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Care of Mother, Child, Family and

Population Group at Risk with Problems

High-risk Prenatal Client

A High Risk Pregnancy

• Is defined as one in which a concurrent disorder, pregnancy related complication or external factor
jeopardizes the health of the mother, fetus or both.

Identifying Clients AT RISK

Ways for identifying clients at risk 
a. Physiological
b. Psychological
c. Social


Lol… (Didn’t copy)

Diagnostic Tests
1. Ultrasonography Transvaginal Ultrasound: Transabdominal Ultrasound:
A. Transvaginal Ultrasound EMPTY BLADDER FULL BLADDER
 Uses a probe inserted into the vagina
 Used to visualize the baby
 Used for placental grading
 Instruct client to VOID FIRST
B. Transabdominal Ultrasound
 The transducer is moved across the woman’s abdomen
 Instruct client to HAVE A FULL BLADDER

Nursing Responsibility~
 Inform~

2. Alpha-Fetoprotein Testing (AFP)  ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES!! \m/

 Level of fetal protein in the pregnant woman’s serum or in a sample of amniotic fluid
 Done in 16 – 18 weeks (AFP mnemonic)
 Major protein produced by baby
 Yolk – 1st
 Liver of the Fetus – 2nd

 Levels of Protein (GAS)  Levels of Protein (CDG)

- Spina bifida - Chromosome abnormalities
- Anencephaly - Gestational Throphoblastic Disease
(Hydatidiform mole) H-Mole
- Gastroschisis - Down’s Syndrome

3 Chorionic Villi Sampling (CVS)

 Obtaining a small part of the developing placenta to analyze fetal cells at 10 – 12 weeks
of gestation
 Use: Chromosomal Abnormalities
 BUT! Cannot detect SPINAL CORD ABNORMALITIES  (Nobody’s Perfect)
Nursing Responsibility~
 Rh(D) immune globulin (RhoGam) is given to the Rh negative woman
 RhoGam – Inhibits ANTIBODY production of the mother
against the Rh positive or negative of the baby  (galing tlga~)
 Assess!!!!
 Bleeding
 Spontaneous Abortions
 Rest! ( :

4 Amniocentesis
 Done when in 15 – 17 weeks of gestation
 Aspirates 20mL of fluid from the amnion of the mother
 Instruct mother to INCREASE oral fluid~ 
Use of Amniocentesis
Early Pregnancy Late Pregnancy
1. Identifies chromosomal abnormalities 1. Identifies severity of maternal fetal
blood incompatibility and assesses fetal
lung maturity
2. Check color of amniotic fluid
- Yellow = Rh Incompatibility

Nursing Responsibility~
 Informed consent
 Provide comfort and privacy
 Aseptic technique
 Skin
 Assess – Infection, FHR, Fetal Movement, VS of mother
 RhoGam – Nag prick kasi

20 Weeks  20 Weeks 

5 Non-Stress Test (NST)

 Measures the response of the Fetal HR to the Fetal Movement
 After 1 or 2 movements, HR  15 Bpm for 15 Secs within 10 – 20 minute period

- Reactive (GOOD!! )
o At least 2 accelerations of FHR with fetal movement of 15 bpm
lasting 15 secs/more for over 20 mins
o 2 – 15beats – 15 secs – 20 mins
o Used to determine if the fetus is oxygen compromised
- Non-Reactive (BAD!! )
o No acceleration after movement
o No movement
 If no movement, instruct client to
• Eat HIGH Carbohydrate foods like orange juice
• Make NOISE! RAAAAAHH!!!!~~~
o Low Fetal HR variability
- Unsatisfactory Test – If the data cannot be interpreted or there was an
inadequate fetal activity

Non-reactive = Non-stress Test= NOT GOOD! 

Reactive = Non-stress Test= Really GOOD! 
6 Contraction Test
 Means of evaluating the respiratory function of the placenta
 Use:
 Identifies the fetus at risk for intrauterine asphyxia by observing the response
of the FHR to the stress of the uterine contractions (spontaneous or induced)
 Perform Nipple Rolling

A. Negative (GOOD!! )
 Shows 3 contraction of good quality lasting for 40 / more secs on 10 minutes
 Implication: Fetus can handle the hypoxic stress of uterine contractions
B. Positive (BAD!! )
 Shows repetitive persistent late decelerations with more than 50°0 of the
 Implication: The hypoxic stress of the uterine contraction causes slowing of
C. Equivocal / Suspicious
 Shows non-persistent late deceleration or decelerations associated with
(Contraction frequency of every
2 mins or duration of
longer than90 seconds)

Nursing Responsibility
 Explain!
 Semi-fowlers!
 Assess and monitor!

7 Percutaneous Umbilical Blood Sampling (PUBS)

 Obtaining a fetal blood sample from a placental vessel of from the umbilical cord
 May be used to give a blood transfusion to an anemic fetus :O!
 Use:
1. Identifies fetal conditions that can be diagnosed only with a blood sample
2. Blood transfusion for fetal anemia

8 Lecithin-to-Sphingomyelin (L/S) Ratio

I. Use:
 Evaluate: Lungs ----- mature
 22nd – 24th week of pregnancy: Production of SURFACTANT
 2:1 Ratio (2L:1S)
 Amniocentesis
 If there are bubbles, it means the lungs are mature
 For DM Clients
 L/S is not ACCURATE!!

9 Biophysical Profile
I. FHR and Reactivity (NST)
II. Fetal Breathing, Movement
III. Fetal Body Movements
IV. Fetal Tone (Closure of the hand)
V. Volume of amniotic fluid (AFI)
 Biophysical profile is used to check the CNS function of the FETUS~
o Fetal oxygenation with poor placental function
o  Placental function is poor -  amniotic fluid
o Fetal hypoxia   FHR changes occur 1st followed by cessation of fetal breathing
movement, cross body movement and finally loss of fetal tone

Scoring the Biophysical Profile

Observation Normal (2 pts) Abnormal (0 pts)
1. Non-Stress Test Reactive Non-reactive
2. Fetal Breathing One breathing period lasting at Breathing period less than 60
Movement least 60 seconds seconds or no breathing observed
During 30 minute observation period
3. Fetal Body Movement 3 Discrete and definite Less than 3 discrete movements
During 30 minute observation period movements of the arms, legs or of arms/legs or body
4. Fetal Muscle Tone Arms and legs are usually flexed Arms and legs are usually flexed
During 30 minute observation period with head on chest. One definite with head on chest – No flexion
extension and return to flexion
5. Amniotic Fluid Volume Largest pocket of fluid is greater Largest pocket is less than 1 cm
than 1 cm in vertical diameter in vertical diameter without loops
without containing loops of cord of cord

• 8 – 10: Maximal score
• 0 – 4: Severe fetal compromise; delivery indicated

“It’s a new beginning ….”