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//PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT SINGLY LINKED LIST\\

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

#include<alloc.h>

#include<stdlib.h>

struct node

int data;

struct node *link;

};

void append(struct node **,int);

void add_at_begin(struct node **,int);

void del(struct node **,int);

void in_middle(struct node **,int,int);

int count(struct node *);

void display(struct node *);

void main()

int num,loc;

char choice;

struct node *p;


p=NULL;

do

clrscr();

printf("PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT SINGLY LINKED LIST\n");

printf("—————————————\n");

printf("\n 1. Create/appending the list");

printf("\n 2. Insert node at begining");

printf("\n 3. Insert node in middle");

printf("\n 4. Deleting a node");

printf("\n 5. Counting the no. of nodes");

printf("\n 6. Displaying the list");

printf("\n 7. Exit");

oper:

gotoxy(1,15);printf(" ");

gotoxy(1,11);printf("\n Enter your choice : ");

choice=getch();

switch(choice)

char ans;

case ’1′:

do

{
printf("Enter any number : ");

scanf("%d",&num);

append(&p,num);

printf("Entr more (y/n) : ");

fflush(stdin);

ans=getchar();

}while(ans!=’n');

break;

case ’2′:

printf("Enter the data : ");

scanf("%d",&num);

add_at_begin(&p,num);

break;

case ’3′:

printf("\n Enter the data position : ");

scanf("%d",&loc);

printf("\n Enter the data : ");

scanf("%d",&num);

in_middle(&p,loc,num);

break;

case ’4′:

printf("\n Enter the data u want to delete : ");

scanf("%d",&num);
del(&p,num);

break;

case ’5′:

printf("\n The no. of nodes are %d",count(p));

getch();

break;

case ’6′:

display(p);

getch();

break;

case ’7′:

printf("\n Quiting…….");

getch();

exit(0);

break;

default:

gotoxy(1,15);printf("Invalid choice please Enter correct choice");

getch();

goto oper;

}while(choice!=7);

void append(struct node **q,int num)


{

struct node *temp,*r;

temp=*q;

if(*q==NULL)

temp=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node));

temp->data=num;

temp->link=NULL;

*q=temp;

else

temp=*q;

while(temp->link!=NULL)

temp=temp->link;

r=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node));

r->data=num;

r->link=NULL;

temp->link=r;

}
void display(struct node *q)

if(q==NULL)

printf("\nEmpty link list can’t display the data");

getch();

goto last;

while(q!=NULL)

printf("\n%d",q->data);

q=q->link;

last:

int count(struct node *q)

int c=0;

if(q==NULL)

printf("Empty link list \n");

getch();

goto last;
}

while(q!=NULL)

c++;

q=q->link;

last:

return c;

void add_at_begin(struct node **q,int num)

struct node *temp;

if(*q==NULL)

printf("Link list is empty can’t insert");

getch();

goto last;

else

temp=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node));

temp->data=num;

temp->link=*q;
*q=temp;

last:

getch();

void in_middle(struct node **q,int loc,int num)

struct node *temp,*n;

int c=1,flag=0;

temp=*q;

if(*q==NULL)

printf("\nLink List is empty can’t insert");

getch();

goto last;

else

while(temp!=NULL)

if(c==loc)

n=(struct node *)malloc(sizeof(struct node));

n->data=num;
n->link=temp->link;

temp->link=n;

flag=1;

c++;

temp=temp->link;

if(flag==0)

printf("\nNode specified doesn’t Exist can’t Enter the Data");

getch();

else

printf("Data Inserted");

getch();

last:

getch();

void del(struct node **q,int num)

if(*q==NULL)
{

printf("\n Empty linked list cant delete the data");

getch();

goto last;

else

struct node *old,*temp;

int flag=0;

temp=*q;

while(temp!=NULL)

if(temp->data==num)

if(temp==*q)

*q=temp->link;

else

old->link=temp->link;

free(temp);

flag=1;

else

{
old=temp;

temp=temp->link;

if(flag==0)

printf("\n Data not found…");

else

printf("\n Data deleted…Tap a key to continue");

getch();

last:

getch();

Sample output:

PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT SINGLY LINKED LIST

—————————————

1. Create/appending the list

2. Insert node at beginning

3. Insert node in middle

4. Deleting a node

5. Counting the no. of nodes

6. Displaying the list

7. Exit
Enter your choice : Enter any number : 12

Entr more (y/n) : y

Enter any number : 23

Entr more (y/n) : y

Enter any number : 34

Enter more (y/n) :n

Enter your choice :6

12

23

34

Enter your choice :5

The no. of nodes are 3

Enter your choice :4

Enter the data u want to delete : 25

Data not found…

Enter your choice :3

Enter the data position : 2

Enter the data : 00

Data Inserted

Enter your choice :6

12

23

0
34

Enter your choice :7


Quiting…….

