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August

ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE


21, 2009

Passive Voice
Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known,
however, who or what is performing the action.
Example: My bike was stolen.
In the example above, the focus is on the fact that my bike was stolen. I do not know,
however, who did it.
Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following
example shows:
Example: A mistake was made.
In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone
(e.g. You have made a mistake.).
Sometimes passive voice also used to express “not in purpose” things.
Form of Passive
Subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle (3rd column of irregular verbs)
Example: A letter was written.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:
• the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
• the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
• the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is
dropped)

Tense Subject Verb Object


Simple Present Active: Rita writes a letter.
Passive: A letter is written by Rita.
Simple Past Active: Rita wrote a letter.
Passive: A letter was written by Rita.
Present Perfect Active: Rita has written a letter.
Passive: A letter has been written by Rita.
Future I Active: Rita will write a letter.
Passive: A letter will be written by Rita.
MODAL Active: Rita can write a letter.
Passive: A letter can be written by Rita.
Modal Perfect Active Rita Should Have Written a letter
Passive A letter Should have been written By Rita
Present Active: Rita is writing a letter.
Progressive Passive: A letter is being written by Rita.
Past Progressive Active: Rita was writing a letter.

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August
ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

Passive: A letter was being written by Rita.


Past Perfect Active: Rita had written a letter.
Passive: A letter had been written by Rita.
Future II Active: Rita will have written a letter.
Passive: A letter will have been written by Rita.
Conditional I Active: Rita would write a letter.
Passive: A letter would be written by Rita.
Conditional II Active: Rita would have written a letter.
Passive: A letter would have been written by Rita.

Passive Sentences with Two Objects


Rewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice means that one of the
two objects becomes the subject, the other one remains an object. Which object to transform
into a subject depends on what you want to put the focus on.

Subject Verb Object 1 Object 2


Active: Rita wrote a letter to me.
Passive: A letter was written to me by Rita.
Passive: I was written a letter by Rita.

As you can see in the examples, adding by Rita does not sound very elegant. That’s why it is
usually dropped.

Personal and Impersonal Passive


Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the
subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form
a personal passive.
Example: They build houses. – Houses are built.
Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive
sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you
want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction –
therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive.
Example: he says – it is said
Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g.
German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception
(e. g. say, think, know).
Example: They say that women live longer than men.
– It is said that women live longer than men.

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ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common.


Example: They say that women live longer than men.
– Women are said to live longer than men.
The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence;
the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an
infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped).
Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object
of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence.

Dari keterangan diatas dapat disimpulkan bahwa ara untuk mengubah kalimat aktif
menjadi kalimt pasif adlah sebagai berikut :
1. Letakkan objek dari kalimat aktif diawal kalimat pasif (obyek kalimat aktif menjadi
subjek kalimat pasif) .
2. Jika dalam kalimat aktif tidak ada auxiliary (to be), maka tambahkanlah “to be” yang
sesuai dengan subjek dalam kalimat pasif tersebut, dan yang sesuai dengan bentuk
tensesnya.
3. Letakkan kata kerja utama dari kalimat aktif sesudah auxiliary (to be) dalam bentuk
past participle.
4. Letakkanlah preposition By sesudah kata kerja utama dalam kalimat pasif sebelum
subjek. (dalam keadaan tertentu By dapat dihilangkan karena sudah dianggap sudah
emngerti maksudnya).
Pemakain Be dalam kalimat pasif :
1. Present Tense : am, is, are
2. Present Continous Tense : am, is, are + being
3. Present Perfect Tense : has, Have + been
4. Past Tense : was, were
5. Past Perfect Tense : had been
6. Past Continous Tense : was, were + being
7. Future Tense : shall, will + be
8. Future Perfect Tense : shall/will + have been
9. Modal : modal + be
10. Modal +Perfect : modal + have been

Exercise 1

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ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

Change the underlined words with the correct tenses (active or passive voice).

