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A. H. TETVlOP B. cP. nOfV1HOB



D.oII'I.oIIIIII I G'POITIDYTBO nOIDEMHblX

3DAHl!1V1

lit COOPY>KEHl!1V1

BBEAEHWE

Coxpaaeune 3eMeJIbHOrO cpOHAa nJIaHeTbI ceronas -, OAHa H3 BaJKHeHWHX sanau tIeJIOBetIeCTBa. B CCCP, rae 3eMJI5I 51BJI5IeTC5I,BCeHapO-AHbIM AOCT05lHHeM, coxpaanocrs npnponuof cpenu, paUHOHaJIbHoe liCIlOJIh30BaHHe 3eMeJIb H CeJIbCKOX0351ikTBeI-lHbIX yrO.ll.HH, oxpana nenp oraeceau K Ba)f{HeHllHM nanpaanesnaa 9KOHOMHLJeCKOrO H COUHaJIbHOrO pa3BI1TH5I na 1986-1990 rOAbI H ua nepnon no 2000 rona, npHH5IT pan CneUHaJIbHhIX 3aKOHOB, perYJIHpYIOmHx ee HCnOJIb30BaHHe AJI5I ceJIhCKOrO X0351ikTBa H npOMbIllJIeHHOCTH 11, 16, 19].

I1cnoJIb30BaHHe nenp AJI5I cTpOHTeJIbCTBa 3.ll.aHHti H coopyaceaaa pa3JIHLJHOrO Ha3HaqeHH5I - OAHH 113 9¢qJeKTHBHblX cnocooos coxpaaeHH5I nOBepXHOCTH 3eMJIH. npHrO.ll.HbI AJI5I 9TOti ueJIH cneuaansuo paspa- 60TaHHhie nOJIOCTH, ropnsre Bblpa60TKH, 06pa30BaBWHeC5I nOCJIe AO- 6hIqH nOJIe3HhIX ncxonaeaux, H eCTeCTBeHHhIe nonaeaaue nemepia •.

nO.ll.3eMHOe npOCTpaHCTBO H3.ll.aBHa npHBJIeKaJIO BHHMaHHe CTPOHJIeti KaK MeCTO pa3MemeHH5I paaaooripaaasrx 06beKTOB C BpeMeHHhIM HJIH .ll.JIHTeJIbHbIM n pe6bIBaHHeM JIIO.ll.eti. BHatIaJIe ero HCnOJIb30BaJIH )I.JI5I .ll.06bltIH nOJIe3HhIX HCKonaeMhIX, YCTpaHBaJIH YKpbITH5I .ll.JI5I samaThl JIIO.ll.eti H nennocrea OT BHeWHHX B03AeticTBHH, coopyacana noneIII,eHH5I .ll.JI5I xpaHeHH5I npO.ll.YKTOB, HCnOJIb3Y5I nOCT05lHCTBO resmepaTYPhl non 3eMJIeti.

XapaKTepHbIMH npanepaaa nonaeanoro CTPOHTeJIbCTBa npournoro HBJI5IIOTC5I npeanne ropcna: Kannanoxaa (TYPUH5I), paCIlOJIO)KeHHhIH na BOChMH nO.ll.3eMHbIX 9Ta)KaX, paCCtIHTaHHblX aa 50 ThlC5ItI qeJIOBeK; qYCPYT-KaJIe H MaHryn-KaJIe (KphIM, CCCP); nonseaaue xpassu B I1H.ll.HH H np, 06hItIHO ApeBHHe nonseansre ropcna YCTpaHBaJIH,B nponHbIX CYXHX rpynrax, He Tpe6YIOmHX KaKOrO-JIH60 YKpenJIeHH5I nocne C03AaHHfl asrpatiorox.

MHoro JIeT noaseanoe npOCTpaHCTBO HCnOJIb30BaJIH cpaBHHTeJIbH(} penxo: B nO.ll.3eMHbIX ssrpafiorxax nOCJIe .ll.06hltIH nOJIe3HbiX HCKonaeMbIX. 06hlLJHO He paaaemana KaKHe-JIH60 06beKTbI, KpOMe CKJIa.ll.OB.

B COBpeMeHHOM CTpOl-ITeJIbCTBe na uepasra nJIaH BbI.ll.BI1HYJIHCb CJIO)KHhle H nporaaope-msae np06JIeMbI, xcropue C.ll.eJIaJIH axryansHbIM paUHOHaJIbHOe HCI10JIh30BaHHe nonseaaoro npOCTpaHCTBa:

He06xo)],HMOCTb nosoro CTpOHTeJIbCTBa B YCJIOBH5IX HCKJIlOQHTeJIhnoro .ll.eqmUHTa He3aCTpoeHHbIX repp nropua;

coxpaseaae OKpY.lKalometi npuponuoa cpensr, C03.ll.aHHe 6Hon03HTHBHhIX COOpyrKeHHH (cOOPY.lKeHIl51 Aemn aa 6MOHeraTHBHble - HaHOCHmHe spen npnpone, 6HoHetiTpaJIbHble H 6Hon03HTHBHbie - nonor-aromae B TOll HJIH HHOH Mepe coxpaaenmo H pa3BHTHIO npnponsi):

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SKOHOMHH 9HeprHH npn 9KCnJIyaTaUHH 3)J.aHHH H COOpYlKeHlIH; HeOOXO)J.HMOCTb peKOHCTpYKUHH HCTOpl1l1eCKHX ueHTpOB C B03Be,LLeHHeM HOBhIX 3)1,aHHH H YCTPOHCTBOM COBpeMeHHhIX KOMMYHHKaUHH; HCOOJIb30BaHHe HeY,l{OOHhIX ,l{JIH HaSeMHOH 3aCTpOHKH TeppHTOpHA; HeOOXO)J.HMOCTb pasaemeaaa npeUH3HOHHhIX npOH3BO)J.CTB, rperiyromnx OTCYTCTBHH BHOpaUHH, KOJIeOaHHH reaneparypsr;

ooecneaeaae 3amHThI HaCeJIeHHH B OC06bIH nepHO,LL.

B CCCP H BO MHOrHX 3apy6eIKHhIX CTpaHaX CneUHaJIHCTbl npeaaaraior paaaeuia'rs 3)1,aHHH non 3eMJIeH npn MeJIKOM HJIH rJIYOoKOM sano)KeHHH. .LI.JIH sroro, C O,LLHOH CTOPOHhI, CneUHaJIbHO paspaoarsraaior KOTJIOBaHbI HJIH nenaior Bhlpa60TKH, C npyroa, HCnOJIb3YIOT HMelOmHecH rop asre Bblpa60TKI1. nO)l,3eMHOe CTpOHTeJIbCTBO IKHJIbIX, oomecraeaHbIX H npOH3BO)l,CTBeHHhIX 3)1,aHHH B nOCJIe)l,HHe ronsr flOJIyqHJIO 60JIbmoe pacnpocrpaaenue, a nOCTOHHHoe nOHBJIeHHe HOBbIX naTeHTOB H aBTopCKHX CBH)I,eTeJIbCTB na K{)HCTpYKUHH H crtocoriu coopyaceaaa non- 3eMHblX 3)1,aHHH 003BOJIHeT CY)I,HTb 0 nepcoeKTHBHOCTH sroro aanpasJleHHH.

B HaCTOHmee BpeMH soaaenetur 00)J.3eMHble H nOJIynO)l,3eMHbie 3)J.aHHH H coopyaceuna canoro pa3JIHqHOrO Ha3HaqeHHH - OT npOH3BO)lCTseHHbiX ueXOB )1,0 06meCTseHHbIX UeHTPOB, OT cnoprnsusrx BaJIOS ,l{0 )KI1JIbIX 3)1,aHHH. OOhIT CTpOl1'reJIhCTBa H 9KCnJIyaTaUHH nO)l,3eMHhIX 06beKTOB nO)l,TBep)l,HJI MHOrOqHCJIeHHble nOJIO:tKHTeJIhHble aCO~KTbI OCBOeHHH nonaeuaoro npOCTpaHCTBa, B03MO:tKHOCTh ycnerunoa H 9KOHOMHqHOH 9KCOJIyaTaUHH 3)1,aHHH non 3eMJIeH. Hnrepecnsre 061:eKTbi B03Beneusr B ClllA, <ppaHUHH, AHrJIHH, pane npyr ax CTpaH.

TaK, B I1TaJIHH npennoaceno pasaemeaae na rJIy6HHe 150 M aTOMHOH H TenJIOBOH 9JIeKTpOCTaHUHH . .LI.JIH pemeuna nO,LL3eMHoro pasue[]~eHHH KOMnJIeKCOB 3)J.aHHH H coopyacennf B MHJIaHe C03)1,aH KOMHTeT nonaexaoro ropozia. Hapany C 00,LL3eMHbIM npeanonaraerca ocaaaaari, H nO)J.BO,l{HOe npocrpancrso rra He60JIbWHX rJIy6HHax (B 30He urenupa). B WTaTe <PJIOpH)I,a, nanpnxep, B 6hIBweH nO)J.BO)l,HOH JIa6opaTOpl1H na rJIy6HHe 10 M nocrpoeu OTeJIb. CBH)J.eTeJIbCTBO nonsnueanoro anrepeca K pa3MemeHHIO 3)1,aHHH 00)1, 3eMJIeH - BbInYCK B CIllA CneUHaJIhHOrO :tKypHaJIa, nOCBHIl~eHHoro 9TOH Op06JIeMe. Ony6JIHKOBaH pH)]: MOHorpaqJHH, OCBemaIOIl~HX apXHTeKTypHO-nJIaHHpOBOqHble BOnpocsr, pacnersr KOHCTPYKUHH, TeXHOJIOfHH OPOH3BO)l,CTBa, rH,LLpOH30- JlHll,HH, BeHTHJIHUHH B03,LLyxa B nO,LL3eMHbIX 3)1,aHHHX H ,LLp.

B uaurea crpane HaKOOJIeH 60JIbWOH OObIT HCCJIe,LLOBaHHH, npOeKTI1- pOBaHHH, CTpOHTeJIhCTBa H 9KCOJIyaTaUHH nO)l,3eMHbIX 3)J.aHHH H coopy)KeHHH, B nepsyro osepeas - rpaacnopruux (aBTOMarHCTpaJIH, aBTOCTOHHKH, rapaacn, neurexonuue H rp aacnoprnsie TOHHeJIH), ranporexIlHqeCKHX coopyacenaa (BO)l,OBO,LLbI, TOHHeJIH, MaWHHHble 3aJIhI roc H r AOC, nonseuaue KOMIIJIeKCbl roc), a raiose XpaHHJIHm H CKJIa,LLOB. Hana'ru pa50TbI no npoeKTHpOBaHHIO H CTpOHTeJIbCTBY OT)I,eJlhHblX ornuecrseunsrx 3,LLaHHH (KHHoTeaTpoB, 06w.eCTBeHHbIx uearpos). BunOJIHeHhJ nepasre THIlOBble npoexrsr noaaeansrx KHHoTeaTpoB, 06ll.1,eCTBeHHbI-X neurpos. O,LLHaKO npocroe conOCTaBJIeHHe TeXHHKO-9KOHOMHt.teCKI1X nOKa3aTeJIeH npoexros 3)1,aHHiI npn Ha3eMHOM H nO)l,3eMHOM pacOOJIO)KeHHH 6es ynera CTOHMOCTH 3eMJIH H sarpar OpH 9KCnJIyaTa-

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lJ,HH He ncerna CBH)l.eTeJIhCTByeT 06 9KOHOMHQHOCTH OO)l.3eMHhIX 3)l.aHm1. DOJIee T01JHa OlJ,eHKa 9KOHOMH1JHOCTH OO)l.3eMHbIX 3)l.aHHii C Y1JeTOM MHOr01JHCJIeHHblX )l.OnOJIHHTeJIbHbIX rpaxropoa - 9KOHOMHH 3eM.nH, 3arpar na HHlKeHepHoe 6JIaroycTpoii.cTBo H npyrnx pacxonos. KOMOJIeKC .vpa)l.oCTpOHTeJIbHOH onenxn reppnropua (KfOT) n03BOJIHeT 060CHOBaHHO OOpe.ll.eRHTh 9KOHOMHQHOCTh OO.ll.3eMHOro pa3MerueHHH 3.ll.aHHH, 'ITO HaH60JIee aKTyaJIbHO .ll.JIH paaoaoa C BbICOKOH CTOHMOCTbfO 3eMJIl1 (TepPHTopHH xpyrunrx roponos, paHoHhI asrcoxouenaoro H ,BhICOKO- 0P0.ll.YKTHBHoro CeJIbCKOrO X03HHcTBa, xypoprnsre paitoua).

ABTopaMH cnenana OOnbITKa C03.ll.aHHH TaKoH KHHrH, B xoropon 6hIJIH 6b1 OOHcaHbI KOHCTPYKUHH H cnocoriu B03Be.ll.eHHH IKHRhIX, oome-

CTBeHHhlX H 0POH3BO.ll.CTBeHHhix 3.ll.aHHH. ,

ABTOPbl 6J1aro;r.apHT peueH3eHTOB: nporpeccopa, noxropa TeXHHQeCKHX nayx E. A. COpOtIaHa H KaH)l.HAaTa TeXHH1JeCKHX nayx JI. K. fHH3- oypra 3a ueHHble 3aMeQaHHH 00 PYKOOHCH KHHrH.

Baenenne, rJIaBbI 1. .. 4 HaOHcaHhI A. H. Teraopov, rnana 5 -

B. <P. JIOrHHOBhIM. Oomee penaxrnposauae BbIllOJIHeHO A. H. TeTHopOM.

1. 061l1HE aonsocu nOA3EMHOrO 'CTPOHTEnbCTBA

t.t. PErnAMEHT ALI"HSI OCHOBHblX nOnO)KEHHIII no HcnOnb30BA.HHIO HEAP Ami PA3ME~EHHS1 3AA.HHIiI H COOPY)KEHH~

I'occrpoeu CCCP C ynacrnea rOC[lJIaHa CCCP, I'ocroprexnansopa CCCP, pana MHHHcTepcTB H Be)l.OMCTB na OCHOBe 3aKOHO)l,aTeJIbCTBa Corosa CCP H C0103HhlX pecnyonax 0 aenpax [16, 19] paspaoorauo nOJIOJKeHHe 06 HCnOJIb30BaHllH nenp )l.JIH paaxemeaaa 06beKToB HapO)l.-, aoro X03HiicTBa, He CBH3aHHblX C )l.o6hlqeH nOJIe3HblX ncxonaeaux.

CorJIaCHO 9TOMY nOJIOJKemilO )l.JIH npoexrapyeasrx B aenpax 3)J,aHHH II coopYJKeHHH (06beKTbl npOMbIIIIJIeHHOrO, rpaacnoprnoro, sneprernsecxoro CTpOHTeJIbCTBa H )l.pyru:e) cnenyer' HCnOJIh30BaTh ropuue Bblpa60TKH, 06pa30BaBIIIHecH npa )l.06blQe nOJIe3HhlX acxonaexax H npn Be)l.eHHH ,npyru:x ropnsrx pa6OT, a TaKJKe CneUHaJIbHO npOH)l.eHHble ropuste Bblpa60TKH H eCTeCTBeHHO nOJIYQHBIIIHecH IIO)l.3eMHble nOJIOCTH (nemepst) .

TIO)l.3eMHble coopYJKeHHH pexoxeaayercs B03BO,nHTb B nepayio OQepens na TeppHTopHHX C OrpaHHQeHHOH IIJIOma)l.blO CB060)l.HblX 3eMeJIbaux YQaCTKOB, npnronasrx )l.JIH 3aCTpOHKH, a TaKJKe B paaonax C oc060 ueHHblMH CeJIbX03yrO)l.bHMH HJIH C THJKeJIbIMH YCJIOBHHMH )l.JIH Ha3eMaoro CTpOHTeJIbCTBa (CJIOJKHbIH penserp MeCTHOCTH H )l.pynle). B crpaOOTaHHblX ynacrxax ropaux Bblpa60TOK 3aKOHcepBHpOBaHHbIX HJIH .n.eHCTBYlOmHX npennpaaraa no )l.06blQe nOJIe3HblX acxonaeaux CJIe.n.yeT rtpenycaarpaaars npOH3BO)l.CTBeHHble 3)l.aHHH B COCTaBe nonsen-

HblX npOMblWJIeHHbIX Y3JIOB. '

fOCY)l.apCTBeHHbIH nansop npn npOH3BO)l.CTBe pa60T H 9KCnJIyaTaUHH 06beKTOB, pasaemaevsrx B nenpax, ocymeCTBJIHlOT I'ocroprexaansop CCCP, MHH3)l.paB CCCP, rYTIO MBn CCCP (nocncnacc e- 1fOJIhKO B qaCTH IIOJKapHOrO aansopa). YCJIOBHH rpyna 06eCneqHBalOTCH B COOTBeTCTBHH C npaBHJTaMH 6e30naCHOCTH, YTBepJK)l.eHHbIMH FoeI'OpTeXHa)l.30pOM, npaBHJIaMH H HopMaMH caHHTapHH, YTBepJK)l.eHHblMH MHH3)l.paBOM CCCP. Be)l.OMCTBeHHblH aansop npOBO)l.HT COOTBeTCTBYlO-

uiae CJIYJK6bI MHHHCTepCTB H Be,nOMCTB. rOpHOTeXHHQecKaH cJIY)K6a ocymeCTBJIHeT KOHTPOJIb aa COCTOHHHeM KpOBJIH nopcn, nOMepJKaHHeM ee, nposeneanea npocpHJIaKTHqeCKHX '» peMoHTHbIX pa60T, MapKweHnepcxoe H reoaoranecxoe ooecnexeaae cTpOHTeJIbCTBa, MeJKBe)l.OMCTBeHHaH TeppHTOpHaJIbHaH ropuorexnnaecxaa cJIyJK6a 06CJIYJKHBaeT nonseauue 06beKTbI, BXO)l.HmHe B npOMbIWJIeHHblH nO)l.3eMHblH Y3eJI.

focropTeXHa,n30p YCTaHaBJIHBaeT nopH,noK 06CJIYJKHBaHHH nO)l.3eMHbIX 3)l.aHHH BoeHH3HpoBaHHblMH ropuocnacarensusrxu qaCTHMH {BrCll) HJIH c03,naBaeMblMH na nonsesrastx orrsexrax BcnOMOraTeJIbHbIMil ropnocnacarensasma KOMaH,naMH (BrK).

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OnpeJ1,eJIeH nOpflJ1,OK ysera rOpHhIX BhIpa6oTOK H yqaCTKOB HeJ1,p, B KOTOPbIX MOLKHO pa3MeCTHTh OOJ1,3eMHble 06beKTbI. OepBHqHbIH YlJeT .l1.0JILKHhI BeCTI:! MHHHCTepCTBa H BeJ1,OMCTBa, B BeJ1,eHHH KOTOPhIX ecrs npeJ1,npHHTHH no J1,06blqe OOJIe3HbIX HCKonaeMbIX, H MHHHCTepCTBa reOJIOrHI:! - B qaCTH eCTeCTBeHHbIX OOJ1,3eMHblX OOJIOCTeH II 6eCX03HbIX BbIpa60TOK. BceCOI03HbIH yner OPOBOJ1,HT [OCCTpOH CCCP OpH yqaCTHH I'ocroprexnanaopa. OpH3HaHHbIe 110J1,XOJ1,HmHMH J1,JIH p asxeureuaa non- 3eMHbIX 06beKTOB Bblpa60TKH H 110JIOCTH MHHHCTepCTBa 06H3aHbI 3aKOHcepaapoaari, J1,O nepeaaxa 3aHHTepeCOBaHHblM opraHH3al1.HHM J1,JIH CTpOiiTeJIbCTBa. KOHCepBal1.HH 3aKJI!OtIaeTCH B npOBeJ1,eHHI1 MepoopHHTHM, 06ecnetlHBaIOIUHX jlJIHTeJIbHYIO coxpaunocrs B COCTOHHHH, njinronHOM i,nJIH nOCJIeJ1,yIOJl~erO HCI10JIb30naHHH 11 6e300aCHoro nocryna JIIOJ1,eH OpH npOBeJ1,eHHH H3hlCKaHHH H ropHOCTpOHTeJIbHblX pa60T. Ee I1POBO;B.HT B YCTaHOBJIeHHOM [OCCTpoeM CCCP no COrJIaCOBaHHIO C FocroprexHaJ1,30pOM nopsnxe OpeJ1,npHHTHfl H oprannsauna, B BeJ1,eHHH KOTOPbIX HaXOJ1,HTCH nOJ1,3eMHhle BbIpa60TKH H OOJIOCTH.

OKOHtIaTeJIbHOe peuieaae 0 B03MOLKHOCTH pasaemenns 06beKTOB B HeJ1,paX npHHHMaeT I'occrpoa CCCP, npa 3TOM OpejlOCTaBJIeHHe OOasexaoro npOCTpaHCTBa B nOJIb30BaHHe OcpopMJIHeTCH ropHOOTBOJ1,HhIM aKTOM, KOTOPblH BblJ1,aeT I'ocroprexnansop CCCP. OCTaTOtIHYIO CTOHMOCTb OCHOBHbIX lj:>OHJ1,OB (CTBOJIbI, BhIpa60TKH, COeUHaJIH3HpOBaHHbIe 3J1,aHH5I aa OOBepXHOCTH H npyr ae coopysceaaa) COHCblBaIOT. T'aioxe MOLKe'F 6biTb COHcaHa H OCTaTOtIHaH nacrt, 3aoaCOB OO.'le3HbIX HCKonaeMbIX.

Pa3pa60TKY npoexros OOJ1,3eMHbIX 06beKTOB BblOOJIHHIOT npoexrnste opraHH3al1.HH (OpH 06H3aTeJIhHOM yqaCTHH Cnel1.HaJIH3HpOBaHHoH OPOeKTHOM opraHH3aUHH ropaoro OpOCPHJIfl) nOCJIe OpOBeJ1,eHHH rtuarensHbIX reOJ1,e3HqeCKHX, HHlKeHepHO-reOJIOrHqeCKHX H rHJ1,pOreOJIOrHlJeCKHX H3bICKaHHH. BBHjlY OC060H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH OOJ1,3eMHhIx 06beKTOB ace npoexrsr (He3aBHCHMO OT cMeTHoH CTOHMOCTH) OpOXOJ1,HT sxcrreprnay B [OCCTpoe CCCP.

f.l. KnACCI;ICbHKA.LV.UI nOA3EMHbiX 3AA.HHIII H COOPY>KEHH~

Coapeaeaaue nOJ1,3eMHble 3J1,aHHH MOLKHO KJIaCcIlCtmUHpOBaTb no Ha3HaqeHHIO, rJIy6HHe 3aJIOLKeHHH, YCJIOBHHM paasremeaaa, KOHCTPYKTHBHhlM peureaaaa, oCBemeHHIO.

00 Ha3HaqeHHIO pa3JIHlJaIDT:

LKHJIble ,nOMa;

npOH3BOJ1,CTBeHHble 05beKThI, ocooenao Tpe6YIOmHe 3amHTbI OT BH6- paUHH, nbIJIH, nepeaeanux renneparyp:

CKJIajlCKHe nOMemeHHH - XOJIO,nHJIhHHKH, OBOme- H xanroxp aaa.TIHma, peaepnyapu, apXHBbI;

spenmuasre, COOPTHBHble 05beKTbI - KHHOTeaTpbI, aucrasosusre 3aJIhI, MY3eH, KJIy6bl, cnOpT3aJIbI, THpbI, naaaarensnsre 6acceHHbI, 06meCTBeHHbIe nenrpst;

aJ1,MHHHCTpaTHBHbIe 3J1,aHH51 H UeHTpbI;

06beKTbI KOMMYHaJTbHO-6bITOBoro 06CJIYIKHBaHHH - MaCTepCKHe, 6aHH, I1paQeQHhIe, nOtITbI, coepxaccsr, arense, KOM6HHaTbI 6bITOBoro 06cJIYLKHBaHHH, roprcao-tiuroaste nenrpsr;

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n rpancnopraue OO'beKTbI - CTaHUHH H TOHHeJIH nO)].3eMHOrO TpaHCIIOpTa, BOK3aJIbl, rapazcn, CTOHHKH, rpancnoprnsre U.eHTPbl; OO'beKTbl TOprOBJIH H OOmeCTBeHHOrO nHTaHHH - CTOJlOBble, peCTOpansr, Mar33HHbI, PbIHKH, roprosue nearpu:

yneono-aocnarareasuae coopY)KeHHH - )].eTCKHe canst, WKOJIbI, YLIHJIHma, BY3bI, yqeOHble U.eHTpbI.

3)].aHHH npoeKTHpYIOT C OCBemeHHeM: OoKOBbIM, eCTeCTBeHHbIM, YCTpaHB3eMbiM xepea OKHa C npHHMKaMH, BHYTpeHHHe )].BOPHKH H )].PYrHe; C BepXHHM 3eHHTHbIM qepe3 rtpoensr HJlH cpOHapH B KpOBJIe; C KOMOHHHpOBaHHbIM eCTeCTBeHHbIM, nnor-na B COqeTaHI1H co CBeTOBo)].aMH H pacceHBaTeJIHMH; C nOJIHOCTblO HCKYCCTBeHHblM (pHC. 1.1).

no rJTy6HHe 3aJIO)KeHHH nonsesmsre 3)].aHHH H coopyaceana )].emIT· na ~ nOJIY3ar JIYOJleHHble (OOBaJIOBaHHble), MeJIKOrO (OObIQHO He HH)Ke 10 M OT )].HeBHoH nosepxnocra rpyara) II rJIyooKoro 3aJIO)KeHHH (KaK npaBHJIO, rJIyo)Ke 10 M). B nOJIY3ar.IIy6JIeHHbIX 3)].aHHHX xpsnua pacnOJIO)KeHa He HH)Ke )].HeBHoH nOBepXHOCTH rpynr a; OCHOBHble narpyaKH - OOKOBoe )].aBJIeHHe rpyara H sec 3aCbIllKH na KpOBJTe. qeM 60JIbwe rJIYOHHa 3aJIO)KeHHH, TeM 60JIblllYIO pOJIb arpaer )].aB_JIeHHe rpyara, OT xoroporo 3aBHCHT THnhI KOHCTPYKUHH H pasaepu rrpOJIeTOB.

OCHOBHhIe THnbI rrO)].3eMHhlX OOB3JIOBaHHh!X, MeJIKOrO H rJIYOOKoro aaJIO)KeHHH 3)].aHHH paaaemaior aa reppnropnn C KPYThIMH YKJIOHaMH, co cnOKOHHblM pensepoa MeCTHOCTH, na ~BOOO)].HbIX HJIH sacrpoenH11X ysacrxax, OT)].eJIhHO CTOHmHMH HJIH HBJIHIOIII.HMHCH nO)].3eMHoH qaCThlO scero OO'beKTa.

no YCJIOBHHM pacnoaoaceans nonaeuaue 3)].aHHH rrpoeKTHpYIOT OT.1l.eJIhHO pacnonoaceauuaa H3)]. He3aCTpoeHHbIMH H non sacrpoeaHhIMH yqaCTKaMH, a TaK)Ke BXO)].HmHMB B COCT3B na3eMHbIX 3)].aHHfi; no KOHCTPYKTHBHbIM peiueaaaa - KapKaCHblMH H 6eCKapI<aCHbIMH, O)].HO- H MHOr09Ta)KHbIMH, O)].HO- H MHOrOnpOJ1eTHbIMH. B xasecrne MaTepHaJla KOHCTPYKUHH LI3me acero I1pHMeHHIOT )KeJle306eTOH H 6eTOH, qaCTHqHQ HCnOJIb3YIOT npOT'!Hbli1 rpyur.

)KHJIhle )].OMa B03BO)].HT TOJ1bKO npu YCJIOBHH eCTeCTBeHHoro ocaemeHHH, 06meCTBeHHbIe H npOH3BO)].CTBeHHble 3)].aHHH MorYT OCBemaTbCH HCKYCCTBeHHblM CBeTOM C )].onOJIHeHHeM eCTeCTBeHHoro.

Oxem, Ba)KHO )].JIH rrO)].3eMHbIX 3)].3HHH C03)l,aTh Y JIIO)].eH OJl~YIII.eHHe, LITO coopysceune pacnOJIO)KeHO asnue YPOBHH 3eMJIll. Eho 1l.0CTHraeTCH YCTPOHCTBOM:

6oKOBoro O)].HOCTopoHHero H aepxnero eCTeCTBeHHoro OCBemeHHH B rrOJIY3ar JIy6JIeHHblX 3)].aHHHX;

eCTeCTBeHHoro OCBemeHHH xepea CBeTOBO)].hI B coopY)KeHHHX MeJIxoro H raytioxoro 3aJIO)KeHHH;

spxoro acxyccraennoro OCBeUJ,eHHH B COqeTaHHH co CBeTJIOH oxpacKOH nOMemeHHH;

Puc. 1.1. CXeMb! JKHJlbIX, ooinecrseunux U npoasaoncrneuaux 3AaHl1if:

a ... 8 - }l{H"1bJe COOTBeTCTBeHHO nonyaarvrycaeuusre, MeJlKOI'O 3aJIO}l{eHHlI H Ha CKJlOHaX; II _ oeuiecrneaasie: iJ - npOH3BOACTBeHHble MHOI'03Ta)!{Hble; e, OIC - TO see, COOTBeTCTBeHHO B ropaon asrpaocrae H rJly6oKOI'O SaJlO}l{eHHH;

1 ~ anaune: 2 - maxra AJJH BBoAa OCBelll,eIJHlI; 3 - OKHO; 4 - orp aacaioman ll,HJlHHAP; 6 - axon B KHHoTeaTp; 6 - H83eMHaH qaCTb 3A8HHlI; 7 - apvuponaaue uenuka noponu; 8 - o6AeJlKa.

9

KpHBOJIIIHeHHbIX nOKpbITHH H nepexpurna B rpop ae 060JIOqeK co BHaqHTeJIbHOH nO)].beMHOCTb!O;

cpaJIbIIIHBbIX OKOHHbIX npOeMOB C pa3MeIUeHHeM aa HHMH HpKHX cpOTOlleH3a)KeH (C pa3BHTHeM TeXHm<H roaorparpan - roaorparpaseCKHX xaprau).

u. BnHQHHE BHAA H COCTOQHHS1 fPYHT A HA KOHCTPYKTHBHblE PEWEHHH

Ilpn npoeKTHpOBaHHH H CTpOHTeJIbCTBe nO)].3eMHhIX 3)].aHHH H COOPY)KeHHH neooxonausr HCxo)].Hhle nanaue: caeneana 0 peJIbecpe MeCTHOCTH, CYIUeCTBY!OIUHX Ha)].3eMHbIX H nonaeunsrx coopY)KeHHHX H KOMMYHHKaUHflX, KJIHMaTHqecKHX YCJIOBHHX, pe3YJIbTaTbI anaceacpuo-reoJIOrnqeCKHX H3blcKaHHH [13].

I1HlKeHepHo-reo)J.e3HtIeCKHe H3blCKaHHH H reoneaasecxo-aapxnreanepcxne pa60TbI, 06eCneqHBa!OIUHe BbIHOC npoexra 3)].aHHH (cooPYlKeHHH) B HaTYPY H nocToHHHbIH KOHTPOJIh aa ero paCnOJIOlKeHHeM B nO)l,3eMHOM npocrpaacrse H TOtIHOCTh!O pasxepos, BbIIIOJIHH!OT na ncex sranax rrpoexrnpoaauna H cTpOHTeJIhCTBa [13, 23]. Oc060e BHHMaHHe )].OJIIKHO 6bITb y)].eJIeHO onpeneneaato rrpOrH03HpOBaHlIH B3aHMo)].eHcTBlul nonaevnoro 3)].aHHH C oKpYlKa!OIUHM rpYHToM, B03MOIKHOCTH H3MeHeHHH BO BpeMeHH COCTOflHHH rpyara, BJIHflHHH ua nonsexnoe coopyacenne ,norrOJIHHTeJIbHbIX B03)].eHcTBHH, a HMeHHO CTaTHqeCKHX H )].HHaMHqeCKHX HarpY30K BCJIe)].CTBHe npcxonxa asrpaoorox, BCKPbITHfl KOTJIOB8- HOB, H3MeHeHHH ypOBHH H CTeneHH arpeCCHBHOCTH rpYHTOBbIX BO)J., ynJIOTlleHHH HJIH pa3ynJIOT-HeHHH rpyara, rrpOHHKHOBeHHH ra30B H

T. )]..

I1CXO)].Hble naaasre no 06'heKTY rro,nrOTaBJIHBa!OT aa OCHOBe MaTe-

pHaJIOB reo)].e3HQeCKHX H3hICKaHHH.

I1HlKeHepHbIe H3bICKaHHH onpenenaror:

YCJIOBHH 3aJIeraHHH H CPH3HKO-MeXaHHQeCKIIe CBOHCTBa rpYHTOB; pelKHM H CPH3HKO-XHMHtIeCKHe CBOHCTBa rpYHTOBbIX BO)].;

naunsre 0 B03MOIKHOCTH npOHBJIeHHH CPH3HKO-reOJIOrHQeCKHX H H IlKeHepHO-reOJIOrHqeCKRX nponeccos (onOJI3HH, 3eMJIeTpSlCeHHH, npoca)].OQHOCTb, 1'eKTOHHQeCKHe napymeaaa, B03MOIKHOCTb H3MeHeHHH ypOBHH H COCTaBa rpYHTOBbIX BO)]. H )].p.);

pelKHM H CBOHCTBa nO)].3eMHhIX ra30B.

no MaTepHaJIaM HHlKeHepHo-reo)].e3HQeCKHX H3bICKaHHH H reonesa-

qeCKO-MapKmeH)].epCKHX pa60T rrpOBOJl.HTCH:

TonorpacpHQeCKaH CbeMKa paHOHa CTpOHTeJIbCTBa; nJIaHOBaH H BbICOTHaH reo)].e3HQeCKHe OCHOBbI; BbIHOC ocetr coopysceaas B HaTYPY;

opHeHTHpOBaHHe coopY)KeHHH OTHOCHTeJIbHO Ha3eMHOH OCHOBbI; rro,n3eMHaH reO)J.e3HQeCKaH OCHOBa H pa36HBKa KOHCTPYKTHBHhlX

9JIeMeHTOB B nnase H rro BbICOTe;

KOHTPOJIb B npouecce CTpOHTeJIbCTBa aa nOJIOlKeHHeM onopasrx nYHKTOB OCHOBbl H pa36HBOtIHbIX ocea COOPYlKeHHH, aa nOJIOJKeHHeM 9JIeMeHTOB ccopyscenaa B COOTBeTCTBHH C npoexron, aa 06beMOM 3eMJIHHhiX pa60T H pacxonon CTpOHTeJIbHbIX MaTepHaJIOB.

10

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I'pynrosue yCJIOBH~ BO MHOrOM OIIpe.ll.eJI~IOT BbI60p MeCTa paCIIOJIOJKeHH~ IIO.ll.3eMHOrO snanaa, CIIoc06 IIPOH3BO.ll.CTBa pa6OT, KOHCTPYKTlfBHYIO CXeMY. HaHJIYlJllJHEl - 9TO CTPYKTYPHO-YCTOHlJHBbIe HeBO.ll.OHOCHbIe rpYHTbI, 3aJIeralOIUHe CJIOeM 60JIblllOH MOmHOCTH, B npenenax KOTOpOrO MOLKHO pa3MeCTHTb snaaae. O.ll.HaKO IIpH IIpaBHJIbHOM BhI6ope cnocoria IIPOH3BO)l.CTBa pa60T H KOHCTPYKTHBHbIX peurennf IIO.ll.3eMHoe snaane MOJKeT 6bITb COOPYLKeHO B JII06bIX rpYHTOBbIX yCJIOBH~X

(Ta6JI. 1.1). .

Ilpa rJIy60KoM 3aJIOJKeHHH 3.ll.aHHH (cJIe.ll.OBaTeJIbHO, B 60JIee IIPOlJHbIX rpynrax H IIpH BbICOKOM 3HalJeHHH ropnoro .ll.aBJIeHH~) HCIIOJIbSYIOT npocrpaacreeanue KOHCTPYKIlHH IIOKPhITHH, CTeH H ¢YH)l.aMeHTOB, IIpHMeH~IOT TaKLKe IleJIbHYIO IIpocTpaHcTBeHHYIO cHcTeMY - c¢epHlJecKYIO, IlHJIHH.ll.pHqecKYIO, OBOH.ll.aJIbHYIO 060JIOqKH.

Ilpn MeJIKOM 3aJIOLKeHHH aa 6a3e coorsercrnyromero TeXHHKO-9KOHOMHlJecKoro 060cHoBaHH~ IIpHMeH~IOT H npocrpaacrneaaae, H IIJIOCxae KOHCTPYKIlHH . .uJI~ 06BaJIOBaHHbix 3.ll.aHHH HarpY3KH OT )l.aBJIeHH~ rpynra TaKOBhI, lJTO OHH BnOJIHe MorYT 6bITb BOCIIPHH~TbI IIJIOCKHMH KOHCTPYKUH~MH. O.ll.HaKO H3 apXHTeKTypHbIX co06paLKeHHH B IIOKPbITH~X H crenax LKHJIbIX nOJIY3arJIy6JIeHHbIX 3)l.aHHH IIpHMeH~IOT pasJ1lilJHbIe rnnu IIpOCTpaHCTBeHHbIX KOHCTPYKIlHH, B qaCTHOCTH - apxn, 060JIOlJKH CJIOLKHOH ¢OpMbI.

U. 3AU.V.fTA OT BHEWHHX B03AElifCTBHIif

1.4.1. fH,lI,POH30JISlIJ.H9. C nexsro HCKJIIOlJeHH~ ¢HJIbTpaIlHH rpYHTOBbIX BO)l. B IIO)l.3eMHOe snaaae, 3amHTbI KOHCTPYKIlHH OT .ll.eHcTBH~ arpeccaanux rpYHToBbIX BO.ll. YCTpaHBalOT rH.ll.pOH30JI~IlHIO. Ilo KOHCTPY[{IlHH ee IIO.ll.pa3.ll.eJI~IOT na OKpaCOlJHYIO (B BH.ll.e JIaKOB H xpacox), OOMa30lJHYIO (B anne MaCTHK, LKH)l.KHX repxeraxoa, HaHOCHMbIX B XOJIO.ll.HOM HJIH rOp~qeM anne), OKJIeeqHYIO HJIH 3aaHKepeHHYIO (IIJIeHOqHYIO, JIHCTOBYIO) H Ha6pbI3roBYIO (6eHToHHTOBYIO H .ll.p.). HaH60JIee a¢<PeKTHBHbI MHOrOcJIoiIHa~ 06Ma30qHaH H JIHCTOBa~ rH)l.pOH30JI~IlHH.

K KOHCTPYKIlHH rH)l.pOH30JI51IlHH IIpe)l.b~BJI51IOTC~ Tpe6oBaHH~: ,lI,OJIrOBelJHOCTH IIpH KOHTaKTe C rpYHToM H ,rpYHToBbIMH BO,lI,aMH; YCTOHlJHBOCTH K nepaanoaepnua .ll.e¢OpMau.H~M 3.ll.aHHH,K ,lI,e¢Op-

MaIlH~M H o6pa30BaHHIO rpetuna B oxpyacaromea snaane rpynre:

IIPOCTOTbI BbIIIOJIHeHH~ (anresns K MaTepHaJIy: 3)l.aHH~, npnronHOCTh rtpa JII06bIX yraax HaKJIOHa H30JIHpyeMoH nonepxaocrn, B03- MOLKHOCTb H3rH6a B yrJIax, He3HalJHTeJIbHOe H3MeHeHHe CBOHCTB rrpH KOJIe6aHH~x rexmeparyp, HeBbICOKHe Tpe6oBaHH~ K lJHCTOTe H30JIHpyeMOH noaepxnocru).

Ilpn CTpOHTeJIbCTBe IIO,lI,3eMHOro snaaaa OTKPhITbIM, OIIYCKHbIM CIIOC060M HJIH cnocooox IIO)l.pamHBaHH~ pexoaeunyerca CIIJIOlllHa~ HapYLKnas rH)l.r0I130JI~IlH~ IIO KOHTYPY 3.ll.aHH~ (pHC. 1.2), a .ll.JI~ KOHCTPYKIlHH, coopyacaexnrx cnocoriox «CTeHa B rpYHTe»,- BHYTpeHH~~ rH.ll.pOH30JI~IlH~ CTeH H .ll.HHIUa B COlJeTaHHH C HapYLKHoH H30JI~I1,HeH IIOKPbITH~. 4ame scero B KalJeCTBe OKJIeeQHOH rH.ll.pOH30JI~IlHH HCIIOJlb3YIOT fII.ll.POH30JI B nsa-rpa CJIO~ aa BO.ll.OCTOHKOH 6HTYMHOH MaCTHKe . .uJI~ aamHTbI OT IIoBpeLK.ll.eHHH npn oriparnoti 3aCblIIKe KOTJIOBaHa na r-napo-

12

II30JUIUHlO HaHOCHT CJIOH TOpKpeT-6eTOHa HJIH BbIKJIa,D,bIBalOT CTeHKY lI3 KHpI1HlIa; na IIOl{PbITHH IIOBepx H30JIHU,HH HaHOCHT CJIOH 6eTOHa TOJIIIJ,HHOH 10 ... 15 CM, apvapoaaanoro ceTKOH 15 X 15 CM ,D,HaMeTpoM 5 MM.

CTOHKH K arpeCCHBHbIM B03,D,eHCTBHHM, K ,D,eHCTBHlO HH3KHX H BbICOKHX TeMIIepaTYP CIIHTeTWJeCKHe JIHCTOBbIe H IIJIeHOlJHble MaTepHaJIbI, Hal1pHMep, II3 IIOJIHBHHHJIXJIOpH,D,a, HaKJIeHBaeMbIe Ha KOHCTPYKU,HID C IIOMO!lJ.blO 6HTYMHO-ITOJIHMepHOH MaCTHKH,' IIpH 9TOM JIHCTbI CBapHBalOT rOpHlJHM B03~YXOM HJIH CKJIeHBalOT paCTBOpHTeJIeM. ilOJIYlJHJIH paCIIpOCTpaHeHHe TepMOUJIaCTHlJHbIe KOBpOBbIe H30JIHIJ,HOHHbIe MaTepHaJIbI, upe~CTaBJIHlO!lJ.He C060H apMHpylOIIJ,YlO 'OCHOBY H3- CTeKJIOT[{3HH HJIH cpoJIbrH, ITOKPbITYlO C ~BYX CTOPOH CJIOeM IIOJIHMep6HTYMa HJIH 6HTYMa TOJIIIJ,HHOH 1,5 ... 2 MM, HMelO!lJ.erO BbICOKYlO TeMIIep8TYPY I1JIaBJIeHHH. Y cneuruo npHMeHHlOT TepMOIIJIaCTHlJHYlO II30JIHU,HlO, coCTOHlU,YlO H3 paCIIJI8BJIeHHOrO 6HTYMa, apMHpOB8HHoro CTeKJIOTKaHblO. H naaocmroro na nonepxnocrs JKeJIe306eTOHa ¢opcYHKaMH. TepaonJIaCTHlJHbIe MaTepHaJIbI He TOJIbKO n03BOJIHlOT nOBbICHTb nonoaenpoHHu,aeMOCTb, HO H ~OITYCK?lOT netcoropsre aepaaaoaepasre ~e¢opMaUHH KOHCTPYKU,HH 6e3 YTpaTbI H30JIHPYlOIIJ,HX CBOHCTB.

B rpynrax eCTeCTBeHHOH BJIaJKHOCTH HCIIOJIb3YlOT OKpaCOlJHYlO rHJl.pO_II30JIHU,HlO B BH,D,e nO[<pbITIIH II3 JIaKOB, KpaCOK, a TaKJKe - 06Ma- 30QHYlO, COCTOHIIJ,YlO H3 6HTYMHbIX, aC¢aJIbTOBbIX H ~IIO[{CII,D,HO-¢ypaHOBbIX MaCTIIK TOJIlU,HHOH 2 ... 3 MM. Ilpn HaJIHlJHH rpYHTOBbIX BO~ npe~YCMaTpHBalOT BHYTpeHHlOlO H HapYJKHYlO rH~pOH30JIHU,IIlO II3 peopacroro JIHCTOBOro IIOJIH9THJIeHa TOJIIIJ,HHOii 1.. .. 3 MM C anxepyroIIJ,HMH peopaan ~JIH 3a~eJIl{H B JKeJIe30neToH; B cnyuae fH,D,POCT8THlJecxoro ,D,aBJIeHHH (rrpn TeXHHKO-9KOHOMHlJeCKOM o60cHoBaHHH 9¢¢eKTH8- HOCTH) MeTaJIJIOH30JIHU,HlO H3 CTaJIbHbIX JIHCTOB TOJIIIJ,HHOH 6 ... 8 MM, saauxepeaasrx B 6eTOH IIpH ITOMOlU,H KOpOTbIllJeH H3 apxarypsr.

,UJIH 60JIbllJHX nO,D,3eMHbIX 3~aHHii H cooPY>KeHHii He06xo~HMa repMeTH38u,HH ,D,e¢OpMaII.HOHHbIX llJBOB. C 9TOH uensro llJBbI 3aIIOJIHHIOT 6HTYMHo-MHHepaJIbHOH MaccoH, a BHYTPH nOMeIIJ,eHHH B llJOB YKJIanuaaror KaHaT, IIpOITHTaHHbIH 6HTYMOM. CHapYJKH 3~aHHH H30JIHU,HIO 3aBO,D,HT B llJOB B BH,D,e IIeT:JIH. 3aKpbIBalOT llJOB H KOMITeHCaTopOM.

Ilpn coopYJKeHHH 3~aHHH, B03BO~HMbrx B CKaJIbHbIX rpyarax saKpbITbIM CIIoc060M, MOHOJIHTHYlO HJIH C60PHYlO 06~eJIKY 3aIIJ,HIIJ,8ror CIIJIOllJHOH HapY>KHOii rH)l,pOH30JIHUHeH, YKJIa~bIB8eMOW 06bIlJHO no ycrpoflcrua 06~eJIKH; B CJIa6bIX rpynrax BbIIIOJIHHlOT BHYTpeHHlOIO nI,lI,poH30JIHU,HlO.

,UJIH YCTpOHCTBa HapYJKHOH rH)l,poH30JIHIJ,HH nosepxnocrt, aupa- 60TKH IIoKpbIBalOT (BbIpaBHIIBalOT) TopKpeT-6eTOHOM TOJIIIJ,HHOH 50 ... 70 MM, IIO HeMY HaKJIeHBalOT H30JIHUHlO, 3aTeM 6eToHHPYlOT 06,D,eJIKY, a B npocrpaacrso Me>K,lI,Y H30JIHIJ,HeH H 06~eJIKOH narneraror ueMeHTHbIH pacrsop. Ilpn YCTpoHcTBe ImYTpeHHeH fH,D,POH30JIHIJ,HH Heo6xo,D,HMO YlJHTbIB8Tb, lITO ee [{QHCTPYKIJ,HH aaBHCHT OT nanopa IIO)l,3eMHbIX BO,D" 8 MaTepHaJI 06)l,eJIKH He 3aIIJ,HIIJ,eH OT HX arpeccnnnoro )l,eiiCTBHH. Ilpn aanope MeHee 0,1 Mila BbInOJIHHlOT aononenpoaanaenyro urryxaTYPKY TOJIIIJ,HHOii 30 .. .40 MM C uaaeceuaea ee ropxperon, IIpH nanope 0,1 Mila H 60JIee O[{JIeelJHYlO H30JIHIJ,HlO H3 PYJIOHHbIX MaTepHaJIOB 110MepJKHBaeT JKeJIe306eToHHaH 060HMa TOJIIIJ,HHOH .no 20 CM. 060fU.4:8

13

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.J:OJI>KHa BbI,n;epJKHB8Tb )leHCTBHe rH)lpOCTaTHlJeCKOrO ,n;3BJIeHH~ rpyn'FOBbIX BO,D,. Ilpn HCIIOJIb30B8HHH 3a8HKepeHHOH B OO)leJIKY MeTaJIJIOH30JI~UHH '060HMY He BbIIIOJIH~lOT.