QUEUE IMPLEMENTATION USING ARRAYS

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

void create(void);

void display(void);

void queue_in(void);

void queue_out(void);

void front_rear(void);

int front,rear;

int q[25];

void create()

int n;

printf("Enter the number of elements in the queue \n");

scanf("%d",&n);

printf("Enter the elements \n");

for(rear=0;rear<n;rear++)

scanf("%d",&q[rear]);

}
front=0;

void display()

if(rear!=0)

printf("The elements in queue \n");

for(front=0;front<rear;front++)

printf("%d",q[front]);

front=0;

else if(rear==0)

printf("The queue is empty \n");

else if(rear==25)

printf("The queue is full \n");

void front_rear()

if(rear!=0)

printf("the front element is : %d \n",q[front]);


printf("the rear element is : %d \n",q[rear-1]);

else

printf("Queue is empty \n");

void queue_in()

if(rear<25)

printf("Enter the elements \n");

scanf("%d",&q[rear]);

++rear;

else

printf("Queue is full \n");

void queue_out()

if(rear!=0)

printf("The deleted element is : %d \n ",q[front]);

for(front=0;front<rear-1;++front)

q[front]=q[front+1];
rear–;

front=0;

int main()

int ch=0;

clrscr();

printf("QUEUE MANIPULATION \n");

printf("creation \n");

create();

display();

getch();

do

clrscr();

printf("Queue operations \n");

printf("—————- \n");

printf("1. Inserting in to the Queue \n");

printf("2. Deletion from queue \n");

printf("3. Front and rear element \n");

printf("4. Displaying the queue \n");

printf("5. Exit \n");


printf("Enter your choice \n");

scanf("%d\n",&ch);

switch(ch)

case 1 :queue_in();

display();

break;

case 2 :queue_out();

display();

break;

case 3 :front_rear();

break;

case 4 :display();

break;

case 5 :printf("END \n");

break;

default: printf("Invalid Entry \n");

getch();

while(ch!=5);

return (0);

}
Sample output:

QUEUE MANIPULATION

Creation

Enter the number of elements in the queue

Enter the elements

The elements in queue

1234

Queue operations

—————-

1. Inserting in to the Queue

2. Deletion from queue

3. Front and rear element

4. Displaying the queue

5. Exit

Enter your choice

Enter the elements


The elements in queue

12345

Enter your choice

the front element is : 1

the rear element is : 5

Enter your choice

The elements in queue

12345

Enter your choice

The deleted element is: 1

The elements in queue

2345

Enter your choice

END

QUEUE USING LINKED LIST

#include<stdio.h>

typedef struct node

{
int data;

struct node*link;

}queue;

queue*getnode();

void releasenode(queue*p);

int isfull();

int isempty(queue*front);

void enqueue(queue**frontptr,queue**rearptr,int value);

void dequeue(queue**frontptr,queue**rearptr,int*value);

void peek(queue*front,int*value);

void view(queue*front);

int size(queue*front);

void displaymenu(void);

void main()

queue*front=NULL,*rear=NULL;

int choice,item;

displaymenu();

while(1)

printf("\n?");

scanf("%d",&choice);

switch(choice)
{

case 1:

if(isfull())

printf("\nQueue overflow on ENQUEUE");

else

printf("\nEnter the element:");

fflush(stdin);

scanf("%d",&item);

enqueue(&front,&rear,item);

break;

case 2:

if(isempty(front))

printf("\n Queue underflow on DEQUEUE");

else

dequeue(&front,&rear,&item);

printf("\nThe dequeued value is %d",item);

break;

case 3:

if(!isempty(front))
{

peek(front,&item);

printf("\nThe front value is %d",item);

else

printf("\nQueue is empty");

break;

case 4:

printf("\nCount of queue elements=%d",size(front));

break;

case 5:

