it was customary in the Soviet 8 The c/n shows that the aircraft was built in 1950. so this was
Union to strictly comply with government orders probably a development aircraft retained by the Ilyushin
and directives concernine the defence industrv. OKB.

Table 12a. I|-28TM weaponconfiguration

Normal weaponsload Total weight, Maximum weaponsload Total weight,

kg (lb) kg (lb)

2 x FAB-500M-46bombs r,000(2,204) l2 x OFAB-100bombs 1,200(2,645)

x 45-36AMVtorpedo 1,013(2,365) 8 x FAB-250M-46bombs 2,000(4,409)
x 45-36AMNtorpedo 1,030(2,210) 4 x FAB-500M-46 bombs 2,000(4,409)
x RDT torpedo 61s(l,3ss) I x FAB-1500M-46 bomb l ,s00(3,306)
2 x AMD-500mines r,018(2,244) I x FAB-3000M-46 bomb 3,000(6,613)
x AMD-1000mine 1"018(2,244) 1 x TAS torpedo 1,s20(3,3s0)
x Lira mine 988(2,178) I x TAV torpedo 1.283(2,828)
x Desnamine 768(1,693) 4 x AMD-500mines 2,0t8 (4,448)
I x AMD-M mine 1,188 (2,619)
1 x Serpeymine 1,268(2,795)
2 x 45-36AMVtorpedoes 2,128(4.69t)
2 x Lira mines 1,958(4,316)
2 x Serpeymines ? 5tR /5 55t\
2 x Desnamines (3,346)

new fire-extinguishing system was installed and the facturer's flight tests by late June 1953 (the test
engines' foreign object damage (FOD) protection report was signed on 30 June) and passed State
screens,made of wire mesh, were provided with a acceptancetrials in July (the Soviet Navy's Research
de-icingsystem. Institute No. 15 issuedits act of acceptanceon I
In addition, a seventh fuel cell (No. 38) was fit- August). Still, the I1-28TM fared no better that its
ted, drop tanks were installed at the wingtips and comrades-in-engines, i.e. the other versionssharing
the liquid oxygen bottles were relocated.The higher the VK-5 powerplant. The specificationsof the
gross weight required the standard mainwheels to II-2STM prototype are given in Table 13.
be replacedwith 1,260x 390 mm (49.6 x 15.35in.)
mainwheels,as on the Il-28R. Finally,a secondnose
cannon with 100 rounds was installed on the
starboard side (as already mentioned, the produc-
tion Il-28T had only the portside forward-firing Back in the early 1950sthe SovietUnion started
ca n n on) . experimentingwith precisionguided munitions
Table l2a showsthe Il-28TM's weaponsconfigu- (PGMs). An experimentalbatch of UB-2000F
rations. radio-controlled guided bombs (UB =
Serialled 4 Red. the aircraft completed its manu- oopravlyayemaya homba guidedbomb) was built

An Il-28- 131 with a UB-2F Chaika guided bomb suspendedunder the fuselage.( Ye.lirn
48 . Ir-vusnrN
lr-28 Bn.scLp

Table13. I|-28TM prototypespecifications

Manufacturer's State acceptance
flight tests trials

Length overall 17.65m (57ft 10.88in.)

Span 21.45m (70ft 4.48in.)
Wing area 60.8m'(653.76sq.ft)
Wing loading,kg/m' (lb/ft') 380(1,846) 366(r,778)
Powerloading at sealevel,kdkgp (lb/lb st) J.J 3.s6
Operatingempty weight,kg (lb) (29,530)
13,395 13,395(29,530)
Normal all-upweight,kg (lb) (41,424)
18,790 18,788(4l,4le)
Maximum AUW (with drop tanks),kg (lb) (48,6ss)
22,070 22,068(48,6s0)
Maximum AUW (with drop tanks and
PSR-1500-15 JATO bottles),kg (lb) (49,7t3)
22,550 n.a.
Fuelload,kg (lb):
internal 3,800(8,377) 3,800(8,377)
with drop tanks (15,167)
6,880 (15,167)
Payload,kg (lb):
normal 5,397(11,898) (11,867)
maximum 8,675(t9,124) (19,098)
Top speedat22,070kg (48,655Ib)TOW and
take-off powerrating, km/h (kt):
at sealevel 800(432.43)', 800(432.43)*
at 5,000m (16,404ft) e0l (487.0) 895(483.78)
at 10,000m (32,808ft) 836(451.89) 837(4s2.43)
Landing speed,km/h (kt) r88.5 (10r.9) 178(96.2)**
Rateof climb at22,070kg TOW and cruisepower
at sealevel 15.4(3,030) 16.3(3,207)
at 5,000m (16,404ft) n.22 (2,208) 9.3(1,830)
10,000 m (32,808f0 6.8s(1,348) 4.0(787)
Climb time at22,070kg TOW andcruisepower
to 5,000m (16,404ft) 6.36 6.6
to 10,000m (32,808ft) 6.85 19.5
Effectiverangeat 10,000m with drop tanks and (r,349)
2,172 (r,345)
45-36AMVtorpedo,km (miles)
Technicalrangeat 10,000m/600kmlh(324 kt) with 2,326(r,444) 2,3rs(1,437)
drop tanksand 45-36AMVtorpedo,km (miles)
Technicalrangeat 10,400-12,550 m(34,12041,174ft)l
585-900km/h (31G486kt) with drop tanksand (r,ssz)
2,499 n.a.
45-36AMVtorpedo,km (miles)
Enduranceat 10,000m with drop tanksand 3 hr 48min 3 hr 4l min
Enduranceat 10,400-12,550 m/585-900km/h with drop 4 hr 20min n.a.
tanksand 45-36AMVtorpedo
Take-off run at maximumTOW, m (ft) 1,090(3,576) r,260(4,133)
Take-off distanceat maximumTOW m (ft) 2,055(6,742) 2,025(6,643)
Landing run, m (ft) 890(2,920) 940(3,084)***
Landing distance,m (ft) 1,510(4,9s4) 2,125(6,971)***
* Speedlimited becauseof dynamicstrengthlimit.
** Data for VK-l-poweredIl-28T.
'r'<*'*Data for VK-l-poweredIl-28T with a 15,000kg (33,068lb) landingweight.
€- - 1
:,*,,.,.,9 ,t

- l'!EF*s

I l ,o rt

l lorr:ll- 2804 Rc d ( c h 53005771)is on di s p l a ya t t h e R u s s i a nA i r F b r c c M u s c u r . ni n M o n i n r r . t . t i t n( , , , t J , i l t
A hovL'trruBa
llr, , rr'. l l - 2 l l 0 l R c c l ( c h l6 6 0 lll0 7 ) is p a lt o l' th c o p cn - u ir di spl ay at Moscow -K hodynka ai rl i cl d. rtL,ti ,t(i rtrthtut


This Beugle.prcscrvedat the Civil Aviation Museum in Ulyanovsk (ch 56605702),is supposedlyan ll-20. with
an appropriate(now fadcd) Sovict flag and winged Aeroflot logo. Howcver. there ure reasonsto believethat it was
paintecl like this rrlicl comin-uto thc muscLrrrand is rcally Sovict Ail Forcc 38 Rcd! Note tl.rc Il-28 nosc tillcs.
i IL'lint (ionLtn,
Above: This stripped-out hulk of a Beagle sat for many years on the far side of the airfield at Kubinka AB. ( yefimGordon)

Left: The rear fuselage and tail unit

of East German AF Il-28 208 Red,
showing the tail turret; the cannon
have been removed, probably to be
displayed separately. ( YefimGordon)
l i ,,,r, ,ttr,l l j ,l ,,tt Ir jllr ' j l.l\1 ( r !ll.ll \r l,r ttt ll' r 'ttS l i .,l t. tt i .O ( ) ( '- 11\r r L l 3r u1./\'r ) \l Lr \!ur r r ll
Ir !\!r ,.,1
\\.t\ l l r.,)rrl \ I ( \l /i,,r ,i, t,) \\!.lr .l r ilr l( jLr ll.r r ' . lr r r . l r ) ,,
.t+ r r ..- , ..*' :n..4,t"1-I, p


7 f:?

lht l l tt L 'ttu t It)l tl i ( i \\' tt I l\ltt) iltiltlil\i ltr r ltst: lttt ll lSl \cr'ri rl l crl S .l Il crl te /n
Ii .:r,,.]3;

Above:PolishAir Force Il-28 65 Red (c/n2212) is preservedon the premisesof the Officers'Higher Flying School in
Dpblin. ( Yt,linGordon

rr,;t,i'f ,,1

d \'r ;'"i '

n ** t.

Iilur r L. ui tl r .\r i l r ll ( r l i n l hc b;1g1.1,11i 11111iA, r /'r l /i r \/i ,/l


Ahove; Work underway on B-5 308 Red, with a hardenedaircraft shelter(HAS) not meant to, tt . t,ornt.r behind
it. Note the excellentfinish on this aircraft. rR;Rrr

ffw rt



lboyc. Romanian Air Force BT-5 407 Red is non-airworthv and stored at Bac-auAB. tn..tnrr

Ahovc: Looking somewhatweather-beaten,

B-5s703 Red and 706 Red sit on the grassat Baciu in non-flying condition.
( R AR T )

-"S Jfi'

lDoyr,.'Romanian Air Force B-5s parked at Borcea-FetestiAB. rR.lRrr

Bulgarian Il-28 43 Rcd sits at thc 13ulgarianAir Force MuscLtt.t"t

,4bolr,.NH-2 in full splendourat its home base.Utti. /11..1Rr


I ' Ol Lr r r t.,,llgintr l !U l \r '\\i l l t l | eer r l ) i l Itl e( l an.!l nf ( ( ) \\l i n!\

t: i .:l - .d r ,-
I" ,,.ii
frffi' '1.''lt',,ui'i-'
,' ;,

?L',ro&,,," "r' *dxe!

'.1sMe. qnw.

rqpw,* ,rr-].ff

,qI {n\,.
Y:: /e*..*!C

p q

1 r,-r"


y :.."

.illllete(lt)!'lt.ilt!lilrt. ( ,, 1., t i,
, . lhart , : T h i s i i I l o l l v | l l ( ) t l S H- .5 isir r th co p cn - a ir clisp la 1 ,a tth cPI,A A FMl tsct-ttrl i nD atangshl rI
rt Nat rc h a n - u ( ' . 1 - - 5( l i c c n cc- b L r ilt Yr r k- llJ llr sic tlr L in cr'. I t tt h,tttrt,trttt
' 1 .' /r r .r .)


, , '1llrlr'.H a r b i r r H - 5 b o r n bcr s in th c lln a l a sse r ltr lv sh o p . , cl ti rru.:.tti rtri rtrt

Irnl usrt


.4bolr' . H - 5 s c r u i s i r - t go v c r th c T icr t- Sh a r t. | ( l1 in d..1 iftt( tlt)

This Il-28. which escapedto Tair.vanon ll Novcmber 1966,exemplifiesthe green camouflageworn by some
PLAAF Beuglt's.It is now on displayat the ROCAF museum at Taoyuan AB. rn.rRrt



ff C!3

r u.

1 /rort,.l)LAAI

This H-5 (,14690Rccl)plescrvcdin thc Peoplc'sLibclution Arml'Ail l-orcc Muscr.rnrut l)atunsshln All has rr
ti'i1ha secondopticallr'llat pancl in ti'ont. , HL,tutLrr
Above: The FNAF Beagleswore crudely applied green and black camouflage. (RARr)

Above:A NigerianIl-28 sharingthe ramp at Enuguwith MiG-17F NAF-615.fn,cnr;

Tup Ir-28 Fevlrv . 49

as early as 1953and testedon speciallymodified

by the AVMF (the same system was fitted to the
Il-28 and Tu-4 bombers.Designed'bya ieam under
Kamov Ka-25PL Hormone-A shipboard ASW heli_
A. D. Nadiradze, the UB-2-000F6o.. u certain
copter). The bomb bay was big enough ro carry
resemblance to the GermanFritz X glidingbombof sonobuoys (rahdiogiidroak\osticheskiy
World War II vintage,with a sqiashei_X wine IGB.-N,
booy) and depth chargeswithout requiring modifi_
arrangement to provideadequategroundclearancel cations.
However._ the wings were oi delta planform with The SPARU-55 was a superheterodynereceiver
rnsetrudders,and the casinghad a constantdiame_
working in the 49.2 to 53.4 MHz waveband. This
ter (in contrast,the Germanbomb had trapezoidal range was split into eighteen preset frequencies
wingsand a bulgedwarhead). through which the receiver cycled automatically.
Testsshowedthat two or threesmartbombswere If
a signal from a sonobuoy was detectedon one ofthe
en^ollgh.todestroy a targetmeasuring30 x 70 m (9g frequencies,the receiverlocked onto it, enabline the
x229 ft) whichwould haverequirediire expenditure
operator to determine_1f
of 168FAB-1500dumb bombs.Hencein 1955the lhe sonobuoy had rEally
detected a submarine. If that was the case,he acti_
YB:2.99^0.entered productionand was includedin vated the SPARU-55's direction_finder mode, and
rne.vv-5rnv€nroryas the UB_2FChaika(Seagull)
the aircraft homed in on the operating buoy to
or 4A-22.About thirty Il_2gsspecially equippelto attack the submarine. A major drawbaik ol the
carrythesePGMs werebuilt in 1956.-This weaDon SPARU-55 was its long cycling time (in automatic
was carried externally under the fuselage.
mode it neededI l0 secondsto switch from one buoy
Outwardlythe ll-28-l3l could be identifiedby-a
to the next!). An outward identification feature
small angular fairing under the nose, probably of may have been severaladditional blade
1o_us11g the guidanceantennafor the UomU.fn-e aerials on the aft fuselage underside; these were
UB-2Fwasalsocarriedby specially modifiedTu_16 probably associatedwith the SpARU-55 receiver.
Badger-Abomberswhich carriediwo suchbombs
ln 1962rhe AT-l ASW torpedo was included in
on underwingpylons.
the AVMF inventory;it could also be carried inter_
nal l y by the l l -28pl ,
!9i 1g :.e m (12 ft9.54 i n.) tong
I|-28PL anti-submarine warfareaircraft and w ei ghi ng530kg (l ,168 l b).
Officially the reason for the ll_2gpl's existence
The late 1950sand early1960ssawanotherescala_
was the. necessityto quickly receive ASW support
tion of the Cold War which nearlyturnedinto a had been requestedby whoeverspotted the
full-blownhot war duringthe Cubanmissilecnsis.
unrnendl ysubmari ncethe l l _29w asmore than
Thedeployment of Sovieiballisticmissiles
to Cuba twice as fast as the obsoletepiston_engined
worried the USA and its NATO alliesimmensely, Beriyev
Be-6 Madge_flyingboat operited by thE Soviet Navy
causingthemto stepup their submarineactivities.
at the time. Besides,the flying boati were difficult to
I nrs.ln turn, led the SovietUnion to bolsterits
operatein winter when their basesfroze up. But per_
Navy,.includingthe Naval Air Arm. Not having
haps the real reason was the naval command s wish
enoughASW aircraft to monitor the activitieso]
to stop the Beaglekennelsfrom being disbanded,
Westernnaviesalong the SovietUnion.smanne as
they inevitably would be, and keep th-epilots flying.
borders-and destroy,the AVMF decidedto convert l n 1966 rhe H e of the B al ti c Fl eet.sai i ai m
someof thebombersit hadon its strensth.
approached the Soviet Navy's GHe, requestingthe
The aircraft convertedfor the ASfr role were formation
of two regiments .quipp.A *itt tt.
mostly{u-16 Badgersand ll-2gs.For instance,the
Il-28PL, but the requestwas turned down.
Baltic Fleet's759th OMTAP, (otclel'nyyminno_tor_
pednyyaviapolk- independentminelilng and tor_
pedo.-bomber regiment) converted tin Il_2g Il-28Shattackaircraft
Dombers andtorpedo_bombers (Il_2gT), whichwere In the late 1950s the Ilyushin OKB considered
redesignated Il-28pL Qtrotivolodochnyy _ anti_sub_ adapting the Beaglefor the strike role. This involved
marrne).Theseaircraftwerefitted with the SpARU_
installation of a battery of twenty unguided rockets
55 sonobuoy receiver(,samolyotnoye preeyomnoye in the bomb bay. This would giu. ia.quute fire_
avt omaticheskoye rahdioustroy,,
t vo _ aiiboine auto_ pgyef without spoiling the aircraft's aerodynamics
matic radio receiverdevice,i955 model; constitut_
with high-drag external stores. The launch tubes
ing part of the Baku sonarsystemrecentlyadopted
were to be mounted almost vertically, firing down
and aft; a salvo of rockets equipped with s"haped_
9 Some sourcesstate the unit as the 769th OMTAP
chargewarheadswas expected-to-bian effectiveway
of destroying armoured vehicles. The crew was
50 . lr-vusnrN
lr-28 Brtcrc

reduced to two, the navigator/bomb aimer being

superfluous. But it was quickly establishedthat the
efflux of twenty rockets impinging on the airframe
would make the aircraft uncontrollable and the idea
was dropped.
However, the limited warload of the fighter-
bombers of the period forced the military and the
engineersto dust off the idea of an 11-28attack air-
craft. The specification for such an aircraft was --*:;* :,l.:::.' -
drawn up in the spring of 1967 before the famous
This poor but interestingshot shows the prototype
Six-Day War, in fact. The aircraft was to have a
Il-28Shattackaircraftduringtrials.The manyunderwing
combat radius identical to that of the Sukhoi pylons are clearly visible. ( YcfintGortlon
Su-7BM Fitter-A fighter-bomber but an ordnance
load two or three times greater.The result was the
Il-28Sh (shtoormovik - attack aircraft). It featured Yet, despite all its merits as a strike aircraft, the
twelve underwing pylons for unguided rockets five Il-28Sh had inadequatearmour protection and the
outboard and one inboard of eachengine.This was ejection seats were not yet of the zero-zero type,
considereda more acceptableapproach, even at the which meant the crew had no chancesof survival if
expense of the extra drag created by the external shot down at low altitude.Hencethe Ilyushin OKB
stores. discontinued development of the Il-28Sh, and
Possibleweaponsconfigurationsincluded twelve though originally 300 Il-28 bombers were slated for
U B- 16-57 rocket pods with sixteen57 mm (2.24 in.) conversion for the ground-attack role, only a few
S-5 folding-fin aircraft rockets (FFARs) each,"'or were eventually converted at the Soviet Air Force's
six 250 mm (9.84 in.) S-24 rockets,or various gun aircraft overhaul plants and delivered to first-line
pods, submunitions containers and free-fall bombs. units.
Depending on the mission, the pilot could selecta
salvo launch or just two pylons, four pylons, etc. Il-282 A weather reconnaissanceaircraft
Flight tests which began 1n 1967 showed that even
when all 192S-5 rocketsor all six S-24rocketswere On 23February1959theStateCommittee
fired at once, the engines showed no inclination to (GKAT - Gosoodahrstvennyy komitet po avialseeonnoy
surge or flame out. tekhnike) issuedan order concerning the development
The Il-28Sh commencedStateacceptancetrials in of the 11-28Z4(zondirovschchikatmosfery lit. atmos-
October 1967.The test pilots reported that the air- pheresampler)weatherreconnaissanceaircraft for civil
craft was suitable for low-level and ultra-low-level aviation needs.A few Beagleswere converted to this
strike missions.It was establishedthat flying at - configuration.Unfortunatelyalmostnothing is known
and delivering accurate rocket/bomb strikes from about this version.
altitudesright down to 60 m (196 ft) could be mas-
tered by service pilots without any trouble; flying Target-towingversions
still loweq though, demandeda lot of concentration
and extra training. The aircraft could be prepared a) Sovietversions(Il-288M)
for a sortie within four hours. Two versions (the basic bomber and the Il-28R)
Below 200 m (656ft) the Il-28Shhad a speedlimit were widely used as target tugs - both for testing
of 660 km/h (356 kt). Fuel consumptionat low alti- new AA guns and for training fighter pilots. The
tude increasedby 30-50 per cent as comparedto the special equipment for this mission included a
basic bomber becauseof the external storesand the BLM-1000 (BLM-1000M) or BLT-5 winch installed
aircraft's combat radius with a full load of FFAR in the bomb bay and a77BM-2 (77BM-2M) or PM-
pods was 295 km (183 miles). 3Zh winged target towed on a cable anywhere
between 5 and 2,500 m (16-8,202 ft) long." For
take-off and landing the target was connectedto the
aircraft by a rigid link permitting operation from
l0 UB = ooniJitseerovannyy blok standardized [FFAR] pod; both paved and unpaved strips.The bomber version
the UV- I 6-57 designationsometimesfound in Westernlitera-
used short linkage rods, whereasthe Il-28R was fit-
ture is incorrect. S = snar!,ad in this case,unguided rocket.
I I BM = booksirooyemaya mishen' - towed target; py11= plah- ted with long ones.The installation of target-towing
ner-mishen' gliding target. Some sources stated a towing equipment did not seriouslyaffect the aircraft's CG
cable length of 20 2,500 m (65-8,202 ft). position, which stayed well within the prescribed
{ rnrrl .51
T H r -l L - 2 1F

Anlf -28B M t a r g c t t L l g b a s c t l o r ta stitn cl;t,.cl b o r n b c.with u g lidi ngsunncrytar-ucti nrow .rl i ./l i l /
(;t)rrt),trttti t\


rl ----€
't .$r

-*'-ao Qlxx"'

' 1 2B luc' a. Il-28 R con ve rtedt o ll- 288M c onf igur at io' ( not e
t i p t a n k s ) .t u k e so f I 'r . r , i t rar t a r g e tc o n n e c t e d
bar' Thc aft position of thc tacticar .oa. ir bi,. rigid tou,-
noti*o,'thy. , li,l;;,,oon,tturr.rrirt )
52 . IryusurNIr.-28Brlctt

Tabfe14. Comparisonof performancecharacteristics

of ll-28 + 77Bl/.2ln combinationandIl-28R + PM-3Zh
II-28+ 77BM-2M lf-28R+ Pl4.-3Zh
Climbtime,min: to 1,000m (3,280ft) 3.54.0 4.0
to 4 ,0 0 0m (1 3 ,1 2ft)
3 9.75 t0.2s 10.7
to 8,000m(26,246ft) 23.7524.0 27.2s
to l 0,l 00 m (33,136 it) n.a. 55.0
to 10,900 m (35,761 ft) 57.0 n.a.
Rangeat 10,000m (32,808 ft)/620km/h (335kt), km (miles) 845(524) n.a.
Rangeat 8,000m/540kmlh (292kt), km (miles) n.a. 1 , 1 4 0( 7 0 8 )
Maximumrange,km (miles) 1,475(916) r,555 (96s)
Enduranceat 8,000m/540km/h n.a. 2 hr 07min
Maximumendurance 2hr 44 min 3hrllmin
Powerloadingat sealevel,kg/kgp(lb/lb st) J.J 3.56

limits. The target-towing versions are sometimes The deliverysystemspun up the drones'stabilizing
referred to as Il-28BM (booksirovschchikmisheney- gyros, using power from the carrier aircraft, and
target tug). dropped the drones singly or simultaneously at a
The field performance of Il-28 bombers with a preset altitude between 2,300 and 8,000 m
20,100kg(44,312Ib) grossweight and Il-28Rs with (7,545-26,246ft). The drones were aimed using the
a 19,822 kg (43,699 lb) grossweight enabledthem to optical sight or radar; in an emergencythey could
operate with targets from concrete airstrips at least be dropped by either the pilot or the navigator.With
I,800 m (5,905ft) long. At a grossweight of 22,207 two drones the aircraft's serviceceiling was limited
kg (48,957lb), the 11-28Rcould operatewith targets to 9,600 m (31.496 ft). and the take-off run
from concrete airstrips at least 2,300 m (1,545 ft) increasedby 300 m (984 ft).
long. Endurancewith a towed targetwas 2.5 hours.
Table 14 above gives some performance char- b) East German version
acteristics of an ll-281778}l-2tr.t4 combination The East German I1-28sconverted into target tugs
(TOW 20,050 kg144,202 lb, fuel capacity 7,990 differed slightly from their Soviet counterparts, as
lit.ll,757.8 imp. gal.) and an Il-28R/PM-3Zh combi- no rigid targets were used. A drum with a 2,000 m
nation (TOW 22,20'7 kg148,957 lb, fuel capacity (6,560 ft) steelcable was carried in the bomb bay on
9 ,550lit . / 2, 101imp . g a l .). the standard bomb cradles. To this a fabric 'sock'
When towed targets were supplemented by rocket- 8 m (26 ft) long and I m (3 ft) in diameter was
poweredtarget drones the Il-28 target tugs were con- attached; it was neatly rolled up and suspended
verted into combined tugs/drone launchers. The from the bomb cradles before flight. A small roller
drones were carried on underwing pylons between was attached to the lower fuselageto stop the cable
the nacellesand fuselagein much the sameway as the from scuffing the fuselageskin as it paid out. Some
upgraded Il-28T carried torpedoes. They were types of anti-aircraft guns (including the 5-60) were
launched and flew on towards the shooting range radar-directed, so aluminium cones had to be
when the aircraft reached an appropriate altitude. inserted into the sock to provide aradar signature.
Apart from towed targets,the II-28BM basedon the Prior to entering the shooting range the pilot low-
standard bomber version could carry PM-6R and ered the flaps 20" and slowed the aircraft to
PM-6G target drones (PM = pikeeruyuschchaya 280 kmih (155.5k0 to prevent the target from being
mishen' diving target). These looked rather like ripped apart or torn off by the slipstream as it
bombs with overgrown fins and were equipped with unfolded. The navigator then dropped the target,
smoke tracers and recovery parachutes. The I1-28R which unwound the cable as it deployed; the drum
and I1-28Tcould not be modified to carry thesedrones was fitted with a centrifugal brake to make sure the
becauseof the reconnaissanceand torpedo-bomber cableunwound smoothly. Two or three minutes later
versions'increasedTOW (which would be excessiveif the target was fully deployed, the observer in the
the drones were carried) and some structural details gunner's cabin monitoring it. (All armament was
which renderedthe conversion impossible. usually removed.)
The PM-6 drones were carried on special under- When the sortie was completed the cable and tar-
wing pylons attached on two pairs of sweptV-struts. get were jettisoned, usually by means of a pneu-
THEIr--28Fevu-y . 53

matic releasemechanism,but the cablecould also be and designedto destroy aircraft with a radar cross-
cut by a pyrotechnical guillotine in caseof malfunc- section (RCS) similar to that of the 11-28.
tion. After landing the cablewas rewound and ready The radio control system enabled the Il-28M to
for another mission; the target could also be reused, take off, climb to cruise altitude, make manoeuvres
unlessit had been shot to shreds. and land if the drone was lucky enough to stay in
one piece.At first this was often the case- the first
c) Romanian version prototypesof the Model400 SAM did not scorea
At least one Romanian Air Force Harbin H-5 single hit on the drones! Another anti-aircraft mis-
(Chinese-builtll-28, see below), serialled307 Red sile developed by the Lavochkin OKB, the 2074,
was convertedfor target-towing duties, using equip- was testedbetweenJune 1953and November 1954;
ment developedby the Air Target SwedenAB com- for instance, three test launches against Il-28Ms
pany. An MBVTS Mk 3 target-towing winch was were made in October 1953, two of the missiles
installed in the bomb bay, with a faired cable outlet having shaped-chargewarheads and the third a
amidships;the cable was 4,500 m (14,765ft) long. directional fragmentation warhead. State accept-
The winch worked with a KR-45-430 sleeve-type ance trials of the 207Abegan in September1953,
target equipped with an AS-l3lSC acoustic miss using Il-28Ms and Tu-4s as targets. The target
distancesensor;the targetwas hooked up under the drones flew at 9,500-20,000m (31,168 65,616 ft)
fuselagebefore flight. and up to 35 km (21.7 miles) from the launch site.
All the targetswereeitherdestroyedor substantially
Il-28M target drone damaged,the missiles'accuracy beingwithin 7 58 m
(23 190ft).
Besidestowing targets, many Beaglesended up as Not all Il-2SMs were radio-controlled.however.
targetsthemselves!In the late 1950smany obsolete Some Beaglesphased out by the VVS were given a
Il-28 bombers were converted into remote-con- brush-up by the manufacturer to make sure
trolled high-speedtarget drones designatedI1-28M mechanical failure would not prevent the aircraft
(for mishen'(target))and usedfor testingnew anti- from fulfilling its final mission. Then a pilot would
aircraft missile systems.To be precise,development take the doomed bomber into the air, climb to a pre-
of this version was brought about by Semyon A. determinedaltitude,engagethe autopilot and eject
Lavochkin'sOKB-301. which started desisn work when told to do so by ground control. Test pilot
on the Model 400 surface-to-airmissile in 1955. Fyodor D. Bogdanov made 3l such flights in
This missile was intended for point defence of 1952-7,ej ecti ngat 12,500m (41,010ft).
important targets,such as major industrial cities,

Il-28BMs were also supplied to foreign customers; this is Finnish Air Force NH-3. another converted Il-28R
( Yclitrr Gordon arthitc )
54 . It-yusrrrNIt-28 Btm.r.