HeOOXO,D,HMO repuei H3HPOB8Tb IlIBbI COOPHhIX KOHCTPYKI..I,HH (CM. pac, 1.2). B oO)I.eJIKe H3 xyrynnstx TlOoHHroB HX YIIJIOTHHlOT lIeK8HKoii CBHHUOBOH npOBOJIOKOii )I.H8MeTpoM 9 ... 12 MM HJIH CBHHUOBOH TPYOKOH a8pYJKHbIM JJ:HaMeTpOM 11..'.13 MM, 3aIIOJIHeHHOH acoecroasuen OHTYMHHH3HPOB8HHbIMH HHT~MH. DOJITOBbIe COe)I.HHeHH~ IlIBOB repMeTH3HpYlOT m8iio8MH C TyrOnJIaBKHM acoeCTOOIITYMHbIM H8IIOJIHHTeJIeM HJIH IIOJIH- 3THJIeHOBbIMH.

Illau COOPHbIX JKeJIe300eToHHhIx oOJJ:eJIOK 38lJe[{3HHBaIOT BOJJ:OHeIIpomIU8eMbIM pacIlIHpHlOIUHMC~ ueMeHTOM BPU, YCTpaHB810T YIIJIOTH~lO!lJ.He IIpOKJI8JJ:KH H3 neonpeaa, 0YTlIJI-K8YQYK8, IIpHMeHHIOT asp aPOB8HHbIH pacrnop, H8HOCHMbIH MexaHH3HpoBaHHbIM CIIOCOOOM. '

C uensro YJJ:3JIeHHH IIoBepxHocTHbIX H nOCTO~HHbIX rpYHToBbIX B 0)), , CHHJKeHH~ HX )),aBJIeHH~ H8 3)),8HHe YCTP8HB81OT npeaaac, nJI~ 3)),8HHH IIOJIY3arJIYOJIeHHbIX HJIH MeJIKOrO 3aJIOJKeHH~ npenaac - OOCbIIIl{a 3)),aHH~ csepxy H C OOKOB ,D,peHHpylOIUHM rpYHToM H YCTPOHCTBO OTBO)J.HbIX TPYO B yposne HH3a 3JJ:8HH~ (CM. pHC. 1.2), JJ:JIH coopyaceanii r JIyoOlwro 3aJIOJKeHHH HCIIOJIb3YlOT JJ:peHHpoB8HHe (OTBON BO)I. BHYTPb 3JJ.8HHH H YJJ:aJIeHHe HX H8 nosepxuocn, nacocaan. 9qxpeKTHBHhIH H MeHee TPy)),oeMKHii cnocoo )J.peH8JK3 - OOKJI8JJ:K8 3)I.8HH~ MelliKaMH Jl3 aononponycaaromero MaTepH8JIa, 38nOJIHeHHbIMH )I.peHHpylOIUHM rpYHToM. B 9TOM CJIY1I8e pesxo IIOBbIIlI8eTC~ npoH3Bo)J.HTeJIbHOCTb rp YJJ:a , OTn8JJ:8eT HeoOXo)I.HMOCTb B BbIIIOJIHeHHH 33IUHTHOH CTeHKH

NOBepx rH)I.poH30JI~I1,HH. .

1.4.2. TenJlOH30JlSlUHSI. TeMIIep8TYP8 BMeIUalOIUero rpynra llJIH 3JJ:aHHH, CTpo~IUHXC~ B P8HOH3X C OTOIIHTeJIbHbIM IIepHoJJ:oM, OObIlIHO HHJKe Tpet5YlOIUeHc~ ,n;JI~ C03)I.aHH~ HeOOXo)I.HMbIX KOM<P0PTHbIX YCJIOBHH. VCTPOHCTBO TenJIOH30JI~UHH nosepxaocra IIO)I.3eMHbIX 3)I.8HHH n03BOJI~eT COKp8THTb P8CXO)I. 9HeprHH Ha OTOnJIeHHe.

K YCTPOHCTBY TenJIOH30JI~UHH IIpe,D,b~BJIHlOTC~ rpeoonanaa nOBbImeHH~ TeMIIep3TypbI BHYTPH IIOMeIUeHHH no cpanaennro C TeMIIep3TYPOH OKpYJK81OIUerO rpYHT8; IIpH 9TOM B nepxaea Q8CTH IIOJIY38rJIYoJIeHllhIX OO'beKTOB HJIH 3)I.aHHii nerayooxoro 38JIOJKeHllH, rne TeMIIep8- TYP8 HHJKe, IIpe)I.ycM8TpHBaIOT oOJIee TOJICTYlO H30JI~UHlO.

YCTpoiIcTBO TeIIJIOH30Jl~UHH HeJKeJI8TeJIbHO B rex penxnx CJIyq8~X, KorJJ:8 rperiyercn TeIIJIOIIepeJJ:8Q8 H3 3118HHH B rpYHT C ueJIbIO CHHJKeHHH pacxo)),8 9HeprHH H3 KOHJJ:HUHOHHpoB8HHe.

fIpoeKTHPYlOT CJIe)),YlOIUHe [WHCTPYKUHH (CM. pHC. 1.2): CIIJIOIlIH8~ TeIIJIOH30JIHUH~ acero 311aHHH C YBeJ1HQeHHeM ee TOJIIUHHbI B sep xnef

PRC. 1.2. Y3JIbI ranpo- Ii TenJIOll30JIHUHH 3.ll,aHRH:

a ,._ npHMbIKaHHe nl.n.POH30JUlUHH creuu H nOKpbITIIH; 6 - TO IKe, creau H cjJYH.n.aMeHTaj fI - np"MbIKaHHe I'H.n.POH30JIHUHH crenu II nOKpbITIIH C .n.peHa)!{OM; e - I'H.n.po- H TeIlJIOId30JIH. Io(HH HH1KHefi nacra CTeHhI; a - I'Id.n.POH30JlHUHH CTaJIhHbIM JIHCTOM; e, :JiC - I'H.n.POH30JlRUHII IIpH cnocooe B03Be.n.eHHH COOTBeTCTBeHHO «CTeHa B rpyure» H 3aKphITOM; 3 - cxeMbI CTblKOBl U ... A - cxeMbI paCnOJIQ}KeHHH TeIlJIOH30JISlUHIl COOTBeTCTBeHHO CnJIOIIlHofi. nepeeien non TOJI- 1I\HHbI H sxp amron: 1 - CTeHa; 2 - PYJIOHHa51 H30JIRUHH; 3 - c60pHaH IKeJIe300eToHHall IJJlHTa; 4 - 3a!UHTHaH CTeHa; 5 - ,n;peHaJKHaH Tpy6a; 6 - .n.peHllpYIO!UHfi cnon: 7 - TeOJIOH30J!51UHR; 8 - cjJYH.n.aMeHT; 9 - CTaJlhHOH JIHCT; 10 - np aaapnaaevaa CTaJIbHaH I1JIHTai 1..J - ceraa: 12 - TopKpeT-6eToH; 13 - 6eToH; 14 - YIIJIOTHRJOll\He npoKJIaAKH; J5 = aaxe-

KaHKa; 16 - KOMneHcaTop.

15

qaCTH 3)]:aHH~, a TaK}Ke B BH)]:e rennosaruarnoro sxpana nan 3)]:aHHeM. B nOCJIe)]:HeM CJIY4:ae 06JIer4:aeTC~ nocrynneane TenJIOThI H3 3)]:aHH~ B rpYHT H O)]:HOBpeMeHHO 3)]:aHHe samnmeao OT npOHHKHOBeHHH XOJIo,n;a c nOBepXHOCTH rpynra,

B Ka4:eCTBe MaTepHaJIOB )J,JI~ BHYTpeHHeH TenJIOH30JIHIlHH npnueH~lOT CTeKJIOBaTY C )J,epeB~HHOH 06llIHBKOH, a )]:JIH HapY}KHOH, pacnonaraeMOH non CJIOeM rH.l.lpOH30JI~IlHH,- npeCCOBaHHbIH neHOnOJIHCTHPOJI, BcneHeHHbIH neHOIIOJIHCTHPOJI, neaononayperan (Ta6JI. 1.2).

1.2. Xapaxrepacrasa TenJIOM30JIHII.MOHHbIX MaTepHaJlOIJ

TerinonpoBOIl.HOCTb, aT/(M' K)

HapYlKHofl

M8TepH8J1

I1J10THOCTb, Kr/M8

PeKOMeH,!l8ll.HH no npHMeHeHHIO TenJlOH30JlIlU.HH

neHOnOJIMCTH POJI:
HH3KOH nJIOTHOCTl1 1130 ... 200 0,028 Pexoxenayerca He pexoaennyerca
BbICOIWi1 250 0,033 Pesoaeaayerca PeKoMeH,!(yeTcH npa
nJlOTHOCTH Ha.n:eiKHoH rnapo-
H30JIHllHH
npeccosaunaf 280 ... 350 0,036 He pexoaennyercs PeKOMeH.II.yeTcH
H3-3a BbICOKoii:
CTOIlMOCTIl
CTeKJlOBaTa 120 ... 140 0,020 Pexoneuayerca He pexoaeunyerca
Ilenononayperan 300 ... 350 0,032 He pexoxeanyerca Pexoueunyerca npH
(nnnru HJIH }!(H)l,- HaD:eiKHOH rH,!(po-
Ka51 cavorsepne- H30JIHlJ,HH
rouiaa execs) flOCKOJIbKY non B03.l.leHcTBHeM BJIarH CBoHcTBa TenJIOH30JI~IlHll H3MeHHlOTCH, He06xo.l.lHMO YKJIa.l.lbIBaTb ee aa CJIOH napOH30JI~IlHH, a csepxy aaummars Ha)J,e}KHOH fH)]:pOH30JI~IlHeH. TaK KaK npn 06paTHoH aacunxe B03MO}KHO )J,eHcTBHe 3HatIHTeJIbHbIX CHJI TpeHH~ rpyara no noaepxnocrn H30JI~UHH H ee nepopaanan, aano Trn.aTeJIbHO nOCJIOHHO ynJIOTH~Tb rpyar,

1.4.3. M30JUlU,HSI OT npoHHKHoBeHHSI ra30B, reaneparypao-aaaxHOCTHblH pe>KHM. 1I.JI~ JIIo)J,eH, speaeaao HaXO.l.l~rn.HXC~ B nO.l.l3eMHbIX 3.l.laHHHX, Ba}KHO, 4:T06bI B03)J,YX B noaemennsx 6bIJI 4:HCTbIM. B CB~3H C 3THM npH npoeKTHpoBaHHH oc060e BHHMaHHe He06xo)]:HMO y)J,eJI~Tb H30JI~UHH OT panoaa - rasa, oripaayiomeroca npn pacnane panna, KOTOPblH B 04:eHb He3Ha4:HTeJIbHbIX KOJIHtIeCTBaX HMeeTCH B npaponnux cTpOHTeJIbHbIX MaTepHaJIaX H B rpyure.

Y4:HTblBa~, tITO panon )]:BH}KeTC~ CHH3Y anepx, B aTMoc¢epy, KOHCTPYKIlHIO anaaas JIY4:llJe BbIllOJIH~Tb 06TeKaeMoH CHH3Y, BbIllY[{JIOH B CTOPOHY rpynra, tIT06bI He C03)]:aBaTb rrpenHTCTBHH )J,BlUH:eHHIO rasa, XOPOWHH HaPY}KHbIH npeaasc, nOMHMO BbIllOJIHeHH~ CBOHX OCHOBHbIX <PYHKIlHH, MO}KeT 06JIer4:HTb )J,BH}KeHHe panoaa nnepx, MepbI 60Pb6b1 c npOHHKHOBeHHeM panona BO MHorOM CXO}KH C 06lll.HMH MeponpH~TH~MH no npenorspamenmo 3arp~3HeHHH B03)J,yxa.

9¢¢eKTHBHb.e cnocoriu noaaepacaaua 4:HCTOThI B03)J,yxa B nO)J,3eMHblX 3)J,aHHHX:

16

YCTpoikTBO OPIITOqHO-BnITSDKHOH BeHTHJIHll.HH G OnTHMaJIbHOH )l}I5I :mHJIbIX 3AaHHH KpaTHOCTbfO 06MeHa, pannoji 0,5 q, T. e. nOJIHbIH o6MeH B03Ayxa B TeqeHHe 2 q;

HCnOJIb30BaHHe pall.HOHaJIbHbIX KOHCTPYKTHBHbIX H oprannsannoaIHQ-TeXHOJIOmqeC[{HX peureaaii: 06TeKaeMa5I CHH3Y KOHCTPYKUHH 3AaHH5I; YCTPOHCTBO npeaasca H repMeTHqHOH HapY)f{HOH H30JI5Ill.HH; OpHMeHem-le B KOHCTPYKll.HHX HJIH B OTAeJIKe MaTepHaJIOB, He conepacamnx panoaa (ApeBeCHHa, nJIaCTMaCCbI) H He BbIAeJI5IlOmHX cpopMaJIbAerHAOB, a ratoae YCTPOHCTB, OrpaHHqHBalOIIl.HX nocrynneaae napa B B03AYX UpH nOJIb30BaHUH caHHTapHO-TeXHHqeCKHMH YCTpoikTBaMH, npnroTOBJIeHHH OHmH, YTHJIH3(lTOpOB TeOJIOTbI B BHAe TenJIOBbIX HaCOCOB, TeOJIOO(MeH iHKOB, B TOM qHCJIe BCTpoeHHbIX B naHeJIH CTeH; sanpemeRHe [{ypeHH5I; sanpemeane HJIH orpaanneaae npHMeHeHHH pacraopn'feJIeH, JIaKOB, a3p030JIeH, He3JIeKTpHQeCKHX HCTOqHHKOB 3HeprHH, lBbIAeJI5IlOmHX npoAYKTbI crOpaHH5I.

Oc06eHHocTbJO opraaasanan npoeKTHpOBaHH5I 5IBJI5IeTCH cneuaqmqHOCTb· npouecca cpOpMHpOBaHH5I TenJIOBJIa)f{HOCTHbIX YCJIOBHH nOAseanoro oOMemeHH5I nOCJIe ero B03BeAeHHH: q<.;pe3 KOPOTI{HH npoueJKYTOK BpeMeHH TeMoepaTypa B03Ayxa CTaHOBHTCH 6JIH3KOH K eCTeCTeennof rearreparype BMemaJOmero rpynra. TaK, npn rJIy6HHe 20 ... 200 M, rne 06bIqHO pacnonoaceau nOA3eMHbIe 3AaHHH, reuneparypa BMelll.llJOmero rp YH1;il COCTaBJIHeT OT 5 ... 8 AO 10 ... 16 °C, a B JO)l\.HbIX pairoaax - AO 15 ... 20. )1.JI5I 06eCneqeHH5I He06xoAHMOH rexneparypu IH OTHOCHTeJIbHOH BJIa)f{HOCTH B03Ayxa npHMeH5IJOT pa3JIHlIHbIe TeXHHqeCKHe cpencrsa: BeHTHJIHll.HlO, nonorpes B03Ayxa, peUHp[{YJIfIUHJO, ()XJIa)f{AeHHe, ocyureane. ECJnI B nOMew,eHHH rpeoyerca HH3KaH OTHOCHTeJIbHaH BJIa)f{HOCTb B03Ayxa (60 ... 70 %), TO OpH eCTeCTBeHHOH TeMneparype BKJIJOqalOT XOJIOAHJIbHble YCTaHOBKH. Ilpn 3HaqHTeJIbHbIX 8JIarOBbIAeJIeHH5IX npoeKTHpYJOT OCYllJHTeJIbHbIe YCTaHOBKH, paooraIDmHe aa CHJIHKareJIe H aKTHBHpoBaHHoM aJIJOMHHHH. B oTAeJIbHbIX CJIyqaHX AJI5I YBJIa)f{HeHH5I B03Ayxa ueJIeC006pa3HbI naporeneparopsi MJIH TOHKoe paCObIJIeHHe. )1.JI5I 06eCneqeHH5I HY:lKHOH reaneparypsr H COCTaBa B03Ayxa HCnOJIb3YJOT nonorpea H npoaerpnaamre [13].

. CHcTeMbI BeHTHJI5IUHH 3aBHC5IT OT pasuepoa nonaeaaoro 3AaHH5I,

ero Ha3HaqeHH5I, BpeMeHH npeoeraaaaa JIJOAeH [13]. I\aK npaBHJIO, 8 3arJIy6JIeHHbIX H Aa)f{e B OOJIY3arJIy6JIeHHbIX coopyxcenaax YCTpaHlBaJOT npHHYAHTeJIbHYJO BeTHJI5Ill.HJO, TaK KaI{ eCTeCTBeHHaH He n03BOJI5IeT 06eCneQHTb HY)f{HYJO [{paTHOCTb B03Ayxo06MeHa, paBHYJO AJIH :lKHJIbIX oOMemeHHH 0,5. 06bIQHO BblOOJIH5IJOT npHTOqHO-BbIT5I)fmyJO IBeHTHJI5IUHJO C nOAaQeH cseacero H YAaJIeHHeM 3arp5I3HeHHOro B03Ayxa. npoeKTHPYJOT CHCTeMbI: npOAOJIbHYJO (no AJIHHe coopyaceaas B03AYX nOABeTC5I H YAaJI5IeTC5I BeHTHJI5IUHOHHbIMH YCTaHoBKaMH 6e3 YCTpoHcTBa COeUHaJIbHbIX KaHaJIOB), npOAOJIbHO-CTPYHHYJO (c C03AaHHeM BTOPHQaoro nOTOKa B03Ayxa), nOnepeQHYJO (B03AYX nO,l1.aeTC5I H YAaJI5IeTCH no COeU,HaJIbHbIM KaHaJIaM sa npeneaaan raoapnroa nonseunoro 3AaHH5I), nonynonepeuayro (cBe)f{HH B03AYX 1l0AaeTC5I no KaHaJIaM, a 3arp5I3HeHHbIH YAaJI5IJOT nenocpencraeaao H3 nOMemeHH5I), CMewaHHbIe. B MHoroElT8)KHbIX (MHOr05IPycHbIX) 3AaHH5IX aa Ka)f{)l.OM sraxce YCTpaHBaJOT npHTOQHYJO H BbIT5I)KHYJO BeHTHJI5IUHH. Pacnpeneneane B03AYWHblX

17

Macc npeJJ:YCMaTpHBaJOT TaKHM 06pa30M, qT06bI JJ:aBJIeHHe B03JJ:yxa B CJIY}Ke6HbIX nOMe~eHH5IX npeBbIWaJIO JJ:aBJIeliHe B MeCTaX npOe3JJ:OB. ,UJIH YJJ:aJIeHH5I nbIJIH npHMeH51JOT 3JIeKTpOCTaTHQeCKHe nbIJIeYJIOBHTeJIH, 3arpH3HeHHH H3 B03JJ:yxa - qmJIbTpbI, COp6eHTbI.

C ueJIbJO 3[{oHOMHH 3HeprHH npn B03JJ:yxo06MeHe HCnOJIb3YJOT TenJIOYTHJIH3aTOpbI: H3 B03JJ:yxa, Y)l.aJIHeMOrO H3 nOMe~eHHH, orrinpaerca TeIIJIOTa H nepenaerca BCTpe4:HOMY CBe}KeMY.

BeHTHJI5IUHOHHble YCTaHOBKH MO}KHO pasaentari, B CneUHaJIbHbIX nO)l.3eMHbIX xauepax (npn 60JIbWOH MO~HOCTH) HJIH HenOCpe)l.CTBeHHO B 3JJ:aHH5IX. B03)1.YX03a60p OCymeCTBJI5IJOT JJ:JIH He60JIbWHX 3)1.aHHH - xepes JJ:eq)JIeKTOp aa 06BaJIOBaHHOH KpOBJIe, a )l.JIH 60JIbillHX a)l.aHHH If coopyacenaji, B TOM 4:HCJIe rvryrioxoro 3aJIO}KeHH5I - nepea BeHTHJI5IIl.HOHHbIe B03JJ:YX03a60pHbIe KHOCKH. 4ame ncero BeHTHJI5IIJ,HOHHbH~ KHOCKH pa3Me~aJOT B cxsepax, napxax, YCTpaHBaH CneUHaJIbHbIH ropH30HTaJIbHbIH TOHHeJIb, aa paCCT05IHHH He MeHbllie 50 M OT aBTOMarHCTpaJIeH, npn 3TOM npHT04:HbIe }KaJIJ03H JJ:OJI}KHbI 6bITb pacnOJIO}KeHbI aa BbICOTe He MeHee 2 M OT nosepxaocrn 3eMJIH (CM. pHC. 1.2). ,UJIfI HarHeTaHHH H BbIT51}KKH B03JJ:yxa YCTaHaBJIHBaJOT nenrpooeacasre HJIH ocenue Bel'ITHJI5ITOPbI HH3Koro (no 1 KITa) , cpennero (JJ:0 3 [{ITa) H BbICOxoro (60JIee 3 KITa) )l.aBJIeHH5I, OJJ:HO- H JJ:By:cTyne H4:aTbIe.

1.5. MA TEPHAIIbl AIISI nOA3EMHbiX KOHCTPYKU.H~

, K MaTepHaJlaM H KOHCTPYKUH5IM JJ:JI5I nO)l.3eMH~IX cOOPY}KeHHH npe)l.bHBJIHJOTCH Tpe60BaHH5I BOCnpH5ITH5I HarpY30K, BOJJ:OHenpOHHuaeMOCTH (B OTJJ:eJIbHbIX CJIYQa5IX, nanpnaep, npn npOH3BOJJ:CTBe pa60T MerOJJ:OM «CTeHa B rpyare»), HeBbIBerpHBaeMOCTH, orne-, MOP030-, XHMH4:eCKOH H 3JIeKTpOXHMH4:eCKOH CTOHKOCTH, nOBbIIIIeHHOH )l.OJIroBe4:HOCTH (Ta[{ KaK peMOHTOnpHrO)l.HOCTb HeBbICOKa). B HaCT05Imee BpeM5I 3THM Tpe60BaHH5IM OTBe4:aJOT 6eTOH, }KeJIe306eTOH, 4:yrYH. ,Uml 6eTOHHbIX KOHCTPYKUHH no IIP04:HOCTH aa C}KaTHe npeJJ:YCMaTpHBaJOT 6erOH KJIaCCa B20 H BbIIIIe, a TOJImHHY 3JIeMeHTOB - He MeHee 200 MM. ,UJI5I }KeJIe306eTOHHbIX neaanparaesrsrx KOHCTPYKIJ,H11 no np04:HOCTR aa C}KaTHe npHHHMaJOT 6eTOH He HliJKe KJIaCCa B20 JJ:JI5I MOHOJIHTHbIX H He MeHee B30 )l.JI5I C60pHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB, a TOJI~HHY - He MeHee 150 MM, )l.JI5I npenaaparensao nanp 5I}KeH HbIX }KeJIe306eToHHbIX KOHCTPYKUHH - He HH}Ke KJIaCCa B30, no aonoaerrpoannaeaocra Ha3HaQaJOT He HH)Ke MapKH W6 )l.JI5I KOHCTPYKUHH, HaXOJJ:5I~HXCH B BO)l.OHaCbIIlJ,eHHbIX rpyurax, H He HH)Ke MapKH W4 JJ:JI5I KOHCTPYKUHH, 3aJIO)KeHHbIX B rpynrax eCTecTBeHHoH BJIa)KHOCTH.

MapKY 6eToHa no MOP030CTOHKOCTH npn pacnOJIO}KeHHH nonsexHbIX 3JJ:aHHH B He06BoJJ:HeHHbIx rpynrax, a TaK}Ke llJI5I nOJIY3arJIy6JIeHnsrx 3JJ:aHHH npHHHMaJOT B p aaoaax CO cpeJJ:HeMeC5IIIHOH Te~,mepaTypuii cauoro XOJI0JJ:Horo MeCHua 273 ... 253 K He MeHee F150, a IIpH rexrteparype 253 K - He MeHee F200. ECJIH n01l3eMHbIe 3JJ:aHHH pacno.aosceau B BO,D,OHaCbIUJ,eHHbIX rpyarax npn Cpe,D,HeMeCH4:HOH resmeparype B0311yxa HH}Ke 263 K, MapKa 6eToHa no MOP030C'fOHKOCTH ,D,OJ1)KHa 6bITb He MeHee F300.

,UJIH 3JJ:aHHH H cooPY}KeHHH rnyooxorc 3aJIO}KeHHH npn npoexrupoBaHHH YCTaHaBJIHBaJOT: no flP04:HOCTH aa C)KaTHe ,D,JIH MOHOJIHTHblX

18

KOHCTPYKUHH KJIaCC B15, ,lVI5I C60PHbIX, npensaparensao aanpaarenHbIX - KJIaCC B30; no npOtIHOCTH aa paCTHLKeHHe, eCJIH 06pa30BaHHe rpeman He )J.onYCKaeTCH, )J.JI5I MOHOJIHTHbIX KOHCTPYKIJ,HH - B, = = 1,2, )J.JI5I C60pHbIX - B, = 1,6; MapKY no BO)J.oHenpOHHIJ,aeMOCTH Ha3HalJaJOT B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT nanopnoro rpanaeara: )J.JI5I rpemnnoCTOHKHX o6)J.eJIOK - W6, )J.JI5I HeTpe!lJ.HHOCTOHKHX - W4; xapxa no MOP030CTOHKOCTH, eCJIH coopyxceuae paCIIOJIaraeTC5I B MHOrOJIeTHeMep3JIbIX rpyarax.s-- F150.

lliHPOKO npHMeH5IJOT Ha6pbI3r-6eToH, xapaKTepH3YJOIUHHCH MeHbII1HM Y)J.eJIbHbIM BeCOM, lJeM 6eToH, nonumeaaof npOtIHOcTbJO na pacT5ILKeHHe, MeHbweH aononenpoannaeaocrsto. TIo)J. )J.eHcTBHeM cacaroro B03)J.yxa ero HaHOCHT aa noaepxnocrs CJI05lMII. TOJIIUHHa OT)J.eJIbHbIX CJIOeB COCTaBJI5IeT 3 ... 5, a rrOJIHa51 TOJIIll;MHa nOKpbITH5I MO)f{eT )J.OCTHraTb 200 .. .400 MM. TIpH TOJIIUHHe nOKpbITH5I 60JIee 80 ... 100 MM natipsrsr- 6eTOH apMHpYJOT cerxon. TIPOlJHOCTb na paCT5ILKeHHe sroro MaTepHaJI8 npnuepao aa 10 % nume, lJeM 06bIlJHOrO 6eTOHa. I1MeeT xopouree cnenneane C rpYHToM (1,5 ... 2,5 MTIa) H C apsrarypon (2,5 .. .4,5 MTIa), a ratose nOBblweHHYJO nJIOTHOCTb M aononenpoaauaeaocrs.

Ha6pbI3r-6eToH conepsorr necox,' 3anOJIHHTeJIH xpynaocrsro 25 MM? nexenr H YC[{QpHTeJIb TBep)J.eHH5I. TIepcneKTHBHo ynpouueane aaripusr- 6eTOI!a pa3JIHlJHbIMM MHHepaJIbHbIMH (acoecr, CTeKJIOBOJIOKHO), CHHTeTHlJeCKHMH (xanpon) HJIH CTaJIbHbIMH (qm6pbI) BOJIO[{HaMH, a raioxe nOJIHMepHbIMH )J.o6aBKaMM. BBe)J.eHHe 3 % qm6p )J.JIHHOH 2 .... 6' MM H CelJeHMeM 0,3 X 1 MM nonamaer npOlJHOCTb na paCT5ILKeHHe npnnepno B 2, a npOlJHOCTb aa oxarae - 1,2 pasa; eCJIM BBeCTH 5 % qm6p, TO npOlJHOCTb na paCT5I)KeHHe B03paCTaeT npnsrepno B 3 pasa.

ApMHPYJOT ero CTaJIbHbIMH HrJIaMH )J.JIMHOH 60 ... 200 MM H )J.HaMeT· POM 0,06 ... 1 MM, xoropsre BBO)J.51T B COCTaB CYXOH CMeCH B KOJIHlJeCTBe 70 ... 150 xr aa 1 M3 CMeCH (MaccoBaH )J.OJI5I COCTaBJI5IeT 3 ... 5 %). ct>H6- psr H3rOTOBJIHJOT H3 CTaJIbHbIX JIHCTOB TOJIIUMHOH 0,8 MM, a TaKLKe OTXO)J.OB LKeCTH H orpaooraaaux KaHaTOB. 'uHcnepcHo-apMMpoBaHHbIH naripuar-reron (qm6poHa6pbI3r-6eToH) HMeeT nOBbImeHHYJO nponnocrs.

TIepcneKTHBeH llJIH nO)J.3eMHbIX coopyacennf 6eToH aa nanpararomeM ueaenre HlJ" KOTOPbIH HMeeT CBOHCTBO pacumpenas B KOHue TBep)J.eHH5I. DeToH II pacrnop aa nanpar-aiomea neaenre MOLKHO II1MPOKO H:CnOJIb30BaTb )J.JIH 3anOJIHeHH5I crbIKOB, 3a30poB MeLK,UY o6)J.eJIKojf M rpYHToM, ,UJI5I 06JIHUOBOl{; a xpoxe roro, )J.JI5I M3rOTOBJIeHHH caaouanpaaceansrx [{QHCTPYKIJ,MH,' o6JIa,UaJOIUMx BbICO[{QH TpeIUHHocTOHKOCTbJO, )KeCTKOCTbJO, nOBblweHHeH aonoaerrpoaauaeaocrsro.

Flpu Ill;HTOBOH npoxonxe npHMeHHJOT o6)J.eJIKY H3 6eToHa, KOTOPbIff npeccyercs IUHTOBbIMH lloMKpaTaMH HJIH aBTOHOMHbIMH lloMKpaTHbIMJt YCTpoiicTBaMH: non llaBJIeHHeM ,UO 5 MTIa. 3a ClJeT OTLKaTH5I lJaCTH BO,Ubl npOlJHOCTb 6eTOHa no H:CTe4eHHH CYTOK ,UOCTHraeT 10 Mna. I1Hor)J.3 ueJIeC006pa3Ho HCnOJIb30BaTb otinerveansre HJIM JIerKHe 6eToHhI aa nopncrstx (KepaM3HT, rpenen, arJIOnOpHT H np.) HJIH aa npHpO,UHbIX 3arl0JIHHTeJ'1HX BYJI[{aH'H4eC[{Qro npoHcxoLK,UeHH5I (neuaa, WJIaK, TY¢). xapaKTepH3YIOIll;uXCH nOBbIlIleHHoH TpeIUHHocTOHKOCTbJO, ,UOJIrOBelJHOCTblO H MOP030CTOHKOCTbJO, MO)J.YJIb ynpyrocrn Y HHX npnaepao aa 30 % HH)Ke, lJeM Y T5ILKeJIbIX 6eToHoB, B pe3YJIbTaTe YJIYQWaeTC}!

2*

19

COBMeCTHa5I pariora KOHCTPYKIJJIH C rpYHTOM. Ctiopmre 9JIeMeHTbI H3 06JIer4:eHHbIX H JIerKHX 6eTOHOB HMeIOT He60JIbIllYIO Maccy H 60JIee HH3KYIO CTOHMOCTb, 4:eM 9JIeMeHTbI H3 T5IlKeJIbIX.

MOlKHo HCnOJIb30BaTb nOJIHMep6eTOHbI, B KOTOPbIX B Ka4:eCTBe BHLKyrn.erO npHMeH5IIOT CHHTeTH4:eCKHe CMOJIbI, xapaxrepaayestae BbICOKOH np04:HOCTblO na CLKaTHe (no 70 ... 80 MfIa) H na paCT5ILKeHHe (6,4 ... 7 MfIa) , Bo.n.OHenpOHHuaeMOCTbIO H CTOHKOCTblO [{ arpeccan, a raroxe 6eTOHOnOJIHMepbI - 6eToHbI; nponnranusre rron )]:aBJIeHHeM nOJIHMepaMH H 06JIa)]:aIO!lJ.He nOBhIIlleHHOH nJIOTHOCTbIO H Bo.n.OHenpOHHuaeMOCThIO.

ECJIH rpYHTOBbIe BO)]:bI HearpeCCHBHbI .n.JI5I 6eToHoB, npHMeHSHOT nopr JIaH)]:IJ,eMeHT, nYUUOJIaHOBbIH H IllJIaKOnOpTJIaH)]:ueMeHT, a npn cYJIbcpaTHoH arpeCCHBHOCTH rpYHTOBbIX BO.n. - cYJIbcpaToCTOH[{HH noprJIaH)]:ueMeHT. PeKoMeHLlYIOTcSI Ll06aBKH H cynepnnacrnrpnxaropu )]:JIH YBeJIH4:eHHH nOLlBJILKHOCTH 6eTOHHOH CMeCH, H3MeHeHHH CPOKOB CXBaTbIBaHHH H HeKOTopbIX CBOHCTB 6eTOHa. Tpe60BaHH5I K 3anOJIHHTeJI5IM npHHHMalOT no rOCT 10268-80: nonycxaerca He 60JIee 3 % MaCCbI nbIJIeBH.n.HbIX cppaKUHH; necox xpynaocrsro sepen no 5 MM .n.03HPYlOT B nane cpP31{IlHH C MO)lYJIeM xpynnocrn 2 ... 3,3; meoeas H rpanaf - B BH.n.e cppaKUHH - 5 .. .10, 10 ... 20 H 20 ... 40 MM; )lJIH 6eTOHa KJIaCCOB B30 H 60JIee cnezryer npHMeHHTb TOJIbKO me6eHb.

~JI5I ueMeHTaUHH no)]:6HpaIOT O)lHH H3 BH)]:OB ueMeHTa B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT arpeccasnocra nO)l3eMHbIX BO)]:, 06Bo.n.HeHHocTH nopon, rexHOJIOmH pa60T. fIPH 60JIbIIJOM nononpnroxe B pacrsop BBOll.5IT lKH)]:KOe eTeKJIO, XJIOPHCTbIH KaJIbUHH, aJIIOMHHaT HaTpHSI (MacCOBa5I )]:OJIH zto- 6aBKH - 3 %). KOJIH4:eCTBO necxa He ,ll.OJILKHO rrpeasmrars 60JIee 4:eM B 2 ... 3 pasa Maccy uexenra. Pacrsopu nJIaCTHcpHUHPYIOT ,ll.06aBKaMH. ,llJI5I nOBbIIlleHH5I aononenpoannaeaocra, KOPP03HOHHO- H MOP030CTOHKOCTH npHMeH5IIOT nOJIHMepHbIe .n.06aBKH, nanpnxep nOJIHBHHHJIaueTaTHyIO 9MYJIbCHlO (MaccoBaSI )),OJISI 3 %) H .upyme [13].

B nO)l3eMHbIX coopyaceuaax npenycaarpnaaror cTepLKHeBYlO apsraTypy KJIaCCOB A-III, AT-III, A-II; CTaJIb KJIaCCa A-IV npHMeHSIIOT .uJI5I npensaparensuo nanpaaceaaux aHKepOB, a KJIaCCa A-I - B xasecrne pacnpeaenarensaof H MOHTaLKHoH apaarypu, B CBapHbIX cerxax npOBOJIOKa .uOJI)KHa 6bITb xnacca B-1 )),HaMeTpoM 3 ... 5 MM; B apuarypnsrx aanparaeaax xaaarax H npSI)),SIx - KJIaCCa Bp-Il .n.HaMeTpoM 3 ... 8 MM.

B xasecrse pa604:eH apaarypu 06bI4:HO HCnOJIb3YIOT cTepLKHeBYIO apMaTYPY, a ratoxe (npn H3rOTOBJIeHHH MOHTaJKHbIX 06.ueJIOK) LKeCTKYlO :apMaTYPY B BH)),e npoxara,

~JIH coop Y)KeHHH r JIy60Koro 3aJIO)KeHHH, B03BO.uHMbIX B CJIOIKiHbIX HHLKeHepHO-reOJIOrHqeCKHX .. YCJIOBHSIX, orpaLK)]:alO!lJ.eti [{OHCTPY[{UHeH CJIY)f{aT 06)]:eJIl{H H3 uyryausrx TI06HHrOB, H3rOTOBJISIeMbiX OTJIHBKOH B ¢opMax. I1cnOJIb3yeTC5I cepbIH JIHTeHHbIH 4:yrYH MapoK C421-40, C424-44, C428-48 C pacseraua conpOTHBJIeHHeM C)f{aTHlO 180 ... 210 Mna, paCT5ILKeHHIO - 60 ... 80 Mna, MO)lHcpHUHpoBaHHbIH cepbIH 4:yrYH MapKH MC432-52 H .up., BbICO[{QnpOqHbIH xyryn C pacxerasnr conpOTHBJIeHHeM paCT5ILKeHHIO no 240 MfIa.

KOM6HHHpoBaHHble 06.n.eJIKH BbmOJIH5I1OT H3 JIHCTOBOH CTaJIH (CM.

Ta6JI. 50* CHHn II-23-8l * «CTaJIbHbIe [{QHCTPYKIJ,HH»). ~JI5I CTaJIbHOH apOqHOH xpenn npoexrnpyror [{QHCTPYKUHH npoxaruue H3 yrne-

20

PO.u,HCTOH CTaJm (06blqHO .u,BYTaBp, JIyqll1e IImpOKOrrOJIOqHblH H3 HH3KOJIempOBaHHOH CTaJIH).

B xaxecrne KOHCTPYKTHBHblX MaTepHaJIOB rIOJIy3arJIy6JIeHHbIX' (06BaJIOBaHHblX) 3.u,aHHH pexoaennyerca rrpmrensm, apMHpOBaHHYIO H HeapMHpOBaHHYIO KHprrHqHYIO KJIa.u,Ky (npa 9TOM )KeJIaTeJIbHO He HCrrOJIb30BaTb rrYCTOTeJIblH KHprrHq BO H36ellWHHe norrananaa rpyaroBbIX BO.u, B nYCTOTbI), a TaKJKe KJIa.u,Ky B COqeTaHHH C JKeJIe306eTOHHbiM KapKaCOM.

HCrrOJIb30BaHHe ;:J,peBeCHHbI B KOHCTPYK~HHX rIOJIY3arJIy6JIeHHbIX· 3.u,aHHH paUHOHaJIbHO TOJIbKO npn YCJIOBHH ee nporrnrxa CMOJIaMH i (Mo.u,mpHUHpOBaHHH) C ueJIbIO 3aIUHTbI OT paapyurenaa npn nosuureaaoa . BJImKHOCTH H YJIyqll1eHHH MeXaHHqeCKHX xapaKTepHCTHK. MaJIaH Macca nepeaaaasrx H rpaaepnsrx KOHCTPYKUHH rr03BOJIHeT ycnenmo npH-. MeHHTb HX B 0.u,H03TaJKHbIX 3.u,aHHHX, oc06eHHO KaK orpaxcaatomne 9JIeMeHTbI, MOHTHpyeMble na CTaJIbHOH HJIH llCeJIe306eTOHHbIH xapxac.

TIpH B03Be.u,eHHH 3.u,aHlIH MeJIKOrO 3aJIOJKeHHH, nOJIY3arJIy6JIeHHblX (06BaJIOBaHHbIX) .u,JIH CHHJKeHHH aKTHBHoro .u,aBJIeHHH rpynra aa KOHCTpyKUHH peKOMeHJLyeTcH HCIIOJIb30BaTb HOBblH BH.u, MaTepHaJIarpyar, apMHpOBaHHbIH reOTeKCTHJIeM (reOTeKCOM), npeJLCTaBJIHIOIUHM C060H 'CMeCb rpynra C .u,HcnepCHO pacnOJIOJKeHHbIMH nOJIH9cpHPHbIMH HJIH JLPyrHMH CHHTeTHlJeCKHMH HHTHMH, HJIH CJIOH ynJIOTHeHHoro rpynra C rrepeMellCaIOIUHMHCH CJIOHMH CHHTeTHqeCKOH TKaHH [32]. Ilponenr «apMHpOBaHHH» rpynra COCTaBJIHeT 06bJt-lH0 0,1 ... 0,2 %. TIpeHMYIUeCTB8 sroro MaTepHaJIa: BblCOKoe cnerrneane qaCTHU rpynra C apMHpyIOIII.HMll HHTHMH H 60JIb1l10H yron BHYTpeHHero TpeHlHI; 60JIbll1aH HecYIUaH cIloc06HOCTb; 3HaqlITeJIbHaH nepopaapyeaocrs oe3 paapynrenaa; noauureaaue JLpeHHpYIOIUHe CBOHCTBa. TIpH OOKOBOH 06CblrIKe 3.u,aHHH H sacsmxe KPOB.nH MOllCHO 06eCneqHTb CHHllCeHHe JLaB.neHHH sa cser yseJIH1.leHHH yr.na BHYTpeHHero TpeHHH H YMeHbweHHH MaTepHa.noeMKocTH 3)l,aHHH.

t.6. TEXHHKO-3KOHOMHlIECKASI 3CbCIJEKTHBHOCTb nOA3EMHbiX 3AAHH~

TIo 3cpcpeKTHBHoCTH nO)l,3eMHble 3.u,aHIUI MOllCHO paanennrs na 06'beKTbI, cTpOHTeJIbCTBO H sxcnxyaranna KOTOPblX nenreane B03Be.u,eHHH H 9KCnJIyaTaUHH aaanornaasrx 3.u,aHHH aaaexaoro paaaemeaaa, H anaHHH, coopyacenae KOTOPbIX nopoxce, qeM rrpn B03Be.u,eHHH HX rpanall.HOHHbIM cnocoooa aa rronepxnocra 3eMJIH, HO sxcnnyaraunoaaue pacxonu HHJKe. K COllCa.neHHIO, name acero H~B03MOJKHO ouenars 9¢cpeKT, .u,ocTHraeMbIH BbICB060JK.u,eHHeM rronepxnocra 3eM.nH. TIPHqHH3 sroro - OTCYTCTBHe nanaux a peansnof CTOHMOCTH 3eM.nH.

C 9KOHOMHqeCKOH TOqKH 3peHHH Heo6xoJLHMO couocraanrrn, rrepnonasansaue aarparu na CTpOHTe.nbCTBO Ha3eMHbiX H sar .ny6.neHHbIX 3.u,aHHH H pacxozar na sneprmo, cozepacaane, peMOHT (T. e. sxcrmyaraUHOHHbIe paCXOJLbl), a B pHJLe cnynaea yqHTblBaTb H ocooeHHOCTH 9KCrmyaranan: 9KOHOMHH snerrrposnepraa, OTCYTCTBHe BH6paUHH H xoneoaHHH reaneparyp (Ta6JI. 1.3). Ilepaonaaanr.aue sarparsr na CTPOH-

Te.nbCTBO MoryT 6blTb HHJKe, qeM .u,.nH Ha3eMHbiX 3.u,aHHH, ecna ncrrons-

21

aYIOT rOTOBhIe BhIpa60TKII, C03jtaHHhIe B npOqHOM rpynre, IIJIli nsrnre, eCJU:I paapariarsraaror rpYHT II 3aTeM YCTpalIBaIOT CPYH.u,aMeHT, creusr, nepexpsrraa, nonorinsre KOHCTPYKUIIHM Ha3eMHhIX 3.u,aHIiH [8, 21, 291. TaK, nepsoaauansnaa CTOIiMOCTb 3arJIy6JIeHHhIX >KIIJIbIX .u,OMOB aa 30 % asnne, qeM npn Ha3eMHOM paaaemenna [28]. 06 scpcpeKTlIBHOCTlI rronynonaeaaoro pacIJOJIO>KeHIIH 3.u,aHIiH C TOqKII apeana CHII~eHlIfi sneproaarpar cBII.u,eTeJIbCTBYIOT )I.aHHhIe aa pnc. 1.3 [29].

O.u,HMM 1I3 HalI60JIee 9KOHOMlIqHblX peinenaf flBJIHeTCH nonseanoe paaxenteuae CKJIa.u,OB II XOJIO)I.HJIbHHKOB [7, 13]. TaK, npn no.u,3eMHOM pacIJOJIO>KeHIIIi CTOHMOCTh cTpOIITeJIbCTBa CKJIajtCKIiX 3.u,aHHH B 4 p aaa

1.3. npeHMYlI.{eCTBa nO),(3eMHOfO pacnomusenaa 3,!\aHHit

rIop;p;ep>KaHHe peacn- SKOHOMHlI, %
Ma 9KcllJlyaTal.\HH •
3P;RHHlI ' ' t",
",,,, "'co
0.0 .. >< TeppIITO-
Ill" 0>- .. :s:'" 9HeprllH HR
t::",,,, ""I' >-"':: OTOllJleHHe pHH 3R'
)!! 0. K "", "",::1 cTpofiKH
~i:'~ =0 "",co
:r", 0.,0. , i
Ilpoaaeozcraeaaue, B TOM 'IRCne C npe-
UH3HOHHOH TeXHonOfHeu + + + .nO 50 90 ... 95
I'pascaancxae + + + .no 30 10 ... 90
)I(Hnble + 40 ... 60 10 ... 90
CeJIbCKOX03HHcTBeHHble + + .no 40 90
CI{JIa,1{CKRe + + + 90 HH>Ke, sarparu npa 9KCnJIyaTaUHlI - B 10,6 pasa MeHbllle, qeM npn ua3eMHOM pasaemenaa. CTOHMOCTb cTpOHTeJIhCTBa XOJIO.u,HJIbHHKOB npa no.u,3eMHOM pasaemeaaa B 3,3, a 9KCnJIyaTaUHoHHbIe pacxonu - B 11,6 pasa HII>Ke, qeM npn Ha3eMHOM pacnOJIO>KeHHH. 3TlI nannue nonyseasr IIpH COlIOCTaBJIeHHH nO)I.06HbIX KpynHblx XOJIO.u,IIJIbHHKOB, rrocrpoennux B KaH3aC-CHTlI H CaH-TIaYJIY (CIIIA). Ilpn oneaxe aa-rpar saeprnu 06a XOJIO.u,HJIbHHKa 6hIJIH OTKJIIOqeHbI, qTO Bbl3BaJIO nOBhIurenne renrreparypsr B Ha3eMHOM XOJIO.u,HJIhHBKe na 0,6 DC B nac, a B IIOjt3eMHOM - na 0,6 °C B )I.eHh. I'opasno JIyqWaH TenJIOH30JIHUHH Ii TenJIOeMKOCTh cpensr n03BOJIfilOT He TOJIhKQ 9KOHOMHTh 9JIeKTp03HeprMIO, HO H nOjtKJIIOqaTb IJO)I.3eMHbIe XOJIOjtHJIbHHKH K 51JIeKTpOCeTlI, MHHYfi lIHK IJoTpe6JIeHlIH 9JIeKTp09HeprHH, H CHH>KaTb MOmHOCTb nonBeMHblX XOJIO)I.HJIbHblX YCTaHOBOK.