view(front);

break;

default:

printf("\nEnd of run of your program..");

exit(0);

void displaymenu()

printf("\nRepresentation of queue using linked list…");

printf("\n\t1.enqueue");
printf("\n\t2.dequeue");

printf("\n\t3.peek");

printf("\n\t4.size");

printf("\n\t5.view");

printf("\n\t6.exit");

void releasenode(queue*p)

free(p);

queue*getnode()

int size;

queue*newnode;

size=sizeof(queue);

newnode=(queue*)malloc(size);

return(newnode);

int isempty(queue*front)

if(front==NULL)

return 1;

else
return 0;

int isfull()

queue*newnode;

newnode=getnode();

if(newnode==NULL)

return 1;

releasenode(newnode);

return 0;

void enqueue(queue**frontptr,queue**rearptr,int value)

queue*newnode;

if(isfull())

printf("\nMemory not available");

return;

newnode=getnode();

newnode->data=value;

newnode->link=NULL;

if(*frontptr==NULL)
*frontptr=newnode;

else

(*rearptr)->link=newnode;

*rearptr=newnode;

void dequeue(queue**frontptr,queue**rearptr,int*value)

queue*tempnode;

if(isempty(*frontptr))

return;

tempnode=*frontptr;

*frontptr=(*frontptr)->link;

if(*frontptr==NULL)

*rearptr=NULL;

*value=tempnode->data;

releasenode(tempnode);

void peek(queue*front,int*value)

if(isempty(front))

printf("\nThe queue is empty!!!");

return;
}

*value=front->data;

void view(queue*front)

if(isempty(front))

printf("\nThe queue is empty!!!");

return;

printf("\nQueue contains…front->");

while(front!=NULL)

printf("%d–>",front->data);

front=front->link;

printf("rear/n");

int size(queue*front)

int count=0;

if(front==NULL)

return count;
for(;front!=NULL;)

count++;

front=front->link;

return count;

Sample output:

Representation of queue using linked list..

1. enqueue

2. dequeue

3. peek

4. size

5. view

6. exit

?2

Queue underflow on DEQUEUE

?3

Queue is empty

?4

Count of queue elements=0

?5

The queue is empty!!!


?1

Enter the element:11

?1

Enter the element:22

?1

Enter the element:33

?5

Queue contains…front->11–>22–>33–>rear/n

?4

Count of queue elements=3

?2

The dequeued value is 11

?6

//STACK IMPLEMENTATION USING ARRAYS\\

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

void create(void);

void push(0void);

void pop(void);

void display(void);

void topelement(void);

int a[25];

int top;
void create()

int i;

printf("Enter the number of elements in the stack \n");

scanf("%d",&top);

printf("Enter the elements \n");

for(i=0;i<top;++i)

scanf("%d",&a[i]);

return;

void display()

int i;

if((top!=0) && (top!=25))

printf("The elements in the stack are \n");

for(i=top-1;i>=0;–i)

printf("%d",a[i]);

getch();

}
void push()

if(top==25)

printf("The stack is full \n");

else

printf("Enter the element \n");

scanf("%d",&aTop);

top++;

return;

void pop()

if(top==0)

printf("the stack is empty \n");

else

printf("The popped element is %d",a[--top]);


}

return;

void topelement()

int t;

if(top==0)

printf("There is no top element \n");

else

t=top-1;

printf("The top element is %d\n",a[t]);

return;

void main()

int ch;

clrscr();

create();

display();
do{

clrscr();

printf("Stack operations \n");

printf("—————-\n");

printf("1. PUSH \n");

printf("2. POP \n");

printf("3. TOP ELEMENT \n");

printf("4. Displaying the stack \n");

printf("5. Quit \n");

printf("Enter your choice \n");

scanf("%d\n",&ch);

switch(ch)

case 1: push();

display();

break;

case 2: pop();

display();

break;

case 3: topelement();

// display();

break;

case 4: display();
break;

case 5: printf("END \n");

break;

default: printf("Invalid Entry \n");

getch();

}while(ch !=5);

Sample output:

Enter the number of elements in the stack

Enter the elements

The elements in the stack are

4321

Stack operations

—————-

1. PUSH

2. POP

3. TOP ELEMENT
4. Displaying the stack

5. Quit

Enter your choice

Enter the element

The elements in the stack are

04321

Enter your choice

The top element is 0

Enter your choice

The popped element is 0

Enter your choice

Enter the element

The elements in the stack are

14321

Enter your choice

END
STACK USING LINKED LIST

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

#include<stdlib.h>

typedef struct node

int data;

struct node *next;

