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Central processing unit (CPU)

-I Control unit

Arithmetic logic unit (ALUl

Ma·n memory

Registers 010 a 0101 a

~ 10101010101010111 111 a a a 101
IR a , a a a a 0101
, , , , , , 4
010 a a a a I I

Fig. 1: Organization ofa simple computer; the CPU is built into a single microprocessor chip

Language work: HELP box

defining relative clauses Defining relative clauses

• We can define people or things with a

Look at the HELP box and then complete defining (restrictive) relative clause. We
the sentences below with suitable relative use the relative pronoun who to refer
pronouns. Give alternative options if to a person; we can also use that.
possible. Put brackets round the relative
pronouns you can leave out. A blogger is a person who/that keeps
a web log (blog) or publishes an online
, That's the computer I'd like
to buy.
2 Core 2 Duo is a new Intel processor • We use the relative pronoun which (or
contains about 291 million that) to refer to a thing, not a person.
transistors. This is built into a single chip which/ that
3 A web master is a person executes program instructions and
designs, develops and maintains a website. coordinates the activities [hat rake place
4 A bus is an electronic pathway within the computer system.
carries signals between • Relative pronouns can be left out
computer devices. when they are the object of the
5 Here's the DVD you lent me! relative clause.
6 Last night I met someone The main circuit board (which/ that)
works for GM as a software engineer. you have inside your system is called the
How memory ;s measured
Read the text and then answer these questions.
1 How many digits does a binary system use?
2 What is a bit?
3 What is a collection of eight bits called?
4 What does ASCII stand for?
5 What is the purpose of ASCII?

Bits and bytes

Computers do all calcu!ations using a code made of Computers use a standard code for the binary
just two numbers - 0 and 1. This system is called binary representation of characters. This is the American
code. The electronic circuits in a digital computer Standard Code for Information Interchange, or ASCII
detect the difference between two states: ON (the - pronounced f :£ski/. In order to avoid complex
current passes through) or OFF (the current doesn't pass calculations of bytes, we use bigger units such as
through) and represent these states as 1 or O. Each 1 or 0 kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes.
is called a binary digit, or bit. We use these units to describe the RAM memory, the
Bits are grouped into eight-digit codes that typically storage capacity of disks and the size of a program or
represent characters (letters, numbers and symbols). document.
Eight bits together are called a byte. Thus, each character Note: bit is pronounced Iblt!; byte is pronounced Iba ltl
on a keyboard has its own arrangement of eight bits, For
example, 01000001 for the letter A, 01 00001 for B, and
01000011 for C. 1, 10 , \I ,100 ...

One bit
I Unit of memory Abbreviation Exact memory amount
101000011 I Binary digit bit, b 1 or 0
Example of a byte Byte B 8 bits
Kilobyte KBorK 1,024 bytes (210)
Megabyte MB 1,024 KB, or 1,048,576 bytes (21(1)
Gigabyte GB 1,024 MB, or 1,073,741,824 bytes (2'J)
Terabyte TB 1,024 GB, or 1,099.511,627,776 bytes (2010)

B Complete these descriptions with the correct unit of memory.

1 A is about one trillion bytes - about as much text as the books and
magazines in a huge library.
2 A is about one million bytes - about as much text as a 300-page novel.
3 A is about one thousand bytes - equivalent to one sheet of A4.
4 A is about one billion bytes - about as much text as 1,000 books.
5 A can store a single character, such as the letter h or number 7.
A PC system
Complete this diagram of a PC system. Look at Units 1, 2 and 3 to help you.

I PC system
I (1) l 1(2) I
Programs, Mechanical and
e.g. graphics package, electroniCleqUiPment
web browser
Physical units
I(3) II Main memory I I(4) t attached to the
The 'brain' of the
computer I I

I (5)
(6) II Output devices (7) I
. Keyboard (9) (10)
(8) Printer DVDdrive
Flash drive

In pairs, compare your answers.

Ii:Jlisten to a teacher explaining the diagram to her class and

check your answers.

Your ideal computer system

Make notes about the features of the computer that you would most
like to have. Think about the features in the box.

CPU Speed Optical disc drives Wireless connectivity Minimum/maximum RAM

Monitor Ports and card memory slots Hard disk Software

Cl ln pairs, describe your ideal computer system. Give reasons

for your choices.

Useful language
It's gOL ..

It's very fast. It runs at ...

The standard RAM memory is . . . and it's expandable ...

The hard disk can hold ...

I need a large, flat LCD screen because ...

As for the Internet, ...

1 In a computer shop
C Imagine you are in a
computer shop. Choose five things
that would improve your digital life.
In pairs, compare your choices.

You want to buy a computer.

Think of three basic features that
will make a big difference to your
choice. In pairs, compare your

c ., Listen to two people making enquiries in a computer shop.

Do they buy anything?

. listen again and complete the product descriptions.

Processor speed 2.33GHz
Hard drive capacity
DVD drive included? Yes
Operating system
Includes internet sohware

Processor speed
Hard drive capacity
DVO drive included?
Operating system
Includes internet software
Price £ 1,029

E ~ Listen again and complete the extract from the conversation.
Assistant: Do you need any (1) ,
Paul: Urn, yes, we're looking for a Mac computer. Have you got any fairly basic ones?
Assistant: Yes, sure. If you'd like to come over here.
Paul: What different (2) are there?
Assistant: At the moment we've got these two models: the iMac, which is a desktop computer
with an Intel Core 2 Duo processor (3) at 2.33 gigahertz, and the
portable MacBook, which has a processor (4) at 2.0 gigahertz. Core Duo
technology actually means two cores, or processors, built into a single chip, offering up
to twice the speed of a traditional chip.
Sue: So they're both very (5) , then. And which one has more memory? I mean,
which has more RAM?
Assistant: Well, the iMac has two gigabytes of RAM, which can be (6) up to three
gigabytes, and the MacBook has one gigabyte, expandable to two gigabytes. It all
depends on your needs. The iMac is (7) for home users and small offices.
The Mac Book is mOl'e (8) if you travel a lot.

2 Language functions HELP box

in a computer shop language functions useful to a sales assistant
• Greeting and offering help
Look at the language functions in Good morning. Do you need any help?
the HELP box and then correct one
mistake in each of these sentences. • Giving technical specifications (specs)
Decide which functions are being The MacBook has a processor running at 2.0
expressed in each sentence. gigahertz.
The iMac has two gigabytes of RAM.
1 The Ulysses SO is a power. expandable
They feature a camera built into the display.
computer that offers high-end graphics
at a low price. • Describing
2 A laptop is likely to be more expensive Both computers are very fast and reliable.
than the equivalent desktop, but a • Comparing
laptop is less practical if you travel a lot. The MacBook is more practical if you travel a
3 Where's the storage capacity of the lot.
hard drive? PDAs are cheaper than laptops but laptops
4 I'm looking a desktop PC that has good are more powerful.
graphics for games. language fu nctions useful to a customer
5 Do you need the help? • Explaining what you are looking for
6 And how many does the PDA cost? We're looking for a personal computer. Have
7 This workstation is a Pentium processor you got any fairly basic ones?
with dual-core technology, 1,024
• Asking for technical specs
gigabytes of RAM, and 1 terabyte of What's the storage capacity of the hard drive?
disk space.
Do they have a DVD drive?

• Asking the price

How much do they cost?
How much;s it?
3 Role play - buying a computer
CI Work in pairs. One of you wants to buy a computer, the other is t he shop
assistant. Use the prompts and product descriptions below to role play the
Shop assistant Customer
Greet the customer and offer help.
Explai n what you are looking for.
Show the customer two possible models.
Ask for some technical specs.
Give technical specs (describe the processor, RAM and
storage capacity). Compare the two different models.
Ask about any further technical specs (DVD drive, monitor,
communications, etc.).
Give the information required. Compare the two models.
Ask the price.
Answer. and mention any final details that might
persuade the customer to buy the computer.
Decide which computer to buy or leave the shop.

Toshiba Satellite (
.iiiiiiii....... laptop Dell desktop PC Palm TX handheld
2.OGHz Core 2 Duo processor
2GB RAM expandable to 4GB
I 60GB hard drive
l A MD Ath lon at 2.4G Hz
1GB RAM expandable to 4GB
320GB hard d ri ve
Intel 312MHz ARM-based proceSSor
128 MB Hash memory (non -volatite)
Support for memory card s
Super Mun.i drive (double layer)
DVD+/-RW d r ive 320x480 TFT touch screen
15.4" wide XGA d!splay
17" LCD m onitor Wi-Fi and Bluetooth
Wireless LAN,Wi-Fi compliancy
£ I ,099 £680
lith;um-;o" batte'll £216

4 Choosing the right computer

.., Listen to four people talking about their computer needs and take notes.
In pairs, read the descriptions from the computer shop website and choose the
most suitable computer for each person. Give reasons for your choices.
Speaker 1 Speaker 3
Speaker 2 Speaker 4
Sun workstation
Two AMD Opteron processors at 3.0GHz
4GB RAM; 32GB maximum
1 terabyte hard drive and dual DVD drive
19" Sun TFT flat-panel LCD
Supports several graphics formats
Allows you to handle your toughest technical,
scientific, and business-critical applications
Supports Solaris, Windows and Linux
1!.:i:!J'8uying II compute,

Gateway C·120 convertible notebook

., Inlel Core 2 Duo ULV processor at l06GHz

12.1 · WXGA TFT touch screen
Gateway Executive stylus pen
BOGB serial ATA hard drive
DVO-ROM drive (optical ova burner)
Integrated modem and Bluelooth
Windows Vista Home Premium
Thin and lightweight (1.17", 2.4 kg)

Sony Vaio AR laptop (VGN-AR51 E)
Intel Core 2 Duo Processor at 2GHz
200GB hard drive
DVD+I-RW optical drive
17" WXGA high-definition LCD screen
Memory Stick slot
Three USB 2.0 porls
Integrated wireless LAN
Buill-in 'Motion Eye' digital camera
Lithium-ion battery
Windows Vista Ultimate

Dell I"spiro" 53t desktop PC

AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core Processor
Dell 22" Wide Flat Panel
256MB NVIDIA GeForce 8600GT video card
1.0TB Hard Drive
l6x DVD+/· RW Drive
Integrated 7 1 Channel High Definition Audio
Windows Vista Home Premium
Optional features: Windows Media Center,
integrated TV Tuner, and a Blu-ray disc drive for
high-definiton content
From £849

B Look at the notes you made about your ideal computer system in
Unit 3 task 6 (page 151. What did you want? Look again at the descriptions
of the computers above and choose the one that is closest to your ideal. In
pairs, discuss your choices.

Vocabulary tree
Designing word trees and spidergrams can help you build up your own mental
' maps' of vocabulary areas. Look at the list of terms in the box and put each one in
an appropriate place on the word tree below. The first one has been done for you.
PfOCt:350f ROM expandable memory ALU DIMMs hard drive
RAM computer brain byte DVD system clock keyboard
mouse gigahertz printer megabyte webcam registers

Recommending a computer
m A friend has asked you to recommend a computer that suits his needs. He
needs to be able to access the Internet, play games and work with graphics, music
and video files. Write an email describing its technical features and saying why
you recommend it.

Now visit wwwocambridge.org/elt/ictfor an online task.

1 Interacting with your computer
Read the description of input devices and then label the pictures (1-8) with words
from the text.

Input devices are the pieces of hardware which allow interact with a computer by using one of these: a light
us to enter information into the computer. The m ost pen, a scanner, a trackball, a graphics tablet, a game
common are the keyboard and the mouse. We can also controller or a microphone.

2 3 4

5 6 7 8

2 Describing input devices

A . listen to a computer technician describing three input devices.
Write which devices he's talking about.
' 2 3

B ~ Listen again and complete these extracts.

1 This device is enter information into the computer.
2 ... it may also function keys and editing keys special purposes.
3 This is a device the cursor and selecting items on the screen.
4 It usually two bunons and a wheel.
5 ... the user activate icons or select items and text.
6 It detecting light from the computer screen and is used by pointing it directly at
the screen display.
7 It the user answer multiple-choice Questions and.
3 Describing functions and features
A Look at the HELP box and then use HELP box
the notes below to write a description
Describing functions
of the Sony PlayS tat ion 3 controller.
In the listening, the mouse was described using
for + gerund:
This is Q device for controlling the cursor and
selecting items on the screen.
There are other ways of describing a device's

• used + to + infinitive
It's used to control .

Sony PlayS tat ion 3 controller • relative pronoun + verb

This is a device which controls .
• relative pronoun + used + to + infinitive
• control video games This is a device which/ that is used to
control ...
• hold it with both hands, use thumbs to
handle directional sticks and face buttons • work by + gerund
It works by detecting light from the
computer screen.
• six·axis sensing system (capable of
Describing features
sensing motion in six directions: up,
down, leh. right, forwards and backwards) We can describe features like this:

• wireless controller (Bluetooth) An optical mouse has an optical sensor instead of

a ball underneath.
• USB mini port and cable for wired play
and automatic battery charging It usually features cwo buttons and a wheel.
You can connect it to a USB porro
A wireless mouse works/operates withour cables.
B Ol in pairs, choose one of It allows the user to answer multiple-choice
these input devices and describe questions and ...
its functions and features. Try to
guess which device your partner is

Bar code reader Touchpad on a portable PC Webeam Touch screen

4 The keyboard
A Label the picture of a standard keyboard with the groups of keys (1 -5).
, Cursor control keys include arrow keys that move the insertion point up, down, right and left.
and keys such as End, Home, Page Up and Page Down, which are used in word processing to
move around a long document.
2 Alphanumeric keys represent letters and numbers. as arranged on a typewriter.
3 Function keys appear at the top of the keyboard and can be programmed to do special tasks.
4 Dedicated keys are used to issue commands or to produce alternative characters, e.g. the Or'
key or the Aft key.
S A numeric keypad appears to the fight of the main keyboard. The Num Lock key is used to
switch from numbers to editing keys.

A PC-compatiblekeyboord

B Match the descriptions (1 - 8) with the names ofthe

keys (a-h). Then find them on the keyboard.
, A long key at the bottom of the keyboard Each time it is pressed, a arrrow keys
it produces a blank space. b return/enter
2 It moves the cursor to the beginning of a new line. It is also used c Caps Lock
to confirm commands.
d shift
3 It works in combination with other keys. For example, you press
e tab
this key and C to copy the selected text.
f space bar
4 It removes the charaaer to the left of the cursor or any selected
text. 9 backspace
5 It produces UPPER CASE characters. h etrl
6 It produces UPPER CASE leners, but it does not affect numbers
and symbols.
7 It moves the cursor horizontally to the right for a fixed number of
spaces (in tabulations and data fields).
8 They are used to move the cursor, as an altemative to the mouse.

5 Mouse actions
Complete this text about the mouse with verbs from the box.

click double-click drag grab select move control

Mouse actions
A mouse allows you to (1) the cursor and items on the screen. You can highlight text to be deleted,
move around the screen very quickly. Making the same copied or edited in some way.
movements with the arrow keys on the keyboard would The mouse is widely used in graphics and design. When
take much longer. As you (2) the mouse
you want to move an image, you position the pointer on
on your desk, the pointer on the screen moves in the the object you want to move, press the mouse button,
same direction. The pointer usually looks like an I-bar, an and (5) the image to a new location on
arrow, or a pointing hand, depending on what you are the screen. Similarly, the mouse is used to change the
shape of a graphic object. For example, if you want to
A mouse has one or more buttons to communicate with convert a square into a rectangle, you (6)
the computer. For example, if you want to place the one corner of the square and stretch it into a rectangle.
insertion point or choose a menu option, you just
The mouse ;5 also used ro starr a program or open a
(3) (press and release) on the mouse
document: you put the pointer on the file name and
bunon, and the option is chosen.
(7) on the name - that is, you rapidly press
The mouse is also used to (4) text and and release the mouse button twice.

Gooo. NolV, ~A-r Tt1E MOv<.>€

OVER. "T\\E: C~iT rOoO DIS\-\ \COI\,)
/ CLicK·


6 Speech recognition systems
A ~ Listen to an interview with Anne Simpson, an expert in voice input
technologies and tick (y') the features she mentions.
Speech recognition systems:
o need a good sound card and a microphone.
o can take dictation with accuracy.
o allow you to create and compile a computer program.

o allow you to execute programs and navigate around menus using voice commands.

o allow you to surf the Web by speaking.

o allow you to design graphics.
B ~ listen again and answer these questions.
1 What do people usually use to communicate with a computer?
2 How do you get the best results from speech recognition software?
3 What rate of accuracy is possible with the software?
4 How can you train the software to be more accurate?
5 What kinds of words aren't in the software's dictionary?

C Ol in groups, discuss these questions.

1 What are the benefits of speech recognition software?
2 What kind of tasks would you find speech recognition useful for?
3 Who would benefit most from advances in
speech recognition technology?
4 What is the future of this kind of technology?
Do you think it will ever be possible to control
your computer using only your thoughts?

You talk, it
types - speech
software lets
computers by
voice command
1 The eyes of your computer
A In pairs, discuss how many ways there are of capturing an image on a
B Read the text and see how many things from your list are mentioned.
C Read the text again and answer these questions.
1 Which device is used to input text and graphic images from a printed page?
2 How does a scanner send information to the computer?
3 How do digital cameras store photographs?
4 What feature allows mobile phone users to take pictures?
5 Which device would you use to take digital video?
6 What kind of software is used to manipulate video clips on the computer?

The eyes of your computer

What does a scanner do? Photographs are stored
in the camera's memory
A scanner 'sees' images and converts the printed text or
card before being sent
pictures into electronic codes that can be understood
to the computer. Some
by the computer. With a flatbed colour scanner, the
cameras can also be
paper with the image is placed face down on a glass
connected to a primer
screen, as with a photocopier. Beneath the glass are the
or a TV set to make
lighting and measurement devices. Once the scanner
viewing images easier.
is activated, it reads the image as a series of dots and
This is usually the case
then generates the digitized image that is sent to the
with camera phones
computer and stored as a file.
- mobile phones with a
The scanner operates by using three rotating lamps, built-in camera.
each of which has a different coloured filter: red, green
and blue. The resulting three separate images are
What does a camcorder do?
combined into one by appropriate software. A camcorder, or digital video camera, records moving
pictures and converts them into digital data that can
be stored and edited by a computer with special video
editing software.
Digital video cameras are used by home users to create
l\~i' mwi' ,~1'a; at 0' jJl~~.:lJIi.J1'id'11; Ii?
computer art and video
They are also used
to send live video
images via the
What does a digital camera do? Internet. In this
A digital camera takes photos electronically and converts case they are called
them into digital data (binary codes made up of 1sand web cameras, or
Os), It doesn't use the film found in a traditional camera; webcams.
instead it has a special light-sensitive Silicon chip.

~ Listen to a conversation between Vicky Cameron, an Information Technology
(IT) lecturer, and one of her students, and complete the student's notes.

~ I::.ec~ used lol'\ 5c().l'\l'\efS loS Si...mi...\o.f 1::.0 I::.ho.l::. V'Sed l.1'\ a.

