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Research Methodology

Statement of the Problem

Through this report we want to find out how children are influenced by the advertisements
especially of confectionary products. So the statement of this project would be ‘Effect of
Advertisements on Children with special reference to confectionary products’
The research process goes within the following confectionary products:
 Biscuits
 Chocolates
 Wafers
 Noodles
 Sauces
 Health Drinks

Objectives of the Study

The subject matter for this Project is to study the effects of advertisement on children.
Following are the main objectives of this report.

 To know the children's awareness about confectionary Products & their advertisements.

 To study the impact of advertisement of confectionary Products on children.

 To know whether is there any connection between TV watching habit of children and
their medium of study or not.

Research Design
Research design selected for this project is Descriptive.

Scope:

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The research will be done at Ahmedabad city only.

Sampling Plan:-

Target Population : - Target population for this research would be children with age of
8-15 and their parents.

Sample Unit : - Sample unit for this research would be children with age of 8-15
and their parents of a selected area.

Sampling Technique : - Stratified Random Sampling

Sample Size : - 300 (150 children and 150 parents)

Sampling Methods:

There are mainly two of sampling methods which are being used by the marketers:
1. Probability Sampling (Random Sampling)
2. Non – probability Sampling

Probability sampling is a method for drawing a sample from a population such that all possible
samples have a known and specified probability of being drawn.
Non probability sampling is a sampling procedure in which the selection of population
elements is based in part on the judgment of the researcher or field interviewer.
The sampling method for this report would be probability sampling because here each
sample has equal chance of being selected and again it would be stratified random sampling

Data Collection Method:

There are mainly two types of data collection methods which are as follows:

• Primary Data

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Primary Data is the one that is being collected by the researcher itself and is being collected for
the first time. Researcher has collected this data with a specific purpose of studying the problem.
Primary Data in the research process would be collected by filling up questionnaires from
children and their parents.

• Secondary Data

Secondary Data is the data that already exists and in ready to use format and gathered by
somebody else. This data can be in the form of articles in magazines, journals, government
reports or any other historical data. It might even be the different articles in newspaper and on
the internet blogs.
Secondary Data that would be used by researcher in the research process as supportive
documents are from the various newspaper articles, magazines related to specific industry,
books in the specific field of advertising and various different internet sites.

Instrument:-
The instrument selected for the primary data is structured questionnaire.

Tentative plan:-
The tentative plan for this research would be as following.
• Research methodology
• Advertising Industry
• Indian Advertising Industry
• Children and Advertising
• Rules and Regulations of Advertising to Children
• Analysis of Primary Data
• Testing of Hypothesis
• Key Findings
• Suggestions
• Conclusion

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• Bibliography
• Annexure

Expected contribution of the study


The research or study will help to understand how children are influenced by the advertisements
of confectionary products.

Beneficiaries
Beneficiaries of this research would be researchers, students & the company with confectionary
products.

Limitations
The major barriers in conducting the survey are:

1. Time Limitation
2. Financial Limitations
3. Geographical Limitations

1. Time Limitations

For a researcher time has always worked as a barrier to his/her research process. As we
are conducting the survey in the different schools of Ahmedabad city and observing the students
aging between 8 years to 15 years, time has always worked as a limitation to the research
process

2. Financial Limitations

Another major limitation for this study is financial limitation. Finance is the major limitation for
any study. Again for this study finance does matter to the researcher to some extent.

3. Geographic Limitations

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As we all know that Ahmedabad is becoming a mega city. It covers big number of people living
in the area. There are thousands of primary schools where the students are studying. Also the
weather of Ahmadabad city is very hot and hence it is impractical to work for more than 3 to 4
hours a day in field. (Because children can be interviewed either at the school opening time or
the recess time or the school closing time only).

ADVERTISING
INDUSTRY

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2.1 What is Advertising?

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade its viewers, readers or listeners to


take some action. It usually includes the name of a product or service and how that product or
service could benefit the consumer, to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume
that particular brand. Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late
19th and early 20th centuries.

Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products


or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an
effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of
media can be used to deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers,
magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail. Advertising may be placed by an advertising
agency on behalf of a company or other organization.

Organizations that spend money on advertising promoting items other than a consumer
product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and
governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a
public service announcement.

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2.2 History

As education became an apparent need and reading, as well as printing, developed advertising
expanded to include handbills. In the 17th century advertisements started to appear in weekly
newspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books
and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press; and
medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. However, false
advertising and so-called "quack"(fake) advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the
regulation of advertising content.

As the economy was expanding during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In
the United States, classified ads became even more popular, filling pages of newspapers with
small print messages promoting all kinds of goods. In 1843, the first advertising agency was
established by Volney Palmer in Philadelphia. At first, agencies were brokers for ad space in
newspapers. N.W. Ayer & Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for
advertising content. It was also the first agency to charge a commission on ads.

In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its
pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the
formula was soon copied by all titles.

In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment
manufacturers and retailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As
time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations,

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and included: schools, clubs and civic groups. When the practice of sponsoring programs was
popularized, each individual radio program was usually sponsored by a single business in
exchange for a brief mention of the business' name at the beginning and end of the sponsored
shows. However, radio station owners soon realized they could earn more money by selling
sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radio
station's broadcasts, rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show.

The radio station owners soon realized they could earn more money by selling
sponsorship rights to other businesses. In those days, each show was usually sponsored by a
single business, in exchange for a brief mention of the sponsor at the beginning and end of the
show. This practice was carried over to television in the late 1940s and early 1950s.

However, a fierce battle was fought between those seeking to commercialize this new
medium and the people who argued that the radio spectrum should be considered the commons,
to be used only non-commercially and for the public good. In Canada, advocates like Graham
Spry were able to convince the government to adopt a socialist funding model. England
followed suit with the development of the BBC. However in the United States, the capitalist
model prevailed with the passage of the 1934 Communications Act which created the Federal
Communications Commission. To placate the socialists, the U.S. Congress did require that
commercial broadcasters operate in the "public interest, convenience, and necessity". However
public radio certainly exists in the United States.

In the early 1950s, the Dumont television network began the modern trend of selling
advertisement time to multiple sponsors. Dumont had trouble finding sponsors for many of their
programs and compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses.
This eventually became the norm for the commercial television industry in the United States.
However, it was still a common practice to have single sponsor shows, such as the U.S. Steel
Hour. In some instances the sponsors exercised great control over the content of the show - up to
and including having one's advertising agency actually writing the show. The single sponsor
model is much less prevalent now, a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame.

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The 1960s saw advertising transform into a modern approach in which creativity was
allowed to shine, producing unexpected messages that made advertisements more tempting to
consumers' eyes. The Volkswagen ad campaign—featuring such headlines as "Think Small" and
"Lemon" ushered in the era of modern advertising by promoting a "position" or "unique selling
proposition" designed to associate each brand with a specific idea in the reader or viewer's mind.
This period of American advertising is called the Creative Revolution and its archetype was
William Bernbach who helped create the revolutionary Volkswagen ads among others. Some of
the most creative and long-standing American advertising dates to this period.

The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly
MTV. Pioneering the concept of the music video, MTV ushered in a new type of advertising. As
cable and satellite television became increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged,
including channels entirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC, Home Shopping Network, and
ShopTV Canada.

Marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers and contributed to
the "dot-com"(.com) boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated solely on advertising
revenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st
century, a number of websites including the search engine Google, started a change in online
advertising by emphasizing contextually relevant, unobtrusive ads intended to help, rather than
inundate, users. This has led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive
advertising.

The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes
in media. For example, in the U.S. in 1925, the main advertising media were newspapers,
magazines, signs on streetcars, and outdoor posters. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was
about 2.9 percent. By 1998, television and radio had become major advertising media.
Nonetheless, advertising spending as a share of GDP was slightly lower—about 2.4 percent.

A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing", which involve unusual


approaches such as staged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that

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are covered with brand messages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to
become part of the advertising message. Guerrilla advertising is becoming increasing more
popular with a lot of companies. This type of advertising is unpredictable and innovative, which
causes consumers to buy the product or idea. This reflects an increasing trend of interactive and
"embedded" ads, such as via product placement, having consumers vote through text messages,
and various innovations utilizing social network services such as MySpace

2.3 Changing scenario of advertising

Marketing through advertising is considered an important variable in the global business.


Advertising is second only to films as far as its influence on the society is concerned. History
bears testimony to the fact that the great Romans practiced advertising. Their surnames indicated
their occupation. The potentialities of advertising multiplied when manual press was invented in
the 15th century. After that the demand has been increasing.

Advertising is, in fact, the most influential and powerful medium in the present
commercial society. It creates an entire worldview, shaping our attitude and beliefs.
Advertisements pervade every aspect of our life and most of us are hardly aware of it. In the
movement for equal status and fair treatment to women, an important part is attributed to the
mass media, particularly to electronic media.

The central position of media in daily life ensures its role in advertising business. The
meanings that are created by media are not fixed, but they vary according to cultural, historical

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and social context of the people concerned. The common man judges the products on the basis
of the understanding his society and culture has inculcated into them.

Symbolism is one of the major aspects of advertisement and it is to be noted that a


change has occurred in this context. Use of women to promote a concept or product is increasing
day by day. In the advertisement world, advertisers have picked up women for advertising of
consumer commodities. Women are used in TV commercials as weapon of persuasion.

Women in many cultures make the majority of consumption decisions; hence they are
important target of these advertisers. So the advertisers find it easier to sell the product by using
the same gender. But most of these ads hardly need women as models. For example, there is no
need to ask females to do an ad for a men’s shaving cream. The list is uncountable. Most of the
companies want to attract the consumers by using the physical look of the models. They have
created a world of fantasy. And we are drawn towards that world without realizing much about
the realities of life. We try to imitate whatever is shown on the Television. The media must play
the role of a watchdog in such a situation.

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2.4 Types of advertising

Virtually any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial advertising media can include a
wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio,
cinema and television adverts, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web
popup, skywriting, bus stop benches, human billboards, magazines, newspapers, sides of buses,
banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"), in-flight advertisements on seatback tray
tables or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stage
shows, subway platforms and trains, doors of bathroom stalls, stickers on apples in
supermarkets, shopping cart handles (grabertising), the opening section of streaming audio and
video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Any place an "identified"
sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.

Television

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The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format,
as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV
events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most
prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot
during this game has reached US$3 million (as of 2009).

The majorities of television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate
to the product.

Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through


computer graphics. It is typically inserted into otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace
local billboards that are not relevant to the remote broadcast audience. More controversially,
virtual billboards may be inserted into the background where none exist in real-life. Virtual
product placement is also possible.

Infomercials

An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The


word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the words "information" & "commercial". The main
objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the
presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone
number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their
features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals.

Radio advertising

Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio.

Radio advertisements are broadcasted as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an
antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in

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exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the obvious limitation of being restricted
to sound, this becomes its major disadvantage.

Press advertising

Press advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, or


trade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, such
as a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as local
newspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is
classified advertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small,
narrowly targeted ad for a low fee advertising a product or service.

Online advertising

Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the
expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attract customers. Examples of online
advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text
ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising, online classified advertising, advertising
networks and e-mail marketing, including e-mail spam.

Billboard advertising

Billboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passing
pedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount of
passing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with large
amounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or office
buildings, and in stadiums.

Mobile billboard advertising

The RedEye newspaper advertised to its target market at North Avenue Beach with a sailboat
billboard on Lake Michigan.

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Mobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. These can
be on dedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by
clients, they can also be specially-equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn
from planes. The billboards are often lighted; some being backlit, and others employing
spotlights. Some billboard displays are static, while others change; for example, continuously or
periodically rotating among a set of advertisements.
Mobile displays are used for various situations in metropolitan areas throughout the world,
including:

• Target advertising
• One-day, and long-term campaigns
• Conventions
• Sporting events
• Store openings and similar promotional events
• Big advertisements from smaller companies
• Others

In-store advertising

In-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes placement of a


product in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and near
checkout counters, eye-catching displays promoting a specific product, and advertisements in
such places as shopping carts and in-store video displays.

Covert advertising

Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded
in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other
of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruise's character John
Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch
engraved with the Bulgaria logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where
main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converse shoes several times, calling them

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"classics," because the film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs also showcase
futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the
vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result
contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for
Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond
films, most notably Casino Royale. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main
transport vehicle shows a large Dodge logo on the front. Blade Runner includes some of the
most obvious product placement; the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard

Celebrities

This type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gain
recognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often
advertise their products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear
clothes by specific brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns
such as television or print adverts to advertise specific or general products.

The use of celebrities to endorse a brand can have its downsides, however. One mistake
by a celebrity can be detrimental to the public relations of a brand. For example, following his
performance of eight gold medals at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, swimmer
Michael Phelps' contract with Kellogg's was terminated, as Kellogg's did not want to associate
with him after he was photographed smoking marijuana

2.5 Recent Trends in Advertising

 Internet Advertising

Internet Marketing is the online advertisement and selling of products, services or


businesses through the Internet. Online advertising is possible only if one has its own website.
Having a website for a particular business is worthless until and unless people know about your

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business and put their trust and likings on services that you provide. So, having a website is just
like having a shop, if people find you, they obviously visit it, and visit it again if they find it
really interesting.

Internet Advertising is the latest and most effective method of business promotion. It is
necessary to help people find you more easily, know your presence, know more about the
services and products that you offer and assure people what real difference you can bring about
in comparison to other similar service providers. To make your website worth interesting,
different Website advertising strategies are available today, such as, pay per click advertising,
banner advertising, email marketing, search engine marketing through search engine
optimization, affiliate, article, blog and interactive marketing services. If these strategies are
dealt attentively, then you can experience the difference that online business can bring on your
business.

There are 26 million Internet users in India, largely in the age group of 20 to 40 - a
target-base for India's rapid growth advertising industry is increasingly looking at. It's reboot
time for Indian advertising with predictions that the online segment is likely to cross the 100
million dollar mark by 2010, according to a study by MSN.

India's advertising industry generates about 2.2 billion dollars annually, according to
industry sources. Currently, online advertising comprises less than one per cent of the pie. The
total spending for 2004-2005 was about 18 million dollars, but the Indian Online Association
(IOA), predicts this will touch 57 million in 2006-2007.

Internet is increasingly a part of the media mix for advertisers as they realize its high
potential in reach and penetration. Print and television still hog a major share of Indian
advertising at 700 to 920 million dollars annually. But digital advertising industry players point
out that television too saw a sluggish beginning and then exploded as cable TV entered the
arena. So what's holding back the online advertising boom? It’s the unfamiliarity with the new
medium, a lack of understanding of its reach and potential, a fear of venturing into a new area.
The limited reach of Internet - it has only 26 million users in a country of one billion - is another

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reason. The mobile industry has far overtaken Internet with a user base of 50 million in India
and is growing by the day.