Ornem.nsre npuvepu CTpOHTeJIbCTBa npOH3BOjtCTBeHHbIX 3.u,aHHH nOKa3bIBalOT, qTO rronaeanoe npOCTpaHCTBO asrrnnno )I.JIH paeaemeaaa TeXHOJIOrHH, qYBCTBHTeJIbHblX K BH6paUUHM, myay. TaK, B CIIIA rroa BeMJIeH 6b1JII:I, paaaemensr OCHOBHble npOH3Bo.u,CTBeHHhIe MOmHOCTH npelI.H31I0HHoro npH60pOCTpOHTeJIbHOrO saaona (KaH3ac-CHTH). Ilpa STOM HCQe3JIa He06xo,n;HMOCTb 1I30JIHUHH 1JYBCTBHTeJIbHbIX MallIHH or BH6palJ,1II:I H YCTpOHCTBa TfllKeJIhIX CPYH.u,aMeHTOB .u,JIfi p R.u,a MaWHH (TaK KaK :SOKPY!! 3.u,aHHH - 6eCKOHeqnO 60JIblllaH Macca rpynra, oriecnesnaaiomas COCTOHHlIe anepuan noxoa): B03pOCJIa )I.OJIroBe1JHOCTb MaIlIHH; CHH3HJIHCh aarparsr na nonaepxcaaae nOCTOHHHhIX TeMnepaTyphI B BJIa>KHOCTH; OTnaJIa He06xo.u,HMOCTh B yxoae sa ¢aca.u,HhIMH nosepx-

22

HOCTHMH; COKpaTHJIHCb BepOHTHOCTb noxcapoa H sarparsr aa rroscapnyto OXpaHY; HCQe3JIH orpanarensnsre BJIHHHHH noronasix HBJleHHll; ,lI,0 63 % CHH3HJIHCb pacxcnu na OTOrrJIeHHe H ,lI,0 90 % - aa OXJIa)K,ll,eHHe, rrpunex KOH,lI,Hll.HoHepbI CTaJ:O B03MO)KHbIM BKJIlOqaTb He B qaCbI rIHK paCIO,ll,)BaHHH 3JIeKTp03HeprHH. B HTOre sscnnyaranaouaue pacxonu CHH3HRHCb C 50 ... 70 TbIC. ,lI,OJIJIapOB B ron (npn Ha3eMHOM paaaemenan aanona) ,lI,0 3,2 TbIC. B ron (non 3eMJIell), crpaxoaaane na 1000 ,lI,OJIJIapOB OCHOBHbIX cpencrn CHH3HJIOCb nOqTH B 30 pas [7].

Ornrr cTpOHTeJIbCTBa. rrpouaaoncracamrx 3,l1,aHHH B Illaeunn, HopBerHH, <l>paHIJ.HH nonrsepacnaer B03MO)KHOCTb 3KOHOMIPIHoro pasne-

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I n HI IV V VI va VI" IX X XI XII I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII

a M_ Ii Me""LIbl

Puc. 1.3. 3aBHcHMoCTb reuneparypsr PKPY}!{a10meH cpensr OT BpeMeHH (a) H BJUUIHHe rJIy6HHbI 3aJIO}!{eHUH aaaaaa sa p acxon saepraa (6):

1 ... 3 - rexneparypa COOTBeTCTBeHHO aosnyxa, rpya ra na rJIy(lIme 0,3 II 8 M; 4, 5 - pacxon 3Heprllll Ha OTOnJIeHlle 3P;8HIIH COOTBeTCTBeHIIO lIa3eMHoro II 06BaJIOBaHHoro.

lll.eHHH non 3eMJIeH B CypOBbIX KJIHMaTHqeCKHX YCJIOBHHX (npn rronsrrneHHOM 3HeprOrrOTpe6JIeHHH aa OTOnJIeHHe) HJIH rrpn He06xo,ll,HMOCTH KOH,lI,Hll.lIOHHpOBaHHH sosnyxa. TaK, B Hopnerun npa CTpOHTeJIbCTBe xpyrrnoro TeJIecpOHHoro Y3JIa CpaBHHBaJIH BapHaHTbI era nonseanoro H naseaaoro pacrrOJIO)KeHHH. TaK KaK CTOHMOCTb I M2 rronaeuaoro aaaHHH - 3100 KPOH, a nasesororo - 2400 KpOH, onpe}],~JIHlOllJ,HMH OKa- 3aJIHCb 9KOHOMHH 55 % 3JIeKTp03HeprHH H OTCYTCTBHe CBo66,l1,HOH nJIOllI,a,ll,H }],JIH nasesmoro 3,l1,aHHH B nenrpe fbOBHHa. 06beKT 6bIJI nocrpoen rro,ll, 3eMJIefI, npHqeM K HeMY npacrpoensi nO,ll,3eMHbIll nJIaBaTeJIbHbIll 6accevIH H coopyxreane rpascnaacxof 060pOHbI 06llJ,eH rr.aoutansro 40 TbIC. M2 [71. Bo <l>paHll.HH non 3eMJIeH paanemeao HeCKOJIbKO p afrouHblX 3JIeKTpOCTaHUHH, Y3ROB CBH31I. TaK, non rrapxosr TlOHJIbPH aaxo)l.HTCH KpyrrHeftllIHH Y3eJI ,lI,aJIbHeH CBH3H, ,lI,RH coopyzaenas xoroporo 6bIJIO paspariorano 150 TbIC. M3 rpyrrra H YJIO)KeHO 45 TbIC. M3 xceneao- 6eToHa. TIpH 3TOM, 6JIarO,ll,apH 0pHrHHaJIbHoMY MeTo)l.Y nonxpennenna noaepxuocrnoro eJIOH rpynra 6bIJIH coxpanenu ace 3eJIeHbIe HaCa)K,lI,eHHH rrapxa [42J.

Tepaanecxan CTa6HJIbHOCTb rpynra - onpenexaroutas xapaxrepHcTHKa IIpH TexHHKo-3KoH.oMHqeCKOH onenxe 3arJIy6JleHHbix H nasexnux )KHJIbIX 3LtaHHH. B03Be)!,eHHe TaKH x 3;J.mHIA non 3eMJIeti coup 51-

23

iKeHO G ,nOIIOJIHHTeJIbHbIMH pa60TaMM: paapariorxa 60JIblllerO ofh.eMa rpynra; YCHJIeHHe 9JIeMeHTOB B CBH3H C n.aBJIeHHeM rpynra, C03,naHHe M30JIHUMM H npenanca, 03eJIeHeHMe IIOBepXHOCTH C 06paTHO~I 3aCbIIIKOH M [IJIaHHpOBKOll. [109TOMY oxeas Ba)KHO CHM3HTb sarparu aa 9KCIIJIYaTaUHIO, B OCHOBHOM - Ha OTOIIJIeHHe.

Orintae aarparu na CTpOHTeJIbCTBO SarJIy6JIeHHbIX }KHJIbIX 3,naHlIH auure, qeM IIpH HX Ha3eMHOM p aavemenan. B03MO)KHO, qTO cosepnreaCTBOBaHHe KOHCTPYKTMBHblX pemeanjt H CIIoco6oB IIPOM3BO,nCTBa pa- 60T rI03BOJIHT B .ll.aJIbHellilieM HeCKOJIbKO CHM3HTb CTOHMOCTb rM.ll.pOH30- JI5IUHH, npenaxca, KOHCTPYKUH~I CTeH H nepexpurna IIo,n3eMHbIX 3.ll.aHMH.

1.4. CpaBHeHHe CTOHMOCTH (B p;oJlJ1apax) 3arJly6J1eHHoro H 06bJQHOrO P;OMOB [29J

rOA

9KOHOMIUl cpencrs Pa3HHua II '1HCTOn HaKonneHHOH
npH6b1J1I1
no rOA8M CYMMapHa" no rOAaM cYMMapHall
-572 -572 652 652
-502 -1074 869 1521
-416 -1490 1120 2641
-314 -1804 1407 4048
-192 -1996 1737 5785
-44 -2040 2118 790~
133 -1907 2555 10 458;
345 -1562 3060 1351S
600 -962 3643 17 161
905 -57 4440 21 601
1272 1215 5094 26695
1714 2929 5997 32692 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12

11 p H M e x a H H e. 110JlOlKHTeJlbHOe aaaneaue yK83bIBaCT aa TO, 'ITO CTOHMOCTb 3arJlytSJleHHOrO lKHJlbH HIUKe CTOHMOCTH 06b14HOrO; orpunarensuoe - BbIIlIe 06bI4Horo. 06w.enpHHHIi'ble pacxonu aa saepr-mo COCTRBnHlOT 500 ,ll;OnnapOB B rOA. Ha ,ll;omo 3arny6JleHHOrO lKHJlMIl npHxO,ll;IlTC}I 60 % 9KOHOMHH sn epr-an,

IToKa, eCJIM He yqMTbIBaTb CTOMMOCTM 3eMJIH, OOTeHUMaJIbHa51 3KOHOMH5I 9HeprHM B reuenae cpoxa 9KCnJIyaTauMM 3.ll.aHH5I HBJI5IeTCH OIIpe~ .ll.eJIHIOlll,MM rpaxropou OpM Bbl60pe aap aanra era pasuemeaaa. ITPIi COilOCTaBJIeHMJi CTOMMOCTM CTpOIneJIbCTBa H 9KCIIJIyaTauHH )KMJIOfO noxa B rexenae 12 JIeT CJIY)K6bl IIpM 3arJIy6JIeHHOM M Ha3eMHOM p asMern:eHHM BbI5lBJIeHO, qTO HaqMHa51 C ce.ll.bMoro rona 9KCIIJIyaTaUMM. BCJle,nCTBHe 3KOHOMHH OKOJIO 60 % 9HeprHH oKYIIaIOTcH IIepBOHaqaJIbHble noasnuenasre pacxozur (Ta6JI. 1.4) [291.

Bxecre C TeM IIpH cTpOHTeJIbCTBe 3.ll.aHMH B paitonax C BbICOKOH CTOHMOCTbIO 3eMJIH (xypopraue peraonu, ropona H npyrne) Bbl60p aapuarrra paCOOJIOlKeHMH M02KeT B nepnyio oxepem, aaaacere or CTOHMOCTH 3eMJIH M p sna pa60T npn Ha3eMHOM pasneiuenaa (CHOC cymeCTBYIOllI.HX 3.ll.aHHll H np.),

ilJI5I 3KOHOMHqeCKOrO cpaBHeHH5I BapMaHToB C yseron CTOHMOCTH ropcncxnx 3eMeJIb CJIY)KHT KOMIIJIeKC rp anocrpoare.at.aoa onenxa reppmopHH (KfOT) rIO MH)KeHepHO-9KOHOMIJ1leCKHM H COUHaJIbHO-9KOHOMIPleCKHM IIOKa3aTeJI5:lM. C9KOHOMJIeHHble B pe3YJIbTaTe ttonaesmoro paaxemenaa 3,naHHH 3HH)K reppnropua oueHHBaIOT MH)KeHepHO-3KOHO-

24

MHqeCKHMH rrOKa3aTeJIHMH KfOT [24]:

3llH1K = nllHlK + ClK + C~ + 3n + II.,

rne ITlllllK - aatparsr aa nOJIHOe HHlKeHepHoe 6JIarOYCTpoikTBO; CliO ~ - KOMrreHcaUHH CTOHMOCTH CHOCHMoro qxm,na COOTBeTCTBeHHO MaJIOUeHHOro )KHJIOrO H KYJIbTypHO-6hlTOBOro; 3n - sarparsr no nopeROCY cym.eCTBYIOrn:HX KOMMYHHKaUHH; II. - paasrep KOMneHcaUHH noreps H sarpar npn HCnOJIb30BaHIm CeJIbCKOX03HHCTBe}fHbiX 3eMeJIb non 3acTpoHKY.

CpOK oxynaexocrn .n.onOJIHHTeJIbHhlX BJIOlKeHHH rrpn no.n.3eMHOM CTpOHTeJIbCTBe

rne ~.1K - cyMMapHoe ynopoxcaane CTpOHTeJIbCTBa npn no,n3eMHOM pasaerneaan 3.n.aHHH; .1C•TP - 9KOHOMHH sarpar aa rpancrropr (YBeJIHsenae CKOpOCTH); .111 - CHHlKeHlIe pacxonon aa 9KCnJIyaTaUHlO rrp a nonseaaox p aauemeaaa o6beKTa; .1,U - npH6bIJIb npennparrraa TOprOBJIH B pe3YJIbTaTe ynoonoro pasneuieaaa B nenrpe ropona (.n.JIH nonseaasrx 06beKTOB TOprOBJIH); .1<1> - 9KOHOMIHI BpeMeHH rpynsm.HXCH na rpancnopr (npn paaaeuteana nocemaeaux nonaexnsrx 06beKTOB B y,n06HOM MeCTe ropona): .1Y - .n.onOJIHHTeJIbHbIH 9<lJcpeKT R3-38 CHHlKeHHH TpaHcnopTHOH YCTaJIOCTH Tpy.n.Hm.HXCH; .10 - )1.0nOJIHHTeJIbHblH 9¢¢eKT B pe3YJIbTaTe YCKopeHHOH nocrasxn rpysoa: .1fSKOHOMHH ropionero.

CorJIaCHO PYKOBO)1.CTBY [24] 9¢¢eKTHBHOCTb nO)1.3eMHoro CTPOHTeJIbCTBa MOlKHO oneanrs no cpoPMyJIe

n

~ .1A 3n.c =.:::." .1B '

i

rne 8n.c - paccernua Ko9¢¢HUHeHT cpaBHHTeJIbHOH 9cpcpeKTHBHoCTH; .1A - .n.orrOJIHHTeJIbHbIH COUHaJIbHO-9KOHOMHqeCKHH 9cpcpeKT OT nonsexaoro pasaerueaan 06beKTa;.1B - .n.onOJIHHTeJIbHbIe KanHTaJIbHbH! BJIOlKeHHH npu nO)1.3eMHOM cTpOHTeJIbCTBe.

TIpH 9TOM CpOK oKynaeMocTH

/I.

~ .1B TOK =.:::." .1A • i

,UJIH nO)1.3eMHbIX 06beKToB 8n.c = 0,1...0,12, a TOK < 10 JIeT. ,UonOJIHlITeJIbHbIe xarmransmre BJIOlKeHHH oxyrraiorcs .n.JIH nonaeMHblX 06beKToB 3a 7 ... 8 JIeT.

2. KOHCTPYKTJ.1BHbIE PEWEHJ.1S1 npOK3BOACTBEHHbiX 3AAHJ.1Fi

KOHCTPYKTHBHbIe pemenas nponaaoncrseaasrx 3,naHHH TeCHO CBH3aHbI co cnococou nponaacncraa pa60T.

nO,nBaJIbI non MHor09TalKHbIMH npoH3Bo.n.cTBeHHbIMH 3)1.aHHHMH asrnOJ1lIHIOT no xapxacnof cxeue C HCnOJIb30BaHHeM YHHCPHUHpOBaHHblX

25

IU = I""

"\

a

rl
~ Ii-II
.
I
1----1
I I _ll
JL I
I r ~g
I I :g~
I I ~~
I I
1 <:::.~
I I ~"I"
I I
I r

I-I

B

A

e

KOHCTPYKUHH KOJIOHH H nepexpsrrna. 3,lJ,aHIUI-MeJIKOrO 3aJIOlKeHIHI MoryT 6bITb KaK KapKaCHbIMH, rax H co CMewaHHbIM (HenOJIHbIM) xapxacox.

MHoro::nalKHbl€ 3.u,aHHH rJIy60Koro 3aJIOlKeHHH (C rJIy60KHM 3aJIO:tKeHHeM CPYH.u,aMeHTa), B03BO)lHMble OTKpbITbIM cnocooov, npoeKTHpYIOT 6eCKapKaCHhlMH, HJIH co CMewaHHblM KapKaCOM. )lJIH rJIy60Ko 3aJIOlKeHHbIX 3.u,aHHll, BblIIOJIHHeMbIX 3aKpbITbIM crrocoooa, npHMeHHIOT pa3JIH4HbIe THnbI 06.u,eJIOK, HMelOlUHX KPHBOJIHHellHYIO CPOPMY.

3cp¢eKTHBHblM THnOM KOHCTpYKUHH .u,JIH 0.u,H03TalKHbIX npOH3BO.u,CTBeHHbIX 3.u,aHHH flBJIHIOTCH npOCTpaHCTBeHHbIe KOHCTPYKUHH noxpuTHH H CTeH.

3.u,aHHH rJIy60Koro 3aJIOlKeHHH MO)KHO coop yscart, B FOTOBbIX BbIpaeorxax, HCnOJIb3YfI He3KCnJIyaTHpyeMbIe npOCTpaHCTBa.

Ilonaennsre 3,lJ,aHHH, pacno.nozaeanste rron Ha3eMHbIMH, .u,OJIlKHbI HMeTb ceTKY KOJIOHH H war CTeH, YBH3aHHble C maroa CTeH H KOJIOHH nsrmenescamero 3.u,aHHfI. 06hiqHO Ha3Ha4alOT ceTKY KOJIOHH B rron- 3eMHblX npOH3Bo.u,CTBeHHhlX 3,lJ,aHHHX 6 X 6, 6 x 9, 6 x 18 M, HCnOJIb- 3YH c60pHbIe lKeJIe306eToHHbIe YHHCPHUHpoBaHHble KOHCTPYKUHH CPYH,n,aMeHToB, nepexpuraa, KOJIOHH, pnreaea (nporouon), CTeH.

2.t. OAH03TA>KHbIE 3AAHJifSI

B 0.u,H03TalKHblX rrpoaaaoncraenaux 3.u,aHHHX HCnOJIb3YIOT, KaK npaBHJIO, HenOJIHbIll xapxac, TaK KaK HapY)KHbIe orpazsnaioume KOHCTPYKUHH 06bIQHO aunonnsror CPYHKUHH necymax CTeH, na xoropue onnparor naHeJIH nOKpbITHH (pHC. 2.1). YHHcpHUHPOB3HHble KOHCTPYKUIUI O,lJ,H09TalKHbIX no.u,BaJIOB, pasparioraanere UHHHnpoM3.u,aHHll, COCTOHT H3 CJIe.u,YIOlUHx 3JIeMeHTOB: ctiopnsre naHeJIH nepexpsrrajr, CTeHOBbie naHeJIH, pHreJIH, KOJIOHHbl, CPYH.u,aMeHTbl. CTeHOBbIe peripacrsre naHeJIH 3a,lJ,eJIbIBalOT peripaaa B CTaKaHbI CPYH.u,aMeHTOB H Ha ycryn B nepxnea lJaCTH onnpator peripncrue rrepexpsrraa, paCC4HTaHHbIe na )l,JIHTeJIbHble HarpY3KH B 80, 100, 150 xlIa; npn 3TOM aa naHeJIH CTeH ,n,ei'lcTByeT .u,aBJIeHHe rpYHTa Y,lJ,eJIbHbIM BeCOM 18 KH/M3 C yrJIOM BHYTpennero TpeHHH 28°.

3.u,aHHH MorYT HMeTb O.u,HH, .u,Ba HJIH MHoro npOJIeToB. BHYTpeHHHe onopu nJIHT nOKpbITHH MOHTHPYIOT aa pHreJIH, YCT3HaBJIHBaeMble aa KOJIOHHbI. B CTbIKax MelK.u,y nJIHTaMH YCTpaHBalOT MOHOJIHTHbIe lKeJIe- 306eToHHbIe 6aJIKH c apxnpoaamrea HX cBapHbIMH xapxacaan, a rrpn ,lJ,JIHTeJIbHOH narpyaxe 150 xfIa no llJIHTaM BblllOJIHHIOT MOHOJIHTHYIO lKeJIe306eToHHYlO nJIHTY TOJIlUHHOll 100 MM, npH4eM COBMeCTHaH patiora criopnoro H MOHOJIHTHOrO 6eToHa 06eCneQHBaeTCfI aa cuer wnOHOK B C60pHbIX nJIHTax. CTbIKH MelK.u,y C60pHblMH naHeJIHMH CTeH 3anOJIHHlOT MeJIK03epHHcTbiM 6eToHoM KJIaCCa B20, rrpu 3TOM ,lJ,Ba npononsnux naaa B pe6pax 06pa3YlOT 6eToHHYlO umonxy.

KOHCTPYKUHH, paCCQHTaHHble aa MeHbWHe .u,JIHTeJIbHble narpysKH na nOKpbITHe (10 ... 50 xlIa) , paapacoraau npH.u,HenPOBCKHM

PRC. 2.1. KOHCTPYKII.HH C60PHblX lKeJIe306eTOHHbIX o,n;H03TalKHblX 3,n;aHl'IIJ (noJ\BaJIOB): a ... 6 - COOTBeTCTBellllO O,ll;HO', ,ll;ByX- II MHOrOnpOJl~THble; e, a - nau erm COOTseTCTBCHlIO CTeHbI II nepeKpblTBH; e - p"reJlb; J - nOKpblTlle; 2 - creaa; 3 - pllreJJb; 4 - KOJJOHHa;

5 - <jJYH,ll;aMeIlT.

27

1.JL JlL a-a

~.,of

7~ 16JZt

'lLj

! ~700 J

1/ I 1/ II
2 ..... "'-6 l~
3\" ~ nn, ~ 12 - ,~
I , l' I I
8S10 1 4200 { 8300 8300, B300
"
6
15, r

ITPOMcTpOllrrpoeKTOM; IIX peurenas aaanorusma onacanasra suure. PIIreJIH coe.u,IIHHIOT C 3aKJIaJl,HbIMII .u,eTaJIHMH KOJIOHH na cnapxe, pe6pa rrJIIIT raiose rrpnaapnaaior K 3aKJIa.u,HbIM ,n;eTaJIHM B p"reJIHX. B HaCTOHmee BpeMH IICrrOJIb3YlOT YHIIClmUIIpoBaHHble (ranosue) KOHCTPYKUIIH rro cepHII 11C-OJ-19 H pexoaennoaanaue fOCCTpoeM CCCP .u,JIH nmpoxoro rrpnueaenaa - rro cepan 112-80, paap aooranaon ll.H1111npoM3.u,aHIIH .u,JIH rrpoII3Bo.u,CTB co 3HaqIITeJIbHblMH HarpY3KaMII na nepexpsrrna (50 .•. 100 KITa) II .u,JIH nearpeccaaaof rasoaof cpensr. Bsrcora rrOMeIIJ,eHHll or rrona no HII3a rrJIIIT - 3,6; 4,8; 6,0 II 7,2 M. Crenoaue rraHeJIII - criopnsre iKeJIe306eToHHbie rrJIOCKHe, nepeaenaoro CeqeHIIH no BblCOTe OT 180 no 53Q MM. ITaHeJIII MOHTIIPYIOT B IIJ,eJIeBOll CTbIK JIeHTOqHOrO CPYH.u,aMeHTa. ITo cpennna OCHM MHOronpOJIeTHblX 3.u,aHIIll YCTaHaBJIHBalOT C60pHbIe KOJIOHHbI na cToJI6qaTbIX CPYH.u,aMeHTax. CeTKa KOJIOHH MO:tKeT 6bITb rrpIIHHTa 6 X 6 H 6 X 9 M.

ITo KOJIOHHaM YCTaHaBJIIIBalOT pnreaa BbICOTOll 1400 MM C HIIlKHHM pacnonoxceaaeu rrOJIOK .u,JIH orrIIpaHIIH petipncrstx rrJIHT rroxpurns umpanoa 740 H 1485 MM, npOJIeTOM 5550 II 7020 MM.

KOHCTPYKUIIH rro YKa3aHHblM cepIIHM .u,orrYCKaIOT xperrneane K nepexpsrrmo paSJIHqHbIX KOMMYHIIKaUHll II rronnecnoro rpaacrrop ra, .u,mI sroro B llIBbT Me/K,IJ,Y pe6p"CTbIM" IIJIIITaMII .u,OJIlKHbI 6blTb 3aJIOlKeHbl T -oripasasre 3aKJIa.u,HbIe II3.u,eJIIIH, xoropue nepenaror HarpY3KY na

,n;Ba pe6pa IIJIHT. .

OTBeTCTBeHHble Y3JIbi 3THX 3.u,aHIIll - KperrJIeHIIH CTeH II KOJIOHH K ¢YH.u,aMeHTaM, TaK KaK CTeHOBbIe naneaa II KOJIOHHbI, lKeCTKO aamen.nennue B CPYH.u,aMeHTax, paccsaraau na BocnpHHTIIe ropH30HTaJIbHOrO .u,aBJIeHHH rpyrrra,

IIIHpoKO p acrrpocrpaneau coopnue iKeJIe306eTOHHble yHIICPIIUIIP0- aanaue KOHCTPYKUHII rro.u,3eMHblX TOHHeJIell, xoropue MOlKHO npmreHHTb npa CTpOHTeJIbCTBe 0.u,H03TalKHbIX 3.u,aHIIll (pIIC. 2.2). B HIIX BXO.u,HT CTeHOBble, CPYH.u,aMeHTHbIe, orropnsre 6JIOKII, nporonu, KOJIOHHbI H 6JIOKH nepexpsrraa. DJIOKH IISrOTOBJIHIOT H36eToHa KJIaCCOB B20

- II B30 H apMHpYIOT cBapHbIMII xapxacaua II3 ropasexaraaoa ap aaryp sr.

Crenonsre 6JIOKII llIHPHHOll 1. .. 1,5, BblCOTOll 6,25 ... 6,76, TOJIIIJ,IIHOll naepxy 0,2 ... 0,25 H B orropuov CeqeHIIII - 0,5 ... 0,6 M, B sepxnea qaCTII cHa6:tKeHbl KOHCOJIbHblM nsrcrynca .u,JIH omrpaaas 6JIOKOB noKpbITHH. 11x sanemraaror B CPYH.u,aMeHTHbIe 6JIOKII IllHP"HOll2;5 .. .4 H .u,JIIIHall 2 ... 3 M. B cpenaeii sacra nayxrrponerasrx TOHHeJIeH YCTaHaBJIHBalOT onopnue 6JIOKH-rro.u,KOJIOHHHKII IllIIPIIHOH 3,5 .. .4, .u,JIIIHOH 2,6 II BblCOTOH 1 M C rHes.u,OM .u,JIH YCTaHoBKII KOJIOHH.

KOJIOHHbl cesenaea 400 X 400 IIJIII 500 X 500 MM H BbICOTOll .u,o 5,5 M YCTaHaBJIHBalOT B ruesna onopusrx 6JIOKOB nepes 3 ... .4 M rro .u,JIHHe TOHHeJIH. ITPO.u,OJIbHbIe pnreaa IIpHMoyrOJIbHOrO (ranponoro)

PUC, 2.2. I\OHCTPYKII,UU C60PHblX }KeJIe306eToHHblx O~H03Ta}KHblX 3)l;aHHH U coopyxce-

HUrl:

a, 6 - nonepe-nrsre p aspeasr 3p;aHult, B03BOP;UMblX OTI<phlTbIM cnocoooa: e - nonepesasra p 13pe3 3p;aUHH, B03Bop;HMoro cnOC060M «CTeHa B rpyare», H KOHCTPYI<L\HU; e - BUAbl CTE.!I{OB, 1, 2 - naaena COOTBeTCTBeHUO nOl<pbITHH U crea sr: 8 - ~eJleBoli <Pyup;aMeuT non cTeuy: 4 - pacnopxa; 5 - <pyup;aMeuT non I<OJlOHUY; 6 - KOJlOUUa; 7 - pareas: 8 - MOUOJlUTHblil CTblK; 9 - rup;pOU30JlllL\HH; 10 - caapuoe coeaaaeane 38KJlap;UbIX U3p;eJlult; 11 - CBBp· HaH cerxa: 12 - nop;I<OJlOUUHI<; 18 - nrnera no na: 14 - 06BH30'IUaH 6aJlKa; 15 - 6J10KK

«creaa B rpyare»: 16 = <p0pUlaxTB; 17 - 6eToH; 18 - UlTyKBTypKa.

29

uonepenaoro CeIJeHlHI BbIllOJIH5:lIOT B BH.u,e 6aJIOK: .u,BYXKOHCOJIbHbIX O.u,HOrrpOJIeTHbIX (,nmIHa.u,o 8, BblCOTa no 1,2 M), onaorrpoaerasrx paspeaHbIX HJIH MHOrOrrpOJIeTHblX nepaspesastx C OMOHOJIHIJeHHblMH CTblKaMH B MeCTax O[IHpaHH5:l na KOJIOHHbl HJIH B npcnere.

5JIOKH nepexpsrrna IT-06pa3Horo CeIJeHH5:l onnparorca na CTeHbI H nporon. 5JIOKH .u,JIHHOii 12, 15, WHPHHOH 1,55 H BbICOTOii 0,85 M HMelOT 60JIbWYlO aecyuryio crrocotinocru.

ITPH OpOJIeTe 10 ... 14 M BbICOTY 6JIO]{OB nepexpurnn cnenyer 0PHHHMaTb (1/10, • .1/12) L, TOJIrn:HHY rrJIHTbI - B 3aBHCHMOCTU OT BbICOTbI l'I mapanu 6JIOKa, HO He MeHee 80 ... 100 MM. CTbIKH 6JIOKOB B CMeLKHbIX rrpoaerax p acrronararor Bpa36eLKKY, IJT06bl nOBbICHTb LKeCTKOCTb KOHCTPYKUHU H He C03.u,aBaTb COJIOWHbIX WBOB.

<pYH.u,aMeHTHble 6JIOKH KOJIOHH H CTeH coe.u,UHHIOT MeLK.u,y C060H MOHOJ1UTHbiM CTbIKOM. 5JIOKH nOKpbITHH rrprraapuaaror na orrope K CTeHOBbIM, CTbIKH 3a.u.eJIbIBalOT MeJIK03epHHCTbIM 6eTOHOM.

ITpe.u,CTaBJIHeT narepec erne onna KOHCTPYKUHH nonaenaoro TOHHeJIH, COCTOHrn:ero H3 ymIcpHUHpOBaHHbIX C60pHbIX LKeJIe306eTOHHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB: naaenef nOKpblTHH ranponoro CeIJeHHH npOJIeTOM 14 M, CTeHOBblX 6JIOKOB rpaneueanansuoro rronepesnoro ce4eHHH BbICOTOH 6,7 M, parens. KOJIOHH CeIJeHHeM 700 X 700 MM H CPYH.u,aMeHTHblx 6JIoKOB, xoropue B OTJIHqHe OT npenunyuien KOHCTPYKUHH He 06be.u,HHHIOT B 06LUYlO IIJIUTY, a coe.u,HHHIOT OT.u,eJIbHbIMH pacnopxasm (eM. PHC 2.2, 6).

O.u,H03TaLKHoe npoaasoncraeanoe snanae MOlI(eT 6blTb BbIIIOJIHeHO cnocorioa «CTeHa B rpynre» (CM. pHC. 2.2, 8). B rp aauree MOHTHPYIOT C60pHbIe )l{eJIe306eTOHflble 9JIeMeHTbI - OJlOCKHe HJIH xoarpdopcnue C nJIOCKHMH nJIHTaMH. 3aTeM 00 HHM 6eTOHHpYIOT MOHOJIHTHbIe LKeJIe30- 6eTOHHbIe nosca, na, xoropue YCTaHaBJlH BalOT 6JIOKH no KpbITHll , uanee paspariaruaaior rpYHT no npoexrnof OTMeTKH. l1.orrYCKaeTCH paspariaTblBaTb rpYHT no MOHTaLKa nJIHT nOKpbITHH, HO Torna coopnue 3JIe~ MeHTbl CTeH He06xonHMO aaxperrar» OT ropH30HTaJIbHblX nerpopaanna,

YCTpaHBaH rPYHTOBble aHKepbI. .

Crenu onnosraxcuoro 3naHHH, BbIflOJIHHeMbIe B OTKPbITOM KOTJIOsane, npe.u,YCMaTpHBaIOT B anne OJIOCKHX IIJIHT, coenauaevsrx nOCJIe MOHTalKa MOHOJIHTHblMH CTblKaMH co cnapxof BbIIIYCKOB apuarypn (CM. pHC. 2.2 c). l1.JIH C03113HHH rep aeranasrx CTbIKOB HCrrOJIb3YlOT MeJIK03epHHcTbIll 6eTOH na nartp sr-atotueu uesreare HU.

OT.u,eJIbHbIe KOHCTPYKTH anue 3JIeMeHTbi 0.u,H03TaLKHbIX npoaasonCTBeHHbIX 3.u,aHHH MorYT 6blTb ycoaepmeacraoaauu: TaK, HeCMOTpH Ha cpaBHHTeJIbHO He60JIbWHe .u.aBJIeHHH rpYHTa (KaK BepTHKaJIbHoro, TaK H 60KOBoro), paUHOHaJIbHa aaxena nJIOCKOCTHbIX 9JIeMeHTOB anaHHll (crea, OOKPbITHll, CPYHllaMeHToB) aa KPHBOJIHHeiiHbIe.

OnTHMaJlbHOll KOHCTpYKUHell nOKpblTHH HBJIHeTCH CHCTeMa, ocecneIJHBalOLUaH BOCrrpH5:lTHe YBeJIHqeHHOrO )laBJIeHHH no cpaBHeHHIO C nanJIeHHeM aa nOKpblTHH Ha3eMHbIX 311aHHii, C03JJ:aIOLUaH BTIeqaTJIeHHe JIerKOCTH, a TaKLKe n03BOJIHIOIll.aH YCTpaHBaTb rH.u,pOH30JI H LlH 10, BOLlOOTBO.u, nosepxaocrasrx rpYHToBbIX BO)! H npoexu LlJIH eCTeCTBeHHoro CBera. B 60JIbWOH crerrenn 3THM Tpe60BaHHHM YllOBJ1eTBOpmoT nOKpblTHH B BH,lI,e 060JIOIJeK (marpoaux, rImep60JIHQeCKHX napa60JIOH;J.OB H LlPYrux), a TaKLKe H3 C60pHbIX rrJIHT B cpopMe ,lI,BoHHoro T H Kop06QaTOrO

30

4000 •.• 12.000

a

7

12000". 18000

12000 .. , 1800()

6

tfOOO ... 12000

10

6'000

"

(f000

A

6000 ... 12000

e

PRC. 2.3. KOHCTPYKlJ,HH MHOrOnpOJIeTHbIX O)l.HO.9TaJKHbIX 3)l.aHRi't:

a, 6 - C nOKpblTHHMH B BHAe lIIaTpOBblX 06oJIo'leK H I'HnepOOJIH'leCKHX napa60JIOHAOB; 8. a ~ o 1l0KPblTHHMH B BHAe npenaaparensao HanpH:1KeHHblX lImIT; iJ - C lJ,IIJIIIHAplI'leCKIIMII 060- JlO'lKaMII; e - AJIH BBOAa eCTeCTBeHHOI'O oCBew.eHIIH B snaaue: 1, 11 - 060JIO'lKII COOTBeT~ CTBeHHO urarponaa H UIIJIIIIIAPII'leCKaH; 2 - lWJIOIIHa; 3 - cjJYHAaMeHT; 4 - ranap: 5 _ cjJo. aaps: 6 - BbJpaBIIIIBalOw.aH aacumca: 7 - nnm-a «ABoilHoe T»; 8 - parens: 9 - npocrpanCTBeHHaH (xopodxarua) nJIIITa; /0 - nJIIj_THbill cjJYHABMeHT; 12 - orp axcatonrae rroaepxsocraj

13 - rpyca.

HaCTllJIa (pnc. 2.3). 8TH KOHCTPYKUllH AaIOT B03MomHoCTb yseJIWlHTb npOJIeTbI H paccroanna MemAY BHYTpeHHHMH KOJIOHHaMH.

Illarposue 060JIOllKH, MOHTHpyeMble na C60PHbIX meJIe306eTOHHblX SJIeMeHTOB, HMeIOT nJIOCKYIO BepXHIOIO nOBepXHOCTb, srro n03BOJIHeT yrrpocrars YCTPOHCTBO rHAPO- H TenJIOH30JIHUHH H )J.peHa>IC TIPH npo€KTHpOBaHHH TaKHX nOKpbITHH MomHO BbmOJIHHTb ceTKY KOJIOHH AO 12 x 12, 12 X 18, 18 X 18 M. OAHO H3 arrrepecnax penrenaf AJIH fiOKPbITllH - C60PHblfI lleTblpeXJIeneCTKoBbIH rnnap, n03BOJIHIOIUHH: nepexpuaare nOMeIUeHHH C cerxoa KOJIOHH AO 18 X 24 M. TaK KaK OT)I.eJIbHO CTOHIUHe nonaeumre npoH3BoAcTBeHHbIe OAH09Ta}KHble 3AaHHH npoexrapytor nOA CJIOeM rpYHTa He60JIbIIIOH TOJIIUHHbI, TO MomHO .aaKOHCTpYHpOBaTb uoxpurae c pery.napno pacrrOJIOmeHHbIMH CBeTOBbIMH npoexaaa, 3aKpbITbIMH cseronpoapa-rasraa KOJInaKaMH. 3TH npoeau npeAYCMaTpHBaIOT B HaH60JIee B03BbIlI1aIOIUHXCH ysacrxax 060- JIOlJ.eK HJIH no noma nOKpblTHH C He06xo)lHMbIM IIIarOM. He)lOCTaTKoM 060JIOlleK, HMeIOIUHx BepxHIOIO KPHBOJIHHeHHYIO nosepxaocrt., HBJIHlaTCH TPY)lHOCTH B YCTpOHCTBe H30JIHUHH nOBepXHOCTll II npeaaxca, I1x BblpaBHHBaIOT CYXHM CJIa60CmHMaeMbIM rpYHTOM (KPynH03epHHCTbIH neCOK, meoeirs), YCTpaHBaIOT no HeMY CTH}KKH, TenJIO-, rnnpoH30JIHUHIO H )lpeHamHbIH CJIOI'1.

,UJIH OnTHMaJIbHOrO OCBeIUeHHH 3)laHHH BblIIOJIHHIOT CBeTOBO)lbI B eane nOJIbIX Tpy6 C BHYTpeHHeH nOBepXHOCTbIO, nOKpbITOH CBeTOOTpamaIOlUHM CJIOeM. 8KOHOMHllHbl CBeTOBO)lbI H3 nnenxa C aJIIOMHHHeBblM noxpsrraex, xoropsre MO}l(HO pasaeutars BHYTPH KOJIOHH, npn 9TOM KOJIOHHbI AOJImHbl 6bITb aanpoexrapoaaaa C KOJIbueBbIM rronepe-rasni cexeaaex ll3 ueHTpHCPYfHpOBaHHoro me.JIe306eTOHa C npenycxorpeaHbIM B HymHoM MeCTe 60KOBbIM npoeMOM. ECJIH BHYTPb CBeTOBO)la ~3BeCTH )lHeBHOH CBeT, TO H3 rrpoeua OH 6Y)leT rrocrynars B nOMeIUeHHe. CBeTOBO)lbI MomHO nO)lBeCHTb K KOHCTPYKUllHM nOKpbITHH. C ueJIbIO KOHueHTpHpOBaHHOH nonaxa OCBeIUeHHH pexoaeanyerca npoexnrpoears cneuaansasre sepxansuue xounearparopsr, xoropsre c06HpaIOT CBeTOBOH nOTOK C 60JIbIIIOH nJIOIua)lH H HarrpaBJIHIOT BHll3 (CM. pHC. 2.3).

B 0)lH03TamHbIX anaannx npHMeHHIOT cram.aue rnyrsre 9JIeMeHTbl: )I.JIH nOKpbITHH - rorppuponaaaae 3BeHbH, )lJIH CTeH - wnYHT, 3a6llsaeMbIH no nepauerpy (pHC. 2.4). ITpH He60JIbWHX pasxepax BHYTpeHHero nOMeIUeHHH HCnOJIb3YIOT CTaJIbHOH CBO)l (JIOTOK), onHpaIOIUHHCH aa CPYH)laMeHTbI, npa 9TOM B BepXHeH ero xacra YCTpaHBaIOT roppnpoaaansre 3BeHbH, BocnpHHHMaIOIII;He HaH60JIbWHH H3rH6aIOIUHH MOMeHT.

Ilpn HerJIy60KoM 3aJIOmeHHH 0)lH09Ta}KHbIX 3)laHHH, xorna AaBJIeHHe Ha CPyHAaMeHTbI OT KOHCTpYKUHH CTeH H nOKpblTHH HeBeJIHKO, paUHOHaJIbHO npauenemre aponnsrx KOHCTPYKUHH CTeH H nOKpbITHH U3 ctiopnoro meJIe306eTOHa. HaH60JIee 9cp¢eKTHBHbI coopaae nOJIyapKH JIOTKOBOro (IT-06pa3Horo) HJIH raspoaoro nporpans , 06'be)J.HHHeMble npa MOHTame CBapHbIM CTbIKOM B UeJIbHYIO apxy H aanenuaaevue B JIeHTOllHbIH CPYH)laMeHT co IUeJIeBbIM CTbIKOM. Criopuue 9JIeMeHTbI nOJIYapox .KOHCTPYHPYIOT as 6eTOHa KJIaCCOB B30 ... B40 co CTepmHeBOH apMaTYPOH KJIaCCOB A-III, AT-III, TOJIIUllHY nOJIOK Ha3HallaIOT MllHHMaJIbHOH, C06JIIO)laH pasaep aamarnoro CJIOH 6eToHa npn pacnoJIO}l{eHllll apuarypu nocepenmre CeqeHHH. 113 C60pHbIX nonyapox

mmWWMMWmUMmmmWUUM

r-I

I 1).0 {tiOOO

, ~'------T-

,.....,----" --

../ 2

a

II-II

Jl ~n=0~8~0~00~ __ ~L

Ao 2'1000

6 B

~;; ):;.-;:/'.$ /7/))j /H III /8 /// t/I TIT /// //1 HI /71 p~ 7JT7.lT7111Jl 7/1 til /II til Itl in 1// //l HI /1/ ?/T7lTi'J/~

J

AooOOO

4

60000 ... 72000

r

Puc. 2.4. ApOQHble nOKpblTHH o.u.H03Ta>KHblX s.u.aHlIli::

Q~ 6 ~ AleTll..1JlHQeCKlIe CBO,ll II apxa: 6, e - xceneaooerouu ae apxa; J - CBO,n; H3 rOIPPIlP(}1 iIlaBBloilii saeases; 2 - LurrYlcT;. 3 - CBO,ll; 4 - Q>YII,lIaMeHlr; 5 - L.oJIyapl(lIi 6 = pHreJlb~ 7 = KOJIOHHa; 8 ... aerpoeauue ;>Tall,epKH.