Hadrian's Wall

1. In the year 122 AD, the Roman Emperor Hadrian visit (visited) his
provinces in Britain.

2. On his visit, the Roman soldiers tell (told) him that Pictish tribes from

Britain's north attack (had attacked) them.

3. So Hadrian give (gave) the order to build a protective wall across one of
the narrowest parts of the country.

4. After 6 years of hard work, the Wall finish (was finished) in 128.

5. It is (was) 117 kilometres long and about 4 metres high.

6. The Wall guard (was guarded) by 15,000 Roman soldiers.

7. Every 8 kilometres there is (was) a large fort in which up to 1,000 soldiers

find (found) shelter.

8. The soldiers watch (watched) over the frontier to the north and check

(checked) the people who want (wanted) to enter or leave


Roman Britain.

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ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

9. In order to pass through the Wall, people have to (had to) go to one of the

small forts that serve (served) as gateways.

10. Those forts call (were called) milecastles because the distance from one

fort to another is (was) one Roman mile (about 1,500 metres).

11. Between the milecastles there is (were) two turrets from which the

soldiers guard (guarded) the Wall.

12. If the Wall attack (was attacked) by enemies, the soldiers at the turrets run

(ran) to the nearest milecastle for help or lit a fire that see

(could be seen) by the soldiers in the milecastle.


13. In 383 Hadrian's Wall abonden (was abandoned)

14. Today Hadrian's Wall was (is) the most popular tourist attraction in
northern England.

15. In 1987, it become (became) a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Exercise 2
Highlight Tenses That Used In The Text
Simple Past (Passive) - action or situation in the past (emphasises what was done)

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August
ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

To say who actually invented the sport of snowboarding would be impossible because
people have always loved to slide down a snow-covered hill. Soaring through the snow on
some kind of seat or board is nothing new. The ways to enjoy the snow are numerous, and
people have devised ways to turn garbage can lids and cardboard into ‘snow boards’ to enjoy
an afternoon frolic outdoors. The various ways to glide through snow have become more
sophisticated and have evolved into using polished boards or skis in much the same manner
as a surfboarder would ride a wave.
There have been many attempts at developing a modern snowboard. In 1965, the
‘Snurfer’ (a word play on ‘snow’ and ‘surfer’) was developed as a child’s toy. Two skis were
bound together and a rope was placed at the front end to afford control and stability. Over
500,000 ‘Snurfers’ were sold in 1966 but they were never seen as more than a child's
plaything even though organized competitions began to take place. The year 1969 brought a
slightly more sophisticated snowboard based on the principles of skiing combined with
surfboard styling.
The ‘Flying Yellow Banana’ was developed in 1977. This was nothing more than a
plastic shell covered with a top surface like that of a skateboard, but at the time it was
considered a major advance in the little known sport of snowboarding. The first national
snowboard race was held in the area outside Woodstock and was known as ‘The Suicide Six.’
The race consisted of a steep downhill run called The Face in which the main goal was
probably mere survival.
Snowboarding continued to increase in popularity over the next several years. In 1985
the first magazine dedicated specifically to snowboarding hit the news stands with huge
success and furthered the popularity of this exciting sport. Hoards of fans began to organize
regional events and pretty soon snowboarding events were held in all parts of the world. In
the year 1994 snowboarding was finally declared an Olympic event, much to the delight of
fans. The not-so-new sport of snowboarding was finally recognized and meant a huge victory
for serious snowboarders across the globe.