An ll-28M target drone seenthrough the gunsight of an attacking fighter. ( yt'firtt


Test and developmentaircraft the Lend-Lease programme, a number of B-l7s

which had crash-landedon Soviet-heldbasesafter
I. Avionicstestbeds raids on Germany were repaired and used by the
SovietAir Force.)When it transpiredthat develop-
a) Il-28LL radar testbed ment of the Yakovlevfighter was taking longerthan
One Il-28 (identity unknown) was convertedin 1952
predictedand that the La-200 would be the firsr to
for testingthe RP-6 Sokol (Falcon) radar'r and des-
receive the new radar, Semyon A. Lavochkin sug-
ignated Il-28LL (lctay'uscht:lutyu luborutoriyu - lit. gestedthat a heavy aircraft but a faster one than the
fl y ing labor at or y ).' T
r h i s ra d a r w i th a 3 0 k m (1 6.2
B-17 be usedto bring the radar up to scratch.The
nm) detection range had been developed by
Il-28 was the obviouschoice.
OKB-339 under G. M. Koonyavskiyfor two inter-
To accommodate the radar the bomber's nose
ceptors the YakovlevYak-120,which enteredpro-
glazing was cut away at fuselage frame 2 and
duction and serviceas the Yak-2 5 Flashlight-A, and
replacedby a cylindrical metal structure (part of the
the Lavochkin La-200B.Initial testswereperformed
Yak-120'snoseincorporatingthe avionicsbay). The
on a converted Boeing B-l7G Flying Fortress.
huge dish of the RP-6 was enclosedby a largeglass-
(While this type was not officially supplied under
fibre radome which had an almost hemispherical
front end instead of the usual pointed or ogival
shape.The conversionwork was done by Lavochkin
OKB specialists under the supervision of the
l2 RP = rahiiopraetsel radio sight; this was the Soviet term fbr Ilyushin OKB (which was not directly interestedin
l i r e c o n t r o l l a d a r : a t th e tim c.
the project but held responsibility for the Il-28
l3 T h i s R u s s i a nt e r m is u se d in d iscr im in a te lya n d ca n d enote
a n y k i n d o f t e s t b cd ( a vio n lcs.e n g in e ,e q u ip m e n t, u ca pons. anyway).
etc.), an aerodynamicsresearchaircrali or control configured The famous test pilot Mark L. Gallai flew the
vehicle (CCV), a weather researchaircrali, a geophysicalsur- Il-28LL, with R. A. Razumov as test engineer;the
vey aircraft. etc. latter was the worse off. sittins in a dark and
Tue Ir-28 Fenrly . 55

extremelycrampedbay aft of the radar set all that developed by NII-2 was housed in the Beugle's
remained of the navigator'sstation. A total of 33 bomb bay. It included a high-speedcine-camera
flights was madewithout any problems;the testpro- capturing the radar pulsesreflectedfiom the ship
gramme,which ended in December 1952.included and appearingas lineson the radar display.The two
simulatedinterceptionof real aircraft. Later,testsof testbeds made more than filiv flishts from
the Sokol radar continuedon the La-200B interceo- Kirovskoye airbase on the Crimean Peninsula,
tor prototype which, alter being rejected by the r.rsingBlack SeaFleet cruisers,destroyersand mrne-
VVS. found Lrseas a testbed.By the end of 1953the sweepersas targets.The shipswere either anchored
radar had been perfectedand was fitted to the late- on the roadsteadat Feodosiyaor moved on prede-
production Yak-25M from l954 onwards.replacing termined headings.Measurementswere rnadein 38
the RP-ID Izumrood (Emerald) retdar fitted to fl i ghts at 2.000 5.000 m (6.651 16.404 ft) and
early Yak-25sas a stopgapmeasure. 110 167m/sec(360 547l t/sec)atl 0 50 km(5.4 21
nm) range.
h) missile tugeting systems research aircraft Forty-three measurementswere made with tlre
In 1960the Ministry of Defence'sCentral Research crui sers,64 w i th destroyersand 40 w i th mi ne-
Institute No. 30 (TsNII-30 Tsentrahl'ny.r' runochno- sw eepersat vari ous si ghti ngangl esi n vari ous sea
issleiltvatcl',;kir institoot) ioined lorces with NII-2 state conditions. The results were analysed by a
and the ResearchInstituteof the StateCon-rmittee for computer.w hi ch made i t possi bl eto devel opal go-
Electronics(NIl GKRE rurctochno-isslefutwtal',tkitri thms l br determi ni ngthe cl assof' a shi pi n a group,
in.sI i t oot Go,;otttlahrst t)ct1not)() li ttm i t ct u po rahtIi ttt,Ici - thi s hel pedto devel opgui dancesystemsfbr stand-
tronikc)to developactiveradar homing systemslor ol 1'anti -shi ppi ngmi ssi l es.
anti-shippingmissiles. To this end it was nccessary to
analysethe characteristics of the radar pulsereflected c)
liorn surlhceships.ThLrsan Il-28 and a Lisunov Li-2 A n II-28U codecll 8 B l uc w as apparcutl yconvcrted
Cab transport(tr licence-builtDouglas DC-3 deriva- into an avionicstestbeclof some sot'1,sporting sev-
tive) were cclnvertedinto avionicstestbedsequipped cral non-standardaeri al s undcr the l brw ard and
with two expcrimentalradars and specialrecording rearl usel age. U ntbrtunatcl yno detai l sarc know rrof-
e q L l l p m ent . thi s ai rcrafl ;i t may havebcen a navai dscal i brati on
Th e nt eas ur em enat n d re c o rd i n gs y s te m(M R S ) { fl i ght ehcckcr)l i l crl l i .

This Il-28U. cocledl8 Blue.appearstclhavebeenconverted to an avionicstestbcclof sonrckipdl lotc the lany non-sran-
dard aerials unclcr the ftrselage.i St,r.qt,.r
ttnl Dntittit Kt)tni.\\trn)t.rtt(.lti\(,
56 . IryusHrN lt-28 Bs,tc;rc

II. II-28LL ejectionseat testbed

The Il-28 was extensivelyusedfor researchand devel_ Blue(c/n 53005710),an ejectionseattestbedusedto
opment work. In the early 1960sseveralaircraft were test, among other things,the ejectionseatof the
converted into testbeds for various systemsof the Vostok'sre-entryvehicle.lntereitingly,this aircraft
,Vostok(East)manned spacecraftunder development haslikewisebeenreferredto asIl-2giL.
by SergeyP. Korolyov's team. One of these was l0 The bulky Vostok ejectionseatwas installedin

l0 Blue'the Il-28LLejectionseat
testbed' firingtheseat.for
thevostokspacecralt'sre-entryvehicle. Notethephotocali-
brationmarkingson the fuselage
and tail an<Jihe dualcine-camera
iairiits on eachwingtip.( ycfirn

close-up of the vostok ejection seatas it clears the superstructure

above the modified bomb bay. ( yeJint
. 57


Arrothcl vicu' ol' thc Vostok e'jcctionscul ir s it s c 1- r lllt c slhr n r t h c I l - 2 E "s p o u t i n ut c r r i l i c l l i r n r c s .N o t c t l r c S M - 5 0 c h r s u

plrtncin tfrc b rtckgr-o uttr l.
. \ Lt . qr
Lr' rr tl\l t t ir it
t hr trtti :ur rrtr trrt lt irr' t



T hc s alrlc a i l . c r a 1 i a s i t l l | c s a | lo th cf
58 . IlyusurNh .-28Bt.. u; r . t

A t lcx1-lct.iIllcn ta|sc lr t is c 1jc c t c c ll. r r lnr t hc c lll

I ;.i,id!!a&!i

canopy,shittle rinsth c glir z int r ' ihic lris paint c din s t r ipc sl 'o f b c t t c r v i s u l l i z a t i o n .N o t c t h c s t a b i l i z i n gb o o n r st i p p e c lw i t h
clrtlgucp ala ch ttlcscrtc t t t lit t - uull lir nr t hc lt c lc llc s t :t h i s n r a l , b e a n c l r 'l l , r c l s i o n o l 't h c l i r n t o u sZ v c z c l aK - 3 6 s e a t .
t |L'liut (itrhtrt tn hirL t

the f airccl-ovel' bontb bay intmcdintelyahcaclol' thc III. In-flight ref'uelling system testbeds
wir.rgtorsior.rbox atrcl protfuclcclabovc the r.rpper
lirselage;hcncc a lalgc tcardrop lairing lvith l'lat- a ) .fightcr I F R s1,s1s111 integrution
tcn ecsl ideshad t o be i n s ta l l e da fi o l ' th e p i l o t' sc o c k- A V ol onczl " r-bl riIll t-28 (01 R ect.c/n 2402101)w as
p i t to pr ot c c t t he t e s t p i l o t s i tti n g i n th e s c a t l i o n .r convertcdi nto u n.rakeshi fl tanker trai ner used l or
th e slips t r ear n. A ddi ti o n a l l y .th e l a i l g u n n e r' sc o m- testi ngthc l rose-and-dl oguc l l i ght refucl l i ngsystem
p a rtn r c ntwas r c pla c e db y a l a rg es l a b -s i c l eldi ri ri n g dcvcl opedby OK B -918 l ed by Gi ry Il yi ch S cveri n.'
extending n-rucl.rlirrther ali. fl'ont whicl'r ar.rotl.rcr' Thc ailcrafi workeclwith the tl.rctenth nroduction
e'jectionscatcollld bc flreclboth upwardsancldown- Gor' ki y-bui l t Mi G- l 9 Fi l nrt,r-,4eocl cd l 0 R ecl
wards.Cir.rc-camerits wcrelnoulttcclin teardroothir- (c/n -592101 l 0), convertedat LII i n l atc 1957.Thi s
i n g s a bov c and belo w th e w i n g ti p s to c a p tu i e th e lighter l.radno fewcr thar.rtbur ciur.nrnyrefuelling
ejectionseqLlcnce. probes (onc ahead ol- the windshield and three or.r
The Vostok ejection seat wils tcsted succcsslirlly
by future cosmonautGhcrrnan Titov. The Mikol,an 1.1N ou thc Zvczda (S taf) .l oi nt-S tock('ontpanv.The company
SM-50 light er ( ak a M i G-l 9 SU . a n c x p e ri me n ral l atcr ci evel opcd the LtIA Z-l A S akhal i n podi l ecl H D LJ
( LJPAZ = ott t tif i t sccn l't rttrt t .t p otl t t.trtoy'tr.grt'guht : ttpruht l; i
ve rsi onol' t he M iG -l 9 SF l -u rn tc r-Cw i th a r,' e n tr al
stundal di zeclsuspcrrded. i .c. crtel nal l cl i rcl l i ng uni t) uscclon
U - l 9 liquid- pr opc l l a n t ro c k c t b o o s te r) a c te d a s the Il -7U /tl -7i l M ,I./i r1a,rtarrker.but i s besl knou'n fi rr i ts K -36
chaseplane and car.nera ship. L'l ectl onseal .
. 59
Tup h--28Farrarry

Though of poor quality, theseshots are extremely interesting.showing an Il-28 refuelling tanker trailing a hose from the
bomb bay, and another Beagle equipped with a nose-mounted refuelling probe taking on fuel from this aircraft. (t:,'li,'t
Gordon qrdtiY,)

the port wing) becausethe best location had to be lock was set at an unlocking force of 60 80 kg
determined experimentally. (132-1761b).Usually the fighter carried drop tanks
An experimentalwinch emulating a hose drum to increasemissiontime.
unit (HDU) was installed in the Il-28's bomb bay, Testpilot NikolaiO. Goryaynov (who hasthe dis-
paying out a 5 mm (0.19 in.) steel cable with a tinction of beingthe first Sovietpilot to successfully
d ro g ueof 640 m m ( 2 ft l .l 9 i n .) d i a m e te rto a p o i n t refuel a heavybomber in flight) was assignedproject
42 m (137 ft) beyond the bomber's tail. Initially a test pilot for the tanker trainer. On 28 August 1957
36keQ9lb) unstabilizeddroguewas used.After the he made a flight to check the operation of the
first four flights, however, it was replaced with a winch. The drogue was deployed at 7,000 m
drogue incorporating a stabilizingdevice 100 mm (22,965ft) and 400, 450, 500 and 550 km/h (216,
(3 .9 3i n. ) wide m oun te d 6 0 mm (2 .3 6i n .) fro m th e 243, 270 and 297 kt) IAS. After that, test pilots
base. Both models had a lock for engaging the S. F. Mashkovskiy,Pyotr I. Kaz'min and SergeyN.
probe. Anokhin made ten refuellingflights, as detailed in
The MiG- 19 would make contact with the tanker the table below.
at 7,000 m (22,965 ft) and 450470 km/h
(250 261 kt) IAS, approaching from a stand-by The tenth flight had to be cut short when the drogue
position 10 20 m (32 65 ft) behind the drogue. entered the fighter's air intake and collapsed,the
Contact was usuallymade in a climb, with or with- debris damaging one of the engines.The trials
out side slip. Approach speed varied from 0.3 to showedthat the chancesof making contactwith the
12 m/sec(1-39 ftlsec) or l-30 km/h (0.54-16.2kt) tanker dependedmainly on the drogue'sstability,
IAS. After making contact the MiG-19 stayed which left much to be desired,as the droguetwisted
locked into the drogue for 3 5 seconds,then slowed violently in the slipstream.
down and broke away.For safety'ssake the drogue

Table15. In-flightrefuellingtestresults
Date MiG-19pilot Successful
N o. I 18September Mashkovskiy 2 of 4 (noseprobe)
N o.2 20 September Mashkovskiy 2 of 7 (noseprobe)
N o.3 24 September Mashkovskiy 2 of 5 (noseprobe)
N o.4 27 September Mashkovskiy No contact
N o.5 3 October Mashkovskiy I of33
N o.6 l6 October Anokhin 2ol 41
N o.7 30 October Mashkovskiy I of 12
N o.8 I November Mashkovskiy 2of34
N o.9 7 December Kaz'min 9of30
N o. 10 27 December Kaz'min No contact
60 . Iryusunr h.-28 Br:.t<;t,t.

Thc Il-28LSh tcstbcdwas clcvelopccl to invcstigatcthc p o s s i b i l i t yo l 'u s i n g s k i s o n t a c t i c a la i r c r a l t . T h i s v i c w s h o w st h e

cxperirrcn talskicl.a nc lt hc bullas tc or . r t uinctro whic h it is thc lirlly raiscclpositiorl.i ti,lint(iouto11 11sa.t11y,,1



T he ll-2 8L Sh (12 c/r-r 5300-5

ll2) with thc skid firlly lowcred. Note thc non-retractabletwin mainwheels
I li'lint Grrdon ttrcltitt t
TsEl--28 Faurv . 6l

b) bomber IFR system tests with ballast to test it for various loads; the whole
In due course the Soviet military put forward more assemblycould be raised and lowered by hydraulic
stringent requirements, which the Il-28 could no rams. The nose gear unit was fitted with larger
longer meet. One of the greatestdeficiencieswas the wheels and the the main units had widely spaced
Beagle'sinadequate range. However, at that stageit twin wheels rather than the usual single ones.
was deemedinadvisableto retire the many l1-28sin This modified undercarriagecould not be retracted,
VVS service,so someone suggestedretrofitting the so the mainwheel well doors were deleted to
bombers with the probe-and-drogue refuelling sys- avoid making contact with the wheels.The skid was
tem. To this end two more ll-28s were converted for tested on airstrips with various soil densities; the
real-life IFR systemtests.One of them was a tanker aircraft made high-speedruns but did not become
with a real HDU in the bomb bay, while the other airborne.
Beagle featured a fixed refuelling probe offset to
port above the navigator's station. The two aircraft h) tracked landing gear testbed
made successfulcontacts but the systemwas not fit- To enhance the Beagle'sability to operate from tac-
ted to Soviet Air Force Il-28s becauseAleksandr S. tical airfields a special tracked landing gear was
Yakovlev'sOKB-115 brought out the more promis- designed,built and tested on anIl-28 pursuant to a
ingYak-129 supersonictactical bomber which even- Council of Ministers directiveof 11 January 1951.
tually enteredproduction and serviceas the Yak-28 It allowed the bomber to operate from soft, wet,
Brewer. soggy or snow-covered airfields which rendered
take-off with a conventional wheeled landing gear
very diflicult or utterly impossible. The tests were
IV. Landing gear testbeds consideredsuccessful,but owing to the extra weight
a) Il-28LSh and complexity of the experimentallanding gear,it
In 1958a Moscow-built Il-28coded12 Red(c/n was not retrofitted to production aircraft.
530051 l2) wasconverted
(LSh = lyzhnoyeshassee - ski landinggear)for test-
V. Enginetestbeds
ing the efficiencyand durability of aircraft skis
designed for dirt strips.Theaircraftwasfittedwith a a) Soviet testbed
semi-retractable sprungskid under the centrefuse- OneIl-28R(identityunknown)wasmodifiedto test
lage.The skid was equippedwith pressuresensors a liquid-propellantrocket motor developedby
and mountedon a hollowbox whichcouldbe filled powerplantwas
L. S. Dooshkin.The experimental


The Il-28 LSh runs along a dirt strip. ( YclimGordon

62 . Ir-yusHrr.r
lt-28 Brx;tt

T hisll-28 Rscrvcda s alc s t bc dlbr aliquid- pr opellan t r o c k c t m o t o l d e v c l o p e d b y L . s . D o o s h k i n . l t t , l i t r t G o r t t . r t u r c t t i r t')

i n s t alledin a s ho rt fa i ri n g s h a p c d l i k e a c ro pped it carried the West German flag on the fin for
co ne s upplant in gth e g u n n c r' s s ta l i o n . T h c tests some obscure reason the elaboratecoat of arms
to ok plac ein 195 3 7 . placed in the centreof the otherwiseidentical East
German flag had beenomitted.
h) Eust German e,tgine testheds The experimentalengine was housed in a large
Few remember nowadaysthat E,astGermany had nacelle under the centre fuselage (called Trop/bn,
an aircraft industry of its own. Besidesbuilding drop [of water],in local slang);the bomb bay doors
th e I l- l4P air line r u n d e r l i c e n c ei n D re s d e n .the were laired over. To prevent FOD on take-off/
Germans designedtheir own aircraft as well. In landing and windmilling during cruise, the air
the early 1950sBrunolf Baadestarted work on the intake was closed by a hydraulically actuated
152 a J2-seatmedium-har.rlairliner powered by shutter which the test engineercould open or close
four indigenous Pirna 014 turbojets rated at by meansof a hand-drivenpump at up to 350 km/h
3 . I 50 k gp t 6. 944l b s tt. (194 kt). The lower lip of the intake was flattened,
Designwork on the enginebeganin 1955,and the resulting in a shapenot unlike that of the Boeing
prototype was bench-runa year later.As the flight 731-30014001500; this was probably owing to the
teststageapproached,VEB EntwicklungsbauPirna shape of the shutter rather than to inlet
(Pirna Development & Manufacturing) at Pirna- aerodynamics.The lower aft fuselage was covered
Sonnensteinbought an 11-28R(c/n 1418)and con-
verted it into an enginetestbed.The reconnaissance
versionwas chosenbecauseof the strongerlanding I 5 In Westernpublicationsthe aircrafi is often calledBB 152or VEB-
gear a useful feature, since the engine alone, not 152;however.(former) East German sourcesinvariablyrelbr to the
including the test instrumentation,weighed 1,060 aircraft simply as the 152.In lact. the prototypesshould havebeen
designatedEF 152 (for Ennrfu'klungsflug:eug der,elopmentair-
kg (2,336 lb). The aircraft was delivered stm:;radar craft), in keepingwith the traditions of JunkersAG where Baade
and armament and registeredDM-ZZI. Curiously, had onceworked, but this designationwas not taken uo
THe Ir--28Fevrrv . 63

Avia 8-228 6915(c/n 56915)was usedto test two jet engines.Here it is shown with a Walter M-701 turbojet installedin
placeof thetail turret; notetheventral airintake. (Yt'/imGontonurtttir.a)

The same aircraft in its latter days. The recontoured tail lairing once housed an Ivchenko AI-25TL turbofan but the
engineis removed here and the ventral intake andjetpipe laired over. In this guise 569,l5 was used for testing rescuepara-
chutes by dropping dummies. I YelitnGordon unhive
64 . IlvusHrt.r1,-28 Br.x;t,r-,

by some kind of heat-resistantgunk to protect it (1,640ft) incrementsand speedsup to Mach 0.7g.

from thejet blast. Flight idling rpm and windmilling rpm at various
The bomb bay housed test instrumentation- a speedsand altitudesweredetermined,relight posst-
priming tank, a data recorder,an instrument Danel bi l i ti esat up ro 12,000m (39,370fr)and the i ncl i na-
and an AK 8 or AK 16 remote-controlledcine- tion to surge in different flight conditions were
camera(or a still camera)with appropriatelighting checked,icing testsand ground noiselevelmeasure-
to fihn the instrument readings.The navigatorwas ments were made. For safety reasonsthe develop-
cxiled to the gunner'scabin from which he kept an eye ment enginewas alwaysstartedat altitudesin excess
on the test enginevia forward-view mirrors under the of 600m ( 1,968ft).
tailplanes,watchingout for a possiblefire,fuel leaks, Flights weretypically made in a racetrackpattern
etc.The regularnavigator'scompartmenthousedthe betw eenthe tow ns of P ul sni tzand S tol pen i n the
test engineer,the Pirna 014's controls and more north-east (near the outer marker beacon of
instruments.One of the fuel cellshad to be removed, Dresden-Klotzsche)and the towns of Floha and
but the wingtip luel tanks made up for this. Zschopauto the south-west(near Karl-Marx-Stadt
The first flight-cleared engine (the pirna 014 now Chemnitz). Performanceand handling dif-
v-9)rnwas fltted to DM-ZZI in lg5g. For ground feredlittle lrom that of a standardIl-28, exceptthat
runs. the aircraft was wheeledonto specialeLvated w i th the tesl engi nerunni ng at l ul l pow er ti re ai r-
suppor t s t o m in i m i z e F O D ri s k . F i n a l l v . o n l l craft's rate of climb increased to 35 m/sec
Septemberthe aircraft made its first test flicht from (6,888ftlmin). In levelflighr at 10,000m (32,808fr)
Dresden-Klotzsche airport (which was also-theseat the testbedreachedspeedsof nearly 900 km/h (486
of VEB FlugzeugbauDresdenand a major air force kt), so the mai n engi neshad to be throttl edback so
b a s e) . as not to exceedthe l l -28' sdesi gnl i mi t of Mach 0.7.
The test programme included performancetest- D M-ZZI madea total of 109test fl i ehts:the l ast
i n g at alt it udesup ro 1 2 ,5 0 0m (4 1 ,0 1 0ft) i n 5 00 m flight took place on 22 February igOt *itt.r o



Acrof1ot personnelcarry sacksof mail lrom an Il-20 mailplane (c/n 54005777). rtlinrGortton
I )
Tur L-28 Feurry. 65

production-standard Pirna 014,{-l built at Pirna 0144-l engines,flew on 26 August 1960;the

Ludwigsfelde.However,the test programmewas defectwas soon discoveredduring defuellingtests
taking rather longer than anticipated,so another and could be easilyrectified.The third prototype
Il-28R (cln 5901207) wasconvertedinto an identical (DM-ZYC) was completedin due courseand the
testbed,registeredDM-ZZK, to speedup the tests. first 28 productionaircraftwerein variousstagesof
This aircraftmade 102flightsbetween26 February completion.
1960and l2 June1961(thelastflightwaswith pirna Then the East Germangovernmentloweredthe
014V-28).Otherexamples of theengineinstalledon boom. It had long consideredthe local aircraft
the two aircraft includedPirna 014 V-20 (the first industryunprofitable,and in lateNovember1960it
Pirna0l4,{-1)andPirna0l4V-22. wasdecidedto eliminatetheindustryaltogether. Big
Technicallythetestswentwell- in fact,theengine Brother would supply East Germanywith all the
performedrather better than expected.However, aircraft sheneededanyway.And by mid-1961the
therewereincidentsof a differentnature.On one BB 152(andhencethe Pirna014)wasabandoned.
occasion(28 March 1960)DM-ZZK, crewedby DM-ZZI andDM-ZZK werereconverted to Il-28R
pilot GerhardPuhlmann,navigator/radiooperator standardand deliveredto the East German Air
Helmut Krattz and test engineerKlaus-Hermann Forceas 180Blackand 184Black respectivelv on I
Mewes,was interceptedby three SovietAir Force Novemberl96l for useas nauiga-
(296thAPIB)r7MiG-l7Fs. An aircrafthad left the tor's stationwasreinstated,but the armamentand
internationalair route near Magdeburg;hencethe radarwerestill missing.
airspacehad beenclosed,and DresdenATC had (As a point of interest,the Germanswerevindi-
neglected to call the 11-28
backpromptly.The MiGs catedbeforelong.The SovietYakovlevYak-30/Yak-
had scrambled from the nearby airbase at 32 advancedtrainers and Beriyev Be-30/Be-32
Grossenhain, expectingto find a Westernspyplane feederliner weresimilarlyvictimizedby the COME-
and the WestGermanflag on the tail certainlydid CON strategists in themid-1960s, eventhoughthey
not help!One of the fighterslined up in front, with wereat leastas good as the Aero L-29 Delfin and
the otherson the flanks, and unambiguouslysig- Let L-410Turboletpressed into Sovietservice.)
nalled the crew to follow them to Grossenhain.
Luckily the situationwasquicklyclarifiedwhenthe c) CTechenginelparachutetestbed
justifiablyalarmedpilot calledDresdenATC, which A CzechAir ForceIl-28 (Avia B-228)serialled6915
promptlycontactedthe Sovietairbaseand straight- (c/n 56915)wasconvertedinto an enginetestbedby
enedthingsout. Evenso,it wasa nastyexperience Walter (currentlynamed Motorlet) in June 1960.
for the crew! Originally it servedto test the indigenous890 kgp
That was not the end of it. After landing at (1,960lb st) WalterM-701 turbojetdeveloped for
Dresdenthe cine-camera wasreloaded,freshchart the Aero L-29 Delfin advancedtrainer. The cen-
paperwasloadedinto the testequipmentrecorders trifugal-flow turbojet was rather too portly to fit
and theaircrafttook off againto completethe day's underthe Beagle's fuselage, so a ratherunorthodox
test programmewhich had been so rudely inter- installationwaschosen- theenginewasmountedin
rupted.As it did so, a lreak gust of wind caughtit an ogivalfairinginsteadof the tail turret,breathing
from behind,causingthe aircraft to bouncetwice through a ventral 'elephant's-ear' air intake. The
beforeleavingtheground-just missingthelocalizer bomb baywasoccupiedby testinstrumentation.
at the far endof the runway!Fearingthat the main- Later the same machinewas used to test the
wheel tyres were damagedand might explodeat 1,500kgp(3,306Ibst)AI-25TL rurbofanin a recon-
high altitude, the crew chose to terminate the toured and more elongatedfairing. This Soviet
assignmentand land. It wasjust as well that they engine,designedby OKB-478 under Aleksey G.
did: the tyres were indeed ruined and needed Ivchenko, powered the Aero L-39 Albatros
replacement. The day'sprogrammehad gonedown advancedtrainer (the licence-builtversion was
thedrain. sometimesreferredto as the Walter Titan). The
Meanwhile,the 152V-l (DM-ZYA) was rolled engineand associated equipmentweresubsequently
out in Dresdenon 30 April 1958.On 4 December removedbut for someobscurereasonthe lons fair-
theaircraftmadeits first flight, poweredby Mikulin ing wasretained.thoughthe air intakeand iozzle
RD-9B turbojetssinceno flight-clearedpirna 014
engineswereavailableyet. Threemonthslater,on 4
March 1959,the prototypecrashedowingto a fuel
16 Y = Versuchsmuster- Iest article or development aircraft.
systemdefect,killing the crew.The much-modified 17 APIB = aviapolk istrebiteley-hombardiroviththikuv fighter-
secondprototype(152V-4,DM-ZYB), poweredby bomber regiment (= fighter-bomber wing).
66 . lrvusurN It-28 Bt.t<;tt

were f-airedover. In this configuration the aircraft carrier/launcher for the indigenous Mak-30
was usedto test new modelsof parachutesby drop- remotelypiloted vehicle(RPV).
ping dummiesfilled with sand.
VI. Parachutetestbed
d) il-28H
The type did some developmentwork in Poland as Two Polish Air Force ll-28s, 001 Red and 2 Red,
well. O ne I l- 28. se ri a l l e dl l 9 B l u c . w a s tra n s ferred were used by the Polish Air Force's Technical
to the 1n.rl.1:lut Lotnit'tvu (lnstitute of Aviation) in Institute (ITWL Inst),tut Te(hnit':n.v Wl.jsk
Warsawand convertedinto an enginetestbeddesig- to testthe PB-28brake parachutewith a
nated Il-28H (huntowniu test rig or, in this case, 7 m(23 ft)di ameter.
testbed). It was r-rsedto test the indigenous
1 , 000k gp ( 2. 20 4 l .bs t) PZ l -R z e s z o w SO-l turbo-
jet'' developed fbr the PZL TS-l l Iskra (Spark)
Il-20 (ll-28P) mailplane
advancedtrainer. The Bcuglehad a paw in the developmentof civiljet
The engincwas installedon a specialmount and aviation in the Soviet Union as well. In order to
was semi-recessed in the open bomb bay when on familiarizepilots and ground personnelof Aeroflot
the ground. It was loweredclear of the fuselageby (the sole Sovietairline) with jets and help Aeroflot
hydraulic rams before startup; for ground runs the to gain practical experienceoperating them, a few
aircraft was parkedover a specialtrench.The exper- demilitarizedIl-28 bomberswere transferredto the
i ment alengine' sc o n tro l sw e rei n s ta l l e di n th c n avr- airline. Tl.reseaircraft were designated Il-20"' or
gator's comparrtmentwhere the test engineer sat. ll-28P (pochtovvl'f,sumolyotl mailplane). The type
The test programmc was successfullycompletedin was the ll-28 was easyto fly and
thc s pr ing of 19 6 4 .L a te r th e l l -2 8 H w a s u s e das a serviceand posed no problems for Aeroflot crews