;3 S-15S3

~

~~~~~~~~~ ,

r:au:Jl1 ~

a

6

B

A

coopystaior a,n;aHHH o 60JIhIIIHM KOJIHIJeCTBOM npOJIeTOB, onapas nOJIYapxa Ha BHYTpeHHHe CTeHbI HJIH nporoasr, MOHTHpyeMbIe aa KOJIOHHax.

YIJHTbIBaH s<p¢eKTHBHOCTb npOCTpaHCTBeHHbIX KOHCTPYKUHH AJIH BocnpHHTHH pacnpeneaennoro ,n;aBJIeHHH rpynra, o.n.HOSTa)KHbIe nonseMHbIe snanaa BbIllOJIHHIOT naBHJIbOHHOra rana: apOIJHaH HJIH npyraa npOCTpaHCTBeHHaH CHCTeMa CJIY)KHT .n.JIH saIUHTbI BHYTpeHHero OO'beMa, a OOJIerIJeHHbIe MHOr03Ta)KHble KOHCTPYKUHH (3Ta)KepKH) - MH pasMerueHHH 060py.n.OBaHHH. B STOM CJ1YIJae He TOJIbKO 06JIerIJaIOTCH KOHCTPYKUHH STa)KepOK, HO H 06eCneIJHBaeTCH B03MO)KHOCTb ObICTPOH CMeHbI TeXHOJIOrllIJeCKOra nponecca oe3 saueasr OCHOBHbIX HeCYIUHX

KOHCTPYKUHH 3.n.aHHH. .

LI.JIH KOHCTPYKUHH MeJIKOrO aaJIO)KeHllH paUHOHaJIbHO npHMeHeHH6 CPOPHO-MOHOJIHTHOrO LKeJIe300eTOHa 0 HeC'beMHOH OnaJIYOKOH HS TOHKO· CTeHHhIX LKeJIe306eTOHHbIX (<pH6pooeTOHHhIX) SJIeMeHTOB. B lJ,HHHnpoMs.n.aHHH p asparoraaa KOHCTPYKUHH HeC'beMHOH OnaJIYOKH .n.J1SI B03Be,lJ.eHHH C60PHO-MOHOJIHTHbIX KOHCTPYKUHH nonseaaux coopyaceaujl: MHOroperipacrue LKeJIe306eTOHHble naHeJIH; yaasepcansaue CTeHOBhle naneJ1M; YHHBepCaJIbHbIe CTeHOBble naHeJIH yrOJIKOBOrO npo<pHJIH (YCn); TOHKOCTeHHbIe SJIeMeHTbI H3 apxo-, CTeKJIOueMeHT8 H' <pHopooeTOH3 (pHO. 2.5). MHorope6pHcTble naHeJIH H3rOTOBJIHIOT aa JIHHHHX .D,JIH BbIllYCKa MHoronycToTHbIX nJIHT nepexpsrrnii. OHH HMeIOT pa3BH'rYID 60KOBYIO noaepxnocrs, IJTO oOeCneIJHBaeT Ha,n;eLKHoe cnenneuae c60pHoro H MOHOJIHTHOrO oeToHa. naHeJIH apMHpYIOT oObIIJH()H HJIH HanpHLKeHHOH apMaTYPoH. Illapaua naaenea COCTaBJIHeT 0,6 ... 3,6, a' .n.JIHHa - 6 M H 6oJIee.

Paaxepsr YHHBepCaJIbHbIX CTeHOBhIX nanenea (YCn): BblCOTa 2,1. .• 6,3, nmpmra - 3 M. 3a GIJeT <PoPMbI 9TH naHeJIH MOHTHpYIOT oe3 .n.onOJIHHTeJIbHbIX xpeneaorax YCTPOUCTB.

Haaooasmee CHHLKeHHe MaT~pHaJIOeMKOCTH OOeCneIJHBaIOT TOHKOGTeHHbIe 9JIeMeHTbI H3 <pH6p06eTOHa, MH KOTOPbIX paapaooraaa HOMeHxnarypa: pasaepsr nJIOCKHX SJIeMeHTOB - 0,6 X 0,6 ... 1,8 X 2,1 M, TOJIIUHHa - 20 ... 30 MM; pasnepu rHYTbIX SJIeMeHTOB -'- 0,6 X 1,2 ..• 0,9 X 6 M.

O.D,HOSTaLKHbIe 3.D,aHHH H coopyaceuaa npa rJIy60KoM aaJIOLKeHHH B03BO.n.HT 3aKpblTbIM cnocoooa. KOHCTPYKUHH, coopyacaeasre ropHbIM (3aKpbITbIM) cnocoooa, BbIllOJIHHIOT OObIIJHO B BH.D,e 06.n.eJIOK CBO.D,qa(foro OIJepTaHHH H3 MOHOJIHTHOrO HJIH uaopuar-oeroaa. Ilenecooopaano YCTpaHBaTb pacnoaoaceaasre PH.D,OM H coenaaeaasre npoexaau ssrpaOOTKH (TpH - nars BbIpaooToK; 06pa3YIOIUHx npocrpaacrso ,nJIH anaaas),

Ha BhI60p rnna TOHHeJIbHOH 06.n.eJIKH BJIllHIOT npOIJHOCTb rpynra, xapaxrep H creneas era TpeIUHHoBaTocTH, YCJIOBHH saneraaaa, OOBOlleeHHOCTb. ,U.n:H YCTaHOBJIeHHH OOJIaCTH npHMeHeHHH oo,neJIOK CBo,nIJa& roro OIJepTaHHH nOJIb3YIOTCH KJIaCcH<pHKaUHeH rPYHToB M. M. IlpoTO.D,hHKOHOBa Ha OCHOBe Koa<P¢HUHeHTa KpenOCTH f. B rpYHTax G

PHC. 2.5. KOHCTpYKII,HH HeCbeMHbIX onaJIy60K:

a ..... MHorope6pllcTble naneaa: 6 .... CTeHOBble naaeaa II TOHIWCTeHHble qlH6po6eToHHble llJle. MeHTbI; 8 ... a _" KOHCTPYKU;HII,' 119rOTOBJlHeMble (! npuxeaeaaesr HeC'beMHIiIX onarrytiou COOT-

BeTCTBeHHO !jJYH,lIaMeHTOB II CTeH, cooPY>Kellllfi, nepeKpblTHfi: 1 naHeJlbl 2 ".. MOHOJlIITHbljt

6eToH IIJlH >KeJleSo6eTOHl a ~ apxarypa} 4 parens,

3*

35

8000,,, 10000

a

A

I '

J'

9000 ... 10000

6

85.00 ..• 9500

e

PHC. 2.6, Csonsarae KOHCTPYKIJ;HH, acnoassyeasre npa fJIYOOKOM 3aJIOlKeHIiH:

a ... C - MOHOJIMTHble; a, e - coopasre: 1 - Ha6pbl31'-6eTOH; . 2 - CBOp;. onepr snt sa rpyuv HJlll aa CTeHbI; 3, 5 - CJJOH 6eToHa COOTBeTCTBeMHO nep asm II BTOPOi1; 4 - cenca; 6 = aHK~· pbl; 7 ~ OJlOK; 8 ~ CTblKOBblC coeAHHeHHH 6JIOKOBi. 9 -' tQ>YH}\i:lMeHT.

6

A 1-1

~

050

PRC. 2.7. KOHCTPYKUHH xpenaeaaa KpYOHhIX supaoorox:

a - CBO,l\; 6 - exexa u Y3eJl apennenas creaa; 1, 2 - YClNIlIBaJOIll,He ~JleMeHTbI COOTBeT'CTBeHHO r-opaaoaransaac II aepraxansaae: a - anxep: 4 - cerxa.

1{o3cpqmUlleHTOM xpenocra t = 8 ... 10 (aeprnxanstroe naaneaae MaJIO, a 6oKoBoe - OTCYTcTByeT) o6.n.eJIKY BbInOJIHHIOT B Bll.ne noaororo CB@)].3. onnpatouteroca H3 rpynr (pac, 2.6). CTeHbI mrpariorxa nOKpbIB3I01' CJJoeM TOpKpeT3 llJIll Ha6pbI3r-6eToH3 TOJIIll;llHOH 3 ... 5 CM. CBO)]. MQ}KFr 6bITb rrOCTOHHHOH llJIll nepeaeuaoa TOJIIIJ,llHbI as MOHOJIHTHOrO, naopuarOeToHa llJIll Ha6pbI3r-6eTOHa C aaxepana. DHTbI csona Ha'KJIOHeHbJ K ropnsoary non yrJIOM 15 ... 200 II oIIHpaIOTCl1 H3 sucrynu - 6epMbI IIlHPllHOH 0,2 ... 0,3 M. B MeHee xpenxax II TpeIIJ,HHoBaTblx rpynrax C' t = 4 ... 8 YCTpaHBaIOT 06)le,l1KY, COCTOHIIJ,YIO I13 csona H CTeH, conpa:meHlle caona co creaaan - IIJIaSHoe. TaK K3K 6oKoBoe )laBJIeHHe He3H3- 4llTeJIbHO, CTeHbI YCTpaI1BaIOT BepTHI<a,l1bHbIMll C YTO,l1IIJ,eHHeM B Hll:>KHet! 4aCTH n,JIH ormpanns Ha nonoumy aapaoorxa. 06n,eJIKll B Bll)le· no.n.beMllCToro CBO)la BbmO,l1HHIOT H3 Ha6pbI3r~6eTOHa, YCI1JIeHHoro CTaJIbHOH CeTIWH H aaxepaua II o6pa3yIOIIJ,erO BMeCTe C 4aCTbIO rpyura HeCYIIJ,I1H CBO)l.

B TpeIIJ,llHOBaTbIX aercpenxnx CKaJIbHblX H IIOJIYCKaJIbHhlX rpynrax npllMeHHIOT KOM6HHllpOBaHHYlO 06)J.eJIKY CllCTeMbI 6 epHOJIb.n.3 , C04eTaJOIIJ,YIO ¢YHI{Ullll xpenn II onanyox»: rro rp ynry lleJIaIOT MOHOJIllTHyIO 060JI04KY TOJIIIJ,ll"HOH no 150 MM, 3aTeM YCTaHaBJIllBaIOT rOCPPHpo-

37

BaHHbIe JIHCTbl, no HliM - Ha6pbI3r-6eTOH TOJIIIJ.HHOH 50 ... 80 MM. 3qxpeKTHBHa KOHCTPYKUHH 06.!l.eJIOK B HapYIIIeHHbIX CKaJIbHbIX H nonyCKaJIbHblX rpyarax, COCTOHIUaH H3 .!l.BYX CJIOeB Ha6pbI3r-6eTOHa: nepSbIH CJIOH TOJIIUHHOH 100 ... 200 MM YCHJIHBaIOT CTaJIbHblMH apxaxn HJIH rpYHToBbIMH aaxepaua, BTOPOH, TOJIIIJ.HHOH 250 ... 350 MM, BbInOJIHHIOT no nepaoxy.

B rpynrax 0 K03qxpHUHeHToM xpenocrn 1 < 2 pa3BHBaeTcH 3HaQHTeJIbHOe 60IwBoe H BepTHKaJIbHOe .!l.aBJIeHHe, n03ToMY 06.!l.eJIKY YCTpaHBaIOT B aane nozrsexacroro CBO)J,a, onapaiortterocs aa BbmYKJIYIO B CTOPOHY rpyara ¢YH)J,aMeHTHYIO nJIHTY (CM. pHC. 2.6, iJ). 06paTHbIH

2.1. Paaaepsr CBO)l;a

K03!jJ!jJIIUHeHT KpenOCTII rroponu no TIPOTO.

IJ,bHKOHOBY

';:;15

>15

Kpenxae, fKP > 8

Cpeaaea KpenOCTH, fKP = 4 ... 8 MHrKHe, f up < 4

20 30

15 20

10 .. .15

1...1,5 1...2 1,5 ... 2,5

1,5 2

1,5 2,5

1,5 3

CBO.!l.-¢YH.!l.aMeHT paBHOMepHO pacnpeneaser .!l.aBJIeHHe non coopyraeHHeM H oeecnesaeaer 6JIarOnpHHTHoe HanpH:>KeHHO-)J,e<pOpMHpOBaHHoe COCTOHHHe CBO.!l.a. TOJIIIJ.HHY OO.!l.eJIKH B 3aMKe d, npHHHMaIOT B rpya(fax C t > 6 ... 0,4 M; .!l.JIH t > 6 d, = 1. .. 0.1/; TOJIIUHHY crensr 06.!l.eJIKH Ha3HaQaIOT de = 1...1, Ids, ¢YH.!l.aMeHTa do = 1,5d3; TOJIIUHHY B nsre CBO)la B rpyarax C 1 < 6 npoeKTHpYIOT dn = 1,1. .. 1 ,4ds, B crene do = 1,3 ... 1,6ds; B <PYH.!l.aMeHTe do = 1,6 ... 2ds.

TOJIIUHHa ooparaoro CBO)l.a do.a = 0,2 ... 0,8d3, a TOJIIUHHa no).l.OIIIBbI <PYH.!l.aMeHTa d!jJ = do + 150 .•. 200 MM.

06.!l.eJIKH KaMepHblX Bblpa60TOK, IIIHPOKO npHMeHHeMbIX B pane OTpaCJIeH, aarrpasrep B rH.!l.pOTeXHHQeCKOM CTpOHTeJIbCTBe (.!l.JIH pasaem;eHHH TpaHC<POPM3TOPOB, CKJIa.!l.OB, MaIIIHHHblX 3aJIDB II .!l.p.), asrnOJIHHIOT }KeJIe300eTOHHbIMH C aaxepaxa, }KeJIe306eTOHHbIMH H aaripusrOeTOHHblMH C npenaapnre.nsno Hanp5I:>KeHHbIMH aaxepaxa. HaH60JIee xapaxrepaof KOHCTpYKUHeH 06.rr.eJIKH H3 :>KeJIe306eTOHa 5IBJIHeTCH CBO.!l. C YUIHpeHHblMH nHTaMH, pa60TaIOIU:l1H KaK 6eCIIIapHHpHaH apxa (pHC. 2.7). Ilpenaapare.m.mre pasaepsr csona MO:>KHO onpenenars no 'Ca6JI. 2.1, rne Bo - npOJIeT aupariorxrr: do,dn - TOJIIIJ.HHa CBO.!l.a coOTBeTCTBeHI-IO B 3aMKe H nsre.

,UJIH 06.!l.eJIKH CTeH xaxep aax nsrpatiorox npHMeHHIOT :>KeJIe306eToH C 06bIQHbIMH anxepaxa. ,UJI5I 60JIbWepa3MepHblx asrpaoorox pexoaen,nYIOTCH rJIyooKHe npenaaparensno uanpsaceaasre aaxepsr B COQeTaHHH C noxpsrraen H3 naripsrar-fieroua. Ha pHC. 2.7,6 noxaaana CTeHa KpynHoH KaMepHoH aupariorxa C anxepaxa H apaapoaaaaoji orinen({OH H3 aaopsrsr-oeroaa .. LI.JIH YBeJIHQeHHH :>KeCTKOCTH CTeHa YCHJIefia BepTIIKaJIbHbIMH H ropH30HTaJIbHblMH 3JIeMeHTaMH - KOJIOHHaMH H pacnopuuaa 6aJIKaMH H3 Ha6pbI3r-6eToHa. Iloxpsrrne H3 aaopsrsr- 6eToHa BblllOJIH5IIOT 06bIQHO B HeCKOJIbKO CJIOeB, BHaQaJIe - no rpynry 1fOJIIIJ.HHOH 30 ••• 70 MM, sarea aa Hero HaBeWHBaIOT CeTKY H3 npoao-

38

310KH ,n;H8MeTPOM 3 ..• 5 MM (3 SJIleHKaMH '100 MM, rrpHKpen31HeMYIO K rpyury. no CeTKe HaHOCHT BTOPOH C310H T031IIJ,HHOH 50 ... 80 MM, no KOTOPOMY xpensr BTOPYIO ceTKY II nOKpbIB8IOT ee C31eJl.YIOlUIiM CJIOeM Ha6pbI3r-6eToH8.

npe,n;B8pHTeJIbHO aanpaaceaasre aaxepsi B CKaJIbHOM MaCCHBe npoexTHPYIOT 1I3 K8H8TOB, npH,n;eii IIJIIi crepscnea. AHKepbI C HecYIIJ,eH cnocooHOCTbIO 1000 KH COCTOHT lIS 5 ... 10 ceMHnpOBOJIOIJHbIX KaHaTOB naaMeTpoM 15 MM, nOMeIIJ,8eMb1X B CKBa)I{I1HY ,llHaMeTpoM 105 MM C nOC31eJl.YIOlUeH HH'beKUHeii pacrsopa [13].

06,lle31KH xpyroaoro OIJepTaHHH npoeKTHPYIOT H3 KPHBOJ1HHetIHblx CnJIOlUHor.p CeIJeHHH l:I31H peopncrax 3J1eMeHTOB, qyrYHHblx 06,l1erIJeHHbIX TI06lIHroB H31H me31e306eTOHHbIX 6J10KOB (pHC. 2.8). Bee mape npllMeHHIOT me31e306eTOHHble 06Jl.e31KH B3aMeH IJyrYHHhlx H CTa,l1bHbIX.

B MaJ1oycTOiiIJHBbIX rpyarax C Jl.aB31eHHeM BOJl.b! MeHee 0,1 Mna pexouennyerca HCn0J1b30BaTb coopnsre acenesorieronaue 06,lleJIKH C noCTOHHHbIMH CBH3HMH pacTHiKeHHH B CTbIKax aa csapxe nsmycxoa apwaTYPbI H ooerouaponaaaea 3a30poB. B CJ1a6bIX CYXHX rpyarax npenycMaTpHBaIOT cnopuae iKeJ1e306eToHHble 06Jl.em(I1 C BpeMer-lHb!MH CBH- 3HMH pacTHmeHHH,\';:'KOTOpble 06eCneIJHBaIOT HeH3MeHHeMOCTh KOJ1bUa npu cxone ero C 060J10IJKH lUHTa H YJl.aJ1HIOTCH nOCJ1e HarHeTaHHH aa 06Jl.eJIKY pacrsopa. 06Jl.eJ1KH MorYT 6bITb H3 6JIOKOB CnJ10llIHOrO rrorrepexaoro CeIJeHHH C 3aKJ1aJl.HbIMH )leTaJ1HMH B' BH)le rrJ1aCTI1H, HMeiOIIJ,HX oTBepcTHH Jl.J1H 6031TOB, xoropsre CJ1YLKaT Jl.31H Kpen31eHHH 6J10KOS nepen HarHeTaHHeM neaearnoro pacrsopa aa 06Jl.eJ1KY.

B HeBo,n;OH9CHbIX rpynrax npHMeHHiOT KOHCTPYKUHH 06Jl.eJ10K H3 LKe31e300eToHHbIX Ti06lIHroB TaKoH iKe CPOPMbI, KaK H qyrYHHble, HO 60JIbWeH TOJ1IIJ,HHbI, C npoMemYTOIJHbIMH peopaaa }KeCTKOCTI1 H Jl.BYMH - IJeTblPbMH oTBepcTHHMH B KOJ1bueBbIX H paJl.HaJ1bHbIX rpaaax, B xoropue sanpeccoaanu MeTaJ1J1HIJeCKHe Tpy6KH. KamJl.oe KOJ1bUO COCTOl:lT H3 HOpMa31bHbIX, CMeiKHblX H KJ1IOIJeBOrO Ti06HHroB.

Ha 06Jl.eJIKH H3 }Ke31e306eTOHHbIX Ti06HHroB rpetiyercs nOBb!WeHHbIH pacxon apxarypu; xpoae roro, OHH nonaepxceasr TpemHHo06pa30BaHllIO, IJTO CHII}KaeT aononenpoaauaeaocrs KOHCTPYKUHH H C03Jl.aeT onaCHOCTb KOPP03Hll apxarypsr. n03TOMY B YCJ10BHHX nOJl.3eMHbIX Bo.unpHMeHHIOT 06,n;e31KH 1I3 YCHJ1eHHbIX peopacrux 6J1QKOB (CM. pac, 2.8, e), ~OTOPble He HMeIOT npOMemYTOIJHbIX pe6ep }KeCTKOCTH. BOJ1TOBble CBH3H CTaB~T no KOJ1bueBbIM rp aasa.

B YC'f-OHIJHBbIX HeBOJl.OHOCHbIX rpyarax, 06J1aJl.aiOIIJ,HX yrrpyrna« CBOHCTBaMII, npHMeHHIOT rH6Ime nOJl.aT31HBble KOHCTPYKUHH, pa60T3- IOIIJ,lIe COBMeCTHO C rpYHTOM. nepeBH3KY WBOB MemJl.Y KOJ1 buaMH 06- )J,e31KH He Jl.eJ18IOT, B CoeJl.HHeHHH 6310KOB YCTpaHBaiOT urapaap B anne ynpyrnx npOKJIa,n;OK, UHJ1HHJl.pHIJeCKHX BKJ1a,llblweH Y CTbIKOB. H an- 0031bWee pacnpocrpaueane nOJ1YIJHJIH 06Jl.eJIlm H3 }KeJIe306eTOHHbIX onOKOB C UHJIIIHJl.PHIJecKHMH CThIKaMH. O)J,HH ropen KamJl.OrO 6J1oKa YHmlmUHpoBaHHoH 06Jl.eJIKH BbmYKJIOH CPOpMbI, a Jl.pyroH - BorHYTOH; pa3HOCTb P8,n;l:IYCOB 38KpyrJIeHHH BOrHYToro H BbInYKJIOrO TOPUOBHe MeHee 20 MM. 6JIOKH B CTbIKax coeJl.HHHiOT MOHTa}KHbIMH WTblpHMH ).J.JIIiHOH 150 ... 170 H ,n;HaMeTpOM 22 ... 27 MM, qTO crrocoricrsyer .nynweMY ueHTpHpoBHHHiO CTbIKOB H 06JIerIJaeT C60PKY. npHMeHHIOT

39

r

.,.._.,-.- ---tI

6

5

e

peopncrsre >KeJIe300eTOHHble OJIOKH C UHJIHH,n:pHqeCKHMH CTbIKaMH, He HMeIOIll,He npOMe)KYTOtIHbIX periep )l{eCTI<OCTH.

Coopnsre OJIOKH, 06lliHMaeMbie B rpYHT CneUHaJIbHbIMH ,n:OMKpaTaMH, pacnopnuaa YCTpOHCTBaMH JIH60 paCTBopOM na nenenre HlJ, B CTbIl{aX 6JIOKOB, II MOHOJIHTHbIe npeCCOBaHHbIe 06,n:eJIKH npaaensror B CYXHX nJIOTHbIX rpynrax (CB5I3HbIX II HeCB5I3HbIX), 06Jla,n:aIOIll,HX ynpyfHMH CBoHCTBaMH. BJIOKH 06,n:eJIlUI ,n:OJI)KHbI 6bITb Coe)lI1HeHbI mapnnpHO, npHtIeM B COCTaB onnoro KOJIbua nOJI)KHO BXO)lHTb He MeHee qeTblpex. BJIOKH BbInOJIH5IIOT H3 06JIerQeHHbIX 4yrYfn-IblX TI06ImrOB C UHJIHH.n.pHtIeCKHMH CTbIKaMH HJIH H3 6eTOHa (llieJIe306eTOHa). Pa3>KaTHe OJIOKOB H B,n:aBJIHBaHHe HX B rpYHT 06bItIHO OCYIll,eCTBJI5IIOT C noMOIll,bIO rH,n:paBJIHtIeCKHX (BHHTOBbIX) .n.OMI{paTOB. CYIll,eCTByeT cnocoo 06llianI5I KJIHHOBbIMH OJIOKaMH, B,n:aBJIHBaeMbIMH B KOJIbUO o6,n:em<H, II KJIHHb5lMH (CM. pHC. 2.8, e). Bo scex CJIYtIa5lX 06)KaTHe (B)laBJIHBaHHe) o6.n.eJII<H B rpYHT .n.OCTHraeTC5I YBeJIHtIeHHeM ee llHaMeTpa npn npI1JIO)J{eHHH KOJIbueBOm YCHJIH5I.

11.JI5I YJIYtIIIIeHH5I rcanecrea 06lliaTHH npHMeH5IIOT nsa HJIH TpH KJIHHOBbIX OJIOKa, pacnonaraeaux B pa3JIWIHbIX CeqeHHHX KOJIbUa oo.n.eJIKH, HeCKOJIbKHX p asaepoa no umpnne, OTJIH4aIOIll,HXCH aa 5 .. .10 MM.

Pacnopaua Y3eJI ueJIeC006pa3HO pacnonarari, B 3aMI<OBOM ceneHHH. ITo TeXHOJIorHtIeCKHM coocpascenaax ero 4aCTO KOHCTPYHPYIOT B HH)J{HeH tIaCTH I<OJIbua.

ITPH pa3)KaTHH KOJIbUa 06.n.eJIKH B03HHKaIOIll,He no HapY)KHOH noaepXHOCTH CHJIbI TpeHH5I BbI3bIBaIOT norepn pacnopnsix YCHJlHH. CHJIbI TpeHH5I YMeHbIIIaIOT, CMa3blBa51 06neJIKY. Hanansnsre YCHJlHH p aszcaTH5I .n.OJI)KHbI 6bITb B 1,5 ... 2 pasa 60JIbIIIe MaCCbI KOJIbua (c Y4erOM noreps na npeono.renae CHJI TpeHH5I). YCHJIH5I 06)Kanm 06neJIoJ{ B rpYHT 3aBHC5IT OT .n.HaMeTpa Bblpa60TKH, ropnoro )laBJleHH5-l, llecropMaTHBHblX caOHCTB rpynra, MaTepHaJIa 06nem<H H COCTaBJI5IIOT 200 ... 1000 KH na 1 M ,n:JIHHbI.

3a CtIeT cOBMecTHoH pa60TbI 06)KaTOH 06.n.eJlKH C rpYHToM nOCTHraIOTC5I cmoxenne HarpY30K Ii ynensmeane TOJIIll,HHbl06.n.eJlKH, pacxona MaTepHaJIOB, 06'heMa 3eMJI5IHbIX pa60T. He rpeoyercs narneraaae sa 06)leJIKY nevearnoro pacrsopa, HCKJlIOtIaIOTCH OCa)lKH nosepx-

HOCTH 3eMJIH. .,

B nOJIycKaJIbHblX rJIHHHCTbIX H necnausrx rpynrax eCTeCTBeH!lOH BJIalliHOCTH npHMeH5IIOT OO)l{aTbIe 06)leJll<H H3 npeccoaannoro fierona. 3qxp{yKTHBHoe noasnneane aoaonenpoannaevocra oo.n.eJIOK .n.OCTI1 raeTCH npnaeaennea ueJIbHOCeKUHOHHbIX KOHCTPYKUHH H3 nanpsraeMoro 6eTOHa, 06JIa)laIOIll,HX BbICOl<OH npOtIHOCTbIO,. llJIOTHOCTbIO H BO- . .n.OHenpOHHuaeMOCTbIO.

B nacroarnee BpeM5I paapaooran P5l,n: THnOBblX npoexros nonsexHbIX rapascea, BblnOJIHeHHbIX H3 llieJIe306eTOHHbIX KOHCTPYKUHiL TaK, rapa)K-CT05lHKa C BapHaHTOM 06Ill,ecTBeH~oro TyaJIeTa (THnOBOH

PRe. 2.8. 06.neJIKR:

a, 6 - cxesru 06AeJlOK xpyrosoro OlJ:epTaHH)]; 6 - rnnu KOHCTpYKl\HII CIlJlOlllHOrO CelJ:eHHH, H3 penpacrsrx T106HHroB; e - CTblKH l\HJlHHAPHlJ:eCKHH C IlPOI{Jl3I1KOli H C BKJl3AblllleM (<pRRcaropou): a - KOHCTPYKl\HH o6AeJlOK, 06}!(aTbiX B rpYHT; e - cxeMhI 06lKaTHR cooTBeTcTBeHHO C 1l0MOll\bIO KJlHHOBhlX 6J10KOB H AOMKpaToB; 1, 6 - 6J10RH COOTBeTCTBeHHO o6AeJlKH H KJlHHo<'

BOI1; 2 ".,. BKJlaAhlllIj a - <pHKcaTOp; 4 - KJlHH; 5 - AOMKpaTbJ.

41

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. 7200 7:toa

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7200

7200

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npoexr 503-2-1) paspaooran UH11I13IT TOproBO-OhITOBhIX 3,z{aHllil R TYPHCTCKHX KOMnJIeKCOB. <l>YHJ{aMeHThI nonaeaaoro 3J{aHHH - H3 OJIOKOB no cepna 111104-1, sun. 7; CTeHhI - H3 OJIOKOB CTeH nOJ{BaJIa; KOJIOHHhI - HHJ{HBHJ{yaJIhHOrO H3rOTOBJIemUI B onanyrixe KOJIOHH no cep aa 1.420-12; nJIHThI nepexpsrrna - coopmre npeJ{BapHTeJIhHO narrproxenaue npOJIeTaMH 6 H 9 M no cepna 1111-24-8 H 1111-24-9, a pHreJIH npOJIeTaMH 6 H 9 M no cepna 1111-23-1170 H 1111-23-2170. CTOHMOCTh onnoro MBIIIHHo-MecTa 2905,7 p., CTOHMOCTb 1 M2-94,5 p.

Hnrepecuo peIIIeHHe nOKphITHH nonaennoro rapaxca, paaparioraanoro B H1111)1(5 fOCCTPOH CCCP (PYKoBoJ{HTeJIh npoercra - nporp. Illyraen B. B.). B nOKphITHH npaaeneau npocrpancrsenusre pasrnourarposue KOHCTPYKUHH, C03J{aHHhIe B JIaOOpaTopHH npocrpaacrseanux KOHCTPYKUHH (pHC. 2.9). KaK noxassrsaer conOCTaBJIeHHe 9THX nOKphITHH C THrrOBhIMH I<OHCTPYI<UllHMH rro cepnaa Y-OI-01l80 If Y-01-02/80, pacxon oeToHa H CTaJIH cYIIT.eCTBeHHo CHH}I(aeTCH (TaOJI. 2.2).

2.2. MHor03T,A)KHbIE 3AAHHSI

MHOr09Ta}l(HhIe rrpOH3BOJ{CTBeHHhIe 3J{aHHH npoeKTHpYIOT KaK nonseMHYIO uacrs nexoropux cOOPY}I(eHHH (uanpunep, ropnooticrarnrensHbIX npennpnama) HJIH KaK caMOCTOHTeJIbHhIe 06'beKTbI. BhlrrOJIHHIOT HX B OTKPhITOM I{QTJIOBaHe, crrOCOOOM «CTeHa B rpynre», orrYCKHhIM KOJIoJ{ueM HJIH KeCCOHOM. KOHCTPYKTHBHoe peIIIeHHe onpeJ{eJIHIOT H8 OCHOBe TeXHHKO-9I<OHOMHtIeCKOrO cpaBHeHHH BapHaHTOB, YtIHThIBaH B03- M01KHOCTH CTpOHTeJIhHhIX opraHH3aUHI1, cnocoo YCTpoHcTBa, pasaepsr H pacno.noacenae rrJIOIIT.aJ{KH CTpOHTeJIhCTBa.

ITpH npoexrnpoaaaaa MHOr09Ta}l(HbIX 3J{aHHH, ocooeaao B crecHeHHhlX YCJIOBHHX J{eHcTBYIOIIT.HX npennpusrna, HCnOJIb3YIOT cnocoo «CTeHa B rpynre», B rrOCJIeJ{mIe rOJ{h1 J{JIH C03J{aHHH CTeH B rpynre BHe,z{pHIOT CTPYHHYIO TeXHOJIOrHIO.

CTeHa B rpynre MO}l(eT 6h1Th - BhInOJIHeHa H3 MOHOJIHTHOrO, COOpHOMOHOJIHTHOrO H COOpHOro }l(eJIe300eToHa. MOHOJIHTHhle CTeHhI npoexTHPYIOT TOJIIIT.HHOH 400 ... 1000 MM B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT npHMeHHeMoro oOopYJ{oBaHHH. ApMBTYPY MOHOJIHTHhIX CTeH HCrrOJIh3YIOT B BH,a:e npocrpaacrneanux xapxacos H3 CTep}l(Hen nep aommecxoro npO¢HJlH; J{JIHHa xapxacos J{OJI}I(Ha 6hITh MeHhilie r.1y6HHhI rpanurea na 200 ... 300 MM, mnpnna - na 100 ... 150 MM~MeHhilie J{JIHHhI 3aXBaTKH (3 ... 6 M), TOJIIIT.HHa - na 100 ... 150 MM MeHhilie IIIHpHHhI rpauurea. Apuoxaprcacsr BHYTPH J{OJI}I(HhI HMeTh npoeau J{JIH OeTOHOJIHTHhIX rpyo: OJ{HH npoex npa J{JIIme 3aXBaTI{H J{O 4, J{Ba - npn ,a:JIHHe 3aXBaTKH 4 ... 6 M. Ha 60KOBhIX croponax I<apI<aCOB npoexrnpyror orpaHHLIHTeJlH D..1H oeecrretIeHHH npoexraoro rrOJIO}l(eHHH npn OeTOHHpoBamm. B MeCTe corrpH}I(eHHH CTeH C 0YJ{YIIT.HMH nepeKpbITHHMH, neperoponxaan, pureJIHMH YCTpaHBalOT J{epeBHHHhIe xopofia, H3BJIeKaeMble rrOCJIe 6eTOHHpOBaHHH H BbleMKH rpynra. LLJIH MOHOJIHTHhIX CTeH npnvenaror 6eToH C oCMKon xouyca 160 ... 200 MM H xpynuocrero 3arrOJIHHTeJIH )1.0 50 MM.

,

PHC. 2.9. Ilozseaaoe 3,!(aHHe C paMHO-lIIaTpOBblM nOKpblTHeM:

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BOJIee HH)l.ycTpHaJIbHO npnaeaenne C60PHbIX CTeH, 06ecne4I1BaIOllI,HX CHH>KeHHe MaTepHaJIOeMKOCTH, nOBblIIIeHHe Ka4eCTBa, BO)l.OHenpOHIU.I,aeMOCTH, xopouryro BHyTpeHHIOIO OT)l.eJIKY, npocroii KOHTaKT C BHyTpeHHHMH KOHCTPYKl1.HHMH. 3JIeMeHTbI npoexrnpyror B anne nJIOCKHX, peopncrsrx, nycTOTeJIbIX naneneii (CM. pHC. 2.10, 6 ... 2). BA)l' KOHCTPYKl1.HH onpene.nator na OCHOBe TeXHHKO-91<DHOMH4eCI<DrO cpaBHeHHH BapHaHTOB.

KOHCTPYKl1.IHI co CTOHKaMH-KOHTP<PopcaMH HCnOJIb3YIOT, eCJIH r a Olpe)l.eJIeHHOH fJIy6HHe, HH>Ke nOJIa npoexrnpyeaoro coopysceuua, HaXO)l.HTCH np04HbIfr rpyHT, B KOTOPhIH 3a)l.eJIhlBaIOT CTOHKH. Sarev, no Mepe pa3pa60TKH rpynra, B sucrynsr CToeK YCTaHaBJIHBaIOT nJIHTbl; npn 9TOM CTOHKH pa6OTaIOT ,KaK I<DHCOJIH. Ha npOeI<THOH fJIy6HHe CTOHKH 3aKpenJIHIOT rpYHTOBbIMH anxepaan.

I1JIOClme KOHCTPYKl1.HH npHMeHHIOT, eCJIH naHeJIH MOHTHPYIOT OJ],HOBpeMeHHO na BCIO fJIy6HHy TpaHIIIeH. 06bI4HaH .n.JIHHa C60PHbIX naaeJIeH COCTaBJIHeT 10 ... 14 (onpenenaercs B03MO>KHOCTbIO rpancnoprnpoBaHH5I), IIIHpHHa 1,5 ... 3,5 H TOJIIIJ.HHa 0,15 ... 0,6 M. I1PH rJIy6HHe 1'paHIIIeH 60JIee 10 ... 15 M npenycaarpnaaior CTbIK naaenef no BbICOTe HJIH YCTpaHBaIOT C60PHO-MOHOJIHTHYIO KOHCTPYKl1.HIO (B HH>KHeH 4ac- 1'H - MOHOJIHTHbIH >KeJIe306eToH, B aepxnen - C60pHbIe naaenn).

B C60pHbIX 9JIeMeHTax npn npoexrnpoaaaaa He06xo)l.HMO npenycuorpers: MOHTa>KHbIe neTJIH, 3aKJIaJ],HbIe H3)l.eJlH5I J],JIH MOHTa)f{a H nO)l.BeCKH nane.nea na cpopIIIaxTY, .n.eTaJIH CTblKOBblX coenauenna naneJIeH HJIH saxaannsre H3)l.eJIHH )l.JIH COnpH)I{eHHH )l.HHIIJ.a, nepexpsrrnf (parenen, nJIUT) H BHYTpeHHHx CTeH C orpa)I{)l.aIOIIJ.HMH CTeHaMH. 3aJ{.Jla)l.Hble H3)l.eJIHH )l.JI5I conp5I>I{eHHH C BHyTpeHHHMH KOHCTPYKl1.HHMH BbIOO.ITHHIOT 3anO)l.JIHl1.0 C BHYTpeHHeH noaepxnocrsro naHeJIH.

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DJIOKH CTeH HMeIOT KOHCOJIH, na KOTOpbIe OIIHpaIOTCH C60pHbIe peripucTble IIJIHTbI. B Im:HmeH xacra 6JIOKH CTeH 3a)J.eJIblBafOTB meJIeBOH CTaKaH <PYH)J.aMeIUa.

nBYX- H MHOrOnpOJIeTIlble MHOr{)3Ta*Hble 3)J.aHHH BblnOJIHHIOT G BHYTpeHHHMH KOJIOHIIaMH (pHC. 2.13, 6, e). CeTKY KOJIOHH npHHHMaIDT 6 X 6; 9 X 6; .18 X 6 M, HCIIOJIb3YIDT ynmpanapoaannsre coopaue 3JIeMeHTbI <PYH)J.aMeHToB, CTeH, nepexpsrrnn, KOJIOHH H nporonos. Pasaepsi necyinux 3JIeMeHTOB KOHCTPYKQHH nO)J.3eMHbIX coopyacenua Ha3Hal.laIDT TaK :m:e, KaK npn IIpoeKTHpOBaHHH KOHCTPYKQHH Ha3eMHbIX 3)J.aHHH H coopysceaaa. B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT CBOHCTB rpYHTOB YCTpaHBaIDT paamomsre THnbI <PYH)J.aMeHToB H3 MOHOJIHTHOrO HJIH coopnoro *eJIe- 306eTOHa: JIeHTOl.lHbIe, cToJI6l.laTble, IIJIHTHbIe, CBaHHbIe.

Hapyxcnue CTeHbI nO)J.3eMHbIX 3)J.almH npoexrnpyror B BH)J.e necyW.HX H orpazsnaroumx KOHCTPYKQHH, BOCIIpHHHMafOmHX 60KoBoe )J.aBJIeHHe rpyrrra H HarpY3KY OT aepxnero H Me*ll,Y3Ta*HbIx nepexpsrnrii, 113 MOHOJIHTHOrO HJIH coopnoro lI(eJIe306eTOHa TOJImHHOH 400 ... 600 MM. 3<p<peKTHBHbI coopasie lI(eJIe306eTOHHbIe KOHCTPYKll.HH CTeH H nanenea, MOHTHpyeMbIx Clm3Y saepx Oll,HOBpeMeHHO C KapKaCOM 3)J.aHHH. Coe)J.HHHfOT HX CBapKOH 3aKJIa)J.HbIX H3)J.eJIHH HJIH BbIITYCKOB apxarypu C nOCJIe)J.YIDmHM OMOHOJIHqHBaHHeM lIlBOB 6eTOHOM. BJIOKH CTeH )J.OJIII(RbI HMeTb BbICTYIIbI HJIH nasa ll,JIH ormpaana na HHX naaeneit nepeKPbITHH H pnrenea. PHreJIH IIpoeKTHpYIDT C nonepenasnr HJIH npO)J.OJIbHbIM paCnOJIOII(eHHeM. BOKOBoe )J.aBJIeHHe rpynra na crensr nonsexnoro CoopYII(eHHH B03paCTaeT IIO rJIy6HHe, n03TOMY naHeJIH CTeH MorYT 6b1Tb pa3JIHl.lHOH TOJImHHbI. CTeHOBbIe 6JIORH MorYT CJIYlImTb orpaxc)J.aIDmeH KOHCTPYKQHeH, nepeaatomeii HarpY3KH OT 60KOBoro )J.aBJIeHHH rpyara na xapxac, BbIITOJIHeHHbIH B BH)J.e CToeK, onHpaIDmHXCH aa <PYH)J.aMeHT H CBH3aHHbIX B npO)J.OJIbHOM H nonepexaoe nanpaaneHHHX pHreJIHMH. HaBeCHbIe CTeHOBbIe 6JIOKH B 3TOM cayxae paQHOHaJIbHO BbIITOJIHHTb B BH)J.e nonornx 060JIOl.leK, BbWYKJIblX B CTOPOHY rpynra.

)l(eJIe306eTOHHble KOJIOHHbl MorYT 6bITb npHMoyrOJIbHOrO xpyraoro I1JIH KBa)J.paTIlOrO nonepexnoro CeqeHHH C nOCTOHHHbIMH HJIH nepexenHbIMH no BblCOTe pasxepaxa .

.llJIH npoxona CBeTOBO)J.OB H npOIIYCKa eCTeCTBeHHoro OCBemeHHH aa ace 3Ta*H paQHOHaJIbHO YCTPOHCTBO ROJIOHH KOJIbQeBoro CeqeHHH 113 uenrpmpyrnpoaaarroro *eJIe306eTOHa. Ha KOJIOHHaX IIpe)J.YCMaTpHBaIOT KOHCOJIbHbIe nsrcrynsr )J.JIH onupanaa pnreaen HJIH KaIIHTeJIH )J.J1H onupanns 6e36aJIOqHOrO nepexpsrnra. KOJIOHHbI no BbICOTe npoexTHPYIDT na O)J.HH-)J.Ba sraxca H coe)J.H1UIIDT CBapKOH CTaJIbHbIX OrOJIOBHHKOB, npHKpenJIeHHbIX K pa60l.leH apuarype KOJIOHH. CTaJIbHbIe KOJIOHHbI CIIJIOlliHOrO HJIH COCTaBHoro cenenaa BbIIIOJIHHIDT H3 CBapeHHbIX Me*)J.y C060H JIHCTOB HJIH npOKaTIlbIX npopanea. KOJIOHHbI MoryT 6bITb CKB03HblMH H3 OT)J.eJIbHbIX 6YPOHa6HBHblX cnan, BbITIOJIHHeMbIX C nOBepXHOCTH 3eMJIH npH Hepa3pa6OTaHHOM KOTJIOBaHe (3TO 3aTpY)J.HHeT nocJIe)J.YfOmYID pa3pa60TKY rpynra).

TIepeKpbITHH KOHCTPYHPYIDT H3 MOHOJIHTHOrO HJIH coopnoro lI(eJIe- 306eToHa: peripncrsie (TI-06pa3Hble, raapoaue, rnna ll,BOHHOro T), pelKe-6e36aJIOqHble. B KOMIIJIeKCax xpyrosoro OqepTaHHH B n.nane IIepeKpbITHH BbIIIOJIHHIDT rpaneneanansnoa <POPMbI, OIIHpaH HX na KOJIb-

52

neaue pHreJUI H KOJIOHHbI. TIPH npOJIeTaX 60JIee 1~ ... 15 M HCnOJIb3YIOT rrpenaapurensao naupaxceunue »cenesooerormae 6JIOKH, a npa npo.reTax 60JIee 25 ... 30 M ueJIeC006pa3Ho npHMeHHTb meJIe306eTOIHlbIe HJIH MeTaJIJIHl.leCKHe cpepMbI, 060JIOl.lKH.

Csozrsarue nepexpsrrns (060JIOl.lKH) YCTpaHBaIOT H3 MOHOJIHTHOrO HJIH coopnoro meJIe306eToHa H ormparor na BepTHKaJIbHbIe CTeHbI HJIH aa CPYH,n:aMeHTbI.

1.3. OC06EHHOCTH KOHCTPYKU.HA

2.3.1. KOHCTPYKIJ,HH €J>YHJI,aMeHToB. B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT runa onnparonmxcs KOHCTPYKUHH, BH,n:a rpYHToB H HX CPH3HKo-MeXaHHl.leCKHX CBOH{::TB YCTpaHBaIOT .nenroansre, cToJI6l.laTbIe, nJIHTHble, cBaHHble CPYH.n.aMeHTbI [17, 53]. CymecTBeI1HOH oc06eHHocTbIO pa60TbI 3THX cpYH,n:aMeHTOB IIO,ll orpaaoiaronmaa BHelllHHMH CTeHaMH HJIH KOJIOHHaMH nonaexnoro 3,llaHHH HBJIHeTCH ,n:eHcTBHe 3Hal.lHTeJIbHbIX ropH30HTaJIbHbIX YCHJIHH OT ,n:aBJIeHHH rpynra, a ,n:JIH CPYH)],aMeHToB, 2KeCTKO coennnennsrx co CTeHaMH (KOJIOHHaMH),- H AeHcTBHe H3rH6aroIIJ;Hx MOMeHTOB onnoro 3HaKa. 31'0 06CTOHTeJIbCTBO npnsonnr K He06xo,n:HMOCTH YCTpOHCTBa HecHMMeTpHl.lHbIX nOAOWB JIeHT04HbIX H cToJI64aTbIx CPYHAaMeHToB. HJIH K HaKJIOHY IIO,n:OWB, HJIH K npoeKTHpoBaHHIO pacnopox Me:m:,n:y CPYHAaMeHTaMH. B 3THX YCJIOBHHX paUHOHaJIbHbI nJIHTHbIe cpYH,n:aMeHTbI, pa60TafOIIJ;He C paC110pOM, KOTOPbIH YBeJIHl.lHBaeT BbICOTY C2KaTOH 30HbI, CHH2KaeT H3rH6aIOIIJ;HH MOMeHT B IWpMaJIbHbIX ce4eHHHX. noaurnaer npovnocrr, no HaKJIOHHbIM Cel.leHHHM. Pacner CPYH,llaMeHTOB C pacnopov n03BOJIHeT aa 15 .. .40 % COKpaTHTb pacxon apnarypu [30].

TIPH 3Ha4HTeJIbHbIX BepTHKaJIbHbIX narpysxax na CPYH,n:aMeHTbJ HJIH B caysae 3aJIeraHHH B yposne nOAOWBbl nenpo-mux rpYHToB pesoMeH,n:yeTcH B3aMeH DJIOCKOH CPYHAaMeHTHoH nJIHTbI npHMeHHTb 060- JIOl.lKH (UHJIHH,n:pHl.leCKHe, nap a60JIHQeCKHe) , BbIIIYKJIbIe B CTOPOHY rpynra H onnpaioumeca na aepraxam.nue KOHCTPYKUHH CTeH HJIH KOJIOHHbl. TIPH onnpanan na napannensnue CTeHhI MomHO npHMeHHTh UHJIHH,n:pHy:ecKHe 060JI04KH C ,llJIHHOH BOJIHbI, paanoa wary BHYTpeHHHX CTeH (6 ... 12 M), CTpeJIOH DO.llbeMal/ ..... 1/ 6 ,llJIHHbI BOJIHbI, TOJIruHHOH no 200 ... 300 MM. JlJIH ceTKH KOJIOHH HJIH CHCTeMbI nepecexa-

'IOruHXCH CTeH paUHOHaJIbHO DpHMeHeHHe 060JI04eK ,n:BOHIWH IIOJIOLKHTeJIbHOH raYCCOBOH KpHBH3HbI na KBaApaTHOM HJIH npHMoyrOJIbHOM nnaae, C pasnepaaa B rinane no 6 X 12, 6 X 18 M, CTpeJIOH ncm.eaa ,ll0 1/5 npo.rera (HaH60JIbllJerO pasvepa B DJIaHe), TOJIIIJ;HHOH no 300 .. _ 500 MM (pHC. 2.14). JlJIH CPYH,llaMeHTOB OIIYCKHbIX KOJIO,llueB, xpyrJIbiX B IIJIaHe, pexouennyerca HCnOJIb30BaTb 060JIOl.lKY apautenas B rpopMe KYIIOJIa co CTpeJIOH DO.llbeMa1/ 5 ... 1/10 npo.nera, npH4eM ,llJl5I BOCIIPHHTHH YCHJIHH pacnopa MORUlO H3rOTOBHTb onopnoe KOJIbUO HJIH ycesen HYIO KOHH4eCKYIO 060JI04KY.

KOHCTPYKUHH, npaaeneamae aa pHC. 2.14, non ,n:eHcTBHeM KOHraxrnoro ,llaBJIeHHH rpyrrra pa60TafOT npemrymecraeano na C2KaTHe" n03ToMY 06JIa,llaI01' nOBbIllJeHHOH BO,llOHeII~OHHuaeMocTbIO, rpenmaoCTOHKOCTbfO, Tpe6YIOT MeHbllJerO pacxona MaTepHaJIOB. BCJIe,n:cTBHe BbIIIYKJIOCTH 060JIOl.lKH B CTOPOHY rpynra B HeM e03AaeTCH 60JIee:

53

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. ',"t::'

a

B

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paBHOMepHoe HanpH>KeHHO-)1,ecpOpMHpOBaHHOe COCT05lHHe, CHH)KaeTCH xpaeaas KOliUeHTpaUH5I HaIIpmI(eHHH, YMeHbmmOTCH OCa)1,KH CPYH)1,aMeHTa.

060JIOqKH npOeKTHpYIOT H3 C60pHOrO, C60PHO-MOHOJIHTHOrO HJIH ,MOHOJIHTHOrO lI(eJIe306eTOHa. TIpHqeM nOBepXHOCTb rpyrrra paspaoa'fbIBaIOT, yqHTblBaH CPOPMY 060JIOqKH, IIpOBepHH ee )1,epeB5IHHbIM nJIOCKHM ma6JIOHOM. TIO)1,rOTOBKY YCTpaHBalOT H3 6€TOHaKJIaCCa B50 c oOJIee TOqHbIM C06JIIO)1,eHHeM KPHBOJIHHeHHOH nOBepXHOCTH. Criopnsre :9JIeMeHTbI 060JIOqeK )1,OJIJI(HbI HMeTb BblITYCKH apnarypsr )1,JIH Coe)1,HHeHH5I HX MelI()1,Y C060H H C BblITYCKaMH apuarypsr H3 CTeHOBblX 6JIOKOB MJIH KOJIOHH C nOCJIe)1,YIOIUHM OMOHOJIHQHBaHHeM.

2.3.2. Orpa>K)I,alOUJ,He aep mxansnsre KOHCTPYKlJ,HH. Orpaaotaroume KOHCTPYKUHH (crenu) B npOH3BO,llCTBeHHblx 3)1,aHHHX 06bIQHO npoeKTHpYIOT B BH)1,e nJIOCKHX HJIH pe6PHCTbIX C60PHbIX }KeJIe306eToHHbIX nJIHT. O)1,HaKO, npHHHMaH BO BHHMaHHe cpaBHHTeJIbHO He60.lIburyio BbICOTY 3Ta)KeH H xoporuyro pa60TY )1,HCKOB lI(eJIe306eToHHbIX nepexpsrruf na CII(aTHe OT rOpH30IlTaJIbHOrO )1,aBJIeHHH rp ynra, panaoHaJIbHO KOHCTPYHpoBaTb CTeHOBble 6JIOKH B BH)1,e C60PHbiX (MOHOJIHTHbIX) 060JIOQeK, HanpaBJIeHHbIX BblITYKJIOCTbK1 B CTOPOHY rpytrra [32J_

Crenoarae naHeJIH-060JIOQKH MorYT 6blTb BblITOJIHeHbI C ropH30HTaJIbHbIM H BepTHKaJIbHblM HanpaBJIeHHeM BOJIH. B TIepBOM cJIYQae HX onnparor aa sepraxaasnue )1,HacpparMbl (BHYTpeHHHe crensr) HJIH aa KOJIOHHbI 3)1,aHHH, n03ToMY ,nJIHHa C60PHbIX 060JIOQeK panna )1,JIHHe BOJIHbI H mary MeJI()1,y KOJIOHHaMH HJIH CTeHaMH (06bIQHO )1,0 6 M). BsiCOTY OT)1,eJIbtIbIX 060JIOQeK npHHHMalOT KpaTHoH YKpynHeHHoMY MO)1,YJIIO H paBIIOH 1,2 ... 1,8 M.

TIpHHUHnHaJIbHaH ocooennocn, KOHTPCPOPCHbIX CTeH ~ nepenaxa HarpY3KH OT rpynra 3aCbIIIKH Qepe3 npocrpaucrnennue KOHCTPYKUHH JIHueBblX 3JIeMeHTOB na KOIlTPCPOPCbI. TIoCJIe)1,HHe npoexrupyror B sane nonepesnsrx CTeH HJIH KOJIOHH xapxaca, )1,HCKOB nepexpsrrnjl, pa6OTalOIUHx aa ropH30HTaJIbHYIO aarpyaxy.

Coopnue H C60PHO-MOHOJIHTHble KOHCTPYKUHH CTeHbI 06bIQHO paspe3aIOTC5I na C60PHYlO JIHUeBYIO 060JIOQKY H MOHOJIHTHblH HJIH coop'RbIH KOHTPcpOpC. Becsxa HH)1,ycTpHaJIbHO H TeXHOJIOmQliO peurenne KOI1TpcpOPCOB H3 6ypoHa6HBHbIX CBa}1 (6Y)1,YIUHX KOJIOHH 3)1,aHHH) C ormpannea C60PHblX 060JIOQeK nenocpencrsenno na CBaH. J1PH 60JIbmOll aucore CTeH, )1,JI5I CHHII(eHHH H3rH6aIOIUero MOMeHTa CBaH He06- XO)1,HMO aaanxepurs HJIH BblITOJIHHTb )1,Be H 60JIee ceKYIUHXCH csaa. JlorrOJIHHTeJIbHble ceKYIUHeCH CBaH IIpH 3TOM pa3MeIUaIOT co CTOPOHbl 3aCbIITKH, QT06bl npOCTpaHCTBO C JIHueBOH CTOPOHbI CTeH 6bIJIO CB060,llHO.

JlJI5I CHHII(eHH5I pacxona 6eTOHa na 6ypOHa6HBIlbIe CBaH peKOMeH)1,yeTcH YCTpaHBaTb HX C yumpeunea, paCnOJIOLKeHHbIM B QaCTH aaXO)1,51IUerOC5I B rpynre CTBOJIa CBaH. KaK H3BeCTHO, npn TaKOM pacnoJIOJI(eHHH ymHpeHH5I CBaH BocnpHHHMalOT YBeJIHQelHlYK1 ropH30HTaJIbHyIO narpysxy.

PRC. 2.14. KOHCTpYKUHH CPYH,l.\aMetITOB:

a ... e - nOA HapY>KHble creasr: I), e - IPYHp;aMeHTbI-06oJlOQlm; ole - uozmopuue crensi B BRAe ~HOI'OI\OJIHOBbIX ropHSOHTaJIbHblX H aep'rnxansnsrx o60JlOQeK; 1 - CTeHa; 2 - IPYHp;aMeHT; 8 - ay6; 4 - 060JIOQKB nOKpblTHH; 5, 6 - 060JIOQKH COOTBeTCTneHHO IJ.HJIHHp;pUQeCKan H eljlepHQeCKan; 1 ... 8 - I1BHeJlb-06oJIOQKa COOTBeTCTBeHHO I'OpH30HTaJlbHaH H BepTRKaJIbllan;

9 - KOJIOHHa; 10 - nepexpsrrne: 11 - 3aKJIap;HOil 3JIeMeHT.

55

B CBH3H C TeM 4TO srnopa aKTHBHOrO )1,aBJIeHHH rpynra sospacraer rro HarrpaBJIeHHIO K Im3Y CTeH, ueJIeC006pa3HO YBeJIH4HBaTb KPHBH3HY 060JI04eK B COOTB€TCTBHH C POCTOM aocuucc srnopu. 060Jl04Ka IIpH 3TOM HMeeT KOHOH)1,aJIbHYIO ¢OPMY, a paCXO)1, 6eTOHa cnuscaerca npnMepHO na 40 % no cpaBHeHHIO C UHJlHH)1,pHl-IeCKOH 060JI04KOH O)1,HHaKOBOH CTpeJIbI nO)1,'beMa.

I\oHOH)1,aJIbHaH ¢opMa rrpHMeHHMa )1,JIH 060JIOl.leK B 6HOJIOm4ecKH aKTHBHblX KOHCTPYKUHHX nonnopnsrx CTeH. DPH MOHTam:e O)1,HOTHIInsrx KOHOH)1,aJIbHbIX 060JI04eK 06pa3YIOTcH ropasoaraasasre Yl.laCTKH. 3aIIOJIHeHHbIe rpYHToM, aa KOTOPbIX Y)1,06HO Bblca:llumaTb )1,eKOpaTHBaue pacrenua. I\pHBH3Ha OT)1,eJIbHbIX 060JIOl.leK M02KeT YMeHbIIJaTbCH no HanpaBJIeHHIO cnasy aaepx no Mepe CHHLKeHHH aKTHBHoro naaneHHH rpynra.

OT)1,eJlbHbIe KOHCTPYKTHBHble C60pHbIe 3JIeMeHTbl nonnopasrx CTeH xoarpqopcaoro rnna C 060JIOl.lKaMH )1,OJIIIUlbI HMeTb ynarpanuposannue pasaepsr, npn 3TOM MaKCHMaJIbHaH )1,JIHHa 3JIeMeHTOB COCTaBJlH€T He 60JIee 6 M, a CTpeJIa nO)1,'beMa - 1/4" .1/3 npoaera. TOJIlUHIIY C60PHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB IIpHHHMaIOT nOCTOHHHOH H He 60JIee 100 ... 150 MM. HaH60JIee 3KOHOMHl.lHa TOJIIlI.HHa 100 MM, nOCKOJIbKY rrpn pacno.nolI(eHHH apxarypu B BH)1,e o)1,HHapHOH ceTKH nocpenane cexeaaa 060- JIOl.lKH He06xo)1,HMO npenycxorpen, 3aIlI.HTHbIH CJlOH 6€TOIla C )1,BYX CTOpOH. JlJIH Ha3Hal.leHHH TaKoH MHHHMaJIbHOH TOJIIUHHbI npn JII060H HHTeHCHBHOCTH HarpY3KH na noaepxnocrn rpyrrra 3aCbIIIKH pexonen)1,Y€TCH IIOBbIIIIaTb KJIaCC 6eToHa.

ECJIH 060JI04Ka COe)1,HHeHa C KOHTp¢opcaMH Y3JIaMH, 06JIa)1,<lIOIlI.HMH KOHe4HOH LKeCTKOCTbIO, TO B nOCJIe)1,HHX MorYT B03HHKaTb He- 60JIbIIIHe H3rH6aIOIlI.He MOMeHTbl, )1,JIH BocrrpHHTHH KOTOPblX peKOMeHJlY€TCH nOCTaHOBKa )1,BOHI1OH apxra'rypu B6JIH3H onop. BTOpyIO ceTKY npn 3TOM He06xo)1,HMO )1,OBeCTH )1,0 1/5 )1,JIHHbI npcnera. ECJIH 060JIOl.lKY apMHpYIOT BTOPOH ceTKOH B6JIH3H onop, ueJI~C006pa3HO npenycxorperr, ee nepeaeano., TOJIIUHHbl H C YBeJIH4eHHeM B6JIH3H OilOP (CM. pHC. 2.14). Top Ubi BbIITOJlHHIOT B BH)1,e )1,BYX B3aHMHO nepneH)1,HKYJIHPHbIX nJIOCKOCTeH, 4T06bl otecrrenars onnpanne 060JI04eK aa nOBepXHOCTH KOIUP¢opCOB H B03MOLKHOCTb CBapKH 3aKJla)1,HbIX H3)1,eJIHH 060JIOl.leK H KOHTP¢OpCOB. Ha T{)pUeBbIX rrOBepXHOCTHX pacrronararor )1,Ba-Tp" 3aKJIa)1,HbIX H3)1,eJIHH (asepxy, BHH3Y H npa 60JIbIIIOH BblCOTe nocepe)1,HHe). JlonOJIHHTeJIbHO na 060JI04Ke KOHCTPYHPYIOT l.l€TbIP~ rreTJIH JlJIH nozrseaa H MOHTalI(a KOHCTPYKUHH npn H3rOTOBJIeHHH B ropasonransHOM rrOJIOII(eHHH HJIH )1,Be npa H3rOTOBJIeHHH B BepTHKaJlbHOM. 3aKJIa.ll.nue H3)1,eJIHH B BH)1,e aaanxepeanoa rrJIaCTHHbl 70 X 120, TOJIIlI.HHOH 8 MM HJIH yrOJIKa 70 X 70, JlJIHHOH 120 MM pacno.nararor C JIHueBOH HJIH 06paTIlDH CTOPOH 060JI()4KH B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT nina cruxa C KOHTPtpopcaaa.

JlJIH 060JI04eK npHMeHHIOT. 6eToH KJIaCCOB B20 B30, apMaTYPY

aenanpaacerrnyto B BH)1,e nJIOCKOH ceTKH )1,HaMeTpoM 6 10 MM KJIaCCa

A-II, H3rH6aeMYIO npa YKJIa)1,Ke B OnaJIy6KY non c06cTBeHHblM aeCOM.

Henocrarox C60pHbIX KOHOH)1,aJIbHbIX o60JIOl.leK - B CJIOIIUlOCTH H3rOTOBJIeHHH apuarypuoa ceTKH, KpHBH3Ha KOTOPOH HerrOCTOHHHa.

56

B OCTaJIhHOM BCe pexoaennauna no KOHCTpYHpOBaHHIO KOHOHJlOB COOTBeTCTBYIOT npaaenenasra JlJI5.I ll,HJIHHJlpHqeCKHX 060JIOqeK. B nnane o60JIoqKH MorYT 6bITh He TOJIbKO ll,HJlHHJlpHqeCKHMH, HO H napa60JIHqeCKHMH, qTO He CKa3bIBaeTC5.I na HX npOqHOCTH npa paBHbIX CTpeJIaX rrOJlbeMa.

060JIOqKH, ynuparoumeca B JlHCKH nJI11T nepexpuma H HMeIOw.He BOJIHY B BepTHKaJIbHOM HanpaBJIeHHH, KOHCTPYHPYIOT ananormrno cnucannua nsnne naHeJI5.lM-060JIOqKaM. TIpHqeM CTpeJIY rrozrsena MOLKHO YBeJIHt.lHBaTh no Mepe HX 3arJI y6JIeHHH B CBH3H C POCTOM ropH30HTaJIbHoro JlaBJIeHHH rpyara. TIOJlbeMHCTOCTh HHLKHHX 060JIOqeK, orrapaIOw.HXCH aa <PYHJlaMeHT, npHHHMRIOT TaKoH, t.lT06bI ypaanoaecnrr, YCHJIHH (IwpMaJIbHble H nonepennsre) B Y3JIe CTbIKa crenoaoa H <PYH)1.aMeHTHoH KOHCTPYKll,HH.

2.3.3. nOKpbITHSI. B xanecrne noxpsrrua HcnOJIb3YIOT C60pHhIe LKeJIe306eToHIlbIe nJIHTbI (peripucrue TI-06pa3Hhre, JlBOHHhIe Tvotipasnsre, xoporisarue) HJIH 060JIOt.lKH. DOJIee npennournreasnu criopnsre 060JIot.lKH, n03BOJIHIOw.He cOKpaTHTb paCXOJl MaTepHaJIOB H nOBbICHTb apxnTeKTypHYIO Bblpa3HTeJIbHOCTb nnrepsepa sepxnero 3TmKa. )lJI51 3JlaHHH C BHYTpeHHHMH necyuinaa CTeHaMH pall,HOHaJIhHO npHMeHHTb ll,HJIHHJlpHqeCKHe HJIH nOJIOrHe 060JIOqKl1 JlBOHHOH nOJIOLKHTeJIbHOH KpHBH3HhI, JlJIH 3JlaHHH C BHyTpeHHHMH KOJIOHHaMH - no.norae 060- JIOt.lKH, rnnapsr. ECTecTBeHHoe ocsemenae JlJIH nOMew.ermH aepxnero 3Ta>Ka npenycxarpaaaror xepes cseronpoapa-mue KOJIrraKH B BhICOKHX qaCTHX 060JIOqeK (nanpaxep, B cxsepe, pasxemeaaoa HaJl 3JlaHHeM), a xpoxe Toro,- xepea m6KHe CBeTOBOJlbI - nJIaCTMaCCOBhle Tpy6bI C 3epKaJIhHOH anyrpenaea nosepxnocrsro, pasxeuraeaue B KOJIOHHaX KOJIhll,eBOrO cevenna. JlJIH YCHJIeHHH CBeTOBoro nOTOKa HaJl nosepxHOCThIO 3eMJIH YCTaHaBJIHBaIOT xonuenrparopsr B BHJle KPHBOJIHHeHHbIX 3epKaJI, CPOKYCHPYIOW.HX H OTpa:m:aIOw.HX CBeTOBOH nOTOK B CBeTOBOJl (CM. pHC. 2.4).

JlJIH OTJleJIbHO CTOHIll,HX 3JlarmH Ba>KHO CHH>KeHHe aKTHBHoro JlaBJIeHHH H aeca rpynra 3aChInKH. TIprI OTKPbITOM cnocooe npoH3BOJlCTB3 pa60T B KOTJIOBaHe naanenue MO>KHO CHH311Th apaapcsaanea rpyara, xoropoe OCYW.eCTBJIHIOT BBOJlH B rpynr nncnepcno pacnoncstenmre CHHTeTHt.leCKHe HHTH, HJIH YKJIaJlbIBaH npn ynJIOTHeHHli m6KHe nOJIOTHHw.a TKaHH (reoTeKCTHJIh). 3THMH cnocoriaxa JlOCTH raercs 3Hat.lHTeJIbHOe YBeJIHQeHHe (B 2 pasa H 60JIee) yrvra BHYTpeHHero TpeHHH rpyrrra, CHHLKeHHe HarpY30K na nonsevnue KOHCTPYKll,HH H 06JIerQeHHe H x MaCChI.

2.3.4. KOHCTPYKlJ,HH B ropasrx aupafinrxax. KOHCTpYKUHH anaBHH B ropnux BbIpa60TKax B ueJIOM ananornsnu KOHCTPYKUIUIM non- 3eMHbIX npOH3BOJlCTBeHHbIx 3JlaHHH. B noponax cpennea xpenocra (113BeCTHHK, rnnc, neCQaHl1K) nonycxaerca cTpOHTeJIhCTBO nOJl3eMHhIX 3JlaHHH C npOJIeTaMH JlO 15 M, a B MarMaTHt.leCKHX KpenKHX ocanovnux noponax (narrpuxep, neCQaHHKH C KpeMHHcThIM nesrerrrou) - npoJIeTaMH B JleCHTlm MeTpoB. CTOHMOCTh pa3pa60TKH 1 M3 B rpanare coCTaBJIHeT 28,2 p., B H3BeCTHHKe - 18, B rJIHHHCTOM caanne - 12 p. [211. DOJIbIllOe 3HaQeHHe JlJIH YBeJIHt.leHHH 06beMa pa60T B aupaoorxax HMeeT nepexon na nOJl3eMHYIO pa3pa60TKY npn Jl06brQe CTPOH-

57

2.3. napaMeTpbl Bblpat'ioToK nocne ;U;06b1'1H Kap(foHaTHo-cYJIbQJaTHoro H ranoreHHoro CblPb~

Paasrepsi xaxep, M
ITOJle3HOe ncxonaexoe CpeAHHR rvry- I Paaa epu
6HHa p asp a- ~eJJHKa, M
60TKH. M Illnpuaa BbICOT8 I1sBeCTH5IK KpHCTaJIJIHQeCKHll

I1sBeCTH5IK nopncrsm KaMeHHa51 COJIb

Fane

KaJIHllHaH COJIb

30 ... 50 20_ .. 50 150 ... 200 100 200 ... 300

8 .. .12

3 12

17 25

10 15

10 20

3 .. .10

2,7 8

20 60

4,5.:.16

6 ... 10

6 10

5 10

8 .. .12

8 12

8 12

TeJIbHbIX MaTepHaJIOB, qTO rarose COXpaH5IeT JIaH,n:rna<pT, CHH:m:aeT sara30BaHHOCTb, HCKJIIOqaeT pa60TbI no peKYJIbTHBaII.HH.

I1CXO,n:H H3 roro qTO xpenxae H cpennea KpenOCTH rtoponu He rpe- 6YIOT KpenJIeHIIH ,n:JIH nonnepacanua OTKOCOB, He HY)KHbI H cnenaansnsre KOHCTPYKII.HH (paau, CBH3H) ,n:JIH BocnpHHTHH ropR30HTaJIbHhIX HarpY30K.

Oco6eIHIOCTH npoeKTHpOBaHHH 3,n:almH B ropusrx aupaoorxax coCTOHT B TOM, qTO pasxepsr BbIpa6oTOK sanansr (Ta6JI. 2.3).

DpH 06bIqliOH paspatiorxe nOJIe3HbIX ucxonaeasrx OCTaBJIHeMble II.eJIHKH He scerna pa3MeIJJ.aIOTCH pery JIHPHO (no qeTKOH cerxe xoopnaHaT) H HMeIOT paamrnnre pasuepst. B lIaCTOHIJJ.ee BpeMH naxaro nnannpoaanae paspaoorxa H 3KCnJIyaTaII.HH uiaxr C -yqeTOM 6y,n:YIJJ.ero BTOpHqHOrO HCnOJIb30BaHHH ,n:JIH pa3MeIJJ.eHHH 3,n:aI1HH [21], TIPH ,sTOM Tpe6YIOTCH He60JIbillHe ,n:OIIOJIHHTeJIbHbIe pacxonsr ropHo-,n:06bIBaIOIJJ.HX rrpennpuaruii, BbI3BaHHbie H3MeHeHHeM~ <POpMbi II.eJIHKOB, YCHJIeHHeM anxepnoa xpenn, 60JIee TIJJ.aTeJIbHOH o6pa6oTKOH CTeH.

JlJIH 3,n:almH B ropnux asrpaoorxax MorYT 6bITb HCnOJIb30BaHbI CJIe,n:YIOIJJ.He KOHCTPYKTHBHbIe pemenna (pHC. 2.15): 06JIHII.OBKa CTeH H KPOBJIH naHeJIHMH, HOCHIJJ.HMH ,n:eKC?paTHBHbIH xapaxrep, npHqeM MelI(,n:y cocenanau JIerKHMH orpaJI(,n:a.JIJJ.HMH KOHCTPYKII.HHMH, a TaKII(e MeJI(,n:y 3THMH KOHCTPYKII.HHMH H KOHTypOM aupaoorox YCTpaHBaIOT BeHTHJIHII.HOHHble npeeusr: MOlnalI( C60pHbIX KOJIOHH, pxreneii H rraun nepekpsrrun C nepenauea scex ropH30HTaJIbHbIX YCHJIHH nepea ,n:HCKH nepexpsrnni na MaCCHB nopon aa npeneaaaa aupatorxa: YCTPOHCTBO MHOr03TaJI(HbIX 3,n:aHHH cnocoooa no,n:beMa nJIOCKHX rrepexpsrrna C noCJIe,n:YIOIJJ.HM HX KpenJIeHHeM B ropH30HTaJIbHOM HanpaBJIeHHH K MaccHBY ropnsrx nopon MOHOJIHTHblMH yqaCTKaMH. TIPH OTKpbITbIX aupariorxax snanne MOII{eT B03BblwaTbCH nan nosepxaocrsro 3eMJIH C YCTPOMCTBOM CBeTOBbIX rrpoenos no xorrrypy Ha3eMHOH qaCTH.

O,n:HO H3 3aTpy,n:HeHHH B OCBoeHHH nupaoorox - 60JIbrnOH pa3Mep II.eJIHKOB B nnane - 6 ... 12 M,qTO YCTpaHHeTcH npHMeHeHHeM apuupoBaHHH II.eJIHKa KOHTypHOH apuarypoft no rrepuverpy; apuapoaauaea HanpHII(eHHbIMH ropH30HTaJIbHbIMH CTepJI(HHMH B oraepcrnax, npoCBepJIeHHbIX B UeJIHKe; YCTPOHCTBOM lI(eJIe306eToHHoH 060HMbI no ne-

pHMeTpy II.eJIHKa. .

B UHl1l1npoM3,n:armH pasparioraasi ,n:BYXKOHCOJIbHble 3TaJI(epKH, He KOHTaKTHpYIOIJJ.He C rpYHTOM B 30He nepexpsrrna, c ceTKOM KOJIOHH

58

a

,;re;. ~~~~~ ~ ~

6000 ... 9000

50 ·----,JH';1000

B

120DO .. , 18000

6

~ ~ .. ~- ,....
I
I )2 ,
-"-,-
;~ ~
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cS
~
I ">
_····--r - .. "~--
I
,~ ... J , __,- ~J
L .J I- .J L .J
0 ... 6000 6000 r

Pnc. 2.10. KOlICTpYKIl,HH 3,l.(aHHH B supaoorxax:

a ~ OIl;HO' H 6 ... e - MHOI'09Ta}KHblX; 1 - CTeHKa .(orpa}{(lI;eHHe); 2 - naHeJlb nOTOJm8; 3- aHKep; 4 - nOJl; 5 - BblpaBHHBalOll\Hfi cnon: 6 - KOJlOHHa; 7 - pHreJlb; 8 - OJIHTb( rtep eKpbITHH; 9 - 6aJlKa; 10 - ceerosoa npoesr: 11 - }KeJIe306eToHH8ll n0Il;YII1l{B; 12 - nJlHTa~

13 - MOHOJlHTHbIl! yqaCToK.

6 X 6 H 6 X 9 M rrpn BbICOTe srasca 6 H 7,2 H ,n:JIJ.Hle KOHCOJIeH 4,5 ... 6 M. B KOHCTPYKI1.H5IX HCrrOJIb30BaHhI KOJIOHHhI cesenaex 400 X X 400 MM, npenaapnrensno nanpascennsre pHreJIH H peopncrue rrJIHThI,

3. KOHCTPYKTMBHblE PEWEHMSI >KMnbiX M 05~ECTBEHHbIX 3AAHf,f~.

)l(HJIhle 3,n:aHHH BbIfIOJIHHIOT neraycoxoro 3aJIO)KeHHH HJIH 06BaJIOsannue H TOJIbKO C eCTeCTBeHHbIM ocserueaaea. AIIaJIOrHqHO npoexrnPYIOT re 06ru.eCTBeHHbIe 3,n:aHHH, B KOTOPbIX He,n:onYCTHMO OTciTCTBHe

59

naesnoro CBeTa (nanpuxep, ,lJ.eTCKHe yqpe}K,lJ.eHH5I H npyrae), OCTaJIbnue He BbIllOJIlUHOT 6e3 eCTeCTBeHHoro OCBemeHH5I C pa3JmqHoi'i CTenensro 3arJIy6JIeHH5.I: nanpnaep, KHHOTeaTpbl - npn MHHHMaJIbHOM 3arJIy6JIeHHH, ooecnexanaroinea C03J],aHHe 03eJIeH5.leMOrO npOCTpaHCTBa nan noxpuraeu: JIe4e6Hble yqpe}K,lJ.eHH5.I B COJI5IHbIX tnaxrax - npn r JIy60KOM 3aJIO}KeHHH.

3.1. KOHCTPYKLV1H >KHllbiX 3AAHHA

KaK nOKa3bIBaeT OnbIT CTpOHTeJIbCTBa, B KOHCTPYKUHHX >KHJIblX 3,lJ.aHHi'i ycnenrno HCnOJIb3YfOT :m:eJIe306eTOH (C60pHblH H MOHOJIHTHbIH), xnprnor, nepeso, CTaJIb; npHMeH5.llOT nJIOCKOCTHble H npOCTpaHCTBeHaue KOHCTPYKUHH. 4ame CTpeM5.lTC5.I C03J],aTb npOCTpaHCTBeHHYIO ¢aPMY, nerve BnHcbIBafOmyfOC5.I B pe.n.edi CKJIOHa, 06eCneqHBaIOmyIO snesaraenae JIerKOCTH nOKpbITH5I. 11HTepeCHOe peurenne - 6eTOHHPOBaHHe KynOJIOB B Ha,lJ.YBIlOH OnaJIy6Ke HJIH MeTO,lJ.OM ropxpernpcaaHH5.I no nJIaCTMaCCOBOH OnaJIy6Ke ua pe6pax }KeCTKOCTH H3 npoxara [22, 281.

Oc06eHHocTb KOHCTPYKTHBHbIX perneI1Hli: 3arJIy6JIeHHbIX 3,lJ.almH - yner noasnnennon TenJI03amHTbI H3-3a 06BaJIOBKH rpynron. TIo3TOMY Ha 60JIbllleH 4aCTH HX HaPY)KHOH nOBepXHOCTH He Tpe6yeTC5.I TaKaH )Ke TOJImHHa CTeH, KaK H ,lJ.JI5.I Ha3eMHbIX 3)laHHH H3 YCJIOBHH TenJIOTeXHHqeCKOro pacxera, HJIH TaKa5.1 }Ke TOJImHHa CJI05.1 renJIOH30JIHUHH na nOKpbITHH. 1l0cTaT04Ha YMeHbweHHaH TOJImHHa >KeJIe306eTOHHblX HJIH xupnnnnux CTeH C YCTPOHCTBOM ,lJ.onOJIHHTeJIbHOH HapY>KHOH 3qxpeKTHBHOH TenJIOH30JIHUHH (orisrsao B BepXHeH 4aCTH 3arJIy6J1eHHOrO 3,lJ.aHH5I). GJ],HaKO B03MO)KHO 11 Tpa)J.HUHOHHoe pemeane CTeH 3arJIy6JIeHHoro )KHJIOrO noxa, xorna OHH HMeIOT IIOCT05IHUYIO TOJImHHY, onpenenenHYfO H3 pacsera BepXHeH qaCTH, KOHTaKTHpYIOmeH C HapYIIUlbiM B03- )lYXOM. Tor.aa or nanaer Ha)lo6HOCTb B BepTHKaJIbHOH TenJIOH30JIHUHH no 06BaJIOBaHHbiM HapYII<HbIM CTeHaM, YCTpaHBaIOT TOJIbKO rH)lPOH30- JIHUHfO H CJIOll npeaasca. G)lHaKO 9TO pemeaue MeHee 3KOHOMH4HO, 4eM CTeHbI YMeHbllleliHOH TOJIlllHHbl C 3cpcpeKTHBHOH TenJIOH30JHluneH TIo- 3TOMY B onucaansrx HH}Ke Y3JIaX nanu pemenns BepTHKaJIbHbIX HaPYII(HbIX noaepxnocren C TenJIOH30JI5.lUHeH.

)I(HJIble 3)J.aHHH aa POBHOM penserpe HJIH na CKJIOHaX npoercrnpymr B O)J.HH-J],Ba 3Ta>Ka, KaK npaBHJIO, B BHJ],e HHJ],HBH.llyaJIbHbIX OT,lJ.eJIbHO CT05.lmHX 3)J.almH Ha CKJIOHe TaKII(e MO>KeT 6bITb BbIIlOJIHeHO H MHoro~ 9Ta}KHOe reppacnoe nOJIY3arJIy6JIeHHOe aaanne.

TIo KOHqm rypanan II(HJIble )J.OMa pa3)J.eJIHIOT na B03BbIIIJaIOlllHeCH, CKB03Horo rnna H arpayxaue (pHC. 3.1) [291, a TaK>Ke 3,lJ.aHHH na CKJIOHax.

B B03BbIlllaK1111HXCH- 3)J.aHHHX OJ],Ha crena caorionna OT 3aCbIIlKH.

PacnOJIar310T HX 4allle scero na Hal<JIOHHOM pe.nserpe (nynme C opnenTaUl1eH OTKPbITOH CTeHhI OKHaMH na ror), npanea nOKpbITHe MO}KeT 6bITb 06BaJIOBaHO HJIn He nOKpbITO rpYHTOM, YK,IIOH ero 3aBHCHT 01' YKJJOHa 06Ba,IIOBKH B03BbIlllaIOIllHeCH 3J],aHHH xapaKTepH3YIOTCH O,lJ.HOCTOPORHeH npHrpY3KOH OT 06BaJIOBKI1 na KOHCTPYKUHH. 11x CTPOHT H na POBROM v-racrxe B cay-rae B03MO>KROCTH TpeXCTOpOHI-leii 06Ba-

60

1

a

r

PHC. 3.1. OCHoBHble KOHCTPYKTHBHble cxeMbI )!{HJIbIX 3,l(aHHii::

a - B03BblIlla[O~HeC>I; 6 - CKB03Hble; B - 8TPHYMHble; Z - Hfl CKJIOHaX; 1 - CTeHa, KOHraxrupyrouras C rpYHToM; 2 - nJIOCKOe nOKpbITHe; 3 - (jJYH)J;aMeHT; 4 ~ cBo6o)J;HaH crena; 5 - nepexp srrue; 6 _ BHyTpeHHHe CTeHbI; 7 - 060JIOQKa; 8 - IPOHapb.

JIOBKll, II c He60JIbWllM SarJIy6JIeHlleM. PeKOMeH)l;yeTcH He YBeJIllqH· sart, npOTH)KeHHOCTb CBo6o)l;HOH OT sacsmxa crenst C I1.eJIblO CHH)KeHHH rennonoreps. Ilpn nnanapoaxe )l;OMa OCHOBHble nOMellI,eHHH pacnonaraIOT Y OTKPbI1'OH crerrst, napaJIJIeJIbHO ~lTOH OCBemeHHOH nOBepXHOCTll sa OCHOBHbIMH nOMememIHMH YCTpaHBalOT KOPH)l;OP, a sa HHM - non-

61

corinue (CaHY3JIbI, xnanoasre, Ky:XHH H npyrne). BBHlI.Y roro, qTO TOJIbKO xepea O.n;HY CTeHY B snanne nponnxaer CBeT, CTpeMHTCH BbInOJIHHTb JKHJIOH ,ll.OM KOMnaKTHbIM, nepexons npa Heot)xo.n;HMOCTH K .n;BYX3Ta)KHOMY 3lI.aHHIO, HJlH K C03,ll.aHHIO BTOPOH OTKPblTOH CTeHbI, HJIH K JIOMaHOH, KpHBomIHeHHOH ¢opMe B n.naae.

3.n;aHHe CKB03Horo THna pacnOJlaralOT Ha,MeCTHOCTH cnoKoHHoro penserpa, OHO HMeeT CBeTOBble npoeuu B HeCKOJIbKHX HanpaBJIeHHHX, BXOlI.bI co scex CTOpOHt xapaxrepasyercs Het)OJIbIIIHM saroryrinenaea B rpynr, npHLIeM naanenne rpynra 60Jlee 6JIarOnpHHTHO, TaK KaK OTCYTcrayer O.n;HOCTOPOHHHH narpyaxa: 06BaJIOBKOH OT.n;eJlbHbIX qacTeii CTeH H KPOBJIR (CM. pHC. 3.1, e) (06BaJIOBKa KPOBJIH, KaK npasano, roPH30HT3JlbHa). B 3,ll.aHHHX raxoro rnna He06xo.n;HMO npenycxarpnaar s 60JIblIIOe KOJlHqeCTBO nonnopnux CTeH B MeCTax rpaannsr Me)K.n;y 06BaJlOBKOH H OTKpbITbIMH ¢aca.n;aMH, a TaK)Ke na yxacrxax nonxonoa K nesry. Oxonnsre I1pOeMbI BbIllOJIHHIOT no nepmrerpy B JIlO6blX MeCTax HapY)KHbIX CTeH.

3lI.aHHH arpayunoro THna npoexrnpyror C BHYTpeHHHM )l,BOpOM HJIH npocrpaacraoa, nepea xoropoe uocrynaror cser H B03.n;yX; npmruxalOIlI,He K aTpHyMY qaCTH 3lI.aHHH c006IlI,a1OTcH (CM. pHC. 3.1, a). Taxoe 8)l,aHHe MO)KeT 6bITb qeTblpexcTopoHHHM C 3aKpbITbIM BHYTpeHHHM ABOPOM, HJIH C OTKPbITOH neraepron CTOpOHOH. Ilo nepnxerpy BHYTpennero nsopa pacnonarator KOMHaTbI, nanee - KOJIbueBOH KOpH.n;Op, nO.1I.c06Hble nOMeIlI,eHHH pasaemaror B HeocBeIlI,eHHOH qaCTH Y HapY)KHbIX CTeH. ATPHYM MO)KeT 6bITb nepexpsrr npoapavusnr orpascneunea,' npH 9TOM OH HCnOJIb3yeTcH KaK aKKYMyJIHTOP TenJlOBOH 9HeprHH • .llocTyn B 3lI.aHHe MO)KeT 6bITb nepea JIeCTHHUY csepxy HJIH nepea 60- KOBYIO OTKpbITYIO qeTBepTYIO CTOpOHy. Bee OKHa BbIX0lI.HT BHYTPb BTpHYMa.

3lI.aHHH aa CKJIOHaX, qaCTHqHO 3arJly6JIeHHbIe B rpynr (reppacaoro rnna), HMelOT OlI.HY OTKpblTYIO ,ll.JIH OCBeIlI,eHHH H BeHTHJIHUHH CTOPOHY. Ornenanue 9Ta)KH pacnonararor co C.1I.BH)KKOH B n.nane, 3aBHCHIlI,eH on YKJIOHa penserpa, npa 3TOM aa qaCTH KPOBJIH xasotoro 9TaJKa YCTpaHBalOT ropH30HTaJIbHYlO 06BaJlOBKY (CM. pHC. 3,1,6). TaKHe 3.n;aHHH MOryT 6bITb MHoro9Ta)KHbIMH H pa3BH-TbIMH B n.naae, npn .9TOM B03HHKaell' npotineaa YCTpoHCTBa KOMMYHHKaUHH . .llJIH .n;BH)KeHHH JIID.n;eH npenycMaTpHBaIDT HaKJlOHHble JIH¢TbI, JIeCTHHUbI. KaK H B .n;pymx rnnax s.n;aHHH, y OTKPbITOH CTeHbI npoeKTHpYIOT OCHOBHbIe nOMeIlI,eHHH, 38 HHMH - KOPH,ll.OP, OCBeIlI,aeMbIH BTOpbIM CBeTOM, a .n;aJIee - noncoriHhIe nOMeIlI,eHHH.

B 06IlI,eM cnysrae KOH"CTPYKUHH )KllJlOrO 3arJIy6JIeHHOrO HJIH 06BaJIOBaHHOro 3.n;aHHH COCTOHT H3 CJIelI.YIOIlI,HX 9JIeMeHTOBl nOKpbITHe (0 rHlI.POH30JlHUHe'H, YTenmITeJIeM, lI.peHa)KOM); CTeHbI aapyacnsre (c ranpolI30JlHUHe.rr, YTenJlHTeJleM, lI.peHa)KOM) H BHYTpeHHHe; ¢YHlI.aMeHTbI; napanernas CTeHKa, HCnbITbiBalOIlI,aH lI.aBJIeHHe rpynra; Me)K.n;y- 9Ta)KHble nepexpsrrua; nonnopnsre CTeHbI cHapY)KH H BHYTPH (pHC. 3.2).

PHC. 3.2. 06~Hli: BHl( >KHJIbIX 3.n;aHHli:

" ~ B03BblwaIO~HeCll; 6 ""'" CKB03Hblei B ... aTpa)"MHblBI /I "'" HI! CKJlOa811l.

63

2

3

B

1

1

2 3 4 11

HaH60Jlee npocra H .nerxo BbInOJIHHMa rrJlOCKOCTHaH KOHcrpYKTHBHaH cxena, KOf)J.a KOHCTPYKUIUI rrOKpbITHH, nepexpsrrna, crea H CPYH.naMeHTOB COCTOHT H3 rrJIOCKHX 9J1eMeHTOB.

O)J.HH 1I3 BaLKHbIX BorrpOCOB rrpoeKTHpOBaHHH - B3aHMOCBH3b

aafJly6J1eHHbIX 3)J.aHl-LH G peJlbe¢OM • .LlJl51 POBHOro penserpa pannouamHO npoexrapoaanne rrOJlY3afJIy6J1eHHbIX HJlH 06BaJlOBaHHbIX 3)J.aHHH c OTCbIITKOH He60JlbIlIHX aacunea B)J.OJlb HapY>KHbIX CTeH. Ha rrOJlOrOM (He60JlbIIIOM) YKJlOHe MOLKHO rrOJlHOCTblO HJlH qaCTHqHO 3afJIy6HTb 3)J.aHHe B rpYHT, na KPYTOM )J.OMa npoeKTHpYIOT B HeCKOJlbKHX yposH.HX, YCTpaHBalOT reppacnue MHor09TaLKHbIe 3)J.aHHH.

3arJly6J1eHHe no.na 3aBHCHT OT pensepa, YPOBHH rpYHTOBbIX BO)J., TOJlmHHbJ CJlOH 06BaJlOBKH B CBH3H C rennonorepaan, BJlHHHHH CPOpMbI 06BaJIOBKH na 06mHH JlaH)J.IlIa¢T MecTHocTH, rrOJlOLKeHHH COJlHua )J.JlH npoHHKHoBeHHH ero JIyqeH BHYTPb 3)J.aHHH.

rIPH npoexrnposanua paaaepos nonsesraoro 3)J.aHHH B n.nane II no BbICOTe ysnrsmaror C06JIIO)J.emIe nponopuna, xorop sre cyrnecraenao aaBHCHT OT ero rrJlaHHpOBKH. 3arJly6J1~HIIH, cnocotia oCBemeHIIH, npoexmpyeaux rennonoreps.

He MeHee BaLKHO npana.nsno BbI6paTb KOHcrPYKTHBHoe pemeune )KHJlOrO 1l0Ma. 06blqHO pa3)J.eJlHIOT: 60Jlee y)J.06HbIe )J.JlH BHYTpeHHeH nJlaHHpOBKlI rrJlOCKHe KOHCTPYKTHBHbIe 9J1eMeHTbI H MeHee y)J.06Hble npOCTpaHCTBeHHble (caonnarsre, opepnsecxae). rIJlOCKHe rrOKpbITlIH n03BOJlHIOT opranaaoaare rrJlOCKHe IIJlH CKaTHbIe KPOBJIH G He60JlbIlIHM CJIOeM 06BaJlOBKH. Ilpn rrJlOCKHX KOHCTPYKUHHX CTeH 06J1erqaeTGH npoeKTHpOBaHHe OCBemeHHH.

IlpOCTpaHCTBeHHbIe KOHCTPYKUHH saTpY)J.HHIOT YCTPOHCTBO KPOBJlH, CBeTOBbIX npoeaoa, 06BaJlOBKa HMeeT 3HaqHTeJlbHYlO TOJlmHHY npn ee nJlOCKOH rrOBepXHOCTH. rIJlaHHpOBKa BHYTpeHHHX rrOMemeHHH JlOJlLKHa yqHTbIBaTb KPlIBH3HY KPOBJIH. BMeCTe G TeM npocrpancrseaaue KOHCTpyKUHH socnpaanxaror 60JlbIlIHe pacnpeneneanae HarpY3KH aa noxp :,ITHe npa MeHbIlIeM pacxone MaTepHaJIOB, rr09TOMY B03MOLKHO yseJIHlJHTb pasxep npo.neroa 6e3 BHyTpeHHHX orrop, YJlyqIlIHTb apXHTeKTYPHylO Bblpa3HTeJlbHOCTb mrrepsepa >KHJlbIX 3llaHHH.

rIJlOCKHe KOHCTPYKUHH rrOKpbITHH YCTpaHBalOT 06bIQHO B BH)J.e MHoronYCTOTHbIX C60PHbiX npensaparensuo HarrpH>KeHHbIX n.mrr G TerrJlO- If fH)J.POH30JlHUHeH (pHO. 3.3). Ilo rrJlHTaM YKJl3llbIBalOT CJlOH eupaaanaaromea ueMeHTHoH CTH)J(KII TOJlmlIHOH 20 .. .40 MM, no CTH)J(Ke - fHllPOII30JlHUIIIO, llaJlee - )J(ecTKYIO TenJIOH30JlHUlI1O TOJlmHHOH 150 MM, )J.peHIIPYlOmIIH MOH necx a TOJlmlIHOH 75 MM H paCTIITeJlbHbIH I'PYHT. TOJlmHHY CJIOH rpynra Hall noxpurnea nplIHHMalOT llCXO)J.H He TOJlbKO 1I3 MIIHHMaJlbHbIX rennonoreps, HO II G yqeTOM BII)J.a paCTHTeJlbHOCTI1 na rrOBepXHOCTH • .aJlH rpasaaoro nOKpOBa llOCTaTOqeH CJlOH

PHC. 3.3. OOKPbITH51 C OOBaJlOBKOH H Y3J1hI 3,llaHH51:

0, 6 - npu TOJIID;Uue 06BaJIOBKU COOTBeTCTBeHHO Ao 0,5 H AO 1 M;' B peKoMeHAyeMa51 TOJI-

W;HHa 06BaJIoBKH B 3aBHCHMOCTU OT rnna BblcallHiBaeMbiX pacrenna: e {)I{J - Y3J1bI naparre-

TOB COOTBeTCTBeHUO 0 BblCOKHM napaneroa H ApeHalKoM, 6e3 YTenJIeUUH naparreraoa cTeHKH • c Hli3KHM napaneroer, C oaJIKoll; 1 - rpYHT; 2 - ztpeaaac: 3 - TenJIOH30JIHIJ;HH; 4 - rnztpoH30JIHIJ;UH; fj - MHoronycToTHa51 nJIIiTa; 6, 8 - 06JIHIJ;OBKa COOTBeTCTBeHHO BHYTpeHHHH H oaPY>KHaH; 7 ....... nOKpbITHe napanera: 9 ..... napaner; 10 - HaPYlKHaH orapsrraa CTeHa; 11 ,_

n nura: 12 - opyc; 13 - AeKopaTHBHblil KapHH3.

5 ,!}-1583

65

10

2 3

S~~~~~45

6

7 8

a

~~;;;::;:;;;;;;~;::;:;}--- 3 4

B

A

10

f 2 3 ~m#,;:~m~~-4 ~~~~~~~~5

7

tS

8

r

e

2 3