Z. ~ SCC\lVled l.~ loS 5er.t. 1::.0 I:..he ~fe. ~ CM ~I:..e lol::..

A handheld scanner
(or scanning text, 3 10 SCo.r'\ l::.e)<..l::. . ~ I'\eed specloa.1 sofb..xv-e ca.lled
bar codes and
4- F\c:\l::.bed SCCVV'\ers Co.r'\ SCM
handwritten numbers
S S Ilock SCGV\l'\efS Ole V'Sed 1:..0 SCM

Aslide scanner

Facts and opinions

A What is the difference between facts and opinions? Complete these definitions.
1 are real, objective information.
2 usually include emotive words and subjective sta tements.

B Read these advertisements and underline the facts and €rc~the opinions.

ColourScan XR S,,,nPress DF
from Sunrise
The Scan Press D F is a self-calibrating
The ColourScan XR from Sunrise is a flatbed scanner with 2,400 dpi of
flatbed scanner with 1.200 dots per resolution. You can scan everything
inch (dpi) of resolution and 9"xlS" of from black and white to 24-bit colour.
scanning area. The package includes a hardware
Just think of the possibilities. accelerator for J PEG compression and
You can enter data and graphic decolllpression. J PEG technology ~ave~
images directly into your applications disk space by compressing images by l1p
(word processors or databases). You to SO to 1.
can get crisp, clean scans for colour In creating the Scan Press DF, we have
compositions, video and animation chosen the most adv:lnced technology
work. to give- you the besr scans with the least
The ColourScan XR comes complete etTort. It produces images with high
with its own image-capture software, colour definition and sharpness. And it
which allows for colour and grey comes with OCR softw:lre and Adobe
retouching. And it's easy to use. What Photosbop, so you can manipulate :Ill
more could you want for only £79? It the images you capture.
couldn't be cheaper.
The SCIIl Press DF is a fantastic machine
In the field of flatbeds, the
ColourScan XR is the clear winner.
that you will love working with. And at
only ,.(309, an excellent investment.
Unit 6

In small groups, compare your answers and decide about the following.
, Which text uses more persuasive language?
2 Which text is more factual or objective?

Language work: superlatives

Apart from catchy slogans and other HELP box
persuasive techniques, advertisements Superlatives
often use the superlative form of adjectives
and adverbs. Read the following examples • We form the superlative of one-
from advertisements for input devices. syllable and most two-syllable
What can you say from these examples adjectives by adding -est.
about how superlatives are formed? Look cheap --+ the cheapest
at the HELP box to check your answers. clever --+ the cleverest
1 We have chosen the most advanced
• Some two-syllable adjectives
technology ...
(including those ending in -jng, -ed.
2 The fastest personal scanner ...
-ful and -less) form the superlative
3 The most revolutionary computer peripheral ...
with the most/ least.
4 The best scans with the least effort ...
advanced --+ the most advanced
Complete these sentences with the • Adjectives with three or more
superlative form of the adjectives in syllables also take the most/ least
fantastic --+ the most fantastic
1 Always buy the (fast) powerful --+ the least powerful
scanner with the (high)
resolution you can afford. • But two syllable adjectives ending in
-y (for example, noisy) take -est and
2 They have created the (revolutionary)
the y changes to i.
camera to date.
3 FotoFinish is the (easy) noisy --+ the noisiest
photo editing software for your d igital camera. • Note the irregular forms:
4 This scanner gives you the (good)
good --+ the best
scans with the
bad --+ the worst
(little) effort.
little --+ the least
5 Our university has bought the (modern) (with amounts, not size)
computer equipment.

r e in pairs, discuss who or what you think is:

1 the most difficult computer game you've ever played.
2 the most exciting film you've ever seen.
3 the funniest programme on TV.
4 the most dangerous computer virus.
5 the best blogger or webmaster on the Web.
6 the most popular web browser.

5 Language work: suffixes HELP box
A Look atthe HELP box and then use • Suffixes change the class of the root
suitable suffixes to make adjectives or word. For example, by adding the
nouns from these words. In some cases, suffix -ai, the noun digit is changed
you can make more than one word. Use a into the adjective digital. Suffixes can
dictionary to help you. help you tell if a word is a noun, an
1 colour adjective or a verb.
2 profession
Common adjectival suffixes are: -y,
3 photograph -able, -ible, -ive, -ai, -ed, -ful, -ie,
4 wire -less, -ing
5 blur Common noun suffixes are: -er, -or,
6 innovate -ion, -tion, -ation, -me nt, -ness, -ity,
7 underexpose -ant, - logy, -ing, -y, -ure, -sion
• When using suffixes, always check in
B Complete these sentences with the ~ord your dictionary to see if you need to
in brackets and one of these noun suffixes: change any other letters.
-t;on, -eT, -ing, -logy, -ness. Use a dictionary scan ......... scanner (double n)
to help you.
1 Kodak is a (manufacture) of photographic and imaging
2 To avoid red eyes, use the camera's red eye (reduce)
3 (Crop) a photograph means cutting out the parts of an
image you don't need.
4 The (sharp) of a photograph is a combination of resolution
and acutance - the ability to represent clear edges.
S Digital (techno) is evolving so rapidly that some cameras
have a resolution of 12 mega pixels - that's 12 million pixels.
6 Press release: a digital camera
Complete the press release with words from the box.

colour mega pixels shot video optical brighter reduction

Kodak has introduced the

EasyShare M753 digital
camera, with 7.0
(1) resolution,
a huge 2.S·inch LC D screen, .. -
and a professional 3x
(2) zoom
lens. It is the first camera to
incorporate proprietary Kodak
Pertect Touch Technology.'
At the touch of a button , this
innovative feature creates
better, (3)
pictures by bringing out detail
in shadows without affecting
lighter areas. It's ideal for underexposed pictures caused by shooting beyond the
flash range or in adverse lighting conditions.
The M753 uses the exclusive Kodak Colour Science chip for phenomenal image
quality with rich (4) and accurate skin tones. Seventeen programmed
scene modes (e.g. party, fireworks, children) and five colour modes (high , low,
natural, sepia, and black and white) help capture the besl (5) with the
least effort.
Other features include cropping , auto picture rotation , digital red-eye
(6) , and blurry picture alerl. For capluring more than just slill pictures,
the camera also features high-quality (VGA) (7) capture and playback.

7 Describing a camera
In pairs, describe your digital camera, webcam or video camera. Think about
these questions.
• What do you use the device for?
• Why did you buy that particular make/model?
• What are your favourite functions?
• What improvements would you make to the device?
1 Your computer screen
C In pairs, discuss these
1 What type of display do you have: a
cathode ray tube or an LCD flat screen?
2 What size is the screen?
3 How can you change the picture using
the controls?
4 Can you watch TV on your PC monitor?

An Apple Moc flot

screen monitor

2 How screen displays work

Complete these definitions with words from the box. Then read the text on
page 33 and check your answers.

resolution pixel aspect ratio colour depth video ada pter plasma screen

1 - the smallest unit on a display screen or bitmapped image (usually

a coloured dot)
2 - an expansion card that generates the video signal sent to a
computer display
3 - the width of the screen in proportion to its height
4 - also called gas discharge display
5 - the number of pixels contained in a display. horizontally and
6 - the number of bits used to hold a colour pixel; this determines
the maximum number of colours that can be displayed

Read the text again and answer these questions.

1 What do CRT and LCD stand for?
2 How is the screen size measured?
3 What technology is used by active-matrix LCOs?
4 Which unit of frequency is used to measure the brightness of a display?
5 What substance prod uces light and colou r when hit by electrons in a CRT monitor?
6 What are the three advantages of OLEO displays?
Unit 7

How screen displays work

Displays, often called monitors or screens, are the Inside the computer there is a video adapter. or
most·used output device on a computer. They provide graphics card. which processes images and sends
instant feedback by showing you text and graphic signals to the monitor. CRT monitors use a VGA (video
images as you work or play. graphics adapter) cable, which converts digital signals
Most desktop displays use liquid Crystal Display into analogue signals. LCD monitors use a OVI (digital
(LCD) or Cathode Ray Tube (CRn technology, while video interface) connection.
nearly all portable computing devices, such as laptops, Colour depth refers to the number of colours a monitor
incorporate LCOs. Because of their slimmer design and can display. This depends on the number of bits used
lower energy consumption. LCD monitors (also called to describe the colour of a single pixel. For example.
flat panel or flat screen displays) are replacing CRTs. an old VGA monitor with an 8·bit depth can generate
256 colours and a $uperVGA with a 24·bit depth can
Basic features generate 16.7 million colours. Monitors with a 32·bit
Resolution refers to the number of dots of colour, depth are used in digital video, animation and video
known as pixels (picture elements). contained in a games to get certain effects.
display. It is expressed by identifying the number of
pixels on the horizontal and vertical axes. A typical Display technologies
resolution is 1024x768. An LCD is made of two glass plates with a liquid crystal
material between them. The crystals block the light in
different quantities to create the image. Active-matrix
LCOs use TFT (thin film transistor) technology. in
which each pixel has its own switch. The amount of
light the LCD monitor produces is called brightness
or luminance. measured in cd/m 2 (candela per square
A CRT monitor is similar to a traditional TV set. It contains
millions of tiny red, green and blue phosphor dots that
glow when struck by an electron beam that travels
across the screen and create a visible image.
PCs can be connected to video projectors, which
project the image onto a large screen. They are used for
presentations and home theatre applications.
Apixel is a combination of red, green and blue subpixels
In a plasma screen, images are created by a plasma
discharge which contains noble (non-harmful) gases.
Two measurements describe the size of your display: the Plasma TVs allow for larger screens and wide viewing
aspect ratio and the screen size. Historically. computer angles. making them ideal for movies.
displays, like most televisions. have had an aspect ratio Organic Light-Emitting ~iodes (OLEOs) are thin-film
of 4:3 - the width of the screen to the height is four to LED displays that don't require a backlight to function.
three. For widescreen LCD displays. the aspect ratio is The material emits light when stimulated by an electrical
16:9. very useful for viewing DVO movies. playing games current. which is known as electroluminescence. They
and displaying multiple windows side by side. High· consume less energy, produce brighter colours and
definition TV also uses this format. The viewable screen are flexible - i.e. {hey can be bent and rolled up when
size is measured diagonally. so a 19" screen measures 19" they're not being used.
from the top left to the bottom right.
3 Choosing the right display device
A ., Listen to five customers in a computer shop describing their display device
needs. Which device (a-e) would you recommend to each person? In pairs, discuss
your choices and give reasons for them.
Speaker 1 Speaker 4
Speaker 2 SpeakerS
Speaker 3

NEC MultiSyn LCD Dell UltraSharp LCD

Monitor monitor
Screen size: 17" Widescreen 24" flat panel
Resolution: 1280x 1024 Resolution: 1920x1200
Colour support: 16.7 miUion
Aspect ratio: 5:4
Multiple video inputs, flash-
Brightness: 400 cd/m] card slots and USB ports

Cambridge- Pioneer SO .. Plasma

Hitachi interactive TV
Resolution: 1280x768
Allows interaction with (XGA)
a projected computer
Blu-ray Disc recorder
5.1 surround sound
Board size: 78"
system (Five audio
Connected to the PC channels plus one
via USB subwoofer)
Pointing device:
cordless pen

Portable projector

DLP (Digital
light Processing)

Resolution: 1024x768
Projection screen

B Cl ln pairs, discuss which of the display devices you would most like to own.
Give reasons for your choice.
Unit 7

4 Ergonomics
A ~ Listen to Tony Clark, an expert in computer ergonomics, talking to some
office workers about health and safety. What health problems associated with
computer use do the office workers mention?

B . , Listen again and complete these extracts.

1 Get a good chair, one that your lower back and is

2 Make sure your feet rest firmly or on a footrest.

3 Position the keyboard your elbows, with your arms
the work surface ...
4 ... position the monitor at, or just below,
S You should sit at from the front of the monitor. about 50 to 70
centimetres away.
6 ... a kind of stand that lets you move the monitor , so you can use It
at the correct angle and height.

C Match the extracts above (1-6) with the correct parts of the diagram (a-f).

Ergonomics - the
srudy ofhow people
interact safely and
efficiently wirh
machines and rheir
work conditions
5 Language work: HELP box
Instructions and advice
instructions and advice
• We use the imperative to give instructions.
A Look at the HELP box and then Get an adjustable chair.
complete these health and safety
guidelines with should/shouldn't. Don't put your monitor in front ofa window.
1 If you type a tot at your computer each • We use shou ld and shou ldn't + infinitive to
day, you buy an ergonomic give advice or to talk about what we think is
keyboard; it can help reduce the risk of a good or bad idea.
repetitive strain injury.
You should look down or [he monitor, not up.
2 You place your mouse
within easy reach and support your You shouldn't use a monitor thoes fuzzy or
forearm. distorts the image.
3 If you decide to build your own PC, • We can also give advice by using set phrases
protect yourself from electric shocks. You like It's a good idea to or It's a bad idea to
touch any components + infinitive.
unnecessarily. It's a good idea to have a monicor with a cilt-
4 You always use a and-swive/stand.
copyholder if you are working from
documents. The best poSition is between the screen and the keyboard, or at (he same height as
the screen; this can reduce neck, back and eyestrain.
S Irresponsible disposal of electronic waste can cause severe environmental and health problems.
You just throw your old monitor or video system into the bin.

B C In pairs, practise giving advice about how to use a monitor safely using
should/shouldn't or It's a good/ bad idea to. Look at these guidelines for help.
1 Don't open the monitor. It's dangerous.
2 Don't stare at the screen for (ong periods of time.
3 Position the monitor at eye level or just below.
4 leave enough space behind the monitor for unobstructed movement.
5 Don't sit near the sides or back of CRT monitors. Use LCD screens instead - they're free from
6 Keep the screen clean to prevent distorting shadows.

6 An ergonomic school or office

m You have been asked to write a list of guidelines for making your school or
office more ergonomic. look at the definition of ergonomics at the bottom of page
35 and then write an email to your teacher/manager explaining your guidelines.
Consider 1-8 below.
1 Physical layout of the work site: desk areas, computer equipment, filing cabinets, etc.
2 Lighting (overhead lights, desk lamps), glare and ventilatton
3 Computer and office furniture: ergonomic chairs and desks
4 User-friendly and ergonomic devices: keyboards, mice, monitors, wrist rests, copyholders, etc.
5 Location and features of telephones
6 Layout of cables and switches for a wired network
7 Wireless internet access and wireless network
8 Maintenance and technical repairs
1 Types of printer
A How many types of printer can you think of? Make a list.
B Read the article on page 38 and then label the types of
printer (1 -5). Which types of printer aren't pictured?

print head

The quality (resolution) of the images

goes up (0 ],400 dots per inch (dpi)

Provides high qualifY output: a resolurion The resolution depends on the number of pins
of 1,200-2,400dpi


Provides high quality for linework (lines and curves) Provides the highest resolution: more than 3,000 dpi

4 5
Laser printers produce output at great speed and 25
with a very high resolution of 1,200-2.400 dpi.
WHICH TYPE OF They scan the image with a laser beam and transfer
it to paper with a special ink powder called toner.

[JIfJDwL?~[x] They are constantly being improved. In terllls of

speed and image quality, laser primers are preferred
by experts for various reasons;Jor insral/re, they haw a

SHOULD I BUY? wider range of scalable fOllts than inkjets, can emulate
different language systems, and can produce high-
quality graphics; however, rht.)' are still expensive for
home users. 35
Printing is the final stage in creating a document. Thernlal transfcr printers are used to produce
Sil1((' the r~lllts yOll can obtain with different types of colour images by transferring a wax-based ink
printer will vary substantially, her(' is a guide to help onto the pap~r. They 3re popular for printing bar
you decide which one is most suitable for your Ileeds. codes, labels and medium-resolution graphics.
5 Til bc.~i'l witll. you should take into accoum that lmagese tters produce very high-resolution output 40
pnnters vary in cost, speed, print quality, and other (up to 3,540 dpi) on paper or on the acwal film for
factors 511ch (/J' noise or printing method. Technology making {he printing plates. In addition, they are
is evolving so quickly that there is always a princer for extremely fast. Imagescttl:fS arc Illost often Llsed in
eveTY application or need. desktop publishing (DT P).Although they produce
10 Dot-matrix printers use pins to print the dots the highest quality output, they have one iruportam 45
required to shape a character. They can print text disadvantage: they are toO (:xpensive for homes or
and graphics; however, they produce relatively low ~Imll offices.
resolution output - 72 to [80 dots pcr inch (dpi).Thcy In modern lithographic priming. images are
arc used to print Illlliti-p:m forms. self-copying paper created on a DT P computer and rilm Output
15 and continuous-form labd~.They arc slower than laser directly to tilt' pr inting plates, without requiring 50
printers (Sl·t· below) but much cheaper. film as an intermediate step. This tl:chnology is
Inkje t printers operate by projecting small ink called computer to plate, or C TP, and the
droplets OntO paper to form the required image. machine used is called a plates etter .
Colour and hues are created by the precise mixing Fillnl/)" we have plotters. Plotters use ink and fine
20 of cyan. magt;.'nta. yellow and black inks. Inkjets pens held in a carriage to draw very detailed designs 55
afe fairly fast. quiet, and not as expensive as laser on paper. They are llsed for constrllction plans,
printers. Nevertheless, you can still expect high quality engineering drawings and other technical illustrations.
n'sults bmlllse then' are some inkjet printers on the Nowadays. traditional plotters are being repbccd
11llrket with a resolution of 2.400 dpi. with wide-forrn:1.t inkjets.

C Find words in the article with the following meanings.

1 designs and images used in magazines, books, etc. (lines 10-15)
2 output quality, measured in dots per inch (lines 10-15)
3 a particular colour within the colour spectrum (lines 15-20)
4 an ink. powder used in laser printers and copiers (lines 25-30)
5 set of characters that can be resized (enlarged or reduced) without introducing distortion
(lines 30-35)
6 a rectangular pattern of black lines of magnetic ink printed on an objea so that its details can be
read by a computer system (lines 35-40)
7 surface that carries a reproduction of the image, from which the pages are printed
(lines 45-50)
8 in-between: middle (lines 50-55)
Unit .

2 Language work: connectors 1

A Look at the HELP box and then put the words in italics from the article on
page 38 into the correct column of the table.
Giving examples Listing/ Sequencing Giving reason/cause

B Try to add some more connectors to each column. How do you say these
connectors in your language?

Connectors 1
Connectors are linking words and phrases which join ideas and help us organize our writing.
Connectors can be used for giving examples, listing or sequencing, and giving reason or cause.
... for instance, rhey have a wider range of ...
To begin with, you 5houfd rake inro account thar prinrer5 vary in C05t ...
Some common connectors appear in irafic5 in the article on page 38. For more on other uses of
connectors, see Unit 11.

c m Write a paragraph describing the printer(s) you use at home or at work. Try
to use some connectors. Think about these aspects: type, speed, resolution, print
quality, memory, cost, print consumables (ink cartridges etc.).