Unlike print and TV, the consumer can decide when and how he wants to be exposed to
a campaign, and the advertiser too can filter targets in terms of groups and locales. The Internet
has great cost advantage as well. The cost per 1,000 reach is very effective when compared to
other media. Finance is the main sector going for Internet advertising in India. Most in the
advertising industry agree that today even a brilliant campaign has a vital element missing if
there is no Internet presence.

Leading portals in India like Rediff, Yahoo and MSN are also seeing a revival. Rediff
saw an increase of over 70 per cent in online revenue on its India operations in 2004. It largely
comprised advertising and fee-based services like online subscriptions, mobile downloads and
online shopping. And there were more than two dozen first time advertisers the same year.
Yahoo! India saw a 100 per cent growth in advertising in 2004. Indiatimes.com, the online
operations of one of India's leading media groups estimated total advertising on its site to be
around 3.5-4.6 million U.S. dollars in 2004. All top advertising agencies in India from JWT,
Lowe Lint’s, O&M and Mudra have interactive arms or links with the same.

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Internet Users in India:

Year Users Usage Source

1998 14,00,000 ITU

1999 28,00,000 ITU

2000 55,00,000 ITU

2001 70,00,000 ITU

2002 1,65,00,000 ITU

2003 2,25,00,000 ITU

2004 3,92,00,000 C.I.Almanac

2005 5,06,00,000 C.I.Almanac

2006 4,00,00,000 IAMAI

2007 4,20,00,000 Internet world star

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 Mobile Advertising

Mobile advertising in India is at a very nascent stage compared to markets like Japan, Korea and
West, but many are reported to be preparing to get into the act. “The future for mobile
advertising is already here, despite not being on many marketers’ radars yet. Hundreds of
millions of ads are already being run, click-through rates are much higher than online. The
growth of 3G networks, IPTV and high end gaming on mobile phones will open new avenues
for advertising on mobile.

The size of mobile advertising in India is miniscule, it has potential to grow at 200% a
year, giving operators a new revenue source. With the average revenue per user (ARPU)
constantly falling, it could be a saving grace for operators. From Rs 356 in March last year, the
ARPU in December 2006 has declined by 115 to touch Rs 316. The worldwide mobile
advertising market is pegged at $1 billion currently. IDC believes with more than two billion
mobile users in the world, it prevails as the first medium through which advertisers can reach
such a large audience on an individual basis.

In India, it is currently a Rs 5-6 crore market, set to grow to Rs 20-25 crore by March
2008. It is clearly a medium that needs to be evangelised to brands as how Internet advertising
was done to brands in early 2000 - 2001. Mobile advertising can take many forms like SMS
broadcast, MMS broadcast, sponsored content, WAP ads and product placement in games.
Currently, it is restricted to SMS based activities in the country. Some FMCG, beverage and
entertainment companies have tested MMS too and few operators have also tried to get
sponsorship revenue from value added services.

Seeing the huge potential of mobile advertising in future, operators like Bharti Airtel,
MTNL, Reliance and Tata Teleservices are exploring the option, but feel it will take some time
for the format to take off in the country in a big way.

Targeted mobile advertising is 50% more acceptable to mobile internet users than
untargeted ads, according to the consumer mobile advertising report conducted with more than
1,200 mobile internet users across the US, Europe and India. As 70% of the SMSes have less

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than 40 characters, value added services provider Cellebrum has come up with a solution where
micro advertisements are inserted into the text messages of subscribers who opt-in to the
programme in exchange for incentives such as free SMS or reduced tariffs.

In the not too distant future, we will have the freedom to choose whether we wish to pay
for our mobile calls or have it free. Soon enough we will be given a free mobile phone and be
allowed to make and receive calls for free provided we are willing to pay with our attention to
short advertising messages while using these phone. For instance, when we answer or make a
call, before we get connected, we will hear the advertising message. This message will more
than likely be of some interest to us because the advertiser would have information about who
we are based on what content we subscribe to from the ocean of published content.

 Freelance advertising

In freelance advertising, companies hold public competitions to create ads for their product, the
best one of which is chosen for widespread distribution with a prize given to the winner(s).
During the 2007 Super Bowl, Pepsico held such a contest for the creation of a 30-second
television ad for the Doritos brand of chips, offering a cash prize to the winner. Chevrolet held a
similar competition for their Tahoe line of SUVs. This type of advertising, however, is still in its
infancy. It may ultimately decrease the importance of advertising agencies by creating a niche
for independent freelancers

 Embedded advertising

Embedded advertising or in-film ad placements are happening on a larger scale now than ever
before. Films like Krish had over a dozen placements including Lay’s, Bournvita, Samsung,
Faber Castell and Hero Honda.

 Shift in Message from Product Features to Consumer Benefits

A common rule in the advertising industry is the “one message” strategy. In short, it is based on
the premise that one unique selling proposition (USP) is effective. This reflects concerns over

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how communicating a multitude of messages in a single advertisement may easily distract
consumers and cause difficulties in understanding the underlying message, thus weakening the
advertisement’s effects. So, a common and frequently made mistake made in current
commercials is that they often end up communicating product features while obscuring their
message and emphasizing technological prowess. In particular, this trend was noticeable in
industries where technological capability was a differentiating point and complex functions were
the competitive edge.

Recent successful commercials have instead adopted a strategy of soft appeal focused on
consumer benefits, rather than one of hard appeal, communicating product characteristics. The
keys to success for these advertisements have been the use of consumer language and attractive
images when communicating features and technologies. Selecting a simple and clear message as
well as delivering messages focusing on consumers' benefits is helpful to raise message appeal,
brand awareness and brand power.

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2.6 The Role of Advertising:

Advertising is the means by which goods or services are promoted to the public. The
advertiser’s goal is to increase sales of these goods or services by drawing people’s attention to
them and showing them in a favorable light. The mission of advertiser is to reach prospective
customers and influence their awareness, attitudes and buying behavior. They spend a lot of
money to keep individuals (markets) interested in their products. To succeed, they need to
understand what makes potential customers behave the way they do.

For advertising to exist, a number of factors have to be in place

 The goods and services to be advertised


 Competition between different providers of the same kinds of goods and services, for
which there needs to be a significant potential market
 The means of advertising cheaply to large numbers of people
 A population with sufficient education to be able to understand advertising messages

Advertising is a marketing function, and Kotler claims that advertising can have a
number of different, possible objectives. One objective can be to inform customers about new
product or a price change. The main objective here is to build primary demand. Another

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objective can be to persuade the customer to purchase the product. The use advertising as a way
to build preference and to encourage customers to change brand. The fundamental purpose of
advertising is to influence people to purchase various goods and products. In this sense
advertising is a phenomenon that aims to persuade or influence people.

What is the role of advertising in the demand function? One response of this question is
that a company can sell more of its product by informing consumers about the product. The
information may include its existence, price, promotion, quality, etc. Therefore advertising is
seen as providing information to consumers. The other response is that advertising searches the
way of persuading consumers to purchase the advertised products by appeals to snobbery,
associations of the product with favored people or situations, repetition of the same message and
so on. Advertising shows the last style and the new popular products in the market. It displays
ideal individuals wearing the new clothes and looking good. Customers are jealous of this
perfection. So that, they go out and purchase in hopes of reaching perfection.

There is a time dimension at advertising. Advertisement’s influence on sales is


immediate (i.e. it is mostly felt within seven days of an advertisement’s exposure). A repetition
of such effects, measured at the end of a year, amounts to a medium-term influence. The
immediate influence of advertising on sales plays a gatekeeper role to all further effects. Without
it there will not be medium term effect (i.e. a repetition of short-term effects); and long-term
effect. Advertisement’s full effect can be only valued if its long-term influence is taken into
account as well as its short and medium-term effects on sales. These terms make it possible to
evaluate the productivity of an advertising campaign; to measure if the campaign shows a
financial return on the investment and is thus accountable

According to Doole & Lowe (2004), advertising is the most important part of the whole
marketing strategy. There are many channels of media to use for advertising, for example
television, printed media, radio, cinema, outdoor and transport poster. Marketers use television
as the most powerful medium of communication.

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2.7 Leading Advertising agencies in the world

Here is the rundown of the top 10 advertising agencies that made significant mark in the
advertising business and has pioneered the known best practices in the advertising industry.

1. BBDO Worldwide, United States

BBDO Worldwide is one of the major three networks under the umbrella of Omnicom. BBDO
Worldwide has long been recognized as the most prestigious advertising network globally. Its
estimated total revenues for 2008 amount to $2.0B.

2. McCann Erickson, United States


McCann Erickson is the largest agency with global coverage. Its main business focuses on
traditional advertising operations. It also offers a range of innovative marketing services under
the umbrella company known internationally as McCann World group. Its estimated total
revenues for 2008 amount to $1.7 B.

3. DDB Worldwide, United States

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DDB is one of the triumvirate networks under the portfolio of Omnicom. It maintains a lower
profile compared to the other two networks that form the triumvirate network of Omnicom. Its
estimated revenues for 2008 are at $1.5 B

4. TBWA Worldwide, United States


TBWA Worldwide completes the triumvirate of networks under the Omnicom advertising
group. It is more on the non-traditional lines and usually dabbles on the “quirky” side of the
business. Its total revenues for 2008 are estimated to have reached $1.4 B.

5. Euro RSCG Worldwide, France


Euro RSCG Worldwide is one of the two major advertising agencies in France. Its global reach
covers about 75 countries. After growing through some organizational challenges, Euro RSCG
Worldwide returned to the global scene under a new management group and immediately earned
recognition in major publication in the UK and the US. Its estimated 2008 revenues are placed at
$1.2B.

6. JWT Worldwide, United States


JWT is sort of a legend in the advertising world. It is recognized as the first advertising agency
that was ever organized. The advertising agency implemented major and strategic changes. Its
estimated revenues for 2008 are about $1.2 B.

7. Y & R Advertising, United States


Y & R Brands is the umbrella organization of several leading marketing service companies
which include leading agencies Y & R and direct marketing outfit Wunderman. It is a 100%
subsidiary of WPP although it maintains a fairly self contained operation. It has gone through
difficult stages in its operations primarily to the disparate performance of the member agencies.
The estimated revenues for 2008 of Y & R are placed at $ 1.1 B.

8. Publicis Worldwide

26
Publicis Worldwide is the biggest ad network under the umbrella group Publicis Groupe which
also includes Saatchi & Saatchi and the Leo Burnett advertising network. It has made significant
inroads in its ranking with strategic acquisitions.

9. DraftFCB, United States


DraftFCB officially started business operations in 2006. Its core business is the integrated
marketing business portfolio focusing on a wide range of specialties and disciplines. Its
estimated volume of business for 2008 is about $955 M.

10. Wisdek, Canada


Wisdek is one of the emerging and leading online marketing and advertising outfits. It is
renowned for innovative and creative marketing solutions designed for companies that are
highly reliant on the Internet. It broke ground in 1998 and has since then been focusing on
innovative projects on site placements on various search engines. Wisdek is the pioneer in an
erstwhile non-existent business interest.

27
INDIAN
ADVERTISING
INDUSTRY

28
3.1 Introduction

The Indian advertising industry is talking business today. It has evolved from being a small-
scale business to a full-fledged industry. It has emerged as one of the major industries and
tertiary sectors and has broadened its horizons be it the creative aspect, the capital employed or
the number of personnel involved. Indian advertising industry in very little time has carved a
niche for itself and placed itself on the global map.

Indian advertising industry with an estimated value of 13, 200-crore has set eyeballs
gazing with some astonishing pieces of work that it has given in the recent past. The creative
minds that the Indian advertising industry incorporates have come up with some mind-boggling
concepts and work that can be termed as masterpieces in the field of advertising.

Advertising agencies in the country too have taken a leap. They have come a long way
from being small and medium sized industries to becoming well known brands in the business.
Mudra, Ogilvy and Mather (O&M), Mccann Ericsonn, Rediffussion, Leo Burnett are some of
the top agencies of the country.

Indian economy is on a boom and the market is on a continuous trail of expansion. With
the market gaining grounds Indian advertising has every reason to celebrate. Businesses are
looking up to advertising as a tool to cash in on lucrative business opportunities. Growth in
business has lead to a consecutive boom in the advertising industry as well.

The Indian advertising today handles both national and international projects. This is
primarily because of the reason that the industry offers a host of functions to its clients that
include everything from start to finish that include client servicing, media planning, media
buying, creative conceptualization, pre and post campaign analysis, market research, marketing,
branding, and public relation services.

Keeping in mind the current pace at which the Indian advertising industry is moving the
industry is expected to witness a major boom in the times ahead. If the experts are to be believed

29
then the industry in the coming times will form a major contribution to the GDP. With all this
there is definitely no looking back for the Indian advertising industry that is all set to win
accolades from the world over.

With development in the technology, various avenues are opening up in advertising


industry. It is estimated that about 2.2 billion dollars are generated in this industry every year.
Be it is print, radio, television or Internet, every medium plays a significant role in the growth of
this industry. Today, Advertising Industry in India is surging with revenues. To meet all the
demands in adverting sector, many agencies are coming to the scene.

India is a hub of creativity and this is evident from the fact that more and more people
from Indian advertising industry are being accepted world over and imposing a lot of respect in
international advertising community.

Visibility is the mantra of success these days and advertising makes sure that your
product, service is visible; thus saleable. Today Advertising Industry in India is booming with
revenue. It is a very successful industry which generates lot of revenue. The Advertising
Industry in India is getting recognized worldwide with its superior quality work and innovation.
It ensures tremendous growth and scope for the employees.

During fiscal 2005, the gross advertising spend in India is estimated at Rs 111 billion,
and is expected to grow at 14.2% to reach Rs. 127 billion by fiscal 2006.

The key factors which have contributed to growth of the Indian advertising industry
include:
- Growth in media vehicles leading to increase in media infiltration.
- Higher degree of competitive concentration among consumer companies
- Entry of global consumer companies with large advertising budgets
- Increase in consumer riches.

Rapid economic growth of the country on the back of economic liberalization and
deregulation. Indian advertising industry is fast catching up with their western counterparts. The

30
change has been a slow and steady one, but if you look at the advertisements on Indian
television nowadays, you’ll be vastly surprised.
There were times, when it was believed that sex sells anything and everything. Then
came the era of glamour and celebrities. Film stars and cricketers were roped it to sell soft-
drinks to massage oils. Ads were made for cycles and pens. The list is endless. Now, the times
have changed. Humor, industry experts say, sells the best. People remember jokes, the humor
involved, and it becomes easier to make an impact on the customer. The Indian consumer no
longer falls into an uneducated, easy to please.