.l' I


Anotherll-20.SSSR-L...538(thefirstdigitis illegible;
c/n54006104). Unlikecln 54005717, thisexample hasa civil-style
colourschemewith a redcheatlineand bluepinstripe,not just Aeroflottitlesand logo.1Y"1im
TUEIl-28 Feurr-v. 67

Aeroflot pilots read a fresh newspaperwhich hasjust beendeliveredby an ll-20. This was one ol'the perks of the.iob!
rScrwluntl Dntitrit Kortti.tvnt uxltiv )

fl yi n g I l- 12 and Lis u n o v L i -2 P (o r D o u g l a s C -4 7 Foreign production

Dakota) airliners.The Il-28'shigh speed,long-range
and modern (in its day) avionicsallowed the crews a) Chinese production
to quickly masterjet aircraft flying techniques,and A s i t di d w i th many S ovi ettypes,C hi na bui l t the
easedthe subsequenttransition to the big jets con- Il-28 v'itltout the benellt of a licence.This pirucy
siderably. The aircraft's good field performance beganafter the rift in Sino-Sovietrelationsover idc-
enabledit to usemost civilian airports of the time. ological differencesin the mid-1960sput an end tc'r
The first group of Aeroflot flight crews started new aircraft deliveriesfrom the USSR. SinceChina
conversiontraining for the 11-20in October 1953, had no indigenous tactical bomber, there was no
and the type began carrying freight and mail in late option but to copy a Sovietdesign.
1954.The Il-20 was much usedto delivermatricesof ln 1964 the aircraft factory in Harbin started
the Pravda and lzvestiyd central newspapersfrom manulacturingspareparts for the Soviet-builtIl-28s
Moscow to Irkutsk, where both papers had addi- operatedby the Chineseair arm. This logically led
tional print shops.If the papers were deliveredall to the production of completeaircraft;construction
the way from Moscow they would be one day old by of the first two airframes - the prototype and a
the time they reachedthe Far Eastern regionsof the static test airframe also began in 1964,and the
Soviet Union, and who wants yesterday's news? first locally manufacturedIl-28 took to the air on 25
Together with the so-called Tu-104G (groozovoy
cargo, used attributively), which was really a demili-
tarized Tu-lr6 Budger-l bomber, the Il-20 enabled l 8 S O = si l ni koi r:uturv j et engi ne.
Aeroflot to develop a training programme which I 9 The designationwas reused,initially being usedlbr the exper-
i mental ground attack ai rcraft of 1948.It w as subsequentl y
speededup the introduction of the first Sovietjet re-reusedfbr yet another spi n-off of the Il -l 8D an E LIN T
airliner the Tu-104 Camel. aircrali (NATO Coor- Bl.
68 . IryusurN lt-28 Be,tc;tp.

_ _' .
..:r . l :?- 1, , , n:.---li:
' '-,1gq"-: 'i,lJ., - -
t :t
::: Gr.-^ll
I ---},f Y*-1;
. A



Largenumbersof H-5s werebuilt both for domesticuseand for export. Outwardly the Chineseversionwas almost iden-
tical to the genuineSoviet-builtll-28. (Chinu

September 1966, flown by pilot Wang Wenying, one-pieceblown transparency(without the length-
navigator Zhang Huichang and radio operator wise frame member),a taxiing light is built into the
Zeng Fannan. Full-scale production at Harbin forward door of the nosewheelwell (a feature not
commenced the following year. Chinese-built found on most Soviet-built Bcugles)and the star-
Beugleswere designatedH-5 (hong:haii bomber) board forward-firing cannon is deleted.
or B-5 (B = bomber) for export. A tactical nuclear strike version similar to the
To be perfectlyhonest,the Chinesedid not adopt SovietI1-28Awas developedin September1967;the
a simple copycat approach, but altered the Beugle first test drop of a nuclearbomb from such an air-
considerably, changing up to 40 per cent of the craft took place on 25 (some sources say 27)
design.In particular,the H-5 had a different (con- D ecember1968.
ventional) wing design without the 11-28'strade- The Il-28U was also manufacturedin Harbin as
mark feature (the technological break along the the HJ-5 (hong:haji jiuolianji bomber trainer) or
chord line); this saved some I l0 ke (242 lb) of BT-5 (bomber trainer),making its secondfirst flight
weight, although the manufacturing process on l2 December1970.It was ofllcially phasedin by
becamemore diffficult. the People'sLiberation Army Air Force (PLAAF)
Outwardly the Chinesereverse-engineered C/zor'- in 1912.and a total of 187werebuilt.
r:how'can be distinguished from the genuine Soviet- The Chinesealso brought out torpedo bomber
bu1lt Beagle mainly by the shape of the rear and PHOTINT versions of the H-5; the Chinese
extremity of the fuselage.The original ll-K6 ball- equivalent of the ll-28R was developedin 1970,
turret is replaced by the DK-7 turret mounting two bearing the designationHZ-S (hongzlrujizhenchali
Afanas'yev/MakarovAM-23 cannon with 500 rpg. bomber/reconnaissanceaircraft) for the home mar-
This turret is borrowed from the Tupolev Tu-16 ket or B-5R for export. The aircraft was equipped
Badgermedium bomber; it is of basicallycylindrical with two cameras for day/night high-altitude pho-
shape,not spherical.Also, the cockpit canopy has a tography.Unlike the Soviet reconnaissanceversion,
. 69
THe Ir--28F,cN4rr-y

Wcaring lcathcr hclmcts,a Chincscpilot anclnavigator'/bonrb
ain.rcltakc thcir scatsin H-5 098(rRccl.This vicw clcarlv
s h t t w s t h c l to sc ca l l l to l t. l ( ltiiltt..lit( r .tlt)



HJ-5 ( t he Chines cv er s ionof t he t h c P L A A F M u s e u m a t D a t a n c s h a nA B .
70. Ir-vusHrN
lt-28 Buau

the HZ-5 had underwingdrop tanks insteadof tip Il-28U trainer was designatedCB-228(for cvitnlt
tanks;theseextendedthe rangeby 47 per cent,the bombardovaci petoun]- bombertrainer).
combatradius by 50 per cent and enduranceby 1
hour 23 minutes.Developmentof the PHOTINT
versionwas ratherprotracted,and the aircraftwas
not officially includedinto the PLAAF inventory By the mid-1950s,the generaloperationalrequire-
until 1977. mentsof tacticalbombershad becomemuchmore
stringent, renderingthe subsonicIl-28 obsolete.
h) Czechproduction Therefore,on 3 February1956the USSRCouncilof
Czechoslovakia, too, built the 11-28,
but in thiscase Ministersissueda directiveto the effectthat pro-
everythingwas legitimate,as a licencehad been ductionof the Il-28 be stopped.By then,asalready
obtained.In the 1950sthe CzechAir Forcehad a mentioned, 6,316aircrafthad rolledoff the assem-
habit of giving indigenousdesignations to foreign bly linesin the USSR;the Il-28 surpassed all other
military aircraft operatedor built in Czechoslo- Sovietjet bombersin termsof production.
vakia.For example,the MiG-15 fighterand UTI- The importanceof the 11-28 in the development
MiG-I5 trainer were manulacturedby the Aero of the SovietAir Forcecan hardly be playeddown.
enterpriseasthe S-I 02 (S = stihacilletounl- fighter) To the VVS and otherfriendlyair forcesit waswhat
and CS-102(CS = cvilnj;stlhacifletounl - fighter the English Electric Canberra was to the West,
trainer) respectively. Thus the Beuglewas built whichgaveriseto thenickname'SovietCanberra'-
locallyas the Avia 8-228 (for bombardovac'i lletounl albeit much later when the Il-28 was dead and
- bomber).while the licence-built versionof the buried.The Canberra,however,wasclearlyluckier

.s .\

Avia B-228s (Czech-built Il-28s) taxi out for a training sortie. Note the stained forward fuselageof AD-31 (probably a
result of firing the nose cannon); the soot has been scrubbed away, but only just enough to make the serial readable.
Tun Il-28 F.r.lrrrr. 7l

Thc Il-z16was a scalccl-L


This viov of thc solc Il-4(rprototypc clcarlv shou,sits Il-28 linca-scThc cnvisagcds\\'ept-winglcrsion \\'itsncvcr built
I li lirtt Gonh'rt unltitc t
72.Ir-yusurNL-28 Bnrcrc

than its Sovietcounterpart,soldieringon well into of 41,840kg (92,2401b). The normal bomb load
the 1980s(mostlyin the reconnaissance and target was 3,000kg (6,613lb) and the maximumbomb
tug roles),and the last survivorsremainoperational load 6,000kg(13,227lb). If the Il-28wasa Beagle,
at the time of writing. then the Il-46 was surely a Borzoi - a Russian
The Il-28 hada follow-onin the shapeof the Il-46 wolfhound.(Or, more likely from a Westernview-
mediumbomberdevelopedpursuantto a Council point,a Big BadWolf.)
of Ministersdirectiveof 24 March 1951.It looked The ADP design stage was completed on 4
like a scaled-up11-28poweredby two Lyulka AL-5 December195I and the prototypewasrolledout on
axial-flow turbojets (also called TR-3A) rated at 29 December(!). On 3 March 1952the 11-46 made
5,000kgp (11,022lb st). The defensive armament its first flight with Vladimir K. Kokkinaki at the
arrangementwasthe samebut the I1-K8tail turret controls.Manufacturer'sflight testsshoweda top
wasneq featuringa muchbiggerfield of fire and a speedof 928 km/h (501k0 at 5,000m (16,404ft)
bigger ammunition supply (320 rpg). The main and a rangeof 4,845km (3,009miles).The State
landing gear designwas also similar,exceptthat acceptancetrials were completedon 15 October,
thereweretwo independentshockstrutseachside, showingthat the bomberfully met the Air Force's
the outboard units retracting forward and the operational requirement.The second prototype
inboard units aft; this unusualarrangementwas designatedIl-465, representingthe envisagedpro-
usedto keepthenacellecross-section toi minimum. ductionversion,wasto havewingssweptback 35o.
The aircrafthad an overalllengthof 25.325m (83ft However,the swept-wingIl-46 was never com-
1 in.),a wingspanof 29.0m (95 ft 1.73in.),a wing pleted, losing out to the more promisingand
areaof 105m: (1,129sq. ft), an emptyoperating modernTu-16.
weightof 26,300kg (57,980lb) and a normalTOW
Tnp Batcrn rNSpnvrcp

fFlh. adventof the Il-28 signifiedthe beginning other units operatingthe Il-28 includedthe 230th
I of the jet agefor the Soviettacticalbomber FBAP at CherlyanyAB.
I force.As alreadvmentioned.a bomberunit The Il-28 introduced radar and gave nuclear
of the MoscowDefenceDistrict commandedby Lt- capabilityto the tacticalbomber force- a feature
Col A. A. Anpilov wasthe first to take deliveryof which was particularly welcomeduring the Cold
the new bomber in 1950.The availabilityof the War years.Onceit had becomefully operational
I1-28Uprototypefacilitatedconversiontraining no i.e. the crewslearnedto fly in poor weathercondi-
end;27servicepilots transitionedfrom the Tu-2 to tions and at extremealtitudes(breakingthrough
the Il-28 in just ten days,during which I 12 training cloud cover during climb and descent),use radar
flights were made.In contrast,conversionof the and synchronisedoptical sightsfor bomb-aiming
samepilots to the Tu-2 had taken more than two and usethe defensive armamenteffectively- Soviet
monthsand a gooddealmoreflying, tactical air power receiveda major boost. Service
The VVS bomber units re-equippedwith the introductionwasspeeded up by holdingworkshops
Beagleby the mid-1950s.Of course,the units and in which the Air ForceC-in-C and other top brass,
formationsstationedin thewesterndefencedistricts as well as ordinary servicepilots, Ilyushin OKB
of the USSR which were closestto the potential engineersand representatives from the factories
adversaryenjoyedpriority in this respect.These buildingthe bombertook part.
included the bomber divisions based at The Il-28 contributeda lot to the developmentof
Chernyakhovsk (Lithuania, Baltic Defence Sovietfree-fallnuclearweapons.As alreadymen-
District), Starokonstantinov and Stryy (the tioned, the Beaglewas used to test the RDS-4
Ukrainian part of the Carpathian DD),, nuclear bomb, which then becamethe standard
Limanskoye(OdessaDD), etc. Each bomberdivi- weapon of the Il-28N and Yak-28 Brewer. On
sion (= bombergroup,in US terms)includedtwo
or threebomberregiments(= bomberwings)con-
sistingof threesquadrons;eachsquadronhad ten I Besidesthe western part of the Ukraine. the Carpathian DD
Beagles(threeflightsof threeplus a reserveaircraft included Moldavia.
in caseone went unserviceable) and one or two 2 BAD = bombardeerovoc,hnayuaviudivee:iyu - bomber divi-
sion; VA = voztlooshnayu armiyu - air army (= air force);
Il-28U trainers.For instance,the 63rd BAD of the
FBAP = /rontovoy bombardeerovot'ltnyy aviupolk tactical
57th VA included the 7th FBAP at bomber regiment. Some sources claim the 408th FBAP was
Starokonstantinov and the 408th FBAP at Stryv;': basedat Cherlvanv AB.

Sporting an unusually large Soviet Air Force star on the tail, an Il-28 taxies out past a sister ship. 1rr1i,"Gonton
7.1. lr-vustrrx

A cu rioL rsp ictr-lrc

sh olv ing

3 A ugus t l9- 53a s p c c i u l l ymo d i l l e c iIl -2 8 d ro p pcd A cascis on rccorclwhcr.rthc Bcuglaactuallyopcr-

th c llls t S ov ic thyc l ro -s cbno l l b a t th c Sc n ti p a l a ti nsk atcd i n a nucl cul cnvi ronntent.On l 4 S epternber
p r ov inggr ound.O n l 2 Au g L rsitn th c s tu l c y c a r t w o l 95zl thrcc rcgi ntcntsol ' l l -28s (the enti rc l 40th
I |-28sopcrati n g l'r'rtnrZl.rana-ScntcyA Ii ntttni torccl B A D ) took ol l ' and headccll br the Totskoyetrai n-
Ihc tcst ol' thc l-ilstSoviet ncutrrtnbonlb nerlbrntccl i ng rangei n gror" rpsol - ni nc ai rcral t to take part i n a
L r nc lct rhc guic lan c rl
c l ' l g o l ' ' V. KL rl c h u trrvth. e Sovi ct tacti cal nucl ear cxerci se.E ach bornbcr squadron
t S a tn u c (-o
coLlllt c r parol' l hcn. w as cscorted by tw o fl i ghts of Mi G-17s. The


Flaps f ully extertdcd.Il-28 2l Rcd is caught by the camerasccondsbelbretouchdown. I )i,/irrr

Tp,l B t..t,,tt l r S t ttr trt .75


d;".. ,.

A lir| mutio n


SovictAil ForceIl-28solicn opcrateclin closc lbrnutions. as illuslr'atecl

bv this shol l l tc r:uttttcl ol l r :i .tcl shi f.
Scrqtr tttrl I)tttilrir Kottti.stttrot tttr ltitt i
76 . lrylrsnrx lt-28 Br..,rc;t,t

A lt hough tll.1-ltltlrc1tr alit y . t lr is pic t Lr r c is t lev er t hc lc s s i n 1 c r c s t i n g . s | t t l r v i r l g a I r l | - ] t j c l r o 1 1 l i l l . u

otl| ygttcsswha 1a ircri r lt s c r v c c llt s t lr ec at r lc r lr s hipbLr t i 1 w l r s c l c | l n i 1 c | y n t l 1 l t I l t l t h c l . R t 't t . q l t '.

cxcrcise wAS coullandcd by Marshal Ghe.olgiy i ntcrnati onaltensi on i gni ted by the K orean W ar.
Ko n st ant ir . r ov icZhhu k o v o l - G rc a t Pa tri o ti c Wa r Thc outbrcakof' the w ar pl l t an end to post-S econd
tirme. Worlcl War arnts reductions.Thc Soviet anti-shin-
The pilots wcrc issuedwith specialgogglesto pro- ping lblce startcdgrowing rapidly owing to both the
tect thcir eyestror.r.r the f'lashol' the nuclear explo- l bmati on of new uni tsand the transferof' compl ete
si o n .W hc n t he bom b w e n t o f-I,c re a ti n gtl rc te l l -ta l c bor.nberrcgiurentsf}om the Air Force to the Navy;
mllshfoom clor-rd.the incoming arntaclastartcclto sc'ronthe AVMF had up to twenty torpedo-bomber
take evasivcaction. but sr-rddenly a ll'eak wind blew r.rn it s.
th e cl o ud s t r aightinto i ts p a th . T h c j e ts w e rc l ' l y i n g Later. as already mentioned, the naval bombers
in closefbrmation and thcre was not ntuch loont fbr werc couvertedto carry one RAT-52 torpedo; this
ma n o euv r esbec auseo f th e d a n g c r o f c o l l i s i o n : versi onw as phasedi n by the A V MF i n earl y 1953.
most aircrafi managedto stccrclear,but sontewent Also" thc Bauslasof' the Red Banner Baltic Fleet's
sma ckint o t he c loud . l t i s n o t k n o w n w l .ra th
t econ- 769th OMTAP were convertedto II-28PL 'quick-
sequences werefor thc pilots ol thcir jets. fl x' A S W ai rcrafi .Tw o rnoreB al ti c Fl eetIl -28 uni ts
The AVMF started receivingthc Bcrrglcin the welc to undertake a sintilar conversion"but these
su rrm er of 1951.init i a l l y i n b a s i cb o m b e r c o n l i g r.r- plans were rendcredvoid by the advent of the more
ration. Thc Black Sea Fleet's943rd MTAP and the capableTLr-16.
Red Bar.rncrBaltic Flcet's l53lst MTAP wcre the Interesti ngl y.the Il -28 w as the dow nfal l of the
first naval units to receivcthe type; the North Fleet Sovict leader's son, Vasiliy l. Stalin, who com-
d i d n o t lbllow s uit r -rn ti l1 9 5 3 .th e 5 7 4 rh M T AP rnanded the air fbrce of the Moscow Def'ence
being thc flrst Il-28 operatorthcre.The introduction D i stri ct. D uri ng the May D ay parade of 1952,
of con-rbat jets coincidedwith a scvereescalationof numerolrsfighters and bombers were to pass over
. 77
Trtr.B*tctt rN-SERVTcE

Soviet Naval Aviation airmcn wearing leatherjackets and 1950s-stylewhite-topped Navy caps pose besidean Il-28.
( Yclinr Gordtn urthit't')
78 . IlyusurN lt-28 Br,tctt

Red Square in Moscow to emphasizethe might of Of course,like any new type, the ll-28 had its
the Soviet air arm. However, the weather forecast shareof teethingtroubles.Typicaldefectsincluded
said the weather would be beastly,with low clouds asymmetricflap deployment(causedby air locksin
and rain all over the place. Hence the WS C-in-C the hydraulic lines feedingthe flap drive jacks),
cancelled the flypast; still, V. Stalin called him on radar and autopilot failures.Theseweredealt with
the phone, requestingpermission to go ahead if the astheycame.The radarwasa royalpain in theneck
weather improved. The C-in-C gave the go-ahead, at first, sinceit usedvacuumtubeswhich are sensi-
warning that Stalin would bear the full responsibil- tive to vibration and G loads (to say nothing of
ity if anything went wrong. In the end V. Stalin got Sovietelectronics,which were notoriouslyunreli-
tired of waiting and ordered the bombers to take off able).Luckily the engineerswho had createdthe
and head for Moscow as planned, even though the PSBN-M had foreseenthis and designedthe radar
visibility was close to nil - an unprecedenteddeci- as a modular systemwith line-replaceable units
sion in peacetime. (LRUs),which eliminatedthe needto keepthe air-
The result was deplorable. Some bomber units craft grounded for radar repairs and ultimately
missed Red Square altogetheq others passedacross wasone of the factorsof the Beagle'shigh combat
it at right anglesto the planned heading, still others readiness.
were ordered to return to base before reaching Airmen love to tell tall tales,and one of them
Moscow. Even so, the spectators at Red Square (concerningthe Il-28) is this. After the Ilyushin
could not seethe aircraft becauseof the low clouds, OKB had made some updates,a bomber unit
hearing only the jet thunder overhead.But the worst equippedwith Beaglesreceivedordersthat all the
was yet to come: two ll-28s collided near Migalovo aircraft be urgentlyupgradedto the new standard.
AB, Kalinin (now Tver'), and crashed,killing the The work had to be donein a hangar,and the local
crews. For this outstanding performance Vasiliy hangarwas too small to accommodate all the air-
Stalin was promptly removed from offrce. craft presentat the base.On the otherhand,failure
On 9 March 1953a group of Il-28s overflew the to comply with the orderswould resultin discipli-
Red Squarein Moscow during Josef Stalin'sfuneral naryaction.
in a farewell salute to the deceasedleader. The Everybodyrackedtheir brainsin searchof a solu-
weather that day was bad, with extremeicing condi- tion until, with a sly twinkle in his eye,one crew
tions, and the Beagle was the only aircraft which chief saidhe knew the answer.He would not tell it
could accomplishthis mission,being,as it were,the until he was assuredof a rewardin the form of a
only Soviet aircraft at the time to feature a de-icing bottleof vodka.His methodwassimple:the techni-
system. ciansdeflatedthe port mainwheelof eachbomber,
Soon after the 11-28had become operational with causingthe bomber to bank a few degrees- just
first-line bomber units, the Soviet Air Force'sflying enoughto allow the port wing of one aircrafttoJit
schools also started taking delivery of the type. under the starboard wing oJ another aircraftl
These included the Tambov Higher Military Pilot This allowedall the bombersto fit into the hangar
School named after the famous record-setting and the updatesto be madeon schedule.Blessthe
female pilot Marina Raskova (TWAUL technician,the Man of Infinite Resourceand
Tambovskoye vyssheye voyennoye aviatseeonnoye Sagacity!
oochilischchelyotchikov), the Slavgorod branch of The Beagle'ssturdinessand reliability soon
the Omsk Military Pilot School and the Nikolayev becamelegendary.On one occasionan Il-28 from
Minelayer and Torpedo-Bomber Flying School. Chernyakhovskditchedin the Baltic Seaafter an
The Il-28 was very popular with its crews and unspecifiedmalfunction; the aircraft remained
technical staff, and with good reason. The aircraft afloat for more than two hoursbeforebeingtowed
was easy to fly and operate, adequately armed and to the shoreand waseventuallyreturnedto service.
had a good safety and reliability record, once the On another occasiona 408th FBAP Il-28U hit a
learning curve had been overcome. Pilots accus- storm cloud at 6,000m (19,685ft) and emerged
tomed to the spartan conditions of the Tu-2 with its from it at 1,800m (5,905ft) with severalholes
cold and noisy cockpits were amazed by the com- burnedby lightningstrikesandthepaint on all lead-
fortable and well-equipped cockpits of the Beagle. ing edgessandpaperedaway by hail. The VK-l
They were also quick to appreciatethe Il-28's speed, engineearnedparticularly high praise.Low-level
rate of climb and good manoeuvrability. The tech- missionswerethe order of the day,and quite often
nical staff, too, liked the Il-28 for its easeof accessto Il-28singestedbirdsor clippedtreetopsduringsuch
the enginesand all equipment items requiring main- missions,eatingbranches;but, the enginesusually
tenancein day-to-dayservice. keptrunningasif nothinghad happened!
:.\S .-9

In defenceof peaceandsocialism,or Cold i]id not exceed 40 m (131 ft) .and

the distance
exceed80 m
U.i*.." flights in a regiment did
War warriors with the
for the A;;"i;:. nitn" vvs 6uilt up
New efficient combat tactics were developed take-offs
Il-28, pilots starteclmaking .foimation
ii-zs wasintroduced aircraft'
;;,;;;;i. to turn hot iio-'aitt tttips in groupsoithree to-lilt
War was at lts peaKand was expected F-* lit". toii-" ttt" unitt flying the Il-28 deployed
crews practised night-flving
;;; ;;;"t. htogt'
i;-*-;i; tur., for training purposes;e'g' the
flving in ilight'' squadronsand "artiirt" as the
in a flight it tn" o:to BAD would fly as far
r"*"t.t"t rne distaniebetweenaircraft

4&*i 'i.1,

..i r:i,, . : : ' - ! : , ; i' r "

.,.:;rr. ,..,*,
G"rl'rtutttitt i
the combat versiont Yt'tint
Air Force'sflying schoolsalong with
The Il_2gUwas deliveredto the Soviet


A nAirFo rce instruct or s hows t hell- 28U' s r ear c oc k pi t , l a y o u t t o a c a d e t . ( Y t | i n t G o n l o n a r ( h i | t )

80 . lryusurN L-28 Bt.,rott


Flight training sornetimesled to spills.This Mu:tt'ot,79Red, made a belly-landingin a field, fortunatelysufferingalmost

rro damage. I Y,litrr Grtrthttrurthiya )

Central Asian DD" deploying to Karshi in south- their imageon the PSBN-M's radar displaywas very
eastern Uzbekistan and Maryy (pronounced like similar to the practicetargets.Fortunatelythe dam-
the Frenchname Marie) in Turkmenistan. age was usuallyminimal becausepracticebomblets
During such raids the crews would practise filled mainly with soot werenormally used.But one
bombing attacksat unfamiliar targetranges.Bombs night a disasterwas avertedat the last moment. An
were dropped from altitudes ranging from 100 to Il -28 carryi ng a l i ve 1,000kg (2,204Ib) FA B -1000
10,000m (328 32,808ft), both by singleaircrafrand high-explosivebomb took off from an airbasenear
in fbrmations of varying sizeas commandedby the Stanislav(now Ivano-Frankovsk),headingfor a tar-
leader.Specialtargets with a high radar signature get range at Kamenka-Boogskaya,but strayedoff
were built at such ranges.Occasionally,however, courseand overflewthe city of L'vov instead.It was
bomber crews would lose their way en route, as a sheerluck that the bomb aimer happenedto look
result,grain processingunits and vehicledepots of away from the radar display a few secondsbefore
nearby collective farms could get bombed, slnce the drop and sawthe city lights below.