3 Choosing the right printer

A In pairs, choose the most suitable printer for each of these situations. Give
reasons for your choices.
1 You want to print documents, web pages and occasional photographs at home.
2 A small company needs a printer which will be shared by various users on a local area network
3 A professional team of architects and engineers need to create accurate representations of
objects in technical drawings and CAD.
4 A graphic arts business needs a printer to produce catalogues, brochures and other publications.

B In pairs, describe the features of your ideal printer.

4 Multi-function printers
A ~ listen to an extract from a consumer technology pod cast about
multi-function printers. What two disadvantages of multi-function
printers are mentioned?
B . , Listen again and answer these questions.
1 What is a multi-function printer?
2 Why are multi-function printers $0 popula r?
3 What is the main advantage of PictBridge technology?
4 Apart from sheets of paper, what other things
can multi-function printers print? HELP box
5 What software do you usually get when Comparatives
you buy a multi-function printer? • We form the comparative of one-
6 What advice does Mr Kelly give on ink syllable adjectives by adding -er.
slow -.. slower
7 What type of device does he recommend for
home users? Inkjet printers are slower than laser
printers, but much cheaper.
8 What type of device does he recommend for
businesses? • Two-syllable adjectives usually take

5 Language work: modern -.. more modern

They're designing a more modern version
comparatives or the moment.
Look at the HELP box and then complete • Adjectives ending in -y (for example,
these sentences using the comparative noisy) take -er and the y changes to i.
form of the adjective in brackets. Dor-matrix printers ore noisier chon
1 A laser printer is generally (quiet) inkjets.
than a low-cost inkjet
• We form the comparative of adjectives
with three or more syllables by adding
2 Multi-function printers are now only slightly more/ less.
(expensive) than -
conventional primers, and offer much (great) versOfile -.. more versOfile
versatility. . they're cheaper and more versatile
3 The print quality of this network printer is than swndalone products.
noticeably (good) than
• Note the irregular forms:
any inkjet, and as (good)
as Similar laser primers. good --+ better
4 The Agfa platesetter is (reliable) bad --+ worse
and (easy) litrle --+ less
to use than most primers If you wont better results, you'll need
of its type. specialized software.
S Your printer is only as (good)
• Equality is expressed by using as ... as.
as the paper you use.
Difference can be shown by using not
6 The final result is always (accurate) as ... as.
than the original image.
ThiS is as fast as many other printers in its
7 An imageserter is (heavy)
than a laser printer.
Inkjets are not as expensive as laser
. I
6 Reading quiz - printer adverts
A In pairs, read the adverts and then answer these questions. See who in your
class can finish first.
, How many inkjet printers are advertised?
2 Which printer would you recommend to someone who wants to print advertising graphics?
3 If you have the w ide-fo rmat printer from Vutek. what kinds of material can you print on?
4 Which technology lets you print directly from your digital camera without needing a computer
in between?
5 A page description language, o r POL. describes how to print the text and pictu res on the page.
Can you find two laser printer languages?
6 What is the resol ution of the Brother HL Network Colou r laser Printer?
7 How fast is the Brother Hl Network Colou r Laser Printer?

The Vutek UltraVu II 5330 provides the ultimate combination of highest

print speed and best print quality in a five- metre printer.
Canon Compact Photo • Wide-format professional inkjet printer
Printer SELPHY CP750 • Prints on a wide variety of substrates, including vinyl, and pressure-
Photo Printer sensitive paper, mesh and textiles
An inkjet photo printer with • VUTEK low Friction Kit allows for difficult material5to be run more ea5ily
a 2.4" colour LCD for easy • Prints up to 16.4 feet (5 metres) wide
viewing, editing and printing of • Up to 330 dpi resolution produces images that
perfect borderless photos. With are sharp, cri5p and consistent
PictBridge, you can print directly • Prints up to 2,130 square feet
from digital cameras, memory (207 square metres) per hour
cards or camera phones (via • Applications: banners,
IrDA or optional Bluetooth unit) exhibition graphics, bus
without connecting to a Pc. shelte~, etc.

Resolution: 300x300 dpi

Software: Easy-PhotoPrint Brother HL Network Print Speed: up to 31 ppm
Dimensions: 179x127.1x63 mm Colo ur Laser Printer (pages per minute) mono, 8
ppm colour (A4)
The HL·4040(N delivers the
Weight: 960g Compatibility: PCL and
perfect balance of quality,
workgroup, colour A4 laser PostScript languages
printing. Paper tray capacity: 250 sheets
It boasts outstanding colour Memory size: 64MB
output: 2,400 dpi class colour High-speed USB
printing with exceptionally
crisp, high·resolution text and
graphics driven by Brother'S
exclusive printing enhancement

A friend has emailed you asking for advice about which printer to buy, the
Canon SELPHY CP750 or the Brother HL Network Colour Laser Printer. Write an
email to your friend comparing the two printers. Use the HELP box on page 40 to
help you.
1 Assistive technology
A C In pairs, look at the words in the box and use as many of them
as you can to describe the photos. You will not need all the words.

blind person adapted keyboard

motor~impaired person on-screen keyboard
screen magnifier voice recognition system
Braille printer screen-pointing device
adaptive switch screen reader
touch screen pneumatic switch (sip and puff)

Unit '

B In pairs, discuss these questions.

1 What sort of difficulties do you think are experienced by computer users with limitations of viSion
or mobility?
2 What types of device could be helpful to blind users?
3 How can a person with mobility limitations communicate with a computer?

2 Computers for the disabled

A Read the text and find the following.
1 the laws which ensure equal opportunities for people with disabilities in the USA and the UK
2 how the blind student in the photo interacts with the machine
3 the systems which type on the screen what is being said in meetings
4 the type of software which reads printed material. recognizes the text and then sends it to the PC
5 the system which is activated by the user's eye movements
6 the switch which can be used by someone with quadriplegia
7 the function of voice recognition devices

Com uters for the disabled

Computers have taken a dominant role in our society,
meaning most jobs now require access to computers and
the Internet. But what happens if a person is blind, deaf or
motor-disabled? They needn't worry. The latest assistive
technology is designed to help them use computers and do
their jobs in the office, learn at school, or interact with their
families at home. In addition, new laws oblige companies
to adapt the work.place to accommodate disabled people.
For example, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
. .
and the UK's Disability Discrimination Act make it illeqal for
employers to discriminate against people with disabilities.
To work effectively, most blind users need to have their A Braille embosser prints a hard copy ofa text document in Braille
computers adapted with technologies such as Braille,
screen magnifiers, speech synthesis and Optical
Character Recognition (OCR). A speech synthesis system is used to read aloud the work on
the computer. It has a speech synthesizer, which produces
Braille keyboards have Braille lenering on keyboard
the audio output, and a screen reader - the program which
overlays, allowing the blind user to easily identify each key.
reads aloud text and menus from word processors, databases
For output, there are printers, called Braille embossers, that
and the Web.
produce tactile Braille symbols on both sides of a page at
h;gh speed. OCR uses a flatbed scanner and specialized OCR software to
read printed material and send the text to the computer. The
For someone with limited but usable vision, a screen
PC can then produce a copy of the text in Braille, a magnified
magnifier may be appropriate. This type of software can
copy, or a version that can be read aloud by a speech
enlarge text and images appearing on the screen by up to
synthesis system.
16 times.
Deaf computer users can overcome many On-screen keyboards are software images of a keyboard
communication difficulties with the aid of visual alerts, that appear on the screen and may be activated with a
electronic notetakers and textphones. Visual alerts are trackball, touch screen, screen-pointing device, or eye
indicators that alert the deaf user when they receive new movements. In an eyegaze system, the keys on the
mail or when there is a system error. So instead of hearing virtual keyboard are activated by the user's eyes when
a sound, the user is alerted by a blinking menu bar or by a they pause on a key for two or three seconds.
message on the screen. Electronic notetakers use software
that types a summary of what is said in meetings onto the
computer screen.
Textphones allow the deaf to type and read phone
conversations. They are also caned TDDs (Telephone
Devices for the Deaf) or nvs (TeleTypewriters). They
can be used in combination with relay services, where
an operator says what the text user types, and types
what a voice phone user says. Deaf people can also
communicate via SMS and instant messaging.

£yegaze technology consists of a video

camera and image processing software, which
determines the eye's gazepoint on the screen

Switches come in many shapes and sizes. They are

operated by muscle movements or breath control. For
example, a pneumatic switch - known as a sip and puff
- allows someone with quadriplegia to control the PC by
A textphone puffing and sipping air through a pneumatic tube. People
with quadriplegia can also use Sip and puff joysticks.
Motor-impaired workers unable to type on a standard Finally, there's voice recognition, which allows the
keyboard can employ expanded or ergonomic computer to interpret human speech, transforming the
keyboards, on-screen keyboards, adaptive switches words into digitized text or instructions.
and voice recognition systems.

A specialized keyboard for children with physical disabilities

Unil 9

B Complete the crossword with

words from the text on pages 43-44. r,-
2 An keyboard presents a
graphic representation of a keyboard on
the desktop screen and allows people with r' 1 l f-
mobility impairments to type data using a
joystick or a pointing device. .,- f- r-
4 Visual allow deaf users to be I-- I-- f-
notified of incoming mail or error messages

without hearing a tone.
A screen makes the computer
I' 11 I
screen more readable for I--- L- ~

users with poor vision.

7 A system of reading and writing using raised
dots, which enables blind people to read by I' I II

1 Unlike a standard telephone, a has a
small screen and a keyboard that transcribes a spoken HELP box 1
voice as text. It is used for text communication via a Noun phrases
telephone line, ideal for people who have hearing or
A noun phrase is a phrase that has a
speech difficulties.
noun as its head. This noun can be
3 A Braille is an impact printer that prints accompanied by a modifier that gives
text as Braille, by punching dots onto paper. information about the head.
S A speech synthesizer is used in conjunction with a
to convert screen contents into
modifier head
speech recognition
spoken words.
compatible computer
A noun ph rase can function as
3 Language work: noun the subject or object of a verb. It
can contain the following range of
phrases modifiers:

A Look at the HELP box and then the noun • adjectives

phrases 1-6. Decide what type of modifier (a-d) I have a porrable compurer.
is placed before the 'head' in each case. :::: a computer which is portable

1 disabled worker a adjective • present participles

I use this drawing program.
2 rehabilitation engineer b present participle
= a program that draws
3 employee's abilities c 's genitive
• '5 genitive
4 adapted keyboard d noun The files are on the director's
5 voice-activated computer computer.
6 pointing device = the computer which belongs
to the director
B Explain the noun phrases in A.
• nouns
Example: I need to buy Qcolour SCQnner.
disabled worker = a worker who is disabled = a scanner which uses colour
4 Assistive technologies for the blind
A ~ listen to an interview with Mike Hartley, the director of the Assistive
Technology Project for the Blind in Washington DC. Make notes about these topics.

A Braille computer keyboard

3 -n-..t dl..ff~re.r.c.e. bl.b...~...f\ ..oi...c;.e. ,e.CO::Y'iJ:.. i...()I'\ 0I'd
SlXlI!.ch ~hc.5<.5 :

5 C~L"S de;~Iopi.."'S ~sb.. _ I::.... c~


Small-Talk Ultra, Q talking computer from GW

Micro, which includes Window-Eyes - Q screen
reader for the blind

B ~ In pairs, help each other to improve your notes and then listen again to
make sure you have included all of the important information.

5 Investing in assistive technologies

~ Your school/company has decided to invest some of its annual IT budget
in assistive technology. Write an email to your director of studies I manager,
summarizing the different technologies available and the kind of people they can
help. If possible, use the Internet to find suppliers of these technologies in your

Now visit www.cambridge.org /elt/ictfor an online task.

1 Types of magnetic drive
A Look at the pictures and descriptions below and find the following.
1 the name of the hard drive on a PC platform
2 the type of hard drive that plugs into a socket at the back of a computer
3 the system that works in sequential format
4 the size and storage capacity of a floppy disk

A 3.5" The inside A portable Magnetic

floppy ofa hard external tapes and
drive and J drive drive
diskette Most pes External
A floppy disk have one hard drives
drive uses 3.5" disks, which internal hard are connected to the USB or reads
can Store 1.44MB of data; it is drive. usually : drive. It FireWire pon of the computer. writes data on tapes. It is
usually assigned to the A:. drive. is used to store the operating They can be as small as a wallet sequential-access - i.e. to get
Floppy drives are becoming system, the programs and the but can have as much capacity to a particular point on the
increasingly rare. user's files in a convenient way. as internal drives; they are tape, it must go through aU the
A hard drive can hold hundreds typically used for backup or as preceding points. Tapes can hold
of gigabytes of data. secondary storage. hundreds of gigabytes of data
and are used for data coUe<tion,
backup and archiving.
B Complete these sentences with words from the box.
capacity storage archiving hold secondary

1 There are basically three types of magnetiC device available to the computer
user - hard drives, diskettes and tapes.
2 The of a 3.5" floppy disk is only 1.44MB.
3 Hard drives can hundreds of times more data than floppy disks.
4 A portable hard drive is a good choicS for storage.
5 Magnetic tapes are used for information that you no longer need to use regularly.

2 Buying a portable hard drive

A ~ Sue (see Unit 4) wants to buy a new drive. Listen to her conversation with
the sales assistant. Does she buy anything?

B ~ listen again and answer these

1 What is the storage capacity of the Iomega eGo
portable hard drive?
2 How much informa tion can be stored on the Edge
DiskGo model?
3 Which hard drive is good for mobile professionals?
The Iomega eGo
4 How much does the Iomega eGo drive cost?
porrable hard drive.
5 How much does the Edge DiskGo cost?
nit 10

3 Magnetic storage
A Read the text and then identify a sector and a track in Fig. 1.
B Read the text again and decide whether these sentences are true or false.
Correct the false ones.
1 A hard drive spins at the same speed as a floppy disk drive.
2 If you format a hard drive that has files on it, the files will be deleted.
3 Hard drives cannot be partitioned to run separate operating systems on the same disk,
4 Seek time and transfer rale mean the same thing.
S Disk drives are not shock resistant, especially in operating mode.

Magnetic storage
Magnetic storage devices store data by magnetizing The as allows you to create one or more partitions
particles on a disk or tape. on your hard drive, in effect dividing it into several
A floppy disk is so called because it consists of a logical pans. Partitions let you install more than one
flexible sheet of plastic, coated with iron oxide-- a operating system (e.g. Windows and Unux) on your
magnetizable material. A floppy disk drive spins at 360 computer. You may also decide to split your hard drive
revolutions per minute (rpm), 50 it's relatively slow. because you want to store the as and programs on
However, a hard drive spins at over 7,200 rpm and one partition and your data files on another; this allows
stores data on you to reinstall the as when a problem occurs, without
a stack of metal affecting the data partition.
rotating disks The average time r ...
called platters. required for the readl
This means you write heads to move and
can store much find data is called seek
more data time (or access time)
and retrieve and it is measured in Toshiba's 1.8' hard drive;
information milliseconds (ms); most mini hard drives are used
The inside ofa hard drive in small gadgets, such as
much faster. hard drives have a seek
time of 7 to 14 ms. Don't POAs and wrisrwarches
New disks need to be formatted before you can
use them, unless they come preformatted from confuse this with transfer rate - the average speed
the manufacturer. When the disk is formatted, the required to transmit data from the disk to the CPU,
operating system (aS) organizes the disk surface into measured in megabytes per second.
Circular tracks and divides each track into sectors. The How to protect your hard drive
as creates a directory which will record the specific • Don't hit or move the computer while the hard drive
location of files. When you is spinning. Hard drives are very sensitive to vibration
save a file, the as moves and shocks, especially when they are operating; when
the read/write head of the the read/write head touches the rotating disk, it can
drive towards empty sectors, scratch and damage the disk surface. This is known as
records the data and writes head crctsh.
an entry for the directory. • You shouldn't turn your computer off and on quickly.
Later on, when you open Wait at least ten seconds to ensure that the drive has
that file, the as looks for its stopped spinning.
entry in the directory, moves
• Check your hard drive regularly for logical and physical
the read/write heads to the Fig. J errors. To check and repair a drive, you can use a disk
correct sector, and reads the
diagnosis utility like Windows ScanDisk.
file in the RAM area. However, formatting erases any
• To minimize the risk of data loss or corruption, you
existing files on a disk, so do not format disks on which
should install an up-to-date virus scanner. You should
data that you don't want to lose is stored.
also back up your hard drive regularly.
C Match these words (1-5) with the definitions (a-e).
1 formatted a a file system that defines the structure for keeping track of the files
2 directory b the part of a drive that reads and records data on a disk
3 read/write head ( to make a copy of data or software in case the original disk is damaged
4 head crash d initialized; when the tracks and sectors on magnetic disks are set
5 back up e a serious disk malfunction; when the read/write head touches the
rotating disk

4 Language work: precautions

A Look at the HELP box and then match the instructions (1-6) with the
pictures (a-f).
1 Do not expose discs to heat or direct sunlight.
2 Check for viruses before opening files you receive
from the Web or via email.
3 Make backup copies of your files.
4 Don't shake or move the computer violently while the hard drive is spinning.
5 Keep your discs away from water and humidity.
6 Hold discs by the edges, or by one edge and the centre hole.

HELP box

• We use the imperative to give

precautions and warnings.

Check your hard drive regularly

for logical and physical errors.
. .. formatting erases any existing
files on a disk, 50 do not format
disks on which data thor you
don't want ro lose is scored.
• We use should + infinitive
without to to give advice or
to talk about what we think is

. you should install an up-co"

date virus scanner.
• We use shouldn't + infinitive
without to to give advice or
to talk about what we think is
You shouldn't tum your
compurer off and on quickly.
Unh l.

B In pairs, discuss what you should or shouldn't do to protect your data.

Use the suggestions below.
Example: discs on top of each other (stack)
You shouldn't stock discs on top of each other. I Don't stock discs on ropofeach other.
, your anti-virus program regularly, since new viruses are created everyday (update)
2 discs in a protective case (store)
3 passwords and security devices to protect confidential information (use)
4 on discs with permanent marker pens (write)
s the disc into the disc drive carefully (insert)
6 floppies or hard drives near magnets; they can damage the data stored on them (leave)
Note: disc (optical media); disk (magnetic storage media)

5 Word building
Look at the words in the boxes. Are they nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs?
Write n, v, adj or adv next to each word and then complete the sentences below.
For more about word building, see Unit 12.

magnet magnetic magnetically

magnetism magnetize magnetized

, is the science of magnetic phenomena and properties.

2 Floppy disks and hard drives are storage devices.
3 Data is recorded on a disk in the form of spots called bits.

fragment fragmentation
defragmenter fragmented

4 After you create, delete and modify a lot of files, the hard drive
becomes , with bits and pieces spread all over
In a fragmented disk, a file is
the disk. stored in non-Continuous secrors
S slows down the speed at which data is accessed
because the disk drive has to work harder to find the parts of
a file stored in many different locations.
6 To reorganize your hard drive, you can use a disk optimizer or
; this will reorder your files into continuous
In a defragmented disk, a file is
slored in neighbouring sectors

6 Explaining hard drive precautions

m A friend has sent you an email explaining that
she has just lost all of the information on her PC because of a head crash. Write a
reply explaining the following.
• Why the head crash happened
• What precautions she should take with her new PC to avoid similar problems in the future
• What steps she could take to back up her files
1 CDs and DVDs
A In pairs, discuss these questions.
1 What do CD and DVD stand for?
2 What is the main advantage of using DVDs instead of CDs?