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3.2 Top ten Advertising Agencies of India

• Ogilvy and Mather Limited:- Headed by Mr. Piyush Pandey:

The most local of the internationals, The most international of the locals are words written to
describe the identity of Ogilvy. Basically, what this means is that the advertising agency follows
the local market, understands the customer's needs and then networks worldwide with MNC and
other relevant clients.

In all its years of business, Ogilvy has struggled to build brands and has proved its ability to
build brands. The agency does its best to enhance the customer-brand relation. For this, it
undergoes the process of scrutiny of the tools and techniques which work well to build a long
and lasting association with a brand.

• Mudra communications Pvt. Ltd:- Head: Mr. Madhukar Kamath:

The agency practises the art of communication in order to express ideas that can shape the
brands. As the name suggests, the agency is influenced by the artistic traditions of Indian dance,
drama and painting. These, in turn, inculcate feelings, ideas, thoughts and emotions for the
success of a brand. Mudra peeps into the local consumer markets, channels and media, and has
its own identity in communication of brands. It looks for the entrepreneurial zeal which causes
continuous and speedy growth for each brand. The advertising agency always believed in doing
interesting work that pleases its clients.

• Lintas India Pvt. Ltd:- Head: Mr. Pranesh Misra (President & COO - Lowe, India):

After the merge of Lintas India Ltd. with Lowe Lintas and Partners group of the UK, it is now
known as Lowe Lintas. India Pvt. Ltd. The turnover of Lintas is Rs. 750 crore. The advertising

32
agency inculcates advertising, media buying house, direct marketing, public relations, design
consultancy, market research, events, rural communications and interactive communications.
Enterprise Nexus, the agency partner of Lowe in India, continues to be a member and is known
as the ‘Independent Brands’ division which is the only specialist in advertising and marketing
communications. Lowe Lintas India is a successful agency which is inclined towards quality
creative advertising and works for the benefit of its clients.

• JWT (Hindustan Thompson Associates Pvt. Ltd.):- Head:Mr.Colvyn Harris (Chief


Executive Officer):

The advertising agency has a special portfolio which includes creativity, innovation, clients, case
studies, awards, well-thought out leadership and talent. Clients perceive the agency as a resource
of ideas which tell the brand’s story to the customer, dealing with market research. In this
process, the agency includes innovative ideas.

• FCB-Ulka advertising pvt. Ltd:- Head Mr. Anil Kapoor (Managing Director and
CEO):

FCB, being one of the the top three advertising agencies in the USA, ranks number 10 in the
world. FCB-Ulka has made its mark in India as Ulka Advertising. It was founded in 1961. On
the creative front, Ulka is known to stand out. FCB-Ulka has made a smooth transition from a
creative shop to a large mainstream agency. Around the mid-seventies, FCB-Ulka had become
the fifth largest agency in India and has sustained this status till date. The efforts of FCB-Ulka
deserve praise. It also gave recognition to those brands that were not in the limelight earlier but
are now completely above other market players. Santoor soap did thorough research and focused
on advertising which gave growing sales figures against stiff competition from Levers and P&G
brands. Not surprisingly, FCB-Ulka is seen as a turnaround specialist - an agency that does
brand building and more.

• Rediffusion DY&R Pvt Ltd:- Mr. Mahesh Chauhan (President):

This advertising agency places its people first. It believes that the strength of a brand lies in the
efforts the people of the organization make. Rediffusion DY&R follows system-driven

33
‘thinking’ in its culture. The agency attracts right minds because it thinks of a perfect balance
between creativity and strategy.

• RK Swamy BBDO Pvt Ltd:- Mr. Srinivasan K Swamy (Head)

It is the agency of the worldwide-renowned BBDO network. The advertising agency suggests
comes up with solutions for its clients regarding their marketing communication problems and
provides them with intelligent solutions and supports them in attaining their goals. The symbol
or logo of the advertising agency is Hansa and is known to separate milk from the water.
Similarly, RK Swamy of BBDO is capable of deriving the essential elements from the irrelevant
ones in order to promote each brand. The agency practises high level of commitment and
spirited teamwork for a common cause.

• McCann-Ericsson India Ltd:- Sorab Mistry (Head)

This advertising agency is a leading global agency and has the power and passion to achieve its
mission .McCann-Ericsson is known as a world class advertising agency and has found
outstanding talent in its employees.

• Leo Burnett:- Mr. Arvind Sharma (Chairman and CEO):

The advertising agency is totally idea-centric. It generates big brand ideas. It regards the pencil
as its engine no matter the size - it is the means through which it can generate plenty of creative
ideas. The agency is never too satisfied with its endless efforts in building up a brand. It believes
that the brands can become and remain leaders by building better ideas. It's no wonder that the
founder of the advertising agency, Leo Burnett, regards the pencil as a metaphor for the kind of
ideas he was coming up with for his clients.

• Grey worldwide (India) Pvt Ltd:- Mr. Nirvik Singh (President south east Asia &
chairman South Asia, Grey Global):

The agency handles above the line advertising for the Grey group. It has launched Dominos in
India. It has had Ambuja cement, Thums Up, Arrow, Lee and many more brands in its portfolio.

34
The mission of the agency is to remain the largest global integrated agency to leading brand
ideas.

The list of the top ten advertising agencies is not always stable and remains
interchanging. The additions and deletion of a few of them formulates the list. But each of them
are making their way to becoming the best, and their efforts are making are each making a mark
in the Indian advertising scenario.

35
CHILDREN &
ADVERTISING

36
4.1 Introduction

Advertising to children is the act of marketing or advertising products or services to children, as


defined by national legislation and advertising standards. Advertising to children is often the
subject of debate, relating to the alleged influence on children’s consumption. Rules on
advertising to children have largely evolved in recent years. In most countries, advertising for
children is now framed by a mix of legislation and advertising self-regulation.

 Scope and Form


Advertising to children can take place on traditional media – television, radio and print – as well
as new media (internet and other electronic media). Packaging, in-store advertising, event
sponsorship and promotions can also be means to advertise to children.

There is no universal definition of a child (although UNESCO - the United Nations


Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, defines early childhood as ages 0– 8 years).
Children are otherwise defined according to national jurisdictions. For the purposes of
advertising law, the definition of a child varies from one jurisdiction to another. However, 12 is
commonly used as a cut-off point, on the basis of the widespread academic view that by the age
of 12 children have developed their behavior as consumers, effectively recognize advertising
and are able to adopt critical attitudes towards it.

There is no global data on ad spending directed at children, only data for specific sectors.
According to the Federal Trade Commission, food and beverage companies (44 companies
reporting to the FTC) in the US spent approximately $1.6 billion in 2006 to promote their
products/services to children.

37
4.2 Advertising standards

In many countries worldwide, advertising is also governed by self-regulatory codes of conduct.


Advertisers, advertising agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards – a set
of ethical and behavioral rules they commit to respecting – which is enforced by a Self
Regulatory Organisation, often an independent industry-funded body, responsible for drafting,
amending and enforcing the code. Self-Regulatory Organizations for advertising are increasingly
following the best practice model agreed with regulators and consumer and public health groups
in Europe. At a minimum, the general aim of self-regulatory codes is to ensure that any
advertising is 'legal, decent, honest and truthful', but in most countries detailed rules are in place
for different advertising techniques and sectors.

Advertising self-regulation is built on different levels. On a global level, the International


Chamber of Commerce has drafted a global code on marketing communications. All forms of
marketing communications worldwide must conform to the ICC Consolidated Code on
Advertising and Marketing. The code includes a specific section, detailing the special care
needed when communicating with children.

Since 2006, a global code of practice on food marketing communications is also in place.
The Framework for Responsible Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverage Marketing Communications
of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) sets down global requirements for food and
beverage marketing communications on all media, including the internet Key provisions
include: the need for substantiation for claims or health benefits; no encouragement of excess
consumption; no representation of snacks as meals; no undermining of healthy lifestyle
messages; no undermining of the role of parents.

These codes provide a minimum requirement for marketing communications worldwide.


National self-regulatory codes, based on the ICC codes, are established, policed and enforced by

38
local Self-Regulatory Organisations (SROs) and industry in over 100 countries and apply to a
range of media, increasingly also including digital marketing communications. The ICC and
national codes are reviewed regularly to ensure that they remain relevant to local, cultural and
consumer concerns and that they promote best practice. The ICC Framework is applicable
globally but is a minimum standard designed to be adapted and transposed into SR codes at
national level. Many countries have implemented SR provisions that use the ICC Framework as
a basis, but go further in several respects, depending on local considerations. Examples include
Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Ireland, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, the UK
and the USA.

In addition to industry-wide self-regulation, individual companies and industry sectors


have introduced a wide range of additional provisions relating to marketing communications
directed at children. For example, most multinational food and beverage companies have
developed their own policies on food and beverage marketing communications to children and,
most recently, have announced the joint implementation of these individual commitments.

In July 2007, 10 of these companies (now 13) announced a common pledge in the US –
the Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative, mirroring a similar initiative by 15
companies in Canada – the Canadian Children’s Food & Beverage Advertising Initiative; and
followed by 11 companies in Europe with the EU Pledge. Under these initiatives, participating
companies will cease advertising to children under 12, other than products that meet specific
nutritional guidelines, based on international scientific recommendations. A similar Pledge
programme was launched by leading food companied in Thailand in May 2008 and in Australia
in mid-2009

39
4.3 Media Literacy

Media literacy is a relatively new discipline, aimed at teaching individuals and children in
particular to understand and use the media to their advantage. Media literacy is increasingly
recognized by governments and international organizations such as the European Union and the
World Health Organisation as a key tool to help children understand and deal with today’s
complex media environment.

Media Smart is an established media literacy education programme focused on


advertising. Launched in November 2002, Media Smart is a non-profit media literacy
programme for school children aged 6 to 11 years old. Media Smart develops and provides, free
of charge and on request, educational materials to primary schools that teach children to think
critically about advertising in the context of their daily lives. Media Smart materials use real
examples of advertising to teach core media literacy skills. Media Smart is funded by the
advertising business in the UK and is supported by the UK government and EU institutions.
Since 2002, Media smart has been launched in Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Finland,
Sweden, Portugal and Hungary.

Is it fair to advertise to children unless they fully understand the intent of the advertisers?
If young children do not understand that intent, then when do they develop that ability? Is
television an effective way to market products to children? Are the products (such as food and
toys) typically aimed at children, the type of products that children should be encouraged to
buy? Are children encouraged to buy or try unsuitable products (such as alcohol or tobacco)
from viewing advertisements even when those advertisements are not aimed at them?

40
Does advertising encourage a more materialistic attitude in children? Or is it appropriate
that children learn to be effective consumers from an early age? Does encouraging children to
buy products lead them to pester their parents and cause family disputes? Does television
advertising present an accurate or misleading image of the world to children?

Should advertising aimed at children be regulated? If so, how strict should that
regulation be and, in a global market place, should regulators draw up common guidelines
across different countries and cultures? Should we educate children about advertising, and if so,
who should take on the role of educator?
These are the questions that require to have a proper look at. Children aging around 15 in
India are having spending power. It is from their own allowances and earnings. Almost 30
percentage of Indian population belongs to this age group, and called to be the future of India.
But the fact is that out of every rupee the government spent, only five paisa went to child related
programmes. In Bihar, spending on per meal per child is about 15 paisa. Now can anyone
explain that what kind of nutritious food can be supplied at that rate?

When we talk of the Indian economy it is vastly segmented in different age groups with
different spending powers. Most of the Indian people live under the poverty line. But the others
are having a huge spending power with large amount of selection in the product basket. The
children from these segments are being targeted by the companies to generate the sales.

The market for selling products to children is potentially immense, and it is not
surprising that in those countries that have established traditions of advertising, much of that
advertising is aimed at children, often via television and other media.

41
4.4 Children and TV Advertising

In the 1940s and 1950s children were not considered consumers in their own right but only
extensions to their parents purchasing power. With the advent of television and other mass
media, children have come into their own right as consumers and, consequently, they have
become an important target market for the business. Advertisers are the first to recognize
children’s value as consumers who are capable of making decisions about spending.

The 1950s dates the modern era of children's television programming, when a deal
between struggling television network ABC and Disney brought The Mickey Mouse Club and
Disneyland into children's afternoon television programming. Advertising at that time appealed
generally to the personal gain of the consumer in the case they decided to purchase the
sponsored product. Over the next 15 to 20 years, children's television became an industry by
itself.

Throughout this history of children's television advertising, researchers have criticized in


different ways the use of television commercials directed to children (Tseng, 2004). In the late
1970s, a research team funded by National Science Foundation (NSF) estimated that children
viewed an average of about 20,000.- commercials per year (Adler in Singer, 2001). There was so
little study on this topic during the 1950s, the majority of the studies on children's television
advertising environment goes from the 1970s onward (Alexander et al. 1998).

42
Four types of products advertised to children during the 1970s were limited: toys,
cereals, candies and snacks, and fast foods. Male voiceovers accounted for the great majority of
ads coded, and animated characters seldom appeared (Barcus in Tseng, Eliana Shiao; 2004).
While marketers and advertisers heightened their interest in the child market during the 1980s,
research on children's television advertising of that period consisted mainly on replications and
extensions of previous studies (Tseng, 2004).

Children’s television advertising is rapidly becoming a major concern to government


agencies, citizens. groups and researchers in many areas of the social sciences ( Resnik, Stern
and Alberty; 1979).Children who watch a lot of television, want more toys seen in
advertisements and eat more advertised food than children who do not watch as much television
(Strasburger, 2002). Children also urge their parents and friends to be sure to watch certain
commercials (Fox in Jarlbo, 2000).

According to (Resnik, Stern and Alberty, 1979), television advertising and its effect on
consumption patterns, values, and social interaction have been hotly debated for many years.
But only recently has the controversy focused on its differential impact on special
interest groups- the elderly, minorities and children.

As many authors states, there are many television advertisements based on children and
it is faced that children urge their parents to purchase what they want without needing. For a
whole generation of new age children, television is as influential as a parent or a teacher
(Panwar, 2006). According to Wiman (1986), children who talk with their parents more
frequently about TV advertising and commercials make more purchase requests. Children
considered television to be one of life’s necessities. Studies commissioned by cable television
networks in USA, found that an average of 43 per cent of total purchases made by parents were
influenced by children (Cooper in Caruana, and Vassallo; 2003). Exposure to it was usually
extensive – before school, after school, during homework, at weekends, with or without friends
(Hanley, 2000). Marketers understand this fact very well. With the growing influence of media
on children, an increasingly large number of advertisements are today directed to them (Panwar,
Agnihotri, 2006).