}stack;

int size();

void view();

int isFull();

int isEmpty();

void displayMenu();

int push(int value);

int pop(int *value);

int peek(int *value);

stack *getNode();

void releaseNode(stack *newnode);

stack *topstk=NULL;

void main()

{
int data,status,choice;

displayMenu();

while(1)

printf("\n\n ?");

scanf("%d",&choice);

switch(choice)

case 1:

printf("\nenter the element:");

fflush(stdin);

scanf("%d",&data);

status=push(data);

if(status == -1)

printf("\n memory is not available…..");

break;

case 2:

status=pop(&data);

if(status == -1)

printf("\nstack is underflow on pop");

else

printf("\n the popped elementis %d",data);

break;
case 3:

status=peek(&data);

if(status == -1)

printf("\nstack is empty!!!");

else

printf("\n the top element is %d",data);

break;

case 4:

printf("\ncurrent stack element = %d",size());

break;

case 5:

view();

break;

default:

printf("\n end of run program");

exit(0);

void displayMenu()

printf("\nrepresentation of stack using single linked list");

printf("\n\t1.push");
printf("\n\t2.pop");

printf("\n\t3.peek");

printf("\n\t4.size");

printf("\n\t5.view");

printf("\n\t6.exit");

stack *getNode()

return((stack *)malloc(sizeof(stack)));

void releaseNode(stack *newnode)

free(newnode);

int push(int value)

extern stack *topstk;

stack *newptr;

if(isFull())

return -1;

newptr=getNode();

newptr->data=value;

newptr->next=topstk;
topstk=newptr;

return 0;

int pop(int *value)

extern stack *topstk;

stack *temp;

if(isEmpty())

return -1;

temp=topstk;

topstk=topstk->next;

*value=temp->data;

releaseNode(temp);

return 0;

int peek(int *value)

extern stack *topstk;

stack *temp;

if(isEmpty())

return -1;

temp=topstk;

*value=temp->data;
return 0;

int isEmpty()

extern stack *topstk;

if(topstk==NULL)

return 1;

else

return 0;

int isFull()

extern stack *topstk;

stack *temp;

temp=getNode();

if(temp==NULL)

return 1;

else

releaseNode(temp);

return 0;

}
int size()

extern stack *topstk;

stack *top;

int count=0;

for(top=topstk;top!=NULL;top=top->next)

count++;

return count;

void view()

extern stack *topstk;

stack *top;

if(isEmpty())

printf("\nthe stack is empty!!!");

return;

printf("\n the content of the stack is……TOP");

for(top=topstk;top!=NULL;top=top->next)

printf("–>%d",top->data);

Sample output:
Representation of stack using linked list

1. Push

2. Pop

3. Peek

4. Size

5. View

6. Exit

?2

stack underflow on POP

?3

stack is empty

?4

stack is elements=0

?1

enter the element:11

?1

enter the element:22

?5

the content of the stack is……TOPà22à11

?4

stack elements=2

?2

the popped value is 22


?6

end of run of your program

TRAVERSALS

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

typedef struct node

int data;

struct node*left;

struct node*right;

}tree;

tree* createtree();

tree* insert(tree*,tree*);

void preorder(tree*);

void inorder(tree*);

void postorder(tree*);

void main()

int ch;

tree*bt;

clrscr();

bt=createtree();

printf("\n \tBINARY TREE TRAVERSAL \n");


printf("\n \t1.traversals \n");

printf("\n \t2.exit\n");

printf("\n \tenter your choice \n");

scanf("%d",&ch);

if(bt==NULL)

printf("\nbinary tree is empty\n");

return;

switch(ch)

case 1:

printf("\n \t preorder traversal \n");

preorder(bt);

printf("\n \t inorder traversal \n");

inorder(bt);

printf("\n \t postorder traversal \n");

postorder(bt);

break;

case 2:

printf("\n exit");

exit(0);