B How do you say these expressions in your language?

1 optical disc
2 laser beam
3 backward-compatible

C .., Paul (see Unit 4) wants to buy some blank discs. Listen to his conversation
with the sales assistant and check your answers to A.

o~ Listen again and decide whether these sentences are true o r false.
Correct the false ones.
1 A DVD is an optical digital disc that can
be used for video, audio and data storage.
2 The dimensions of a CD and a DVO are
the same: 1.3 mm thick and 13 em in
3 The data on a DVD is read with a laser
4 A basic DVD can hold 3.7 gigabytes.
5 You need a hard drive to read DVOs.
6 DVD-Video discs can hold full-length
7 A DVD Writer is not compatible with old A avo drive wirh disc

Note: disc (optical media); disk (magnetic storage media)

2 Optical discs and drives

A Read the text on page 53 and find the following.
1 the advantages and disadvantages of optical discs over magnetic disks
2 the storage capacity of a double-sided, dual layer DVD
3 the difference between a DVD burner and a DVD recorder
4 the feature of a portable DVD player which allows the user to play different formats
5 two possible successors to DVDs
6 where the Blu-ray format gets its name from
Optical discs and drives
Optical discs can store data at much higher densities OVOs also come in several formats:
than magnetic disks. They are therefore ideal for • OVO-ROMs are used in OVO computer drives. They
multimedia applications where images, animation and allow for data archiving as well as interactive content
sound occupy a lot of disc space. Furthermore, optical (for example. an encyclopedia or a movie).
discs are not affected by magnetic fields. meaning that
they are secure and stable. and can be transported • DVO-R or OVO+R can only be recorded on once.
through airport metal detectors without damaging • OVO-RW or OVO+RW discs can be erased and re-
the data. However, optical drives are slower than hard used many times. They are used to back up data files
drives. and to record audio and video.
The DVD drive used in computers is also called a OVO
CDs and DVDs
burner because it records information by burning via
At first sight, a DVO is similar to a CO. Borh discs are a laser to a blank OVD disc. However, a OVO recorder
120 mm in diameter and 1.2 mm thick. They also both typically refers to a standalone unit which resembles a
use a laser beam to read data. However, they are very video cassette recorder. New OVO recorders can play
different in internal structure and data capacity. In a all CO and OVO formats. There are also portable DVD
DVD, the tracks are very close together, thus allowing players - handheld devices which let you watch movies
more tracks. The pits in which data is stored are al10 or TV, play games and listen to music. wherever you are.
smaller. so there are more pits per track. As a result. a They come with a built-in OVO drive and widescreen
CD can hold 6SQ-700MB, whereas a basic DVD can hold (rectangular 16:9 format) LCD display. They usually
4.7GB.ln addition. a DVO can be double-sided and support multi-format playback - that is. they can play
dual layer. with a capacity of 17GB. many file formats. including DVO-video. DivX. CD audio
=--~c::.- __", Close-up ofa CD discs, MP3 music and JPEG images.

HD-DVD and Blu-ray discs

(hole) These two competing formats are expected to replace
current DVO as the standard for watching movies at
home. On one side are Toshiba. Microsoft and the DVO
Forum. who support the High Definition-DVD (HO-
OVO). Sony. Panasonic. Samsung. JVC and many movie
studios are behind the Blu-ray format.

Close-up ofa DVD


CDs come in three different formats:

A Sony Blu-ray disc
• CD-ROMs (read-only memory) are read-only units.
meaning you cannot change the data stored on
them (for example. a dictionary or a game). A Blu-ray disc has a capacity of 25GB (single layer), 50GB
(dual layer) and 100GB (four layer). Unlike DVDs, which
• CO-R (recordable) discs are write-once devices use a red laser to read and write data, Blu-ray uses a blue-
which let you duplicate music COs and other data violet laser. hence its name. Blu-ray discs can record and
CDs. play back high-definition television and digital audio, as
• CO-RW (rew ritable) discs enable you to write onto well as computer data.
them many times. just like a hard disk.
B Read the text again and make notes about the features of CDs, DVDs and Blu-
ray discs.
Capacity and formats Possible uses



3 Language work: connectors 2

A Look at these extracts from the text and put the words in italics into the correct
column of the table.
1 They are therefore ideal for multimedia app.lications .
2 Furthermore, optical discs are not affected by magnetic fields.
3 However, they are very different in internal structure and data capacity.
4 As a resul t, a CD can hold 650-700MB, whereas a basic OVO can hold 4.7GB.
5 In addit ion, a OVD can be double-sided and dual layer .

Indicating addition Making contrasts Explaining the results or

effects of something

B Look at the HELP box and check your answers. How do you say these
connectors in your language?
C Choose the correct word in brackets to HELP box
complete these sentences. Connectors 2
1 (Although/Consequently) CDs and DVDs are similar in size In addition to the uses of
and shape, their data structure is very different. connectors covered in Unit 8,
2 DVDs hold more data than CDs. The pits burnt into the we also use connectors for the
disc are smaller than on a CD, and the tracks are closer following purposes:
together. (On the other hand / As a result), DVDs can have
• Indicating addition
up to four recording layers.
furthermore in addition
3 A Blu-ray disc drive costs a lot of money (but/so) you besides moreover
should use it carefully. and
4 Blu-ray is expected to replace DVD over the coming years
• Making contrasts
(because/besides) it offers much greater storage capacity.
however whereas
5 Both Blu-ray (and / in addition) HD-DVD devices are although but
backward-compatible with current CDs and DVDs, on the other hand
meaning you can play your old discs on the new players.
• Explaining the result s or
6 Sony has invested millions of dollars in the development
effects of something
of Blu-ray technology. The success of Blu -ray is (whereas/
therefore as a result
therefore) vital for the company's future.
so thus
consequently because
4 Choosing storage devices
In pairs, look at the products in the computer catalogue and choose the most
suitable device for the purposes (1-6). Give reasons for your choices. Try to use
some connectors from the HELP box on page 54.
1 to keep the operating system and the programs on a home computer
2 to watch a movie on a plane or in the back seat of a car
3 to hold your favourite phows and music
4 to make backup copies and to tranSpOH files between computers in a big company
5 to hold historical records in the National library
6 to read, write and re-write high-definition video and TV

Seagate hard drive

Superfast 8ms hard drive. Capacity ranges from 80GB to 1TB.

Iomega portable hard drive

160GB, 2.5" external hard drive. An affordable way to back up
all your data, from business documents to emails.

LaCie eve drive

16x OVO writer with free Nero OVO burning software. Can play and record both
OVO+R and OVO-R discs, plus their rewritable counterparts, as well as all types of CO.

Panasonic portable eve player

8" portable LCD DVD Player with Car Kit. Compatible with DVD-Video,
CD, JPEG image CD and MP3-lormaHed audio CD.
/' Sony Blu-ray disc drive
Sony's Vaio AR laptop is the first portable Blu -ray studio, which includes
a Blu-ray disc drive and a TV tuner, alongside a 17" widescreen
display and a 2GHz Intel Core Duo processor.
Toshiba USB flash drive
High-speed 16GB pen drive with a built-in MP3 player.
Plugs directly into any USB connection.

For this use, the ... is the most appropriate

because ...
The ... has ... so I'd choose it for ...
However, ... is good for ... because ...
Sony's Voio
ARlaprop In a big company, it would be a good idea to ...
Well. that depends on ...
f agree / f disagree.
5 Format wars
ri Read these posts from a forum about the topic of'Blu-ray versus HO-DVO' and
then add your response, giving your opinion on the topic.


HD-OVO and Blu-ray formats display movies in full high-definition resolution, but
they are incompatible; HO-DVO cannot play the Btu-ray discs, and vice versa.
People say that Btu-ray discs can hold more data and video, but that they are
more expensive and complex. Who will be the winner in this format battle?
Consumers ezine , March 10th at 5:40 pm

Samsung and Toshiba are selling hybrid players that can play both formats.
Sony and NEG are also releasing dual-format players. This may be the end of the
format war. Will both sides produce a unified standard?
News.net, March 15th at 12:30 am

I hate format wars. This situation reminds me of the Beta versus VHS war in
the early days of the video market. and more recently DVD-R versus DVD+R.
I don't want to invest money in equipment that quickly becomes obsolete or
incompatible. Why can't someone create a universal player that plays a\1 formats,
from CDs to high-definition video discs?
Posted by Adam, March 15th at 4:15 pm


1 Flash-based gadgets
Flash memory is used in many handheld devices. Match the descriptions (1-6)
with the pictures (a-f).
1 This handheld console lets you play games stored on ROM game cards, which have a small
amount of flash memory to save user data, for example high scores.
2 This flash memory card is used as 'digital film'to store images on a digital camera.
3 This wireless LAN card allows laptop and PDA users to access the Internet from any Wi-Fi access
4 This USB flash pen drive is the latest mobile drive for your computer.
5 It looks like an ordinary watch, but this USB drive from Edge Tech can store up to 1GB of flash
memory. It will let you save and transfer your photos, songs and data files easily.
6 This flash-based player provides everything you need to play music and store data on the go. It
also comes with a built-in FM radio and voice recorder.


2 Memory in a flash!
A Look at the title of the text on page 58. Why is it a suitable title for an article
about flash memory? Read the first paragraph of the text to find out.

B Read the whole text and answer these questions.

1 What is flash memory?
2 What are the differences between RAM memory and flash memory?
3 What can devices which use multi-level cell technology do?
4 What are the differences between flash drives and external hard drives?
5 What is the advantage of using U3 technology in flash drives?
6 How much data can a flash memory card hold?
7 What is the name of the flash card created by Sony for its digital cameras?
Memory in a flash!
Flash memory is a type of non-volatile memory that
can be electronically erased and reprogrammed. Its
• New U3 smart drives a\\ow users to store
both applications and data. They have two
name was invented by Toshiba to express how much drive partitions and can carry applications that
faster it could be erased - 'in a flash', which means run on the host computer without requiring
5 'very quickly: 45 installation.
Unlike RAM, which is volatile, flash memory retains • Flash memory cards are used to store images
the information stored in the chip when the power on cameras, to back up data on POAs, to
is turned off. This makes it ideal for use in digital transfer games in video consoles, to record
cameras, laptops, network switches, video game voice and music on MP3 players or to store
10 cards, mobile phones and portable multimedia so movies on MP4 players. They are as sma\\ as a
players. In addition, it offers fast read access times stamp, and capacity can range from 8MB to
(although not as fast as RAM), with transfer rates of several gigabytes. The only limitation is that
12MB per second Unlike ROM chips, flash memory flash cards are often not interchangeable
chips are rewritable, so you can update programs via between devices. Some formats include:
15 software. 5S CompactFlash, Secure Digital. MultiMedia Card,
miniSO card, and xD-Picture Card. Sony has its
Inside the chip, data is stored in several floating gate
own product ca\\ed the Memory Stick, used in
transistors, ca\\ed cells. Each eel( traditionally stores
its digital still cameras, video camcorders and
one bit of data (1 =erased and 0 = programmed), the PlayStation Portable. The photos stored in a
New devices have a multi-level cell structure so
60 digital camera can be offloaded to a computer
20 they can store more that one bit per cell. The chips
via cable or wirelessly. Another option is to have
are constructed with either NOR or NAND gates. a flash card reader permanently connected
NOR chips function like a computer's main memory,
to your PC; you simply eject the card from the
while NAND works like a hard drive. For example, in
camera and put it into the reader instead of
a camera, NOR flash contains the camera's internal
65 having to plug the camera in.
2S software, while NAND flash is used to store the
images. The futu re of hard
drives may be
Flash memory is used in several ways:
hybrid hard drives.
• Many pes have their BIOS (basic inpuuoutput Hybrid hard drives
system) stored on a flash memory chip so it can 70 combine a magnetic
30 be updated if necessary. hard disk and flash
• Modems use flash memory because it a\\ows
the manufacturer to support new protocols.
memory into one
device. This allows
• USB flash drives are used to save and move
MP3s and other data tiles between computers.
computers to boot, or
7S start, more quickly, and
SanDisk'5 card readers read
and write to just about every
35 They are more eaSily transported than external also reduces power flash memory card
hard drives because they use solid-state consumption.
technology, meaning that they don't have
fragile moving parts that can break if dropped.
However, USB flash drives have less storage
40 capacity than hard drives.

C Find words or phrases in the text with the follOWing meanings.

1 permanent; able to hold data without power (lines 1-5)
2 able to be rewritten many times (lines 10-15)
3 different sections of a disk drive or storage area (lines 40-45)
4 to make a copy of a tile so that the original is not lost (lines 45-50)
5 transferred to another device (lines 60-65)
6 a peripheral device that reads and writes flash memory cards (lines 60-65)
7 a product that integrates twO different technologies (lines 65-70)

3 Language work: word building

A Look at the HELP box and then, using affixation, conversion and compounding,
try to make as many words as you can from blog, mail and prin t. Use a dictionary
and the Internet to help you.
blog mail print
bfogger (a person who writes to maif (the verb form) printout (the pages
a blog) produced by the printer)

B Choose the correct word in brackets to complete this description of a digital

voice recorder. Use a dictionary to help you.

HELP box
Olympus WS-320M
Word building
digital voice recorder
SLim, attractive, and highLy We can create new words from existing words in three
functional, the Olympus WS-320M main ways:
digital voice recorder packs 1GB • Affixation (adding a prefix or suffix)
of internal flash memory into its
1 (lighted/tightweight/lighten) Adding a prefix:
housing, letting you record up to 277 volatile _ non-volatile
hours of high-quality audio in WMA date _ updare
format. Irs ideal for 2 (record/recordable/recording) Adding a suffix:
notes or long lectures, interviewing people, or erase _ erasable
capturing song ideas before they disappear. As an insrall _ insrallotion
added bonus, the WS-320M can store up to 266
WMA or MP3 songs for high-quality stereo 3 (player/ • ConverSion (turning a noun into a verb, or a verb into a
playback/playoff). noun, etc.)
The WS-320M features five separate file 4 (folds/ network (noun) _ (0 network (verb)
folding/folders), capabLe of holding 199 fiLes each. We networked all the Ks in the office,
so you can organize nearly 1,000 fiLes by subject, We created a network of all the Ks in rhe office.
theme or other category. Users also have the choice
of four recording modes: HQ for high-quality audio. • Compounding (puning two or more words together)
lP and SP for extended recording times. and ST HQ hand + held ___ handheld
for stereo recording. And thanks to the voice
5 (activation/activate/active) option, users don't I bought a new handheld lost week.
need to press a single button to start recording Compounds can be written as two separate words
- the WS-320M will record as soon as the built-in (flash card), as two words joined with a hyphen (solid-
microphone picks up sound.
state), or as one word (handheld). Unfortunately,
Perhaps the most convenient feature, however. is there are no rules. and some compounds even change
the built-in USB 6 (connector/connect/connected), spelling over time. For example, web site began as two
which eliminates the need for a USB cable. Once this words, then became hyphenated (web-site) and is
is connected. you can 7 (downloadable/download/ now written as one word - website. Always check your
upload) music files, images or documents from your dictionary or Google if you are not sure.
PC, in effect turning the recorder into a small hard
drive. You can even transfer voice recordings to In pronunciation, compounds normally have the main
your computer for 8 (store/storage/storeroom) or stress on the first part, and the secondary stress on the
multimedia use. second part, for example 'video ,game.
4 Describing flash drives
A . , listen to a salesperson at his stand at a consumer electronics show
describing two flash products to a potential customer. Which product (a or b) is
the visitor most interested in?
a The Dragon flash drive
b The Dragon MP4 player

B . Listen again and tick (tI') which features the salesperson mentions for
each device.
Features Dragon flash drive Dragon MP4 player
Back up computer data 0 0
Transport files between pes 0 0
Audio and video playback 0 0
FM radiO tuner 0 0
Voice recorder 0 0
Games 0 0
c ~ listen again and answer these questions.
1 What is the storage capacity of the Dragon flash drive?
2 How do you connect it to the computer?
3 According to the salesperson, what are the advantages of a USB flash drive over a DVD or an
external hard drive?
4 Some portable media players are also known as MP4 players. Why?
5 What is the screen size of the Dragon MP4 player?
6 How long does the banery last?

256 III'

An MP4 player USB drives are rypically designed

to attach to a key ring, 5Uch a5 (he
Cruzer Freedom USB flQ5h drive
D CJ In pairs, choose a flash-based device that you
own and describe it. Use the Useful language box and
Useful language
It has a storage capacity
the features and questions from the listening text to of ...
help you.
It features . . . and .. .

E mYou have received a text from a friend at a

computer show. Write a short reply.
It supports multiple formats:
... and .. .

You can ... and .. .

Its battery life is .. .

Hi. At the computer
show in town. Need
a new media ptayer.
What's the difference
betwee n MP3 & MP4
players? What features
should I look for?
Th anks!

5 Vocabulary revision
Solve the dues and complete the puzzle. Look at Units 10-'2 to help you.

4 Thousandth of a second, abbreviated to ms,
., ,- ,
used to measure the access time of hard '--- 5
drives. ~ I' 1 1
6 Floating gate transistors are called -
• I--
in flash memory technology. 11 ~

7 Prefix meaning very large or one rhousand

'- - I'
11 Acronym for light amplification by stimulated -
emission of radiation.
12 Capable of being deleted.
..- - 19 r;o
- "
1 Concentric ring on the surface of a disc
- - ~
when the disc is formatted.
2 memory retains its data when
the power is switched off. -
3 CD-RW means Compact Disc
5 Abbreviation of digital versatile diSc.
8 To write information on a disk or storage area .
9 Type of external bus or connector that plugs into the computer.
10 The physical mechanism that accepts, reads and writes data on a disk.

Now visit www.cambridge.org/elt/ictforan online task.