~~~~~~~~6

9

TOJIIIl}IHOH 450 MM, .n;JIH MeJIKH:X H cpennnx xycrapnaxoa -.no 750" .nJIH He60JIbIIlHX .n;epeBbeB - OKOJIO 1000 MM.

06BaJIOBaHHOe anaane crpeMHTC51 anncars B eCTeCTBeHHbIH neasaxe, BbICa)KHBaH paCTeHHH. xapaxrepnsre )lJIH MecrHoCTH. 50JIee lI.0- porOCTOHlUH 9K30TH4eCKHe pacreans H pa36HBKa pery.nspnoro cana. [PYHT )lJIH 3aCbIllKH HCnOJIb3YIOT B sane CMeCH MeCTHoro rpynra c .n;06aBKaMH, nOMOraIOlIJ.HMH POCTY. 3eJIeHbIX Haca.mlI.eHHH. B Mecrax HHTeHCHBHoro nemexonaoro lI.BH.meHHH B rpYHTOBYIO CMeCb lI.0- 6aBJIHIOT no 90 % necxa. B COCTaBe rpYHToBOH CMeCH 06bI4HO, %! npoceannuf BepxHHH CJIOH rpyura - 10, neCOK - 40 ... 50, TOp<l;>- 25 ... 50.

Y3eJI napanera II CTbIKa nOKpbITHHC aapyacaoa OTKPbITOH crenoa - O.n;HH H3 HaH60JIee OTBeTCTBeHHblX. Ilapaner nonsepacea aTMoccpepHbIM B03lI.eHcTBHHM, }l,aBJIeHHIO rpyara, OH Mo.meT CTaTb MOCTHKOM XOJIo.n;a, npn 9TOM na nOTOJIKe B03MO:IKHO 06pa30BaHHe xonnencara. 1l09ToMY pexoaennyercs HeCKOJIbKO BapHaHTOB (CM. puc. 3.3, 2 ... ate). Y3eJI G :lKeJIe306eTOHHbIM napanerox H CJIOHMH TenJIOU30JIHUHH npenno-rrnTeJIeH, TaK KaK npencrspamaer nocryn.nenne XOJIo.n;a K KOHCTPYKUHII nOKpbITUH. CJIOU :lKeCTKOH TenJIOH30JIHUUH C HaPY:lKHOH nOBepXHOCTH napanera He06xo)lHMO aauunnars OT YJIbTpaqmOJIeTOBOro H3JIY4eHHH. a raxace lI.JIH C03)laHHH rrpUBJIeKaTeJIbHOH rrJIOCKOCTH na cpacalI.e c noaouu.ro 06JIHUOBKH HJIH )leKOpaTHBHOH IlITYKaTypKH no cerxe. C BHYTpeHHeH nOBepXI:I0CTH napaner na BCIO BbICOTY nOKpbIBaIOT rnnpoH 10JIHUHeti roro iKe cocrana, KOTOPbIH YKJIallbIBalOT na noxpsrrne . .am} npenorspameaaa 3aCTOH rpYHTOBbIX BO,n: B MeCTe npHMbIKaHHH napanera K nOKpbITlHO YCTpaHBalOT BYTbI. Ilapaner apMHpYlOT no paC4eTY KaK JIJIUeBoti 9JIeMeHT yrOJIKOBOH nonnopnon CTeHKH, ,n:JIH rrOBbIlIleHHH .n;OJIroBe4HocTH pexoaennyercs BblllOJIHHTb ero H3 MOP030CTOHKoro 6eTOHa nOBbllIleHHOH rrJIOTHOCTH.

CTblK Heo6BaJIOB3HHOH (He3amHmeHHOH rpYHTOM) KPOBJIH C 06BaJIOB3HHOH CTelfOH YCTpaHBalOT TaKHM 06pa30M, 4T06bI~ COCTblKOBaTb H30JIHilHIO CTeH fI noxp srrns (puc. 3.4). 1l0KpbITHe H HaPY>I\Hble crensr COe)lHHHIOT apaarypnsnra CTep)KHHMH, 3aJIO:IKeHHbIMH B nponom.aue crblKH Me)K,n:y nJIHTaMll. liJIH npenorepauienas BJIHHHHH lI.ecpopMaUHH, rpyura (ocanxa npn ynJIOTHeHHH, nyueaae npn 3aMOpa:IKHBaHHH) na COCT05l1me TenJIO- H rHlI.POH30JlHIlHH pexcaennyerca ycrpaaaari, CJIOH ,llonOJIHHTeJIbHOH H30JIHUHH 6e3 HaKJIeHKH B Mecre npHMblKaHHH rpya'fa (nanpnvep, nOJIOTHHlll nOJIH3THJIeHa).

06BaJIOBaHH ble KPOBJIH B MeCTe npHMblKaHHH K HapY)KHbIM CTeHaM, BblllOJIHHIOT co CTbIKOBaHlleM. BepTHKaJIbHOH H ropH30HTaJIbHOH TerrJIOH m,n:poH30JIHIlHH, npn 9TOM CJIOH BepnIKaJIbHOH TerrJIOH30JIflUHH 06PblBalOT Ha rJTVOHHe J M. ec.rm TOJTUlHHa HapV)KHOH CTeHbJ 3,n:aHHH nOll06-

Puc. 3.4. Y'lJlbl CTeH H nOK)JbITliIl:

a. () ~ oona.nonau a ue u ap yxcu sre CTeHbl H nos p srrue: B, e - creuu COOTBeTCTBeHHO a apyaca aa C HeOOBaJlOBaHHblM H BHYTpeHHllH C OOBaJIOBaHHblM noxpsrrn aaa: 0, e - IlpUMblKaHHe IlOKpbITH5l K aTpHYMY COOTBeTCTBeHHO ae3 TeOJIOH30Jl5lUHH CTeHKH lIIaXTbI IPOHapll H C TenJIOll3OJIllllHeiJ: 1IC - npHMblKaHIH' neper-oponxu: 1 - rpYHT; 2, 10 - ApeHHPYIOlIl,He COOTBeTCTBeuHO MaTepHaJIbJ. CJlO~ fl rpyfia: 3 - nOJlIl9THJleH; 4 - lKeCTKall TenJlOH30JlllIJ;Hll; 5 - rHAPoH300HIlHll; 6 - CTSllKKa; 7 - apwaryp asre crepscu a: 8 - n.nar a noxp srrn a: 9 - BHyTpeHHllH' CTCHa; 11 - noper-opcnxa, 12 - JlerKHiJ clKHMaeMbJiJ MaTepHaJI; 13 - OaJlHIJ;oBKa (lIITYKa-rypxa): 14 - lKeJle30aeToHHall CTeHa; 15 - p ana C OCTeKJIeUHeM; 16 - )J;epeB5IHHaJi npo6Ka;:

17 - KapHH3: 18 - KpOBeJIbHaH c'rans (aamm-a rHAPOH30JIllIJ;HH).

5*

67

paHa HCXOAH H3 TennOTeXHHQeCKOrO paCqeTa ~nH Ha3eMH~X 3~aHHH. Flpn ycrpoiicrae II.eMeHTHoH CTHLKKH no C60pHbIM nnHTaM O)1.HOBpeMeHHO 3aAen~BaIOT CTbIK nnHTbI nOKpbITHH co CTeHOH, npenaapnrensno cceLlHHHH nnaru nOKpbITHH H 6nOKH CTeH apirarypauxa CTepLKHHMH AHa>1eTpOM 12 ... 18 MM rrepea 0,6 ... 1,2 M. Ecna B MeCTe crponrenscraa ro.nsxo noaepxnocraue rpynroasre BO)1.bI, )1.nH OTBO)1.a HX C xpoamr YCTpaHBaJOT )1.peHaLKHble Tpy6bI (CM. pHC. 3.4, a, '6) .