Combat training in the Soviet Air Force's Il-28 units included operations from unpaved airstrips. l strgcl.undDnitil.
Kont i.ssurot,urt lt iyc)
wasoperatedlil:tiJ.T,ti. Fleet's567thMTAP (MinelayerandTorpedo-

an Aeroflot Il-20 mailplane.

Albanian Air ForceHarbin H-5 3608.

Aboveand opposite:A three-viewillustration of Il-28 08 Blue operatedby the 57th VA (Air Army)z63rd BAD (Bomber
Division)/409th FBAP (TacticalBomber Regiment),CherlyanyAB, CarpathianDefenceDistrict.
l47l Red,a Soviet-builtChinesePeople'sLiberationArmv Air ForceIl-28.

A CzechAir Force AvtaB-228in pre-1957markings.This particular aircraft was usedby the skydiversJaroslav
Jehlidka,ZdenEkKaplan and GustavKoubekto seta world recordon 20 March 1957.

Czech Air Force Il-29 1904 with a post-l957 serial and a red identification band applied for a war game.
EastGerman Air Force(ZDS 2l) Il-28R 184Black (clh 5901207).Earlier in its careerthis aircraft had beenregis-
teredDM-ZZK and usedas a testbedfor the Pirna 0l4A turboiet.

Egyptian Air Forcell-28 1733in post-1967camouflage.

FinnishAir ForceIl-28R (Il-288M) targettug NH-3 (c/n l7l3). The zeroon the nosewaslaterremoved
\i,/' i
v/' /
'r /?/

HunearianAir ForceII-28RTR l9 Red.

IndonesianNavy Il-28T M844 in early-stylemarkings.

Federal Niserian Air Force Il-28 NAF-158.

North KoreanAir Force11-28314Red.

SomeNorth KoreanBeagles,like
45 Blue,had a greenand bluecolour scheme.The tail showswhat lookslike the
beginningsof hastilyappliedcamouflage.

PolishAir ForceIl-28 20 Red.

55 Red was one of severalIl-28Us deliveredto the PolishAir Force.

People'sAir Forcell-28 2210Red.
T'lE Brtr;tt rN Senvrce. 8l

Penetratingenemy air defenceswas an important much the same lines; thus, even when NATO had
aspect of the Il-28 crews' combat training pro- sufficientnumbersof North American F-100 Super
gramme. Mock combat with Mikoyan/Gurevich Sabres,Republic F-I05 Thunderchiefsand SAAB
MiG-15 F(tgotsand MiG-17 Frescosimpersonating J-35 Drakens basedin Europe,the Il-28 stood a fair
enemy fighters showed that a fighter armed solely chance of getting away from them, especiallywhen
with cannon had no chanceagainstIhe Beugle.In a fl yi ng at ul tra-l owl evel .
head-on attack the bomber'shigh speedcausedthe For the Westernworld (the 'freeworld', in the ter-
fighter to close on the target at an enormous rate, minology of the Cold War era) the hundreds of
leavingthe fighter pilot little time to take aim (quite nuclear-capable bomberswere one of the personifi-
apart from the fact that the 11-28had a pair of for- cations of the tell-tale Soviet Threat and with
ward-firing cannon with which to discourage such good reason.The crewsof theseaircraft were care-
attacks). In the rear hemispherethe bomber's effec- fully chosenand receivedespeciallyrigorous train-
tive tail turret and high manoeuvrabilityenabledthe ing. Each crew was allocated a main target and
crew to successfullyrepel the fighters. several alternative targets in Western E,urope:
The advent of the supersonicMiG-19 Farmer- nuclearweaponsdepots,airbases,etc. For instance,
AIC did not make things easierfor the adversanes the already mentioned 63rd BAD of the 57th VA
in fact, it made things harder becausethe closing (Carpathian DD) was to attack targets in West
speed was now greater, and in a stern attack the Germany.
bomber pilots would reduce speed, causing the In the event of war the tactical scenariofor the
fighter to overshoot.It was not until the all-weather Baagle units was approximately as follows. Each
MiG-l9PM Farmer-D armed with RS-2-US Il-28 carrying a nuclear bomb would be accompa-
(K-5MS; NATO code name AA-l Alkali) air-to-air nied by at leasta squadronof sisteraircraft tasked
missiles came on the scene that the tables were with the electroniccollntermeasures (ECM) and air
turned. In the West,fighter developmentwent along defence distraction role. After takinc off from


r dt

Maintenance work on an Il-28R at a wintry airfield; the aircraft is jacked up for landing gear operation tesIs.I y(,limGofttoil
82 . IlyussrN It-28 Brtt;tr.




\r r
This i s h o w t h e B a u g l e ' sta il ca r r n o n we r e cle a n e d . I yt,lirtt
Gurtt.nurchi rt,)

Sovietterritory the bomber formation would climb bomber uni ts operati ng the Il -28 (i ncl udi ng the
to 10,000m (32,808ft) in order to savefuel. Then, nuclear-capable version)were stationedin some of
setting up an ECM barrier, the bombers would the WarsawPact nations.which placedthem within
descendto low altitude over Poland to avoid detec- rangeol the southcoastof E ngl i nd.
tion by the powerful surveillanceradar in West The Soviet Union's Central Grouo of Forces
Berlin NATO's first line of defence:some of the (TsGV * Tsentrahl'nu))u j stationed in
gt ooppLtur,1',rk
aircraft would leavethe formation, making decep- Czechoslovakiahad a number of Il-28BM target
tive manoeuvresto confusethe AD radar onerators. tugs based at Zvolen AB. In East Germany the
The same tactic would be used to get past the GSVG (Grooppu ,;ovetskikh voysk v Ghermuhnii
numerous HAWK, Nike Herculesand Nike Ajax Group of Soviet Forcesin Germany)roperatedthe
anti-aircraft missilesystems.Eventually the bomb- Il-28 in the basicbombeq reconnaissance and target
toting Beagle would be left all alone, pressing on tug versions.East German basesusedby SovietAir
towards the target at treetop level. Then it would Force Beugles were Allstedt (11-28Rs,1968 70),
climb sharply to 1,000 m (3,280 ft), allowing the Berlin-Schonefeld(a target-towingflight equipped
navigatorto make surethey were in the right place, with Il-2SBMs and Il-28Us), Brand (668th FBAP,
whereuponthe bomb would be droppedand the air- 35 aircraft sincethe 1950s;re-equippedwith Yak-28
craft would head back, descendingto ultra-low level Brev'er tactical bombers in 1965), Brandis (only
again as it did. The idea was that the ll-28's high occasionally), Finow (207th FBAP, l1-28s srnce
speedwould enableit to outrun the shock waveand 1956; re-equipped with Yak-28s in 1965),
the crew would be protected from the flash by spe- Damgarten (until 1979), Finsterwalde (briefly,
ci a l b linds . early 1950s),Jiiterbog-AltesLager (11-28Rs,early
Even if the bomber managed to get that far and 1950s), Lrirz (1950s), Neu-Welzow (20 bombers
deliver the bomb, it had virtually no chance of first seen in 1953), Oranienburg (Il-28s and
returning to base because, with all the evasive Il-2SUs, probably 200th FBAD/22lst FBAP,
manoeuvres,it was sure to run out of fuel on the
way home. To remedy this, auxiliary airfields were
initially built in Poland and East Germany, where 3 Renamed ZGY (Zahpudnctyugrooppu vovsk Western Group
the bombers were to make refuelling stops. Later, of F-orces)
i n 1989.
Tna Bntcrc rN Spnvrcs . 83


Jb '*
r mD=-



Maintenancedayat a bomberunit, with a line-upof ll-28sunbuttonedlor servicing.

The nearestaircraft,l2 Blue,is c/n
Note theopenavionicsbaycoveron 08 Blue;the 8 is appliedin a heaviertypethan thezero,suggesting the air-
craft has been re-coded . ( yelim Gonlonarthive)

April-December 1951 and August 1954-August Cuba by sea in September1962togetherwith a

1956).and Werneuchen. number of ballistic missiles.This was one of the
The target-towingflight at Berlin-Schonefeld air- reasonsfor the famous Cuban Missile Crisis of
port moved to Brand AB in was later September-November 1962 when the USA
upgradedto independenttarget-towingsquadron enforceda nayal blockadeof Cuba, causingthe
status (OBMAE - otdel'naya booksirovochno- SovietUnion in turn to dispatcha navaltask force
mishennaya aviaeskadril'ya, number unknown), to the Caribbean.
movingto Oranienburgin the autumnof l97l and However,facedwith the increasingprobabilityof
thenceto Damgartenin 1977.Oranienburgalso an all-out armed conflict with the USA which
servedas the maintenancebase for the GSVG's would be a war of destruction,the Sovietleaders
Il-28s. had the commonsenseto backdown and withdraw
An Il-28 basedat Oranienburg(22lst FBAP?) the missilesfrom Cubain an effortto easethe situa-
crashednear the village of Teschendorf13 km tion. Addressingthe nation on 20 November,US
(8 miles) north of the base in February 1956; PresidentJohn F. Kennedy said that the Soviet
anotheronewaslost in Augustsameyear,just 2 km leaderNikita S. Khruschevhad pledgedto with-
(1.24 miles) from the site of the previouscrash. draw the nuclear-capableIl-28swithin 30 daysand
Shortlyafterwards, on 26 August1956,theregiment agreedto let the Americansmonitor this process;
was withdrawn from Oranienburg. Military consequently, JFK had instructedthe Secretaryof
observers from the Allied nationsand the localpop- Defenseto removethe navalblockade.
ulation wereinvitedto seethe bombers'denarture The bombersleft in early Decemberaboardthe
on 26August1956asa goodwillgesture. andi small freightersSISKasimov(15aircraft),SISKrasnograd
air festwasheld. (15) and SIS Okhotsk(12). In order to make it
While we are on the subjectof Cold War war- patentlyclearto the US governmentthat the Soviet
riors, the Beagleactuallyplayedan important part Union was honouring its commitmentsand the
in Operation Mangoosta(Mongoose)- an event Beagleswere being withdrawn, the crated aircraft
which nearly started the Third World War. were placed on the ships' upper decks,suffering
Forty-twonuclear-capable Il-28Nsweredeployedto heavycorrosiondamagebecausenext to nothing
84 . lrvusurNlt-28 Bc,tcr,r:

had beendone to protect them from the salty ocean in naval aviation in the early 1950s;however,it was
environment.As a result, many of the 42 aircraft there that its obsolescence was most noticeable.By
had to be written off. the mid-1950sthe Il-28T did not meet the Soviet
After this. the Cuban leader Fidel Castro Ruz Navy's requirements any longer. Besides, the
called the Il-28 an obsolete aircraft with limited w eaponscutsi ni ti atedby K hruschevi n 1960and hi s
speed and inadequate range when speaking at a generalbias towards missilesdealt a severeblow to
public rally. Obsolete they may have been, but bomber aviation in generaland naval bomber avia-
Castro was clearlyannoyedat letting go the rnissiles tion in particular. All AVMF minelaying and tor-
and bombers and having nothing to threaten 1o.s pedo-bornberunits were disbanded,as were many
gringoswith! tactical bomber units in the VVS, and many ll-28s
As alreadymentioned,the Beuglamade its mark were scrapped,even though some aircraft had only

Soviet Air Force ll-28s were stationed outside the USSR as well. Here, severalred-coded Beugleswrapped in tarpaulins
are pictured at an East German airbaseon a foggy morning. I f'tfittrGttrdon
Tgp.Bnqctr rN Snnvrcs. 85

60-100 hours'total time. This barbaricprocesstook People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) air
place at an amazing rate, the work proceeding in bases in Manchuria. The aircraft wore PLAAF
three shifts. In the Pacific Fleet alone, about 400 air- insignia but were flown by Soviet crews.
craft were demolished within a verv short neriod. A secondmajor batch of Soviet-builtIl-28s was
Many airmen suddenly found themselves iurplus delivered in 1953. It is not known if the Beagles
and unwanted; they were dismissedfrom the Armed actually saw action in the war, but they did putin an
Forceswithout any social security. appearancein North Korea. UN envoysmonitoring
Fortunately the VVS command was not enthusi- prisoner-of-war exchanges reported Chinese
astic about this mayhem, and many Il-28s were sim- bombers, including Il-28s, landing illegally on air
ply placed in storage. Numerous Beagles were bases near Pyongyang in direct violation of the
transferred to flying schools where they served Iruce agreement.
alongside the Il-28U Mascot dedicated trainers A short while later, however, the Beugle did see
until the mid-1980s.Others soldieredon as tarset action during China's last civil war when the
tugs, also until the mid-1980s.Nearly all of ihe Chinese Nationalists led by Chiang Kai-shek
Soviet Union's defence districts had independent claimed independencefor Taiwan. In early January
target-towing flights or squadronsoperating four to 1956 PLAAF ll-28s bombed the Tachen islands
ten, and sometimesmore. Il-28BMs. These were 360 km (200 nm) north of Taiwan which the
based aI Novorossiya AB (Far East DD), Nationalists were forced to abandon in February.
Berdyansk (Red Banner Odessa DD). However,the high accidentrate and the danger of
Starokonstantinov (Carpathian DD), Tokmak being shot town by Republic of China Air Force
(Central Asian DD, lOth OBAZ).. Zvolen (ROCAF) Republic F-84 Thunderjets and North
(Czechoslovakia), etc. American F-86 Sabres forced an end to these
Moreoveq the Il-28 got a new leaseof life (if only attacks.
briefly) in the late 1960sand early 1970swhen the In the autumn of 1956 a large group of Soviet
post-Khruschev Soviet government headed by forceswas deployedto Hungary to quash the anti-
Leonid I. Brezhnevdecided to revive the ground communist uprising in that country. More than 120
attack arm of the VVS (which was one of the hard- Baoglesbasedin the CarpathianDD wereplacedon
est-hit by Khruschev's reforms). A number of maximum alert duty, readyto launch strikesagainst
Beagles were converted to Il-28Sh ground attack the insurgents.Fortunatelythis neverhappened,but
aircraft. Up to a full regiment of these aircraft was Soviet Air Force Il-28Rs secondedto the Special
based at Domna AB (Transbaikalian DD) and Corps taskedwith quellingthe mutiny did fly recon-
Khoorba AB near Komsomol'sk-on-Amur (Far naissancemissionsover Hungary.One of them was
E a st DD) . shot down by the rebelsover Csepel Island on the
D anube on 8 N ovember 1956,ki l i i ng rhe crew .On
The Il-28 at war l8 Decemberthe SupremeSovietof the USSR (the
nation's top governing body) issued a decree
The Il-28 had its fair shareof 'hot'wars. the flrst of granting the Hero of the Soviet Union title
which was the Korean War of 1950-3.China suo- posthumously to an Il-28 crew consisting of
ported North Korea activelyduring the war. send- squadron commander Capt. A. A. Bobrovskiy
ing the tell-tale one million volunteers (actually (pilot), Capt. D. D. Karmishin (navigator)and the
regularPeople'sLiberation Army troops)to the bat- squadron's chief of communications Lt. (sg)
tlefields.This angered the USA badly enough to V. Ye. Yartsev (gunner/radio operator). It seems
make it promise strikes against China, including very probable that it was the samecrew.
nuclear strikesif necessary,if Chineseforcescrossed On the other side,it is reported that a handful of
the 38th parallel at which the frontline had stabi- Hungarian pilots who had supported the rebels
lized (this was eventuallyto become the demarca- made a few sortiesfrom KunmadarasAB, attacking
tion line betweenNorth and South Korea). Soviettroops who had built pontoon bridgesacross
Not to be outdone,China threatenedto hit both the Tisza River. Soon. however.all Hunsarian air-
South Korea and US basesin Japan if USAF air- baseswere overrun by Soviettroops,and-therebels'
craft as much as overflew Chinese territory. To add fl yi ng acti vi ti esstopped.
weight to these words, 70 Il-28s were deployed on Another area where the 11-28saw action in the
autumn of 1956was the Middle East. Egyptian Air
Force (EAF) Beaglas first saw action during the
1 OBAZ = otdel'not:ebook.siyovot'hno
y-eaviu:r:eno independcnl SuezCrisis (26 October 7 November 1956).Great
ltarget-] towing {1ight. Britain was thoroughly displeasedwith President
86. IrvusHrNlt-28 Brtotr

Gamal Abdel Nasser'sindependentpolitical course; Combat aircraft took part in these operations; for
when Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal on 26 July example, United Arab Republic Air Force
1956,this was the last straw. In concert with France (UARAF) Il-28s flew several night reconnaissance
and Egypt's arch-enemy,Israel, Great Britain took missions over the lsraeli seaport of Eilat in
action. According to the plan, lsrael would start an December1958.
armed conflict with Egypt, then Great Britain and In 1959ChineseIl-28s saw action again when the
France would interfere on the pretext of ensuring government forces ruthlessly stamped out an ethnic
the safety of international traffic in the Suez Canal minority uprising in Tibet. Apart from that, the
and occupy the area. Stage l, Operation Kadesh Beagleswere used in numerous skirmishes with the
('cleansing' in Hebrew), was scheduled for 29 TaiwaneseNationalists - mostly over the Strait of
October-l November, and Stage 2, Operation Taiwan. Some sources suggest that Il-28Rs and
Musketeer,for I 7 November. HZ-Ss actually overflew the island on reconnais-
By then the EAF had taken delivery of about fifty sancesorties; severalof these aircraft fell victim to
Beaglesbut only one squadron operating twelve air- Nike Ajax missiles.
craft was fully combat-capable. Two other One Chinese Beagle, however, was lost in a
squadrons had only just been formed before the different way. On I I November 1966pilot Li Hsien-
fighting began, and the crews had not yet mastered pin, navigator/bomb aimer Li Tsai-wang and gun-
the new jet bombers. Consequentlythe Il-28 was ner/radio operator Liang Pao-sheng of the 22nd
usedin the conflict on a small scale.For instance,on Bomber Regiment/SthBomber Division defectedto
the night of 3l October one of the Beaglesbombed Taiwan in an Il-28 serialled0195 Yellow.The three
an Israeli kibbutz named Gezen An Israeli Defence had conspired to defect long before the flight. join-
Force/Air Force (IDF/AF Heyl Hu'avir) Gloster ing the PLAAF and successfullypassing the com-
Meteor N F.13took off to interceptthe intruder but plex loyalty check system.
could not find the target in the darkness. On the The aircraft took off at noon from Hangchow
same day a group of ll-28s raided Lod airbasebut coastal airbaseon a routine practicebombing sor-
the bombs missedtheir target, exploding near the tie. After following the coastlinefor a while it turned
Jewishsettlementof Ramat-Rachel. and headed for Taiwan at full speed.Chinese fight-
The EAF top commanders fully realized that, ers scrambled and gave chase- too late. The ll-28
with no qualified crews to fly them, the Beugles was quickly spotted by Taiwanese air defence
would be sitting ducks and a lucrative target for the radars; ROCAF Lockheed F-104G Starfighters
Anglo-French strike force. Hence President Nasser took off to intercept, escorting the bomber to
ordered the EAF's assetsto be dispersedto remote Taoyuan air baseafter the pilot had made his inten-
basesor relocatedto Syria and Saudi Arabia. (It tions clear by rocking the wings. The aircraft over-
was just as well that he did; on the night of I ran on landing, collapsing the nose gear and
November Great Britain and France launched damaging the nose glazing' all three crew members
Operation Musketeer as planned. RAF bombers were injured, the gunner dying a day later.
detached to Luqa, Malta, and Royal Navy strike The defection was timed to coincide with the cen-
aircraft from the carriers HMS Albion,HMS Eagle tenary celebration of Sun Yat-sen,the'father of the
and HMS Bulwark attacked Egyptian airbases in Chinese revolution' revered by both Communists
the Suez Canal area.) Twenty I1-28swere flown to and Nationalists, celebratedon l2 November. Sure
the Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF) base at Riyadh enough, the Taiwanese and Western press created
by Soviet and Czech crews; the other 24 or 28 an almighty uproar. This was compounded by the
Beaglesmoved to Luxor, Egypt's southernmost air- pilot, who was the least injured in the crash landing,
base, where they were supposed to be safe. This speaking at the Centennial Rally the next day and
assumption turned out to be wrong; on 4 November denouncing Red China and communism in general.
RAF English Electric Canberras bombed Luxor, Meanwhile, the unfortunate event was promptly
forcing the evacuationof eight more Il-28sto Saudi reported to the PLAAF HQ in Beijing, and retribu-
Arabia. On the same day the base was attacked by tion followed swiftly. The Air Force Vice-
French Air Force (Armee de I'Air) Republic F-84F Commander Cheng Chung arrived at Hangchow on
Thunderjet fighter-bombers; the French claimed the same day and probably gave everyone a thor-
the destruction of every single aircraft at the base ough dressing-down. All flights from Hangchow
but the EAF acknowledged the loss of only seven and other basesnearest to Taiwan were suspended
bombers. until further notice.
Sporadic armed incidents between Egypt and Apart from the nose section,0195 Yellow was vir-
Israel continued between the Arab-Israeli wars. tually intact. The Nationalists repaired and test flew
TsB Bntcrc tN SEnvrce. 87

the aircraft,then reportedlyusedit for reconnais- The Il-28 sawaction in Africa as well. In April
sanceflights over mainland China (somesources 1967a coupd'ttat occurredin Nigeria and the cor-
say the aircraft was handed over to the USA for rupt governmentwastoppledby Gen.Irons,C-in-C
closeexamination).Shortly afterwards,the British of the Nigerian Armed Forces.The next month,
model kit manufacturerAirfix releaseda ll72nd however,Irons was killed in a new couporganized
scalemodel of the Beagle.(Speakingof which, by Col Ojukwu, governorof the Easternprovince
anotherkit of the Il-28 to the samescalefrom the and one of the leadersof the Ibo tribe. The rebels
ChinesecompanyTrumpeterhas appearedon the declaredtheir intention to secede,forming the so-
marketrecently.) called Stateof Biafra, namedafter a bight in the
In1962Nassersenthiscombataircraft(including Gulf of Guinea.This immediatelysparkeda bitter
Il-28s) to Yemen,extendingmilitary aid to the three-yearcivil war betweenthe separatistsand the
Republicanswho had overthrownthe king. At the federalgovernment.
same time the Soviet Union also supportedthe The FederalNigerian Air Force(FNAF) origi-
Republicans,supplying them with a number of nally usedsix impressedNigeria Airways Douglas
Beagles. The Il-28sattackedthe Royalists'positions DC-3s (ex-SN-AAN, 5N-AAP, etc.) and twelve
and flew reconnaissance sorties;the Westernpress Czech-supplied Aero L-29 Delfin advancedtrainers
reportedthat they wereflown by both Yemeniand against Col Ojukwu's rebels in the light
Sovietcrews.(This may well be true.Sovietmilitary bomber/paradropand strike roles respectively.
personnelparticipatedin manyregionalconflictsin Pretty soon,however,it obtainedreal combat air-
which the SovietUnion wasnot formally involved, craft from Arab nationssupportingthe Islamicgov-
and not only in an advisorycapacity,and that was ernment in Lagos in its struggle against the
somethingthe public back at home was definitely Christian Ibo separatists. Egypt was the first to
not supposedto know!) Sometimesthe bombers extendhelp,supplying4l MiG-l7Fs (misidentified
attackedthe Sauditowns of Dhahran and Najran as MiG-l5s by somesources)and, togetherwith
locatednext to the Yemeniborder.In June 1966a Algeria, six second-handIl-28s in 1969. The
solitary Il-28 escortedby UARAF MiG-l7Fs bomberswereflown by Egyptianmercenarycrews.
bombedthe RSAF baseat KhamisMushayt;in the Operatingfrom Enugu and Kalabar, the Beagles
samemonth UARAF Il-28Rsflew reconnaissance bore the brunt of the bombingmissionsbut were
missionsoverthe Saudiseaportof Qizan.Whenthe reportedlyfound to be ineffective.They certainly
Six-DayWar erupted,however,all Egyptiantroops did not venturenearthe Biafrancapital,Uli, which
hadto leaveYemenbecause thinsswerebad enoush waswell protectedby flak. Moreover,poor mission
backat home. planningand the lack of a clearlydefinedforward

When the Il-28 was phasedout, many of thesebombers sat at Soviet airbases,awaiting disposal. ( yelintGouton
88 . IlvussrN lt-28 Bt,rcLe

line of own troops (FLOT) sometimes resulted in spare the runways at the four baseslocated on the
friendly forcesbeing bombed! Sinai Peninsula so that Israeli aircraft could use
Sometimes the ll-28s were used to escort the them, once the peninsula had been occupied. The
DC-3s on bombing/paradrop sorties or for strafing first strike was scheduledbetween08.35and 09.10,
Biafran positions. In February 1969 a group of when the Egyptian fighters were not expectedto be
DC-3s escorted by I1-28s and MiG-l5s para- out on combat air patrol and the basecommanders
dropped supplies and ammunition for government were usually not on site. This would be followed by
forcessurrounded at Owerri. When this didn't work three more waves of strike aircraft which were to
and the DC-3s were temporarily unflyable through destroy the greater part of the Egyptian Air Force
flak damage, the federal forces commandeered a on the ground by 14.00.After that, the strike force
Pan African Airways DC-4 which had landed at would be redirectedat airbasesin Syria, Jordan and
Port Harcourt, loaded it with ammunition and Iraq.
ordered the captain to fly to Owerri, escortedby an By the spring of 1961it becameclear that war was
Il-28. However, the captain contrived an engine imminent; skirmisheson the Israeli-Syrian border
malfunction, forcing a return to Port Harcourt in which both sidesusedheavyweaponsand aircraft
which probably savedboth aircraft and crew. were becoming increasinglymore frequent. On l7
The war presented no great danger for FNAF May Egypt started concentrating troops on the
fighter pilots and bomber crews, since the Biafran Israeli border; four days later Egypt and Israel
Air Forcehad no aircraft capableof air-to-air com- caffed a mobilization of the army reserve,and on 22
bat. All the enemy could put up was Malmo May President Nasser declared the Suez Canal
MFI-9B primary trainersconvertedinto makeshift closedto Israeliships.
attack aircraft. Flown by mercenary pilots led by The Arab nations(Egypt, Syria,Jordan,Lebanon
the Swedish Count Carl Gustav von Rosen, these and lraq) had a total of some800combat aircraft at
aircraft were known locally as Minicons probably the start of the conflict. This total included49 to 56
a corruption of mini-COIN (counter-insurgency Il-28s- 35 or 40 in Egypt, ten in Iraq and four to six
aircraft) and could only attack ground targets, in Syria. These aircraft and the Tu-16 Badger-A
which they did with a measureof success. Still, the bombers (30 in Egypt, including some Tu-l6KS-1
accident rate was rather high and all the Beugles missilestrike aircraft, and six in lraq) were consid-
were soon grounded after being damaged in acci- ered priority targetsduring the planned air strikes.
dents.On 20 March 1969one Il-28 struck treesdur- On the morning of 5 June a massiveassaultwas
ing a low-level mission and suffered an engine launched against Arab airbases. Among other
failure, making a successfulforced landing at Port things,28 EAF Il-28sweredestroyedon the ground
Harcourt. Another Beagle veered off the strip at at Ras-BanasAB and Luxor. One more Beagle and
Port Harcourt on landing, burning out the brakes its fighter escort (probably MiG-l7Fs) were shot
and tyres, but was later repaired. On another occa- down by Heyl Ha'avir Dassault Mystdre IVs while
sion an 11-28was slightly damaged at Enugu by attacking Israeli troops advancing on at El'Arish.
Minicons but was later repaired. The SyrianAir Forcelost two Il-28son the ground.
ln 1961 there was trouble in the Middle East In February 1968the Il-28 first put in an appear-
again when the third Arab-Israeli war, commonly ance in Vietnam, when three Beagleswere deployed
referred to as the Six-Day War (5-10 June 1967), to Fukien AB, 30 km (18 miles) north-west of
broke out. The lsraelishad been planning this war Hanoi. It was believed they were to support the
long and carefully right down to building five large-scaleViet Cong offensive launched after the
mock Egyptian airbasesin the Negev Desert, where USA had stopped the first series of bombing
they constantly practised raids against the real attacks on Vietnam (the Tet offensive), but the
thing. Within a year all IDF/AF combat squadrons Il-28s did not participate in this operation.
had passeda training course at thesefacilities. Normally the Beagles were based in southern
Building on the resultsof this training, the Israeli China; if the US intelligence service reported the
high command developeda pre-emptiveattack plan presenceof theseaircraft on any North Vietnamese
known as the Moked Plan. The combined air forces airfield, the airfields in question would be pounded
of the Arab nations outnumbered the IDF/AF with cluster bombs loaded with pellets.
almost three times, so it was decidedto destroy them ln 1971 the North VietnameseIl-28s did see
on the ground rather than tangle with them in the action, supporting the Vietnamese People's Army
air. The first wave of strike aircraft was to attack and the Pathet Lao guerrillas in Laos. Soviet airmen
nineteenairfields deep in Egyptian territory, knock- took part in these operations, too; pilot Berkootov
ing out the aircraft basedthere,but it was decidedto and navisator/bomb aimer Khachemizov were even
. 89
Tsp Bc,tcr,t rN SERVTcE