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August
ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

A collection of snowboarding tricks and stunts was released on video in 1996. Filmed
in Alaska, the breathtaking beauty and captivating snowboarding techniques featured in the
video exposed snowboarding to a new generation, and by 1998 snowboarding constituted
almost 50% of all winter activity. Today, nearly all ski resorts accept snowboarders. There
are still a few holding on to the past but this is unlikely to continue as the number of
snowboarders continually increases.
From the first crudely built snowboards to the advanced and specialized models
available today, snowboarders have carried a ‘bad boy’ image. This rebel reputation is still
common today in spite of the fact that snowboarding appeals to men, women, and children of
all nationalities and social groups. At most major ski resorts you can find snowboarding gear,
information, and lessons. Olympic and world wide snowboarding events are among the most
popular of winter sports and the competition to be the best is fierce.
Retailers nation wide and around the world carry many types of snowboards, and the
choice in specially made snowboarding gear is immense. Snowboarders have participated in
the X Games and even charity events such as Boarding for Breast Cancer. From its early
meager beginnings snowboarding has progressed into a fully recognized sport, and large
numbers of people are turning to snowboarding for adventure, fun, and professional
recognition.

Simple Present - Situation Now

To say who actually invented the sport of snowboarding would be impossible because
people have always loved to slide down a snow-covered hill. Soaring through the snow on
some kind of seat or board is nothing new. The ways to enjoy the snow are numerous, and
people have devised ways to turn garbage can lids and cardboard into ‘snow boards’ to enjoy
an afternoon frolic outdoors. The various ways to glide through snow have become more
sophisticated and have evolved into using polished boards or skis in much the same manner
as a surfboarder would ride a wave.
There have been many attempts at developing a modern snowboard. In 1965, the
‘Snurfer’ (a word play on ‘snow’ and ‘surfer’) was developed as a child’s toy. Two skis were
bound together and a rope was placed at the front end to afford control and stability. Over
500,000 ‘Snurfers’ were sold in 1966 but they were never seen as more than a child's
plaything even though organized competitions began to take place. The year 1969 brought a
slightly more sophisticated snowboard based on the principles of skiing combined with
surfboard styling.

7 Property Of JW Yulianto
August
ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

The ‘Flying Yellow Banana’ was developed in 1977. This was nothing more than a
plastic shell covered with a top surface like that of a skateboard, but at the time it was
considered a major advance in the little known sport of snowboarding. The first national
snowboard race was held in the area outside Woodstock and was known as ‘The Suicide Six.’
The race consisted of a steep downhill run called The Face in which the main goal was
probably mere survival.
Snowboarding continued to increase in popularity over the next several years. In 1985
the first magazine dedicated specifically to snowboarding hit the news stands with huge
success and furthered the popularity of this exciting sport. Hoards of fans began to organize
regional events and pretty soon snowboarding events were held in all parts of the world. In
the year 1994 snowboarding was finally declared an Olympic event, much to the delight of
fans. The not-so-new sport of snowboarding was finally recognized and meant a huge victory
for serious snowboarders across the globe.
A collection of snowboarding tricks and stunts was released on video in 1996. Filmed
in Alaska, the breathtaking beauty and captivating snowboarding techniques featured in the
video exposed snowboarding to a new generation, and by 1998 snowboarding constituted
almost 50% of all winter activity. Today, nearly all ski resorts accept snowboarders. There
are still a few holding on to the past but this is unlikely to continue as the number of
snowboarders continually increases.
From the first crudely built snowboards to the advanced and specialized models
available today, snowboarders have carried a ‘bad boy’ image. This rebel reputation is still
common today in spite of the fact that snowboarding appeals to men, women, and children of
all nationalities and social groups. At most major ski resorts you can find snowboarding gear,
information, and lessons. Olympic and world wide snowboarding events are among the most
popular of winter sports and the competition to be the best is fierce.
Retailers nation wide and around the world carry many types of snowboards, and the
choice in specially made snowboarding gear is immense. Snowboarders have participated in
the X Games and even charity events such as Boarding for Breast Cancer. From its early
meager beginnings snowboarding has progressed into a fully recognized sport, and large
numbers of people are turning to snowboarding for adventure, fun, and professional
recognition.