43
Children, for example, who come from disadvantaged backgrounds, or those who have
less access to their parents may not only spend more time with the media. But, may continue to
rely more heavily on TV advertising for the information that they seek in various areas (Brown,
Childers, Bauman and Koch in Evra; 1995). Parents create direct opportunities by interacting
with their children about purchase requests, giving them pocket money and taking them to
shopping excursions (Ward, Wackman, and Wartella; 1977). Children spend a large amount of
time watching television. They pay more attention to commercials broadcast during children’s
programming. Commercials broadcast during children’s programming are designed to capture
the younger child’s attention by the use of cartoon characters, music, subjective camera angles
and editing (Stern & Harmon, 1986).

According to The Guardian newspaper, McDonalds, and Coca Cola spent respectively
34,6 million USD and 16,2 million USD for television advertisement presented for children. In
this situation, firms do not hesitate to spend their money for the related advertisements.
Therefore nowadays the expenditure of these advertisements has been increased dramatically
such as McDonalds and Coca Cola as well as Disney. They are the best known brand in the
world. It can be drawn conclusion from here that the role of children as consumer on the world’s
economy has rapidly increased. The common features of the above mentioned brands are easily
to find and focus on children and family in their advertisements.

According to McNeal (1992) American children spent over USD 132 billion on 62
product categories of products were influenced by children. The number of commercials per
hour on American television increased significantly towards the end of the decade. They provide
a strong indication that American children are today exposed to more than 25 000 commercials
per year via television (Kunkel & Roberts 1991). In 1997, $1,3 billion was spent on television
advertisements directed at children. Counting all media, advertising and marketing budgets
aimed at children approached $12 billion (McNeal, 1999). It is estimated that children may view
as many as 40,000 commercials each year (Strasburger, 2001). In one of the research project
about the influence of television advertising on children and teenagers, Hanley (2000) found that
the younger children (aged 9–11) were very vague in their recall of current television

44
advertising. The examples they came up with were often unbranded, with the recall attached to
the „story. or characters instead, e.g. Honey Monster (Sugar Puffs), cartoon elephant (Charmin
toilet roll). Older children (aged 12–16) recalled advertising they enjoyed or disliked. The appeal
often related to the „storyline., characters featured or the product. For instance, they mentioned
Rolo (elephant never forgets), as well as KitKat, Argos (toys), and McDonald.s. They identified
three main ways in which television advertising seemed to influence children: pester power;
Many parents felt that advertising had the power to make a significant impression on their
children. Those featuring children, cartoon characters, animals, „catchy. tunes and phrases,
colour, dynamic special effects, aspirational celebrity heroes, humor and children’s products
(e.g. confectionery, cereals and toys) were most likely to be referred to: www.itc.org.uk
Generally advertisers use interesting characters in their advertisement to catch children’s
attention. Sometimes these characters are not real. For example Corn Flakes, Nesquick
advertisements and etc (Hanley, 2000).

It was very common for the advertiser to show ads in which the child would acquire
superhuman strength by eating a specific breakfast cereal, or would leave a group of friends in
choking clouds of dust by running with the sponsored sneakers. Toys ads of that time were
sponsored by unknown brands, which would generally end up becoming famous after making
deals with the television station (Alexander et al; 1998).

Children’s ages are also significant to understand the advertisements. Children’s


comprehension of television advertising and its persuasive intent increases with age, because of
greater cognitive maturity and increased experience with the medium. Even a majority of 5-8
years old have only a low awareness of what a commercial really is; and although three quarters
of 9-12 year old children may demonstrate a medium level of awareness (eg. commercials tell
you what to buy) (Ward & Wackman in Evra; 1995). However it is possible to say that even
though they are very young to understand, the most important thing is the advertisements impact
on children.

De Bens and Vandenbruaene (1992 pg 27) conveys that children’s attention is affected
depending on whether they are watching TV alone, with their parents or with other children of

45
the same age. Children.s attention depends on whether they are playing, eating or occupied with
something else while watching TV. Generally it is assumed that these factors contribute to
reducing children’s attention to TV advertising (De Bens and Vandenbruaene, 1992).

In less developed countries the trend appears to follow the same pattern as in the
developed world, although the market size may be comparatively small. Increasingly, children
have become not passive observers, but active participants in the family purchase decisions. Not
only do children have their “own money” to spend on a variety of products and services of their
choice, they also have extensive influence on how their parents buy products and services
(Wimalasiri, 2004).

If children saw something new in a television advertisement or in a magazine that they


liked they were likely to buy it. This is in line with Buijzen and Valkenburg.s (2003) findings
that advertising is positively and directly related to children’s purchase requests. McGee in
Beder (1998, pg 100) says “children under aged 12 spend more than $11 billion of their own
money and influence family spending decisions worth another $165 billion on food, household
items like furniture, electrical appliances and computers, vacations, the family car and other
spending”. For example, one study estimated that children influenced $9 billion worth of car
sales in 1994. One car dealer explains: "Sometimes, the child literally is our customer. I have
watched the child pick out the car."(Stanley in Beder, 1998, pg 102)

Advertising offers consumer ideas and information, which we process and evaluate in
order to make rational choices. Brown (2004) defends advertising to children on just such
cognitive grounds: “Children are young consumers, interested in making choices and needing
information about them”.

46
4.5 TV Advertising & Children in India

More than half of television viewers in India today are children of below 15 years. And
yet there is hardly any sensitivity about the relevance and impact of what is dished out by
various television channels. All of them are operating in a competitive mode for one upmanship
in the race for viewership. In this order channels are concerned more about “what interests or
attracts” rather than what is “in the interest” of children. Neither the Government nor the
parents or the teachers seems to be concerned about this situation. For, the generation next and
the civil society of the country is shaped and molded by what they are exposed to today on the
“idiot-box” day in and day out.

47
Research studies over the year’s world over; have brought out various types of negative
impact of intense viewing of television by children. The direct influence of TV viewing on the
extent of violence and deviant behavior pattern of children has been reiterated – even in India.
In fact, there are a couple of confessions by adolescents, even a biography, as to how they
picked up ideas about a rape or robbery or revenge or killing or suicide or kidnap, etc from one
or other TV programme. Even some court judgments have commented on such effect of TV
programmes. That TV has a double-edged effect and that it is the negative character which
impacts more than positive potential often is known.

But what is not realized is that there are no serious efforts to explore positive virtues of
TV and that parents who should be more concerned about such a phenomena hardly do anything
about it. In fact, studies have brought out, for example, that in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh,
parents enjoy the same fare of TV along with their children and as keenly; where as in Tamil
Nadu and West Bengal, parents try to restrain their children in favor of some discriminative
viewing. Teachers and social activists in a couple of places have been occasionally
demonstrating about the influence of television contents. Political parties too do not seem to be
concerned to do something about. BJP, however, had referred to this adverse trend in its
election manifesto a few years ago. But did nothing on coming to power.

Even the code for advertising, although outdated and inadequate, is conscious of
“implications” to children of certain broadcasts and realizes the scope for misuse. For example,
under the code no advertisements should be accepted which lures children to believe that if they
do not own or use the product advertised they will be inferior to other children or that they are
liable to ridicule for not owning or using a particular brand. However, in reality there is neither
strict monitoring of the advertisements nor a rigid follow-up despite that many ads on television
fall under this category. And most of these children’s channels have become marketing outlets
for brands altogether to India.

Against this background and in this context there are certain recent trends on the Indian
TV scene, which need to be taken note. More and more channels are going for “children’s
programmes”. In fact, more channels are coming in describing themselves as “children’s

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channel” or positioning themselves as such. Most of these are beamed into the country as if no
one in the country, the Government the least, is concerned about such a trend. What is not taken
note is that:

(a) Most of these children’s channels and programmes are of foreign origin or remake of them
and are reruns over the years,

(b) They do not have anything to do with enrichment or supplementary scope for school
education or imparting moral standards (there are of course some good pre-school programmes);

(c) Some of these foreign channels are now entering their second phase in the country taking to
marketing of toys and tools for children promoted in these serials.

And, worse, as a result of all this, there has been a decline recently in the extent of
locally originated programmes for children even in Indian channels. To complicate the matter
further these foreign programmes for children are now being dubbed into Indian languages.

There are international lobbies operating aggressively to thrust upon animation serials for
children on countries like India. That is how today cartoons have become synonymous for
Children’s TV. Most of these serials are produced after so much research. But not for ensuring
educational or general knowledge aspects but for capturing and retaining eyeballs of children
again and again and to see their serials have certain “dope-effect” on children.

This recent launch of DTH services in a competitive mode brings out the urgency for
Government take a view of this proliferation of uninhibited foreign fare for children and doing
something about it so that television is also used with more concern and for positive ends.

The least the Government should do is to prescribe that every channel being down linked
must have certain percent of locally produced and originating programmes for children. In fact,
in the case of children channels, this percentage of locally originated programmes has to be
higher. Canada and European Union countries have one or other provisions in this regard. If
France has prescribed 30 percent of contents of channels should be locally originated, India
should go for a higher percentage, not less.

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India has a rich tradition of enriching children with folk tales and grandma tales and
imparting values and imparting discipline and moral values in an entertaining format. When
some of us advocated and argued a couple of decades ago for expansion of TV network in the
country and for going for color television, one hope was that children’s fare will get some
priority and all that treasure of India gets a chance to figure. But what is happening now is
contrary. The exceptions are only a few. For, there is a decline in the extent of children’s
participation even in national channels. The best specific examples of course are Malguidi
Days, Panchatantra, Tenaliraman and the like. Realizing these strengths of Indian tradition,
some foreign producers are scouting in India to capture talent for television, particularly in
animation format. But what about our own initiatives?

We do not seem to learn from our experiences. All India Radio in the earlier years has
set good examples for children’s programmes, which were enriching as well as entertaining and
supplementary to school education. In fact, the format of those AIR programmes was such that
they were participatory and empowering confidence and courage building in children and
respect for elders and environment. Today most imported children’s programmes are all out to
promote materialism, selfishness, consumerism and “at any cost” approach to life.

Realizing the significance of media in the context of children, a few years ago UN has
prescribed annual day for mass media when children are supposed to be the producers of media
contents. It is a good symbolic initiative. But it should be followed up by some support to
promote “creative TV software” for children of 6 – 12 age groups, in particular. For, there is
UN Convention on Rights of Child with a set of standards to promote well being of children.
Unfortunately, there is no public trust or foundation of civil society in India for this purpose.
Even Public Service Broadcasting Trust, which is a good initiative otherwise, is yet to be
concerned about children’s interests.
It is most unfortunate that neither of the plethoras of Government agencies claiming
concern for children has taken note of this vacuum. Not even the Ministry of Information &
Broadcasting. All this despite ample creative talents across the country to produce more
positive, pro-active and relevant software for children than what is available now. It is

50
unfortunate that the Government has neither taken pro-active or re-active initiatives in this
regard. While we have a Children’s Film Society to promote films for children and a Children’s
Book Trust, we have none for television despite the number of children who see television is
several times more and, even more critically, the frequency of their viewing television is more
than a couple of hours a day.

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4.6 How Children Process Advertisements

To be effective, marketing campaigns must get children to attend to the message, desire a
specific product, recognize and remember that product, and purchase it. How well children
understand the persuasive intent of advertisements also affects the success of commercials.

Attention.
Commercials that are designed to attract and hold children’s attention are characterized by lively
action, sound effects, and loud music. The animated character Tony the Tiger, for example,
bursts onto the screen, proclaiming that Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes are “GRRRRRREAT!!” One
study found that preschoolers paid more attention to commercials full of action, sound effects,
and loud music than to more low-key commercials. Audio features are particularly important in
gaining children’s attention. Another study found that children aged three to eight were more
attentive to commercials that were higher in audio than in video complexity. Audio features
have more recruiting power than visual features because interesting sounds can get children who
are not looking at the television screen to direct their visual attention to it. These findings are
consistent with Piaget’s insight that young children are especially focused on the attention-
getting perceptual qualities of presentations. Children’s patterns of attention help reveal how
well they can make distinctions between the commercial and the television program.
In one study, researchers trained mothers to examine their children’s visual attention to
Saturday morning cartoons and advertisements. The mothers reported that the younger children
(five to eight) continued to pay attention when a commercial came on but that children older
than eight looked away. The older children’s awareness of the break in the content suggests that
they are less susceptible than the younger children to the effects of advertising.

Recognition and retention.


Advertisers use visual and auditory production techniques and repetition to enhance children’s
memory of the content. One study found that preschool, kindergarten, and second-grade children
remembered food products that had been advertised audio visually or visually better than they

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remembered products presented in an audio version only. Advertisers use catchy auditory
features, such as jingles, repetitively in commercials to reach child audiences. Song lyrics and
rhymes can replay in children’s heads, leading to automatic rehearsal and memory of content.
When children are shown the same commercial repeatedly, they are more likely to remember the
product advertised. Repetition also undermines children’s, even older children’s, defenses
against product messages.

Comprehension of commercial intent.


As noted, children younger than age eight do not understand that the intent of commercials is to
persuade them to buy one product over another; instead they see commercials as a means of
informing them about the vast number of attractive products that they can buy. In a key study
demonstrating the developmental advance during middle childhood, Thomas Robertson and
John Rossiter questioned first-, third-, and fifth-grade boys about their understanding of
commercials. Only half of the first-grade boys understood the persuasive intent of commercials,
as against 87 percent of third graders and 99 percent of fifth graders.

Product requests and purchases.


What aspects of exposure to commercial messages lead to product requests? Researchers have
found that repetition, in particular, increases children’s requests for, and purchases of, specific
food, beverage, and toy products. One study, for example, measured three- to eleven-year-old
children’s overall exposure to advertisements at home and to specific advertisements in their
laboratory. They then had children visit a mock grocery store with a parent. Children who were
exposed to more overall advertisements at home and who were most attentive to advertisements
in the laboratory setting made the most requests for the advertised products. Premiums—bonus
toys and treats that accompany the product—also increase children’s product requests. For
instance, Charles Aitkin found that 81 percent of mothers thought that premiums influenced
their children’s cereal selections. The more children watched Saturday morning television
programs, which are saturated with cereal commercials, the more children wanted the cereals
that contained premiums. Free downloads such as screen savers serve similar functions in newer
technologies, but researchers have not yet fully examined the effects of such practices.