• x



T e operating system OS)

Learning objectives

In this module, you will:

learn about the function of the operatmg system.
learn about the features of a graphical user interface, or GUl.
practise usmg the correct determiners with countable and uncountable nouns.

learn how to summarize a wntten text

... - .- • •••• • • .... . -
learn how to give and follow instructions.
study the baSIC features and applications of spreadsheets and databases.
practise forming and pronouncing plurals.
GUI 0 eratin s stems
The term user interface refers to the standard provides access to networks and allows multitasking,
procedures that the user follows in order to interact which means you can run several programs - and do
with a computer. In the late 19705 and early 80s, various tasks - at the same time.
the way users accessed computer systems was very 35 The most popular operating systems are:
5 complex. They had to memorize and type a lot of
commands just to see the contents of a disk, to copy • The Windows family - designed by Microsoft
files or to respond to a single prompt. In fact, it was and used on most PCs. The most recent version is
only experts who used computers, so there was no Windows Vista.
need for a user-friendly interface. • Mac as -created by Apple and used on
10 In 1984, Apple produced the Macintosh, the first 40 MaCintosh computers.
computer with a mouse and a graphical user • Unix - a multi-user system, found on mainframes
interface (GUll . Macs were designed with one clear and workstations in corporate installations.
aim: to facilitate interaction with the computer. A few
• Linux - open-source software developed under
years later, Microsoft launched Windows, another
the GNU General Public License. This means
15 operating system based on graphics and intuitive
45 anybody can copy its source code, change it and
tools. Nowadays, computers are used by all kinds of
distribute it. It is used in computers, appliances
people, and as a result there is a growing emphasis
• and small devices.
on accessibility and user-friendly systems.
• Windows Mobile - used on most POAs and
A GUI makes use of a WIMP environment w indows,
smart phones (PDAs incorporating mobile
20 icons, m enus and p ointer. The background of the
so phones).
screen is called the desktop, which contains labelled
pictures called icons. These icons represent files or • Palm OS - used on Palm handheld devices.
folders. Double-clicking a folder opens a window • RIM - used on BlackBerry communication
which contains programs, documents. or more devices. Developed by Research In Motion.
25 nested folders. When you are in a folder, you can
• The Symbian OS - used by some phone makers,
launch a program or document by double-clicking
55 including Nokia and Siemens.
the icon. or you can drag it to another location. When
you run a program, your PC opens a window that lets These computer platforms differ in areas such
you work with different tools. All the programs have a as device installation, network connectivity or
30 high level of consistency. with Similar tool bars. menu compatibility with application software.
bars, buttons and dialog boxes. A modern OS also

D Translate these terms and expressions into your own language. Use a
dictionary or the Internet to help you.
1 user interface (line 1)
2 procedures (line 2)
3 commands (line 6)
4 tools (line 16)
5 desktop (line 21)
6 nested folders (line 25)
7 launch a program (line 26)
8 source code (line 45)
Unit .J

E Label the interface features (a-j) on the screenshot of Apple's Mac OS X

operating system with words in bold from this list.
• desktop: the background screen that displays icons and folders
• window: a scrollable viewing area on screen; it can contain files or folders
• icon: a picture representing an object; for example, a document, program, folder or hard
drive icon
• folder: a directory that holds data, programs and other folders
• menu bar: a row of words that open up menus when selected
• drop-down (pull-down) menu: a list of options that appears below a menu item when selected
• scroll bar: a horizontal or vertical bar that is clicked and dragged in the desired direction
• dock: set of icons at the bottom of the screen that give you access to the things you use most

-'1 II h

---, --- ---

c -
__w __N

d __N
~ !II'
_ _ «0 ...


F Compare the Mac OS X user interface with a Windows or Linux interface.

What are the similarities and differences? Which features do you prefer from
each interface?

3 Windows Vista
A Listen to a podcast interview with Bill Thompson, a program developer,
and answer these questions.
1 Why is Windows so popular?
Give two reasons.
2 Which Windows Vista edition
is aimed at high-end PC users,
garners and multimedia

Windows Vista 1..__________ ==

B . , Listen again and complete this fact file.
Windows Vista editions Other features Internet and security Windows programs
(1) is The user interface has been Internet Explorer is more The most popular is still
designed for users with basic redesigned with new icons reliable and secure. (8) ,
needs, such as email and and a new a suite that indudes the
The Security Centre includes
internet access. (4) (9)
an (6)
Word; an email program; the
Home Premium is for program called Windows
Excel spreadsheet program;
advanced home computing It offers support for the latest Defender, and a firewall that
and the
and (2) technologies, from DVD protects your computer from
creation to (7)
The BUSiness edition is ideal program, PowerPoint.
for (3)
The Ultimate edition is the
most complete.

4 Language work: countable and uncountable nouns

A look at the HELP box and decide if these nouns from the fact file in 38 are
countable, uncountable or either, depending on the context. Write C, U, or C and U.

user email computing

edition entertainment interface
icon technology security spyware

HELP box
Countable and uncountable nouns An icon is a small graphic.
The icons on rhe roo/bar are used fo ..
• Countable nouns are people or things that we can
count. They have a singular and a plural form (e.g. file, • We don't use alan with uncountable nouns.
program, system, application).
Not: c7 i'obotio
• Uncountable nouns are things that we can't count.
• We don't use the in generalizations with uncountable
They have no plural form (e.g . software, music,
nouns or plural countable nouns.
robotics, multimedia, networking, storage).
I like music.
Alor of software rhese days is open-source.
Not: I like tM music.
Not: A 10f of joftwarej rhese days ~ open-source.
Computer programs are expensive.
• Some words are countable in many languages but Not: ~ computer programs are expensive.
uncountable in English, and are used with a singular
• Countable and uncountable nouns take different
verb (e.g. advice, damage, equipment, furniture,
research, news, progress, homework).
Many, few, a few only go with countable nouns.
The advice he gave me was very useful.
There are many versions of Windows Vista.
• Countable nouns must have a determiner (a, the,
my, this, etc.) in the Singular, although this is not Much, little, a little, a great deal of only go with
necessary in the plural. uncountable nouns.

I deleted the file yesterday. I have a little time free this afternoon ifyou want to
I lost more than 300 files when my computer crashed. meet.
We use a before a consonant sound and an before a
vowel. The definite article the means you know which
one/ones f mean.
Unlt U

B Complete this text with Of an, the or nothing.

______ ':l

Linux is (1) operating system and it was initially created as

(2) hobby by a young student, Linus Torvalds, at the
University of Helsinki in Finland. Version 1.0 of the Linux Kernel·
was released in 1994. (3) Kernel, at the heart of all Linux
systems, is developed and released under GNU General Public
License, and its source code is freely available to everyone.
Apart from the fact that it's freely distri buted, (4) Linux's
functionality, adaptability and robustness has made it the main
alternative for proprietary Unix and Microsoft operating systems.
IBM, Hewlett-Packard and other giants of the computing world have
embraced Linux and support its ongoing development. More than
(5) decade after its initial release, Linux is being adopted
worldwide, primarily as (6) server platform. Its use as a
home and office desktop operating system is also on the rise.
The operating system can also be incorporated directly into
(7) microchips in a process called (8) embedding, and
it is increasingly being used this way in appliances and devices.
·The Kernel provides a way for software and other parts of the OS to
communicate with hardware.


5 Writing a summary
[D Summarize the text on page 64 in 90- 100 words. Follow these steps:
1 Read the text again.
2 Underline the relevant information in each paragraph.
3 Make notes about the main points. Leave out details such as examples.
4 Make sentences from the notes and link the sentences with connectors (and, bur, because,
therefore, etc.).
5 Write your first draft.
6 Improve your first draft by reducing sentences. For example:
• Cut out unnecessary phrases
Macs were designed ... ith eme de(J(O'if"'. to facilitate interaction with the computer.
• Omit qualifying words (adjectives or modifying adverbs)
very complex
• Transform relative clauses into -ing participle clauses
Double-clicking a folder opens a window which contains programs, documents or .
Double-clicking a folder opens a window con taining programs, documents or .
7 Write the final version of your summary. Don't forget to check the spelling and grammar.
1 Word processing features
A ~ In pairs, discuss these questions.
1 What is a word processor?
2 What kind of tasks do people use word processors for?
3 How many different word processing programs can you name? Which do you think is the most

B Look at this screenshot from Microsoft Word and translate the labelled features
and functions into your own language.

Typeface FormattingToolbar Menu Bar Increase Indent

Toolb<ir - - --I

r~:~~£l~~~,'~~+:~,,· toni .., ....
,lor '" II> .)11

foIr Fred Jones 7 Union Street
15 CaUis Road Glasgow GO; 3TA
le('ds LS2 6JU

Dear "If Jones,

Bold text We are pleased to inform you that an updated version of rop Project is now available.
To obtain copy. simply call us and we'U send you, absolutely hee, the latest

-:::';';~~~;::;""" with the new range of SunRise machines and the latest
software prodocts. There are spedal offers for all 00' clients. including the book
The basics of budgeting and balancing your finances. To order by phone. caU 01332
8430477. To order via the Internet. visit our ~bsite at:
You.s sincerely.
Barry Stephens Mailings

Hyperlink Drawing tools Insert picture Footer

C Complete these sentences with the correct features and functions above.
1 The Standard listS the icons to save or print a document. spell check, etc The
Toolbar is the area for changing font. alignment, indentation, etc
2 A font consists of three elements: . type style and type size. For example, Palatino
bold at 10 points.
3 Type style refers to a visual characteristic of a typeface. for example B for ,I for
and U for underlined.
4 If you need to change indentation - the space between the page margin and where the text
aligns - you can dick the Increase or Decrease buttons.
5 The and commands allow you to specify customized texts at the
top and bottom of every page.
Unil 14

2 Word Sudoku
In pairs, read the instructions and complete the puzzle.
Instru ctions

This Word Sudoku is a variation on the normal Sudoku.lnstead of using the numbers 1 to
9, we are using words and icons. There are nine WP functions and their equivalent icons, so
we are playing with nine pairs. In order to complete the grid, you can use each (unction or
the equivalent icon only once in each row, each column, and in each of the 3x3 boxes. The
icons can only be used in the coloured boxes.
Word processing function s and icons

Align Left

Print Preview
Insert Hyperlink


iii! Insert Table ffi • Undo

•• Drawing

i4 Open

Drawing Columns Bullets

Align Insert
l eft Table


Preview .-.-.- Insert


Undo Open Drawing
Hyperli nk

Open Bullets


Insert Insert
Table Hyperlin k
3 The Cut and Paste technique
A ~ listen to two friends, Anna and Ben, talki ng Copy
about how to move text in Word. How many steps Paste
are involved in carrying out the Cut and Paste task?

( ut

B ~ listen again and complete the dialogue.

Anna : Ben, do you know how I can move this paragraph? I want to put it at the end of this page.

Ben : Er ... I think so. (1) , use the mouse to select the text you want
to move. (2) choose the Cur command from the Edit menu.
Anna: (3) 7

Ben : Yes. The selected text disappears and goes onto the clipboard
(4) you find where you want the text to appear and you click
to position the insertion point there.
Anna: Mm, OK. Is that (5) 7

Ben : Yes, if that's where you want it. (6) , choose Paste from the Edit
menu, or hold down Or! and press V. (7) , check that the text
has appeared in the right place.
Anna: OK, I've (8) . Is that (9) ?
Ben : Yes, that's it. If you make a mistake, you can choose Undo from the Edit menu, which will
reverse your last editing command
Anna: Brilliant! Thanks a lot.

Ben : That's OK, it's my pleasure.

Moving text is a process of cutting and pasting,

as if you were using scissors and glue

How to
edit text Cut
How to
~ edit text
How to
in window Clipboard edit text
(temporary storage in window
inside computer)
Unit 14

4 Language work: giving and following instructions

A look at the HELP box and then correct six mistakes in this dialogue.
A: I need a photo for my curriculum vitae. How do I insert one into this Word document?
s: Well, now choose Insert on the Menu bar.
A: As this?
s: Yes. From the Insert menu, select Picture. As you can see, this displays a drop-down menu with
different options: Clip An, From File, From Scanner, (hart, etc. Select From File and you'll get a
dialog box.
A: OK. I've done that now. What last?
S: OK. Now I navigate your hard drive's contents and find
-,;;rtl _
........... ~ J "}
, ,,...
~ . i..) ::l
P'9t~ ...

~ .". Iii •... ...
... ..... .
the picture that you want to insert.
A: Aight.l'd like to include this one.
. . , . '" , , ,

• ,j} !;JI>M .•.

S: OK, good. Now click Insert and the phorograph will be Cl" 0itIJ.... ·· IGl ~"" ..,
inserted into your document. ' • from~"'C- .....

A: Here it is. Is that w rite?

B: Yes. First, right-click with the mouse and select Format
Picrure to adjust the size and other properties.
A: Brilliant, thanks!
~ ...
.. """

'"ill "'"

HELP box
Giving instructions Following instructions

• To give instructions, we use the imperative form of • If you want to check that you have understood
the verb and sequence words such as first, next, instructions, you can use expressions !ike:
then, after that, finally, etc. like this?
Is that right?
First, use the mouse ro seleer the text.
Then choose the Cut command (rom the Edit menu. • If you want to signal that you are ready to move on to
Next, choose Paste from {he Edit menu. the next step, you can use expressions like:
Finally, check that the text has appeared in the right OK, I've done that now.
place. What next?
We can also use the present simple with you . • If you want to ask if the process is completed, you
can use expressions like:
Now you find where you want the [ext to appear and
Is that everything?
you click to position the insertion point
Anything else?

B Complete these instructions for how to Copy and Paste in Word with verbs from
the box.
click (x2) select position right-click drag

1 First, the text you wish to copy. To select text. the mouse over the
portion of the text that you want to copy. This part should then be highlighted.
2 Then on the (opy icon on the Standard Toolbar. This copies the selected text to an
I invisible clipboard.
3 Next, the cursor where you want the text to appear.
4 Finally, the Pasre icon. This inserts the content of the clipboard at the insertion
point. As well as the icons on the toolbar, you can use the keys Ctrl+ (for (opy, and Crrl+Vfor
Pasce. These options also come up if you the selected text.
8 00 Find u.d Repine

~ l
c [[) Write instructions for : rlncI GoTo

using Find and Replace based on

this dialog box.

o ~ Work in pairs. Student A:

Give your partner instructions
on Creating a document and
saving it on disk. Student B: Give
B ( ReplKt All ) ( RtPI...« ) ( c..nul )
your partner instructions on How to insert a picture from the Web into a
Word document. Use words and expressions from the HELP box on page 71.

5 WPtools
A Scan the descriptions of three WP tools (1 - 3) - a spell checker, an online
thesaurus and a grammar checker - and match them with the dialog boxes (a-c).
o G

';;;;j- _.. _--
j, .....~ ,

.,--...j.. - • ---
- -
- I!l

" \

0 __ •

....... -

: <- - )

) -'- --

-- I
Spell checkers can be used [0
compare words in the program's
dictionary to those used in the user's
e Many word processors include an online
thesaurus with which users can look up different
words to use in similar instances. Their power
( ---
-- )

document. The spell checker points comes not from knowing every grammatical rule,
out any words it cannot match, but from questioning the writer about certain
notifies the user, and allows them to parts of the text. Some even include information
make any changes; it even suggests about pronunciation and the history of a word.
possible correct spellings. like a
conventional thesaurus, this database
of words contains definitions and
suggestions of words with similar and Grammar checkers are applications that attempt to check more than just
opposite meanings. A word may be
spelled correctly but still be wrong
o spelling. They count words in sentences to flag possible run-on sentences.
They look for words that show possible conflicts between verbs and
(too instead of two, for instance). subjects, and they offer advice about corrections. Grammar checkers are a
This is a good first step at proofing a step beyond spell checkers, but they are still not a substitute for a human
document because it can find many editor. However, this does not mean that all the words in the document
common errors, but users will still are spelled correctly. They give the writer another chance to think about
need to proofread documents to what he or she has written. The computer can alert writers to problems that
ensure complete accuracy. wouldn't be obvious to them otherWise.

B Read the descriptions more carefully. Find three sentences that have been
printed in the wrong text and decide where they should go.

C Correct the three mistakes in this sentence and decide if they would be found
by the spell checker or the grammar checker.
Mail merge combine a form leter with a database file to create customized copys of the letter.
1 Spreadsheet programs
A In pairs, discuss these questions.
1 What is a spreadsheet?
2 What are spreadsheets used for?

B Look at the worksheet and label a, band c with column, row and cell.
Then answer these questions.
a b
1 What types of data can be keyed into a cell?
2 What happens if you change th~ value of a

This worksheet shows rhe income and expenses

ofa company. Amounts are given in Smillions. no
The terms worksheet and spreadsheet are u.
often used interchangeably. However, technically,
a worksheet is a collection of cells grouped on ... ...
a single layer of the file. A spreadsheet refers to '"
m, on
both the computer program rhat displays data in
rows and columns, and to the table which displays
numbers in rows and columns. 1< >

c~ Listen to Lucy Boyd giving a tra ining course on basic Excel and check you r
answers to A and B.

D ~ Listen again and decide whether these sentences are true or false. Correct
the false ones.
1 A spreadsheet displays information in the form of a table with a lot of columns and rows.
2 In a spreadsheet you can only enter numbers and formulae.
3 You cannot change the width of columns.
4 Spreadsheet programs can generate a variety of cha rts and graphs.
5 Spreadsheets cannot be used as databases.

E look at the worksheet above and decide whether these sentences are true or
false. Correct the false ones.
1 The value of the cell (12 is the result of applying the formula C5-00.
2 The value of cell 85 is the result of adding the value in cells 82 and 83.
3 If you type the value 800 in (3, the value in cells (5 and (12 will be recalculated.

F In pairs, discuss the advantages and

disadvantages of showing the information

. ~,

above as a graph, rather than as a worksheet. ~

Graphic representation of the worksheet above •

2 An invoice, a business letter and a fax
A Spreadsheets are also used to generate invoices. Complete the invoice below
with words from the box. If you have a spreadsheet program, try to produce a
similar invoice.
Quantity Description Price VAT (value added tax) Product Grand total Company

Name: Ruth Atkinson (1)

Address: 38 High Street, Galway Media Market
Telephone: 5 742 9165 Fax: 1 66 2 23 67
Date: 16 May 2008
(2) (3) (4) (5)
Ulysses Classic 2GB of RAM, 1TB HO 4 850€ 3,400€
Flat LCD screen Colour 19" 4 HOE 680€
Portable Ulysses 2GB of RAM, 250GB HD 2 975€ 1,950€
05 database DBMS, relational database 1 245€ 245€
Antidote lP Anti-virus, anti-spyware 6 60€ 360€
l aser printer CQ 2,400 dpi, PostScript 1 230€ 230€
Sub-tota l 6,865 €
(6) (21%) 1,441€
(7) 8,306€

B Look at this letter which accompanies the invoice. Complete the letter with
phrases from the box_
Yours sincerely I am writing to Dea r Ms Atkinson We would be grateful if you could
I am enclosing Please contact us

16 May 2008

Ruth Atkinson
38 High Street
(2) confirm that we have sent you four desktop pes
plus screens, two laptops and a laser printer, along with a 05 database, and an anti-virus program
for each of the computers. Please allow two weeks for delivery.
(3) two copies of your invoice.
(4) make your payment by cheque or directly to our
bank account through the Internet.
We are also delighted to inform you that we are offering our clients an online course called
A paperless office, free of charge. (5) if you require
any further information.


Ian Pegg
Ur'lil "

c m Imagine you are Ruth Atkinson. When you try to use the laser printer, it
gives continuous error messages. You are also having p roblems installing the
database. Write a fax to Media Market to complain. Ask for a new printer and an
upgraded version of the database. Look at the Useful language box to help you.


To: Media Market

Fax: 1 662 2367
From: Ruth Atkinson
Subject: Faulty products
Dear Mr Pegg.