}
getch();

free(bt);

tree* createtree()

char ch;

tree *bt=NULL,*temp;

do

temp=(tree*)malloc(sizeof(struct node));

printf("\n enter the data\n");

scanf("%d",&temp->data);

temp->left=NULL;

temp->right=NULL;

bt=insert(bt,temp);

fflush(stdin);

printf("\n want to add more data y/n :");

scanf("%c",&ch);

}while((ch==’y')||(ch==’Y'));

return bt;

tree* insert(tree *bt,tree *temp)

{
if(bt==NULL)

return temp;

else if(temp->data<bt->data)

bt->left=insert(bt->left,temp);

else if(temp->data>bt->data)

bt->right=insert(bt->right,temp);

else if(temp->data==bt->data)

printf("\n data is already existing \n");

return bt;

return bt;

void inorder(tree *bt)

if(bt)

inorder(bt->left);

printf("%d",bt->data);

inorder(bt->right);

void preorder(tree *bt)


{

if(bt)

printf("%d",bt->data);

preorder(bt->left);

preorder(bt->right);

void postorder(tree *bt)

if(bt)

postorder(bt->left);

postorder(bt->right);

printf("%d",bt->data);

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

Enter the data

Want to add more data y/n: Y

Enter the data

2
Want to add more data y/n: Y

Enter the data

Want to add more data y/n: Y

Enter the data

Want to add more data y/n: N

BINARY TREE TRAVERSAL

1.traversals

2.exit

Enter your choice

Preorder traversal 5234

Inorder traversal 2345

Postorder traversal 4325

QUICK SORT

#include<stdio.h>

#include<conio.h>

#define MAX 25

void input();

void output();

void sort();

void qsort(int a[MAX], int *low, int *up);


int n,i;

int a[MAX];

void input()

printf("\nenter the number of elements \n");

scanf("%d",&n);

printf("enter the elements \n");

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

scanf("%d",&a[i]);

void output()

int i;

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

printf("%d \n",a[i]);

void sort()

int low=0;

int up=n-1;

qsort(a,&low,&up);

void qsort(int a[MAX], int *low, int *up)


{

int i,j,t,mid;

i=*low;

j=*up;

mid=a[(*low+*up)/2];

while(i<=j)

while(a[i]<mid)

i++;

while(mid<a[j])

j–;

if(i<=j)

t=a[i];

a[i]=a[j];

a[j]=t;

i++;

j–;

if(*low<j)

qsort(a,low,&j);

if(i<*up)
qsort(a,&i,up);

void main()

clrscr();

printf("\t \t QUICK SORT ALGORITHM");

input();

printf("\n THE ELEMENTS BEF SORTING ARE \n");

output();

printf("\n THE ELEMENTS AFT SORTING ARE \n");

sort();

output();

getch();

SAMPLE OUTPUT:

QUICK SORT ALGORITHM

Enter the number of elements

Enter the elements

25

12

09

THE ELEMENTS BEF SORTING ARE


25

12

THE ELEMENTS AFT SORTING ARE

12

25

DATA STRUCTURES – Q & A


Define Abstract Data Type (ADT).

Abstract data type is a collection of value definitions and the operations on those values.

o Value definitions
o Operator definitions

Define a sequence.

A sequence is an ordered set of elements.

S=<s0,s1,s2…….sn-1>

Write short notes on structures in C.

A basic data structure in C is called as the structure. A Structure is a group of items in which
each item is identified by its own identifier.

Example:

struct nametype

char first[10];

int roll;

}sname, ename;
What is the difference between a structure and union in C.

1. Same memory is used for all the members of union. At any time only one member can be
accessed.
2. Individual memory is used for structure members.

Define a Stack.

A stack is an ordered collection of items into which new items may be inserted and from which
items may be deleted at one end called the top of the stack.

It is also called as Last In First Out (LIFO).

What are the primitive operations that are performed on a Stack?

The primitive operations are

Push- inserting an element at the top of the stack

Push(s,i);

Pop – removing an element at the top of the stack

i=pop(s);

How do you implement the Stack definition in C. Use array implementation?

#define STACKSIZE

struct stack

int top;

int items[STACKSIZE];

};

Write the steps for implementing the pop operation.

o If the stack is empty, print a warning message and halt execution


o Remove the top element from the stack.
o Return this element to the calling program

What is recursive definition?


An object in terms of simpler case of itself is called recursive definition.

Examples:

· To find the factorial of a given number

· To print the Fibonacci series.

Define a queue.