.l1.nH aar.nyoaeansrx 3)1.aHI1H He06xo)lHMO CneII.HanbHO KOHCTPYI1POBaTh Y3nbI npHMbIKaHHH aecyuinx BHyTpeHHHX CTeH H neperoponox. C II.enbIO npenorapamenaa rpemnu B CTHLKKe no OCH CTeHbI H CHHLKeHHH ee CTOHKOCTH K npOHHKHOBeHHfOBnarn pexoxennyercs YKna)1.Ka apuaTypHOH ceTKH U3 CTepJKHeH )1.HaMeTpoM 8 ... 10 MM, IIIar 150 ... 200 MM, lI3 CTanH KnaCCOB A-II, A-III C 3anYCKOM na 500 MM no 06e CTOPOHbI OT CTbIKa. B CTbIKH n.nnr H KOHCTPYKII.HIO CTeHbI 3aBO)1.HT KOPOTbIlIlH )1.lIH 60nee xcecrxoro HX coe)1.HHeHlIH. Ha)1. HeHeCYlUHMH BHyTpeHHHMH neperoponxaxn OCTaBnHIOT 3a30p aa 10 ... 20 MM 60JlblIle MaKCHManbaoro pacseruoro nporntia nmrr nOKpbITHH, 3anonHHeMbIH JJerKHM CJKHMaeMbIM MaTepHMoM (naxneji, nopoaonoa) (CM. pHC. 3.4, JIC).

Korna Ha~ aTpHYMoM npennonaraerca cBeTOBoH cpoHapb, neorixo)1.HMO npenycxorpers Ha)1.eLKHYIO ranpo- H TennOH30nHII.HIO. CTeHKa uraxru rponaps MOLKeT 6~Tb asmo.naena H3 MOHonHTHoro )Kene306eTOHa, H3 C60PHbIX .meJle306eToHHbIX 6noKoB HnH KHpnHqa (CM. pnc. 3.4). B II.enOM see )1.eTanH 9THX Y3JIOB nunoaamor TaK )Ke, KaK H neTanH rrpHMbIKaHHH napaneron (CM. pHC. 3.3). 06blqHO CTpeMHTCH nonHHTb cserosofi ¢oHapb Ha)1. noaepxaocrsto 3eMnH, n09TOMY B~COTa CTeHoK ura XT bI COCTaBnHeT He MeHee 600 ... 900 MM. Flpn 9TOM xacrs rH)1.pOH30nHII.lIH nucrynaer Ha)1. nOBepXHOCTbIO rpynra 06BanOBKH. LLnH ee 3 aunrru He06xo)1.HMO nOKpbITHe CJIoeM cseroorpaacaiomero MaTepHaJIa (nanpuaep, MeTaJImI3HpOB3HHOH rrJIaCTMaCCbI). nJIH HCKmoqeHHH npOTeKaHHH BO!l.bI BHYTPb ¢OHapH npn CHnbHbIX )lO.m!l.HX HnH TaHHHH rnyooxoro cnera B~COTa CTeHOK uraxrsr Ha)1. YPOBHeM AHeBHOH nOBepXHOCTH no.nacna 6~Tb 60nee 200 MM, a B pafronax C 60nblIloH To.nrn.eH cneronoro noxposa -)1.0 1 M. Bonee 9KOHOMHqHOe peureane 6e3 YKna)1.KH enos Tennmf30nHII.HH na CTeHKH IIIaXTbI paII.Hc,HaJIbHO TonbKO B ycnoanax ren.noro KJIHMaTa (CM. pHC. 3.4, a). B OCTaJIbH~X cnyxaax npHMeHHlOT CTeHKH C HapY)KHOH TennoH30nHII.HeH, npoexmpylOT HX YBenHqeHHOH TOnllJ,HHbI HnH acnonssyror .nerxooeronasre 6JIOKH .

.anH YCTpaHeHHH rennonoreps nepea KHpnHQHble H )Kene306eTOHnue aucrynaioume CTeHbI He06XO!l.HMO YCTpaHBaTb TennOH30nHpYIOrn.He npoxnanxn MeJKllY HX BHyTpeHHHMH H Hapy.mHbIMH qaCTHMH. HanpaMep, npa BbInonHeHHH nsrcrynaiomef QaCTH BHYTpeHHeH necymea CTeHbI sa nnOCKOCTb rpacana ee He06xOllHMO H30mIpOBaTb cnoex xcecrROH TennOH30JIHII.HH. B MeCTax npHMbIKaHHH nonnopnux CTeH K 311aHHIO, ecan nonnopnas CTeHa HBnHeTCH npo)1.on.mermeM Hapy.mHoH HnH npHMbIKaeT K HeH, He06xo)1.HM reaneparypnsrf 1Il0B, KOTOPbIH aarrOJIHHIOT cnoex LKeCTKOH TerrnOH30n51.II.HH (pHC. 3.5, 6, 6). 3TOT 1Il0B )lOJILKef-l 6~Tb H ocanornnra, qT06bI HCKnIOqHTb BnHHHHe pa3HoCTH lle¢opMaUHH 311aHHH H nonnopnof CTeHbI aa HX nanpaacenno-nepopanposauaoe COcToHHHe, B03MOLKHOCTb 06pa30BaHHH rpeunm.

68



~I~ lA, j- .---.
~2
1/ ~
~~3
~ 1'-.
, ~ "4
~~5
~ 00i a

6

17

A

6

4 7 8

6

r

17

e

Pac, 3.5. Y3JIbI npliMbIKaHH5I:

a - aapyacasrx H BHYTpeHHHX CTeu; 6, B - n apyxca srx CTeH u nonnopnoa cTeHKul e ••. e=« H8PYlKHOit creasi H tPYHp;8MeuTa; 1 - HapYlKH8R 06B8JloB8HHall crea a: 2 - OKHO; 3 - lUTYKaTypR8; 4 - TenJlOH30Jlll[(UR; 5, 9 - crensr COoTBeTCTBeHuo HeCYllJ,8R U nonrropaan: 6- rpYHT; 7 - fUAP01l30JlllU;Hll; 8 - anxep: 10 - MOHOJlUTHblii tPYHp;aMeHT; 11 - BHyTpeHH llH ()Tp;eJlKa; 12 - U;OKOJlbUall OOJmU;OBKa; 13 - noncunxa nona; 14 - nonr-oroaxa: 15 - nOJl_

16 - C60PHblH tPYHAaMeHT; 17 - npeaascnaa TPyoa; 18 - p;peH8lK; 19 - OOOJIOQKa

,UJHJ YCTpaHeH!15I rennonoreps H JICKJIIoqeHHH MOCTHKa XOJIolI.a B srecre npHMbIKaHH5I nOJIa 3)laHHH~ 1\ rpYH)laMeHTY HapY:H\HOH OTKPbITOH (Heo6BaJIOBaHHOH) CTeHbI YCTpaHBal'oT renJIOH30JIHUHlO na HapY)KHOH nOBepXHOCTH rpYHlI.aMeHTa H TOPUOBOH qaCTH nJIHT~ nOlI.rOTOBKH nOJIa (CM. pHC. 3.5, e). TaK KaK Ten.nOH30JIHUIUl CHapY)KH rpYHlI.aMeHTa BbIIIIe ypOBHH rpyara, nonaepaceaa pa3JIH4H~M He6JIaronpHHTHbIM B03)leHCTBHHM, ee MO)KHO BbInOJIHHTb C BHYTpeHHeH CTOPOHbI rpYHlI.aMeEITa.

Torna llJIH H30JIHI1.HH HCnOJIb3YIOT JIl06ble MaTepHaJIbI, 60JIbIIIOH 'ToJillJ,HHbI, ee He nano sanunnan, OT B031I.eHCTBHH. Y 3eJI CTbIKa nOJIa 3lI.aHHH c rpYHlI.aMeHTOM 06BaJIOBaHHOH CTeHbI xapaxrepen TeM, qTO B yposne HM3a rpYHlI.aMeHTHoH nJIHTbl, HH)Ke ypOBHH nOJIa no nepuaerpy HapY)KHbIX CTeH YCTpaHBalOT npenaac (CM. pHC. 3.5, e).

Ilpn ycrpoticree nOKpblTHH H CTeH H3 npocrp aacrneaasrx KOHCTPYKI1.HH YCJIO)KHHeTCH BbIIIOJIHeHHe rHlI.po- H TenJIOH30JIHI1.HH na KpHBOJIHHeHHOH nosepxnocru, O)lHaKO KOHCTPYKUHH. Y3JIOB OCTalOTCH npax- 1'fHqeCKH 6e3 H3MeHeHHH. 06JIer4aeTcH YlI.aJIeHHe nosepxaocrnsrx rpyn'TOBbIX BOlI. o nOKpblTHH, n09ToMY npeaasc YCTpaHBalOT TOJIbKO no nepHMeTPY rpYH)laMeHTa.

ct>YHlI.aMeHTbI 3arJIy6JIeHHbIX )KUJIbIX lI.OMOB qallJ,e npenycaarpaaaror JJeHT04HbIMH H3 MOHOJIHTHbIX HJIH C60PHbIX 6JIOKOB. LLJI5! B03BbIIIIaIOllI.HXCH 31I.aHHH C O)lHOCTOPOHHHM ropH30HTaJIbHbIM lI.aBJIeHHeM rpynra H3MeHHIOT IIIHPHHY nOlI.OIIIBbI rpYHlI.aMeHToB B COOTBeTCTBHH C pacne'TOM; rJIy6JIHY- 3aJI02KeHHH HX noll. cB060lI.Hble CTeH~ YCTaHaBJIHBalOT KaK lI.JIH rpYH)laMeHTOB Ha3eMH~X 31I.aHHH, a )lJIH 06BaJIOBaHHbIX CTeH - C YlJeTOM BbICOTbI 06BaJIOBKH, KaK )lJIH rpYHlI.aMeHTOB 3lI.aHHH C nonB3JIOM [301. TaK KaK lI.JIH ztsyxsraxcastx B03BbIIIIaIOllJ,HXCH 31I.alIHH CYMMap Hoe 3Ha4eHHe 60KOBoro )laBJIeHHH rpynra BeJIHKO H eMY He npOTHBOlI.e:ikTByeT lI.aBJIeHHe C npOTHBOnOJI02KHOH CTOPOHbI, 3lI.aHHe no no)I, o III Be paccearsraaror na ClI.BHr H OnpOKH)J,bIBaHHe (pHC. 3.6).

CTeHbI KOHCTPYHPYlOl' H3 IIITyqHbIX MaTepHaJIOB (KHpnH4a, MeJIKHX 'HJIH xpynnsrx 6JIOKOB) H C60PHbIX nane.nefr. Bucora CTeH - na srasc (2,7 M), TOJIllJ,HHa - HCXOlI.H H3 TeHJIOTeXHHqeCKOrO pacnera H otiecl1eqeHHH npOqHOCTH H TpellJ,HHoCTO}IKOCTH npn lI.eHcTBHH BepTHKaJIbHbIX H ropU30HTaJIbHbIX HarpY30K. OTJIHqHe 3arJIy6JIeHHbIX CTewBeo6xo)lHMOCTb HX paCqeTa H KOHCTpYHpOBa~HH Ha lI.eHcTBHe BepTHKaJIbHbIX H 60JIbIIIHX ropH30HTaJIbHbIX HarpY30K. Me2KlI.Y C60PHbIMH 6JIOKaMH )lOJI2KHbI 6bITb CTbIKH, BocnpHHHMaIOllJ,He ClI.BH raiomne YCH.JIHH .' B xaxecrne 9JIeMeHTOB CTeH M02KHO HCnOJIb30BaTb criopusre crensi o apMHpOBaHHeM rpynra.

Ilepexpsrrna H3 C60PHbiX MHoronYCTOTHbIX nJIHT, naae.nea «na KOMHaTY», MOHOJIHTHOrO )KeJIe306eTOHa pa60TaIOT B 06BaJIOBaHHblx anaHHHX He TOJIbKO na H3rH6 H3 nJIOCKOCTH, HO H KaK )KeCTKHe lI.HCKH na YCHJIHH B caoeji nJIOCKOCTH, nepenaiomaeca OT HapY2KHbIX CTeH. B saBHCHMOCTH OT rnna 3lI.aHHH nepexpsrma pa60TalOT pa3JIH4HO: B B03BbIIIIaIOllJ,HXCH 3lI.aHHHX - B cnoef nJIOCKOCTH na H3fH6 KaK 6aJIKHCTeHKH, B npyrnx rnnax - na 1I.0nOJIHHTeJIbHOe C2KaTHe B nJIOCKOCTH. 3T0 06CTOHTeJIbCTBO aanaraer BbICOKHe Tpe60BaHHH na Ka4eCTBO aalI.eJIKH CTbIKOB Me)KlI.Y C60PHbIMH 2KeJIe306eTOHHbIMH nJIHTaMH, TaK KaHi nocne 3alI.eJIKH nepexpsrrne 1I.0JI2KHO paoorars KaK )KeCTKHH lI.HCK.

70

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7

6

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.: Iii.

A

PRC. 3.6. KOHCTPYKTHBHble 3JIeMeHTbi lKliJIblX 31l.aHHll;

a - CTeHbl; 6 - jtep exp srrjte: 8, c - ceopnue 060JlO'lKH; a - MOHOJlHTHaH 060JIO'lK3 Ha HaAYBHOil onanytixe: 1 - KHpnH'lHaH CTeHKa; 2 - nanern, nepexpsrraa: 3 - pureas: 4- KOJIOHHa; 5 ~ <PYHAaMeHT; 6 - naHeJIb cren sr: 7 - JlHIJ;eBaH n.nara: B ~ IJ;1IJ1HHAPH'IeCKaH

060JIO'lKa; 9 - BOJlHHCTblil CBoA; 10 - _KynOJI.

B np0Jl.OJIbHbIX CTbIKaX )KeJIaTeJIbHO YCTpaHBaTb 6eTOHHble IllnOHKH r JIH BOCnpHHTHH 60JIbIllHX C)],BHrmOIlI.HX YClIJIlIH. KOHCTPYKII.HlI nepespuTHH .n,OJI)KHbI 06eCne4:HBaTb HX COe)],HHeHHe BbmYCKaMH apuarypu co CTeHaMH, C nOCJIe.n,YIOIlI.HM OMOHOJIHllHBaHHeM II.eMeHTHbIM paCTBOpOM HJIH MeJIK03epHHCTbIM 6eTOHOM KJIaCCa B20.

KOHCTPYKII.HH B BH.n,e 060JIO'IeK rrpHMeHHIOT KaK B CTeHaX, TaK II B nOKpblTHHX, HJIH O)],HOH 060JI04:KOH 3aMeHHIOT nOKpbITHe H CTeHhI. Crena B nnane MOrYT HMeTb ¢OPMY 060JIOllKlI - II.HJIHH.Il.pHlleCKOH, MHoroyrOJIbHOH (CKJIa.n,llaTOH). TaKaH 060JI04Ka 9¢¢eKTHBHO patiora€T aa YCHJIHH OT rOpH30HTaJIbHOrO .Il.aBJIeHlIH rpytrra H n03BOJIHeT CYIlI.eCTBeHHO COKpaTHTb apMHpOBaHHe, TaK KaK HCrrbITbIBaeT npeHMYIlI.eCTBeHHO C)KHMaIOIlI.He YCHJIHH npn MHHHMaJIbHbIX MOMeHTaX. Criopnue

71

naHeJIH 3.n,aHH5I BhInOJIH5IIOT aHaJIOmqHO naHeJI5IM xpyrnsrx peaepnyapos C BepTHKaJIhHhIM 3aMOHOJIH4:HBaeMhIM CThIKOM MeJK.n,y HHMH. Kpyrmae B nnane 3.n,aHHH paCnOJIaraIOT PH)]'OM H COe.n,HHHIOT saxpsrrsrMH nepexonaxa. B Ka4:eCTBe nOKphITHI1 HCnOJIb3YIOT KynOJIa H CBO,ll,hI. a TaKJKe C60pHhle apxn C HaCTHJIOM H3 OT,ll,eJIhHhIX nJIHT. 3TH KOHCTPYKunn H3rOTOBJIHIOT H3 C60PHhIX 9JIeMeHTOB HJIH H3 MOHOJIHTHOro JKeJIe- 306eTOHa aa Ha.n,YBHoH OnaJIy6Ke C TopKpeTHpOBaHHeM. B nOKphITH5!X npHMeHHIOT TOJIhKO TaKHe 060JI04:KH, y KOTOPhIX HeT naayx ua sepxHeH nOBepXHOCTH. rne 6y.n,YT 3aCTaHBaThCH rpYHTOBhIe BO.n,b1- O.n,HOBOJIHOBble BhInYKJIhle saepx 060JI04:KH. KaK np aBIIJ10 , OHH paooratos npeaayniecraenno aa C)KaTHe, lfTO 06JIer4:aeT YCTPOHCTBO CThIKOB. CHlI)KaeT pacxon apvarypu, 6eTOHa.

Ilcnnopmre CTeHhI B nOJIY3amy6JIeHHhIX 06BaJIOBaHHhiX JKHJIhIX 3.n,aHHHX BhmOJIH5IIOT CPYHKll,HH KOHCTPYKll,HH, nonaepacasaiomax OTKOO rpynra B MeCTax pacnOJIO)KeHHH OTKphIThlX CTeH H nonxonoa K 3.n,aHHIO. a TaK)Ke COBMeIll,aIOT HX C POJIhIO 06hI4:HhIX CTeH, KOHTaKTHpYIOlll,HX C rpyHTOM. LI.JI5I JKHJIhIX 3.n,aHHH peKOMeH.n,YIOTCH apxarexrypno-ssrpa- 3HTeJIhHble 06JIerqeHHhIe H 6Hon03HTHBHhle (03eJIeH5IeMble) KOHCTpyKUHH, n03BOJIHIOIll,He CYlll,eCTBeHHO COKpaTHTh MaTepHaJIOeMKOCTh. MaKCHMaJIhHO BKJIIOlfHTb B pa60TY rpynr 06paTHOH 3aChInKHi CTeHb! H3 apaapoaanaoro rpynra, B q)OpMe MeM6paH H 060JIOlfeK, H3 CKB03- HblX aacunaeaux rpyarox 6Jl0KOB (pHC. 3.7). TaKHe KOHCTPYKUHH n03BOJIHIOT nOJIYlfHTh BhICOTY CTeH .n,o 3 ... 6 M, KOTOpa5I neotixonaaa .n,JI5I 06BaJIOBaHHblx 3.n,aHHH B O,ll,HH HJIH naa 9TaJKa. 3TH CTeHhI MO)KHO YCTpaHBaTh npa MeHHIOmeHC5I BhICOTe orxoca.

)I<:~JIe306eTOHHhle yronxonue nonnopaue CTeHbI-060JIOQKH COCTOHT H3 JIHueBOH nJIHTbI B cpopMe 060JI04:KH H q)YH.n,aMeHTHoH nJIHTh!, BhmOJIHeHHOH nJIOCKOH HJIH TQ)Ke B BH,ll,e 060JI04:KH. ITPH 3aJIeraHHH B OCHOBaHHH CTeHKH CKaJIbHbIX rpYHTOB q)YH,ll,aMeHTHaH nJIHTa MO)KeT OTCYTCTBOBaTb, JIHueBaH nJIIITa KpenHTC5I Henocpe)],CTBeHHO.K OCHOBaHllIO npa

. nOMOIll,H npensaparensno HanpHJKeHHhIX aHKepOB.

TeXHHKO-9KOHOMHlfeCKHH aHaJIH3 nOKa3aJI, 4:TO HaH60JIee 9cpcpeKTHBHhI B xaxecrse JIHueBhIX nJIHT 060JI04:KH 1 CKJIa.n,lfaTbIe B BH)],e TpeyrOJIhHOH HJIU'npH3MaTH4:eCKOH CKJIa.n,KH, rHnep60JIHlfeCKHe napaooJIOH.n,hI, KOHOH.n,hI. 060JIOQKH, B KOTOPblX MOMeHT COnpOTYIBJIeHHH ropH30HTaJIhHOrO CeQeHHH napacraer nporropuaonansuo YBeJIHQeHHIO H3rH6aIOutero MOMeHTa, )],eHCTBYIOlll,erO na JIHueBYIO nJIHTY (ranapsr H KOHOH)l.hI). MOJKHO opHeHTHpOBaTb BhmYKJIOCThIO HapY)KY HJIH BHYTPh no OTHOIlleHHIO K 06paTHOH sacanxe. ,UJIH CHHJKeHH5I aKTHBHoro .n,aBJIeHHH rpynra npenno-rrnrem.aee opHeHTHpOBKa 060JI04:eK BblnYKJIOCThIO HapY)KY.

,Uml 03eJIeHeHH5I nOBepXHOCTH nonnopnsrx CTeH peKOMeH.n,yeTC5I YCTPOHCTBO npoeaos B JIHll,eBOH nJIHTe. Pasaep npoexa .n,OJI)KeH 6hITh TaKHM, QT06b1 He .n,onYCTHTh npOHHKHOBeHHH rpynra 06paTHOH 3aChlIlKH na JIHueBYIO nOBepXHOCTh CTeH. Crre.n,OBaTeJIhHO, BhICOTa h npoeaa h = fJ tg rp, rne fJ - TOJIlll,HHa crenu: <p - yron BHYTpeHHero TpeHHH rpyrrra. B npoeMbI BhICa2KHBaIOT BhIOlll,HeC5I .n,eKopaTHBHbIe pacrenna (annorpan BhIOHOK, P03bI H np.). B pe3YJIhTaTe He TOJIl.·KO ncaamaercs apXHTeKTypHaH Bhlpa3HTeJIhHOCTh, HO H 6HOJIOmlfeCKaH axTHBHOCTh 9THX coopysceuan.

72

~~



70 .. 100 4-
L
G
.
5 a J ju *u l
1 PHC. 3.7. Ilonnopaue CTeHbI H3 060JIOlleK H MeM6paH:

a ~ ranap II CKJIa,!V{a; 6 - apMllpoBaHHblil rpYHT; 8 - oae nenaexue creasr: 1 - rllnap; J ..... CKJI8,!V{a: 3. 4 - !flYHAaMeHT COOTBeTCTBeHHO co l.I.\eJleBblM CTblKOM H 6e3 Hero; 5 - coopnue nJlIITbI; 6 = aaxepu, 7- - xopoouarsre 9J1eMeHTbl; 8 = CKJIaAKlI.

Crena C JIlUI,eBhIMH 9JIeMeHTaMH B q)OpMe ranapos H KOHOHAOB pexoaennyercn BhITIOJIHHTh C. pa3pe3KOH na JIl1UeBYIO nJll1TY B BHAe TOHKOCTeHHOH 060JIOqKH ABOHKOH KpHBH3HhI II <PYHAaMeHTHYIO nnnry (CM. pHC. 3.7). MaKcHMaJlhHYIO TOJIIll.HHY JIHueBOH nJIHTbI C Y4eToM ooecnesenaa 3aIll.HTHOrO CJIOH 6eToHa Ha3Ha4aIOT 100 MM, MHHHMaJIhHYIO - 70 MM, paaxepu npOeKTHpYIOT C Y4eTOM He06xoAHMOH BhICOThl CTeHhI, rpysonom.eanocrn HMeIOIll.HXCH MexaHH3MOB, B03MOIKHOCTH nepeB03KI1 C60PHhiX 9JIeMeHTOB, a TaKIKe H3rOTOBJIeHHH HX na ripen-

. npHHTHHX CTPOHI1HAYCTpHH. Cooraomeune Me}KAY BhICOTOH onnoro C60PHOro 9JIeMeHTa, 'AJIlIHOH BOJIHbI H CTpeJIOH nozrseaa nOA6HpaIOT HCXOAH H3 apxarexrypnux cooripaacenaii, a TaKIKe C Y4eTOM 9KOHOMHH apxarypu (CM. pHC. 3.7, a).

J1HUeBYIO nJIHTY apMHpyIOT npocrpaacraeanua KapKaCOM, npn STOM MH nmapa HCnOJIh3YIOT CBOHCTBO JIHHeH4aTOCTH ero nOBepXHOCTH. ApMaTYPHhIH xapxac BhITIOJIHHIOT H3 npHMhIX CTepm:HeH apvarypst ABYX TImOB: nOJIe 060JI04KH apMHpYIOT no paC4eTY paBHOMepHOH cerKOH H3 apuarypu AHaMeTpOM 10 ... 12 MM; pacranyroe pe6po YCHJIHIOT apxarypon ,lJ.HaMeTpoM 18 ... 28 MM, KOTOPYIO pexouennyercs 06phIaart. no BhICOTe B COOTBeTCTBHH C snIOpOH H3m6aIOIll.HX MOMeHTOB; B CBH3H C TeM, qTO B HHm:HeH 4aCTH JIHueBOH nJIHThI ,lJ.eHCTBYIOT 60JIee HHTeHCHBHhIe AaBJIeHHH, mar cerxa yaensuraror. Pa604YIO apMaTYPY pacnonararor nocpennne ce4eHHH 060JI04KH, B CBH3H C 4eM B03MOm:HO MaKCHMaJIhHOe CHH>KeHHe ee TOJIIll.HHbI.

TaK KaK OTAeJIhHhIe C60pHhIe 9JIeMeHThI CTeH B cpopMe ranapos 11 KOHOHAOB pa60TaIOT KaK caMOCTOHTeJIhHhIe yrOJIKOBhle CTeHhI, ):(JIH 06be):(!1H:HHH HX B ennnoe nenoe npe):(YCMaTpHBaIOT nasu na 60KOBhIX croponax (ropnax) JIHueBhIX nJIHT, xoropue nOCJIe MOHTa>Ka H susepxa 3anOJIHHIOT paCTBopOM. 06pa3YIOIll.aHCH npn 9TOM umonxa socnpannMaeT CJIY4aHHhie nonepe-msre CHJIhI H ocecnesnsaer HeCMeIll.aeMOCTb OT):(eJIhHbIX C60PHhIX 9JIeMeHTOB . .uonOJIHHTeJIhHO ():(JIH YA06cTBa MOHTaIKa) YCTpaHBaIOT MeTaJIJIHqeCKHe 3aKJIa):(HhIe H3):(eJIHH B BllAe yronKOB aa sepxaax TOPUax JIHueBhlX nJIHT.

B JIHueBbIX nJIHTaX ):(OJI>KHhI 6bITh TaK>Ke CTaJIhHhIe neTJIH ):(JIH BhleMKll 113):(eJIHH H3 OnaJIy6KH, ):(Ba OTBepCTHH AJIH KpenJIeHHH CTPOnOB04HhIX npHcnoc06JIeHHH npn MOHTa>Ke H ):(peHa>KHhle.

CTeHhI C JIHueBbIMH nJIHTaMH B rpopxe CKJIa):(4aThIX 060JIOqeK MOlKHO KOHCTpYHpOBaTb C pa3pe3KOH na ):(Ba HJIH TpH C60PHhIX sneaeara, EOJIee TeXHOJIOrHQHa ):(JIH MOHTa>Ka 11 paUHOHaJIhHa C TOQKH 3peHHH pa60ThI CTbIKOB paapesxa na JIHUeBYIO nJIHTY B BH):(e O.nHOH B~HbI

CKJIaAKH H CPYH):(aMeHTHYIO nJIHTY. IT pn 9TOM, O):(HaKO, YCJIo}KHHeTCH K(lHCTPYKUHH OnaJIy6KH H H3rOTOBJIeHHe JIHueBhIX nJIHT na aasozte. HaH60JIee npocra ):(JIH npOH3BO):(CTBa C60PHhIX 9JIeMeHTOB paspesxa na ABe nJIOCKHe nJIHTbI, 06pa3YIOIll.He nOCJIe MOHTalKa O):(HY BOJIHY CHJIaAKH, H CPYH):(aMeHTHYIO.

PeKOMeH):(yeMaH TOJIIll.HHa CKJIaA4aThIX 060JI04eK C Y4eTOM pacnoJIO>KeHHH apaarypsr nocepezmne ce4eHHH nJIHT H 06ecne4eHHH 3aIll.HTaoro CJIOH 6eTOHa - 70 ... 100 MM . .uJIH CTeH BhICOTOH 60JIee 6 M H npn HHTeHcHBHoH BepTHKaJIhHOH npnrpyaxe aa ropH30HTaJIhHOH npoexUHH oTKo~a ee TOJIIlJ,HHY AonycKaeTcH YBeJIH4HTI? ):(0 150 MM-.

74·

Pasxepu C60PHbIX CKJIa,1J.OK MOrYT KOJIe6aTbCH B 60JIbWHX IIpe,1J.eJIaX, O,1J.HaRO peKOMeH,1J.yeTcH HCXOAHTb H3 B03MOm:HOCTH HCIIOJIb30BaHHH O,1J.HOM OnaJIy6KH ,1J.JIH H3rOTOBJIeHHH 9JIeMeHTOB CTeH pa3JIH4HOM BblCOTbI. TaKHM 06pa30M ,1J.JIHHa BOJIHbI O,1J.HOM CKJIa,1J.KH npn ee BblCOTe ,1J.0 7,2 M ,1J.OJIm:Ha COCTaBJIHTb 1,5 ... 2 M, 'rorna ,1J.JIHHa B nnane O,1J.HOM nJIHTbI -,1J.O 1,4 M. CTbIKH COCe,1J.HHX nJIHT CKJIa,1J.4aTOM 060JI04KH KOHCTPYHPYlOT aa surrycxax apvarypsr C IIOCJIe,1J.YlOIll.HM orieronapoaaHHeM HJIH na 3aK.lIa,1J.HbIX H3,1J.eJIHHX, o6be,1J.HHHeMbIx aa MOHTam:e csapKoiL .IT,JIH BocnpHHTHH nonepe-rnux CHJI na ropneaux nosepxnocrxx coopnux nJIHT YCTpaHBalOT rpeyroasnsre nasu, xoropue nOCJIe 3aMOHOJIH4HBaHHH C03,1J.alOT 6eToHHYlO WIIOHKy. B C60PHbiX nJIHTaX npenycMaTpHBalOT IIeTJIH ,1J.JI5I BbleMKH H3 OnaJIy6KH, oTBepCTH5I ,1J.JIH MOHTam:a H ,1J.JIH npeaasca. ITmITbi 060JI04eK apMHpYlOT CnJIOWHbIMH cBapHbIMH ceTKaMH pa604eM apMaTYPbI, a TaK)Ke AOnOJIHHTeJIbHO - cocpenoro- 4eHHbIMH B xpaesux yuacrxax pacTHHYTOM 30HbI CTepm:HHMH. APMHpOBaHHe YBeJIH4HBaeTCH B HH)KHeM 4aCTH 060JI04KH B COOTBeTCTBHM C 9IIlOpaMH H3m6aeMblx MOMeHTOB . .IT,J1H YMeHbweHHH TOJIIll.HHbI 060- JI04KH Heo6xo,1J.HMO CTpeMHTbCH K O,1J.HHapHOMY apMHpOBaHHlO ce4eHHH nJIHT, ,1J.JIH 4ero sapsapyror ,1J.JIHHY OT,1J.eJIbHOH nJIHTbl 060JI04KH B nnane,

KOHCTPYKUHH <PYH,1J.aMeHTHblx nJIHT 3aBHCHT OT rnna cruxa C JIHueBoM nJIHTOH (CM. pHC. 3.7). HaH60JIee TeXHOJIom4eH npn MOHTam:e mcnesof CTbIK JIOMaHOro B nnaae np0<pHJIH . .IT,JIH 060Jl04KH H3 OT,UeJIbHbIX nJIOCKHX nJIHT .. peKOMeH,1J.yeTcH CTbIK BbIIlYKJIOCTblO B CTOPOHY nonnepaoraaeaoro crxoca rpynra, a ,1J.JIH O,1J.HOBOJIHOBOH CKJIa,UKHBbmYKJIOCTblO B npoTHBOnOJIQ)KHYlO. C ueJIblO CHH}KeHHH pacxona 6eTOHa KOHCOJIbHbIe 4aCTII nJIHTbl npoexrupyror TpaneUHeBH,1J.HOrO npo<pHJIH. Coopnsre q)YH,1J.aMeHTHble I1J1HTbl HMelOT neTJIH ,1J.JIH MOHTam:a, a npn H3rOTOBJIeHHH B nepesepayroa nOJIom:eHHH - ,1J.OnOJIHHTeJIbnue ,1J.JIH BbIeMKH H3 OnaJIy6KH.

MeHee MaTepHaJIOeMKH <PYH,1J.aMeHTHble nJ1I1Tbl 6e3 Ill.eJIeBOrO CTbIKa: no nepxy nJIHT YCTpaHBaeTC5I 6eToHHbIH ycryn, BocnpHHHMalOIll.HH'nOnepe-myro CHJIy; )],JIH BocnpHHTHH H3rH6alOIll.erO MOMeHTa CJIym:aT BbInycxn apxarypu, coenanseaue cnapxoa C cocpenorosenauaa crepscHHMH 060JI04KH. Hap any C CYIll.eCTBeHHbIM CHH)KeHHeM pacxona 6eToHa CHHm:aeTCH TeXHOJIOrH4HOCTb pa60T aa cTpOHTeJIbHOH n.romanxe, TaK KaR 3aTpY)],HeHa <pHKcaUHH C60PHbIX 9JIeMeHTOB JIHueBbIX nJIHT, yaeJIH4eHO 4HCJIO onepaUHH H )],p.

Paaaepu q)YH)]'aMeHTHblx nJIHT nozriaparor no paC4eTY, )],JII1Hy OT.n.eJIbHbIX C60PHblX 9JIeMeHTOB - B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT paaaepcs JIHueBOH nJII1TbI.

YKJIOHbI 60KOBbIX noaepxnocreii Ill.eJIeBOrO CTaKaHa ueJIeC006pa3Ho Ha3Ha4aTb B COOTBeTCTBHH C peKoMeH,UaUH5IMH, H3JIO)KeHHbIMH B PYKOBO)],CTBe [62].

MeM6paHHbIe noanopnue CTeHbI BKJI104alOT: KOHCTPYKUHH, B KOTOpux rH6KaH MeM6paHa, patiorarouiaa na paCTH)KeHHe, CJlym:HT «JIHueBOH» H socnpaaaaaer aKTHBHoe )],aBJIeHHe rpynra: CHCTeMbI, B KOTOpbIX. rH6KHe MeM6paHbI, ceTKH, nOJIOCbI HBJ1HlOTCH rpYHToBblMH anxepaan, «apMHpylOIll.HMH» rpyar H y)],ep)KHBalOIll.HMH B npoexmoa rrOJIom:eHHH JIHI.\eBble nJ1HTbI HJ1H 060JI04KH (CM. pHC. 3.7). I13BecTHbI raxxce MeM6·

75

panasre nonrropnsre CTeHbI, BbInOJIHeHHble TOJIbKO H3 rH6KHX MeM6- pan, HO OHH noxa He rrOJIY4HJIH umpoxoro pacnpocrpanenaa BBll,!I.y TpY,!I.OeMKOCTH B03Be,!I.eHHH. Crensr C anxepaxa, «apMHpYlOW;HMH» rpynr, 6mI3KH no cxeae pa60TbI K rpaBHTaUHOHHblM yrOJIKOBbIM CTeHaM, a C «JIHUeBbIMH» MeM6paHaMH OTHOCHTCH no CBoeH paoore I{ KOHTP¢OpCHbIM nO,!I.nOpHbIM.

HaH60JIee npocra no KOHCTPYKUHH MeM6paHHaH CTeHa C ropH30HTaJIbHO pacnOJIO)KeHHbIMH H 3aBe,!I.eHHbIMH B rpynr MeM6paHaMH, COfHyTblMH aa JIHueBOH nOBepXHOCTH H y,!I.ep)KHBalOW;HMH rpynr aa cser patioru H3 paCT5I)KeHHe H30rHYTbIX ysacrxoa H TpeHHH no rp yary ropH30HT2JbHbIX nOJIOTHHm. 3TO HCKJIIOJIHTeJIbHO JIerKaH H HeMaTepllaJIOeMKaH KOHCTPYKUllH, B KOTOPOH MO)KeT 6blTb npnaeaeaa TOJIbKO MeM6paHa H3 reOTeKCTHJIH He60JIbiliOH TOJIW;HHbI. J1HueBaH nosepxHOCTb TaKHX CTeH 6Y,!I.eT 3Ha4HTeJIbHO 60JIee ,!I.OJIrOBe4Ha H Ha,!I.e)KH3, eCJIH ee BbIITOJIHHTb H3 O,!I.HOTHnHbIX 6eTOHHbIX (}KeJIe306eTOHHbIX) naHeJIeH HJIH CTaJIbHbIX (aJIlOMHHHeBbIX) IlITaMrrOBaHHbIX 060JI04eK. AHKepYlOmHMH 9JIeMeHTaMH MoryT 6blTb rH6KHe nOJIOCbl, cerxa, CnJIOIlInue MeM6paHbI. CTeHbI C JIHueBbIMH KBa,!I.paTHbIMH 6eTOHHblMH (HJIH npa 3Ha4HTeJIb'lb1X pasaepax - )KeJIe306erOHHbIMH) nJIHTaMH MoryT 6blTb saauxepenu B rpynr npn nOMOW;H ropH30HTaJIbHO pacnOJIO)KeHHbIX apMHpYlOmHX :meMeHTOB B BH,!I.e rH6KHX nOJIOC (CM. p HC. 3.7). ITo BbICOTe 9TH nOJIOCbl pacnonararorcs C IlIarOM, paBHblM BblCOTe rrJIHT, B rrnane - paCCTOHHHe onpenenaercs paC4eTOM. PeKOMeHnyerca BbICOTa J1HueBblX rrJIHT OT 600 ,!I.O 1200, a paCCTOHHHe B ITJIaHe MelK,!I.y OT,!I.eJIbHbIMH m6KaMH anxepaan - OT 300 ,!I.O 1200 MM.

ITJIHTbI HJIH MeTaJIJIH4eCKHe naHeJIH MoryT 6bITb KBa,!I.paTHoH, urecrnrpannoa, KpeCToo6pa3HOH, TpeyrOJIbHOH - JIlO60H ¢OPMbl, n03- BOJIHlOw;eH rrOJIY4HTb apXHTeKTypHO supaaarensnsre nOBepXHOCTH H BbIllOJIHHTb CTeHY H3 O,!I.HOTHnHbIX 9JIeMeHTOB. B HeKO~PbIX CJIY4aHX ()I.JIH IlIeCTHrpaHHbIX nJIHT, KpeCTo06pa3HblX H ,!I.pymx) He06xo)I.llMO Ii3rOTOBHTb ,!I.060pHble nJIHTbI, YCTaHaBJIHBaeMble ssepxy H BHH3Y CTeHbl. B03MO)KHO apMHpOBaHHe rpynra ropH30HTaJIbHO pacnonoscenasrMH 060JI04KaMH, 3anOJIHeHHblMH rpYHTOM. B nOM CJIY4ae JIHueBaH nOBepXHOCTb crensr oopasyerca ropnaan 060JI04eK, 3arrOJIHeHHbIMH paCTHTeJIbHbiM rpYHTOM, KOTOPblH HMeeT eCTeCTBeHHbIH OTKOC B npenerrax BbICOTbI OAHOH 060JIOQKH. B rpyrrr BbICa)KHBalOT nexoparasnsre paCTeHHH. B UeJIOM TaKaH CTeHa parioraer KaK rpaBHTaUHOHHaH, nOA)l,ep)KHBaH OTKOC sa C4eT MaCCbl 060JI04eK, 3arrOJIHeHHbIX rpYHTOM.

CTeHbl H3 aanOJIHeHHblX rpYHTOM npOCTpaHCTBeHHblX 6JIOKOB patioTalOT KaK MaCCHBHble. OTKPblTYlO nOBepXHOCTb rpynra B BHAe eCTeCTBeHHblX OTKOCOB He60JIbiliOH BbiCOTbl 03eJIeHHlOT nOCJIe OKOH4aHHH MOHTa)Ka H 06paTHOH 3aCbIllKH. ,UJIH nonnepacanas 9THX He60JIbIlIHX OTKOCOB CJIY)KaT ropaaoaransasre 9JIeMeHTbI, MOHTHpyeMble no BbiCOTe C OAHHaKOBblM IlIarOM. 06ma5I YCTOH4HBOCTb CTeHbI 06ecne4HBaeTC5I sa CQeT aHKepYlOW;HX 3JIeMeHTOB, 3aBeAeHHbIX B rpynr 3aCbIITKll. ,UJIH YA06cTBa MOHTa)Ka HX 06'beAHHHlOT B JIOTKOBble, CKJIaA4aTble, Tpy6- -uarsre HJIH npyrne. 6JIOKH, HMelOW;He OTKPbITblH npoqmJIb C JIHueBOH nOBepXHOCTH, H 3aBOAHT B rpynr aa 0,6 BblCOTbl CTeHKll. TOJIW;HHY .9JIeVIeHTOB npHHHMalOT 06bltIHO H3 KOHCTPYKTHBHbIX C006pa)KeHHH He

76

MeHee 70 MM, apaaposanae - B nane cerxn 1I3 apwarypst )l.lIaMeTpoM 6 ... 8 MM C HqeHKOH 100 X 100 MM. Topueaue nOBepXHOCTlI npocrpanCTBeHHhIX 6JIOKOB pexoaennyercs OT)l.eJIhIBaTh KOBPOBOH nJIHTKOH lIJIH BhInOJIHHTh plHi)JIeHhIMlI, C )l.eKOpaTlIBHhIM PHCYHKOM ua 6eTOHe. IToBepXHOCTh rpyara BO 1I36e)KaHlie paasruaa KOChlM )l.O)K)l.eM nOKphIBalOT xpyrmsra KaMHeM, ycrpaasaror K03hIphKlI.

B03MO}KHhI KOHCTPYKLl.HH MeM6paHHhIX CTeH, B KOTOPhIX JIHLl.eBhIe nnarsr BhIIIOJIHeHhI B BH,ne OT,neJIhHhIX 060JIOqeK HJIli MeM6paH (TaKaH CTeHa lIMeeT npeasryuiecrao - B03MO)KHOCTh ee 03eJIeHeHHH).

ITO,n06HO KOHTPCPOPCHhIM nonnopnsre CTeHhI C BepTlIKaJIhHhIM pacnoJIO)KeHlIeM MeM6paH npenycxarpnaaror C anxepaxa, y,nep)KlIBalOIll.lIMH KOHTpq)OPChI, II 6e3aHKepHhIMli. r1I6KaH MeM6paHa B raxnx CTeHaX MO)KeT HMen LI.lIJIlIH,nplIqeCKYIO II KOH0l:I,naJIhHYIO q)OPMY. ITplIqeM MeHee MaTepHaJIOeMKa KOHOH,naJIhHaH.

B CBH31I C TeM qTO TOHKaH MeM6paHa (TOJIIll.lIHa MeHhllIe 10 MM) nonaepscena MeXaHlIqeCKHM nOBpe)K,neHlIHM, npennaraercs ycrpotiCTBO 3aIll.lITHO-,neKOpaTlIBHOrO sxpana C npoexaan aa JIHLl.eBOH nosepxHOCTII CTeHhI, npHKpenJIeHHOrO K KOHTpcpOpCaM. ITpocTpaHCTBO Me)K,[(y 3KpaHOM H MeM6paHOH 3anOJIHHIOT rpyarou, B KOTOPhiH He06xo,nlIMO BblCa)KlIBaTb nexoparnansre paCTeHlIH. TaKHM 06pa30M, paanenenaea q>YHKLl.HH (MeM6paHa - HecyIll.aH KOHCTPYKLl.lIH, 9KpaH - orpasmaioman) C03,naeTCH JIerKaH II Bhlpa3HTeJIhHaH KOHCTPYKLl.lIH CTeH.

rOp1I30HTaJIbHaH YKJIa,nKa MeM6paH, 060JIOqeK lIJIli PH,nOB C60pHhlX nJIHT aHKepHhIX CTeH C «apuaponanaea» rpynra BhI3bIBaeT aarpynneHlI5I, TaK KaK B nepnon ynJIOTHeHlIH oxepennoro CJIOH rpynra HY)KHbI orreunam.asre npHcnoc06JIeHHH ,nJIH ynepacaaas nesaxpennennoro pana nJIHT B npOeKTHOM nOJIO)KeHHlI. mOT He,nOCTaTOK MO}KHO HCKJIlOqlITh, npHMeHHB YCTaHOBKY BepTlIKaJIhHbIX 9JIeMeHTOB (nJIHT HJIli 060JIOqeK) C nOCJIOHHOH aHKepOBKoH. Taxaa 06pa30M, nepsan PH,n rpYHTOBhIX MeM6paHHhIX aHKepOB 6y,neT y,nep)KlIBaTh 9JIeMeHThI B npoeKTHOM noJIO)KeHHH, npn YKJIa,nKe nOCJIe,nYIOIll.HX CJIOeB rpytrra criopnue .9JIeMeHTbi 6y,nYT see 60JIee 3al{penJIHThCH OT CMeIll.eHlIH.

TaKaH KOHCTPYKLl.HH nepcnexraana B YCJIOBlIHX ropusrx MeCTHOCTeti, xorna npn CTpOlITeJIhCTBe 3,naHliH H nonnopnsrx CTeH B. OCHOBaHHH Ii orxoce saneraror npo-mue rpynrsr. B 9TOM cay-rae ,nJIH MlilmMaJIhHOH pa3pa60TKlI orxoca MO)KHO xpernrn, KopOTKlIe MeM6paHHbIe anxepa K saxpennennux B CKaJIe KOPOTKHM CTaJIhHhIM CTep)KHHM, 3aMOHOJIHqeHHbIM B CBepJIeHhIX CKBa)KHHaX aa L1.eMeHTHO-neCqaHOM pacrsope.

B MeM6paHHbIX rtonnopaux crenax JIHLl.eBbIe .9JIeMeHThI llMeIOT BH,n 060JIOqeK H nnar II MoryT 6bITh BhIIIOJIHeHbI )KeJIe306eTOHHhIMlI, nrrasrnOBaHHhIMH MeTaJIJIHqeCKliMlI HJIH nJIaCTMaCCOBhIMH. B CBH3ll C He06- XO,nlIMOCTblO CHH)KeHHH MeTaJIJIOeMKOCTll peKOMeH,nYlOTCH criopnue )KeJIe306eTOHHhIe. KOHCTPyKLl.HII, OTJIHqalOIll.lleCH TaK)Ke IIOBhIIlleHHoti )l.OJIrOBeqHOCThfO.

)I<:eJIe306eTOHHaH c60pHaH JIHLl.eBaH IIJIllTa B q)OpMe ,nJIHHHOH LI.lIJIllH,Z:(PHqecKoti 060JIOqKll peKOMeH,nYeTCH ,nJIH HCIIOJIh30BaHliH B xauecrse HapY)KHhIX CTeH C BepTlIKaJIhHhIM nzm ropll30HTaJIhHbIM pacrio.noxceHHeM 9JIeMeHTOB. 060JIOqKY BhIIIOJIHHlOT 1I3 6eTOHa KJIaCCa B20, npnqeM apaaposanae rrOJIH 060JIOqKH MO)KeT 6hITb KOHCTPYKTlIBHhIM llJIH

77

OTCYTCTBOBaTb. DP0.ll,OJIbHYlO apMaTYPY npn MaJIOM paCCTOHHHH B nnane Me2K.lI,Y anxepyromann 9JIeMeHTaMH TaK2Ke .lI,OnYCKaeTCH He CTaBHTb. MHHHMaJIbHYlO TOJllll,HHY 060JIOIJKH (100 MM) Ha3HaIJalOT H3 YCJIOBHH C06JIlO.Il.eHHH neorixcnaaoro 3alll,HTHOrO CJIOH 6eToHa npn YCTaHoBKe apnarypuoa ceTKH nOJIH 060JIOIJKH nocpenane CeIJeHHH.

Pasvepu 060JIOIJKH (.lI,JIHHa, BbICOTa, nO.ll,beMHcTocTb) npHHHMalOT HCXO.Il.H H3 pac-rera H paspesxu CTeH aa OT.Il.eJIbHble 3JIeMeHTbl, a TaK2Ke C YIJeTOM MHHHMaJIbHOrO apMHpoBaHHH (pexoaeanyexue paaaepu).