Armourers load large-calibreHE bombs into a regimentof PLAAF Il-28s.ChineseBeaglesalso had their shareof light-
ing. ( Chinu Aift ftr/i )

awarded the title of Hero of the Vietnamese who had perishedin the shootdown was a member
People'sArmy. of one of the Arab royal families. However, using
August 1968added another shamefulpageto the the missile system's data recording equipment,
Il-28's biography when Beagles were used, along Kootyntsev proved that the air defence crews had
with other Soviet Air Force aircraft, to suppressthe not beeninformed of the bomber'smissionand the
mutiny in Czechoslovakia. Specifically these were Il-28's IFF transponder was out of order.
7th FBAP bombers from Starokonstantinov, and Furthermore, a group of four Heyl Hu'uvir
possibly Il-28R reconnaissance aircraft from McDonnell Douglas F-4E Phantom IIs had crossed
Schuchin(BelorussianDD). the Suez Canal, formating with the Beagle, then
Skirmishes between Israel and Egypt continued headingback at ultra-low level.As a result,the mis-
after the Six-DayWar until 1970.EAF 11-28s partic- sile team misidentifiedthe ll-28 as the leaderof an
ipated actively in these clashes, flying reconnais- Israeli strike group and opened fire. The Egyptians
sance missions over Israeli territory; two of them had to admit the Soviet officer was right.
were shot down between l0 July and I August 19'70. Iraqi Air Force Il-28s were used operationally in
One more example was lost in a 'friendly fire' inci- the late 1960sand in the first six months of 1974in
dent in March 1970 when an I1-28BM towing a Saddam Hussein's relentlesswar with the Kurdish
sleeve-typetarget was destroyed by an S-125 Koob minority living in the north of Iraq and striving for
(Cube; NATO SA-3 Gainfuf surface-to-air missile; sovereignty. The Kurdish rebels claimed one
the missile system was manned by a Soviet crew bomber shot down in April 1974.
under N. M. Kootyntsev. Of course a scandal According to some reports, Soviet Air Force
erupted; to make matters worse one of the airmen Il-28Sh strike aircraft were used operationally
9 0 . I r v us r r r|.x - 28B r..r< ;t.r,


A f o n n l t t i o n o l ' I ' L A A I: llL tt,g lt' scltr lin - uln cr e r cisc. i( l ti rttt
.ti rl rrl r)

d ur ing t hc S ino -S o v i c l l rfl n c c l c o n l l i c t a ro L l ncl Ll ncomnrou cl uri ngthc A l ghan W ar.Trai torsl tntong
l )u nr ans k iyI s lanc lo u 1 h cA n tu r R i v c l i n th c c arl y thc A l ghan pcrsonnclol ' S hi ncl anclA B w ho hacl
19 7 0s . bccn boLrghto11'by thc rcbcl sbl cw r" rpcl cvcuol ' thc
I n t hc lat c 197 0 sth c b l o o c l yfc -q i n tco l ' P rtl P ot bonrbcrs;thc l l amcscl Lri cklsprcacl
y to thc othcl ui r' -
uscclu hlrncllirlol' Bca.q/r,s (pnrbably Chincsc-bLrilt cral i unclthc 335thC onrposi l eA i r R cgi mcntccasccl
H- 5s )agains lt hc o 1 -r1 -ro s i ti l io
rrcn c sh e a c l c cbly H cng 1()cxl sl .
Sl tnr lin.who bc c a mch c a c lo l ' th c g o v eru n te n ta f i cl ' In 1985 anothcr C hi ncsc l l -28 abscondcd.thi s
Pol Pot rvasor.rstccl. Onc ol- thc Il-28swas reprtrtcclll' ti nrc to S outh K orcu. Thc crew w as l essl Lrckythi s
shot dorvn; two mol'c werc caplLllcd intact at ti me: thc ai rcral i w as total l y dcstroyed w l ti l e
Po c hc nt ongA B n c a r Ph n o n t P e n l t o n 7 J a n u arl , atten.rpti ng a l brcccll andi ng i n a l ' i cl cl .ki l l i ng the
1 979 u' hc n t hc b a s c w a s o v c rrL l nb y Vi c tn a n tcsc gunner and a local firrr.ncr.
Iti )( ) p\s gpp( ) rit6r ] t IC p p l -rl stii p rr. l -i nni sh Il -2uR s w crc used a l ot l br 5nsppi ng
T hc A lghan W a r w u sl h c l a s tc o n l l i c t i n l v l ti c ht hc arouncltl.reSovietbcllclcr.(FinlanclwASon liicndly
vcnc lablcbonr be r p a fti c i p a tc c lD . e s p i te i ts a g c. i t tcrms rvi tl .rthe S ovi ct U ni on. br-r1that di d not stop
tu l nc d out t o be w c l l s u i tc c l b r th i s l v a a n k s tcl thc l--innsliour spyin-u!)The r"reighbor-rr's Bcuglas
i ts lLr ggc cdc l pc nd a b i l i tyi n th e h a rs h c o n c l i ti o n sof w crc a constantsourceof annoyanccl br the S ovi et
Al -uhanis t an. wit h i ts i l l -e q L ri p p eacilrtl c l d sa n d fcr' - Air Def-cncc Force (PVO Protit'ot,o:tloosltrtu.t'u
l 'a s iv c dus t . Unerp e c te d l y .th c s e e rn i n g l ya rc hai c tthontrut)lighter regimentsstationeclin the area.As
ma nnc dt ail s unn e l ' ' ss ta ti o ntu rn e c lo r-rtto b e c l u i tt- soou as the air def-ence raclarscletectecl an ailcrafi
r-rscl-r.rl; thc slrnnerwould firc at cneutytroops on thc hcading towards the bordcr liou-r Finland. fighters
g l o r - r nd. c lis c ou ra g i n g a tta c k s w i th s l to u l d cr' - w oul cl scrambl eto i nterccpt. R eal i zi ngthey had
l a unc hecsl ur f uc e -to -a i rn r i s s i l e sT. h e e ffi c i e n cyol ' beendetected.the Fi nni shcrel vw oul d fl y al orrgthe-
this tactic can be.juclged by thc litct that r.rota sir.rgle borclcron their side.while thc Soviettighterswoulcl
Al g han A ir F br c e Il -2 8 rv a sl o s t to th e ML r.l a h i di n do thc silmc on l/icl' sicie.firmlv inciicatingthat the
rebels'air clef-enccs. However.Ihe Bcucleswgrc lost nei ghbor-rrs shoLrl d' kccp thei r poocl t off our l aw n' .
o n e nigl" r tin. lanu a rv 1 9 8 5 i n a w a rr th a t w i l s n ot Tl'rentl.reIl-2tl would ostensiblygive up arrd hcad
Tp'p.BLqam rN Spnvrcp. 9l

into Finnish territory; as soon as the frghters, too, time this aircraft featured crude nose art depicting
headed back to base,the spyplane would pop back Santa Claus and Cheburashka(a cartoon character)
up. By then the fighters would be getting critically on the starboard side. An Il-28 coded 07 Red is on
low on fuel and had no choice but to head for home. display at the Naval Air Arm Museum in Safonovo
the angry pilots radioing to base to urgently send a near Severomorsk-l AB (Murmansk Region).
relief crew. The I1-28R'slong endurance (thanks to An Omsk-built example coded 85 (c/n 56606201)
its tip tanks) allowed the Finns to play this game of is a ground instructional airframe at the Samara
tag. State Aviation University (SGAU Samarskiy
gosoodarstvennyy aviatseeonry)y ooniversitet; for-
merly KuAI Kuibyshev Aviation Institute). One
Survivors example coded 30 Red is displayed on a plinth out-
As alreadyrecounted,hugenumbersof Il-28swere side the Air Force'sAircraft Overhaul Plant No. 712
wantonly destroyedbecauseof Khruschev'smis- in Chelyabinsk, which refurbished Il-28s. Others
silizationideasor endedup as AAA and gunnery probably survive as gate guards on various Russian
targets.Otherssimplyrotted awayat variousbases, airbases.A few more ll-28s are on displayin the avi-
waitingto be scrapped;for instance,the hulk of an ation museums of Bulgaria, Czechia, Finland,
Il-28waspresentat KubinkaAB nearMoscowuntil Hungary, Poland and Romania.
at least 1997,and severaldozen were dumped at
Tambovwhen the TVVAUL re-equippedwith the ,<t(*

TupolevTu-I 34UBL Crusty-B trainer.

Fortunately several examples of this sleek The Il-28 hasbeenaptly described by one Russian
bomberhavebeenpreservedfor posterity.The col- author as 'a successful designthat was alwaysout
lectionof the SovietAir ForceMuseumin Monino of luck'. Eventhoughthe Il-28'scombatpotential
nearMoscowincludesIl-2804 Red(c/n53005771); wasnot usedto the full, it wasthis typethat intro-
this aircraftoriginallysportedten mis- ducedjet aircraft and all-weathercapabilityto the
sion markingson the nose.Another Moscow-built bomberelementof the SovietAir Forceand several
Beagle(10 Red,c/n 65010809) is preserved in the otherair arms.The11-28 helpedto trainhundreds of
Soviet Armed Forces Museum in Moscow. An first-classnavalpilots.Westernaviationexpertsgave
Omsk-builtexample(01 Red,c/n 36603807) is on the Beagleduecredit,describingit asa masterpiece
display in the open-air aviation museum at of Sovietaircraftdesisn.
Khodynkaairfieldin the centreof Moscow;at one

fTlh. Il-28 was operared by 25 nations in Force (Al Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jaza'eriyalForce
I Europe. Asia (includingSE Asia),Africa and AtrienneAlgtrienne)via Egypt,with which Algeria
I the Middle East. Second-hand aircraft were was closely allied; direct deliveriesmight have
alsoexported,whichincidentallysaveda few Il-287 causedunfavourablepoliticalconsequences for the
torpedo-bombers from the torch. SovietUnion. Theseaircraft probablyparticipated
in the clashwith Moroccoin 1963.Another twelve
Afghanistan Beaglesweredelivereddirectly from the USSR after
the 1965military coup when the new government
A numberof obsoleteIl-28 bombersphasedout by (which was evenmore pro-Soviet)requestedaddi-
the VVS were deliveredto the Royal Afghan Air tional military aid. Nearly all the Beagleswere
Forcein 1969.Reportson the numberof aircraft unserviceableby 1979,and the few whichremained
suppliedvary considerably,rangingfrom twelveair- operationalwererelegated to secondaryduties.
craft (one squadron) to 45 aircraft (three
squadrons).The Beagleswere mostly based at
Mazar-eSharif wheremost of the Sovietmilitary Bulgaria
adviserswere stationed.The Il-28s were probably The Bulgarian Air Force (BVVS - Bolgarski
usedoperationallyby the Afghan RepublicanAir VoyennoVozdooshniSeeli) operutedvarious ver-
Force (Afghan Hqnai Qurah)at the opening stages sionsof theBeagle.Around 36ll-28swerebasedat
of the Afghan civil war (i.e. prior to the Soviet Tolbukhin AB in the north-eastof the countrv:
invasion). theseincludedfour Il-28R reconnaisanc e aircrafl,'a
Only one aircraft wearingthe serial 163 Black few Il-28T torpedo-bombers and two Il-28U train-
and early-stylered roundelswith yellowDari script ers.A dozenaircraftmodified for electronicwarfare
has beenidentified;it was operatedby the 335th dutieswerereportedlystill operationalin 1983.
CompositeAir Regimentat Shindandin the sum- Only oneaircraft,coded43 Red (c/n ...2504),has
mer of 1979.All of the unit'sIl-28sweredestroyed been identified so far; it is on display at the
on the groundin January1985. BulgarianAir Force Museum(Graf IgnatievAB,
The Albanian People'sRepublicAir Force(Forcat China
Ushtarake Ajore Shquipdtare, later renamed CommunistChina was by far the largestforeign
AviacioneUshtarakShquipdtare) took deliveryof an operator of the type. Deliveriesto the People's
unspecifiednumberof Chinese-builtHarbin H-5s. LiberationArmy Air Force(PLAAF, or Chung-kuo
Threeaircraftserialled026,29and 3608havebeen Shen Min Taie-Fang-Tsun Pu-tai) started in 1952.
identifiedto date;the last examplebelongedto the By 1956the PLAAF inventoryincludedmore than
4020th(formerly l594th) Aviation Regimentbased 250 Soviet-builtIl-28s. This number was further
at RinasAB nearthe Albaniancapital,Tirana,and expanded when production of the Beagle and
remainedoperationaluntil 1993.(In somesources Mascotas the H-5 and HJ-5 respectively startedat
the Albanian name has beenrenderedas Aviatika Harbin. RAT-52 torpedoesfor the Il-28 werealso
Militar e RepublikaPopull\ree Shquip€rise.) manufacturedlocally.
More than 300I1-28swerein serviceby theendof
Algeria 1964,not countingIl-2SUs(a total figure of 400-
plushasbeenreportedin servicewith twelvetactical
The SovietUnion beganprovidingmilitary assis- bomberregiments).Their principal role was to be
tance to Algeria in 1962,right after the country on ready alert and intimidate the Taiwanese
gained independencefrom France.Initially twelve Nationalists.More than 100Il-28sweretransferred
Il-28 bomberswere deliveredto the Alserian Air to the naval air arm (PLANAD and converted
Bt:t;t,t,sWonrn-u'tnr.. 93

into torpeclo-bombcrs similar to early Sovict P LA N A F as the H -6 IV armed w i th C -601 This was at a time when a mannc Silkr.vonn rnissiles Chinese coDics of thc
assaultfrorn Taiwan wasconsideleda distinct possi- K - l t' /N A TO A S -5 A .' r.
b i l i ty i n n- r ainlandChin a .
Kn o w n P LA A F I l- 2 8 sa re l i s tc di n T a b l e 1 6 .T h e
rn ca rri n gof P LA A I T s e ri a l si s o b s c u l e .b u t i n th e Czechoslovakia
cascol- five-digitscrialsthe first two digits may be a The flrst three ll-28swcr"eclelivcrcdto the CzechAir
code dcnoting one ol- thc elevendcf'cncedistricts. Force (CzAF. ol fVL (-t't/r,,.r/r,r'.'l,rl;c
th e fo u r t h digit a unit co d e .w h i l e th c th i rc la n d fi l l l r Lt,tcctt' o)i n Janual y l 9-5,5: the type w as i utencl eci to
d i g i tsm ak c up t he indiv i d u a ln u m b e ro l -th c a i rc ra tf rcpl acethe obsol cteA ero C -3 (the C zechdcsi gnu-
i u th e r-r nitChines
. eI l-2 8 s u s r" ra l lhya d d a rk g l e e n ti orr ol - S i ebelS i 204D s usctl as bctntberl rai ncrs).
r-rppcrsurfncesancl pale blue undersr.rrfaccs. but Four S ovi eti nstructors(surnatl csTsi l i n. Y crshor,.
wholc units are knowr.r1o havc bcen equippcclwith Li si tski y ancl S al azki n) stal tccl trai ni ug thc l -i rst
n a tu ra Im et aI( or s ilv c r-p a i n te cal )i rc ra l l . ten crcws clu 9 Fcbrr.rary. Thc Czcchs ri,crecluick
on thc uptake,and thc threc ui rcral i pul ti ci patccl
Th e Bru glL, r em ainc in d s e rv i c er" rn tith l e l a te 1 9 9 0 s in thc VE-Da1' air 1-raraclc on 9 Maf itt t6c
(3 0 0 H - 5s and HZ - 5s w c rc re p o rtc d l y s ti l l o n ycar. flown by Czech crcws (l'ligh1 lcadcr Mrr.j.
s trcn g th wit h t he P L AA F a n c l 1 ,5 0 to rp e d o - K orri i r' ).
b o mb cr swit h lhc P LA N A F i n 1 9 9 7 ),th o u g h i t w rL s On l 7 S eptcnrbcl 1955 tcn Il -28s cscortcclbv
gradually supcrscdccl by Tu- l(r bourbcrs ancl l i ghtcrs took part i n thc A vi ati on D ay l l ypl st i n
Tu - l 6 K- I l- | 6 ant i- s hi p p i n gm i s s i l c c a rri ers . T Irc ll'ont of- 1hc Czcch, dropping livc
la ttcl ty pc was built in X i a n (w i th o u t th e b c n c fl t o l ' bombs ou ' cucl l ty l brti l l cati ons'(!). H ow cvcr.thc
a l i ce n cc )as t hc H- ( r. a n c l s o l c l i c rso u u ' i th th c pcrlbI.rancc was alnrctst ovcrshadowccl bv ir


A busy scetteat a Chineseairbasc.with numcrousH-5s gctting leacl1" lbr thc day'sflight trairrine.Notc thc servicentanin
who Irasliverredup his khaki attirc with a clccidctlli'non-r'egulatic'rn
stmw hatt.tChittu.1irtnr1r
94 . Ir-yusurNL-28 Bt,tcLt

Table 16. KnownPLAAF ll-28s

Serial C/n Version Notes

6l Red ? il-28U
0031Red ? Il-28
0 1 31Red ? il-28
0194Red ? Il-28 Naturalmetal
0195Yellow ? Il-28 HangchowAB; greenwith blueundersurfaces. Defectedto Taoyuan
AB, Taiwan,I l-l l-66; preserved
0986Red ? ll-28 Naturalmetal
1 1 10Y ellow ? Il-28 Greenwith blueundersurfaces
1206Red ? Il-28 Naturalmetal
l2l0 Yellow ? il-28 Greenwith blueundersurfaces
1400Red ? Il-28 Naturalmetal
1402Red ? n-28 Natural metal
1403Red ? It-28 Naturalmetal
l47l Red ? Il-28 Greenwith blueundersurfaces
I 510Red ? il-28 Greenwith blueundersurfaces
1 5 12Red ? Il-28 Naturalmetal
l 5l3 Red ? Il-28 Naturalmetal
1618Yellow ? \-28 Greenwith blueundersurfaces;
17 18Red unconfirmed(drawrngonly)
? Il-28 Naturalmetal
l80l Red ? |-28 Naturalmetal
1 0198 Red ? il-28 Naturalmetal.Preserved pLAAF Museum,Datangshan
10692Red ? HJ-5(I-28U) AB
Naturalmetal.Preserved pLAAF Museum
3 0 518 ? Il-28*
3 07r 0 ? Il-29*
3 071I ? Il-29*
307t2 ? Il-28*
307t3 ? Il-29*
30714 ? It-29*
3 0 715*, k ? Il-28*
3 07I 6** ? Il-29*
307l7 ? Il-29*
3 0 718 ? Il-28*
307lg** ,|
3 0 8 10 ? It-29*
3 0 81I ? Il-28*
3 0 812 ? Il-28*
3 0 9I 3** ? Il-29*
3 0 814 ? Il-29*
3 0 81 5 ? Il-29*
43050Red ? il-28 Naturalmetal
43684Red ? H-5 Naturalmetal
43693Red ? H-5 Naturalmetal;sometimes
44690Red reportedin errorasIl_2gU
? il-28 PreservedPLAAF Museum,two-tonebluecamouflage with white
45552Red ? Il-28 Natural metal
63019Red ? HJ-5(il-28u)
none 4149 n-28(H-5?) Natural metal.PreservedpLAAF Museum
none s4120 [-28 (H-5?) Naturalmetal.Preserved pLAAF Museum
* Exactversionnot known (maybe H_5).
*t< Existence
not provedbut likely.
Bntctts Wonro-wtoE . 95

A CzechAir ForceIl-28 (or Avia 8-228)in pre-1957markinss.rRl/lrr

formation of 33 C-3s shaped like a hammer and Il -28R ' sdrop tanks.The front and rear porti onsof
sickle.The organizersof the flypast had probably thesepods weredielectricancipaintetldark blue.
wanted to show that aircraft which had done ster- Ini ti al l y C zech mi l i tary ai rcraft and hel i copters
ling servicemake way for new types,but the implica- had alpha-nr.rmeric serialsconsistingof one or two
tion was just the opposite the old guard never lettersand two figures;the lettersweie a codedenot-
surrenders,it only dies! ing the squadron to which the aircraft belonged.
Th e b om ber unit s equ i p p e dw i th II-2 8 sb e c a me l l -28sw ereal l ocatedseri al si n the A D , B A , C D , D E ,
f u l l y o p e r at ionalby O c t o b e r t9 5 5 . U n ti l th e m i d - E B , FC , FH . GO, LB , P K , P U , P X , R L. TH bIOC K S
1960sthe Czechshad a habit of redesignatingfor- and possiblyothers.The serial was painted on the
eign military aircraft in Czech AF service. For lorward luselagein hugecharaclers.A diflerenrsys-
example,the MesserschmittBf l09G was the S-99 tem w as i ntroduced i n mi d-1957,w i th l bur-di gi t
(t h e Bf l09G - 12 r r ain e r w a s th e C S -9 9 ), th e serialsmatching the last fbur of the aircrali's con-
MiG-l 5bisFugot-Bwas built as the Aero S-102(and struction number;the serialwas now paintedon the
t h e UTI-M iG - |S M idge t a s th e C S-1 0 2 ),e tc . As rear luselage
already mentioned,Czech-built tl-28 bombers and Until 1960CzechBeuglescontinuedappearingat
Il-28U trainerswere designated8-228 and C8-228 airshows. For example, the 1956 VE-Day parade
respectively. featured a flypast by no fewer than sixteen ll-28s.
Besidesthe bomber version (sometimesreferred The grand show staged in Prague-Ruzyneairport
to as the Il-28B by the Czechs) and the Il-28U on 2 September1956was openedby a fbrmation of
trainer, the Czech AF had some II-28RTR ELINT three ll-28s led by Maj. Hdjek and closed by
aircraft. The aircraft were progressivelymodified; another Il-28 escortedby four MiG- I 5s,followedby
e.g. the nose guns were removedand new avionics three vics of three Beugles.Business comes first,
installedin 1959-60.Some aircraft were fitted with however,and the crews kept training. Training was
empty shellcollectorcasesunder the tail turret. not l i mi ted to home ground: i n June 1956ni ne arr-
At leastone bomber wasconvertedlocallyinto an craft were deployed to Hungary and nine more to
ELINT or ECM aircraft.This was characterizedby East Germany to participatein Warsaw pact mili-
largecylindricalpods at the wingtips resemblingthe tary exercises, acting as aggressoraircraft. To this
96 . lrvu srrrxl:-28 Bt , . t t ; r . t


ThisCzcch Air.Fil r c c ||- 2ELl( or Av iaC. B- 22ii) c : t r r i c s t r t l a | p I r i t - n r t n l c r i c s c r . i l t l t r n 1 h e l i l l . w i r c l
plcltlfcwltstakctr alt c r l95T. whc r t t hc lbur ' - c ligit s c r i u l s o r . r t h c a l i l - L r s c l a g c w c l c i n t r o d u c c d . i / 1 . . 1 R 7 r

cnd thcy wcresuitablyr.narkedby a blue clr red stripe thcn P resi dent of' C zechosl ovaki a. A ntoni n
around thc rear l'r-rselagc. Czechoslovakia also Zipotocky who asked thcrn in a private couversel-
served as a trainir.rgground I'or Baugle crcws fior.t.r ti on w hat hc coul d do for them. S ci zi ngthe oppor-
Egypt. Syria. Indoncsia. Nigcria and a few r.uore tLlnity. absolute world cl.rantpionGr.rstavKoubek
count r ies . sai dthey w oLrl dl i ke to makc a j url p 1romhi gh al ti -
l ude i n order to gl ori fy thei r homel and,but onl y the
T he bas icbom b e r w a s rc ti re di n 1 9 6 5 .T h e trri ner.s Air Force had aircraft which could takc them high
and reconnaissanceversions rcntained in selr ice enough specificallythc Il-28 bomber,which could
unt il 1973.B y 19 7 7a l l C z e c hIl -2 8 s .e x c e p tfo u r i ti r- accommodatea team of skydiversin the bomb bay.
crall displayedat the Military Museum at Prague- The President tasked the Minister of Def'ence
Kbely airport, had cither bcen scrtipped or had Lornsky with providingassistance; the ministergave
ended up as target drones or gunncry targets at appropriateorders to the Czech Air Force C-in-C.
practice raltges. Lt-C err.JoselV osahl o.
Czech sportsmenalsc'rused the Il-28 lor setting Apparently the rnilitary werenot overjoyedabout
severalworld records.Thc idea was born when the this r-rnexpccted task, let alone the prospectof let-
Czechswon every possiblemedal at the 3rd World ting civilians use their aircraft. Since this was a
Skydiving Charmpionshipheld at Moscow-Tushino presidentialtask, they could not just give Koubek
in 1956; the catch-phraseo1- the day was 'The and his team tl.rebrush-off.Hencethey tried to scare
studer.rtshave surpassedthe teachers'.Of course. the unwanted guestsoff. At the first meeting with
the winners were treated like national heroes. Lt-Gen. Voshhlo the sportsmengot bawled out by
Among other things.they had an audiencewith the his aides, who kept telling them rhey would get
. 97

Table17. KnownCzAF ll-28s

Serial C/n Version Notes

AD-3I ? il-28 (8-228?)