A queue is a ordered collection of items from which itesm may be deleted at one end (called the
front of the queue) and into which items may be inserted at the other end (called the rear of the
queue). It is also called as First in First out (FIFO).

How the queue is represented in C?

#define MAXQUEUE 100

struct queue

int items[MAXQUEUE];

int front, rear;

}q;

Define priority queue. What are the types of Priority queue?

The priority queue is a data structure in which the intrinsic ordering of the elements does
determine the results. There are two types

· ascending priority queue

is a collection of items into which items can be inserted arbitrarily and from which only the
smallest item can be removed.

· descending priority queue

What is the purpose of header node?

Sometimes it is desirable to keep an extra node at the front of the list. Such a node does not
represent an item in the list and is called the header node or a list header.

How to create and delete a dynamic variable in C?


malloc() is a function helpful for creating a dynamic variable.

free() is a function helpful for deleting a dynamic variable.

How to create a node of a singly linked list using dynamic variables?

struct node

int info;

struct node *next;

};

typedef struct node *NODEPTR;

16. How to create a node of a Doubly linked list using dynamic variables?

struct node

int info;

struct node *next, *previous;

};

typedef struct node *NODEPTR;

17. Define a binary tree.

A binary tree is a finite set of elements that is either empty or is partitioned into three disjoint
subsets. One subset is the left and one subset of the right and the third subset is the root of the
tree.

18. What is a strictly binary tree?

If every non leaf node in a binary tree has nonempty left and right subtrees, the tree is named as
the strictly binary tree.

19. Define traversal in tree and what is the different type of traversals in tree?

To pass through the tree, enumerating each of its nodes once.


Three types of traversals

o preorder traversal
 visit the root
 Traverse the left subtree in preorder.
 Traverse the right subtree in preorder
o inorder traversal
 Traverse the left subtree in preorder.
 visit the root
 Traverse the right subtree in preorder
o postorder traversal
 Traverse the left subtree in preorder.
 Traverse the right subtree in preorder
 visit the root

20. How the binary tree node is represented dynamically?

struct nodetype

int info;

struct nodetype *left;

struct nodetype *right;

};

21. What are called leaf nodes?

The nodes which don’t have any sons are called as leaf nodes.

22. What are called internal and external nodes?

The leaf nodes are called as external nodes and the non leaf nodes are called as internal nodes.

23. Define O notation.

To capture the concept of one function becoming proportional to another as it grows, a notation
is which is called as O notation.

24. Define a graph.

A graph consists of a set of nodes (or vertices) and set of arcs (or edges).
25. Define weighted graph.

A number is associated with each arc of a graph is called a weighted graph. The number
associated with the arc is called the weight.

26. Define minimum spanning tree.

Given a connected weighted graph G, it is often desired to create a spanning tree T for G such
that the sum of the weights of the tree edges in T is as small as possible. Such a tree is called
minimum spanning tree.

27. Define Depth First Traversal.

Visits the successors of a visited node before visiting any of its brothers.

In DFT, each visited node is placed in the stack

28. Define Breadth First Traversal.

Visits all successors of a visited node before visiting any successors of any of those successors.

In BFT, each visited node is placed on the queue.

29. What are called Dynamic data structures?

Structures which grow or shrink as the data they hold changes.

Example: Lists

30. Define Binary Search.

A technique for searching an ordered list in which we first check the middle item and – based on
that comparison – "discard" half the data. The same procedure is then applied to the remaining
half until a match is found or there are no more items left.

31. What are the advantages of linked lists?

· Overflow can never occur unless the memory is actually full.

· Insertions and deletions are easier than for contiguous (array) lists.

· With large records, moving pointers is easier and faster than moving the items th

emselves.

32. What are the disadvantages of linked lists?


· The pointers require extra space.

· Linked lists do not allow random access.

· Time must be spent traversing and changing the pointers.

· Programming is typically trickier with pointers.

33. Define Binary Search Trees.

A binary search tree is a binary tree where each node contains a key such that:

· All keys in the left subtree lesser than the key in the root.

· All keys in the right subtree greater the key in the root.

· The left and right subtrees of the root are again binary search trees.

34. What is the difference Data types vs. Data Structures?

· A data type is a well-defined collection of data with a well-defined set of operations on it.

· A data structure is an actual implementation of a particular abstract data type.

Rahul Singh Rathore


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