B KOHCTPYKUHH .lI,OJI2KHbl 6bITb rrpenycaorpenu .lI,onOJIHIITeJIbHO MOHTaJKHble neTJIH HJIH OTBepCTHH, anxepmre nJIaCTHHbI .lI,JIH npuxpenJIeHHH rH6KHX anxepoe, nonpesxa na onop ax .lI,JIH paaaemeans nnacTHH rH6KHX auxepos (B 3aBHCHMOCTl1 OT KOHCTPYKUHH aHKepoBKH). <PopMa 060JIOIJKH TaKoH KOHCTPYKUHH CTeH OTJIHIJaeTCH nOHH2KeHHOH MaTepHaJIOeMKOCTblO, TaK KaK B HanpaBJIeHHH BOJIHbl 060JIOIJKa patioraer KaK apxa npeuuyruec'raenrro aa CJKaTHe, a B HanpaBJIeHHH npoJIeTa - KaK nepaapesaas 6aJIKa xopsrrnoro nporpn na, HMelOmero yseJIHIJeHHYIO pa60IJylO BblCOTY CeIJeHHH. ,UJl51 9JIeMeHTOB He60JIbIllHX paanepos ueJIeC006pa3Ho H3rOTOBJIeHHe 060JIOIJKH B q)OpMe TpaIIeUHeBH.lI,HOH (npH3MaTHIJeCKoH) CKJIa.ll,KH. CTblKH OTAeJIhHblX C60PHbiX o60JIoIJeK IIpHHHMalOT co CneI.lHaJIbHbIMH ynpyrnxrr IIpOKJIallKaMH, IIpe1l0TBpamalOIUHMH npoHHKHoBeHHe HapYJKY caaux MeJIKHX IJaCTHU rpynra npn ero ynJIOTHeHI1H. B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT KOHCTPYKUHH crsrxa TOPUOsue nOlwnXHOCTH COOPHblX 3JIeMeHTOB MorYT 6blTb rJIa.ll,KHMH, HMeTb lI_)O.Il.OJILHbIH nas rpeyronsnoro (rpaneuaesnnnoro) CeIJeHHH"HJIH coennHeHHe' ll ci urrnqrrax.

HaH60JIee npocra orpaacnaronias KOHCTPy'KUHH H3 C60PHblX JKeJIe- 306eTOHHblX HJIH 6eTOHHblX IIJIHT. B03M02KHO HCnOJIb30BaHHe KaMeHHblX nHJIeHblX nJIHT. Paapesxa JIHueBOH nOBepXHOCTH na OT.lI,eJIbHble eoopnue nJIHTbl .lI,OJI2KHa .lI,OnYCKaTb nocnenyroruyio nJIOTHYlO yKJIa.ll,KY npn O.ll,HOM-.lI,BYX rnnopasxepax. Pasxepsr peKOMeH.lI,YlOTCH TaKHMH, 1JT06bl: 6blJIO TeXHOJIOrHIJHO ynJIOTHHTb CJIOH rpynra aa 01Jepe.ll,HblM PH1l0M nJ1IIT; npoexrnponars crenu npaKTHIJeCKH JIlO60H BhICOTbl; B npenenax O.ll,HOH IIJIHTbl p acrro.aaranocs .lI,OCTaTOIJHOe IJHCJIO aHKepOB (06bI1JHO .lI,BYX-IJeTblpex); 3a4lHKCHpOBaTb IImITY OT .lI,e4lopMaUHH H3 nJIOCKOCTH CTeH.l1cXO.Il.H H3 sroro peKoM'eH.lI,YlOTCH pasxepu B nnane 600 X 600 l:IJIH 1200 x 1200 MM, nonycxaercs MaKCHMaJIbHblH paaxep 1800 MM.

TOJIIU] H J nJIHT .lI,OJI2KHa 6blTb He MeHbIlle 100 MM no paCIJeTY. ,UJIH CTeH 60JIbWOT1 BblCOTbl ueJIeC006pa3Hbi onaornmrue IIJIHTbl pasnof TOJIlll,HHbl, YM2HbIllalOmeHcH no HanpaBJIeHHlO K sep xy CTeH. TOJIIUHHY nJIHT npn pacvere nO.Il.6HpaIOT TaKHM o6pa30M, IJTo6bl C Yl.IeTOM pacnoJI02K~HHH rHGK 1X aHKepOB He Tpe6oBaJIOCh apMHpOBaHHe. ,UJIH HCKJIlOIJeHHH apxarypu MOJKHO HeCKOJIbKO nOBhlCHTb KJIaCC npHMeH5leMOrO 6eTOHa .lI,O B25, B30. nOBbIIlIeHHe KJIaCCa 6eTOHa YJIYL[WaeT TaK)Ke aHKepOBKY nJIHT, rare KaK B 6eTOHHblX IIJIHTaX cran smre saxnaarrue H3.Il.eJIHH He coenanensr C apMaTYPoH.

,UJIH apMHpOBaHHblX nJIHT nOJIO)KeHHe apMaTYPHOH cerkn 3aBHcHT OT cxexu aHKepOBKH. Ilpu aHKepOBKP no yrJIaM apuarypnas cerxa CMemaeTCH K JIHueBOH nOBepXHOCTH ere sr; eCJIH HCnOJIb3YIOTCH CTaJIbnsre aaxnanmre anxepsr, YCTaHaBJIHBaeMble no nOJIIO nJIHTbl, TO cerxa

78

pacno.naraercs B 30He MaKCHMaJIbHbIX paCTHrHBaIOlllJIX HanpmKeHHH B 6eTOHe Hm1 B cepennne Ce4eHHH, HJUI I1pHMeHHIOT l1.BOHHOe apMHpOBaHHe.

Ceopmre IIJlI1TbI l1.0JI2KHbI l1.0rrOJlHHTeJIbHO HMeTb aaxnannsre H3,1J.eJIHH HJIH nonpesxa na onopax l1.JIH aHKepOBKH, MOHTa2KHbIe rrer.na HJIlI OTBepCTHH, naau aa TOpIJ,eBbIX nOBepXHOCTHX l1.JIH CTbIKOBKH.

OCHOBHble KOHCTPYKTHBHhle 9JleMeHTbI CTeH C MeM6paHaMH B xanecrBe JIHIJ,eBbIX 4aCTeH CTeH - MeM6paHbI, KOHTPCPOPCbI H Y3JIbI coennaeHHH. MeM6paHa H3 CTeKJIOrrJIaCTHKa HJIH npyroro apaaposanaoro nnacTHKa MOiKeT 6bITb MHoro· HJIH Ol1.HOBOJIHOBOil; Ol1.HOBOJIHQBaH l1.0JI2KHa HMeTb na KOHIJ,aX amcepnue npacnocotineaas, a MHOrOBOJIHOBaH M02KeT om6aTb KOHTpq)OPCbI H qHIKcHpOBaTbCH aa npOMe2KYT04HbIX onopax (xonrprpopcax) OT CJIyqaHHbIX HJIH HeCHMMeTpH4HbIX HarpY30K; xpenJIeHHe 2Ke anxepaxa npel1.YCMaTpHBaeTCH TOJ1bKO aa KpaHHI1X onopax.

,UJIH aHKepOBKH CTeHOK, T. e. «apMHpOBaHHH» rpynra rapH30HTaJIbHbIMH anxepaxa, pexoaennyerca HCrrOJlb30BaTb cransnsre HJIH nJIaCTMaCCOBble rrOJlOCbI, CeTKH HJIH CnJIOllIHbIe MeM6paHbI.

HaH60Jlee I1pOCToe peurenne - anxep nas m6KaH nonoca H3 CTaJIH, 3amHIlI.eHHaH UHHKOBaHHeM (raJIbBaHHqeCKHM nYTeM HJIH ropH4HM lI.HHKOBaHHeM). ITOJlOCbI Hape3aIOT H3 CT3JIbHbIX JIHCTOB TOJImHHOH 3 MM H npoxarusaior C 3amHToit..,HX co scex CTOpOH. Illupana nOJIOC .1l.0JI2KHa COCTaBJ1HTb 60 ... 120 MM; TOJ1mHHa IJ,HHKOBOro nOKpblTHH - He MeHee 25 MKM.

,UJIH 60JlbllIerO conpOTHBJIeHHH aHKepHbIX IIOJIOC no rpyrn-y 3aCbInKH pexonenayerca BbIITOJIHHTb HX pH<pJIeHbIMH C onno-, llBYXCTOPOHHHMH aucrynaaa aa nosepxnocru HJIH C nporpannpoaannea npn paspesxe. B03MoiKeH BapHaHT anxepos H3 apuarypu C npncoennnennuaa T04e4- HOH KOHTaKTHoH caapxoii KOPOTKHMH norrepeunsnra CTep2KHHMH.TaKHe anxepsr H3rOTOBJIHIOTCH aBTOMaTH4eCKI1 C HCnOJIb30BaHHeM Maman ,1J.JIH csapxa apaarypuux ceTOK H rrOCJIe,1J.YIOIIJ,eH paapesxon ceTOK. JlJIH Ha,ll;e2KHOH H ,1J.ellIeBOH sanurrsr m6KI1x nOJ1OC pexovennyerca HX nOKpbITHe I1JIeHOqHOH H30JIHIJ,HeH, aanpaxep TepMoycal1.0qHOH nJ1eHKOH, IIJIOTHO oXBaTbIBaIOIIJ,eH no.nocy npa ycanxe,

Bonpocu npoTHBoKOPP03HOHHOH H30JIHIJ,HH rH6KHx nOJIOCOBbIX aHKepOB 04eHb BaiKHbI C T04KH 3peHHH l1.0JIrOBe4HOCTH H Ha,1J.e2KHOCTH MeM6paHHhlx nOl1.nOpHbIX CTeHOK, n09TOMY 6oJ1ee ,1J.OJIrOBeqHbI KOHCTPYKIJ,HH anxepos - apnupoaanaue I1JIaCTMaCCbI. HaXO,1J.Hcb B rpynre, nJ1aCTMaCCbI npaKTHQeCKH He I1Ol1.Bep2KeHbI B03,1J.eHCTBHHM, BbI3bIBaIOllI.l1M HX crapenne. OHI1 OTJIHQaIOTCH HCKJIIOQllTeJIbHOH KOPP03HOHHOH CTOtiKOCTbIO, apanposaanue IIJIaCTHKH HMeIOT BbICOKHe np04HOCTHble nOKa3aTeJIH. IT09TOMY pasaepsr 110JIOCOBbIX aHKepOB H3 CTeKJIOIIJIaCTI1- xa 6Y,1J.YT npaxrnsecxa O,1J.HHaKOBbI C paaaepaan CTaJIbHbIX aHKepOB. ECJlH 2Ke B KaQeCTBe aHKepOB lICnOJIb3YIOTC5I MeHee npo-msre I1JlaCTMaCCbI, TO OT rrOJIOCOBbIX aHKepOB IJ,eJIeC006pa3HO rrepexonrrn, K cencax llJIH CnJIOllIHbIM MeM6paHaM, nOJIHOCTbIO HaKpbIBaIOIIJ,HM CJIOll rpynra saCbIl1KI1 H npHCOeJI,HHeHHbIM K JIllueBbIM naarax B OT,1J.eJIbHbIX TOQKax.

rH6KHe anxepu xpenxr K 3aKJIa,1J.HhlM H3l1.eJIHHM nJIHT B BH,1J.e noJIOC, BbmYIIJ,eHHbIX napyxcy na paccroanae 100 MM 11 saaaxepeaaux B 6eToHe npnsapxof K apaarypnon cerxe, lIJIll npnsapxof nonepesHbIX xoporsnuea apaarypu, HJIll 2Ke 3arll6oM KOHIJ,a nOJIOCbl B oerone.

79

TIOJIOCbI rrpIICOe)],lUUIIar O,nHHM- ,nByMH OOJITaMH IIJIH Ha,neBaIOT TOpeU rrOJIOCbI C BbIpe30M na BbIcTyrr anxepa. 3aKJIa,nHbIe 1I3,neJIIiH ITJIHT H 60JITbI C raHKaMII ,nOJIiKHbI ObITb H3 roro me MaTeplIaJIa, qTO II CTaJIbaue rrOJIOCbI, II IIMeTb H30JIHUHIO. Tpe60BaHliH ITO H30JIHUlili npezrsaaJIHIOTCH TaK)Ke K aHKepHbIM rrOJIOCaM, KperrHIll,HMCH K yrJIaM llJIHT 6e3 3aKJIa,nHbIX 1I3,neJIHH.

KOHCTPYKUHII rrOJIOCOBblX aHKepOB, KperrHIll,IIXC5I 6e3 3aKJIa,nHbIX H3,neJII1H B rrJIIiTaX, 60JIee TeXHOJIOrlIqHbI, TaK KaK He Tpe6yIOTcH JIHlIInae onepanan H ,neTaJIII, HO HeCKOJIbKO YCJIO)KHHeTCH speaenaoe saxpen.1IeHHe PH,nOB rrJIHT npn sacunxe II yrrJIOTHeHIIH oxepennoro CJIOH rpynra.

ITOJIOCOBble anxepsr scex TIiITOB, ceTKII H MeMopaHbI MoryT 6bITb npncoenaaeasr K BbIpe3aM IIJIH lIIrrOHKaM B ropH30HTa(bHbIX msax.

-~ B xonrprpopcax aHKepOBKa BepTIIKaJIbHbIX MeMopaH B03MO)KHa: nplIKJIeHBaHlieM }\leM6paHbI K ITJIaCTMaCCOBOMY nporpamo lllBeJIJIepHOrO ce4eHIIH, onnparomeaycs aa np aaoyrorrsnsnt B CeqeHIIH KOHTP<PoPC; TO )Ke C xpennenaea OOJITaMH npoqmJIH K KOHTpq)OpCY; YCTPOHCTBOM KpyrJIbIX He3aMKHYTbiX rrOJIOCTeH, BepTIIKaJIbHO pacnOJIO)KeHHbiX B rconrprpopcax, C BBe,neHlIeM B 9TlI nOJIOCTII YTOJIIll,eHIIH aa xonuax MeMOpaHbI. BepTIIKaJIbHbIe nOJIOCTH y,n06HO C03,naBaTb npn nOMOIll,H paapeaannsrx nJIaCTMaCCOBblX rpyti, YCTaHOBJIeHHbIX B OnaJIYOKY KOHTP$OpCOB. YTOJIIll,eHIIH aa xouuax MeM6paH C03,naIOT, OOOpaqHBaH KOHeu MeMopaHbI soxpyr rrJIaCTMaCCOBOH TpyObI C []OCJIe,nYIOIll,HM nplIKJIeHaanaea xpas MeMopaHbi K MeMOpaHe.

Ilpn TIll,aTeJIbHOM C06JIIO,neHHII TeXHOJIOrli1i npOII3Bo,nCTBa pa60T KOHUbI MeM6paH MorYT 6bITb 3a6eTOHlipOBaHbI B KOHCTPYKUIiIi KOHTP¢oPCOB, eCJIIi nepen 6eTOHHpOBaHlIeM, npn YCTpOHCTBe onanyrioa, KOHUbI MeM6paH srepea cnennaxsmre Ill,eJIIi BBeCn! BHYTPb onaJIy60K H BbJ[]OJIHIITb He60JIbllme YTOJIIlI.eHIIH na xonuax (nanpnaep, npocro COmyTh spas). DOJIee TeXHOJIOrH4HO YCTPOHCTBO BepTHKaJIbHbIX rrOJIOCTeH ,nJIH aHKepOBKH.

3.2. KOHCTPYKLV1H 05L1-'ECTBEHHbIX 3AAHHIiI

Or,neJIbHO pacnOJIO>KeHHbIe orimecrsemrae 3AaHliH npn HerJIy60KoM 3aJIO)KeHHII MoryT 6blTb arpayaaoro rnna, B03BbIIlIaIOIll,HeCH, CKB03HbIe HJIIi aa CKJIOHax. OTJIH4He OT )KIIJIbIX - 3HaqHTeJIbHO OOJIbiliHe 06beMbI, paaxepu B ITJIaHe, rJIYOIIHbI. TaK, arpayauoe 3AaHHe KBeoeKCKOH aoncepsaropaa (Kaaana) BbI[]OJIHeHO B ,nBa 9Ta)Ka II IIMee-r []OA3eMHbIH JI.BOp (arpnya), B KOTOPbIH BbIXO,nHT OKHa OCHOBHbIX ITOMeIll,eHIIH H 6aJIKOH sroporo sraaca (pHC. 3.8). ATpHYMHoe snauae nercxoro cana B r. Ocaxa (5InoHHH) C 06BaJIOBKOH ccoemaerca C HapY)KHOH reppnroplieH 4eTbIpbMH npoxonasia, coe,nIIHeHHbIMII C BHyTpeHHIIM 03eJIeHeHHbIM ,nBOPHKOM, IIMeIOIll,IIM rrJIaBaTeJIbHbIH oacceflH. Pasaepu 3AaHHH B nnane - 40 X 40 M. B03BblIlIaIOIll,eeCH ananne IlIKOJIbI BbICOTOH B ,nBa 9Ta)Ka B r. ,U)KecpcpepcoH (CIIIA) BbIITOJIHeHO aaanoravno B03BbImaiomeaycs )KIIJIOMY ,nOMY, HO IIMeeT YBeJIH4eHHble pasaepu II ,nOITOJIHIITeJIbHblH cserosoa rpouapt, ,nJIH OCBeIll,eHHH ITOMeIll,eHIIH, y,naJIeHHbIX OT HeooBMoBaHHoH CBOOO,nHOH CTeHbI. CKB03HblM BbillOJIHeH 06Ill,eCTseHHbIH nenrp MIIKpopaHoHa BO <l>paHUHH. OH He 3arJIYOJIeH OTHOCH-

80

2

6

3

A

e

PHC. 3.B. Tanu 06meCTBeHHblX 3~aHHH:

!Ill - ~TPIlYMHble; 6, 11 .... B03Bbll1lalO~HeCm e - CKB03Hoei a - MeJlKoro 3 aJlO2KeHlHJ; e - na Cl.'liOlIe~ 1 ~ 06BaJlOBKa; 2 - aTpnYM; 3 - QJYHfI;~MeHT: 4 --. 06BaJlOBaHHaH (.!TeHa) 5 _ TIe. pexpsrrae: 6 - noxpsrrue; 7 ...... TIOfI;TIOpHaH CTeH~.

TeJIhHO 1J0BepXHOCTH rpynra, HO 06BaJIOBaH C orpaaaaeanea 06BaJIOB«II nO.ll.llOPHbIMH CTeHaMH H YCTPOHCTBOM npOXO.ll.OB H CBeTOBbIX npoeMOB no nepunerpy.

B rpaaoraacxax 3.ll.aHHHX BBH,lJ,Y HX 60JIbIlleH 5na)KHOCTH (no CpaBHeHHIO C )KHJIbIMH) HCl10JIb3YlOT BBO,lJ, ,lJ,HeBHoro CBeTa xepea CBeTOEO)J,bI, pacceaaarena COJIHeqHbIX JIyqeH B aane BepTHKaJIbHhIX UH.llHH.ll.POB co CBeTOOTpa)Kal:OmeH nOBepXHOCThl:O.

KOHCTPYKTHBHble pemenna rpa)K,lJ,aHCKHX nO,lJ,3eMHbIX 06BaJIOBaHHIiIX 3.ll.aHHH aHaJIOmqHbI peineaasa MHor03TaiKHbIX npOH3BO,lJ,CTBeHHHX 3,lJ,ClHHH, aar JIy6JIeHHbIX iKHJIbIX 3,lJ,aHHH. OHH MorYT 6bITb nsinonHeHb! 113 criopnoro, C60PHO-MOHOJIHTHOrO HJIH MOHOJIHTHOrO iKeJIe306eWHa, B OTKPbITOM KOTJIOBaHe, Cl10C06aMH «CTeHa B rpynre», onYCKHUM KOJIO,lJ,ueM, ropnsnr.

-c K HClCT05ImeMY BpeMeHH B aauieit crpaae paspaooranu rnnoaue upoexrsi 06meCTBeHHhIX 3,lJ,aiIHH: nO,lJ,3eMHbIH 06meCTBeHHhIH KOMnJIeKC -o6'beMOM 5562 M3 (THnoBoH npoexr 272-31-70 Il,H11118TI roproaoOlbrfOBhIX 3,lJ,aHHH H TypHCTCKHX KOMnJIeKcoB), nO,Il,3eMHhIH orimecr-

81

0.000

k> »> In ;11 »1 11~,n iN iff )jj k) ,w iu m r»

r----,

~---r,

L ....J

2

3

5

4

3

~~auL....V----'Ir

~ 5670 ~l ~r 2+1'0 iaQl)I soo L I

~ (3970;-9170 -t-=+ ----;--1'

, 0,000 a

:w »; ))} ,,;; }JI' /N ;t:;;;, ;» ))) H) .w )u N) )u ;» »; :t!>

r L

~ ...:t
/ { ~ '\ X I
<eli 9
1" I g ,
~
~ ~
\-1, .ds ~ r- -,
1=-......., 6(~ rC= 1--=-'1,
-- ___ .J_ tfooo:. 1---[
3300
. GOOO (SlOO/ wv. __ ~+~j

J"000,~ 1200

6

8000

B

BeHHhlH KOMnJIeKCl 06'heMOM 7154 M3 (THnODOA npoexr 272-31-69 UHI1113TI' yseonsrx 3)l.aHHH), nO)l.8eMHhIH KHHOTeaTp aa 300 MeCT, 06'heMOM 6779 M3 (THIIOBOH npoexr 261-13-105 ll.H11113TI YlIe6Hblx 3)l.aHHH), p5I)l. THnOBblX IlpOeKTOB YHHBepCaJIbHhIX a)l.MHHHcTpaTHBHblx 3)l.aHHH C nO)l.BaJIbHbIMH rapascaxa (nanpnaep, npoexr 264-21-34 I..(HI1I13TI HM. B. C. Mesenneaa).

B npoesrax 06IIJ.ecTBeHHbIx 3)l.aHHH, KaK npaBHJIO, lllHPOKO HCIlOJIb- 30BaHhI rnnoaue KOHCTPYKUHH nO)l.3eMHbI}r coopYJKeHHH no CepH5IM Y-OI-01/80 (nan. 1...4) H Y-OI-02/80. B cepnn Y-OI-0I/80 J.\aHbI KOHCTPYKUHH, IlpeJ.\ycMaTpHBaIOIIJ.He JKeJIe300eTOHHhIe 6aJIOllHbIe noxpsrTHH, B cepnn Y-OI-02/80 - 6e36aJIOllHbIe (pHC. 3.9). BaJIOllHbIe 110- KpblTHH COCTOHT H3 C60PHbIX paspesnax 68JIOK Ilp5IMoyrOJIbHOrO nonepesuoro cenenna )l.JIHHOH 5,7 M, onHpaIOIIJ.HXC5I na C60pHhIe KOJlOHHhI BblCOTOH 3 H cexeanea 0,5 X 0,25; 0,5 X 1,0 H 0,5 X 1,5 M.

Ha 6JIOKH MOHTHPYIOT criopaue peopacrue HJIH nJIOCKHe nJIHTbI.

TIaHeJIH CTeH nJIOCKHe, TOJIIIJ.HHOH 0,35 M, C MOHOJIHTHblM CThlKOM MeJK)l.Y naHeJIHMH. CPYH)I,aMeHTbI non crenu - JIeHTOllHbIe C60pHhIe; non KOJIOHHhI - MOHOJIHTHhIe cToJI611aThle. KOHCTPYKUHH M02I{HO npHMeH5ITb B CYXHX rpynrax, a TaK)Ke npn ypOBH€ rPYHToBblX BO)l. He nsnue 2 M OT nOJIa.

Be36aJIOllHbIe nepexpsrrns c ceTKOH KOJIOHH 6 X 6 M H 9 X 6 M no cepnn Y -01-02/80 COCTOHT H3 C60PHhIX nJIHT )l.BYX THnOB (Ha)l.KOJIOHHhlX H npOJIeTHhIx), TOJIIIJ.HHOH 120 MM, onHpaIOIIJ.HXcH aa C60PHhI6:

KanHTeJIH. KanHTeJIH paauepaxa B nnase 1,7 X !,7 M H 1,9 X 1,9 M

. MOHTHPYIOT aa KOJIOHHhl ceaenaex 0,6 X 0,6 M (0,8 X 0,8 M), sucoTOH 3,15 H 3,35 M. TIPH CYXHX rpyurax HCnOJIh3YIOT OT)l.eJIhHO CTOHIIJ.He ¢YH)laMeHThI non KOJIOHHhl H C60pHhIe JIeHTOllHhIe ¢YH)laMeHThI non CTeHbI. CTeHoBhIe nanena TOJIIIJ.HHOH 300 .. .400 MM H BblCOTOH 4 M saMOHOJlHlIHBaIOT B IIJ.eJIeBOM crsnce CPYH)l.aMeHTa. B BO)lOHaChIIIJ.eHHhIX rpynrax npHMeH5IIOT MOHOJIHTHOe )KeJIe306eToHHoe )l.HHIIJ.e TOJIIIJ.HHOH 300 ... 500 MM H MOHOJlHTHhIe CTeHbI.

TIO)l3eMHhIH 06IIJ.ecTBeHHhIM: KOMnJIeKC no THnOBOMY npoexry

272-31-69 BbIIIOJlHeH H3 THnOBhlX 3JleMeHTOB no cepnn Y-01-0t. B non- 3eMHoH lIaCTH KOMnJleKCa pa3MeIIJ.eHhI xade, roprosun san, arrrexa, CTOJlOBaH, Mara3HH, CKJIa)lhI H np. CMeTH8H CTOHMOCTh 1 M3 - 58,69 Pi 1 M2 06IIJ.eH nJIOIIJ.a,ZI,H - 219,81 p., 1 M2 nOJle3HOM: nJIOIIJ.a)l.H- 454,07 p. TIPH nJlOIIJ.a,ZI,H nO)l3eMHOM: lIaCTH 1918,85 M2 nJIOIIJ.a)lb- saCTPOHKH COCTaBJlHeT scero 168,9 M2 (nJIOIIJ.a,ZI,h nO)l.3eMHbIX BXO)l.OB).

4. OC06EHHOCTH P.A.C"IET.A. H KOHCTPYHPOB.A.HHSI nOA3EMHbiX KOHCTPYKLI,HA

Oc06eHHOCTH pacsera nO)l.3eMHbIX 3)laHHM: B HaCTOHIIJ.ee BpeMH saBHCHT or npHMeH5IeMhIX MeTO)l.OB. MeTO)lhI CTpOHTeJIbHOM: MexaHHKH HCnOJIb3YIOT, eCJlH B3aHMO,ZI,eM:CTBHe 3)laHHH H rpYHTa He YlIHThIBaeTC5I,

PHC. 3.9, THITOBble KOHCTPYKlI.HH ocmecrseaaux 3~aHH":

a, 6 - c60pHble C 110KPblTlHIMII COOToeTCTlleHHO 6aJlOlJHblM II 6e36aJIOlJHblM; 6 - MOHOJlIITHblel 1 ~ nJlIITbI 6aJlOqHblX nOKpbITHH; 2 - 6aJlKa; J, 10 - KOJlOHHbI; 4, 1 J ~ CTeHa; 5, 6,..,.. tPYHAaMeHTbI AJIH 6aJlOlJHblX 3AaHHH: 7. 8 - 11J1I1TbI 6e36aJIOlJHblX rrepexpsrrna: 9 - xanurensj

12 - «PYHAaMeH'11 npa 6e36aJlOlJHblX nepexpsrraax,

6*

83

a KOHCTPYKUHH paCClJHTbIBalOT na aanaauue HarpY3KH; aKTHBHoe ,lJ,aBJIeHHe rpyara (ropaoe ,lJ,aBJIeHHe) ClJHTalOT H3BeCTHbIM, a naCCHBHoe (OTTIOp) onpe,lJ,eJIHIOT HCXO,lJ,H H3 COOTHOllleHHH ,lJ,e¢0pMaUHOHHhIX xapaKTepHCTHK rpyrrra H KOHCTPYKUHH. MeTO,lJ,bI reopna ynpyrocrn, n.nacTHlJHOCTH HJIH nOJI3YlJecTH HCnOJIh3YlOT npn pacxere KOHCTPYKUHH nO,lJ,3eMHbIX 3,lJ,aHHH C YlJeTOM KOHTaKTHoro B3aHMO,ZI,eHCTBHH 3,lJ,aHHH H rpyara, B 3TOM CJIYlJae qaCTO HCnOJIb3YIOT MeTO,lJ,hI KOHelJHbiX 3JIeMeHTOB H MeTO,lJ, rpaaasnux 3JIeMeHTOB (M1(8 H Mr8) , opuerrrapoaanasre

na npnaeaeaae 8BM [15]. ,

TIPH pacsere He06xo,lJ,HMO ytmrunart, .ll.eHcTBYlOmylO HopMaTHBHYIO JIHTepaTYPY [48 ... 67]. OrJl:eJIbHble MeTO,lJ,bI pacnera nO,lJ,p06HO npnse-

nena B [5, 13, 15]. ,

TIpHMeHHeMble cnocotisr npaxrunecxax paClJeTOB nO,ZI,3eMHbIX anaHHM cymecrseaao CBH3aHbl C oc06eHHocTHMH npOH3BO,lJ,CTBa pa60T. Cnoc06 npOH3BO,lJ,CTBa pa60T, 3aBHCHmHH: B nepnyto onepens OT CTeneHH 3arJIy6JIeHHH 3,lJ,aHHH, BJIHHeT na anaxenae H aanpaaneaue HarpY30K OT 1I:aBJIeHHH rpyara H rpYHToBbIX BO,ZI,.

4.1. HArpY3KM

HarpY3KH na nonseansre KOHCTPYKUHH ,ZI,eJIHT na nOCTOHHHhle, )1.JIHTeJIbHble, xparxonpeaeaaue H ocooue: B pacxer BBO,lJ,HT HX OCHOBnue H ocooue COqeTaHHH:

nOCTOHHHbIe - nee lJaCTeH: cOOPY)KeHHl1, B TOM lJHCJIe sec aecylUHX H orpaacnaiomnx CTpOHTeJIbHblX KOHCTPYKUHH:, nee H ,lJ,aBJIeHHe rpYHTOB (aacsmea, 3aCblTIOK, rpYHTOBblX BO)1.) , aarpysxa OT pacnono)KeHHbIX nan nO.ll.3eMHhIM 3,lJ,aHHeM cOOPY)KeHHH:, ,ZI,OPO)KHbIX nOKphITHH:, KOMMYHHKaUHH; YCHJIHH OT npe)1.BapHTeJIbHOrO HanpH)KeHHH apvaTYPbl;

,lJ,JIlITeJIbHbIe - nee 060PY,lJ,OBaHHH na nepespsrmax: ,lJ,aBJIeHHe iKH.ll.KOCTeH:, csmysux TeJI B eMKOCTHX; aopxapyeaaa nacri, BpeMeHHOH:

HarpY3KH B )KHJIbIX 3,lJ,aHHHX, CJIY)Ke6HbIX H 6bITOBbIX nOMemeHHHX; HarpY3KH B CKJIa,lJ,aX, XOJIO,lJ,HJIbHHKaX, apxnaax H npyrax 3,ZI,aHHHX; OT O,ZI,HOrO nO,lJ,'beMHOrO HJIH onaoro MOCTOBoro xpaaa, YMHO)KeHHble na Ko3$PHuHeHTbl: 0,5 - ,lJ,JIH KpaHOB rpynrnr pe)KHMa pa60TbI 41(-61( H 0,7 - .ll.JIH KpaHOB rpynnsr pe)KHMa pa60TbI 71(; caeroaue narpysKH ,ZI,JIH III ... IV KJIHMaTHlJeCKHX paH:OHOB C K03cpCPHuHeHTaMH 0,3 ... 0,6 H np.;

xparxcapeaeaaae - nee TpaHcnopTHblX cpencrn, ,lJ,BH)KymHxcH B nO.ll.3eMHoM 3,lJ,aHHH HJIH Ha,lJ, HHM; OT seca JIIO,lJ,eH, ,lJ,eTaJIeH:, MaTepHaJIOB B 30Hax 06CJIY)KHBaHHH, peaonra; nacrt, HarpY3K{H na nepexpuTHHX iKHJIbIX H orimecrneauux 3,lJ,aHHH:; caeroaue H aerposue; rexneparypasre B03,lJ,eH:CTBHH; npu H3rOTOBJIeHHH, nepesosxe H MOHTa)Ke C60pHbIX 3JIeMeHTOB; xpanoaue H np.;

ocotiste - CeHCMHqeClme, napuaasre B03,lJ,eH:CTBHH; aarpysxa, Bb13bInaeasre pe3KHMH HapyweHHHMH TeXHOJIOrHqeC[Wro npouecca, speMeHHOH: r.eacnpaanocrsto HJIH nOJIOMKOH: 060pY,lJ,OBaHHH; 06YCJIOBJIeHnsre aepaanoaep asraa ,lJ,erpopM3II.HHMH OCHOBaHHH npn xopenaoa H3MeHeHHH CTpyKTYPbl rpyrrra (npocanxa npn 3aMalJHBaHHH, OTTaH-

84

4.1. cl>u3HKo-MexaHHlIecKue xapaKTepHCTHKH rpyara [23]

DOpO,ll,bl

K03!jJ!jJ1lIJ;lleHT Kpe110CTil tKp

DJIOTHOCTb, I{r/M" X X 10-3

KalKYIlIHilcH y r on

BHyTpOOHero Tpe. HIlH, rpaA

HaH60JIee xpenxne lIJIOTHble H BH3KHe KBapUHTbI H 6a3aJlbTbl, HCKJIIO'lHTeJIbHble lIO KpelIOCTH npyrae noponu

O'leHb xpenxae rpaanrosue noponu, xsapneaaa noprpnp, 04eHb KpenKHH rpannr, KpeMHHCTblH CJIaaeu, MeHee xpenxae, He)!{eJIH yxaaaarrsre ssnne, KBapUHTbl, caxsre xpenxae lIeC'laHHKH H H3BeCTHHKH [paHHT (nJlOTHbIH) Ii rpaHHTOBhIe noponsr, cseas xpemcae neCl.J.aHHKH H H3BeCTHHKH, xaapnesue PY,ll,Hble )!{HJlbl, KpenKHH KOHrJIOMepaT, O'leHb KpenKHe )1{eJle3HbIe pynsr

H3BeCTHHKH (xpenxae), HeKpelIKHH rpaaar, xpenKHe neC'laHHKH, KpelIKHH MpaMOp, .nOJIOMHT, KOJI'le.naHbI

06b1I<HOBeHHblH lIeC'laHHK, )!(eJIe3Hble pynu DeC'laHHCTbIe CJJ an UbI , cnaaneasre neC'laHHKH' KpelIKHH rJIHHHCTblH CJIaHeu, HeKpelIKHH necsaaax H H3BeCTHHK, MHrKUH KOHrJlOMepaT

Pasaooopasaae CJIaHUhI (aesperncae), nJIOTHblH Meprens

MHrKHH CJIaHeu, MHrKHH H3BeCTHHK, MeJl, KaMeHHaH COJlb, ranc, Mep3JIblH rpyirr, aHTpaUJ.lT, 06bIKHOBeHHhIH MepreJIb, paspymeansia rrecxan HK, cuexenrapoBaHRaH ransxa H xpsm, KaMeHHCTaH nopona Illetienacraa nopona, paspyrneanua CJlaHeU, CJIe)!{aBmaHCH raJlbKa H me6eHb, KpelIKHH KaMeHHhIH yroas, OTBepneBUJaH rJIHHa

[JIHHa (lIJIOTHaH), cpe.nHHH KaMeHHblM yrons, KpenKHH uaHOC, rJIHHHCTaH nopona

JIerKaH neC'laHHCTaH rJIHRa, aecc, rpaaan, MHrKHH yrons

PaCTHTeJIbHblH rpYHT, ro prp JIerKuii cyrJIHHOK, ChIpOM neCOK

Ilecox, OCblIIH, MeJIKHH rpasua, aacunnaa nopona, ,lJ.06hITbIH yro.rs

DJIbIBYHhI, 6oJIoTHcTaH nopoaa, pa3)!{H)!{eHHbIM Jlecc H npyrue pa3:lKH)!{eHHhIe rpytrrsi

20

15

10

2,8 ... 3

2,6 ... 2,7

2,5 ... 2,6

8 6 5

4 3

2,5 2,4 2,5

87

85

82,5

EO 75 7~,5

70 70

65

60 60 40 30 27

9

BaHHH Mep3JIOrO rpyara H np.) MJIH ocenanaea era B paiioaax ropnux

BbIpa60TOK H KapcTOBhIX [5U- ,

OCHoBHbIe COl!eTaHHH HarpY30K: npn pacnere no npe,lJ,eJIbHbIM COCTOHHHHM nepsotr rpyrrnh1 - nOCT051HHbIe, . )J.JIHTeJIbHO nencrsyiomne H onna xparxoapeaeaaaa: npn pacsere no fipe)J.eJIbHbIM COCTOHHH51M BTOPOH rpyrmu - nocroaanue, )J.JIHTeJIbHbIe H )J.Be (HJIH 60JIee) xparKOBpeMeHHbIe, npHLIeM nOCJIe)J.HHe YMHO)KaIOT aa K03qxpHUHeHT COLIeT3- HHH HarpY30K 'lI' = 0,9.

Oc06hIe COl!eTaHHH narpyaox - nOCTOHHHble HarpY3KH, ,n.JIHTeJIbnsre, B03MO)KHWe xparxospeaenasre H O)J.Ha HS OC06bIX HarpY30K (HJIIi O)J.HO H3 YCHJIHH OT OC:OOblX B03)J.eHcTBHH). TIPH 3TOM 3HaqeHHH xparxoapeaenaax HarpY30K YMHO>KalOT na K03qxpHl1;HeHT COqeTaHHH '" =

85

2,8 2,5

2

2,4

1,5

1,8 ... 2 1 ,8 1 ,6 1,5 1 ,7

1,5 ... 1,8

0,8 0,6 0,5 0,3

~1' 0.25&
11
'6 .£:
q,. 11 • ..<:: 11,"
.~ ~~ ~


45°-'% 45'- '%. .5
B
6 B
a f ,

B

r

e

0, I UUIll lllHUJ:tl1IJ.lllll@ll UJlllIJJJlJ,UD

IWJUID ~arlUUUlll

.. ::c

)K

3

a,

.Ii

*6'o.r

.

B

M

K

= 0,8 (xpoxe cnysaea ,l{JIH pacsera 3,l{amdi B CeHCMHqeCKHX paHonax [13]).

K.OHCTPYKUHH paCCqHTbIBalOT no necymea cnoc06HoCTH (npenensnsre COCTOHHHH nepaon rpyrmsr) H no nparonnocra K HOpMaJIbHOii 9KCnJlyaTaUHH (npenensnue COCTOHHHH BTOPOH rpyrmu).

Pacner no npe,l{eJIbHbIM COCT05IHHHM nepsoa rpyrmu .ll.OJIJKeH npeaoTBpaTHTb paspymeaae, onpoxanuaaane HJIH CKOJIb)KeHHe, BClIJIbITHe aarJIy6JIeHHbIX 3.ll.aHHH HJIH paapyureane OT ,l{eHCTBHH CHJIOBbIX <}JaKToPOB H arpeccaanoa cpenst; lIO npenem.aua COCTOHHHHM BTOPOH rpynlIbI - 06pa30BaHHe TpeIl1,HH; speaacpaoc HJIH npO,l{OJI)KHTeJIbHOe paclKpblTHe rpeumn, xpesaepaue JIHHeH:HbIe HJIH yrJIOBbIe nepeaemenaa.

OOCToHHHbIe HarpY3KH OT coocrneanoro seca KOHCTPYKUHH onpe]l.eJIHIOT B COOTBeTCTBHH C HX npoeKTHbIMH pasaepaan H y,l{eJIbHbIM BeCOM CTpOHTeJIbHbIX MaTepHaJIOB. B cnynae, eCJIH ,l{OJIH c06CTBeHHoro aeca KOHCTPYKUHH COCTaBJIHeT He 60JIee 5 % pacseruoro BepTl:IKaJIbHOrO,l{aBJIeHHH, c06cTBeHHbIH: nee ,l{OnYCKaeTCH He ymrruaars.

B HarpY3KY na nOKpbITHH BXO,l{HT: BepTHKaJIbHOe ,l{aBJIeHHe rpyarca; sec CJIOeB H30JI5IUHH H ,l{OPO)KHOH: O.ll.e)K,l{bI (npn pacnOJIOJKeHHH .nopor nan nepexpsrrnea), nee KOMMYHHKaUHH (npn HX pacnOJIO)KeHHH na nOKpbITHH). Bee CJIOeB .ll.OPOJKHOH O,l{e)K,l{bI, rnnpo-, TenJIOH30JIHUHH H KOMMYHHKaUHH lIpHHHMalOT no .ll.aHHbIM rrpoexra.

HopMaTHBHoe BepTHKaJIbHOe ,l{aBJIeHHe rpynra (ropaoe ,l{aBJIeHHe) npa rJIy60KoM 3aJIO)KeHHH n0.ll.3eMHbIX 3,l{aHHH H coopY)KeHHH: orrpe.n,eJIHIOT B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT pasxepa caona ,l{aBJIeHHH, KOHTypa ssrpa- 60TKH H Ko9$PHUHeHTa xpenocra rpyara fKP: ,l{JIH HeCBH3HbIX rpYHToB /Kp = tg qJ; ,l{JIH CKaJIbHbIX fKP ~ O,lR, rne qJ - yron BHYTpeHHero TpeHHH, R - Ky6HKoBaH npOl!HOCTb rpynra na C)KaTHe, MOa (TaOJI. 4.1). Pasxep B lIJIaHe CBO,l{a ,l{aBJIeHHH (pHC. 4.1)

B = b + 2h tg ( 45° - ;); B = D + 2D ctg ( 45° - ~).

BbICOTY CBO,l{a ,l{aBJIeHHH hCD BblqHCJIHIOT no ¢OPMY JIe hCD = B12f·

BepTHKaJIbHOe PH H ropH30HTaJIbHOe e; HopMaTHBHoe ropnoe nanJIeHHe, Ila, onpenenaror, YCJIOBHO lIpHHHMaH HX paBHOMepHO pacnpe]l.eJIeHHbIMH (CM. pHC. 4.1):

PH = kp'YhcD;

qH = 'Y (hCD + O,Sh) fI,

rne kp - Ko9$PHUHeHT YCJIOBHH pa60TbI ropaoro MaCCHBa; 'Y - ynensHbIH nee rpyura, H/M3; n = tg2 (45°- ;) - ,l{JIH ncex rpYHTOB, KpOMe fiJIaCTHqHbIX; fI = 11/(1 - 11) - ,l{JIH nJIaCTHqHbIX rpyHToB; 11 - K09<jJq>HUHeHT Ilyaccona.

PRe, 4.1. Cxeaa aarpyaox:

(I, 6 - O'l' GII0A8 A8DJIeHHR: , - O'l' BbIB8J18; a ...... AJIB 3AaHHA MeJIKoro 3aJIOJKeHH iI: iJ ..... AJIR OnycKHbIlI coopyllteURA; , ..... npa A8BJIeHHH PllAOM paCnOJIOlKeHHOro SAaRHlI; VIC, 3 ~ npa U.RMOAeACTBHR .eJJOK G rpYHTOM; U - OT apeaeaacn HarpY3KH aa nOBepXHOCTH; " ... M -

If Q'J) aBTOTp8HcnopT3.

87

llaBJleHHe OT BhIBaJIa B TpellU1HOB3ThIX CKaJlhHhIX rpyarax H33HalJaIOT B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT cpennero paCCT051HH51 Me)K,lJ,Y rpemanaxn h,; PH = 0,61'b npn 0,04b < b; < a,08b; PH = O,351'b npn O,08h-< < b; < 0,7b; PH He YlJHThIBaIOT, eCJlH bT> 0,17b; qH = O,l9yh npn 0,04b < bT ~ O,08b; qH He YlJHThlBaIOT, eCJlH bT> O,08b. llPH pacxere npHHHMaIOT BepTHKaJlhHOe 1I:aBJIeHHe OT nunana paBHOMepH() pacnpeneneaasnr no ,lJ,JlHHe 0,25b C p3CnOJlOIKeHHeM ero aa TOM yxacrxe KOHCTPYKUHH, rae OHO BhI3hIBaeT HaH60JlhWHe YCHJlHH (pHC. 4.1 t 6)~ DOKoBoe ,lJ,aBJleHHe OT ausana qe llOJl)KHO 6hITh C O,lJ,HOH CTOPOHhl KOHCTPYKUHH.

ECJlH paccroaaue OT KPOBJlH Bhlpa60Tlm ,lJ,0 ,lJ,HeBHOH nOBepxHOCTH 60Jlhllie ,lJ,ByX BhICOT CBOll3 ,lJ,aBJleHHH, TO 3HalJeHHe ropaoro ,lJ,3BJlemm npn tKP < 4 npHHHMalOT paBHhIM necy rpyrrra B 06'heMe, orpaaaseaHOM CBO,ZI,OM ll3BJleHHH. TIPH MeHhweM 3aJlO)KeHHH coopyacenas 3H3- lJeIme ropnoro ,lJ,aBJleHHH ClJHTaIOT paBHhIM BceH TOJlmH rpyara H~ coopyaceanea. 3TO )Ke npanano npHMeH51IOT, eCJlH He C06JllOllalOTCSI! YCJlOBH51 06pa30BaHH51 BhlBaJlOB (B CJla6hIX BO,ZI,OH3ChlmeHHhIX H paa-

)KH)KeHHhIX rpYHT3X): '

n

PH = ~ I'thi'

(=1

rzte 1'( - YlleJlhHhIH sec rpyara B i-M cnoe: hi - MOmHOCTh CJIOH; n - KOJlHlJeCTBO CJlOeB.

fOpH30HTaJlhHOe naaneane aa CTeHhI nO,ZI,3eMHhIX 3,lJ,aHHH MeJlKoro 3aJlOIKeHHH onpeneamor H3 YCJlOBHH ero pacnpeneaeaus no rpeyroasHOH srnope (CM. pHC. 4.1, c). AHaJlOmlJHO HaXO)l.51T ,ZI,aBJleHHe rpynra aa CTeHhI onycxnux xoaonuea:

qe = yhfl; n =' ~/(l- It)·

COrJlaCHO [171 .ll.Jl51 onYCKHhIX xononucs pesoaeanyerca onpeaeaars, naanenne B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT BH,lJ,a rpyrrra. PaClJeTHOe 3HalJeHHe ,lJ,3BJleHH51 B rJlHHHCThlX rpYHTax

r, = kb(~1 I'lh; + q),

r,lJ,e kh - K03qxpH[lHeHT, paBHhlH ~' (1 - ~'); ~'- K03qxpHUHeHT 60- xosoro naaneaaa rpyara (npn OTCYTCTBHH naanux nonycxaercs npaHHMaTh ~'= 0,5 llJlH cyrJlHHKOB, ~' = 0,7 - ,ZI,Jl5I rJlHH); 1'(, h. - Y,lJ,eJlhHhIH sec H BhlCOTa i-re CJlOH rpyrrra: q - BepTHKaJIhH3H pa.BHOMepHo pacnpeneneuaaa aarpyaxa,

Ha crenxa KOJlO,lJ,ua npa ero norpyaceaan lleHCTByeT ropH30HT3J1b':"

Hoe naaneaae rpynra pa,r, onpenenseaoe KaK CYMMa ,lJ,aBJIeHHH: OCHOI8- noro Pg OT seca rpyrrra c ropH30HTaJlhHOH nOBepXHOCThIO H C noCTO- 5IHHOH HarpY3KOH na nOBepXHOCTH, C yxeroa BJlH51HH5I CHJI TpeHHS no 60KOBOH nOBepXHOCTH xo.nonna t, H ,lJ,OnOJlHHTeJlhHOrO - OT HaKJIOaa nJlaCTOB rpynra Pqi H aoanaxaiomero xpeaa KOJlO,lJ,[la npn norpy}KeHHH Pgs' OCHOBHoe naanenne rpyara HaXO,lJ,HT KaK aKTHBHoe naaJI.eHHe na UHJlHH,lJ,pHlJeCKOe orpasoienae

Pg = (1 + kp) Pa.r; Pa,r = I',F1 + qFz + kcF3, 88

4.2. 1(091jllillllJ,HeHTbJ Ha~e}fmOCTi'I no HarpY3KaM na nepaon cTpOHTeJlbCTOa [51]

HarpY3KII

KOSq,qlllll;lIeHT II a.o;e:lK.