A...-81 s70r9 n-28 (B-228) Reserialled7019?
BA.lO? ? n-28U (CB-228?)
BA-11(l ) 56775 \-28 (8-228) Fateunknown;seenextline
BA-11(2) 56926 il-28RTR (9-228) Reserialledto, seebelow
6926 PreservedCzechaerospace museum(VM VHU)*. Prague-Kbely
CD-IO 65010501?Il-28U C/n reportedas650.100501- misquote?Reserialledto, seebelow
0501 PreservedVM VHU
DE-50 ? r-28 (B-228?)
DE-51 ? r-28 (9-2287)
TH-I4 ? r-28 (8-228)
PK-30 ? l-28 (8-228?)
PU-I2 ? I-28R (8-228?)

t904 t904 Il-28

2t07 52107 \-28 (B'-228) PreservedVM VHU
2303? 52303? il-28R (B-228) Reportedpreserved VM VHU but possibleconfusionwith 3303,
2309? 52309? n-28 Unconfirmed (drawingonly)
2404 ...2404? II-28RT PreservedNadaceLbteckdHistorickdSpoletnostiVj,Ikov(Yylkov
AviationHistoricalSocietyCollection),Slatina.Could be B-228
cln 52404
3303 53303 r1-28RT (B-228) PreservedVM VHU
6915 56915 r-28 (B-228) Enginetestbed
notknown 54665 I-28 (8-228) Possiblyserialled4665
'l' VM VHU = Voiensk,!
muzeumVojenskihohistorickihoistavu * Military Museumof the Military Historical

incineratedby the engineexhaust,or freezelike rab- cold of the stratosphere.The parachutists trainedin
bits at high altitude,or getsmashed to deathagainst a pressurechamber,with physiciansmonitoring
the aircraft'sfuselageby the slipstream,or their their health;two of thecandidates failedto passthis
lungs would burst and they would suffocate.But test.Then the aircraft'sbomb bay doorswerelined
Koubek and his teamwould not be put off that eas- with thick felt to reducethe risk of injuries,special
ily and demandedpersistentlythat a test with a suspension beltswereinstalledas a safetymeasure
dummy be performed at first. Grudgingly the to restrain the parachutists until the aircraft
military had to agree. climbedto a safealtitude.and the bomb bavwasfit-
The sportsmengot their first look at the Il-28's ted out with an oxygensystem,an intercom,lights
bomb bay at Mlad6 AB, Milovice,discussingthe and additionalcameras.
modificationswhich neededto be madeto the air- Prior to the recordattempt the skydiversmade
craft with the local technicians.An Il-28 serialled two training jumps from 6,000m (19,685ft) and
TH-14 was equippedwith a cine-camera mounted 9,000m (29,527ft). An unexpectedcomplication
aheadof the bomb bay to checkhow the dummy aroseon the latter occasion- the barographswhich
would travel after leavingthe bay.Later, live jumps were to record the altitude during the jump froze
were made by Air Force parachutistsBilek (first and failed.A specialfrost-resistant lubricanthad to
nameunknown) and Leopold Ozi.},al. be developedurgentlyand all of the parachutists'
Meanwhile, the sportsmen were preparing in equipment(altimeters,barographs,chronometers,
earnestfor the record attempt. Specialheat-insu- oxygenkits) weretestedat -60oC(-76"F) and simu-
latedand windproof clothing,includingfacemasks lated altitudes up to 13,000 m (42,651 ft).
of the kind worn by anti-terroristtroops,wasmade Incidentally,eachman'sequipment,togetherwith
to protect them from the slipstreamand the killing the PTCH-3parachute,weighed60 kg (1321b).
9ll . Irlr.srrr.lh -28 Bt : . u, t . t ,

An F lir s(tic nnauI l -fi i R u b o u tto b c s i ni tstu k c -o l l ' f uu.

r/t.l /l /

A t 08. 07on 2l Ma rc h 1 9 5 7 .Il -2 8 T H -1 4 p i l otccl ing clLrtics. To this cr.rcl thc 3rclSt4/al (squacllon)ol
by JaroslavHa.lcktook oll' ll'onr MlaclaAB. acconr- .l FCi I (.fug1/licgcrgcsclnrutlcr lightcr wing) at
p anic c l by a LJ T I-M i G-1 5 ,' tl n { q r,/tn ri n c r l s rr (-ottbus w as rcorgani zecli n Fcbruary l 9-59 as
canr c r as hip.W he n th e b o n .rb ecl l i n rb c cul s h i g h a s i t orclercclby EastGcrn.rany's ntinisterol- clel-cucc. Thc
w oulc lgo.c loing5 5 0 k m/h (2 9 7k t). a t 0 8 .-5 th 5 c s k1,- sclr.urclror.r's flrst aucl seconclllights continucd tc'r
cli v c ls J alos lav J c h l i i k a . Z c l c n e k Ka p l an a ncl opcrarcP ZL Li m-5 (P ol i sh-bLri Mi l t G-l ' /F F).t' .st' t t -
C us t av K oubc k l c l t th c b o n b b a i r a t l l .8 -5 0 nr (' ) day l i ghtcrsanciLi m--5P(P ol i sh-bui lMi t G-l 7P F'
(42. 1581t )anc lf t ll I 1 .6 6 4n (3 8 .2 6 7l t) b e l b reo pen- l -rt' .sto-D ) al l -w cather i nterceptor" s.'w hi l c the
i n g t heir par ac hu tc s . thi rd t' l i ght w as i ni ti al l y ecl Lri pped w i th tw o Il -28s
Not s at is lledw i th th i s rc n .ra rk a b lacc h i c v e m ent. seri al l ecl190B l ack ancl 196B l ack.To thi s cncll bur
th e s am e t r io de c i d c d to r.n a k ca s c c o u d s tra tos- LS K /LV pi l ots took conversi or.r tl ai r.ri ngi n C ottbus
p her icjLur p at n i g h t. At 2 l .l -5 o n 2 7 M a rc h they or.rI Februaly 4 March. while two navigatorsand
took ofl' ll-om Mlaclh AB in the sarncairclali. leav- three raclio operators Llnderwent theoretical
i n g it at 21. 56at a n a l ti tr.rd oe f l l .5 l 8 m (4 1 .0 (r9l t) trai ni n-{ at tl .re S ovi ct A i r Force' s l l th OR A P
a nd f alling 11. 08 2m (3 9 .6 3 9l i ) b e l b reo p e n i n gth ei r (otdel'ttt'r'rtr:r,ed.t'r'utcl'ttt'.t' aviupolk indcpendent
paracl.rutcs. Specialsearchlightswel'eset up on the rcconnai ssance regi ment)stati onedat N cu-W el zow
g r ount l. s hining v e rti c a l l y i n to th c s k 1 ,to te l l the AB.
pilots when and whereto clropthc sk1'divers. Shortly aflerwards3/JFG I was transfblmeclinto
ZDS 2l (Zicldur,stallungsstu//el target-towing
scluadron).'Theunit bccane fully
East Germany
Thc LSK/LV ( Lult,rtraitllii/1t' tmd Lulivcrteidiguttg
dar Daut,scltan
DantokrutisL'ltatt RL'ptrblilt Air Force I Li nr = l i tcttt.r'j rt.r
nt.ri l i rrt,r' l i cence-bui Jt
l i ghter.
and Air DefenceForce of thc Gcruran Demoelatic I S omc (i crr.nan soul ces cl ai m that thc l l -28s rcnrai neclon
Republic) used the Il-28 erclr"rsivclylbl trlrget-tow- stl engthn'i th.l FG I unti l D ecemberl 9-59.
Butctas Wonlo-wroe . 99

spring of 1960, providing target practice primarily silver overall, but some aircraft were later reoainted
for Volk,sarmee (People'sArmy) AA gunners firing in a camouflage schemewith dark greenidaik earth
anything from 14.5mm (.57 calibre)machine-guns upper surfaces and light blue undersurfaces.The
to 57 mm 5-60 radar-directed automatic AA suns. Il-28s servedwithout incident until 1982,when they
The latter were noted for their high accuracy,6ft.n were replaced by Czech-built Aero L-39V Albatros
shooting the towed 'sock'right off. Target practice target tugs and KT-04 towed targets. The last air-
took place at the Zingst AAA range on the Baltic craft, serialled208, was retired on 20 October 1982
Seacoast. and preservedat the LSK/LV ofTjcers'flvins school
Il-28 target tugs were used to train East German in Bautzen (OJfiz i er hochschuIe Franz l,f i hr ii s l.
Navy (Zolksmarine) gunners as well; their tasks E ast German II-28s w ere al so used to test new
included dropping flare bombs which were used as models of parachutes.Before a test jumper coulcl
targets by AA gunners (!). LSK/LV fighter pilots risk his life, a tin dummy filled with sand would be
were to join the fun later on, practising attacks on dropped from an Il-28 at various speedsand alti-
low-flying targets.Of coursegreat care was taken to tudes.
ensure the target tugs would not be hit by friendly
A single Il-28U was delivered in 196l for crew gypt (UnitedArab Republic;Arab
training. The location of ZDS 21 chaneed several Republicof Egypt)
times; at one time the unit operated frJm Drewitz The Egyptian Air Force (EAF, or al Outrvrat ul-
AB, not far from Cottbus. Five more Il-28s were Jawwiya it-Misriya) took delivery of its fi-rstBeagles
transferred from the l lth ORAP to ZDS 2l at this in December 1955,ordering about fifty B-228sand
base in 1962. After 1972 the unit was permanently CB-228s from Czechoslovakia.The aircraft were
based in Peenemiinde.In due time the unit was based at Cairo-WestAB. After the Suez Crisis of
renumbered,becomingZDS 33;on I Decemberl98l 1956,in which at leastsevenof thesebomberswere
it was demoted to ZDK 33 (Zielctarstellunsskerte- lost, President Gamal Abdel Nasser launched a
target-towingflight;. maJorprogrammeto re-equiphis armed forces;this
Originally the East German ll-28s were painted includedthe acquisitionof more Beugles.In March

Table18. EastGermanll-28s
Serial C/n Version Notes
I l??? ...2002 I l -2 8 Serialasreportedbut doubtful;latestGermanpublications do not confirm
existence of thisaircraftin EastGermany!
1 8 0Bl a c k . . . 9014
r8 Il -2 8 R Ex DDR-ZZI (enginetestbed.V EB EntwickIungsbaupirna),transferrecl
I - I | -61. WFU Oranienburg AB ?-?-76;
184Black 5901207 Il -2 8 R Ex DDR-ZZK (engine testbed,
VEB Entwicklungsbau pirna).transferred
l -l l -6 1 . W F U Orani enburgA?-?-77;
B S OC25-6-j 9,scrapped
1 9 0Bl a ck 55006937 Il -2 8 D/D 1959.SOC l2-10-82, scrapped
193Black 650103r
l? il-28U D/D 1961.C/n reportedas61031LCamouflaged. SOC30-3-79. becamea
targetat thegunneryrangein Peenemi.inde
I9 6 Bl a c k 55006944 il-28 D/D 1959.Crashed30-7-"11
204Black 4404426 Il -2 8 DID l2-l-62.Crashed in Poland12-10-63
205Black 54006279 Il-28 DID 1962.Crashedin the USSR?-5-69; SOC30-5-70
208Red** 55006448 rl-28 DID 1962.Camouflaged. SOCl3-10-82, preserved
224 Black 55006445 il-28 DID 1962.SOC9-l2-77.scrapped
226Black 5500641
7 Il -2 8 DID 1962.Crashed at Peenemiinde 4-2-i0:.SOC30-7-71
* SOC = struck off charse.
':!* The red serial on 208 iinoteworthy, as normally only single-seatfighters wore
red serialsin the East German Air
Force; all other aircraft wore black serials.
The aircraft transferred lrom the Soviet Air Force havebeen referred to as Il-28Rs, which certainly
considering that they were transferred lrom a reconnaissanceregiment. However, German ,ourcei
say only iwo
Il-28Rs were delivered;and indeed the other LSK/LV Beaglesd6not have the tip tanks characteristic
of the
100 . IrvusHrx lt-28 Bt-:,tc;r.r:

.t :i
.. :.:.:
,... '1 , {

This EgyptianAir Forcc Il-28 was displayedin Cairo in I 956 togetl.rerwith otlicr aircraft therroperatedby the EA F. The
bomber can'iespre-UARAF greenand wliitc national insignia.r lt.,tRz r

1 957 t hr ee Rom a n i a n s h i p s b ro u g h t th e fl rs t ten were fbrmed: in addition to the basic bomber

Il - 28s t o A lex and ri a ,a m o n g o th e r th i n g s ; b y l ate and Il-28U trainer, the UARAF reportedly
Junet he E A F had a b o u t 4 0 o n s tre n g th . operated Il-28R tactical PHOTINT aircraft and
I n his s peec ho n 2 5 J u l y 1 9 5 7o n th e o c c a s i onof Chinese-builtH-5s. Egypt reclaimedmost of these
Nasser'sfiflh anniversary as President,Egyptian aircraft in September1961when the United Arab
Air Force Chief of Stafl Air Vice-Marshal Republic ceased to exist and Egypt and Syria
Mohammed Sidki stated that the EAF's first-line (and their respectiveair forces)went their separate
assets had doubled as compared to the time ways.
immediatelybeforethe SuezCrisis.To add weight to Reports on the number of Egyptian ll-28s vary
his words.a formation of no fewerthan 100combat widely, some sourcesstating as many as 72 aircraft
jets was to pass over Cairo on the sarne day. in 1966.These included four second-handIl-287
However. the show of lbrce fizzled because the torpedo-bombersbought from the Soviet Navy in
technicalstaff had managedto prepareonly 42 air- 1962with a supply of 90 RAT-52 torpedoes.Other
craft for the display elevenMiG-l5bis Fugot-Bs, sourcesclaim that 21 of 30 (!?)aircrafi on strength
eighteen MiG-l7F Fre,st'o-Cs and thirteen ll-28s. in 196l were destroyedon the ground by Israeli air
The watching crowd went wild all the same, but stri kesduri ng the S i x-D ay W ar (5 l l June 1967).
the messagewas clear: it would take years for Two Il-28swereresoldto Nigeria and six to Syria; it
the Egyptian Air Force to becornefully combat- makesyou wonder where the remaining 34 aircraft
capable. went! Anyway, by the beginning of the Holy Day
When Egypt and Syria joined forces against War (6 October 1973) Egypt had a Beugle force of
Israel, creating the United Arab Republic on I 35 or 40 aircraft in four bomber squadronsand one
February 1958,the EAF Il-28swere includedin the reconnaissancesquadron. The Il-28s were now
assetsof the newly created United Arab Republic based at Aswan. No more than four or five
Air Force (UARAF). Three squadrons of Beugles remained airworthy by 1983; two aircraft were
B ttt;tt s Wonl Ir-u tD F . l 0l

1\ ! r'
l'.*"*-| I l \ - **-*




.N*-i lb

Egyptian Air Forcc ll-28 1733at Kont Anshim AB: the aircrali wcarscamoullagcintrocluccdalier the Six-Dav War ol
1967. t ; ti ,,t(r,rtl ,,u ,tr, h i ,

w ri tte n of f on 25 A pr i l 1 9 7 0 u n d e r u n k n o w u c i r.- more ai l cral l i n r-ratural

metal fi ni sh seri al l ed1731.
clrmstances(possiblya rnid-air collision or ground Speakingof which, Egypt was one of the f'ew air'
co l l i si on) . iirms to havc camouflageclIl-28s (most operators
On l y t wo air c r af t ,s e ri a l l e d1 7 3 3a n d 1 7 7 8 .h a v e had silver-paintedaircrall); the camoullage was
been positively identified so lhr; both wore introducedas a result of lessonslearnedin the Six-
sand/brown camouflage.A drawing exists ol- one Dav War.
102. Ir.rLrsrrrtrt
lt-2E Br..u;r.r,


; ""'llili '.;,,,

3. t,.{

A n trtlrcrcrrrno ul'll qc tl:l . Al; llc t t , glcl77li"
. ut ( ' lir . o- w c s t u i t h r S o v i c t _ b u i l K
t r A Z - 1 5 - 5 l l( r x ( rt r u c k i n t h c l o l . c g r . o L r n d.

J'h c l: inr r is hA ir F o r-c c(l l tttttro i n tu !)rc c c i l ,c crtncl \\i rth\,anous ty;l cs ol ' targcts.i ncl Lrcl i ng
l l -2ll bor ubc rlnc l o n c II-2 8 R p l i o to rc c o n n u i s s uncc l col tvcl t_
ti onal sock uncl u l ur-sccl urt-sha;l ccl gl i cl cr.Thc
i ri l c nr lt in 1960 I ; trv o n ro rc Il -2 8 R s fb l l o u c cl i n
ai l cral t l vcrc si l v' cr-ovcral l . l vi th the cl etuchabl c
1 9 66.S t r ange' ly c n o u g h .a l l l b u r Bt,ttg l cw
s c rc o p cr_ cngi nccow l i ngsori gi nal l ypai ntcclgrccn ou N H _l ;
l u te cbyl t hc F innis h A i t. F o rc c ' stfa n s p o rts c l u a dron l utcr.thc cow l i ngs.w i ngti ps(or ti p tanks.i n thc case
( KuIjt't u,s Icttt ttIu i yttt'. or KLrlj L Lv ) lLtU tti. of' the l l -28R s)anclstabi l i zcrti ps l vcrepai nteclcl av_
glo orange. Thc lircl.afi carriecl a clay,glou,.rng"
N Il-2ll/.1 wcrc latcr-cortve rtcclto targct tu-esaccorcl_ peunaulor_rl l i nccl i rt rcd ou thc fl n. pctssi bl to
v rtrark
i n g t o t hc S ov iet Il -2 8 B M s ta n c l u ri i th
: e -*rv
v o rkcd l l tcrDi rsti l t' ucttU gs.

'l'able19. l,'innish
Air Forcell-2lls
Serial C/rr !'ersion \otes
NII-I .-5706 il-2t D/ D* 28- l- ( r 0 :r 'c r i 'e c.lf i c . h c a r , 1 , i . r d i . - ul 0 - l l - 7 6 : f L r l lc / , 5 3 0 0 _ 5 7 0 ( r . j
NH - ] . I 710 It-2 tR D/ D l, l- 6- 6 l: WF L I 6 - 8 I : t i r l l c i n
NH .J . r 7l3 -590171(il
il-28R D/ D l- 66. W F L J1 0 - 6 - 8t : f i r l l c / n 5 9 0l 7 t i , l
NII-,1 . l 10 6 II-]ER DiD l- ( 16.wF L l 3 0 - 6 - 8l " p r c s e r 'c d s t r . r t t 'r t I r r r t t r i lM t r t t . s c . . T i k k a k o s k in: o t
N'loscou-br-rilt (secSo'"'ie r sccrion/ll-l8Tl).lirll c/n 5901l0(r.l
* D/D Dclir,,crl,Datc
Bt,tctts Wonlo-wrop . 103

I l-28R N H-2 (c/n I 7 l0) with camouflagedwraps on the tip tanks to hide the dayglo finish. ( Yt,lirtt



Another Finnish Il-28 target tug. NH-4 (cAr ll06); this aircral'tapparentlydoes not have the characteristicdayglo
markinss. ( Y'lin Gorlonurtlrirt,)
104 . IryusHrNl..-28 Br,tctr;

The Hungarian Air Force (MHRC - Magyar were Czech-built B-228s and CB-228s. A second
HonvedsegRepik) Csapatai)introduced the Il-2g in Beagle regiment, the 82nd Vtsyes Reotik)
late 1954learly1955. Thirty-seven exampleswere Hadosztaly (bomber regiment) at Keiskemet, was
initially on strength, with one regiment based at established later.Little elseis known, exceDtthat the
Kunmadaras; at least some of them (possiblyall) l ast tl -28sw erereri redi n 19i 2.

Table20. HungarianAir Forcell-28s

Serial C/n Version Notes
l 0 Red ? il-28
I9 R ed ? il-28RTR Often reported in error as a Romanian Air Force aircraft
20 Red ,!
Il-28 PreservedO:igetvar Mu:eunt, lake Soviet Air Force markings
34 Red 56424 rr-2 8(B -2 2 8 )
50 Red ? Il -2 8 PreservedMugyur Repiilist\rtcneti Mu:ewn,szolnok
55 Red 56455 il-28 (8-228) Preserved,location unknown
7 l R ed 'l I l -2 8
72 Red ,)
Tl R ed 69420',! il-28U(CB-228?)

34 Red, a Hungarian Beugle , in flight. ( ytfin Gontorturttrilc)

Czech-built Hungarian Air Force Il-28 55 Red in a local museum

. 105
Bucrcs Wonlo-wron

When President Sukarno was in office. Indonesia Il-28U trainers (M-801-M-806). The aircraft were
was on fairly good terms with the Soviet Union and suppliedvia Czechoslovakia,which also servedas a
enjoyedSovietmilitary aid. In l96l the Indonesian training basefor the crews,and equipped No. I and
naval air arm (Tentera Nasional Inelonesru No. 2l squadronsat Surabaya.Quite possibly the
Angkatan Laut, or TNI-AL) took delivery of more aircraft were reserialledlater on, as a photo existsof
than thirty overhauled Il-28T torpedo-bombers TNI-AL Beagles serialled 504, 506 and 508, plus
serialledfrom M-841 onwards, together with a suit- I1-28U sseri al l ed511and 512.
able complement of RAT-52 torpedoes, and six In 1966, however, Dr Sukarno was overthrown

"?&d.lai,$i r:irttiix,rrar!5t*{e**r
;;ar -!tx!Wq1'rit!er::**tr:"..,,


f ndonesianNavy Il-28T M-842 taxiesout for take-off.with M-844 and M-847 visiblebevond. I R/1nr)

Another IndonesianNavy Bcagle,now wearingTNI-AL insigniaand the new-styleserial506. rRznrr

106 . Ir-yusHrNIt-28 Bex;tr

ht , \.-

M-803, onc of'lbur IndonesianNavy ll-28Us. immediatelyafler take-oll'.rn.arizr




Another Mustot in new-styleTN I-AL insignia,apparentlywithdrawn fiom use.Note the double trccof spadesnoseart,
presumablya squadronbadge./ R.tRrl

by the staunchlyanti-Communist Gen. Suharto. A light-bomber squadron equipped with ten ll-28s
wave of repressionsagainst Communists swept and two Il-28Us. The aircraft were supplied via
through Indonesia, and Soviet support was Egypt in 1958,replacingde Havilland Venom FB.50
promptly cut off. Predictably,all Soviet-built air- fighter-bombers.Interestingly,the M ilitair' 82 hand-
craft were soon grounded by lack of spares.The last book reported ten Il-2SUs in servicewith the IrAF
Beugleswere retired in June 1972. i n 1982.

Iraq Kampuchea
Prior to the Six-Day War the Iraqi Air Force (ai A handful of Il-28s (probably Chinese-builtH-5s)
Quv,w'at ul-Jutrv'i,yu al-lraqiya) operated a single were operated bv the National Khmer Aviation
Buctes Wonlo-wror. 107

A FederalNigerian Air Forcell-28 undergoingminor maintenance.rR;Rrr


This Federal Nigerian Air Force Beugle is photographed in an intriguing setting possibly after an off-field landing;
though none were lost to enemyaction. severalll-28sweredamagedin accidents./R,lnrl

(NKA) when the country was run by the dictator Il-28 bombers (two from Egypt and one from
Pol Pot. Algeria); some sources,though, claimed that the
FederalNigerian Air Force(FNAF) had at leastsix
of the type. The aircraft wore wraparound
green/darkbrown camouflage.Only one Nigerian
The Royal Moroccan Air Force (al Quwwat ul- Il-28, NAF 635,is known; a drawing of an example
Jawwiya al-Malakiya Marakishiya or Aviation serialled NAF-158 has been oublished. but this
Royale Chtrifienne) operated a mere two ll-28s, appearsdoubtful.
probably supplied by Egypt.
North Korea
An unknown
of Il-28sweredelivered
to the
In 1969Nigeria, which had been in the throes of a Korean People'sArmy Air Force before the end of
civil war sinceMay 1967,bought three second-hand the Korean War; at any rate, ten Beaglestook part in
108. lryusurNlt-28 Bt,t<;r.r

th e v ic t or y par adei n Py o n g y a n go n 2 8 J u l y 1 9 5 3 .In luospareswerefbrthcomingthe lbrce was facedwith

the early 1960sCommLrnistChina beganrebLrilding the daunting prospectof being gror-rnded entirely
North Korea'sair force in an attempt to strengthen or linding replacementaircrafi.
its military presencein the region. Obsolete ex- Thus, the Soviet'Canberra'wasselectedersa pos-
PLAAF equipmentwas exportedto North Korea in sible replacen-leutfbr the US Car.rberrasinceit was
violation of the ceasefiretreaties;this included 70 readily availablefrom China. Moreover. Pakistan
ll-28s deliveredby sea. Deliveriescontinued r.rntil w as evcn negoti ati ngthe del i veryof 30 to 40 Il -28s
th e m id- 1960s wh , e r, re l a ti o n sb e tw e e nC h i n a and directly fr"omthe USSR in 1969.Had the deal gone
North Korea deteriorated. Only three examples through it would inevitablyhavecar.rsed a rifl in the
have been identifled to date; two ol these are Indo-Soviet relationship. Eventually, however,
b o m ber s Har bin H -5 4 5 B l u e i n d a rk g re e nc a m- Pakistan arranged to buy an adequate supply ol'
oullage with natural metal undersurfacesand red Wright J65 turbojets fbr the B-57sin France,so thc
ru dder ,and I l- 28 3 1 4 R e d i n o v e ra l ln a tu ra l m e tal ll-28s werepr.rtin storageand neverflown.
fi n is h.T he t hir d a i rc ra l t i s a n Il -2 8 R s e ri a l l e d0 220
Red. onceagain in r.raturalmetal flnish.
Pakistan The fl rst Il -28s fbr the P ol i sh A i r Force (P W L
Rtl.skicWoj.sko Lottric:a)arrivcd at Warsaw-Okpcie
In 1965China s ig n c da c o n tra c t w i th P a k i s ta non ai rfi el d (w hi ch i s now thc ci ty' s i ntcrnati onalai r-
th e dc liv er yol- c omb a tj c ts . n ra i rrl yC h c n g d u F T-5 port) on 20 JLrl y1952.Thc typeattai ncdi ni ti al opcr-
trainer s ( a M iG - 1 7 c l e ri v a ti v ea) n d Sh e n y a n gF-6 ati ng capabi l i ty (l OC ) eal l y the l bl l ow i ng year.
(Chines e- bLr ilt M iG -I9 5 F ) l i g h te rsto rl .rePa k i s r l ni allowing the ktrtg-servingTu-2 and PctlyakovPe-2
Air Force(PAF. or PukistunFi:u'.t'u).The deal also bombel s to be reti red. Thus thc secondstage ol '
i n cluc ledlbur t ec nS o v i e t-b u i l tIl -2 8 b o m b e r-s w h i cl r Lrpgradi ngthe P W L w as compl eted;thc l l rst w as
wer e deliv er - edin 1 9 6 6 1 o l b rn t a l i g h t-b o m ber replacentent ol' pislon-engined lighters with
sq uadr c lr rP. ak is t a nd e n i e dIn d i a n c l a i r.uth
s a t i t was Mi G-f 5 Fupt-A l B s and Mi G-17 Fr.r,,rcos w hi ch
u singt he t y pe opc ra ti o n a l l y . w erel atcl l i cence-br.ribyl t the P ZL Mi el ecl actoryas
The r eas onf br th i s d e a l w a s th a t th e U S A had thc Li m-l /Li m-2 and Li n-5/Li m-6 scri esl espec-
wi thdr awn all nili ta ry s u p p o rt i n th e w a k e o 1 ' the tivcly.Apart liom the basclinebornber version,thc
In d o- P ak is t ar nic o n tl i c t o f 1 9 6 5 . T h e PA F w as P W L al sohad l l -28R seqLri ppi ng several l ong-rarrge
e n t ir ely eqLr ippe dw i th U S a i rc ra fl . i n c l r" rdi ng reconnaissance units.
Ma r t in B - 57B s( a s p i n -o fl ' o f th e C a n b e rra ),a n d as A smal l number of- Il -28U trai ners w as al so

Polish Air Force I l-28 I I Red j ust belbre la nding . I t1.o

j.skrtruAggtt.ju Frrtt.qrulit
Wonro-u'tol.. |09;t.t:s

;6-l ,,/
:r s/

/ ,rl

(r2 Rccl.anothcr P\NL Bruglc,in cruisc llight, LJnlikcll Rccl.this onc has a latc-nroclclSRO-2 Oll ktls IFF tlanspon-
ClCf. i ll i,l'li,,rrrr .1{crttju littr\rttliL:ttrt )



A scrriot.o lllce rciveslas t - nr inut eins t r t t c t ions t c lt hec le w c l 1 'a P c l l i s h I l - 2 8 R . 0 3 R e d . , | | | l i 'l | ; a r t t
- -a'_*,N -fd--,f
I l0 . lrYusHrNIt--28Bt,tct.n

delivered;starting in 1955, they served alongside Polish pilots quickly grew familiar with the type
regufarIl-28s at the WOSL (Wyszu Ofic'erskaSzkokr and performed well during national and Warsaw
Lotniczu Officers'Higher Flying School) popu- Pact manoeuvres.The most striking demonstration
larly known as Szkola Orlet (Eaglets'School) at of their skill, howevet came at the 1966 military
Dgblin. The Masc'otswere known locally as SII-28, parade in Warsaw commemorating the 1,000th
the S standing for [samolotls:kolnt,(trainer), and anniversaryof Polish statehood.Until the 1970sit
had alpha-numericserialscommencingwith S. The was quite common to sky-write by flying in special
PWL's ll-28s wereof both Sovietand Czechorisin. formations,and messages like 'Peace'or'50 yearsof

l; .
rJ ,"

r if

..ti:h ff
Maintenancework on P WL Il -2 8 U5 5 R e d .Note the non-standard dipole aerial mounted on the rear lairing. (wtj.skowt
Aguciu F'otogrulicnu )