Number of pages: 1
Please call if you experience any transmission problems.

Useful language
I am writing to complain about... . .. doesn't work I am unable to ...

3 Databases
A In groups, make a list of as many possible applications
for databases as you can think of.
Example: Companies use databases ro store information . ~oO:O

abouc customers, suppliers and their own perSln~n~e!/~~~~~O~~(,~""'

\)t.y' ~""~§~~~~~~_,
,..---, coro.n\",,,,,,O
B Look at the illustration, J)<!>l'l---'
which represents a DtPt:C] (;ornm1Ilion:c:J
database file. Can you Record 1
identify a record and a field?

C Read the text on page 76

and check your answers to B.

A representation of Q database file

II Databases
A database is a colrection of related data, and the records into numerical or alphabetical order very quickly.
software used in databases to store, organize and retrieve Modern databases are relational - that is, they are made
the data is called the database management system, up of related files: customers and orders, vendors and
or DBMS. However. we often use the word database to purchases, students and tutors, etc. Two database files
cover both meanings. A database can manage any type can be related as long as they have a common field. A file
of data, including text, numbers, images, sound, video of students, for example, could include a field called Tutor
and hyperlinks (links to websites). 10 and another file with details of the tutors could include
the same field. This key field can be used to relate the two
Information is entered into the database via fields. Each
field holds a separate piece of information, and the fields files. Databases like Oracle, DB2 and MySQL can manage
these relationships.
are grouped together in records. Therefore, a record
about an employee might consist of several fields which A database query function allows you to extract
give their name, address, phone number, date of birth, information according to certain conditions or criteria. For
salary and length of employment with the company. example, if a managing director wanted to know all the
customers that spend more than €8,QOO per month, the
Records are grouped together into files which hold large
amounts of information. Files can easily be updated - program would search on the name field and the money
field simultaneously.
you can always change fields, add new records or delete
old ones. An electronic database is much faster to consult The best database packages also include network
and update than a card index system and occupies a lot facilities, which can make bUSinesses more productive.
Jess space. With the right software, you can keep track of For example, managers of different departments can
stock, sales, market trends, orders and other information have direct access to a common database. Most aspects
that can help your company stay successful. of the program can be protected by user-defined
A database program lets you create an index - a list passwords and other security devices. For example, if
you wanted to share an employee's personal details but
of records ordered according to the content of certain
fields. This helps you to search the database and sort not their commission, you could protect the commission

o Complete these statements about databases using information from the text.
1 A database management system is used to
2 Information is entered into a database via
3 Each field holds
4 Updating a file means
5 Some advantages of a database program over a manual filing system are:
6 Access to a common database over a network can be protected by using

E Solve the clues and complete the puzzle.

1 A collection of data stored in a PC in a systematic way.
1 1 1
2 A unit of a database file made up of related fields.
3 A single piece of information in a record. 'I ,
4 A database maintains separate, related
files, but combines data elements from the files for ,
queries and reports. ,
5 Some companies have several computers sharing a
database over a

6 To look for speCific information, for example the name of an employee.
7 To classify records into numerical or alphabetical order.
S A tool that allows you to extract information that meets certain criteria.

F In pairs, discuss what fields you would include in a database for your
music collection.
Un!! U

4 Language work: plurals

A Look at the HELP box and then write the plural of these words.
1 client 5 fax
2 key 6 salary
3 Query 7 mouse
4 businessman 8 virus

HELP box
Plurals • There are several irregular plural forms:
• In most cases, we form the plural in English by man/woman ~ men/women
adding -5. child __ children
analysis __ analyses
record --. records
formula ---+ formula e (or formulas )
• If a word ends in -S, -sh, -x or -ch, we add -es. criterion __ criteria
address ----. addresses mouse -+- mice
index --.. indexes • The -s is pronounced as:
• If a word ends in a consonant + y, the y becomes i Is! aher one of these sounds: Ip/, I I/. IkJ, / f! or I e!
and we add -es. (e.g. amounts, hyperlinks)
company -.---... companies II zJ aher one of these sounds:/s/, IzJ. IJ/ , !IfI or
facility ----. facilit ies Id-y (e.g. businesses, devices, images)
• However, if the y follows a vowel, we add only -5. Iv in most other cases (e.g. files, fields, cusromers,
birthday __ birthdays

B Put the plurals into the correct pronunciation column.

databases passwords lsi /Jzi lzi

laptops graphs
orders switches
taxes networks
tables packages
spreadsheets systems

5 Software at home and at work

C In pairs, find out as much as you can
about the software your partner uses at
Useful language
What kind of spreadsheet program do
home or at work. Ask about spreadsheet you use?
programs, databases, word processors,
What do you use it for?
videoconferencing, business accounting,
email, and web browsers. look at the Useful Do you use it at home or at work?
language box to help you. Whats your favourite, .. ?
Wha t features do you like most about it?
Now visit www.cambridge.org/elt/ict
Howdoyou ... ?
an online task.
Inter et security

1 Internet basics
A In pairs. discuss how you would define the Internet.

B CI Make a list of all the things you can use the Internet for.
C Listen to a conversation between a customer buying a PC and a safes
assistant. Why do you think the sales assistant has to explain so much about the

D . , Listen again and complete the customer's notes.

Also V>.eed .<'In C.C-COlAnt w,"th "'n (3)

offc.rs Conl'lc.ctfo", for eo MOhth!"! fee.}.

If 1?OI4 Nt:ll'lt to c.on/,\(!.cf" 101>5 of COMplAf"ers wf"f'hOl/lf W;;{i-.g cAbles, 1011'/ C(!!h lASt!. A

(4) rOMter,

W,"-Fi" w;:es (7)

rt:!II-'1!J1! dr"srf)JII'ICe.<;.

1111"n!J$ "lOlA c"''''' do (>J-1 Me Il'IterPOer.


'Web' or 'I",f"er",e'l-'? the Web: hl/fge co/lect"(ol'l 0((7)

sf"ored On corv.PlAters ",II over the WQrld. 171e I",f"erher. Me he-Mar/:. Nfl/eM
COhhCCf>5 Po/I Me COW-PlAter5.

2 Internet FAQs
A Read Part 1 of the Internet FAQs on page 80 and choose the correct answers.
1 The Internet was
a invented in the mid-90s. b popular in the 1960s. c probably created in the USA.
2 Which term describes any fast, high-bandwidth connection?
a broadband b dial-up connection c Wi-Fi connection
3 The power-line Internet provides broadband access through
a telephone lines. b satellites. c electrical power lines.
4 Which device converts computer data into a form that can be transmitted over phone lines?
a ADSL b a mobile phone c a modem
5 The standard protocol that allows computers to communicate over the Internet is called
a an IP address. b TCP/IP. c HTIP.
6 The geographical region covered by one or several access points is called a
a wireless access point. b hotspot. c wireless network device.
Internet FAQs : Part 1
How old ;s the Internet (the Net)? When was it created?
It's hard to say exactly. The research that led to what we now know as the Internet was begun in the 19605.
Who created the Internet?
Again, it's hard to say exactly who created it. The initial research was carried out by the Advanced
Research Projects Agency in America, funded by the US government.
Did the Internet become popular quickly?
II took many years for the Internet to become popular around the world. It's only really since the mid-90s
that the Internet has been a part of our daily lives.
How do you get online?
To gel connected, you need a computer, the right connection software and a modem connected to the
phone line. You also need an account with an Internet Service Provider (ISP), which acts as a gateway
between your PC and the rest of the Net.

How fast are today's internet connections?

Today, ISPs offer a broadband , high-speed connection. The most common types are cable - offered by
local cable TV companies - and ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) , which works through phone
lines. They are both faster than the traditional dial-up telephone connection. Broadband access is also
offered by some electricity networks. This competing technology, known as power-line Internet, provides
low-cost access via the power plug , but is still in development.
How long has broadband existed?
Since the late 1990s.
How much does broadband access cost?
It depends on which company you choose. Nowadays, some companies even offer free broadband.
Why do you need a modem?
A modem (modulator/demodulator) converts digital signals into analogue signals so that data can be
transmitted across the phone or cable network.
What does TCP/IP mean?
The language used for data transfer on the Internet is known as TCP/IP (t ransmission control protocol!
Internet protocol). This is like the internet operating system. Every computer connected to the Net is
identified by a unique IP address.

Are there other ways of accessing the Internet?

Other methods of internet access include Wi-Fi , satellite, mobile phones and TV sets equipped with a
modem. Wi-Fi-enabled laptops or PDAs allow you to con,neet to the Net if you are near a wireless access
point, in locations called hotspots (for example, a Wi-Fi cafe, park or campus). Satellite services are used
in places where terrestrial access is not available (for example, on ships at sea). High-end mobile phones
provide access through the phone network.


B In pairs, discuss which of the internet systems (1-6) you would use to do
the tasks (a-f). Then read Part 2 of the FAQs on page gland check your answers.
1 Email a transfer files from the Internet to your hard drive
2 The Web b send a message to another person via the Internet
3 Newsgroups c have a live conversation (usually typed) online
4 Chat and 1M d connect to a remote computer by entering instructions, and run a
5 FTP program on it
6 Telnet e take part in public discussion areas devoted to speCific topics
f download and view documents published on the Internet
Unit 11

Internet FAQs: Part 2

Email lets you exchange messages with people all over the world. Optional attached files can include
text, pictures and even audio and animation. A mailing list uses email to communicate messages to all its
subscribers - that is, everyone that belongs to the list.
Which email program is the best?
Outlook Express is a popular program , but many users use web-based email accounts such as Hotmail.

The Web
The Web consists of billions of documents living on web servers that use the HTTP protocol. You navigate
through the Web using a program called a web browser, which lets you search , view and print web pages.
How often are web pages updated?
It depends entirely on the page. Some are updated thousands of times a day.

Chat and Instant Messaging (1M)

Chat and Instant Messaging technologies allow you to have real-time conversations online, by typing
messages at the keyboard.

FTP, or f ile t ransfer p rotocol , is used to transfer files over a TCP/IP network . Nowadays, this feature is built
into Web browsers. You can download programs, games and music files from a remote computer to your
hard drive.

Telnel is a protocol and a program used 10 log onto remote computer systems. It enables you to enter
commands that will be executed as if you were entering them directly on the remote server.

Newsgroups are the public discussion areas which make up a system called Usenet. The contents are
contributed by people who post articles or respond to articles, creating chains of related postings called
message threads. You need a news reader to subscribe to newsgroups and to read and post messages.
The newsreader may be a stand-alone program or part of a web browser.

How many newsgroups are there?

There are approximately 30,000 active newsgroups.
Where can you find newsgroups?
Your newsreader may allow you to download the newsgroup addresses that your ISP has included on its
news server. An alternative to using a newsreader is to visit web forums instead , which perform the same
function but without the additional software.

C Find words and phrases in Part 2 with the following meanings.

7 a jYsrem used rodf5I/JbvlE'lwAIlJ)/om?l?ydffCYCI?(J«ami7e" ,Jrarrce (ril tmOiTparagraph/
2 a program used for displaying web pages (in The Web paragraph)
3 to connect to a compu ter by typing your username and password (in Tefnel paragraph)
4 a series of interrelated messages on a given topic (in Newsgroups paragraph)
5 a program for reading Usenet newsgroups (in Newsgroups paragraph)
3 Language work: questions
A look at the HELP box and then make a question
about Sue Clarke for each of her answers.
I'm 23 years old.
l'm an online researcher.
I use the Internet to find information requested by dients.
I've been doing this job for six months.
I graduated from university in 2006. Sue Clarke

HELP box
QUestions Place
Where can you find newsgroups?
• In questions, we normally place the auxiliary verb
before the subject. Time
When was it created?
Are there ocher ways of accessing the Internet?
How often are web pages updated?
• If there is no other auxiliary, we use do/does (present How long has broadband existed?
simple) or did (past simple).
Did the Internet become popular quickly? Why do you need a modem?
• There are many question words in English which we Quantity
use to find out more information than just yes or no. How much does broadband access cost?
How many newsgroups are there?
Who created the Internee? Manner
How do you get online?
What does TCPIIP mean? Others
Which email program is the best? How fast are raday's internet connections?
How old is the Internet?

B In pairs, make questions using these prompts. Then practise asking and
answering the questions.
Examp!e: When llirst I use the Internet When did you first use the Internet?
1 What type of internet connection I have at home?
2 How fast / your internet connection?
3 How much / pay for broadband access?
4 How often / access the Internet?
5 Which email program / use?
6 Who / send email to?
7 Do I use your mobile phone to access the Internet?
8 Do / use the Internet in public spaces using Wi-Fi?
9 Do / play games online?
10 How many newsgroups / subscribe to?
4 Email features
A Read the text and find the following.
1 the place where your ISP stores your emails
2 the type of program used to read and send email from a computer
3 the part of an email address that identifies the user of the service
4 the line that describes the content of an email
5 the computer file which is sent along with an email message
6 facial symbols used to indicate an emotion or attitude
7 the name given to junk mail

B m Write a reply to Celia's email below.

Email features
When you set up an account with an Internet Service Provider, you are given an email address and a password.
The mail you receive is stored on the mail server of your ISP - in a Simulated mailbox - until you next connect and
download it to your hard drive.
There are two ways to get email over the Internet. One is by using a mail program (known as an email client)
installed on your computer, for example Eudora or Outlook Express. The other way is to use web~ based email,
accessible from any web browser. Hormail and Gmail are good examples.
You can make the message more expressive by including emoticons, also called smileys. For example, ;-) for wink,
:-) for happy, :-0 for surprised, :-0 for laughing, etc. You may also like to add a signature file, a pre-written text file
appended to the end of the message. The name given to unsolicited email messages is spam.

The anatomy of an email The domain name or network address

- that is, the mal/server where the account
The @sign, which is located. The final part adds information
The header about it for example com = company,
means at
To: name and The username (a person's uk = United Kingdom, fr = France, etc.
address of the name or nickname)
From: name and
.. e .. \ __-,-.,. <:''---=- ~~~7- ~­
~ -- ~'t"l.OO'"
rOo • .....-'
-.. ~-. -~ .-. -j
address of the ----'>,- - .-

1 I-

copy Hi John,
Subject:ropicof I have to prepare a project for my English class about the history of the ........-. The body
the message Internet and how it's used in our day~to~day lives. Do you have any contains the
Attachment: thoughts about what I should include? I've included my first thoughts me5Sage itself
files added to the here as an attachment. Could you send me some more ideas?
All the best
1 A typical web page
A look at the screenshot of a typical web page. How many of the features (a-k)
can you say in English?
a b f


",-..,,,-.... ,....... -
A screenshor from Internet Explorer 7, a leading web browser.

B Read the text and label the features on the screenshot with the terms in bold.

A typical web page

At the top of the page is the URl address. URl means also go to the home page or stop the current transfer
Uniform Resource Locator - the address of a tile on the when the circuits are busy.
Internet. A typical URllooks like this:
Tab buttons let you view different sites at the same
htip}Iwww.bbc.cO.uk/radiol. time, and the built-in search box helps you look for
In this URL, hrrp:ll means Hypert ext Transfer Protocol information. If the feed button lights up, it means
and teUs the program to look for a web page. www the site offers RSS feeds, so you can automatically
means world wide web. bbcco.uk is the domain name receive updates. When a web page won't load, you can
of the server that hosts the website - a company refresh the current page, meaning the page reloads
based in the UK; other top-level domains are .com (downloads again). If you want to mark a website address
(commercial site), .edu (education), .org (organization) or so that you can easily revisit the page at a later time,
.net (network); radio is the directory path where the web you can add it to your favourites (favorites in American
page is located. The parts of the VRl are separated by English), or bookmark it. When you want to visit it again
. (dot), / (slash) and: (colon). Some sites begin ftp://,a file you simply dick show favourites .
t ransfer p rotocol used to copy flies from one computer
On the web page itself. most sites feature clickable
to another. image links and clickable hypertext links. Together,
The tool bar shows all the navigation icons, which let you these are known as hyper/inks and take you to other web
go back one page or go forward one page. You can pages when clicked.

c~ Listen to three internet addresses and write them down.

Unit n

2 The collectives of cyberspace

A Read the article and find websites for the following tasks.
1 to search for information on the Web
2 to buy books and DVDs
3 to participate in political campaigns
4 to view and exchange video dips
5 ro manage and share personal phoros using tags
6 to buy and sell personal items in online auctions
7 to download music and movies, sometimes illegally

Tour the Collectives of Cyberspace

The Internet isn't just about email or the Web anymore, Increasingly, people onhne are taking the power
of the Internet back into their own hands.They're posting opinions on online journals - weblogs, or blogs;
they're organizing political rallies on MoveOn.org: they're trading songs on illegal file-sharing networks; they're
vOlunteenng articles for the online encyclopedia W ikipedia; and they're collaborating with other programmers
around the world. l1's the emergence of the 'Power of Us'.Thanks to new technologies such as blog software,
peer-to-peer networks, open-source software, and wiklS, people are getting together to take collective action like
never before.

.. .. ---..1
eBay, for Instance. wouldn't exist without the
61 miUion active members who hst. sell, and buy

---- , .----- miJlions of Items a week. But less obVIOUS is that

the whole marketplace runs on the trust created - - ---
___ '1"_
-~ . -
by eBay's unique feedback system, by which
buyers and sellers rate each other on how well

they carried out their half of each transaction.

. Pioneer e-tailer Amazon encourages aU kinds of

customer participation in the site - including the
ability to sell items alongside Its own books, CDs,
DVDs and electronic goods. MySpace and Facebook are the latest phenomena ES
- -
In social networking, attraCting millions of unique visitors a month. Many are
music fans, who can blog. email friends, upload photos, and generally socialize.
There's even a 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents, called
Second Life, where real companies have opened shops, and pop stars such as
U2 have performed concerts.
Some sites are much more specialized, such as the photo-sharing site Flickr.
There, people not only share photos but also take the time to attach wgs to
their pictures, which help everyone else find photos of, for example. Florence, Italy. Another successful example
of a site based on user-generated content is You Tube, which allows users to upload, view and share movie clips
and music videos, as well as amateur videoblogs. Another example of the collective power of the Intemet is
the Google search engine. Its mathematical formulas surf the combined judgements of minions of people whose
websites link to other sites. When you type justin Timberlake Into Google's search box and go to the star's offiCial
website, the site is listed first because more people are telling you it's the most relevant Justin Timberlake site
- which it probably is.
Skype on the surface looks like software that lets you make free phone calls over the Internet - which it does.
But the way it works is extremely clever. By using Skype, you're automatically contributing some of your PC's
computing power and Internet connection to route other people's calls. It's an extension of the peer-to-peer
network software such as BitTorrent that allow you to swap songs - at your own risk if those songs are under
~opyright. Bit Torrent is a protocol for transferring music, films, games and podcasts. A podcast is an audio
-ecording posted online. Podcasting denves from the words iPod and broadcastmg,You can find podcasts about
~Imost any topic - sports. music, politics, etc. They are dlstnbuted through RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds
Nhich allow you to receive up-to-date Information Without haVing to check the Site for updates. BitTorrent
)l"eaks the files Into small pieces. known as chunks. and distributes them among a large number of users; when
IOU download a torrent, you are also uploading it to another user. Adapred from BusinessWeek online
B Read the article again and match the sentence beginnings (1 - 5) with the
correct endings (a-e).
1 A weblog , or blog, is an electronic journal a web pages on a particular subject.
2 A peer-to-peer system allows b for downloading files over the Internet.
3 You can use a search engine to find c users to share files on their computers,
4 BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer protocol used d about fresh, new content on your favourite
5 RSS keeps you constantly informed e that displays in chronological order the
postings of one or more people.