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4.7 Marketing Promos Targeting Children

Children play an important role in the household decision making process by attempting to
influence their parents acquisition, usage and disposition behavior. The most common is that
children nag until their parents finally give in. Research finds that success of such attempts on
the type of offering, characteristics of the parents, age of the child and stage of the process.

Children are more likely to influence the parents for the purchase of child related
products as cereals, cookies, snacks, car vacation and new computer technologies. For clothing
and toys, children often use that argument that “Everyone else has one” and because parents
want to avoid being identified as ‘scrim piers’ they will often given in.

Interestingly, children consistently overestimate how much influence they have in most
of the decisions.

Working and single parents on the other hand are more likely to give in because thay
face more time pressures. Another important finding is that the older the child the more
influence he/she will exert on the parents.

Targeting Children
Marketers are increasingly targeting the young children because of the influence that these kids
have on their parents; buying decision. Advertisers are influencing the kids through various
educational programs, games and certain other promotional events. The promos aim at
increasing the brand visibility and developing an emotional connect with the kids.

In India, kids have a considerable amount of demographic representation which


marketers want to capitalize on. Marketers are targeting the kids because kids influence buying

54
decisions, they exert pressure on the parents for a certain product purchase and they are the
future adult consumers.

In the earlier days, marketers aimed at influencing the parents for purchase related to
kid’s products. Of late, marketers are trying to influence the kids directly through various
promos and contests that provide them with lots of fun and adventure. By doing so, marketers
are aiming to occupy the young minds successfully.

Generally, the contests are specially designed to target a particular age group of kids.
The response from the kids is usually high because of the emotional tie-ups which is generated
by the promos. This is the major success factor for the marketers. The common thing in all these
promos is that they provide fun and adventure to the kids.

A Bag of Contests from Marketers

Rasna – Slogan Contest


Rasna conducted a slogan contest for the kids between the age group of 4-10 years. The contest
was very simple. The kids has to complete a slogan “I love rasna juc up because …….” and send
the same along with 10 single served sachets of Rasna.

A panel of judges was identified to decide the winners of the contest. Ten lucky winners
could enjoy a ride on a flight with Karisma Kapoor who was the brand ambassador of Rasna.
The participants who could not make it to the finals were also entitled to win 1000 early bird
prizes.

Britania – “Jetix Power Your Rangers Contest”


This was one of the biggest kids contest conducted in India. The kids were given a call by the
rangers to save them from trouble by powering them through dinogems which was hid by the
villains. The dinogems were hidden in the fort of evil and the map was destroyed. The kids

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through this contest had to put together and indentify the dinogems which ultimately powered
the rangers.

The contest was aired on the television channels everyday. With every pack of Britania
treat, one part of the map was given (fortress of Evil). The kids had to collect the dinogems. By
the end of contest, the dinogems which was the power source of rangers.

The entries could be through SMS, phone calls or by e-mails. Five lucky winners made a trip to
New Zealand with their families. Fifty five other winners were given playStation and power
ranger game. Besides, 10,000 quick gun prizes and “Power your ranger bravery medals” were
also given.

Maggi Quiz contest


This contest was held for students of IV, V and VI classes and included questions on general
knowledge and individual subjects. The first round was an intra school written quiz competition.
The second round was an oral quiz round and for the winners of the first round. The final contest
was conducted between six teams comprising of two students each. During these quiz round,
audience questions were also asked. The winning team was given Maggie gift packets and the
members of the audiences who participated in the quiz were given sample packs of Maggi.

Kellogg Mobile Contest


Kellogs India in association with mobile2win presented a contest for kids in the age group 4-11.
The theme of this contest was about rescuing chocos from crafty croc.

Crafty croc. Was the villain who was threatening the brand mascot Choco bear about
stealing chocos from him. All kids who wanted to participate in the contest had to buy a pack of
chocos and solve the cues provided on the pack in the form of crossword puzzles. Once the
puzzle was solved, a name would be revealed which had to be sent to the company. The
company then decides the winner on the basis of lots.

Boomer Bubble Blowing Championship

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This championship was conducted in different cities. Wrigly, the bubblegum making company,
conducted this contest in which the winners of the contest were given a chance to be with the
boomer man in the boomer television commercial.
The entire process was very simple. The kid who could blow the biggest bubble was the
winner. The contest was open to kids within the age group of 8-12 years. The contest was held
in two cites and two winners were selected from each city and the final winner was selected
form that. The contest was held in schools, malls, residential complexes and market locations.
Massive media support was given to this contest.

Apsara Excellence Awards Arts Contest


An arts contest was conducted by Hindustan Pencils Limited. The contest targeted four divisions
of students depending on the class in which they were studying. These divisions included
students of kindergarten and nursery, those studying in I to IV, V to VII and from VIII to X
classes.

All the required material like pencils, sharpeners, erasers, pastle colors, water colors was
provided by Hinduatan Pencils to the contestants. The results were declared on the spot by
evaluating the entries. The evolution was done by a panel of judges comprising of eminent
artists. All students got a certificate of participation and the winners were given special prizes.
The best entry was awarded with the Apsara Excellence Award Rotating Trophy.

Many more such contests have been conducted by marketers like Funskool which
conducted the “Little Pet Shop Coloring Contest”, Cadbury with the Bournvita quiz contest,
ITC’s “Classmate notebooks young authors contest” and so on.

Marketers Expectation
The marketers conducting such contests usually aim for brand recall which would get converted
into sales after the contests.

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“Kids are generally open to experimentation and if you can weave them into your game
plan, they can be excellent ‘Carriers’ of new innovations and quality products in to homes’, says
Vijay Subramaniam, General Manager (Laundry and Homecare), Henkel India.

The marketers provide excitement to the kids through fun and adventure programs and
ultimately aim to increase the sales considerably.

By organizing such contests, the marketers prompt the kids to buy and use their products
once. Also these contests generate a demand for the products. By aiming at brand recall the
marketers aim at increasing their market share considerably.

Another important aspect that the marketers consider is the ‘pester power’ of the children
which pressurizes the parents to make many buying decisions. Contests also introduces a ‘me
too’ attitude in kids. When a kid participates in a contest it influences the other children to
participate. The marketers thereby try to make the maximum from these contests.

Conclusion

Marketing through contests and influencing kids is not a favorable option many of the times.
Even though they generate a lot of fun and excitement, launching very aggressive marketing
campaigns could create some ill effects on the children and thereby gain the wrath of the
parents. Hence, the parents and elders in the families must ensure that the kids do not fall prey to
these kinds of promos. Apart from this, the government should take some initiatives and put
some restrictions on such ads.

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4.8 Effects of Advertisements on Children

Advertisements are meant to influence the minds of the target group that should ultimately result
in a sale for the client. However, sometimes, it can raise many questions when targeted for
children. Read on to know about the various effects of advertising on children.

Does advertising have a strong hold over the way we think or act? Does the mass media
dictate our needs and wants? Well, there are plenty of theories about the effects of advertising.
Various creative heads that belong to different advertising agencies are often churning out new
ideas to deliver their message to the public. Children form the major chunks of the target group
for advertisers. Many advertisements aimed towards children are a sole proof of this fact. The
prime motive of any advertisement is to convince the viewer about the quality of the product and
instill that urge in him/her to purchase the same. Today, advertising plays an important role in
the society, as it tends to influence young minds in particular.

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The first prime motive of advertising is to attract attention. With children, the messages
need to be conveyed in a different manner. Goods are particularly packaged in order to appeal to
the younger generation. Children today, are more specific about their needs and wants. Children
are therefore reckoned to be a major ‘buying force’ by advertisers.

However, advertising can also have a negative influence over young minds if parents are
not really careful and do not teach their children about the importance of money. In many cases,
children tend to misinterpret the messages conveyed through the advertisement. They end up
having wrong notions about many issues. Advertising influences the minds of children, which
creates a need to own that particular product being advertised. Glossy images on the magazines
or billboards or flashy advertisements on television only create the urge for impulsive buying.
Parents who cannot deal with the rising demands or temper tantrums only tend to give in to the
demands of their children. Children then get used to a certain kind of lifestyle, which is shown
on the television or through various media. This only creates a very wrong impression on their
young minds making them lose the ability to live a life without relying on materialistic joys. The
power of advertising thus, cannot be ignored.
For example, a child may prefer only a specific pair of branded jeans as compared to other
clothing available in stores. He/she may want to live the life that is projected in the
advertisements. The child may dictate to his/her parents about personal preferences in clothing,
food, toys etc.

Well, with these kinds of effects of advertising, one wonders who is to be blamed in this whole
issue. Parents play a major role in this case. They need to monitor what influences the minds of
children. Parents also need to be firm with children whenever their demands increase. Children
need to be told gently that a ‘no’ cannot be converted into a ‘yes’ with tears or brawls! Parents
also need to instill good habits and help children to differentiate between right and wrong. And
the sooner it’s told, the better it would be for the child and subsequently parents as well.
Advertisers on the other hand, can also try to put their message across creatively and target the
entire family rather than just children. This will ensure even parents stay within the loop and can

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monitor the demands of the children. With a balanced approach, the negative effects of
advertising can surely be curbed to a great extent.

The ad filmmakers are formulating fresh ways of enticing the consumers to buy their
products. If an advertisement for a product attracts the consumers, they tend to purchase it
frequently, or at least buy it once. If a company has to survive in this competitive world, he/she
has to project the image of its products in such a way that they pick up the maximum sales,
when they hit the stores. The best way to persuade the consumer to stick to the product of the
particular brand, when numerous choices are provided to him/her in the market, is attractive
advertisement. However, the ad filmmakers should remember that the commercials can also
have negative IMPACT on people, especially the young children. In this article, we have
presented some of the most visible effects of advertising on children, positive as well as
negative.

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There is great concern about children as viewers of advertisements primarily because
young children are exposed to thousands of commercials each year in India. Marketers use
television as a medium of communication since it affords access to children at much earlier ages
than print media can accomplish, largely because textual literacy does not develop until many
years after children have become regular television viewers.

Approximately, 80% of all advertising targeted to children falls within four product
categories: toys, cereals, candies, and fast-food restaurants. Young children are able to
differentiate between a TV program and a commercial but are unable to understand the intent of
an advertisement until they are 8-10 years of age. According to Seiter, advertising to children
avoids any appeal to the rational, emphasizing instead that ads are for entertainment and
"enjoyable for their own sake" as opposed to providing any real consumer information.

The most common persuasive strategy employed in advertising to children is to associate


the product with fun and happiness, rather than to provide any factual product-related
information. Hence, children in the age category 8-10 years have a positive attitude towards
advertisements. Knowledge of advertising tactics and appeals emerges only in early adolescence
and develops thereafter. The ability to recognize bias and deception in ads, coupled with an
understanding of advertising's persuasive intent, results in less trust and less liking of
commercials. With increasing age, children's attitude towards ads changes from being positive to
negative and further as children step into adolescence, they become skeptical of advertising.
Children in young adolescence even exhibited mistrustful predispositions towards advertising. In
adolescents, knowledge about advertiser tactics increased with age. Higher levels of knowledge
of advertiser tactics and certain personality variables were positively related to adolescents'
skepticism towards advertising.

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Positive Effects of Advertisements on Children

• Advertising makes the kids aware of the new products available in the market. It
increases their knowledge about the latest innovations, in the field of technology as well
as otherwise.
• Convincing ads, which center around healthy food products, can help improve the diet of
a child, if they are attractive enough.

Negative Effects of Advertisements on Children

• Advertisements encourage the children to persuade their parents to purchase the products
shown in the commercials, whether useful or not. The little ones tend to get adamant, if
they are not bought the product.
• Children often tend to misinterpret the messages conveyed in commercials. They
overlook the positive side and concentrate more on the negatives.
• Many advertisements in the present times include dangerous stunts, which can be
performed only by experts. Even though the commercials broadcast the statutory
warnings with the ad, the kids often try to imitate the stunts at home, with fatal results.
• The flashy advertisements broadcast in television generate impulse shopping in children.
• Children, after watching the glitter of commercials, often lose the ability to live a life
without materialistic joy.
• The kids usually get more attracted towards the costly branded products, such as jeans
and accessories. They disregard the inexpensive, but useful, ones that are not shown in
the commercials.
• Advertisements have an indirect effect on the behavior of children. They might develop
temper tantrums, when deprived of the latest toys and clothes that are shown in the
commercials.
• The personal preferences in clothing, toys, food and luxurious of children are altered by
the advertisements, to a great extent.

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• Junk foods, such as pizzas, burgers and soft drinks, are heavily promoted during
children's TV viewing time. This develops a craving for fatty, sugary and fast foods in
kids, thereby affecting their health adversely.

Rules &
Regulations of
advertising to
children

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5.1 Rules and Regulations of Advertising to
Children in India

Like Canada, The UK, and other countries featured in this series, in India
there are specific rules and legislation concerning advertising and children.
However, children in India seem to be particularly vulnerable to the
infringement of these regulations, which is unfortunately a common
occurrence.

Television

The Cable Act provides guidelines for programmes and advertisements on


television. All programmes must adhere to the codes before being
transmitted. The codes of the Cable Act include the following provisions
relating to children:

• Programmes on cable television should not denigrate children.


• Programmes meant for children should not contain any bad language
or explicit scenes of violence.
• Programmes for adults should normally be aired after 11 pm and
before 6 am
• Programmes unsuitable for children must not be shown at times when
the largest numbers of children are viewing.

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• Unhealthy practices’ showing children begging or acting in an
undignified or indecent way are prohibited.

A first offence for contravening the Cable Act is punishable with up to two
years imprisonment or with a fine of up to 1000 rupees (£12) or both. For
subsequent offences, the punishment is prison for up to five years and a fine
of up to 5000 rupees (about £60).

Books and magazines

Publications that are deemed ‘harmful’ to children in India are regulated by


the Young Act. ‘Harmful publications’ are defined as ‘books, magazines,
pamphlets, leaflets … wherein stories are told portraying criminal offences,
acts of violence or cruelty, incidents of repulsive or horrible nature, in such a
way that the publication as a whole tends to corrupt a child into whose
hands it might fall, whether by inciting or encouraging the child to commit
offences or acts of violence or cruelty or in any other manner.’ The Young
Act details penalties for the sale, hire, distribution, public exhibition,
circulation, printing, production or possession of harmful publications.
Advertising a ‘harmful publication’ is punishable by up to six months
imprisonment, with or without a fine. The court can also order destruction of
the offending publication.

