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Slip gauges are often called Johannsen gauges also, as Johannsen originated them. These are rectangular
blocks of steel having a cross-section of about 30 by 10 mm. These are first hardened to resist wear and
carefully stabilised so that they are independent of any subsequent variation in size or shape. The longer
gauges in the set and length bars are hardened only locally at their measuring ends. After being
hardened, blocks are carefully finished on the measuring faces to such a fine degree of finish, flatness
and accuracy that any two such faces when perfectly clean may be 'wrung' together. This is
accomplished by pressing the faces into contact (keeping them perpen- dicular) and then imparting a
small twisting motion whilst maintaining the contact pressure. The contact pressure is just sufficient in
order to hold the two slip gauges in contact and no additional intentional pressure. It is found that
phenomenon of wringing occurs due to molecular adhesion between a liquid film (whose thickness may
be between 6 to 7 x 10-6 mm) and the mating surfaces.

When two gauges are wrung together and the overall dimension of a pile made of two or more blocks so
joined is exactly the sum of the constituent gauges. It is on the property of wringing units together for
building up combinations that the success of system depends, since by combining gauges selected from
a suitably arranged combination, almost any dimension may be built -up. These may be used as
reference standards for transferring the dimensions of the unit of length from the primary standard to
gauge blocks of lower accuracy and for the verification and graduation of measuring apparatus, and
length measures for the regulation and adjustment of indicating measuring apparatus and for direct
measurement of linear dimensions of industrial component.

Slip gauges are classified according to their guaranteed accuracy :

AA for master slip gauges, A for reference purpose, and B for working slip gauges. Johannsen AA slip Basic Forms of Slip Gauges.
gauges are accurate to plus or minus two microns per metre. Type A is guaranteed accurate up to plus
Slip gauges with three basic forms are commonly found. These are rectangular, square with centre hole,
or minus four microns per metre, while type 'B' for plus or minus eight microns per metre. The
and square without centre hole. Rectangular form is the more widely used because rectangular blocks
guaranteed error is not divided for a block which is less than 25 mm ; such a slip gauge has same
are less expensive to manufacture, and adapt themselves better to applications where space is
tolerance as 25 mm gauge. The workshop type, i.e., B type gauges are finished on their measuring faces
restricted or excess weight is to be avoided. For certain applications, square slip gauges, though
approximately to within 250 um for flatness and parallelism. The corresponding figures for types A a nd expensive, are preferred. Due to their large surface area, they wear longer and adhere better to each
A are 125 and 75 u.m respectively. As regards grades or classes of slip gauges, these could also be other when wrung to high stacks. Square blocks with centre holes are used to permit the use of tie rods
designed in ive grades as under: as an added assurance against the wrung stocks falling apart while handling. The greatest emphasis in
the slip gauges is laid on the two gauging surfaces on opposite sides of the blocks. The length between
Grade 2. This is the workshop grade. Typical uses include setting up machine tools, positioning milling
measuring surfaces, flatness and surface conditions of measuring surfaces are the most important
cutters and checking mechanical widths.
features of slip gauges which have to be controlled within desired limits.
Grade 1. Used for more precise work, such as that carried out in a good -class toolroom. Typical uses
include setting up sine bars and sine tables, checking gap gauges and setting dial test indicators to zero.

Grade 0. This is more commonly known as the Inspection grade, and its use is confined to toolroom or
machine shop inspection. This means that it is the Inspection Department only who have access to this
grade of slips. In this way it is not possible for these slip gauges to be damaged or abused by the rough
usage to be expected on the shop floor.

Grade 00. This grade would be kept in the Standard Room and would be kept for work of the highest
precision only. A typical example would be the determination of any errors present in the workshop or
Grade 2 slips, occasioned by rough or continual usage. Calibration grade. This is a special grade, with the
actual sizes of the slips stated or calibrated on a special chart supplied with the set. This chart must be
consulted when making up a dimension, and because these slips are not made to specific or set
tolerances, they are not as expensive as the Grade 00. It must be remembered that a slip gauge, like any
other engineering component, cannot be made to an exact size. All slip gauges must have tolerances on
the length, flatness and parallelism of measuring faces. Except for the calibration grade, all slip gauge
sets are manufactured to within specified limits ; the closer the limits the more expensive the slip
gauges, but in the case of the calibration grade, greater tolerances on length are permissible. Because
the actual lengths are known or recorded in the calibration chart, due allowance can be made when the
slips are used.

Slip gauges are available in sets both in inch units and in me tric units. The five most usual sets available
in inch units contain 81, 49, 41, 35 and 25 pieces respectively, e.g. in the 81-piece set, the slip gauges are
arranged in the following order :

9 pieces from 0.1001", to 0.1009" in steps of 0.0001".

49 pieces from 0.101" to 0.149" in steps of 0.001"
19 pieces from 0.050" to 0.950" in steps of 0.050".
4 pieces of 1.000", 2.000", 3000", 4.000".
In metric units, sets of 103, 76,48 and 31 pieces are available. Metric unit sets of 103 pieces are made up

Wringing of slip gauges.

By the application of pressure. It may be noted that the use of any extraneous agent to promote
adhesion is not correct and it is sometimes specified that surfaces which are to be wrung together
should be absolutely dry. On the other hand, a truly clean surface, though difficult to attain may
not wring satisfactorily. The usual practice is to use silicone or filtered kerosene as lubricant, apply
a thin coat of same and wipe it as thin as possible. There is as much danger from too little lubricant
as from too much.