C Find words in the article with the following meanings.

1 open-source, editable web pages (lines 5-10)
2 the same as electronic rerailer, or onhne store (lines 10-15)
3 a blog that includes video (lines 25-30)
4 a program that allows you to make voice and video calls from a computer
(lines 30-35)
5 an audio broadcast distributed over the Internet (lines 35-40)

D EiZl
Write is short article (80-120 words) for your school/university/work
newsletter about the latest internet phenomena (MySpace, eBay, etc.). Talk about
any other sites you think are important or will be important in the future.

3 Language work: collocations 2

A look at the HELP box on page 87 and then match the words on the left (1-6)
with the words on the right (a-f) to make collocations. There may be more than
one possible answer.
1 online a friends
2 take b photos
3 email c action
4 upload d website
5 portable e encyclopedia
6 official f player

B In pairs, make sentences using the collocations above.

C Find the collocations in these sentences and say what type they are.
1 Once you are online, you can browse the Web, visit chat rooms or send and receive emails.
2 Instant messaging can be a great way to communicate with friends.
3 This software may not be fully compatible with older operating systems.
4 Most webcams plug into a USB port.
S This highly addictive game will keep you playing for hOUfS.
6 Companies are starting to use virtual reality on their websites.
Unit "

HELP box
Collocations 2 • adverb + adjective
highly sensitive information
A collocation is a pair or group of words that are often
freefy available on the Web
used together. For example, we say make phone calls,
not do phone calls. • adjective + noun
mathematical formulas up-ta-date information
Here are some common types of collocation:
The word online often collocates with other words and
• verb + noun {see Unit 1}
can function as adjective or adverb.
surf the Web download music
Adjective: They post opinions on online journals.
• verb + particle
hack into a computer log onto a bank account Adverb: A podcasr is an audio recording posted online.

4 E-commerce and online banking

A Listen to two extracts from a monthly pod cast called Money Matters. What
is each speaker talking about?
Speaker 1 Speaker 2

B Listen again and make notes under these headings.

- ~pea~er I
ihin9~ ?«lp\t. blli Ofl\int.
1\1if'l£j~ ~ou
,an do .... ith onlint. ban\:if19

'5tt.p& for Wjifl9 onliflt.

fruaufiol1& fruaufioll&

C Complete the extracts with words from the box

authorization fake internet auction shopping cart browse log in steal

1 Occasionally I also buy things on sites such as eBay, where people offer and
sell things to the highest bidder.
2 First you enter a site dedicated to e-commerce and their products,
3 Then you put the items you want to buy into a virtual - a program that lets
you select the products and buy with a credit card.
4 You may have to with a username and a password ..
5 ... for some transactions, you will be required to use a TAN, a transaction
6 Be aware of phishing - you may receive emails claiming to be from your bank and
asking for personal information or account details in an attempt to your identity,

D ~ Listen again and check your answers.

5 Language work: the prefixes e- and cyber-
look at the HELP box and then HELP box
complete these sentences. The prefixes e- and cyber-
1 A is an employee who
• The e - prefix means electronic, and we
uses his company's internet connection during
add it to activities that take place on
work hours to chat with friends. play games.
computers or online, for example
e-business/ e·commerce - business
2 An is a postcard sent via
conducted over the Internet. Other
the Internet. examples include: e· card, e· learning,
3 An is a small magazine or e·zine, e·voting, e·signature,
newsletter published online. e·assessment, e· cash, e· book and
4 Ina you can use e·pal .
computers with internet access for a fee. There are often spelling variations, with or
S Examples of include without a hyphen, so always check your
internet fraud, digital piracy, theft of dictionary.
confidential information, etc.
• The cyber· prefix comes from cybernetics,
6 In the future, all elections will be carried out and we use it to describe things
using related to computer networks, for
7 You can now sign legal documents online example cybercafe - an internet cafe.
using an Other examples include: cybercrime,
8 will revolutionise the cyberculture, cyberslacker and
way we take exams. cyberspace.
9 can be used on some
websites instead of real money to make purchases. It reduces the risk of fraud.
lO An is like the paper version, but in digital form.

6 What do you use the Web for?

In pairs, discuss these questions. Give reasons for you r answers.
1 What is your favourite
search engine to find
information on the
2 Do you download
music or video clips
from the Web? Do you
pay for them?
3 Do you buy things
online? Is it bener to
buy online or go to a
4 Have you ever listened
to the radiO or watched
TV online?
5 Do you use the Web to
do school/university
assignments or
projects? How?
1 Online chatting
In pairs, discuss these questions.
. Windows Live·
1 What is your favourite way to chat on the Internet? Windows Live Messenger is one of the
2 How much time do you spend charring? world'5 most popular chat programs

3 00 you give out personal derails in chat rooms?

Why should you be careful about this?

2 Virtual meetings
A Read the text and match the headings (1 - 5)
with the gaps at the start of each paragraph
(a- e).
1 Cheap calls over the Internet
2 Virtual worlds and online communities
3 Chat rooms on the Web: join the crowd!
4 Real-time videoconferencing
5 Private chats with 1M services

A Yldeocon(erenClng system
combmes data. voICe and Video

Virtual meetin 5
a With internet telephony, you can make a voice call
Imagine you want to assemble a group of people from your computer to another person's computer,
from around the world for a brainstorming session. 20 land line, or mobile phone, You can download
(onferencing programs such as NetMeeting or CU- telephony software such as Skype or Net2Phone from
SeeMe allow virtual workgroups to communicate the Net, and it's even free!
5 via the Internet. To videoconference, you'll need a (

webcam. Participants see each other's faces in small

People also use more traditional chat conferencing
windows on their monitors and hear each other's
or bulletin board systems (BBSs) to communicate
voices on the computer speakers. You can use just
25 online. Note that during chat sessions, participants
audio, video and audio Simultaneously, or the screen-
type messages to each other rather than
10 sharing capability to collaborate on documents
communicate by voice. Chat software can be used
without audio or video.
on the Web with your browser to conduct online
b chat sessions with other users and can accommodate
Internet telephony, also known as VolP (Voice o ver 30 between 50 and 1,000 users simultaneously. Some
Internet Protocol), almost eliminates long-distance companies even use chat conferencing on their
phone charges, allowing you to call nea rly anywhere websites to facilitate communication with customers.
15 in the world for the price of a local call. If you have
flat-rate internet access, you can't beat the price - it's
practically free.

d buddy's computer. This all happens in realtime

- instantly.
Chat rooms can be good venues to meet people
and discuss topics of mutual interest. But what if you e
35 want to chat privately with a friend, family member or
60 You can also chat in incredible 3-D worlds that
business colleague?Then Instant M essaging, or 1M,
are built by other users, for example Second Life. In
is the way to go. Many 1M services now offer audio these virt ual reality environments you can play
and video capabilities, so if you have a microphone 3-D games and interact with other users via avatar
and a webcam. you can chat and see who you're identities. Avatars are 3-D graphical representations
40 talking to. The four most popular 1M services afe leo 65 of the participants.
and AIM (from AOL), Windows Live Messenger, and
Yahoo! Messenger. They aUwork similarly. First. you
enrol in the service by creating a username - which
is also your screen name - and a password. Next, you
45 build what is known as a buddy ((st - a list of people
that you want to communicate with. When any of the
contacts on your list is online, you can start a private
chat with that person.
How do you know who's online? When you launch
50 your 1M software, it connects with the service's 1M
server and logs you on. The server checks your buddy
list to see if any of your contacts are also logged on.
Your list updates to show who is currently online.
By clicking on a name you can send text-based Avotars can run, jump, fly. dance and even enable
55 messages to that person. After you type your note you to express emotions
and click on the Send button, the message travels
to the 1M server, then immediately forwards to your Paragraphs a- d adapted from www.leam thenet.com

B Read the text again and answer these questions.

1 Why is videoconferencing so useful for virtual workgroups?
2 What special hardware and software do you need to videoconference?
3 Which technology enables people to make phone calls over the Internet?
4 What is the difference between web chat rooms and Instant Messaging?
5 How do you log on to an 1M server?

C Find terms in the text with the following meanings.

1 at a fixed price (lines 15-20)
2 a central system that provides information about whether users are online and passes instant
messages between them (lines 35-40)
3 a friend list or contact list (Jines 45-50)
4 happening immediately and without delay (lines 55-60)
5 artifiCial reality; a 3-~ space generated by the computer (lines 60-65)
6 characters used when interacting with people online (lines 60-65)
3 Netiquette
A In pairs, do this netiquette quiz. Read about netiquette rules on the Web if

1 Netiquette, or net etiquette, is a general code 5 Before asking questions in a chat room or
of behaviour for communicating online. posting messages to forums, you should
o True
o read the FAQs (Frequently Asked
o False Questions).
o introduce yourself and post a test message.
o the message is very important.
6 Avoid flame wars. Flames are
o you're shouting. o angry responses or offensive comments.
3 What should you avoid doing in chat rooms?
o people who break the rules of netiquette.
o Being respectful 7 Keep messages short and to the point, and
o Giving out personal or financial information check spelling and grammar.

4 Spamming means o True

o posting stupid comments in chat rooms. o False

a posting unsolicited advertising messages.

B Have you ever experienced bad netiquette?Tell your partner what


4 Rufree4achat?
A Rewrite this 1M chat, using full forms instead of abbreviations. Then look at the
HELP box on page 92 to check your answers.

Abby: BTW, where r u going for ur holiday?

By the way, where are you going for your holiday?
Sue: Girona. Have u been?
Abby; Yes. I went 2 Girona last summer.
Sue: Did u have a good time?
Abby: It's great, IMO. How r u going 2 travel?
Sue: We're flying.
Abby: Where r u staying?
Sue: In a youth hostel.
Abby: Ie. lOW, the cheapest place possible!
Sue: LOll Yes. BTW, any recommendations?
Abby: Let me think. I'll send u a msg ASAP.
Sue: TIA!
Abby: Got 2 go. BFN!
HELP box
B Rewrite this 1M chat using abbreviations.
Chat abbreviations
We often use abbreviations in online
Paulo: By the way, are you free on chats and Instant Messaging. Some
Saturday? common examples are:
Emma: Sure - it would be good to meet ASAP As soon as possible
face to face. Shall we go for a BBS Be back soon
BFN Bye for now
Paulo; Good plan. Cafe Moka makes the BTW By the way
best coffee, in my opinion. F2F Face to face
Emma: It's the closest to your house in GL Good luck
other words! H&K Hug and kiSS
Paulo: Laughing out loud! Yes, you're Ie I see
right! But the coffee really is ILU I love you
good. IMO In my opinion
Emma: See you at 4? lOW In other words
Paulo: Great. Bye for now. LOL laughing out loud
TIA Thanks in advance
msg Message
ur your/you're
2 to
4 for
c t:J In pairs, practise having an online
conversation. Write a short note and give it to
your partner. Use abbreviations as necessary. r are
Your partner will write a short response and u you
give it back to you. Continue the conversation It's OK to use chat abbreviations, but
and try not to talk. Choose one of these topics. try not to rely on them too much -
• Your plans for the weekend they can make a conversation
difficult to follow. They are also very
• What you did last night
• Your holiday plans
• What happened at school/work today
• Music/TV/TheWeb

o In pairs, discuss these questions. Give

reasons for your answers.
1 Which program do you use to chat with friends?
2 Do you use abbreviations when you chat online or
when you send text messages?
3 Do you use voice or video while chatting? How?
4 Have you ever used the Internet to make cheap caBs?
5 Does Instant Messaging distract you from work?
6 00 you use your real name or a nickname in chat
7 Do you talk to strangers during web chats? Why
shouldn't you?
8 Would you ever go on a date with somebody you'd
met on the Net? I

Computer Dot i ng
5 At a cybercafe
A In pairs, discuss these questions. Give reasons for your answers.
1 Do you ever go to cybercafes?
2 What servl:E- would y, III 'x,.:

B . , Listen to an interview with Daniel Sturdy, the manager of a cybercafe in

London. Does Daniel like where he works?

c .., Listen again and decide whether these sentences are true or false. Correct
the false ones.
1 A cybercafE I', a cafe where yOll can have deee .. ') to the Internet and related '(vice'
2 You .:an talk {u p4 lple ver the In(erf'"l"'f using Internet tE ephony at Daniel's cafe
3 They don't help people who have
problems while using thp Internet.
4 Using a compuTer with internet
access costs £2 per hour Or £80 for
a week
S At lhp momm( they ve got a 101 of
International customers.
6 You have to PdY long-distance
phone rates on the Internet.
7 In the cafe area YOll can Sit, drmk
:offee and chat te people.

<l, (ybercafE

6 Plan your own cybercafe

In small groups, plan how you would open a cybercafe in your town.
Consider these areas.
• Money needed
• Type of customer
• location
• Services you will offer (just Intern..,t acce)s? food dnd drink. ~ newc,p3pp rs and magaZines?
tutorials ?)
• Furni ture and decoration
• How to create a nice atmc sphf're (music hghtinq. pllvate area' etC .1
• Wha t type of ha rdware and software you need
• What type of Internet connection you need
• How much you will charge
• A name and slogan for your cYbf'rcafe

B Present your plan to the class, using PowerPoint if possible.

1 Dna/ert
A ~ In pairs, discuss these questions.
1 What is a hacker?
2 How easy do you think it is to infiltrate the Internet and steal sensitive information?
3 How can you protect your computer from vi ruses and spywa re?

B Match the captions (1-4) with the pictures (a-d).

1 A secure website can be recognized in two ways: the address bar shows the letters hrrps and a
closed padlock or key is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
2 You have to type your username and password to access a locked computer system.
3 This program displays a message when it detects spyware and other unwanted software that
may compromise your privacy or damage your computer.
4 Private networks use a software and/or hardware mechanism called a fi rewall to block
unauthorized traffic from the Internet.
~ -x-.
_.-.. .y-
"- __ ....._"" "too.-.•
--.,..,.--_ ... _-- --
Ionp ll _ _ _ __
Rh' ..... 1'1""",,1 Of PO',,"hNy un-,'Iid SOl'lwlf, Internet

-0-- ---
_. - - ----+
o Wa nted

ID https:/Iwww.bankinter.(om/
2 Security and privacy on the Internet
A ~ Read the text quickly and see how many of your ideas from 1 A Question 3
are mentioned.

B Read the text more carefully and answer these questions.

1 Why is security so important on the Internet?
2 What security features are offered by Mozina Firefox?
3 What security protocol is used by banks to make online transactions secure?
4 How can we protect our email and keep it private?
5 What methods are used by companies to make internal networks secure?
6 In what ways can a virus enter a computer system?
7 How does a worm spread itself?
Unll "

Security and privacy on the Internet

There are many benefits from an open system like the Network security
Internet, but one of the risks is that we are often exposed
Private networks can be attacked by intruders who attempt
to hackers, who break into computer systems just for fun,
to obtain information such as Social Security numbers, bank
to steal information, or to spread viruses (see note below).
accounts or research and business reports. To protect crucial
So how do we go about making our online transactions
data, companies hire security consultants who analyse the
risks and provide solutions. The most common methods of
Security on the Web protection are pa sswords for access control, firewa lls, and
Security is crucial when you send confidential information encryption and decryptio n systems. Encryption changes
online. Consider, for example, the process of buying a book data into a secret code so that only someone with a key can
on the Web. You have to type your credit card number into read it. Decryption converts encrypted data back into its
an order form which passes from computer to computer on original form.
its way to the online bookstore. If one o( the intermediary Malware protection
computers is infiltrated by hackers, your data can be copied. M al w are (malicious software) are programs designed to
To avoid risks, you should set all security alerts to high on infiltrate or damage your computer, for example viruses,
your web browser. Mozilla Firefox displays a lock when wo rms, Trojans and spywa re. A virus can enter a PC via
the website is secure and allows you to disable or delete a disc drive - if you insert an infected disc - or via the
coo ki es - small files placed on your hard drive by web Internet. A worm is a self-copying program that spreads
servers so that they can recognize your PC when you return through email attachments: it replicates itself and sends
to their site. a copy to everyone in an address book. A Trojan horse is
disguised as a useful program; it may affect data security.
If you use online banking services, make sure they use
Spyware collects information from your PC without your
digital certificates - files that are like digital identification
consent. Most spyware and adware (software that allows
cards and that identify users and web servers. Also be sure
pop-ups - that is, advertisements that suddenly appear on
to use a browser that is compliant with SSL (Secure Sockets
your screen) is included with 'free' downloads.
Layer), a protocol which provides secure transactions.
If you want to protect your Pc' don't open email
Email privacy attachments from strangers and take care when
Similarly, as your email travels across the Net, it is copied download ing files from the Web. Remember to update your
temporarily onto many computers in between. This means ant i-virus soft wa re as often as possible, since new viruses
that it can be read by people who illegally enter computer are being created all the time.
Note: Originally, all computer enthusiasts and skilled programmers
The only way to protect a message is to put it in a sort of were known as hackers, but during the 1990s, the term hacker
virtual envelope - that is, to encode it with some form of became synonymous With cracker - a person who uses technology for
encryptio n. A system designed to send email privately is criminal aims. Nowadays, people often use the word hacker to mean
Pretty Good Privacy, a freeware program written by Phil both things. In the computer industry, hackers are known as white hat,
Zimmerman. and crackers are called black hors or dorkside hockers.

C Solve the clues and complete the puzzle.

1 Users have to enter a to gain
access to a network. ,
2 A protects a company intra net •
from outside attacks. ,
3 A is a person who uses their
computer skills to enter computers and
networks illegally.
4 can infect your files and corrupt

your hard drive.
5 You can download from the Net; this type of software is available free of charge
but protected by copyright.
6 Encoding data so that unauthorized users can't read it is known as
7 This company uses techniques to decode (or decipher) secret data.
8 Most is designed to obtain personal information without the user's permission.
3 Safety online for children
A . , Listen to an interview with Diana Wilson, a member of the Internet Safety
Foundation. Which answers (a or b) best describe what she says?
1 Pa rents should make children awa re of
a the benefits and risks of the Internet. b the risks of the Internet.
2 A web filter program can be used to
a prevent access to sites with inappropriate content .
b rate web content with labels (similar to the way movies are rated).
3 If kids spend too much rime online or suffer from internet addiction, pa ren ts should
a stop them using the Internet. b look for help from specialists.

B . , Listen again and complete the interviewer'S notes.

Risks Solutions
Mompulotll~11 of children There are websdes (4)
InvaSions of (1) at children.