Shaktiman

The children’s television series Shaktiman has been a cause of controversy


in India for several years. Children across the country have attempted to

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emulate their hero, Shaktiman, with tragic consequences. Since 1998 there
have been several accidents and fatalities as children have risked their lives
believing that Shaktiman will be there. There have been several court cases
to stop save them, or that they can assume his powers broadcast of the
programme, but as litigation in India often takes place over several years,
most of the cases are still pending. However, the legal process has resulted
in a caution notice being displayed at the beginning of the programme,
aimed at children and parents, highlighting that Shaktiman is a fictional
character and his actions should not be imitated. Unfortunately the law does
not seem to have solved the problem. On 23 June 2004 a nine-year-old
school girl in Kolkata accidentally hung herself by attempting to twirl in the
air like the superhero.

Advertisements

There are no specific guidelines about acceptable advertisements aimed at


children in India. However, if there is a complaint about an ad it may be
withdrawn after consideration by the Advertising Standards Council. For
example, an advertisement for a child’s drink was withdrawn as it featured
six children at the top of their class at school, implying the drink had given
them exam success. There is also no law in India which lays down guidelines
for the use of child models in advertisements. Whether children should work
in this way is a matter of current debate, but there has been no legislation
passed as yet. However, there are some strict laws relating to advertising
and children. Selling, hiring, distributing, exhibiting or circulating an obscene
object to a person under the age of 20 years is punishable with
imprisonment for a term of up to three years or fine of up to 2000 rupees
(£26) or both. Subsequent offences are punishable with an imprisonment of
up to four years and a fine of up to 5000 rupees (£60).

Internet

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Regulation on the internet in India is strict. The IT Act penalizes publication
and transmission of material which is obscene, lascivious or appeals to
prurient interest. The Act can be invoked for such material on the ground
that it has the propensity to corrupt the minds of children.

Film

The Board of Film Certification grants appropriate viewing ratings for films. If
a film is suitable for all and subject to no restrictions it will be given a U
certificate. A UA certificate is granted for films where children under 12 must
be accompanied by an adult in the cinema. A film that is not suitable for
under-18s is given an A certificate. The granting or refusal of film certificates
is published in the Gazette of India (an official government publication that
discloses changes in the law or the introduction of new regulations). The
certification once granted is valid for a period of 10 years.

Infant milk substitutes

The Indian government is committed to promoting and protecting


breastfeeding. The parliament passed the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding
Bottles and Infant Foods (Regulation of Production, Supply and Distribution)
Act in 1992. This act prohibits the promotion of infant foods, infant milk
substitutes and feeding bottles. This is to ensure ‘that no impression is given
that feeding of these products is equivalent to, or better than,
breastfeeding’. Violations of the act result in imprisonment for up to three
years and/ or a fine of up to 5000 rupees.

Cigarettes and alcohol

In India there are central government guidelines on the sale of cigarettes


and alcohol, but each state has a different age limit for the consumption of

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alcohol and tobacco – for example, you must be over 25 years of age to buy
alcohol in New Delhi. Most shops that sells cigarettes and alcohol display a
sign showing the age restrictions in that state.
Advertising in schools

There are no bars on advertising in schools in India. In fact, Coca-Cola and


Pepsi offer several sponsorships to schools, particularly for sporting
activities.

 Legal Implications:
In India, there are no specific advertising laws that relate to children and food-related
advertisements in particular. A host of laws and Acts like the 'Cable TV Networks (Regulation)
Act, 1995' and the 'Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Food Act' deal with
children-related advertising in a vague way. Not only are there advertisements that are targeted
at children but a host of them that feature young children, even babies.
In most parts of the world, there are few or no specific rules concerning food advertising
to children beyond the rules which must apply to all advertising. In India, even general rules
pertaining to advertising are very lax. Also, there are no regulatory bodies that monitor TV
advertisements. Apart from the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting that decides to
intervene when it wants to, there are only voluntary groups like the 'Advertising Agencies
Association of India', and the 'Advertising Standards Council of India', both of which are
business organizations and can only put moral pressure on advertisers and companies to
withdraw objectionable advertisements. There is urgent need for voluntary and government
pressure groups to seriously take note of the situation. The government needs to draft and
implement laws that do not deal with advertising in general but are specific and relate to every
aspect of advertising, especially those that target young children and pertain to food. In other
parts of the world, there exist voluntary groups like the 'Adbusters' and 'Mothers groups' that
watch and pressure governments to clamp down on aggressive and intrusive advertising. At

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present there are various laws implemented by government under various ministries. The various
laws are as follows:

A. Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (Ministry of Health)

The act lays down specifications for various food products. It is mandatory.

B. Agriculture Produce (Grading & Marking) Act (Ministry of Rural Development)

This Act is commonly known as AGMARK. The Act lays down the specifications for various
agricultural commodities including some processed foods.

C. Laws being operated by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)

BIS is the standard body for formulating standards for various food items. These standards are
also voluntary.

D. Essential Commodities Act

1. Harmonization of Food Laws:

It is very essential to have one unified and logical law for food regulation than having numerous
laws for the same. Following action is being taken by various ministries at present:

• The paper brought out by The Ministry of Civil Supplies & Consumer Affairs, it is
recommended for BIS to formulate standards for all food items in India, which is a good
step towards harmonization. Part IV – Advertising & Society International Marketing
Conference on Marketing & Society, 8-10 April, 2007, IIMK 310

• As per the task force set up by Prime minister under the chairmanship of Shri Nulsi
Wadia, a suggestion has been made to set up a Food Regulation Authority (FRA) to
formulate and update food standards for domestic and export market. Also,
Harmonization of Indian standard with quality norms of Codex and WTO. Hence it is
important that unified law is developed as early as possible.

70
 Education and parental involvement

Parental involvement in determining desirable programming is the best choice. Parents have to
monitor and control their children’s viewing habits. Studies show that parents play an important
role in their children’s social learning, but if a parent’s views are not discussed explicitly with
children, the medium may teach and influence by default. Other media, such as magazines,
radio,
video games and the Internet, also have the potential to influence children’s eating habits,
exercise habits, buying habits and mental health. If children are allowed to be exposed to these
media without adult supervision, they may have the same deleterious effects as television.
People should be more aware to what kind of advertisement are shown to the children & when
some company say that the product have nutritional value and stuff, it should be verified from
the trusted source. Be an alert citizen is the message. Parents should be educated with respect to
what should be healthy food as per proper nutritional intake for their children.

 Role of schools

Schools can also play a very active role in making sure that students get healthy diet at its
canteen. It is very important that schools do not stock junk food in their canteen, by getting lured
by approach of fast food and soft drink companies to stock their stuff. Since children spend most
of their time in school, schools can imbibe on children’s mind what a healthy diet should
consists
of.

 Statutory Warning

Since the intake of junk food & carbonated drinks causes numerous diseases such as obesity,
hypertension, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), gall bladder ailments, cancer, psycho-social
problems, breathlessness, sleep disorders, asthma, arthritis, weak bones and reproductive
hormone abnormalities. So it should come with statutory warnings as in the case of junk food
carbonated drinks & milk powder such as “Intake of this food more than twice a week is not
good for health.”

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 Advertisement Code

Advertisement Code to be monitored by an organization which will take care of the


following:

• Before any AD is aired on television, the most sought medium by children some code of
conduct should be followed. Any food AD should be scrutinized with regards to the
claims they are making & the food ingredients should meet some standards laid down by
recognized organization like WHO.
• The stipulated time limit for advertisement is followed by the companies or not. TV
Channels generally do not follow any rules regarding advertising air time. Doordarshan
poses a limit on advertising time which is a maximum of 7.5 minutes of advertisements
in a 30 minute programme. Private TV channels are free to air as many advertisements
they like. This is primarily the reason why on some private channels, a 30-minute TV
programme gets stretched to 45 minutes or even more.

 Broadcasting codes for AIR/ Doordarshan

Advertising Code:

AIR and Doordarshan has responsibility to ensure that the advertisements shown either in terms
of contents, tone or treatment, do not mislead the listeners and viewers as well as the consumers
are not repugnant to good taste. The earnings of commercial revenue are not the sole criteria of
Part IV – Advertising & Society
International Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society, 8-10 April, 2007, IIMK
311
Prasar Bharti. Thus the code has stricter provisions and the main features of the code are as
follows:

• Tobacco products including 'Pan Masala' and liquors are not permitted.

72
• The goods and services advertised should be in consonance with the laws of the country
enacted to protect the rights of the consumers.

• The commercial should never project a derogatory image of women and should not
endanger the safety of children.

• Such code of conduct should be made compulsory to private channels also. Government
has enacted ‘The Commercial Advertisements on Electronic Media (Regulation) Bill,
2005’ which lays down standards for advertisements on electronic media..

 The government should indulge more into Social Advertising as its positive impact on
kids & society is enormous. Laws related to Advertising should be made more stringent as in the
case of foreign countries such as Europe & America.
Summary

There are a few laws which deal with child related advertising issues in India,
although these are by no means comprehensive. In practice television
channels often flout even the existing vague laws with great impunity. Also
there is no particular legal framework for sponsorship of children’s
programmes on television so advertising to children in this way is
unregulated. The debate over advertising junk food to children is also raging
in India. However, despite these negatives, advertising law has come a long
way in India and increased awareness of the issues concerning advertising
to children is improving the situation.

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5.2 Worldwide Regulation and criticism
of Advertising to Children

In the United Kingdom, Greece, Denmark, and Belgium advertising to children is restricted and
in Quebec, Sweden and Norway advertising to children under the age of 12 is illegal.

The European Union also has framework legislation in place, which sets down minimum
provisions on advertising to children for its 27 member States. The EU Audiovisual Media
Services Directive, due to replace the Television Without Frontiers Directive in all member
states by the end of 2009, sets out several EU-wide rules on advertising and children:

Advertising shall not cause moral or physical detriment to minors, and shall therefore
comply with the following criteria for their protection:

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 It shall not directly exhort minors to buy a product or a service by exploiting their
inexperience or credulity;
 It shall not directly encourage minors to persuade their parents or others to purchase the
goods or services being advertised;
 It shall not exploit the special trust minors place in parents, teachers or other persons;
 Children’s programmes may only be interrupted if the scheduled duration is longer than
30 minutes
 Product placement is not allowed in children’s programmes.
 The Member States and the Commission should encourage audiovisual media service
providers to develop codes of conduct regarding the advertising of certain foods in
children’s programmes.

In the United States the Federal Trade Commission studied the issue of advertising to
children in the 1970s and they restricted advertising to children.

One of the main areas of regulation facing fast food companies is the advertising of "junk food"
to children. In the United Kingdom, the Children's Food Bill is intended to highly regulate the
advertising of such food aimed at children, and many other countries are looking to introduce
strict limitations on fast food advertising. Talks between the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and
the fast food companies were initiated to work together in an effort to improve children's diets,
though Burger King withdrew from the discussions.

Some organisations have called for the watershed to apply to various unhealthy
foodstuffs, including fast food. In June 2006, the FSA called for laws to prevent such food from
being advertised on television before 9pm. They also called for the disassociation of television
and film characters from fast food and stopping celebrities from appearing in such
advertisements. The impact of such campaigns is often denied by the fast food companies and
the television networks that carry their advertisements. Some networks have also said that tighter
regulations would reduce advertising income and that would have a negative impact on the

75
quality of children's programming. In Sweden all advertising aimed at the under-12s is banned,
including fast food adverts.

Faced with stricter television, radio and print regulation, many fast food companies have
started making use of Internet advertising to reach their customers.

The accuracy of the images of food used by the fast food companies is regularly called
into question. The actual product is often described as being of poorer quality to that represented
in the image.

On 3 June 2004 KFC withdrew American television commercials claiming that "fried
chicken can, in fact, be part of a healthy diet" after reaching a settlement with the Federal Trade
Commission.

Fast food advertising is often complained about to advertising authorities, with members
of the public most usually claiming that the wording is misleading. Not all the complaints are
upheld. For example, between 11 September 2002 and 24 March 2004 the Advertising Standards
Authority (ASA) in the UK investigated complaints about six McDonald's advertisements, with
two of them being upheld. The ASA used one of the upheld complaints as a case study.

In 2006 the European Union passed a new law regarding the labeling of foods - any food
with a nutritional claim (such as "low fat") must also highlight that it is high in something else
(such as "high salt") if that is the case. While fast food is often not given a traditional label, this
may have an impact on advertising.

In November 2006, the Office of Communications (Ofcom) announced that it would ban
television adverts for junk food before, during and after television programming aimed at under-
16s in the United Kingdom. These regulations were originally outlined in a proposal earlier in
the year. This move has been criticized on both ends of the scale; while the Food and Drink
Federation labeled the ban "over the top", others have said the restrictions do not go far enough
(particularly due to the fact that soap operas would be exempt from the ban). On 1 April 2007,
junk food advertisements were banned from programmes aimed at four to nine-year-olds. Such

76
adverts broadcast during programmes "aimed at, or which would appeal to," ten to fifteen-year-
olds will continue to be phased out over the coming months, with a full ban coming into effect
on 1 January 2009.

5.3 Regulation of Marketing Practice

Because of age-based limits in children’s ability to understand advertiser intent, the Federal
Communications Commission has placed safeguards into the television advertising marketplace
to protect young child audiences. Among the guidelines is the separation principle, which
consists of three components. First, the transitions between an advertisement and the program
content must be distinct; the program must use a constant production convention, such as “After
these messages, we’ll be right back,” to separate program and commercial content. Second,
“host selling” is not allowed. That is, the main characters on a television program cannot sell

77
products during that program or during blocks of commercial time adjacent to it. And, third,
products being sold cannot be integrated into program content (a practice that resembles the
common practice of product placements). In addition, the FCC has limited the time allocated to
commercial content during a given hour of children’s programs. It also requires “tombstone
shots” that show the unadorned product in a still frame shot without all the extra toys that can be
purchased with it. While the FCC is charged with regulating media, the Federal Trade
Commission (FTC) is charged with regulating advertising. The Children’s Advertising Review
Unit (CARU), a voluntary regulatory organization created by the advertising industry, enforces
broadcast standards for the industry, in part to prevent governmental interference. Although
CARU has made some attempt to regulate the newer interactive technology marketing practices,
many of its rules have not carried over to the Internet, video games, or cell phones. For example,
websites attempt to create “sticky sites” where users spend long periods of time with branded
characters. Such sites feature Tony the Tiger from Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes or Chester the
Cheetah for Frito-Lay and create content focused solely on commercially branded products.
Early studies of online marketing practices documented the use of deceptive practices that
invaded the privacy of children. For instance, popular media characters, such as Batman, would
ask children for personally identifying information for a census that was being taken in Gotham
City. Did children even understand that Batman was not real? No research has been conducted
to answer that question, yet the developmental literature from the television area suggests that
young children may not understand that such characters are not really interacting with them.
Such practices led Congress to pass the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act
(COPPA) of 1998, which placed rules on online marketing techniques to protect the privacy of
children under age thirteen. The new law, which went into effect in 2000, authorized the Federal
Trade Commission to create and enforce rules for data collection practices at children’s websites
and to disclose privacy policies about data collection techniques as well as about how that
information was to be used.