A publicity shot of sevenPolish Air Force Il-28s. r M11skowt

BttctrsWonr-o-wroE . lll

Table21. KnownPolishAir Forcell-28s

Serial C/n Version Notes

l Red ? Il-28
2 Red ? I1-28 Air ForceTechnicalInstitute(ITWL), brakeparachutetestbed
3 Red ? r1-28
4 Red . . . 19 l0 It-28 Soviet-builtbut factory unknown. PreservedMuzeumWyzwoleniaMiasta
Poznania(PoznairCity Liberation Museum)*
5 Re d ? Il-28
TR e d ? n-28
03 Red ...2905 Il-28R Soviet-builtbut lactoryunknown
09 Red ? il-28
ll Red ? Il-28
17Red ? It-28
20 Red ? Il-28
22Red 56729 r-28 (9-228) PreservedMuzeumWojskaPolskiego(PolishArmed ForcesMuseum),
Warsaw,with fake serial65 Red (seebelow)
30 Red 41302 Il-28R (8-228?) Reserialledto, seebelow
32 Red(a)
32 Red (b) ? ll-28
33 Red ? Il-28
34 Red ? Il-28
39 Red ? Il-28
40 Red ? Il-28
4l Red 56729 11-28(B-228\
42 Red ? Il-28
43 Red ? 11-28
46 Red ? Il-28
50 Red 56538 Il-28(8-228) Convertedto targettug. Preserved Broni(Comradeship-
52 Red ? ll-28 Seefive linesbelow
54 Red ? Il-28
57 Red ...2308 Il-28 Soviet-builtbut factoryunknown
58 Red ? Il-28
59 Red ? ll-28
62 Red ? Il-28
64 Red ...2113 Il-28 Soviet-builtbut factoryunknown.Reserialled
to, seebelow
52 Red Preserved
MuzeumOrg:a Polskiego (PolishArms Museum),Kolobrzeg
65 Red ...2212 Il-28 Soviet-builtbut factoryunknown.PreservedWOSL, Dpblin
68 Red ? Il-28R
69 Red ? ll-28 PreservedMuzeumMarynarki Wojennei(Navy Museum),Gdynia
72 Red 41909 Il-28R(8-228?) PreservedMuzeumLotnictwai Astronautyki(MLiA- Aerospace
Krak6w; full c/n may be43051I 909
001Red ? il-28 ITWL, brakeparachutetestbed
021Red ? |-28
030Red ? Il-28R
101Red ? n-28
l l l Re d ? Il-28
I l9 Blue ? il-28 Convertedto, seebelow
il-28H Inst! tut Lo tnictwa,enginetestbed
133Red ? Il-28
Sl Red? ? Il-28U Existencenot provedbut likely
32 Red? ? il-28U Existencenot provedbut likely
53 Red 69216 il-28U (CB-228) PreservedMLiA, Krak6w
54 Red ? n-28U
55 Red ? Il-28U
not known 4r906 n-28 (8-228)? Couldbe an Il-28R(full c/n 430511906?)
* Aka MuzeumCytadeliPoznafiskiej(PoznafrFortressMuseum)
*i! Somesourcesstatethis aircraft aspreservedMuzeumZiemi LubuskrT(Lublin RegionMuseum).
112 . IrvusHrN h-28 Br,qcLe

something-or-other'made up of aircraft were Romania

almost obligatoryat airshows.Yet the Poleswent
onebetterand createdan eagle- the Polishnational This was one Socialistcountry that was paranoid
symbol- out of no fewerthan 33Il-28s.Theimpres- about security,so little wasknown about Romanian
siveformationwasled by Lt-Col JerzyW6jcik. Il-28s until recently.The type was introduced into
the Romanian Air Force (Foryele Aeriene ale
By the mid-1970sthe PolishIl-28shad beenwith- RepubliciiSocialisteRomdne)servicein early 1955,
drawn from firstJine serviceand usedas targettugs when the Regimentul282 Avialie Bombardament
with fabric sleeve-typetargets,just as in East (282ndBomberRegiment)atlanca AB,40 km (25
Germany. Yet again the Poles went one better, miles) south-westof Galati, took deliveryof the
developing targets with acoustic hit detectors. first three aircraft - two bombersand one Il-28U
The last PWL Beaglewas retired on 29 December trainer.aSoonafterwardsthe unit movedto Mihail
1977. Kogdlniceanu AB. As it oftendid, the SovietUnion
The Il-28 contributeda lot to the progressof sent a team of instructorsto train the customer's
parachutingin Poland.On 4 September1957the personnelin situ;the groupwhichcameto Romania
parachutistTadeuszDulla made a jump from an to assistin masteringthe Il-28 was led by Capt.
Il-28 flying at 12,500m (41,010ft),3 setting a Mikhail Boykov.It remainedwith the unit until 5
nationalrecord.Later,other Polishskydiversmade May 1955,whereuponthe282ndBomberRegiment
singleand group jumps from Il-28s in a similar relocated to Otopeni(nowBucharest's international
fashion. airport).
Two yearslater the unit moved yet again, this

Table22. KnownRomanian
Serial C/n Version Notes
001Red Il-28U
002 Red ; Il-28U
003 Red i Il-28U
014Red ? Il-28
0 1 5Red ? ll-28
0 1 8Red ? r-28U
125Red? ? ? Existencenot confirmed
301 Red? ? B-5 Existencenot conhrmed
307Red ? B-5 Targettug conversion
308Red ? B-5
309Red ? B-5
3 1 0Red ,|
B-5 Repaintedin grey/bluecamouflageby 7-01as 310Black.Damagedbeyond
repairat Borcea-Fetegti
AB 2l-7-01
402 Red Il-28R PreservedMuseulAvialiei,Bucharest-Otopeniairport
403Red Il-28R Targettug. Crashedat BacduAB l-8-55
405 Red Il-28R PreservedMuseulAviatiei,Baneasasection
407 Red il-28U (BT-5?) DID 1979.StoredBacduAB
408Red il-28U (BT-s) DtD 1979
433Red I1-28 Targettug
443 Red Il-28
462 Red? B-5 Existencenot confirmed
491Red? B-5 Existencenot confirmed
501Red Il-28U
543 Red? B-5 Existence
not conhrmed
701Red B-5
703Red B-5 StoredBaciu AB
704Red B-5R
706Red B-5 StoredBaciu AB
707Red B-5
708Red B-5
709Red B-5
710Red? B-5 Existencenot confirmed
. I 13

t{ L-

: d#

A long row of VVS Beagleson the flight line, headedby ll-28U 03 Blue. ( y'lintGonton

time to Boteni. and was transformed into the European nation to operatethe type. Incidentally,
Regimentul 282 Avia(ie Cerc'etare(Reconaissance the Romanians have given the Beuglca nickname,
Regiment).In 1960it was demotedto squadronsta- BlAndul Bcn ('Gentle Ben', after a good-natured
tus, becoming the Escadrila 282 Aviulie Cert'eture, bear in a TV series),reflectingthe aircraft'seasyand
and relocatedfor the last time to Borcea AB. near forgiving handling.
Cocargeaua,whereit remainsat the time of writing. A minor sensation(and a major treat for warbird
Two of the bombers (433 Red and 443 Red) were enthusiasts)was planned for 27 29 July 2001, when
used for target-towing duties at Mihail a RomanianAir Force H-5 was to participatein the
KogalniceanuAB in the 1960s;it is not known 30th Royal International Air Tattoo at RAF
whether they were standard Il-28BMs or local con- Cottesmore,Rutland, making the type's first-ever
versions.The original Soviet-builtBeugles(unoffi- visit to the West. Unlbrtunately these plans were
cially designated Il-28B in Romanian Air Force dashed to the ground (literally) just a few days
service) and Il-28U trainers were later supple- beforethe show when the aircraft (3l0 Black) crash-
mented and gradually replaced by Chinese-built l andedduri ng a trai ni ng fl i ght on 2l Jul y,l osi ng i ts
B-5s deliveredin 1972.One of them. 307 Red. was enti restarboardw i ng. S i nceal l other survi vi ngH -5s
also converted for target-towing duties; target prac- were non-airworthy at the tinte (or in less than
tice took placeat the Cap Midia gunnery range. showcasecondition anyway),the trip had to be can-
Starting in 1961,all Romanian Beuglasand their celled.
engineswere refurbished at the Bacdu aircraft over-
haul plant (URA Bacdu).5In due time the unir was
renumbered, becoming Escadrila -i8 Avia(ie Somalia
Cercetare;also, the original natural metal finish of In the late 1960sthe Somalian AeronauticalCorps
the H-5s gave way to an overall light grey colour (Dayuurutluhu Xooggu Dulka Sontuliyeed) report-
scheme (except for the tail turret, which is white) edly operated ten ll-28s. Unfortunately no details
and the new Romanian roundels replacing the are known.
Socialist-erastar-typeinsignia.Romania is the last
Soviet Union
The SovietAir Force(VVS) was the largestoperator
3 Other reports statea height of I 1,900rn (39.041ft) of the type. Unfortunately, becauseof the systemof
Some sources claim that all three aircraft delivered initiallv
u ere t r a i n e r s . tacticalcodesdescribedearlier,the only way of pos-
5 Later renamed IAv Baclu (lntreprenderiu Avioane aviation itively identifying an aircraft is by the construction
enterprise);now Aerostar SA. number, of which only a few are known.
114. Irvusurult-28 Bn.qcLr

Table 23. SovietBeagles

C/n Tacticalcode/ Version Notes
a) Moscowproduction
50301104 none Il-28T* Prototype,IlyushinOKB
50301106 not known Il-28T* Prototype,IlyushinOKB. Converted
to, seebelow
4 Red II-28TM Prototype,IlyushinOKB
50301408 not known ll-28
50301801 not known Il-28
430512301 not known Il-28R
61003001? not known Il-28U C/n reportedas63001
6*003501? not known Il-28U C/n reportedas63501
52003701 not known Il-28 VK-5-poweredversion/firstprototype,IlyushinOKB
52003714 none I1-28RM Prototype,IlyushinOKB
52003719 not known 11-28 VK-5-poweredversion/second prototype,IlyushinOKB
53005005 not known Il-28
53005112 12Red Il-28LSh IlyushinOKB, ski landinggeartestbed
54005217 38 Red Il-28 - deliveredlate?
Yearin c/n out of sequence
53005710 l0 Blue ll-28LL LII, ejectionseattestbed
53005717? 09 Red Il-28T NikolayevMinelayerand Torpedo-Bomber FlyingSchool
53005771 04 Red Il-28 Preserved Soviet(Russian)Air ForceMuseum,Monino
55006424 26 Blue ll-28
55006445 not known Il-28 Transferred
to the EastGermanAF as224Black
55006,+48 not known Il-28 Transferred
to the EastGermanAF as208Red
55006542 I I Red Il-28 GSVG,OranienburgAB (until 1975)
55006937 not known Il-28 Transferred
to the EastGermanAF as 190Black
55006968 03 Red rl-28
65009706 42Blue Il-28U
65009807 100Red Il-28U
6501031I ? not known Il-28U C/n reportedas03I I . Transferred to the EastGermanAF as 193Black
65010809 16Red Il-28 Moscow-built.Recoded to. seebelow
10Red PreservedArmed ForcesMuseum,Moscow(currentlyresprayed as l0 Red
b) Voronezhproduction
6450001 not known Il-28
6450301 not known Il-28
2402101 0l Red Il-28 LII, refuellingsystemtestbed
3402209 12Blue Il-28
3402701 notknown ll-28
c) Omskproduction
0016601 not known Il-28
0416601 not known Il-28
36603509 not known Il-28
36603807 01 Red Il-28 Preserved Moscow-Khodynka
56605702 33 Red Il-28 Preserved Civil AviationMuseum,Ulyanovsk,as11-20 (no tacticalcode,
Sovietflag on tail, Aeroflot logo on fuselage)
56606201 85 Red Il-28 Preserved/GlAKuibyshevAviation Institute (KuAI)**

d) unknown factories
...1905 not known 11-28 ProbablyMoscow-built(c/n 50301905)
...2007 not known 11-28 ProbablyMoscow-built(cln 50302207).
Developmentaircraft, Ilyushin
OKB, brakeparachutetests
...3513 not known Il-28 Full c/n 52003513
or 36603513
...4702 not known Il-28T Full cin 52004702
or 46604702
...4705 not known Il-28T Full c/n 52004705
or 46604705
? 2Red Il -2 8 -1 3 1
BLlct,EsWonlo-wtor,. I l5
Tabfe 23 (continued). Soviet Beagles

Cln Tactical code/ Version


,) 7 Red Il-2gT* PacificFleet/567th

,) 08 B lue rt-28 57th VA/63rd BAD/408rh FBAp. Cherlyany
l9 Red AB. I957
22 Red II-2 8 PreservedR Igu.rAvi ut.ij u.rM ti: c R i ga_Spi
? 2l Red f,r, Ivc
? 25 Red II-2 8 S h
29 Red II-2 8 Sh
? 30 Red II-2 8 Preservcdas gateguard at a Russianairbase
54005777 CCCP-A |-20
54006I 04 c c c P - A ...5 3 8 It-20 I e. SSSR- L.. . 5 3 8
CCCP-A2035 il-20 Ie. SSSR-L2035;existencenot conflrnted
The purpose-bLrilt
Il-2gT.witha long weaponsbay
Now SamaraStateAviation Univcriity
tSCAUf .


A typical publicity shot from a Soviet
airfield.with II-28 crew chieri reporting
has red-painted cowlings. Note the II-28U to the pilots. At leastone arrcrafi.35 Rcd.
trainer io: n.a) ,,t ,h;;;;;i,h; i.r*. , ,rr,,,,Grtrrktn
I f 6 . f n 'L;srrnr
h.-2 8B r . . u; t . r


A t y 1 - r i c r rSf o v i c t A i r - Fo lcc Il- lll cr u isin g u t h ig h a ltitu clc. , ,i 'ti ,,,(i trtt.tttrrrtti tt)

$7 - r3;,*

w \3 qb.
' a, . '

.,!*.. ]*&t

This ll-2,3.67 Rccl.callies an 'Erccllcnt aircrall' baclgeon thc award to the ground crew lbr maintaining the
b o t t t be t'i n p crf-cct co ttclitittn. ' IL' litr r( ior dut ur tltir L t
Bt,tctos Wonr-o-wroe. ll7

Syria People'sAir Force (VPAF, or Kh6ng euan Nhant

The Syrian Air Force (al Quwwat al-Jawwiya ul- Dan Vi€t Nam). For instance,Vietnamesell-28s
(obviouslyex-PLAAF but Soviet-builtaircraft)are
frqbiya as-Suriya) took delivery of six ex-Egyptian known to havebeenrepairedat Mengtseairbasein
Il-28s. Two of them were destroyed bv Israeli
attacks during the Six-Day War (5 ti fune tqOZ). Yunnan province.In 1968 the VpAF inventory
includedeight or ten Il-28sbasedin Hanoi. Only
threeserials,1817Red, 2210Red and 3256Red,
Taiwan (Republicof China) havebeenreported,but the former two are uncon-
The Republic of China Air Force operated a sinsle firmed.
e x-PL A A F I l- 28 whic h fe l l i n to N a ti o n a l i s th a n " d s VPAF Il-28s probably supported North
when its crew defected on ll November 1966. The Vietnamese groundtroopsduring the VietnamWar
aircraft was reportedly used for spy missions over but did not intrude into SouthVietnamin order to
mainland China, retaining its PLAAF stars-and- hit Republicof VietnamAir Forceor USAF bases.
bars insigniaand the serial0195Yellow.It is now on
display at the ROCAF museum at Taoyuan AB.
Vietnam(North) Both North and SouthYemenoperatedthe Beagle
The yemenArab
on a smallscalein themid-1960s.
Having establishedfairly close ties with North Republic(North Yemen)had six Il-28s,while the
Vietnam in the mid-1960s,Communist China People'sDemocratic Republic of yemen (South
startedfoistingits obsoletemilitary aircraft,includ- Yemen)hadtwelve.Unfortunatelyno serials
or base
ing Beagles,on the Vietnamese. China servedas a detailsareknown.
training and maintenancebasefor the Vietnamese

Tup Ir -28rNDEran

tbllowing structural description applies frames of the cockpit canopy, navigator's station
-Fh.I t o t he bas ic b o mb e r v e rs i o n o f th e Il -2 8. and tail gunner's station glazing frames are made
I The Il-28 is an all-metal monoplane with from cast ML5-TCh magnesiumalloy, as are the
shoulder-mountedunswepttrapezoidalwings, two frames of the navigator'sand tail gunner's entrance
turbojet enginesin underwing nacellesand a con- hatches.
ventional swept tail unit with a low-mounted tail- Fuselage: Circular-section stressed-skinsemi-
plane. The crew includes three persons: pilot, monocoquestructurebuilt in four sectionsfor ease
navigator/bombaimer and tail gunner/radioopera- of assembly.The skin panels are 0.8 2.0 mm
tor. (0.03 0.78in.) thick and are supportedby 50 fiames
The airframe is made chiefly of D-l6T duralu- (l -17, f 74, 18, l 8A , l 88 and 1947), i ncl udi ng 14
min, with flush riveting usedthroughout. AK6 alu- mainframes,and 38 stringers,7 of which are rein-
minium alloy is used for the wing/fuselage forced. Maximum fuselage diameter between
attachment fittings and grade 30KhGSA steel for framesl 7 and 20 i s 1.8m (5 ft 10.86i n.).
the tail unit/fuselage attachment fittings. The The .forward fuselage (section ,F/. frames I I lA)

Ik) IlAphAttr eut rti)Art,r,-.,lwl

,rn 1604 Jr r'^ri o^f| IAOA fl[

":-. .

I t
I ,, ,, 5JrJ, ;"
A diagram from the manufacturer'sdrawings showing the internal layout of the ll-28R configured for night (above) and
day (below)reconnaissancemissions.r ttlttttG,,rJ,ttttrLltit't
Tur L--28lN Dnrerl . ll9



- 't-* ' .*:i.ll

.!il. ..

rhis photo shows some ol the removitbleaccesspanels which made thc Bcuglcso easy to scrvicc.I ti,/ittt

lncorporatesa pressurizedcockpit (frames 6 I lA) The centre.fuselage(section F2 , frames I I B 38A )

and a pressurizednavigator'scompartment (frames is unpressurized, incorporating the bomb bay
0-6), both of which have sloping rear bulkheads. (fiames l8-29) and the avionicsbay fbr the search
The navigator's compartment features extensive radar (frames l l B l 6). It al so accommodatesthe
Plexiglassglazing, with an optically flat Triplex wrng centresection(fiames23 21) and the fuel cells
lo we rfo rwar dpanel I 3- 1 5 mm (0 .5 1 0 .5 9i n .) rh i c k . are located in the f uselagelbrward and aft ol' the
The entrancehatch (frames3 6) locatedin liont ol' wings.The bomb bay is closedby two pneumatically
the cockpit canopy is offsetto starboardanclhinged actuateddoors powered by the pneumatic system.
to port; the navigator'sejectionseat is immediately with an emergencyair bottle.
below For bomb aiming by means of the optical The rear fuselagc (sectionFJ. frames 38B 42A) is
sight the navigatorusesa foldingjump seatattached
to frame 2.
The cockpit canopyconsistsof a fixed windshield
with an elliptical flat Triplex forward panel l3-15
mm thick and two curved sidelights,and a rear sec-
tion hinged to starboard with a one-pieceblown
Plexiglasstransparency.The cockpit is equipped
with a control column featuringa W-shapedcontrol
wheel, hinged rudder pedals. port and starboard
consoleswith throttles and other controls.The for-
ward fuselage incorporates the nosewheel well
(frames 4--1lA) and the nose cannon ammunition
The ejection seats have back plates of l0 mm
(0 .3 9i n .) st eelar m our an d d i s h e di e a t p a n so f 6 m m
(0.23in.) steel.Additional duralumin armour sheets
10 3 0 mm ( 0. 39 l. l8 in. ) th i c k a re i n s ta l l e du n d e r
the navigator'sseat.The pilot's windshielddoesnot
incorporate bulletproof glass.Total weight of the
armo u r i s 454 k g ( l, 000 1 b ). The navigator's station glazing. I yt,litrrCiottlon
120. IrvusurNlt-28 Bt,tr;r,t

".? f.
t * ....,.. ,. .. :**.::*:


Tlrc cockpit carropy.Notc that Il-28 crewsslill wore lcathel heln-rcls (
and l1yinggoggles.1ti,/irtt urtttitt,)

also unpressurized,incorporating an avionics bay

(with ventral accessl.ratch)and tail unit attachment
.fl1" fittings locatedat frames38.40 and 42A. ll-28s built

eu by Plant No. 64 in Voronezhhave sectionsF2 and

F3 cornbinedinto a singlewhole, so that the fuse-
lage is built in three sectionswith manulacturing
joints at fiames I I and 42.
The aft.fuseluge(section,lN4,
fiames 428 47) is the
tail gunner/radio operator's pressurized cabin
accessedfrom below via a forward-openinghatch
locatedbetweenfiames 42B and 45. The tail turret
is nrountedon fiarne 4'7.The gunner'sstation has a
106 rnm (4.11 in.) br-rlletproofrear window and
68 mm (2.67 in.) bulletproof side windows; addi-
tionally. the gunner and the ammunition boxes of
the Il-K6 turret are protected by 8 mm (0.31 in.)
Wings: Cantilever shoulder-mounted two-spar
structurebuilt in threesections.The centresectionis
integratedinto the fuselageand the detachableone-
piece wing panels carry the engine nacelles.The
Thc tbrward ttrselage of an ll-28U. 1 ti,/inrGontonurchirct wings employ a TsAGI SR-5S(Pl l-l) aerofoilwith
T u e L - 2 8 r ND n r e t . l 2 l

, \l *
L i l -i
n " -\il"K ,\

": riii
-rill:iiil ,,,r
'i, "* l'::,llrrr

':ill'.',, ,,",,,
. ':lli,rr,'lri:li:,

The all l'uselageand tail unit of an Il-28R (c/n 2905),sl"rowingthe gunner"sentry hatch. which doublesas an escape
slide/slipstlearndeflector. l lll j.ttrnu.1.qt,rtt
ju Rtrogntl
il :rur1
122. Ir-yusnrN
lt-28 BeN;tt

a thickness-to-chord ratio of 12"/u.Dthedral 1"12'. Landing gear: Pneumatically retractable tricycle

incidence3o,aspectratio 7.55,taper 2.08. type, with oleo-pneumatic shock absorberson each
The wing box fbrmed by the two spars (attached unit. The aft-retractingnose unit has twin wheels-
to the fuselageat framesNos.23 and27), reinforced ori gi nal l y 600 x 155 mm (23.6 x 6.1 i n.), l ater
skins and multiple ribs and stringers acceptsthe 600 x 180 mm (23.6 x 7.08 i n.) or 600 x 185 mm
aerodynamicalloads. The wing skins are 24 mm (23.6 x 7.28 in.). The main units with single
(0 .0 7 - 0. 15in. ) t hic k . A r th e ti p s ,th e tra i l i n g e d g eis 1,150x 355 mm (45.27x 13.97i n.) w heel sretract
occupiedby ailerons,the starboardaileron incorpo- forward into the lower portions of the engine
rating a trim tab. The rest of the trailing edge is nacelles,the wheelsturning through 90oby meansof
occupiedby two-sectionhydraulicallyactuatedslot- mechanical linkages to lie flat under the jetpipes.
ted flaps inboard and outboard of the engine The nosewheelwell is closedby a forward door seg-
nacelles.The flaps are deflected20" for take-off and ment attachedto the nosegear oleo and two lateral
48'for landing; total flap area is L45 m2(80 sq. ft). doors; eachmainwheelwell is closedby twin lateral
Both the aileronsand the flapsare horn-balancedto doors and a small rear door hinged on the inboard
reducecontrol/actuatorforces. side. All wheel well doors remain oDen when the
Tail unit: Conventional swept tail surfaceswith geari s dow n.
cantilevertailplanes.The fin and the stabilizershave The Il-28R hasa hydraulicallyretractablelanding
a two-sparstructureand are attachedto the fuselage gear 1,260x 390 mm (49.6x 15.35i n.) mai nw heel s
by threepairs of bolts. f-eaturing a hydraulic spin-up system to prolong
The fin is sweptback 41" at quarter-chord(lead- tyre life. Wheel track L4 m (24 ft 3.3 in.), wheelbase
ing-edgesweepis 45'). The stabilizershave33olead- 6.677m (21 ft 10.8i n.). N osew heel tyrepressure4.5
i n g -edges weepand 7 ' d i h e d ra l . T h e ta i l u n i t u ti l i z e s kg/cm' (0.315 psi), mainwheel tyre pressure 7-8
symmetrical NACA aerofbils with a thickness-to- kg/cmr(0.49-0.56psi).
chord ratio of 12 10"/, fbr the vertical tail and Powerplant:Two Klimov VK-lA non-afterburn-
l l -1 0 ' k , lor t he hor i z o n ta l ta i l . S ta b i l i z e rs o a n i s ing turbojets,each rated at 2,100 kgp (5,952 lb st)
1 .3 6 m ( 24 f t 1. 17 i n .), s ta b i l i z e ra re a i s t0 .8 2 m , for take-off and 2,400 kgp (5,291 lb sr) lor
(1 1 6. 34s q. f t ) ; f in ar e ai s 7 .8 mr (8 3 .8 7s q . ft). cruise. The VK-lA has a single-stagecentrifugal

*^ ' :r*FB{

*'', .tq", ,*

This view of Il-28U 42 Blue (c/n 65009706)showshow the Il-28'stwo-pieceannular cowlingsare removedto exposethe
Tue Il-28 rNDpren . 123

compressor,nine straight-flowcombustioncham- pump driven by the port engine,with two hydraulic

bers, a single-stage axial turbine and a subsonic accumulatorsas a back-up.
fixed-areanozzle.The enginefeaturesan accessory Pneumaticsystem:The hydraulic system operates
gearboxfor driving fuel, oil and hydraulicpumps the landing gear (on all versions except the I1-28R),
and electricalequipment.Starting is electricalby bomb bay doors, gunner's station entry hatch, and
meansof an ST2or ST2-48starter. inflatable canopy/hatch seals.In an emergencyit is
The enginesareinstalledin area-ruledunderwing also used to deploy the flaps, operate the wheel
nacellesand fitted with long extensionjetpipes. brakes and jettison the navigator's hatch cover.
Eachengineis mountedon a bearervia four attach- Compressedair is stored in severalsphericalbottles
ment points: two trunnions on the right and left which are charged on the ground and topped up by
sidesof the compressor casingbelowthe axisof the engine bleed air in flight.
engineand two mountinglugsin the upperpart of De-icing system: The wings, tail unit and engine
the engine.The forward part of eachnacellecon- air intakes are de-icedby engine bleed air.
sistsof two annularcowlingsections,the front sec- Armament: The defensive armament comprises
tion incorporatinga paraboliccentrebodycarried four 23 mm (.90 calibre)Nudelman/RichterNR-23
on a straight-through verticalpylon;whentheseare cannon. Two of them, with 100 rpg, are rigidly
detached,the engineis exposedalmostcompletely mounted in the nose, the other two, with 225 rpg,
for maintenance or removal. are carried in the Il-K6 tail turret installed in the
To reducethetake-offrun, two PSR-1500-15 jet- rear fuselageand controlled by the gunner.
assisted take-off (JATO) rockets with a thrust of The normal bomb load of the Il-28 consistsof
1,650kgp (3,637lb st) and a burn time of 13 sec. 1,000kg (2,204Ib) of bombs carried internally.The
could be fitted to the centrefuselagesidesunderthe maximum bomb load is 3,000kg(6,612lb) -
wing roots. FAB-3000HE bomb.
Control system: Manual controls throughout.
One-pieceaileronsfor roll control,one-piece eleva-
tors for pitch control and one-piecerudder for
directionalcontrol; the rudder and elevatorsare The 11-28featuresa comprehensive avionicssuite
horn-balancedto reducecontrol forces.The star- enablingthe aircraft to operateat night and in any
board aileron,rudderand both elevators incorpo- weather.
rate trim tabs.The elevatorsand rudderhavecable a) pilotingand navigationequipment: SD-l VOR
control runs, while the aileronsare controlledby receiver,AP-5 electricautopilot,OSP-48instrument
push-pullrods.The elevatortrim tabsaremechani- landingsystem(comprising an ARK-5 Amur auto-
cally operatedby meansof cables,while the star- matic directionfinder (in a dielectricfairing imme-
board aileronand rudder trim tabs are electrically diately aft of the cockpit), an RV-2 Kristall
actuated. low-altituderadio altimeterand an MRP-48Dyatel
Fuel system:Five self-sealing fuel cells(bladder markerbeaconreceiver),RV-10high-altituderadio
tanks)locatedin the fuselageaheadand aft of the altimeter.
wings(No. l, framesI lA-15; No. 2, framesl5-18; b) communications equipment:RSU-5 (on early
No.3, frames18-21;No.4, frames29-32;No.5, production aircraft) or RSIU-3 Klyon (Maple)
frames 32-36). The cell walls are 3.3-10.8 mm UHF command radio; RSB-5 communications
(0.120.42in.) thick.The total capacityof the fuel radio with antennacablestretchedbetweenfin top
systemis 7,908lit. (l, the standard and antennamast immediatelyaft of the cockpit;
bomberand6,600lir. (1, theIl-28U SPU-5intercom(samolyotnoye peregovornoye oost-
trainer.The Il-28R reconnaissance versionfeatures roystvo).
modifiedinternaltankageand 950 lit. (209 imp. c) flight instrumentation:AGK-47B artificial
gal.)drop tanksat the wingtips,which givesa total horizon,GPK-46 gyro compass,DGMK-3 remote
of 9,5501i1. (2, gyromagnetic compassindicator,KI-ll compass,
Electric system: Two GSR-9000 (later AB-52navigationdisplay,KUS-1200airspeedindi-
STG-12000) starter-generatorsdriven by the cator(ASI, kombineerovunnyy ookazahteI' skorost i),
engines and two l2-4-30 lead-acid batteries VD-17 altimeter,RV-2 radio altimeter indicatot
installedin the fuselage. EUP-46electricturn and bank indicator(elektrich-
Hydraulicsystem:The hydraulicsystemoperates eskiyooka1ahtel' povorota),VAR-75verticalspeed
the flaps,wheelbrakesand,on the Il-28R,the land- indicator (YSI, variometr),UP-2 turn indicator
ing gear actuatorsand mainwheelspin-up drives. (ookazahtel' povorota), MA-095 Mach meter,
Hydraulicpoweris providedby a GNP-l hydraulic AVR-M and AChKhO chronometers. etc.
124. IryusurNh--28Bntcu