Present Perfect - action or situation over a period of time (from the past to the present)

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August
ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

To say who actually invented the sport of snowboarding would be impossible because
people have always loved to slide down a snow-covered hill. Soaring through the snow on
some kind of seat or board is nothing new. The ways to enjoy the snow are numerous, and
people have devised ways to turn garbage can lids and cardboard into ‘snow boards’ to enjoy
an afternoon frolic outdoors. The various ways to glide through snow have become more
sophisticated and have evolved into using polished boards or skis in much the same manner
as a surfboarder would ride a wave.
There have been many attempts at developing a modern snowboard. In 1965, the
‘Snurfer’ (a word play on ‘snow’ and ‘surfer’) was developed as a child’s toy. Two skis were
bound together and a rope was placed at the front end to afford control and stability. Over
500,000 ‘Snurfers’ were sold in 1966 but they were never seen as more than a child's
plaything even though organized competitions began to take place. The year 1969 brought a
slightly more sophisticated snowboard based on the principles of skiing combined with
surfboard styling.
The ‘Flying Yellow Banana’ was developed in 1977. This was nothing more than a
plastic shell covered with a top surface like that of a skateboard, but at the time it was
considered a major advance in the little known sport of snowboarding. The first national
snowboard race was held in the area outside Woodstock and was known as ‘The Suicide Six.’
The race consisted of a steep downhill run called The Face in which the main goal was
probably mere survival.
Snowboarding continued to increase in popularity over the next several years. In 1985
the first magazine dedicated specifically to snowboarding hit the news stands with huge
success and furthered the popularity of this exciting sport. Hoards of fans began to organize
regional events and pretty soon snowboarding events were held in all parts of the world. In
the year 1994 snowboarding was finally declared an Olympic event, much to the delight of
fans. The not-so-new sport of snowboarding was finally recognized and meant a huge victory
for serious snowboarders across the globe.
A collection of snowboarding tricks and stunts was released on video in 1996. Filmed
in Alaska, the breathtaking beauty and captivating snowboarding techniques featured in the
video exposed snowboarding to a new generation, and by 1998 snowboarding constituted
almost 50% of all winter activity. Today, nearly all ski resorts accept snowboarders. There
are still a few holding on to the past but this is unlikely to continue as the number of
snowboarders continually increases.
From the first crudely built snowboards to the advanced and specialized models
available today, snowboarders have carried a ‘bad boy’ image. This rebel reputation is still

9 Property Of JW Yulianto
August
ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

common today in spite of the fact that snowboarding appeals to men, women, and children of
all nationalities and social groups. At most major ski resorts you can find snowboarding gear,
information, and lessons. Olympic and world wide snowboarding events are among the most
popular of winter sports and the competition to be the best is fierce.
Retailers nation wide and around the world carry many types of snowboards, and the
choice in specially made snowboarding gear is immense. Snowboarders have participated in
the X Games and even charity events such as Boarding for Breast Cancer. From its early
meager beginnings snowboarding has progressed into a fully recognized sport, and large
numbers of people are turning to snowboarding for adventure, fun, and professional
recognition.

Simple Past (Aktive) - Action or Situation In The Past (emphasises who did something)

To say who actually invented the sport of snowboarding would be impossible because
people have always loved to slide down a snow-covered hill. Soaring through the snow on
some kind of seat or board is nothing new. The ways to enjoy the snow are numerous, and
people have devised ways to turn garbage can lids and cardboard into ‘snow boards’ to enjoy
an afternoon frolic outdoors. The various ways to glide through snow have become more
sophisticated and have evolved into using polished boards or skis in much the same manner
as a surfboarder would ride a wave.
There have been many attempts at developing a modern snowboard. In 1965, the
‘Snurfer’ (a word play on ‘snow’ and ‘surfer’) was developed as a child’s toy. Two skis were
bound together and a rope was placed at the front end to afford control and stability. Over
500,000 ‘Snurfers’ were sold in 1966 but they were never seen as more than a child's
plaything even though organized competitions began to take place. The year 1969 brought a
slightly more sophisticated snowboard based on the principles of skiing combined with
surfboard styling.
The ‘Flying Yellow Banana’ was developed in 1977. This was nothing more than a
plastic shell covered with a top surface like that of a skateboard, but at the time it was
considered a major advance in the little known sport of snowboarding. The first national
snowboard race was held in the area outside Woodstock and was known as ‘The Suicide Six.’
The race consisted of a steep downhill run called The Face in which the main goal was
probably mere survival.
Snowboarding continued to increase in popularity over the next several years. In 1985
the first magazine dedicated specifically to snowboarding hit the news stands with huge