HOCTII no HarpY3Ke

Ilocmonnnue

Bee CTPOllTeJIbHbIX KOHCTPYKUMH (crea, )l.HMIlI.a), H OCHoBHoe nasnea He rpyara, TIa

.uonOJlHHTeJIbHOe )laBJleHHe rpYHT3 01' HaKJIOHa, nJIaCTOB, TIa fH)lpOCTaTMqeCKOe )laBJIeHHe nO,ll3eMHbIX son, TIa

CHJIa TpeHHH CTeH KOJIO)lU3 no rpYHTY npn pacsere aa BCnJlbITMe, H TIpHrpY3Ka KOJIOAua 3HKepaMH nporas BCnJIbiTHH, H

Kpamsoepeuennue

CHJI3 TpemlH CTeH KOJIOAua no rpYHTY npn norpYJKeHUM, HI, 1 TIpMrpY3Ka KOJIO.llua rrpn norpYJKeHHM, H 1,0 COnpOTVlBJIeHHe rpyrrra non nO)lOUIBOH HOJKa npn norpYJKeHMH KOJIOA-

na, H 1,0

.uonOJIHHTeJIbHOe ropasoaransaoe )laBJIeHHe rpynra, Bbl3blBaeMoe xpeaou

KOJIO,llua, TIa 1,1 (0,9)

1,1 (0,9) 1,1 (0,9) 1,1 (0,9) 1,1 (0,9)

1,0 1,0

D P 1I M e 'l a II 1I l!) 1. 311a'leHllii KOsq,q,lIll;lIeHTa HaAe:lKHOCTII no n arpyax e, vxaaauaue B cK06Kax, AOJllKHbI np"HIlMaTbCl! npa p acxere na nor pyacenae II acn.asrrae, YCToll'lHBOCTII a a onpoxnnsraaaae II cxomoxeane, a rasoxe B CJJy'l aax, xo rna yxyauraro'r ca yCJlOBIIl! patiorsr KOHcTpyKll,lI11. 2. Flpa pacve're KOIICTPYKll;lIil II ocaoaanaa no .o;eq,opMall;IIl!M KOsq,q,IIll;lIeHT aanexoHOCTH no aarpyake npIIHHMaeTCl! paBHbIM I.

rne kp - Ko3$PHUHeHT, YllHTbIBalOmHH BJIH51HHe CHJI TpeHYI5I (onpe,l{eJI51eTC5I no pHC. 15.9 [17]); FI, F2, F3 - ¢yHKUHH, 3aBHC5IIlwe OT yrJIa BHYTpeHHero TpeHH51 ~ H Ko3$PHUHeHTa n, onpe,l{eJI51eMhle no pHC. 15.10 ... 15.12 [171.

TIPH norpysceaaa KOJIO,l{ua B paaaopcnasre HanJIaCTOBaHH5I rpynra He06xo,l{HMO 3aMeHHTb BbIlUeJIe)KamHH rpyar ,ZI,JI5I xaxcnoro paClJeTHOrO CelleHH5I 3KBHBaJIeHTHbIM CJIOeM:

he = '2_"hh,/y,

rne r.y1hl - nOJIHbIH sec JIe)KamHX ssnne CJIOeB rpyara.

Ko3$PHUHeHT HepaBHOMepHOCTH ,l{aBJIeHH5I rpyHTa no nepHMeTPY KOJIO,ZI,ua

ku = (Pg + Ps! + pgs)lpg,

rne Pg, Pgl, Ps» - onpeneamor ,ZI,JI51 rJIy6HHhl h = Hro - Hb12; H'ronpOeKTHa5I rJIy6HHa norpY)KeHH5I; H b - BbICOTa HO)KeBOH qaCTH HJlll l-ro pacseraoro noaca.

Y,l{eJIbHa5I CHJIa TpeHH5I rpynra no 60KOBOH nOBepXHOCTH KOJIO,l{ua

t = Yc (pg tg rp + kc),

rnc Yc - K03rp¢HUHeHT YCJlOBHH pa60TbI [171. PaCqeTHOe anaseaae CHJlbI TpeHH5I rpyara npn norpyzceaaa KOJIO,l{ua

T - (to + t1 h + + tn_oJ + tn h )

2-U 2 1 ••• 2 n ,

rne u - nepnaerp 60KOBOH nOBepXHOCTH KOJIO,l{ua; h1l hn - TOJImHH8 CJIOeB rpyara; to. t1 ... tn - y,l{eJIbHble CHJIbI TpeHH51.

89

4.3. 1(09qlttlH~HeHTbJ Ha~e)HHOCTH no HarpY3KaM na nepaon excnayar auaa [511

HarpY3KII

K.03.p<pIIIJ;lIeHT HaAe.JItHOCTH no HarpYSK.

Ilocmonunue Bec CTpOIlTeJlbHbIX KOHCTPYKUHH, H

OCHOBHoe ,naBJIeHl1e rpyura aa CTeHbI xoaonna, Ila nOrrOJlHHreJIbHOe ,naBJIeHHe rpynra OT HaKJIOHa nJIaCTOB, Ila CHJIa rpeans CTeH KOJIO.llua no rpYHTY npa BCrrJIbITHIi KO.nonua, H

rH.llpOCTaTIiQeCKOe ,naBJIeHHe nonseaaux BO,n, Ila Flparpyaxa xoaonna aaxepaxa npomn BCnJIbITHll, H Bee Jllo,neH, crannoaapaoro 060Py,noBaHHll U T • n., H

1,1 (0,9) 1,1 (0,9) 1,1 (0,9)

1,0

1,1 (0,9)

1,0 Ilpnaaaaercs B coOTBeTCTBHH C TP~ BaHHllMH CHHn 2.01.07-85

Oco6ble

JlaBJleHHe rpYHTa Ha KOJlO.lleu npH CeHCMIfQeCKOM B03- .nefi:cTBHH, na:

KpyrJIbIH 'npllMoyrOJIhHblfi

IT p H M e lJ a H H e. To see, 'ITO H j{ Ta6Jl. 4.2.

1,0 1,0

K.03CPCPHUHeHT HepaBHOMepHOCTH )J,aBJIeHHH rpynra B nepaon 3KCfIJIyaTaUHH BblqHCJIHIOT no rpopayne [3]

ku = (pg + pg/pg); ku> 1,1.

,llaBJIeHHe rpynra npn CeHCMHI-IecKHx B03)J,eHcTBHHX )J,JIH xpyrororo KOJIO)J,U3 qsr = [1 + ks tg (: + ~) cos ~ ] pg; )J,JIH np suoyrons-

aoro q, = -[I + ks tg (~ + ;) r« J. .

,llaBJIeHHe rpyara npn CeHCMHqeCKHX B03)J,eHcTBH51X npHHHMalOT e JII060H CTOPOHbI KOJIO)J,ua,

Onycxnsre KOJIO)J,UbI paCCqHTbIBalOT )J,JIH YCJIOBHH cTpOHTeJIbCTBa H 3KCnJIY3TaUHH. Pacnernue HarpY3KH onpe)J,eJIHIOT KaK nponaseneane HopMaTHBHoH HarpY3KH H3 K03cprpHuHeHT Ha)J,e.>KHOCTH no narpysxe (Ta6JI. 4.2, 4.3).

,llJIHKpyrJIbIX B nnaae coopysceana (onycxnsrx KOJIO.ll.UeB B THKCO'rponaof pyriaurxe) npHHHMalOT aepaarroaepaoe pa)J,HaJIbHOe ,n.aBJIeHHe rpynra

( qa = ql [ 1 + (:: ~ 1) sin a] '

rne q1' q2 - .ll.aBJIeHHe COOTBeTCTBeHHO MHHHMaJIbHOe H MaKCHMaJIbHoe.

OTHOIueHHe q2/ ql = 1,1 B npenenax CTeHbI KOJIO)J,ua H 1,25 - )J,JIH HO)KeBOH qaCTH. ,llonOJIHHTeJIbHO yqHTbIBaK>T )J,aBJIeHHe npa HaKJIOHHOM 3aJIeraHHH nJIaCTOB rpyura H np, [17].

ECJIH nO)J,OIllBa coopyzseaaa pacITOJIO)KeHa HHLKe YPOBHH rpyrrroBbIX BO)J" Ha)J,O yqHTbIBaTb HOPM3THBHoe rnapocrarnxecxoe ,n.aBJIeHHe, "pHHHMaH ero ypoaens H3HHH3I1lHM IIpH cTpOHTeJIbCTBe H H3HBbICIlIHM

90

npn 9KCnJIyaTaUHH 3.naHHH. BonoiIenpOHHuaeMYIOKOHCTPYKUHIO pacCqHTbIBaIOT aa )J.eHCTBHe rnnpocraraaecxoro )J,aBJIeHHH, npn 9TOM B pacxer BBO)J,HT YMeHblIleHHOe HOpMaTHBHOe )J,aBJIeHHe na rpYHTOBOO OCHOBaHHe OT C06CTBeHHOrO seca 3)J,aHHH H rpyara Ha)J, HHM H nOHHLKeHnue 3HaqeHHH pacserasrx COnpOTHi3JIeHHii BOnOHaCbIIueHHOrO rpynra B OCHOBaHifH.

ECJIH nonseemsre 3naHHH pacnOJIaraIOTCH B6JIH3H CYIUeCTBYIOIUHX Ha3eMHbIX 3)J,aHHH, B pacxere yqHTbIBaIOT naBJIeHHe OT CYIUeCTBYIOIUHX ¢YH)J,aMeHTOB (CM. pHC. 4.1, e):

PijJ = Q/aijJ; qijJ = Q/aijJ tg2( 45° - .~),

.rne Q;_ BepTHKaJIbHOe )J,aBJIeHHe aa nO)J,DlIlBY ¢YH)J,aMeHTa; aIP- umpaaa nJIOIUa)J,KH 3arpYLKeHHH G yneroa pacnpeneaenaa naBJIeHHH no rJIy6HHe.

DPH B3aHMo.neiicTBHH LKeJIe306eTOHHoii KOHCTPYKUHH 3)J,aHHH G rpYHToM (BCJIe)J,cTBHe B)J,aBJIHBaHHH yqaCTKOB KOHCTPYKUHH B rpyar, nanpuxep, 06)J,eJIOK, 06LKaTbIx B rpYHToBbIH MaC.CHB, HJIH npa H3m6e coopysceaaa) npOHBJIHIOTCH CHJIbI H HanpH}KeHHH ynpyroro ornopa rpynra, 3HaqeHHH HanpHLKeHHH MOLKHO onpenenars aa OCHOBe ranOTe3bI BHHKJIepa

a = kfJ,

rne k - K09¢4>HuHeHT ynpyroro orrropa [151; 6 - nepexemenae rpya'fa aa KOHTaKTe C nOn3eMHbIM 3naHHeM.

YqHTbIBaH H3BeCTHbIe He)J,OCTaTKH ranoressr BHHKJIepa, B pacserax HCnOJIb3YIOT TaKLKe mnOTe3Y 06IUHX )J,e¢OpMaUHH, B xoropoa rpyaTOBbIH MaCCHB paCCMaTpHBaeTCH KaK JIHHefmo )J,e¢opMHpyeMaH cpena [15].

JJ.JIH 3)J,aHHii rtervrytioxoro 3aJI02KeHHH, pacnOJI02KeHHbIX non npoeam.eH qaCTbIO, onpeneamor HarpYSKH OT rpancnoprnux cpencrs: JIerKOBbIX H rpY30BbIX aBTOM06HJIeH, rpon.reatiycoa, aBT06ycOB, a npa aaJIHqHH peJIbCOBOro rpaacnopra - OT LKeJIeSHOnOp02KHbIX noe3)J,OB, rpaanaes, MeTpo. DPH pacsere rrpHHHMaIOT pacnOJI02KeHHe BpeMeHHoH. HarpY3KH na nepexpsrrnu H npassrax 06pYlIleHHH (CM. pHC. 4.1).

DPH SaJIOiKeHHH sepxa nonseunoro SnaHHH xeuee 0,8 M BpeMeHHYIO TpaHcnopTHYIO HarpYSKY YCTaHaBJIHBaIOT BnOJIb H nonepex SnaHHH, a npa rJIy6HHe 3aJIOLKeHHH 60JIee 0,8 M ee 3aMeHHIOT BeCOM 9KBHBaJIeHTuoro CJIOH rpyara

h3K = PBp/'V,

r)J,e PBP - HHTeHCHBHOCTb BpeMeHHoH HarpysKH.

DPH pacnere naB~eHHH na nOKpbITHe npHHHMaIOT pacnpeneneaae )J,aBJIeHHH OT nO)J,BJUKHbIX narpysox H-30 H HK-80 B rpyare non yrJIOM 30° K BepTHKaJIH, a B )J,0POiKHOii onescne - 45°. Pasaep sarpY2KeHHOH n.lJOIUanKH, xepes KOTOpyIO nepeaaercs lI.aBJIeHHe OT KOJIeC rpaucnopra, HaXOll.HT B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT pasxepa ornesarxa KOJIeCa ao, bG H TOJIIUHHbI 1I.0P02KHOH Oll.eLKlI.bI 6n:

B,lJ.OJIb lI.BH>KeHHH a = ao + 21Sn;

91

nonepex nBH)KeHlUI b = bo + 260•

PBP = PIF; F = ab,

r.ll.e P - COCpe)l.OTOIJeHHa51 BpeMeHHa51 narpysxa.

DPH pacnono*eHHH BpeMeHHOH HarpYSKH Ha npM3Me 06PyweHH51 onpejte.naror 60KOBoe naBneHHe na CTeHY SnaHH51

qBP = ( ~~ ) tg2 ( 45° - ~) ex,

rae b - WHpHHa OTneIJaTKa KOJIeCa; c - pasaep no BbICOTe CTeHhI S)l.aHH51, na KOTOPblH nepenaercs aarpysxa, HO He 60JIee 4 M )l.JI51 narpysxn H-30 H 3,6 M - )l.JI51 HK-BO, H He 60JIee nJIHHbl SnaHH51; exeM. [131.

Harpysxy OT TOJInbI mOneH aan nOnseMHblM SnaHHeM MJIH BHYTPM Hero npHHHMaIOT 4 xfla, eCJIM OTCYTCTBYIOT 60JIee MHTeHCHBHble narpysxn OT rpancnopra.

Teaneparypnue BOs)l.e[IcTBH51 rrpn pacnOJIO)KeHMM s.ll.aHHH· B SOH ax KO{le6aHl1H reaneparyp YIJHTbIBaIOT nJI51 CTaTHIJeCKH aeonpenenaasrx KOHCTPYKIl,HH C YIJeTOM HX CPOPMbI. a TaK)Ke TenJIocpHSHIJeCKHX CBOHCTB MaTepHaJIa.

ECJIH eepXH5151 LJaCTb S)l.aHHH pacno.roacena B rpyarax, CKJIOHHbIX K MOP03HOMY nYLJeHHIO, He06xonHM nOnOJIHHTeJIbHbIH paCIJeT aa 3TH CHJIbl.

CeHCMHIJeCKHe B03neHCTBM51 YLJHTbIBaIOT npn pacsere SnaHHH, pacnOJIO:tKeHHbIX B SOHax 7 ... 9-6aJIJIbHOH CeHCMHLJHOCTH. Ilpu 3TOM ceaCMHLJeCKHe YCHJIH 51 MO)KHO onpenenare KaK CHJIhI HHepIl,HH seca snaHHH H rpyrrra H npHKJIaJIbIBaTb KaK CTaTHLJeCKHe B ropMsOHTaJIbHOM H

4.4. K03¢¢I1UIWHTbI Hail:eiKHOCTH no HarpY3KaM ~JUI nOCTOllHHblX HarpY30K [51J

HarpY3KU

l(osq,ljJuuueHTbI HaAelKllOCTH

AKTHBHoe )laB.JIeHHe rpyara: npu cBo)loo6pa30BaHuu BepTHKaJIbHOe ropH30HTaJlbHOe

OT~ seca BbIBaJJ a

BepTHKaJl suoe ropnaonransnoe

OT seca cro.roa

BepTHKaJIbHOe ropH30HTaJIbHOe

PeaKTHBHoe )laBJleHHe (ynpyrHM OTnop)

.llaBJleHl1e OT seca U30JlHllHOHHoro, renaoaatuaraoro CJlOeB, nopORmOH O)leR(.)lbI

Co6CTBeHHbIH Bee KOHCTPYKllllll:

MOHOJIllTHblX

C60PHbIX

rl1)lpOCTaT1l4eCKoe )laBJleHHe Ilpenaapure.asnoe aanpasceaae apvarypsr

1 5

1,8 (1,2)

1,4 1,2

1,1

1,3 (0,9) 1,2 (0,8)

1,5 (0,9) 1,2 (0,8) 1.1 (0,9) 1,1 (0,9) 1,3 (0,7)

Il P H M e q 3 H II e. 3H34eHIIH K09<jlIjJHl\UeHTOB H3AelKHOCTII 00 nar pysxe B cK06Kax Heo6. 1K0):lIlMO npHHHM8Tb, eCJIH YMeHblllemie uar pysxa Bbl3bIBaeT 60JIee lIeBblrO):lHoe sarpyaceaae KOHCTPYKlI.IlH.

92

4.5. KoaifJifJ"IIHeHTbI "3,l(eH!.HOCTH no HarpY3KaM ~J1S1 epesreanux HarpY30K [51]

HarpY3KB

OCHoBHoe I oco6oe

COqeTaHHe HarpY30K

Bee aBToMo6H~ell:

H-30 HK-80

Bee :lKe~e3HO)(OpO:llmoro COCTaBa: rpyacenoro

IIOpO:lKHerO

Bee nOe3)(a MeTpono~HTeHa Or caxoaeron:

KOHueBbIe Y'-IaCTKH BITIT cpenass '-IaCTb BITIT Bee mo)(eif

Crpoareasaue CeiiCMH'-IeCKHe

1,4 1,0

1,1

1 ,1...1 ,3l 0,7

1,0

1,3

1,0

0,85

1,4

1,42

1,3 1,0

n p II M e q a H n 11: 1 l(03ijJilmqneHT HaAeJKHOCTn Vf aaaacar OT AJIHHbI 3arpY1KeHHS1: Vf = 1,3 OpH 11. = 0; Vf = 1.15 rrpn 11. = 50 M; Vf = 1,1 npa 11. = 150. Z 3TOT K03ijJ<plIII.neHT AOOYCTHMO «oppearnpoaars C yqeTOM MeCTHblX YCJIOBHfi II TeXHOJIOrHn OPOll3BoAcTBa patior,

BepTHKaJIbHOM ()I.JIH 3)J,amIii C YBeJ1IilJeHHbiMH npOJIeTaMM) aanpasneHH51X .

.D.orrOJIHHTeJIbHO nonaevasre 3)J,aHH51 paCClJHTbIBaIOT aa )J,eHCTBHe nOJI3YlJeCTH 6eTOHa, aa nepaaaoxepasre )J,e¢OpMaUHH OCHOBaHH51 H T. 11.

HOpMaTHBHble HarpY3KH BXO)J,51T B COCTaB OCHOBHbiX H OC06bIX COlJeTaHHii. PaClJeTbI nO)J,3eMHbiX 3)J,aHHH BblIIOJIH51IOT aa OaClJeTHbIe aarpysxa, nony-raeaue YMHOIKeHMeM HOpMaTHBHbiX aa K03cp¢HUHeHTbl Ha.ll.eIKHOCTM no narpysxe (Ta6JI. 4.4, B Ta6JI. 4.5). Hexoropsre npoaHOCTHbIe xapaxrepacraaa rpYHToB H 6eToHa npuaezteau B npHJIO)KeHHI1.

4.1. PAC1.fET KOHCTPYKI..\HIII, B03BOAHMbiX OTKPblTblM H OnYCKHblM cnOC05AMH

4.2.1. PaClJeT KOHCTpYKUMH npa OTKPblTOM cnoco6e p03Be)J,eHHH. 06BaJIOBaHHbIe KOHCTPYKUHM IKHJIbIX, 06IIJ,eCTBeHHbIx 3)J,3HHH, nO)J,3eMHbIX cooPYLKeHHH aernytioxoro 3aJIOLKeHM51 npn OTKPbITOM cnocorie B03Be)J,eHH51' pacc4HTbIBaIOT aH3JIOrHlJHbIMH cnocoriaxa.

DPH OTKPbITOM cnocorie B03Be,ll.eHH51 KOHCTPYKUHH MorYT 6bITb pauHbIMH, npaaoyroxsnsnra B n.nane (npn 3TOM B03MOIKHO npononsnoe paCnOJIOIKeHHe pn renea , C onup anaea 6JIOKOB nepexpsrruf H3 H3PYLKHbIe CTeHbI 11 parens, a TaKIKe nonepesaoe paCnOJIOLKeHMe pn reJIeH C OfIYlpaHHeM HX aa KOJIOHHbI p3MbI) H npOCTpaHCTBeHHbIMH - B BHJI,e 060JI04eK P33JIHlJHOrO THrr3, OnHpaIOIIJ,HXCH aa CTeHbI 3J1,aHH51, KOJIOHHbI HJIH HerrOCpeJl,CTBeHHO H3 ¢YHJI,aMeHTbI.

B rpancnoprnoa CTpOI'lTeJIbCTBe aaunm umpoxoe npnaeaeaae 3J1,aHH51 C npOJl,OJIbHbiM paCnOJIO:tKeHHeM pnreneji. Ilpaaoyroasaue B nnane paxnsre KOHCTPYKUHM M3 criopuoro IKeJIe306eTOHa paCClJHTbIB310T KaK 06bIlJHbIe aasexnsre IKeJIe306eTOHHbIe paansre 3J1,3HHH, HO npH 3TOM

93

I 1 I J J I 1 1 I l<t

G'a.r., ffa.r,

P, P

!.....-4.M

G'a 1-

6'''11~1 .,

§ ~ 1CX.l

6'ar.~Ph

'f Bq> 1

PHC. 4.2. Pacsermae cxeua 3,l(aHHH, B03BO,l(HMbIX OTKpbITblM cnocoooa:

B

t.

t.

r

a - O,l\H03T3lKHoe 3,1\aHFle a naaens noxpsirua: 6 - MHor03TalKHoe 3,1\aHUe; 8 ~ crensr II 4lYHAaMeHThl O,ll.\103TalKliOrO a MHOrOSTalKHOrO 3,ll.aHFlH; e - 3AaHHe, B03BeAeHHOe cnOC060M CCTeHa B rpyare»: 1 ~ crena: 2 = noxpsrrue; 3 - pnreJlbl 4 - KOJIOHHa, 5 ~ <PYH,ll.aMeuT.

HCKJIIOLJaIOTCH rOpH30HTaJ1bHbIe aerpossre HarpY3KH, A06aBJ1HIOTCH ropH30HTaJ1bHOe AaBJ1eHHe rpyara H BeC rpyara na nOKpbITHH (pac, 4.2). 3J1eMeHTbl KOHCTPYKIJ,HH paCCLJHTbIBaIOT B TaKOM nopsnxe: nJ1HTbI noKpbITHH H nepexpsrrna, pHreJ1H, K0J10HHbI, crensr, CPYHAaMeHTbI.

KOHCTPYKIJ,HH nJ1HT (6J10KOB) nOKphlTHH H nepexpuraa, 06bILJHO B BHAe pe6pHCTbIX TI-06pa3HbIx HJ1H TaBpoBbIX nJ1HT, pa60TaIOT aa H3rHo KaK oAHOnpOJ1eTHbIe urapaapao oneprue OaJ1KH OT BepTHKaJ1bHbIX narpY30K C AOnOJlHHTeJ1bHbIM AeHcTBHeM ropH30HTaJIbHOrO CLKHMaIOmero YCHJ1HH or oOKoBoro AaBJ1eHHH rpyara.

PaCLJeT nOJIOK peripacrsrx nJ1HT nepexpuraa H nOKpbITHH 3aKJIIOsaerca B npH6JIHLKeHHOM pacxere nJIHTbI KaK 6aJIKH aa AByX onopax G ynerox yrrpyroro 3ameMJIeHHH B pe6pax H B pacuere pe6ep KaK BHe-

94

neHTpeHHO C1KaTbIX 9JIeMeHTOB. MaKCHMaJIbHbIH HSrH6alOIIJ.HH MOMeHT B DJIHTe

[ ql2Yf ( 2l • 13 - l; ) J

M = rno -8- + V 8 (1 + ~J\) I't '

rae rno - npn hp ~ hn pasea - 0,7 na orrope H +0,5 B cepenaae npoaera: npn hp < 4hn pasea - 0,7 aa onope H +0,7 -B cepenane nponera; q, v - HarpY3KH COOTBeTCTBeHHO nOCTOHHHaH H BpeMeHHaH; ls - nJ1HHa YLJaCTKa IIJ1HTbI, sarpyscenaoro BpeMeHHoH aarpysxoa; ~A - K03qxpHIJ,HeHT nHHaMHLJHOCTH.

MaKcHMaJ1bHaH nonepeunaa CHJ1a B aanenxe nJIHTbI B pe6pax

Q _ q10Yr + vta (1 + ). - --2- --2-l'f I-tA ,

npOnOJ1bHaH C)KHMalOTIJ,aH CHJ1a B pe6pax

3 I

T = 8 (Ja.r •• H + w (aa.r. - (Ja.r,) n,

rae au,. au. - HHTeHCHBHOCTb 60IwBoro )J,aBJ1eHHH rpyrrra H3 yposne sepxa H aasa creasr.

MOMeHT B cepe)J,HHe npOJ1eTa pe6pa

M - (q + v) L2 - Tel'

max - 8

Pe6po nJ1HTbI pexoaeanyercs paCCLJHTbIBaTb KaK BHeneHTpeHHO C1KaTbIH 9J1eMeHT c e"= (M max - Te)/T;

Te::::;; Rbbx (ho ~ 0,5x).

3neCb ho - pa60LJaH BbICOTa CeLJeHHH; b - IlIHpHHa CeLJeHH5I; xBblCOTa C)KaTOii SOHbl.

Creasr S)1.aHHii npHMoyrOJ1bHOH CPOPMbI B nxaue paCCIJHTblBalOT KaK BHeueHTpeHHO C}KaTbIe 3J1eMeHTbI C YLJeTOM nellCTBHH BpeMeHHofi uarpY3KH aa npasxe otipynrenaa. BepTl:IKaJ1bHaH narpyaxa N MO)KeT (')hITb nepenaaa na CTeHOBbIe 6JIOKH ueHTpaJ1bHO HJ1H BHeueHTpeHIIO, npH 3TOM B MeCTe nepenaIJH BHeueHTpeHHOll HarpYSKH neiicTByeT H3- rH6alOllJ,Hll MOMeHT Ml = Nel. a B MeCTe sajJ,eJIKH - M2 = -O,5Nel. DpH onpeaeuenaa HSrH6alOllJ,HX MOMeHTOB OT jJ,eHcTBHH 60KOBoro naBJIeHHH rpyara 6J10KH npHHHMalOT KaK O)1.HO- HJIH MHOrOnpOJ1eTHble aepaapesmre 6aJ1KH. MaKCHMaJ1bHbIH HsrH6alOllJ,Hll MOMeHT H II 0- nepeLJHYIO CHJIY B OIIOPHOM CeLJeHHH CTeHbI BbILJHCJ1HIOT no cpopMyJ1aM:

!p"

Mmax = -6- (2aa.r• - (Ja.r,);

Qmax = ~ ~ (au, + aa.r.).

KOHCTPYKUHH cren paCCIJHTDIBaIOT no npOIJHOCTH, Tpelli,HHOCTOHxocrn (nonycxaeaoe pacxpsrrne rpemaa o-;«; 0,2 MM), necpOpMaUHHM

(MaKCHMaJIbHbIe rrporafist f::::;; 3~O He). cI>YH)1.aMeHTHble 6JIOKH KpaiiHHX PH)1.0B pa60Ta1OT Ha COBMeCTHoe neiiCTBHe HOpMaJIbHOH CHJIbI H

95

1J) m //I))) )4 ;;; /// I)) PI /// d/ I)) »; /)} )/) 4) I)) m /h

, 11111111111111111111111111111111111111111 ~

J1 . f,~' ,li

6"" ~ t l t

))) /// ))) /4 ;4 Id /// #/ /;J /)/ ))) ,a.

q.IJIIILIJIIIIlllJIJlll t,

~ , I

IJIIIIIJIIWII;CIIIII ~ JJ;[LILILIIIII;CIIILI q.

r 3/

J t t

}f/ 7)) 2'l !J7 Nt P; ») ))) I)} u/ rn

q. WJI-lIIIIIIIIILIUkl " r.

OQ. t

a

6

Pac, 4.3. Pacseraue cxeMbl O,l(H03T3lKHblX' 31l3HlHi:

a - paMHblx; 6 - apO'lHblX; J - KOJlOHHa; 2 - p"reJlb; 3 - 3aMKHYTal1 paMa; 4 - CTeHa '3 rpyare; 5 ... rpexurapnnpnaa apxa; 6 - l(lIJ1F1HAPu'IeCKaH OooJ[O'lKa; 7 .,.,. KYOOJl (cljJepll'le.

CKal1 OOoJ[O'lKa).

naraoaromero MOMeHTa OT creaosoro 6J10Ka, a TaK)Ke na 60KoBoe J].aBJIeHHe rpyara. DpOBepHIOT pa3Mep nOJ].OllJBhI HS yCJ10BHH ooecneqeHHH ocanox H np04HocTH oCHoBaHHH, sarea no ce4eHHHM a-a H 8-8 (CM. pHC. 4.2, 8) npOHSBOJl,HT pacner ~YHJI,aMeHTa.

'DPH paCn0J10LKeHHH pIUeJ1eH BnOJ1h SJI,aHl1H (CM. cxeau na

pHC. 4.2, a,6) no. CpeJl,HHM K0J10HHaM HX paccstrrsraaro'r KaK paspeamre HJ1H aepaspeaasre 6aJ1KH aa aarpysxy'or 6J10KOB nepeapsrrns , npaBeneHHYIO K paanoaepao pacnpenenennoa, cpennne KOJIOHHY HJ1H pasneJ1HTeJ1hHYIO aecymyro cTeHY - KaK naeuerrrpenno cacarsre 3J1eMeHThI.

DpH BhInOJ1HeHHH CTeH SnaHHH MeTO)l,OM «CTeHa B rpyare» nono.nHHTeJ1bHOH aarpyaxoa na CTeHhI HBJ1HIOTCH YCHJ1HH B rpYHToBOM anxepe: YCHJ1He T Y4HThIBalOT npn onpeneaeaaa BepTHKaJ1hHOH HarpY3KH

96

4.6. 3HaqeHHR 113f"OalOU(Hx MOMeHTOB ,!I;JlSI KOJlOHHbI HJI" .u:BYX pe6ep nJlHTbl

H3rH6alow.He MOMeHfbl npa OTMeTKe nOJIa nonaeaaor o noueiaeaaa, M
Bpexeauaa -3,6 -4.8 -6.0
,IVIHTeJIbHaH
lfopMaTHBHaH I I Q; KH I
nar p yaxa, M" M., M1• 1M •• Q. KH M1• I M •• I
Kna [{H'M KH.M KH'M KH'M KH'M KH'M Q; KH 10 33 6 76 63 11 128 III 16 194
15 38 9 83 73 16 137 125 25 206
20 43 12 91 82 21 147 140 33 218
25 49 15 98 91 26 157 154 41 230
30 54 18 105 101 32 166 170 46 242
40 65 24 120 120 42 186 199 66 267
50 75 30 135 138 53 207 228 83 291 aa 6JIOKH CTeH, a YCHJIHe N Ilo - npn pacsere SHaqeHHH MaKCHMaJIbHhlX HsrH6aIOIIJ.HX MOMeHTOB H nonepesasrx CHJI B CTeHOBbIX 6JIOKax.

Onnosraxoure C60pHbIe pasmsre KOHCTPYKIJ,HH c nOJIHbIM KapKaCOM paCCLJHTbIBaIOT KaK CHMMeTpHLJHO sarpYLKeHHYIO pasry C mapnapuaa onapaaaesr pareaea aa KOJIOHHhl H 0 SaneJIIWH KOJIOHH B CPYHnaMeHTax (pHC. 4.3).

HSrH6aIOIIJ,HH MOMeHT B sanenxe B CPYHnaMeHT onpenenmcr G yse-

TOM HenOJIHOM 3aneJIKH •

M = M--...:!o _

3E b~

1 + koH • B3

rne M 0 - MOMeHT npa nOJIHOM SaIIJ,eMJIem{H B CPYHnaMeHTe; E - MOnYJIb ynpyrocrn 6eTOHa; ko - K03cpcpHIJ,HeHT nOCTeJIH rpyura: be- TOJIIllHHa CTeHbI; B - unrpuaa nonourssr CPYHnaMeHTa. TaK, nJIH OnHOnpOJIeTHOH paMbI SHalJeHHH M H Q naHbI B Ta6JI. 4.6 (M1 - MOMeHT B MeCTe KpenJIeHHH K CPYHnaMeHTY, M2 - B BepXHeH lJaCTH).

OnHOnpOJIeTHYIO saMKHYTYIO paxy HS MOHOJIHTHOrO IKeJIeso6eTOHa paCClJHTbIBaIOT MeTOnaMH CHJI, TIepeMeIIJ,eHHB HJIH paCLJJIeHeHHH, YlJHTbIBaH CBOBCTBa OCHOBaHHH ITO mITOTeSe MeCTHbIX HJIH 06IIJ,HX necpopMaIJ,HiL OCHOBHYIO CHCTeMY OpH pacuere MeTOnOM CHJI nOJIyqaIOT, paspesas paMy B cepenane OOKpbITHH H npHKJIanbIBaH B MeCTe paspeaxn HeHSBeCTnsre: HSrH6aIOIIJ,HH MOMeHT Xl H ITpOnOJIbHYIO CHJIY X2•

. 3HaLJeHHH HeHSBeCTHblX Xl H X2 HaxOnHT HS peiuenaa CHCTeMbI ypan-

neHHH

61lX1 + 612X2 + ~lp = 0; 621X1 + 622X2 + ~2p = O.

DepeMeIIJ,eHHH 611, 612, 621, 622, ~lp, ~2P:

>: >: (1) + >:(0). >: >: >: (I) >:(0).

Uu = UII ulI, u12 = uZl = U2l + u21 •

622 = 6~~ + 6~~; ~Ip = ~1~ + ~\~;

A A(l) + A(O). l:J.2p = l.l2p l.l2p,

6~~ = 2h3/3EI; 6~T = h21 EI; 6~~ = (l + 2h)/ EI; 97

7 9-1583

~\~ = L S kbyiYpdS + L S Mk~P dS + L S N~~s as +

~ r QIQpds

+ LJ!-tn J OF '

rJl,e k - K03<p<p1UI,MeHT ynpyroro omopa rpyIITa; b - umpMHa paCLJeTaoro YLJaCTKa; y" YP - ocanxn non )l,eHCTBHeM enHHMLJHbIX YCMJmH H BHelIlHeH HarpY3KH; !-tn - nOnpaBOLJHbIH K93cpcpHUHeHT [13].

.1:(1) .1:(1) .1:(1) A (I) A (1) 6 rh

UII, U~U, U22, Ulp, U2p- onpenenaior no 0 bILJHblM 't'0pMYJIaM ()TPOH-

TeJIbHOH MexaHHKH HJIH no 06IUHM cpopMyJIaM yrJIOB nosopora pax H3 ynpyron OCHOBaH1HI (CM. [131).

PaMY na ynpyrox OCHOBaHHM G YLJeTOM rnnoreau MecTHhlxnecpopMaUHH pexoaeanyercs paCCLJHTbIBaTb no MeTOnMKe UHHHG - MeTponpoexra l131, ynpyrna ornop HMHTMpyIOT cHcTeMoH ynpyrnx cTepLKHeH. B MeCTax nOCTaHOBKH ynpyrnx CTep>KHeH H B cepezmne nOKpbITHH ape- 3aIOT mapnnpsr, npMKJIa)l,bIBaIOT HeH3BeCTHble MOMeHTbI MI' peuraror 3a)l,aLJY MeTO)l,OM CMJI. f1PH cexa ynpyrax onopax nOJIYLJaIOT nars HeM3- BeCTHblX C YLJeTOM CMMMeTpHM paasr, ,llJH:I onpeneneaaa HeH3BeCTHbIX YCHJIHH He06xo)l,HMO pemars KaHOHMtIeCKHe ypaBHeHMH sana:

5

:E 6tkMI + flip = 0; 1

.I: tt: = S MIMkdS ~ N/ikS ~ "R)?'k .

U. - EI + LJ EF + LJ -v- ·

-S MiMpdS ~ NINpS v RiRp

~ip - EI + L.J EF +..::...J -D-'

3neCb Mi, Mk• Mp. Nl• «: Np - MOMeHTbI H aopaansnsre CHJIbI B OCHOBHOH CHCTeMe OT e)l,HHMLJHbIX HeH3BeCTHbIX H OT HarpY3KH; Rtf Rk, Rp - peaKUHH ynpyrnx onop OT enHHHLJHbIX HeH3BeCTHbiX H OT aarpyaxa; D = ksb - upuaeneanaa LKeCTKOCTb ynpyroii onopsr (kK03cpcpHUMeHT ynpyroro ornopa rpynra; S - paccroaune Me.iK)l,y mapHHpaMM B JIOTKe, b - pacnernaa nmpaua KOHCTPYKUHH).

PaMY paCCLJHTbIBaIOT na neHcTBHe BepTMKaJIbHOrO H 60KoBoro )l,aBJIeHHH rpynra H e)l.HHHLJHbIX MOMeHTOB, npHJIO.iKeHHbIX B MeCTax ynpyrnx onop H B uenrpe nOKpbITHH. YCHJIHH B OCHOBHOH CMCTeMe OT e)l.MHHLJHblX HeH3BeCTHbJX H OT BHellIHeH HarpY3KM HaxOnHT nOCJIe)l.OBaTeJIbHbIM aupeaaaaea Y3JIOB. YCMJIH5I B 3JIeMeHTax paMbI onpenezrsnor no cpopMyJIaM:

M = Mp + ~MiMi; N = Np + ~NiNI'

cI>YHJI,aMeHTHYIO rIJIHTy paCCLJMTbIBaIOT KaK 6aJIKy aa ynpyrou OCHOBaHHH, HCnOJIb3YH mnOTe3Y MeCTHbIX MJIM 06lIJ,MX )l.ecpopMaUMH. MOLKHO rrOJIb30BaTbCH rOTOBblMH cpopMyJIaMH M Ta6JIHuaMM nJI5I onpeneJIeHHH YCMJIHH, yrJIOB nonopora, nporaoos H peaKUMH OCHOBaHMH, YLJHTbIBaH noxaaarens LKeCTKOCTH So M npaaenenayro nJIMHY 6aJIKM 1001

So = V4Ellkb; 100 = us; 98

rne E I _- H3rH6HaH }KeCTKOCTb; k. _ K03qxpHUHeHT yrrpyroro ornopa rpynra; I - AJ1HHa; b - umpana, paanas 1 M.

TIPH A.o < 1 6aJ1Ky CLJHTalOT a6C0J1JOTHO 2KeCTKOH, rrpn 1 :::( A.o < < 2,75 - KOPOTKOH, AJ1H A.o ~ 2,75 _ 6eCKOHeLJHO AJ1HHHOH.

TIPH pacsere LKeCTKOH paMHoH KOHCTPYKUHH na ynpyrox OCHOBaHHH ee paCLJJ1eHHJOT na nOKpbITHe, CTeHbI H AHHIUe H sarea YLJHTbIBaJOT B3aHMoAeHcTBHe 3J1eMeHTOB. YroJ1 nosopora rrOKpbITHH B MeCTe conp aaceHHH co CTeHKOH

~~AB) = 11 Ell [MA (1/2) - (p13)/24].

TIpHHHMaH BO BHHMaHHe cHMMeTpHIO paMhl:

JMAI = IMBI; YA = YB= p1l2; I XA 1= IXBI·

DOKoBhIe CTeHbI paCCLJHTbIBaJOT KaK 6aJ1KH, 3arpYLKeHHbIe aKTHBHhlM. ropH30HTaJ1bHbIM AaBJ1eHHeM rpynra, BbIpaLKeHHH JlJ1H yrJ10B nosopora ~~,C)~~C), a TaK2Ke YCifJ1HH X~ H X~ BbILJHCJ1HJOT no cpopMyJ1aM:

~~C)= E~2 {{<2Mc+MA)- ::0 (8q2+7ql)};

(AC) 1 { h .11 - h~ }

~A = --n;- - '"6 (m'c + 2MA) + 360 (7 q2 + 8ql) , ;

, Mc-MA h

Xc= h +"(3(ql+2q2);

, Mc-MA h

XA = h + "(3 (2ql + q2)'

YroJ1 nosopora 6aJ1KH aa yrrpyroa OCHOBaHHH 11OJ1YQHM H3 cpOpMyJ1bJ

(CD) 1 -(C) -(C) -(C) -(C)

~c = rr.E blZ (~2cMc + ~2DMD + I [~3C Y c + ~3DY DJ),

o .

rne [3~~,lnil, ~~~ _ yrJ1bI noaopora J10TKa B Cel.J:eHHH C COOTBeTCTBeHHOOT Mc/nEobl=l; OT MD/nEobl=l; OT YB/nEobl=l; blpaCLJeTHaH IlIHpHHa H nponer o6AeJ1KH.

~1AB) = _ ~i~C); ~~C) = _ ~~CD).

HCrr0J1b3YH YCJ10BHH CTaTHKH, HaXOjJ,HM HeH3BeCTHbie YCHJ1HH.

H3rH6aJOllJ,He MOMeHTbI, nonepeunsre CHJ1bl, nporaosr, peaxrnanoe AaBJfeHHe rpyura.

PaCLJeT TOHKOCTeHHbIX paa rrpOH3BOAHT KaK paCLIeT rH6KHX KOHCTpyKUHH, OrrHpalOllJ,HXCH rro CTeHaM H B AHHllJ,e aa yrrpyroe OCHOBaHHe. HCn0J1b3YH pa3J1HLJHbIe MOAeJ1H yrrpyroro OCHOBaHHH. Hanpnaep, nOJ1baYIOTCH mnOTe30H MeCTHbIX AecpopMaUHH, npHHHMaH K03qxpHUHeHT yrrpyroro ornopa.

HCrr0J1b3YIOT paCLJeT UHHH.C MeTporrpoeKTa AJ1H 3aMKHYToH 06- AeJ1KH, onaparomeacs na ynpyroe OCHOBaHHe, nOALIHHHIOllJ,eeCH ranorese MeCTHbIX Ae¢opMaUHH. Ilepexpsrrae paccaarpuaaior KaK 6aJ1Ky aa AByX orropax, 3arpY2KeHHYJO BepTHKaJ1bHOH HarpY3KoH H MOMeHTaMH no KOHuaM. B MeCTax npHMbIKaHHH nepexpsrrns K CTeHaM 06AeJ1- KH He06xoAHMO rrpHJ102KHTb ropH30HTaJ1bHbIe H aep raxansnsre YCHJ1HH

H H3m6aJOIUHe MOMeHTbI. -

7*

99

)leHcTBHe ynpyroro OTnOpa rpyHTa Ha paMy 3aMeHHIDT CMCTeMOH CTepLKHeH C 3KBMBaJIeHTHbIMH ynpyrnan CBOHCTBaMH.

06.neJIKY MOIKHO paCC4MTaTb KaK pasry, OnMpaIDIIJ.YIDCH aa ynpyroe OCHOBaHMe, paccaarpaaaeaoe B Ka4eCTBe JlI1HeHHO .necpoPMHpyeMoH cpensr, I1cnoJIb3YIDT pacuneaenae 06.neJIKH aa OT.neJIbHbIe 3JIeMeHTbl:

CTeHbI paCCMaTpMBaIDT KaK 6aJIKH aa ynpyroa OCHOBaHHH C nOCTOHHHhIM no rJIy6MHe Mo.nYJIeM .necpopMaUHM.

)lJIH HMX BbIqHCJIHIDT yrJIbI nosopora:

R(AC) 1 I-(Al R(AI h -(A) X -(A)X

pA = :rr,Eobh2 \~2A MA + p2C Mc + [~3A A + ~3C cl] j

(AC) 1 {-(CIM -(C)M h R(C)X P:(C)X}

~c =:rr,E bh2 ~2A A + ~2C C + [p3A A + p3C cl·

o

.ll.HMIIJ,e paCCqMTbIBaIDT KaK 6aJIKY aa ynpyrox OCHOBaHMM, onpell.eJIHH yrOJI' noaopora [13]

R(CD) 1 -(C) (C) I P:(C)y -(C)y

PC =:rr,E bl2 {~2cMc + ~2DMD + [P3C C + ~3D D]},

o

Y4HTbIBaIDT paBeHCTBO yrJIOB nosopora B MeCTax paCqJIeHeHMH paMbl: ~~Bl = _ ~~C); ~tAC) = _ ~tCD).

K.OHCTPYKUMM, B03Bo.nHMble MeTo.noM «crena B rpyure», paCC4HTbIBaIDT paC4JIeHeHMeM aa oT.neJIbHbIe 3JIeMeHTbI, Y4HTbIBaH cpaKTH4eCKoe conpaacenne 3JIeMeHTOB B Y3JIax: nepexpsrrne npMHHMaIDT nrapnapno oneprua HJIH 3aIIJ,eMJIeHHbIM, C ynerox npo.nOJIbHOH CHJIbI, CTeHblKaK anenearpenao CLKaTbIe 3JIeMeHTbI, Haxo.nHIIJ,HeCH rron .neHcTBHeM BepTMKaJIbHbIX HarpY30K H aKTHBHOrO .naBJIeHHH rpyura (CM. pHC. 4.3, a). Ha cTeHY 3.naHHH .neHcTBYIDT BepTHKaJIbHbIe HarpY3KH (sec rpyara M nOKpblTHH, pacnpenenennaa narpyaxa aa nosepxnocra rpyura), ropM30HTaJIbHbIe (aKTHBHoe .naBJIeHHe rpyara), 4TO B arore BbI3blsaer COCTOHHHe snenearpennoro CIKaTMH.

Pacrrer nOKphITHH H3 C60PHbIX no.ryapox, UHJIMH.npMqeClmX H crpepMqeCKMX 060JI04eK pexoneanyerca BbInOJIHHTb B COOTBeTCTBMM C noJIO)KeHMHMH [58]. CTpeJIY nozrsexa 060JI04eK cnenyer npHHMMaTb paaHOH He MeHee tieM nOJIOBMHe .nJIMHbI BOJIHbI l HJIH .nMaMeTpa D, qT06bI npa pacsere MaKCMMaJIbHO COKpaTMTb TOJIIIJ.HHY KOHCTPYKUMH (CM. pMC. 4.3, 6).

Pacser KOHCTPYKUMH 06BaJIOBaHHhIx 3.naHMH BbInOJIHHIDT, pa3.neJIHH HX na OT.neJIbHbIe 3JIeMeHTbI: nJIHTbI nOKpbITHH, nepexptrraji, 60KoBble 06BaJIOBaHHble CTeHbI, He06BaJIOBaHHbIe CTeHbI, BHyTpeHHMe CTeHbI, <pYH.naMeHTbl (pHC. 4.4). Pa3JIM4HbIM 06pa30M onep rue npHMoyrOJIbHble nJIMTbI pexoneanyercs paCCqHTbIBaTb MeTo.nOM npenensnoro paanoseCMH C yqeTOM CHJI pacnopa. Hanpanep, HapYIKHaH 06BaJIOBaHHaH CTeHa 3.naHMH Haxo.nHTCH no.n .neHcTBHeM aKTMBHoro .naBJIeHHH rpyHTa M BepTHKaJIbHOH HarpY3KH peaKUMM nOKpbITMH. BepTMKaJIbHaH narpysxa CLKMMaeT nJIHTY B ee nJIOCKOCTH, a .naBJIeHHe rpynra BbI3bIBaeT H3rH6 nJIHTbI. B MTOre nJIMTa paeoraer aa aneuenrpenuoe C)KaTMe, HO ee nposHOCTb MOIKeT 6blTb paccnaraaa MeTo.nOM npeneasnoro paaaosecas [63].

100