T able24. Specifications
Overalllength 17.65m (57ft 10.88in.)
Span 21.45m (70ft 4.48in.)
Height 6.7m (21ft I I .77in.)
Wing area 60.8m'z(653.76 sq.ft)
Empty operatingweight 12,890kg (28,417lb)
Normal grossweight 18,400kg (40,564lb)
Maximum grossweight 21,000kg (46,2961b)
Grossweightin overloadcondition 23,200kg(51,146 lb)
Maximumlandingweight 14,750kg (32,517lb)
Normal bomb load 1,000kg (2,2041b)
Maximumbomb load 3,000kg (6,6121b)
Top speed: at S/L 800km/h(444.4kt)
at 4,500m (14,763ft) 902kmlh(501k0
at 10,000m (32,808ft) 855km/h@75 kt],
Unstickspeed: with an 18,400 kg (40,564Ib) TOW 235km/h ( I 30.5kO
k g (5 1 ,l a 6 l b T
with a 2 3 ,2 0 0 ) Ow 260km/h (144.4kt\
Landingspeed 185km/h(100.0kts)
Rate of climb 15m/sec\2.952ftlmin)
Serviceceiling: with an 18,400kg (40,564Ib)TOW 12,500m (41,010f0
witha23,200kg (5l,la6lb) TOW 10,750m (35,269ft)
Timeto height*: 5,000m (16,404ft) 6.5min
10,000m (32,808
f0 18.0mi n
2,500m (41,010
f0 31.0mi n
Time to serviceceiling: with an 18,400kg (40,564lb) TOW 40.7min
with a 23,200kg (51,1461b)TOW 45.4min
Range** 1,930km (1,198miles)
Endurance** 3 hrs 7 min
T/O run*: concretestrip, unstick speed220 km/h(122.2kt) 875m (2,870ft)
dirt strip,unstickspeed235km/h (130.5k0 1,290m (4,232ft)
T/O run***: concretestrip,unstickspeed260kr/h (144.4k0 1,720m (5,643f0
dirt strip,unstickspeed260km/h (144.4kt) 2,350m (7,709tt)
Landingrun I,170m (3,838
* with an 18,400kg(40,5641b)
** with a 20,750kg(a5,745Ib)TOW and cruisingat 9,700-11,500
m (31,82,t-37,729
*** with a23,200kg (51,1a6Ib)
Tsp Ir--28rNrDnrarr-.125

d) targeting equipment:PSBN-M 360o ground- RescueequipmentIn an emergency, the pilot and

mappingand searchradar,OPB-6SRoptical com- navigator/bomb aimer use upward-firing ejection
putingbomb sight(on radar-equipped aircraftonly; seats.The tail gunner/radiooperator bales out
substitutedby OPB-5son aircraft with the radar downwardsvia the entrancehatch; the hatch cover
removed),PKI collimator gunsight (for the pilot) is actuatedby twin pneumaticrams,doubling as a
and a collimator gunsight for the gunner. The slipstreamdeflector.
revolving radar antenna is coveredby a teardrop Il-28T torpedo-bombers carriedan LAS-3 inflat-
fairing madeof PVC. able rescuedinghy; one was also carried by recon-
e) IFF equipment: Bariy-M (Barium) IFF naissance aircraft and bombers on overwater
transponder in rear fuselage,later replaced by missions.
SRO-2M Khrom (Chromium) IFF transponder Exteriorlighting:port, starboardand tail naviga-
(samolyotnyy rahdiolokatseeonnyy otvetchik) with tion lights; retractablelanding lights in the outer
triple rod aerialsaheadof the nosegearunit. facesof the eneinenacelles.
Appendix I .

AD - air defence. or retractablelauncherand havingfoldaway

ADP - advanceddevelopment project. stabilisingfins to fit into its launchtube.
AFA - aerofotoapparaht - qerial camera. FOD - foreignobjectdamage(damageto a jet
AM - [pushkafAfanas'yevai Makahrovq- enginecausedby ingestionof foreignobjects,
Afanas'yev/Makarov cannon. usuallyon the ground).
AMD - aviatsionnayamina desanteeruyemayq - Free-fallweapons- i.e.,with no provisionfor
air-dropped[anti-shipping]mine. guidanceto the target.
ARK - avtomqticheskiyrahdiokompas- automatic GHQ - GeneralHeadquarters.
directionfinder (ADF) usedin coniunctionwith GKAT - Gosoodahrstvennyy komitetpo
groundbeacons aviatseeonnoy tekhnike- StateCommitteeon
ASW - anti-submarine warfare. AviationHardware(ex/toMAP, which see;
AUW - all-up weight. demotedduring the Khruschchovyearsbut then
AVMF - Aviahtsiyavoyenno-morskovo flota - reinstated).
NavalAir Arm. GSVG = Grooppasovetskikhvoyskv Ghermuhnii-
BAD - bombardeerovochnava aviadiveeziva- Group of SovietForcesin [East]Germany
bomberdivision1= group). (19a5-89);renamedZGY (Zahpadnayagruoppa
BD - bahlochnyyderlhahtel' -beam-type voysk- WesternGroup of Forces,i.e.,
[weapons]rack (asdistinctfrom bomb cassettes Soviet/Russian Armed Forcescontinsentin East
for small-calibrebombs). Germanyand then reunitedGermani in
Bleedair - excess air pipedfrom the compressor r988-94).
sectionof a gasturbineenginefor varioususes HDU - hosedrum unit (a powereddrum installed
(pressurization, de-icingetc.). on a flight refuellingtankerfrom which the fuel
CG - centreof gravity. transferhoseis deployed).
C-in-C- Commander-in-Chief. HF - high frequency(radio).
COIN - counter-insurgency (roleor aircraft),i.e., IFF - identificationfriend-or-foe(usuallyby
for useagainstguerrillas;typically,this applies meansof interrogatorsand transponders
to light fixed-wingattackaircraft,often adapted sendingcodedsignalswheninterrogatedto
from generalaviationdesigns. identifythe aircraftas 'friendly').
DD - DefenceDistrict (voyennyyokroog)- one of IFR (1) - instrumentflying rules.
the largeareasinto which the territorv of the IFR (2) - in-flight refuelling.
SovietUnion (Russia)was(is) dividedwith ILS - instrumentlandingsystem(systemof
respectto the MoD's control of the Armed ground-based and airborneradio navieation
Forces. aidspermittingblind runwayapproacf,'and
DF directionfinder. landingat night or in adverseweather).
DK - distantsionno foop ravIyayemay a] kormovaya IMC - instrumentmeteorological conditions
lst relkovaya oostanovkal - remote-controlledtail (whenthe pilot hasno externalvisual
barbette. references forjudging the aircraft'sattitudeand
ECM - electroniccountermeasures (disruntinsthe altitudeand hasto rely solelyon the flight
operationof enemyradiosand the likei. instruments).
Elevatingangle- angleof verticalmotion of a JATO - jet-assisted take-off(by meansof rocket
trainablegun. boostersto shortenthe take-offrun).
ELINT - electronicintelligence(reconnaissance). KP-14- kislorodnyy preehor- individualoxygen
FBAP frontovoy bombardeerovochnyy aviapolk- breathingapparatus.
tacticalbomberregiment(= wing). KU - kormovaya[strelkovaya]oostanovka- tajl
FFAR - folding-fin aircraft rocket- unguided barbette.
rocketdesignedto be launchedfrom a podded LII - Lyotno-issledovatel'skiy institoot- Flight
Acnoruyvseno Clossany . 127

ResearchInstitute named after Mikhail M. ORAP - otdel'nyy razvedyvatel'nyy aviapolk

Gromov in Zhukovskiy near Moscow. independent reconnaissanceregiment.
LL letayuschchayalaboratoriya - lit. 'flying labo- OSP oboroodovaniyeslepoy posahdki - blind
ratory' (testbed or research/surveyaircraft). landing equipment (ILS).
Localizer (LOC) a radio beacon indicating the PHOTINT - photographic intelligence(reconnais-
landing approach heading (part of the ground sance).
component of an ILS). PO - preobrazovahtel'odnofahanyy- single-phase
Mach buffeting - vibration at high Mach numbers AC converter.
causedby disruption of the airflow over the tail PSBN - prihor slepovo bombometahniya i
surtaces. navigahtsii- blind-bombing and navigation
Mach number the aircraft's speedin relation to device.
the speedof sound (333 m/sec) which is Mach PSR = porokhovaya stsrtovctyq raketa solid-fuel
1 .0 . rocket booster.
MAP - M inisterstvo aviat,seeonnoypromyshlennosti PZL - Panstwowe Zaklady Lotnicze - State
- Ministry of Aircraft Industry. Aircraft Factories concern (Poland).
MMZ No. *t<* - Moskovskiy mashinostroitel'nyy RAT - reaktivnaya aviut.sionnayutorpeda air-
zavod Moscow Machinery Plant No. ***. dropped rocket-propelled torpedo.
Mock-up reviewcommission- a commissioncon- Radar cross-section(RCS) - a measureof how
sisting of customer (in this context, Air Force) visible an aircraft is to ground radars.
and aircraft industry representativeswhich RB (in RB-17 designation) reaktivnyy bom-
inspectsa full-scale mock-up of a new aircraft bardirovsc'hchik- jet bomber.
and reviews the advanced development project RBP - rahdiolokatseeonnyy bombardirovochnyy
in order to eliminateany obvious shortcomings pritsel -'radar bomb sight' (bomb-aiming
before prototype construction begins. radar).
MOP Ministerstvo oboronnoy promyshlennosti - RD - reaktivnyy dvigatel' - jet engine.
Ministry of Defence Industry. RDS - the meaning of this acronym designating
MRP - markernyy rahdiopreeyomnik - marker early Sovietnuclearmunitions (RDS-3. RDS-4
beacon receiver. etc.) is not known but some sourceshave
MTAP - minno-torpednyyaviapolk minelaying deciphered it as reaktivnyy dvigatel' Stshlina -
and torpedo-bomberregiment. 'Stalin'sjet engine'!
MTOW - maximum take-off weieht. REB - rahdioelekttonnayahor'ha, - ECM.
Never-exceed speed(Vxs) - the sfieedlimit deter- RP - rahdiopreetsel-'radio sight' (i.e., fire control
mined for an aircraft due to structural strength radar).
limits; exceedingit may causethe aircraft to rpm - a) revolutions per minute (rotation speedof
break up due to ram air pressure. a shaft etc.);b) rounds per minute (rate of fire
l'lll - neoochno- issledova t el' sk iy i nst it oot - of a machine-gunor an automatic cannon).
researchinstitute (any kind). RTR - rshdiotekhnicheskaya razvedka - ELINT.
NII VVS naoochno-issledovatel'skiy institoot RY - rahdiovysotomer- radio altimeter.
voyenno-vozdooshnykh seel- (Soviet) Air Force SAM - surface-to-airmissile.
ResearchInstitute named after Valeriy p. Self-sealingfuel tanks - flexible tanks with a
Chkalov. special protective rubber layer. The rubber swells
NKPB noc.hnoykollimahtornyy pritsel bom- when it comes into contact with iet fuel if the
bardirovochnyy- collimator bomb sight for tank is punctured by bullets.theieby closingthe
night use. bullet holes and stopping the leak.
NR - ftrz^rfrfra]Noodel'mana i Rikhtera - SP - [sistema]slepoyposahdki blind landing
Nudelman/Richtercannon. system(ILS).
NS - pasikaf Noodel'mana i Soorahnova- SPU - samolyotnyy dahl'nomer distance measur-
Nudelman/Sooranovcannon. ing equipment(DME)
OKB - optyno-konstrooktorskoye byuro - experi- sPU - samolyotnoyeperegovofnoye oostroystvo -
mental design bureau. intercom.
OMTAP - otdel'nyy minno-torpednyy aviapolk - ss (as a suffix to numbers of official documents) -
independent minelaying and torpedo-bomber sovershennosekyetno- toD secret.
reglment. Stateacceptancetrials in ihe Soviet
OPB - opticheskiy pritsel bombardirovochnyy - Union/Russia, trials in order to determine
optical bomb sight. whether a military aircraft is suitable for service.
128. IrvusHrNlr-28 BtrcLr

For civil aircraft, Stateacceptancetrials are UB (2), e.g.,UB-16-57- ooniversahl'nyy blok -

basicallycertification trials. versatile[rocket]pod, i.e., one that can be
TKRD - toorbokompressornyyreaktivnyy dvigatel' carried by various aircraft types.
- lit. 'turbo-compressor jet engine'(an early YA - vozdooshnaya armiya- air army (= air force).
Sovietterm for turbojets). VEB - Volkseigener Betrieb(German)- people's
Traversingangle- angleof sidewaysmotion of a (i.e.,state-owned)enterprisein former East
trainablegun. Germany.
TsAGI - Tsentrahl'nyyaero- i ghidrodinameech- VHF - very high frequency(radio).
eskiy institool - Central Aerodynamics& VMC - visual meteorologicalconditions (more or
HydrodynamicsInstitute namedafter Nikolay lessclear weatherwhen the pilot canjudge the
YegorovichZhukovskiy. aircraft'sattitude and altitude by using external
U (i.e.,U-19) - ooskorttel- booster. visual references).
UB (l), e.g.,UB-2F Chaika- oopravlyayemaya WS - Voyenno-vozdooshnyye seely- Air Force(in
bomba- guidedbomb. this instance.Soviet/Russian Air Force).
. Appendix II
Dnrnn Praxs

The Rolls-Royce first prototypeIl-28.


The secondprototypepoweredby RD-45F engines.

An early-production 11-28;note the redesignedcanopy and the addition of landing lights.

130. IryusHrr.r
L-28 BercLr

A later11-28
bomber;note the relocatedlandinglights.

Above, below and opposite:A three-viewillustration of a typical production Beagle.

Dererr-Pr-eNs. 131
132. Ir-yusHrN
Ir-28 Br,tctt

An Il-28 fitted with non-standardcommunications

equipment;note the additionalaerialsunderthe rearfuselaee.

Another Beaglewith non-standardcommunications

equipmentand a differenranrennaarray.

The Il-28U trainerprototype.

DererrPleNs. 133

A typicalproductionIl-28U.

A prototypeof the I1-28Rreconnaissance

aircraft;note the aerialatop the extremenose.

A productionIl-28R with early-modelcommunications

equipment(notethe wire aerialfrom cockpitto fin).
134. Irvussrulr-28 Brtctn

An updatedIl-28R with a bladeaerialfor the communications


One of the two Il-28Rsdeliverednew to EastGermanyin its latterdaysas EastGermanAir Force180Black or 184
Black.The aircraftis convertedfor target-towingduties;note the lack of radar and cannon.

A PolishAir ForceIl-28 in ECM configurationwith wingtipjammerpods.

Derarr-PreNs. 135

The I1-28RTELINT version.

An Il-28T torpedo-bomber

Presumablythe Il-28N nuclear-capable

136. IlyusurNL-28 Br.tcrt

The Il-28RM prototype.

The experimental
Il-28 bomberwith VK-5E engines;note the non-standardcockpit glazing.

4 Red,the II-2STM prorotype(c/n 50301106).

. 137
Derar Pr-eNs

Scrapviewsof the II-28TM'smodifiednoseglazingand tip tanks.

with a UB-2F Chaikaguidedbomb underthe fuselage.

An 11-28-131

An Il-28Shattackaircraft
138. IryusuruIr-28 Bzrcrc

An II-28BM targettug.

II-28LL l0 Blue(c/n 53005710),

LII's ejectionseattestbedusedin the Vostokmanned-spacecraft

01 Red (cln2402l0l), the Il-28 usedby LII as a tankertrainer.

. 139
Dnran Pr-eNs

The Il-28 refuellingsystemtestbedwith a fixedrefuellingprobe.

The SovietIl-28R usedas a testbedfor a Dooshkinliquid-propellantrocket


DM-ZZI (c/n l4l8) or DM-ZZK (cln 5901207),

one of two Il-28Rsusedas testbedsfor the EastGermanpirna
140. Ir-vusurrr
lt-28 Br,cctt

Avia8-228 6915(cln 569I 5) as originallyusedto testthe walter M-701 turboiet.

The sameairqalt in a laterconfigurationwith the IvchenkoAI-25TL (walter Titan) turbofan.

An Il-20 mailplaneusedby Aeroflot.

DBraruPraus . 141

A standardCzechAir ForceAvia B-228(BA-l I , cln 56775)with a Sirenaradar warning receiver.

An early-productionHarbin H-5.
Pagenumbers in italics refer to illustrations

access panels 119 Czechoslovakian

mutiny 89
Aeroflot 64, 66-67.66.67 Czechoslovakian
production 70,72 seealso Avta9-228;
Afghanistanservice90, 92 AviaCB-228
'aircraft73' (Ttt-14) 15 Czechoslovakian
service34, 65-66,70, 70, 93,9 5-98,
'aircraft77'(Tu-12) 10,I0 95,96
'aircraft8l' 18
airframe I 18 de-i ci ngsystem
Albanianservice92 defects78
Algerian service 92
anti-submarinewarfareaircraft, ll-28PL 49 ECM aircraft,II-28REB(?\ 33,34
Arab-Israeliwars 86, 89 seealsoSix-DayWar ELINT aircraft,II-28RTR 33,J-t
armament 1l-12, 123seealsotail turret,Il-K6 EgyptianAir Force 85-86,99-101, 100,I0l, 102
ball ejectionseattestbed,I|-28LL 56,56, 57, 58,58
attackaircraft,Il-28Sh 49-50,50,85, 89-90 ejectionseats13,24
Avia 8-228:63, 65-66,70, 70,95 ejectiontrainerversion,ll-28u 29,29
Avia CB-228: 96 enginetestbeds
avionics 13, 16, 123,125 Czech63,65-66
avionicstestbeds54-55,55 EastGerman 62,64-65
Il-28H 66
bank, uncommanded13 Soviet 6l-62,62
Berkootov,pilot 88-89 EnglishElectricCanberra70,72
Biafra 87-88 equipment 123,125
Bobrovskiy,Capt.A. A. 85
Bogdanov,Fyodor D. 53 fighterdevelopment8l
bomb.RDS-4nuclear 40 FinnishAir Force 90-91.102
bomb,UB-2F Chaika guided47, 47,49 N H -2:103
bombload 13 N H -3:5J
bomb sight l3-14 NH-4:10-i
bomberversion,basic 22,24 first flight 14-15
Boogaiskiy,V. N. l4 foreignproduction 67-68, 70,72
BrunoBaadeBB 152:62,65 fuelcells 22.24.123
Bulgarianservice92 fuselage13,118-120

CG shift problem 22,24 Gallai, Mark L. 54

CastroRuz,Fidel 84 Germany,East,servicein 82-83,84,98 99,98
ChengChung,Vice-Commander86 Goryaynov,Nikolai O. 59
ChineseAir Arm (PLAAF) 67 68,68, 69, 70, 89, 90, guidedbombcarrier,Il-28-l3l: 47,47,49
Chinesedefections86 87,90 Harbin
Chineseproduction 67 68,68,70 seealsoHarbin BT-5:68,69
cockpit l2-13 H-5: 67-68,68, 69, 70, 92,93
cockpitcanopy 12,18,22,ll9, 120 HI-5:68,69
Cold War 79-85 H Z-5: 68.70
combattactics 79 80, 81-82 HungarianAir Force 33,104,104
constructionnumbersystems20 Hungarianuprising 85
CubanMissileCrisis 83-84 hydrogenbomb test 73 74
INosx . 143

Ilyushin,SergeyVladimirovich8, ll, 14, 11 18Blue 55,55

Ilyushin 42Blue 122
Il-20 (Il-28P)mailplane 64, 66 67, 66, 67 79 Red 80
Il -2 2 :9 -10, 9 85 Red 26
ll-28 Beaglebomber 22,23,25 87 Fred26
08 Blue 8J cockpit 26 27
lQ Rred24, 35 ejectiontrainer version 29,29
12Blue 8J production 28
23 Pred 74 prototype27,28
26Blue 21 Il-2824 weatherreconnaissance aircraft 50
27 Blue 2I l l -46:71,72
30 Red 24 improvements22,24
35 Red 1/J in-flightrefuelling systemtestbeds58 59,59,6l
5l Blue 2-i Indonesian Navy 105-106,105, 106
67 Fred 116 instrumentlandingsystem 13
Il-28-l3l guidedbomb carrier 47, 47,49 Iraqi Air Force 89, 106
Il-28A (If-28N) nuclear-capable bomber 40,40 Irons,Gen. 87
II-28BM target-towingaircraft 50,51, 52,53
I1-28Henginetestbed66 Kampuchea,servicein 90, 106-107
l1-28LLejectionseattestbed 56,56,57,58,58 Karmishin,Capt. D. D. 85
II-28LL radar testbed54-55 Kennedy,PresidentJohn F. 83
Il-28LShlandinggeartestbed60,61,61 Khachemizov, navigator/bomb aimer 88-89
Il-28Mtargetdrone 53,54 Khruschev,Nikita S. 83, 84
Il-28N (ll-28A) nuclear-capable bomber 40, 40 K okki nakiV
, l adi mi rK . l + 15, 16,l 8-19,27,29,32,
Il-28P(ll-20)mailplane64,66-61,66,67 39,72
II-2SPLanti-submarinewarfare airqaft 49 KootyntsevN. M. 89
Il-28R tacticalreconnaissance aircraft 29-30,32,I l, Korea,North, service in 85, 107-108
90- Koubek.Gustav 96. 97.98
avionics32 Krautz, Helmut 65
cameras30 Kurchatov,lgor'Y. 74
fuel system30 Kiiss,I.B. 29
internallayout 118
landinggear 30,32 landinggear 12,122
performance32 landinggeartestbeds60,61,61
performance, take-off(field) 33 Lavochkin La-2008 54,55
Polish -11,109 Li Hsien-pin 86
prototype29,30 Li Tsai-wang86
I|-28REB(?)ECM aircraft 33,34 Liang Pao-sheng86
Il-28RM experimental tacticalreconnaissance aircraft
4 1 ,4 1 , 42, 43, 45 maidenflight 14-15
II-28RTRELINT aircraft 33,-l-l mailplane,Il-20(Il-28P)64,66-67,66,67
Il-28Stacticalbomberproject 4l manufacturingchanges24
Il-28Shattackaircraft 49-50.50.85. 89-90 Mewes,Klaus-Hermann65
I1-28Ttorpedo-bomber 36 39,36,37,105 Mikoyan MiG-19 Farmer-A 58 59, 81
fuel system37 Mikoyan MiG-19 Farmer-C8l
ordnanceload 37. 39 Mikoyan MiG-19PFarmer-B28
prototype37,39 missiletargetingsystemsresearchaircraft 55
specifications38 missiles53
Il-28T torpedo-bomber conversion39-40 modifications22,24
I1-28TMexperimental torpedo-bomber4647, 46, 48 Moroccanservice107
l1-28UMascoltrainer 25-29,25, 28, 79,96,106,110, MoscowMay Day parade,1952:76,78
120 Myasishchchev, Vladimir Mikhailovich l0
03 Blue 11J
03 Red 115 NATO codenamegiven 21
144. IryusnrNlr-28 Bt,qcLr

Nasser,PresidentGamalAbdel 85 86. g7. gg.99 stabilityl5

navigator'sstationglazing ll9, I Ig Stalin,Josef 17,78
Nigeria,servicein 87-88,107,107 Stalin,VasiliyI. 76,78
nuclearbomb test 73 Suezcrisis 85-86
nucfear-capable bomber,Il-28N (ll-28A) 40"40 survivors9l
nuclearexercise,tactical 74,76 SyrianAir Force I 17
Ojukwu,Col 87
OperationKadesh 86 tacticalbomber,experimental, with VK-5 engines44,
OperationMangoosta(Mongoose)83-g4 45
OperationMusketeer86 tacticalbomberproject,Il-28S 41
tacticalcodes l5
Pakistaniservice108 tail turret, Il-K6 ball ll-12, 19,82
parachutetestbeds65-66 tai l uni t 12,13,121,122
parachutingworld recordattempts96_9g Taiwan'sclaim of independence 85, 86
performancecomparison 17, 32 seea/sotake-off(held) Taiwanese service I l7
performance take-offperformance15,33
PolishAir Force-11,66, 108,108,l0g, ltLlt2. I I0 targetdrone,Il-28M 53,54
powerplants targetdrones,PM-6G/R 52
Klimov RD-45F 16 target-towingaircraft
Kl i m ovV K - l: l7- 18.7 8 EastGermanversion 52-53
Klimov VK-IA 122*123,122 performance comparisons52
Klimov YK-5: 41,44,45 Romanianversion 53
Rolls-Royce Nene(Klimov RD-45) l2 Sovietversions (I|-28BM) 50,51,52,53
pre-production Il-28:18-19,18.l9 Titov, Gherman 58
production,total 70 torpedo,RAT-52rocket-propelled34, 35,36
productioncommences19,21.22 torpedo-bomber conversion34,35, 36 seealsoIlyushin
prototypes\4-15,14, 16 II-28T/TM
Puhlmann,Gerhard 65 trainer seeIlyushin Il-281JMascot
training 79-81
radar l8 Tupolev,Andrey N. 15-16
radar testbed,I|-28LL 5+55 Tupolev
radiationreconnaissance aircraft 34 Tu-12('aircraft77') 10,I0
Razumov,R. A. 54-55 Tu-14:15,16,17
reconnaissance aircraft seeIlyushinIl-28R; Ilyushin Tu-l4T (Tu-89)16
II-28RM Tu-77(Tu-12) 10,I0
reliability 78 Tu-81(Tu-14)16
RomanianAir Force 53. I l2-l l3 Tu-89(Tu-14T)16
tyres 16
serialnumbers 15
Sidki,Air Vice-MarshalMohammed 100 undercarriage12,122
Six-DayWar 88
ski landinggeartestbed, Il-28LSh60,61,6I Vietnam,servicein 88-89,l17
Somalianservice113 Vinogradov,A. P. 27, 29,39
Sorokin,N. D. 1+15, l8-19, 39 Vostokre-entryvehicleejectionseat 56, 56,52,59,
S o vi eAi
t r F or c e( V V S ) 1 0 ,7 3 ,8 5 l,l 3 1 1 5 58
63rdBAD 79 80,81
647thSpecialCompositeSupportAir Regiment34 war service85-91
flying schools78, 85 weatherreconnaissance
aircraft, ll-282| 50
target-towingflights/squadrons g5 w i ngs 12,13,120,122
SovietArmy motorcyclists24
SovietNavalAir Arm (AVMF) 28-29,j6, 27.8+85 Yartsev.Lt. (sg)V. Ye. 85
specifications124 Yemen,servicein 87, Ilj
speeds, top l9 Yerofeyev,B. A. 27, 29