10 Property Of JW Yulianto
August
ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

success and furthered the popularity of this exciting sport. Hoards of fans began to organize
regional events and pretty soon snowboarding events were held in all parts of the world. In
the year 1994 snowboarding was finally declared an Olympic event, much to the delight of
fans. The not-so-new sport of snowboarding was finally recognized and meant a huge victory
for serious snowboarders across the globe.
A collection of snowboarding tricks and stunts was released on video in 1996. Filmed
in Alaska, the breathtaking beauty and captivating snowboarding techniques featured in the
video exposed snowboarding to a new generation, and by 1998 snowboarding constituted
almost 50% of all winter activity. Today, nearly all ski resorts accept snowboarders. There
are still a few holding on to the past but this is unlikely to continue as the number of
snowboarders continually increases.
From the first crudely built snowboards to the advanced and specialized models
available today, snowboarders have carried a ‘bad boy’ image. This rebel reputation is still
common today in spite of the fact that snowboarding appeals to men, women, and children of
all nationalities and social groups. At most major ski resorts you can find snowboarding gear,
information, and lessons. Olympic and world wide snowboarding events are among the most
popular of winter sports and the competition to be the best is fierce.
Retailers nation wide and around the world carry many types of snowboards, and the
choice in specially made snowboarding gear is immense. Snowboarders have participated in
the X Games and even charity events such as Boarding for Breast Cancer. From its early
meager beginnings snowboarding has progressed into a fully recognized sport, and large
numbers of people are turning to snowboarding for adventure, fun, and professional
recognition.

Exercise 3
Change The Sentences Below Into Passive Voice
1. He gave me a book
2. She is bringing them a parcel
3. Who could have written two books ?
4. When could he have written two books ?
5. Somebody should have waited Amir this morning
6. What will Ahmad write ?
7. Who is writing a letter ?
8. Who has beaten ali ?

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ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

Exercise 4
Translate The Sentences Below Into Passive Voice
1. Saya terbangunkan oleh suara gaduh itu
2. Saya heran melihat dia
3. Dia tertarik dalam bahasa asing
4. Kita tidak terbiasa terhadap musim dingin
5. Saya telah membeli sebuah buku baru untuk dibaca
6. Dia mempunyai keluarga besar untuk dibantu
7. Buku ini mudah untuk dipahami

Kunci Jawaban Exercise 3


1. a. I was given abook by him
b. a book was given t me by him
2. a. They were being brought a parce by her
b. A parcel was being brought to them by her
3. Who could two books have been written by ?
4. When could two books have been written by him ?
5. Amir should have been waited this morning
6. What will be written by Ahmad ?
7. Who is a letter being written by ?
8. Who has Ali been beaten by ?

Kunci Jawaban Exercise 4


1. I was waked up by that noise
2. I was surprised to see him
3. He was interested in foreign lenguage
4. We wasn’t accustomed to cold weather
5. I have bought a new book to read
6. He has a large family to support
7. This book is easy to understand

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ACTIVE PASSIVE THEORY AND EXERCISE
21, 2009

Note : All of the exercise already answered. The highlighted word is the answer. For Exercise
2 the highlighted words don’t need to be changed or replaced because the participant will be
asked to find it and give an underline and for exercise 1 can be change into “fill in the blank”
question.

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