After COPPA was implemented, several agencies, including the FTC, the Center for
Media Education, and the Annenberg Public Policy Center, conducted an evaluation of website
practices. All these studies found that the majority of websites linked their home page to their

78
privacy policy. But the studies found fewer efforts to obtain parental consent or to inform
parents about how the data collected on the site would be used. Although researchers now have a
reasonably good idea of what takes place on online websites, they still know little about how
children perceive, understand, or participate when asked for personally identifying information.
No database as yet documents such information on the part of child consumers of different ages.
Spyware in which an outside agent installs a program on a user’s hard drive, collects
information about that user’s behaviors without his knowledge, and then sends that information
back to a marketer also poses risks that may one day cause spyware to be subjected to regulation
by the FTC. Spyware invades privacy, poses security risks, including identity theft, and can
cause computers to crash, be subject to barrages of pop-up ads, and run slowly. Regulators
should also address the issue of whether and how to make the regulation of newer online
marketing activities consistent with traditional television and film guidelines. Such existing
television standards as clear separation of commercial from program content, rules about host
selling, consideration of age based skills in understanding marketer intent, tombstone shots of
the unadorned product when the camera shot is still, and limits on the amount of time children
can spend seeing marketed content should be considered in the context of newer media. Product
placement, the emerging and perhaps preferred replacement of the fifteen- or thirty-second
commercial, is also in need of additional study and regulation. With convergence increasingly
bringing the varying forms of technologies together under one umbrella, it is sensible to have
uniform standards for marketing to children across varying media platforms. Ultimately, though,
all of these practices have some protection because of the First Amendment guarantee of
freedom of speech. Although advertisers do not enjoy the same freedom as everyday citizens in
their right to speak as they wish, they have considerable leeway to present the content that they
wish, and it is up to advocacy groups to demonstrate that any regulation is necessary. Indeed, the
Central Hudson Test, the primary legal argument for limiting commercial speech, has been
interpreted in recent years as calling for the least amount of interference in the advertisers’ right
to speak as they wish. Moreover, in many cases the online environment is not even constrained
by U.S. law. Setting up an online shop in a different country, for example, can insulate users
from prosecution for violating a number of laws that they would have to follow within the
United States.

79
Conclusion

Marketing to children and adolescents is a way of life in the United States. Children have both
their own disposable income and influence over what their parents buy, and marketers attempt to
determine how those dollars are spent. Television now reaps most of the advertising dollars, but
newer technologies are providing new ways for marketers to reach children. Marketing practices
such as repetition, branded environments, and free prizes are effective in attracting children’s
attention, making products stay in their memory, and influencing their purchasing choices.
Immature cognitive development, however, limits the ability of children younger than eight to
understand the persuasive intent of commercials. Thus, public policy regulates how advertisers
can interact with children via television. Online environments are now and probably always will
be less heavily regulated than more traditional media. Although marketing and advertising fuel
the U.S. economy, the cost of that economic success requires considerable scrutiny.

5.4 Political and Legal Issues in Advertising:

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The political and legal environment in a country is one of the most important factors that
influence the advertising and promotional programmes. Regulations differ owing to economic
and national sovereignty considerations, nationalistic and cultural factors, and the goal of
protecting consumers not only from false or misleading advertising but, in some cases, from
advertising in general. It is difficult to generalize about advertising regulations and restrictions
can affect various aspects of a company’s advertising program, including:

 The type of products that may be advertised.


 The content or creative approach that may be used.
 The media that all advertisers are permitted to employ.
 The amount of advertising a single advertiser may use in total or in a specific medium.
 The use of foreign languages in ads.
 The use of advertising material prepared outside the country.
 The use of local versus international advertising agencies.
 The specific taxes that may be levied against advertising.

A number of countries ban or restrict the advertising of various products. Cigarette


advertising is banned in some or all media in numerous countries. The Australian government
restricts tobacco advertising to point of purchase. The ban also excludes tobacco companies
from sponsoring sporting events. In Malaysia, a government ban on cigarette related advertising
and sponsorship was initiated in 2003 in an effort to curb the rising member of smokers in the
country.

Recently the tobacco industry has been reducing its advertising efforts in markets around
the world, including Asia and Europe, where they have enjoyed much more regulatory freedom.

In Europe there has been a longstanding ban on advertising for prescription drug
products, which is designed to keep government subsidized health care cost under control. Many
governments have rules and regulations that affect the advertising message. Comparative

81
Advertising is legal and widely used in USA and Canada but is illegal in some countries such as
Belgium and Korea. In Europe, the European commission has developed a directive to
standardize the basic form and content of comparative advertising.

Government restrictions can influence the use of foreign languages in advertising as well
as the production of the ad. Most countries permit the use of foreign languages in print ads and
direct mail. However, some do not allow foreign language commercials on TV or radio or in
cinema ads, and some restrict foreign language ads to media targeted to foreigners in the
country.

Marketers, ad agencies, media and trade associations in several European countries


including UK and France have begun pushing for self regulation that would include efforts to
help children understand and interpret advertising effectively rather than banning efforts to reach
them.

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5.5 Sociocultural and Economic Issues in Advertising:

There have been increasing efforts to protect the public interest by regulating the content
and the influence of advertising. Some examples are: the ban on television tobacco advertising
imposed in many countries, and the total ban of advertising to children under twelve imposed by
the Swedish government in 1991. Though that regulation continues in effect for broadcasts
originating within the country, it has been weakened by the European Court of Justice, which
had found that Sweden was obliged to accept foreign programming, including those from
neighboring countries or via satellite.

In Europe and elsewhere, there is a vigorous debate on whether (or how much)
advertising to children should be regulated. This debate was exacerbated by a report released by
the Kaiser Family Foundation in February 2004 which suggested that food advertising targeting
children was an important factor in the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States of
America.

In many countries - namely New Zealand, South Africa, Canada, and many European
countries - the advertising industry operates a system of self-regulation. Advertisers, advertising
agencies and the media agree on a code of advertising standards that they attempt to uphold. The
general aim of such codes is to ensure that any advertising is 'legal, decent, honest and truthful'.
Some self-regulatory organizations are funded by the industry, but remain independent, with the
intent of upholding the standards or codes (like the Advertising Standards Authority in the UK).

Naturally, many advertisers view governmental regulation or even self-regulation as


intrusion of their freedom of speech or a necessary evil. Therefore, they employ a wide-variety
of linguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e.g. printing French words in bold and English
translations in fine print to deal with the Article 12 of the 1994 Toubon Law limiting the use of

83
English in French advertising); see Bhatia and Ritchie 2006:542. The advertisement of
controversial products such as cigarettes and condoms is subject to government regulation in
many countries. For instance, the tobacco industry is required by law in most countries to
display warnings cautioning consumers about the health hazards of their products. Linguistic
variation is often used by advertisers as a creative device to reduce the impact of such
requirements.

Take a look at government advertising, and government has for many years been one of
the very biggest advertisers in the United Kingdom. Ah, yes, say the critics – and have you
noticed how fond critics are of saying Ah, yes...? Ah, yes, but that isn’t advertising... What
nonsense. Of course, social advertising, public service advertising – whether it’s for drinking
and driving, social benefits, AIDS or public information of any kind – is advertising and often
state of the art advertising at that. It takes the proven techniques, techniques of simplification,
dramatization and, most important, personalization and applies them to the way we live now.
The communication skills honed on the humble packet of frozen peas or brand of petrol have
made invaluable contributions not merely to the small reassurances of daily domestic life but to
helping modify social attitudes and behavior.

Advertising today is many things. It’s come a long way from the gaudy poster
proclaiming the presence of Sunlight Soap. It’s part of the social fabric of all our lives which,
cosmetically, would be a good bit duller without it. More to the point, it’s a thread on which are
strung several of the key economic elements that affect the workings of the business community
and the comfort of the individual.

The social relevance of advertising is much debated, which given its relatively high
profile is not surprising. Possibly the most massive contribution which advertising makes to
society is to make more products affordable to more people, by making volume sales possible
for manufacturers and information available to consumers. Beside that contribution, the
occasional complaint that advertising creates discontent by showing products which some
cannot afford pales into insignificance. We will cover in this section, the role of advertising in

84
social change, its use of language, advertising and the vulnerable, and origins of needs and
wants. We will look at persuasion in advertising, the sector’s commitment to truth and decency,
issues surrounding reinforcing stereotypes and advertising to children. We will consider
corporate social performance and finally stakeholder engagement.

Let us go through some facts that provide the clear picture of the impact of advertising:

 Cigarettes cause about 6.35 lakh deaths in India every year.


 About 33 per cent of cancer cases are attributed to tobacco consumption.
 Cigarettes alone account for roughly 10% of excise collections.
 Tobacco trade is a major contributor to the national exchequer.

There is clear conflict between health and economic interests of the country. Advertising has
a similar place in the economy as other service sectors such as management consultants, banks,
insurance companies and financial brokers. Advertising is an important aspect for corporations
in their development and prosperity. Increasingly advertising is also used by public authorities
and nongovernmental organisations. Advertising and other forms of commercial communication
are fundamental to the success and effectiveness of numerous companies and organisations.
Consumers and commercial buyers are demanding more and more information about products
and services in order to make their purchasing choice. ‘Competition thrives on advertising, and
advertising thrives on competition’.

Indicative of the growing importance of the advertising sector world wide is the 1998 UNDP
Human Development Report, which claims that advertising has global expenditures (including
in developing countries) increasing faster than the world economy, suggesting that the sector is
becoming one of the major players in the development process. The reality, as we will see, is
that in the last ten years, advertising has grown by only 24% in real terms.

There is great concern about children as viewers of advertisements primarily


because young children are exposed to thousands of commercials each year in India. Marketers
use television as a medium of communication since it affords access to children at much earlier

85
ages than print media can accomplish, largely because textual literacy does not develop until
many years after children have become regular television viewers.
Approximately, 80% of all advertising targeted to children falls within four product
categories: toys, cereals, candies, and fast-food restaurants. Young children are able to
differentiate between a TV program and a commercial but are unable to understand the intent of
an advertisement until they are 8-10 years of age. According to Seiter, advertising to children
avoids any appeal to the rational, emphasizing instead that ads are for entertainment and
"enjoyable for their own sake" as opposed to providing any real consumer information.
The most common persuasive strategy employed in advertising to children is to associate the
product with fun and happiness, rather than to provide any factual product-related information.

Hence, children in the age category 8-10 years have a positive attitude towards
advertisements. Knowledge of advertising tactics and appeals emerges only in early adolescence
and develops thereafter. The ability to recognize bias and deception in ads, coupled with an
understanding of advertising's persuasive intent, results in less trust and less liking of
commercials. With increasing age, children's attitude towards ads changes from being positive to
negative and further as children step into adolescence, they become skeptical of advertising.
Children in young adolescence even exhibited mistrustful predispositions towards advertising. In
adolescents, knowledge about advertiser tactics increased with age. Higher levels of knowledge
of advertiser tactics and certain personality variables were positively related to adolescents'
skepticism towards advertising.

86
ANALYSIS
OF
PRIMARY DATA

87
Demographic Analysis

AGE:-

Age Students
8 yrs. 7
9 yrs. 15
10yrs. 20
11 yrs. 20
12 yrs. 23
13 yrs. 43
14 yrs. 18
15 yrs. 4

8yrs.
4 7
18 15 9yrs.
10yrs.
20 11yrs.
12yrs.
43
20 13yrs.
14yrs.
23
15yrs.

Analysis:

The above chart shows that there are more number of 13 years student and as far as 15 years
students are concerned they are very less.

88
Medium of Study and Student

Medium of study Students


Gujarati 66
English 84

Students

44% 56%
Gujarati
English

Analysis:

The above pie chart shows that there are more number of children who are studying in English
medium than in Gujarati Medium

89
Q1 How many hours a day do you watch TV?

less then 1 hour 29


1-2 hours 46
2-3 hours 47
more then 3 hours 28

19% 19%
lessthen 1 hour
1-2 hours
31% 31% 2-3 hours
more then 3 hours

Analysis:

The above pie chart shows that as far as TV watching habit of children is concerned, there are
31% of children who watch television for 1-2 hours a day.

There are also 31% children who watch television for 2-3 hrs. and 19% children who
watch television for more than 3 hours a day

This shows that most of the children like to watch television for 1-3 hours a day and this
is because they might be busy with their home work and project work of their school.

90
Q2. What do you like to watch on TV?

Cartoons 97
Reality Shows 28
Movies 78
Serials 23
Song based programmes 31
Others 13

97
100 78
90
80
70
60
50 28 31
40 23
30 13
20
10
0

Analysis:

The above bar chat shows that there are more number of children who like to watch cartoons and
movies on Television than reality shows, serials, song based programmes and other programmes
like programmes which come on Discovery channel, National Geography channel and so on.

In our survey we have found that there are 97 children who like to watch cartoons on
television because they are more fascinated towards that.

91
Apart from that, there are 78 children who like to watch movies on television which
might be because of his/her favorite actor or actress.

Q3. From the following confectionary products which is your favorite product/s.

Biscuits 86
Wafers 57
Chocolates 78
Sauces 29
Noodles 38
Health Drinks 42

86
90 78
80
70 57
60
38 42
50
40 29
30
20
10
0

Analysis:

The above bar chart shows that as far as confectionary products are concerned, children like to
have more Biscuits, Wafers and Chocolates than Sauces, Noodles and Health Drinks.
In our survey we have found that Biscuits, Wafers and Chocolates are preferred by 86,
57 and 78 children respectively.

92
This shows that children are attracted more towards Biscuits, Wafers and Chocolates
than other confectionery products.

Q4. You are familiar with the advertisements of which of the confectionary products?

Biscuits 79
Wafers 59
Chocolates 61
Sauces 29
Noodles 36
Health Drinks 53

79
80
70 59 61
60 53
50
36
40 29
30
20
10
0
Biscuits Wafers Chocolates Sauces Noodles Health
Drinks

Analysis:

The above bar chart shows that children are more familiar with the advertisements of Biscuits,
Wafers, Chocolates and Health Drinks than the advertisements of Sauces and Noodles.

93
In our survey we have found that 79 children who are familiar with the advertisements of
Biscuits. Children who are familiar with advertisements of the Wafers and Chocolates are 59
and 61 respectively.
This is because, in majority of the advertisements of Biscuits, Chocolates and Wafers
celebrity is shown wherein advertisements of other confectionary products generally me too
model is shown, and children get easily attracted by that celebrity to purchase those products.

Q5. After watching ad. of any confectionary product, have you ever tried to purchase that
product?

Yes 92
No 58

39% 61%
Yes
No

Analysis:

94
The above pie chart shows that after watching advertisement of confectionary products majority
of the children have tried to purchase that product which they have shown in the advertisement.
In our survey we have found that 61% children have tried to purchase confectionary
products after watching advertisements of those products
This shows that how children are influenced by the advertisements of confectionary
products and this may affect to those families in which source of income is not that much strong.

Q6. If yes, then which confectionary product you have tried to purchase?

Biscuit 78
Wafer 21
Chocolate 52
Sauce 18
Noodle 37
Health Drink 46

78
80
70
60 52
46
50
37
40
30 21 18
20
10
0
Biscuit Wafer Chocolate Sauce Noodle Health
Drink

95
Analysis:

The above bar chart shows that after watching advertisements of confectionary products,
children have tried to purchase more Biscuit, Chocolate and Health Drink than Wafer, Sauce and
Noodle.
In our survey we have found that there are 78 children who have tried to purchase
Biscuit, 52 children who have tried to purchase Chocolate and 46 children who have tried to
purchase Health Drink after watching advertisement of the same.
This shows that children are influenced more by the advertisements of Biscuits,
Chocolates and Health Drinks and there are some specific advertisements of Biscuits,
Chocolates and Health Drinks in which children have mainly targeted.
Q7. Do you like to watch advertisements of Confectionary product on which media?

TV 118
Magazine 33
Newspaper 27
Hoardings 4

96
2%

15%
65% TV
Magazine
18% Newspaper
Hoardings

Analysis:

The above pie chart shows that children like to watch advertisements of confectionary products
on TV rather than any other medium of advertising.
In our survey we have found that 65% children like to watch advertisements of
confectionary products on TV than in Magazine, Newspaper and on Hoardings.
This is because TV advertisement can be shown more effectively with both audio and
video effect than by the other medium and only these factors play a vital role to influence the
children.

Q.8 You buy that confectionary products because…………….

Free Promotional items 71


Friend's Influence 24
Association of favorite character 40
Want to be like that character 15

97
FreePromotional items
10%

27% 47%
Friend'sInfluence

Association of favorite
16% character
Want to be like that
character

Analysis:

The above pie chart shows that children like to buy confectionary products because free items
like tattoo and other things are attached with them.
In our survey we have found that 47% children like to buy confectionary products just
because they get free tattoo and all that children accessories on the purchase of the confectionary
products. There are 27% children also who like to buy confectionary product just because
his/her favorite celebrity is associated with that product and there are 16% children who buy
confectionary products just because of their friend’s influence. They just believe that my friend
has that product so I should also have that product.
So children like to buy confectionary product not only because it gives free promotional
products but also because his/her friend’s influence and his/her favorite celebrity is associated
with it.
PART B:-

Q1. How often advertisements of confectionary products influence purchase decision of your
children?

Often 42
Sometimes 66

98
Rarely 30
Not at all 12

28%
8%

Often
20%
Sometimes
Rarely
44%
Not at all

Analysis:

The above pie chart shows that advertisements of confectionary products some times affect
purchase decision of children.
In our survey we have found that there are 28% parents who replied that advertisements
of confectionary products affect more often purchase decision of their children. While 44% &
20% parents replied that advertisements affect purchase decision of their children sometimes
and rarely respectively.
This shows that purchase decision of children is sometimes influenced after watching
advertisements of confectionary products.
Q2. How often does your child insist you to purchase any confectionary products after watching
advertisements of the same?

Often 40
Sometimes 56

99
Rarely 44
Not at all 10

7%
27%
29%
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
37% Not at all

Analysis:

The above pie chart shows that there are more number of children who insist their parents
sometimes to purchase any confectionary product after watching its advertisements.
In our survey we have found that there are 27% parents who replied that more often their
child insists them to purchase any confectionary product after watching its advertisements. And
there are 37% parents who replied that sometimes their child insists them to purchase any
confectionary product after watching its advertisements. Children who not at all insist their
parents to purchase any confectionary product after watching its advertisements are very less.
This shows that how advertisements of confectionary products affect children.
Q3. How do you react to your child when he/she insist you to buy any confectionary product
after watching its advertisements?

Mostly Agree 39

100
Agree 56
Disagree 32
Mostly Disagree 23

26%
15%
MostlyAgree
Agree
21%
38% Disagree
MostlyDisagree

Analysis:

The above pie chart shows that parents become agree when their child insists them to purchase
any confectionary product after watching its advertisements.
In our survey we have found that there are 38% parents who replied that generally they
do agree when their child insists them to purchase any confectionary product after watching its
advertisements. There are 26% parents who replied that they mostly agree when their child
insists them to purchase any confectionary product after watching its advertisements.
This shows that majority of parents are not conscious about effects of advertisements on
their children especially in case of confectionary products.

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TESTING OF
HYPOTHESIS

102
Hypothesis 1: After watching the advertisements of confectionary product children insist
their parents to buy that product is dependent on their age or not

Ho: After watching the advertisements of confectionary products children insist their parents to
buy that product is dependent on their age

H1: After watching the advertisements of confectionary products children insist their parents to
buy that product is not dependent on their age

Age
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total
Often 2 3 5 4 19 4 2 1 40
Sometimes 4 9 12 0 3 22 6 0 56
Rarely 1 2 3 15 0 14 6 3 44
Not at all 0 1 0 1 1 3 4 0 10
Total 7 15 20 20 23 43 18 4 150

Fo Fe (Fo-Fe) (Fo-Fe)2 (Fo-Fe)2/Fe


7 6.53 0.47 0.22 0.03
12 10.07 1.93 3.72 0.37
3 5.4 -2.4 5.76 1.07
5 5.33 -0.33 0.11 0.02
12 7.45 4.55 20.7 2.78
3 5.87 -2.87 8.24 1.40
4 6.66 -2.66 7.08 1.06
0 7.45 -7.45 55.5 7.45
15 5.87 9.13 83.36 14.20
20 7.46 12.54 157.25 21.08
3 8.59 -5.59 31.25 3.64
0 6.75 -6.75 45.56 6.75
5 12.98 -7.98 63.68 4.91
22 16.05 5.95 35.4 2.21
14 12.61 1.39 3.49 0.28
5 7.67 -2.67 7.13 0.93
6 6.72 -0.72 0.52 0.08
6 5.28 0.72 0.52 0.10
8 5.2 2.8 7.84 1.51

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∑ (Fo-Fe)2/Fe = 69.87

So, Calculated= (Fo-Fe)2/Fe

= 69.87

Calculation of Tabulated:

DF= (r-1) (c-1)

= (4-1) (8-1)

= (3)*(7)

= 21

Significance Level is 5% = 0.05

Tabulated = 32.67

Here, Tab < Cal

So, Ho is rejected.

Therefore after watching advertisements of confectionary product children insist their parent to
buy that product is not dependent on their age.

104
105
Hypothesis 2: TV watching habit of children is dependent on their medium of study or not

Ho: TV watching habit of children is dependent on their medium of study

H1: TV watching habit of children is not dependent on their medium of study

Medium of Study
Gujarati English Total
< 1 hour 1 28 29
1-2 hours 22 24 46
2-3 Hours 36 11 47
> 3 Hours 7 21 28
Total 66 84 150

Fo Fe (Fo-Fe) (Fo-Fe)2 (Fo-Fe)2/Fe


1 12.76 -11.76 138.3 10.84
22 20.24 1.76 3.1 0.15
36 20.68 15.32 234.7 11.35
7 12.32 -5.32 28.3 2.3
28 16.24 11.76 138.3 8.52
24 25.76 -1.76 3.1 0.12
11 26.32 -15.32 234.7 8.92
21 15.68 5.32 28.3 1.8
∑ (Fo-Fe)2/Fe
=44

106
So, Calculated = ∑ (Fo-Fe)2/Fe
= 44

Calculation Of Tabulated:

DF= (r-1) (c-1)

= (4-1) (2-1)

= (3)*(1)

=3

Significance Level is 5% = 0.05

Tabulated = 7.815

Here, Tab < Cal

So, Ho is rejected.

Therefore TV watching habit of children is not dependent on their Medium of Study.

107
KEY
FINDINGS

 From our survey we have found that more number of children watch television for 1-3
hours a day.

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 As far as watching any particular program on television is concerned, children like to
watch cartoon movies or cartoon serials on television. Children also like to watch movies
on television.

 Among selected confectionary products from Biscuits, Wafers, Chocolates, Sauces,


Noodles and Health Drinks, children like to have Biscuits, Wafers and Chocolates more
than other confectionary products.

 Majority of children are familiar with the advertisements of Biscuits, Wafers, Chocolates
and Health Drinks more than the Sauces, Noodles and.

 After watching advertisements of any confectionary products majority of children have


tried to purchase that product.

 Those children who have tried to purchase confectionary product after watching its
advertisements, in that they like to buy more Biscuits, Chocolates and Health Drinks.

 Majority of children like to watch advertisements of confectionary products on television


rather any other media.

 Majority of children like to buy confectionary products because it gives free tattoo and
other promotional things. There are some children also who like to buy confectionary
products just because his/her favorite celebrity is associated with the advertisement of that
product.

 After watching advertisement of confectionary products purchase decision of children


sometimes gets affected.

109
 After watching advertisement of confectionary products children sometimes insist their
parents to purchase that product for them.

 When children insist their parents to purchase confectionary product after watching its
advertisement, parents generally do agree with them.

110
SUGGESTIONS

111
 To some extent children have limited understanding so advertisers should not directly
persuade children to buy the product which is shown in the advertisement.

 As far as advertisements of confectionary products are concerned, advertisements should


be seen with their pros and cons. E.g. Chocolate

 Advertisers must not misuse children’s relative inexperience.

 Children can be easily attracted by the celebrity so, as far as confectionary products are
concerned celebrity should not directly or indirectly persuade children to buy that
product which he/she has shown using that product.

 It is the duty of parents to see what their children are watching on television and if they
are highly influenced by the advertisements especially of confectionary products then
parents should try to explain them what are the pros and cons of that product by using it.

112
CONCLUSION

113
 Today, particularly young children play an important role as consumers. Especially
confectionary products (Biscuits, Chocolates, Wafers, Sauces, Noodles and Health
Drinks) are concerned they do not care price of which they want to buy. Also they do not
care whether these products are healthy for them or not.

 While they are shopping, the first thing comes in their mind is to purchase the advertised
products. In this situation, the advertising has a stronger effect on younger children than
the older children.

 Nowadays it seems that children’s impact on family decision in shopping has been
steadily increased.

 After the research, it was found as far as confectionary products are concerned children
sometimes insist their parents to purchase those products for them.

 As far as confectionary products are concerned, children are influenced more by


television advertisements than by the other medium of advertising. Even though there are
lots of tools to show the goods or services, television was chosen as the best way that can
enhance the company's profits greatly by most of researchers.

 Also this research validated that among many communication tools, television
advertisements have more impact and effect on children than the other medium of
advertising.

 Children’s ages are important to understand the television advertisements. Children's


comprehension of television commercials increases with age.

114
BIBLIOGRAPHY

115
Books:
 George Belch and George Michel, ‘Advertising and Sales Promotion Management’, 6th
Edition
 Ogilvy David ‘Ogilvy on Advertising’ by, Prion Books, London, 1997

Magazines:
 Advertising Express, Article: Marketing Promos Targeting Children
 Advertising Age, Article: Effects of Advertisements on Children

Web Links:
 http://www.wikipedia.com
 http://www.agencyfaqs.com
 http://www.wowessays.com
 http://www.media-awareness.ca/.../advertising.../kids_advertising_rules
 http://www.c-i-a.com/( Computer Industry Almance)\

 http://www.Itu.com (Intrenation Telecommunication Union)

 http://www.internetworldstats.com/asia/in.htm

116
ANNEXURE

117
Annexure

Dear Sir/Madam,
We are MBA student of N. R. Institute of Business Management Ahmedabad. We are
doing one Grand Project on ‘Effect of Advertisements on Children with special reference to
Confectionary products’. For that we want your support by filling up this questionnaire for us.
There are two parts in our questionnaire, one is to be filled up by children and other is to be
filled up by his/her parents.
We assure you that information will not be misused and we’ll use information just for
our project purpose. Thanking You.

PART A (To be filled by Children)

Q1 How many hours a day do you watch TV?

Less than 1 hour 1 – 2 hours


2 – 3 hours More than 3 hours

Q2 What do you like to watch on TV?

Cartoons
Reality shows
Movies
TV serials
Song based programmes
Others_________________

Q3 From the following confectionary products which is your favorite product/s?

Biscuits
Wafers
Chocolates
Sauces
Noodles

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Health Drinks (i.e. Bournvita, Complain, Boost, etc.)

Q4 You are familiar with advertisements of which of the following confectionary products?

Biscuits Sauces
Wafers Noodles
Chocolates Health Drinks (i.e. Bournvita, Complain, Boost,
etc)

Q5 After watching ad of any confectionary products, have you ever tried to purchase that
product?

Yes No

Q6 If yes then which confectionary product you have tried to purchase?

Biscuit Sauce
Wafer Noodle
Chocolate Health Drink (i.e. Bournvita, Complain, Boost,
etc)

Q7 Do you like to watch ad of confectionary products on which media?

TV
Magazine
Newspaper
Hoardings

Q8 You buy that confectionary product because.........

It gives free tattoo or any other thing


Your friend has that product
Your favorite cartoon character/favorite celebrity is associated with it
You want to be like the character of that ad.

PART B (To be filled by Parents)

Q1 How often advertisements of confectionary products influence purchase decision of your


children?

119
Often Rarely
Sometimes Not at all

Q2 How often does your child insist you to purchase any confectionary product after watching
ad of the same?

Often Rarely
Sometimes Not at all

Q3 How do you react to your child when he/she insist you to buy any confectionary product
after watching its ad?

Mostly agree Disagree


Agree Mostly disagree

PERSONAL DETAILS

Name : - _________________________________________________________

Mother/Father Name : - _________________________________________________________

Age : - ________

Std. :- 4th 7th


5th 8th
th
6

School :
-__________________________________________________________

Medium of Study :- Gujarati English

120