DistributIOn of mdecent or In t ernet (5) pr09rams let

(2) matenal parents block object Ionable webslt es.

Violence and racist (3) W'ebsttes should (~)

content with a label. from child-friendly to
overJ8 only.

4 The history of hacking

A Read Part 1 of the text and answer these questions.
1 Which hacking case inspired the film War Game5?
2 When did LoptainZap hack into the Pentagon?
3 Why was Nicholas Whitely arrested in 1988'
4 How old was the hacker that broke inro the US defence com p uter in 1989'

Th e history of hacking - Pa rt 1
1971 - John Draper discovered that a whistle offered in boxes of Cap'n Crunch breakfast cereal perfectly generated the
2.600Hz signal used by the AT&T phone company. He started to make free calls. He was arrested in 1972 but
wasn't sent to prison.
1974 - Kevin Mitnick, a legend among hackers, began hacking into banking networks and altering the credit reportS of his
enemies. He didn't expect that his most famous explOit - hacking into the North American Defense Command in
Colorado Springs - wo uld inspire the film War Games in 1983.
198 1 - Ian Murphy, a 23-year-old known as Captain Zap on the networks. hacked into the White House and the Pentagon.
1987 - The IBM international ne twork was paralysed by a hacker's Christmas message.
1988 - The Union Bank of Switzerland almost lost £32 millio n to hackers. Nicholas W hitely was arrested in connection
with virus spreading.
1989 - A fifteen-year-old hacker cracked the US defence computer.
199 1 - Kevin Poulsen. known as Dark. Dante on the networks, was accused of stealing military files.
B In pairs, discuss which of the cases in Part 1 you had heard of.
Which do you think is the most important?

5 Language work: the past simple

A Look at the HELP box and then complete Pa rt 2 of the text with the past simple
form of the verbs in the box .
show •p read steal launch anempt r)Vt W fitf" bf' infect affect
The history of hacking - Part 2
1992 - David l Smith ( I) prosecuted for writing the Melissa virus. which was passed in
Word files sent via email.
1997 - The German Chaos Computer Club (2) on TV how to obtain money from
bank accountS.
2000 - A Russian hacker (3) (0 extort $ 100,000 from online music retailer CD Universe.
A Canadian hacker (4) a massive demal of serVICe attack against websites like
Yahoo! and Amazon.
The ILoveYou virus, cleverly disguised as a love lener. (5) so qUickly that email
had to be shut down in many companies.The worm (6) image and sound files
with a copy of itself.
200 I - The Code Red worm (7) tens of thousands of machines.

2006 - Hackers (8) the credit card details of almost 20,000 AT&T online customers.
However. subscribers to itS service (9) (not)

HELP box
Past simple • Thew are many verbs which are irregular in the past
• We use the past simple to talk about a complete
action or event which happened at a specific time in Kevin Mitnick began hacking into
the past.
For a list of irregulM 'rbs, see page 166.
Past ---------~I----- Now
Wf forrr quesliop' dnd negatives for irregUlar verbs
Hr began hacking rn 1914.
in (he amr way d' for regular u:,rbs. rhe exception s
• Wt form the past 'impll of regular VE'rbs by adding be ;/C" lk lowl
- (e)d to th infinitivi
Nh n did ~, rM/ln begin hat 'king tntt
)hn I >raper discovered that a whl ,(/ didn 't begin ) r '9 mil '4
WE form qUI iti >n and n 'gatives u~ ing did/ didn't • W f rr'''' p~' pas~ with the past simple Of
be thl past pdlt Ip'
Wh:'n did Captain Zap hack inrc th Pentagon.
He didn't expect thaI hi m( )~t famt...u~ expi it ItiM 'nterr at rJ, was paralysed by hack, r5-

r· wasn't sent tt pfl J'l.

Why was Ni ~hoJas Whiffly arrested in 1998?
B Read these landmarks in the history of the Internet and prepare at least five
questions in the past simple.
Example: What happened in 1969? Wha{ did Ray Tomlinson do in 197/?

1969 - The US Defense Department establishes ARPANET, a network connedmg research centres.
1971 - Ray Tomlinson of B8N Invents an email program to send messages across a network. The @ Sign IS
chosen for Its at meaning,
1981 - IBM sells the first IBM Pc. BITNET provides email and file transfers to univerSities.
1982 - TCP/IP is adopted as the standard language of the Internet.
1988 - Jarkko Olkannen develops the system known as Internet Relay Chat (IRe).
1991 - CERN (Consed Europ~en pour 10 Recherche NuctecIJre) creates the World Wide Web,
1998 - The Internet 2 network is born. It can handle data and Video at high speed but 15 not a public network.
1999 - Online bankmg. e-commerce and MP3 music become popular.
2001 - Napster, whose software allows users to share downloaded mUSIC, maintains that It does not perpetrate
or encourage music piracy. However, a Judge rules that Napster's technology IS an Infringement of music
2004 - Network Solutions begins offering lOO-year domain registration.
2006 - Amencans spend over $100 billion shopping online.

C In pairs, ask and answer your questions.

6 Internet issues
A In small groups, look at the list of cybercrimes and discuss these questions.
1 Which -rimes are the most dangerous?
2 Is it fair or unfair to pay for the songs. Videos. books or articles that you download? Should
copyright infringement be allowed online7
3 What measures can be taken by governments to stop cybercrime?
4 Do you think governments have the right to censor material on the Internet?
5 Persona! information such as our address, salary, and civil and criminal records is held in
databases by marketing companies. Is our.privdCY in danger?

• Piracy the lIegal :opy and dis!ribution of copyrighted software. games or music files
• Plagiarism and theft of intellectual property pretending that someone else's work is your own
• Spreading of malicious software
• Phishing (password hJrVeslUlg fi shing) getting passwords for online bank accounts or credit card numbers
by using emails that look like they are from real organizations, but are in fact fake; people beti ~ve the messagl"
IS from their ban~ and send their security details

• IP spoofing making on'" computer look like another in order to gain unauthorized access
• Cyberstalking onlin harassment or abuse, mainly in chat rooms or newsgroups
• Distribution of indecent or offensive material

B Write a summary of your discussion on PowerPoint and present it to the

rest of the class.

II Now visit www.cambridge.org/elt/ict for an online task.

1 Computer graphics
A C In pairs, look at the computer graphics (a-d) and discuss these questions.
1 Which of these <:omputer graphics are three dimensional (3-D)?
2 What drE' the advantages of creating 3-D images?
3 Which types of professional might use the computer graphic, (a--d)?
4 Who el::.e uses computer graphics in their job? How do they use them?

B Read the text on page 101 and check your answers to 3 and 4 in A.

C Read the text again and answer these questions.

1 What are the differ~nces between raster graphics and vector graphics?
2 WhKh graphics fill' formats are- mentioned?
3 What IS c. )mpositinq?
4 What do~'s CAD stand for7
5 What afe the benefits of using graphics in the car industryi'
6 What tyPF of graphics ~ohware is used to make maps or 3-D models of the Earth?
1 Who use" computer animation? How?
Unil l O

Computer graphics
Computer graphics are picture!. and drawings plOduced CAD is also used In the aerospace, architecture and
by computer. There are two main categories: industrial sectors to design everything from aeroplanes
Raster graphics or bitmaps are stored as a collection and buildings to consumer products. Designers start
of pixels. The sharpness of an image depends on the a project by makinq a wireframe a representation
density of pixels. or resolution For example, text or showing the oullinl If aU edges In a transparent
pictures that are scaled up that is. made bigger ~ may drawing. They then sp+ ify and fill the surfaces to give
show jagged edges. Paint and photo-editing programs the appearance of a -0 solid object with volume. This s
like Adobe Photos hop focus on [he manipulation of known as solid modelling Next. they add paint, colc ur
bitmaps. Popular raster formats are JPEG GIF and TIFF and filters to achi' 'v~ th . d!'sired 'look and feel' this i'
called texturing {he object. nnally, they render the
Vector graphics represent images through the use of object to make it look real. Rendering includes lighting
geometric objects, such as lines, curves and polygons, and shading as well as effects that simulate shadows and
based on mathematical equations, They can be changed reflections.
or scaled without losing quality. Vector data can be
handled by drawing programs like Adobe Illustrator, <l A wireframe
Corel Draw or Macromedia Freehand. EPS is the most model of a [ea{XJt
popular file format for exchanging vector drawings.

<] Bitmap graphin

art composed
of pixels. each of
whICh contaim
specific colour Smooth ~
informati In shading part
of the fendt!(mg
P"Xe'" ~
Vector graphicl ~
consist of {XJmr~
lines and curv(
which, when
combined. can
f ,
Computer art, or digital art, is used in adverts and

form complex TV programmes. Artists and scientists use special
W ,) \ graphic applets to create amazing fracta ls Fractals are
geometrical patterns that are repeated at small scales
Almost all computer users use some form of graphics. to generate irregular shapes, some of which describe
Home users and professional artists use image-editing objects from nature. Government agencies use GIS
programs to manipulate images. For example, you can (Geographic Information Systems) to understand
add filters (speCIal effects) to your favourite photos, or geographic data and then plan the use of land or predict
you can composite images. (om positing is combining natural disasters. Cartographers use GIS to make detailed
pans of different images to create a single image. maps. Animators use computer animation software to
Graphic artists and deSigners use draWing programs to create animated cartoons or add effecfs in movies and
create freehand draWings and illustrations for books or video games.
for the Web. Businesspeople use presentation graphics to A fractal
make information more interesting visually ~ graphs and
diagrams can be more effective ways of communicating
with clients than lists of figures. Electrical engineers use
graphics to design circuits in order to present data in a
more understandable form. Mechanical engineers use
CAD (Computer Aided Design) software to develop,
model and test car designs before the actual pans are
made. This can save a lot of time and money.
o Match the words (1-6) with the definitions (a- f).
1 r' )!uti a ,ptal eht: ts 11- at arb appli 'd t ,pi lures
2 Jagged b a technique that qpnE'rale' realistic rene(\ion~ shadows and nighl g\l!S
3 t1 ~r' C yt metl 031 figurro with )reCial prOPl'rtit".
4 wireframe d irregular)r unevE'p
5 rendenn 1 e 1/- number of pixels in m magl
6 fr al tal f rl drawing)f a model by usinq features like edges or contour lines

E In pairs, discuss which application of computer graphics you think is the

most important or useful. Give reasons for your answers.

2 Language work: the -ing form

A Look at the HELP box and decide
if the -ing forms in these sentences HELP box
are gerunds, present participles or The -ing form
adjectives. Write g, pp or Q .
1 ;Jent;'rdH graph ~s by p ~rf HrTllng Rendering 1 fighting m shading
mathemdtlCdl calculations on data. designing m lput
2 Businessppople USE' graphics to !TIdke
inf, Irrnat:on more Inter I ;Iing VI ually. • rendering II 'rur j 1 bl
lighting lod shading uy U j
'1 K'II h. )f
3 Graphs and di39fam~ car be more '55
effective WiWS of CO'l'lmUn arlng With
clients rhan lists of flgure~ • designing p '2 \! !">drrl( ,u ,
(/- 'i'l an ~ rh ne ~nl
4 Sh I' desrgl ing -3 vgc for th(' oml. any.
() '",orew IQr m showing
5 If, need te make a preSenlJtJ )11,
sug9~ uSing PowerP )int "
6 ThE Internf't IS an 'twork linking other
• amazing ar iJ'- [lv<::

,tv )I~ -HI q tA, s:

• lh ·f I J\~fb

B Correct th e mistakes in these Compositing )m(nn n,J (X ~ I; :J1'fe e f n 1e

sentences. There are seven mistakes a 'J'>
in total.
• ~ It -r
lmputer :;11 Imdt' I. thl f}f( -ess )f '"'" combining {. a 'Oif{ C1 ' m /'
:rr'atl ob)1 ts whi<..h meve across the
:n I • ,
enjoy editing r:
2 Tex/Ufll7'] Illvolves add paint. :olour dnd
niter' to dl .. wlPgs and ,::le'slqr • p 'p
by making m
3 You c m open th~ (olour palr'te by cltek
on hf' or ri ;,pending C )fI
• A,
4 CAlI rm qrams are very fast at to perfunT () involves painting 10 drawing
drawinq functlon~ meJ,

5 A Jf tm ~nd nonf'Y r. sdved by t~t • Ie

a car design before to make the product. II g. avoid fancy fin ish give up hate
Will If!: {E

6 - (I nder rt: (>1' to he t?chni'1ues U" d imagine involve keep look forward to mind
to makt; reahstil. image suggest enjoy '
3 The toolbox
A .., Listen to an extract from an online tutorial about graphics programs and
answer these questions.
1 What a (( Ibm In grap! Ih,· arE
2 What are graphics primli "e~?
3 What son of olTrlbure5. or LhJractefistics, an bl:' used In grapnlca( object' ~
4 What :j('es trail 01 1(1 rr. r

B .., Listen again and complete this extract from the web version of the tutorial.

Graphics programs usuatly have a toolbox - a

activate it by (4) on it. For example,
collection of drawing and (1) tools if you want to (5) a rectangle, you
that enable you to type, (2) , draw. activate the rectangle tool. and the pop·up options
paint, edit, move, and view images on the computer. give you the possibility of (6)
The basic shapes which are used to (3) rectangles with square or rounded corners.
graphical objects are ca Ued primitives. These are You can transform an object by transLating.
usuaUy geometric, such as tines between two points. (7) or scaling it. Translation means
arcs, circles. polygons, ellipses and even text. moving an object to a different location. Rotation
Furthe rmore. you ca n specify the attn"butes of each is (8) the object around an axis. for
primitive. such as its colour, line type, fill area, exampLe, you may need to rotate an object 90 or
interior style and so on.
180 degrees to fit the draWing. (9) is
The various tools in a toolbox usualLy appear together making the object larger or smaller,
as pop·up icons in a menu or palette. To use one, you

C Match the tools from the Photoshop toolbox (1 - 10) with the functions (a-j),
.. ••

1 [hD
t_ · Marque, se!ect tool
• out do. 'n the dimell ,jar of a pictur~

2 ' .... , Move ( )! b ,elect a partICular parr 01 an Image (you an

:h )SE Mferent shapes for s lect.on)
3 ~ Croptl )1 c fil In an area With a . . aloUl
4 l1J Paintbrush, p 'nl d antral the foreground and background eiliour
e selpet <1 "peClfIC colour In a photo
5 10,1 ErasE'r f magnify areas vf an unage when you ar dOlr:1
6 ~ Paint bu ket 10,E detaile j work

7 [I] -ype t<Y 9 delele the pall of the p(uure you :lrag Ii ov 'f
h in~err {ext into your document
8 IJ'J Colour pICKer (Eyedropper) draw and patnt In different shdpes ilnd patl€ms
9 [3J zoom j \Jve a ,Ie! tJ n or entire laYl'r by jraggll J It
with your mouse
10 Colour toc Is and palette
4 Choosing graphics software
C Work in pairs. Student A chooses a task from the list (1 - 6) and describes it.
Student B chooses the most appropriate graphics software for the task (a- f) and
gives reasons for his or her choice. Swap roles. Look at the text on page 101 and
the Usefu//anguage box to help you.
1 tv edit ard retouch photos
2 to create illustrations and drawings for a magazine
3 to prepare slideshows for training sessions or conferences
4 to make mechanical designs and architectural plans

5 to (reate dynamic simulations and specIal effects for films, TV. advertisements dnd game..
6 to analyse geographic data and make maps

a Computer animation software, for example Useful language

3-0 StudiO Max
If I need to .. "' what software would
b C:.t) software for example ArcVt.ew
you recommend?
c Presentation software, for example Power Point
For that kind of task, the best thing
d A lAD package. for example AutoCAD wouldbe ...
e Vector graphics software, for example ~re(>hand
It allows you to .". and .••
f A paint anj imagt..~-editjng program for example
Phoroshop I wouldn't recommend ... because ...
A good program ofrhis type is ...

5 Describing graphics
look at t he images (1 - 4), which show the stages involved in drawing a plane
using computer software. Write a short description of stages 2, 3 and 4. Look at
the text on page 101 and the Usefu//anguage box to help you.
Thl.~ first Image shows a wlreframe
m Jdf-~ pwhably maat;' u.smg (AD
Useful language
software. A wlrefml11l! Is a drawiny This picture shows ...
with edges and contour lines. Thr
In this (next) stage.
p(}rt~of (he plan('ore shown m
different colauf'.> (VIolet, gr('Pf), The designer has used .. .
blup elC}.
This stage is called.

Rendering techniques include ...

Wlfe(rome As a finishing touch, ...

.ohd n Ide"mg Texturing the modi" Rendering

I Unit 21 ;besktop pu~lish ing
1 What is desktop publishing?
A In pairs, discuss these questions.
1 What kind of documents can be produced with a desktop publishing system?
2 Page layoul software is thE key component of a dcsk[Op pub ,shing sysrem. Which file type') can
be imported into d page layout program?

B Read the text and check your answers to A.

What is desktop publishing?

Desktop publishing (DTP) refers to the use of Once composed, OTP documents are printed on a Jaser
computers to design and publish books, brochures, printer or on a high-resolution imagesetter (see Unit
newsletters, magaZines and other printed pieces. OTP 8). For transfer to a commerCial printer, the document'
is really a combination of several different processes are generally saved in their native page layout format
including word processing, graphic design, information (such as Adobe InDesign or QuarkXPress) or as PDF files.
deSign, output and pre-press technologies, and PDF stands for Portdble D o:ument Format and allows
sometimes image manipulation. people to view, search and print documents exactly as
OTP centres around a page layout program Typically, the publisher intended· you don't need to have the
a layout program is used to import texts created in sohware and fonts used to create il. PDF files can be
word processing programs; charts and graphs from published and distributed anywhere: in print, attached
spreadsheet programs; drawings and illustrations created to ernail, posted on websites, or on DVD. To open a PDf
In CAD, drawing or paint programs: and photographs. file, only the AdobP Acrobat Reader (a free download) is
The program is then used to combine and arrange them required.
all on a page. It is this ability to manipulate so many In modern commercial printing, OTP files are output
different items and control how they are used that makes directly to the printing plates without using film as
layout sohware so popular and useful. However. modern an intermediate step. This n 'W technology j~ known
word processors also have publishing capabitities, as Computer-To-Plate CTP) or direct to plate. and
meaning thl' line separating such p rograms from OTP the machine that generates plates for a printing press
')()ftware is becoming less clear. In general, though, is carted a pJatesetter . CTP machines are expensM.
powerful new publishing systems use high-quality so most people take their files to a service bureau
scalable fonts and give you control over typographic a company that speCializes in printing other people"
features such as kerning (adjusting the spaces between files. Service bureaux offpr a full range of scanning and
leners to achieve even, consistent spacing). Another key printing solutions.
feature of OTP software is text flow the ability to put
text around graphic objects in a variety of ways.

C Read the text again and answer these questions.

1 What type of :.oftware I' USI~ for th€: :reation of DTP do< unl ~nt~7
2 What are three differences between orp software and word processors?
3 What is a PDF and what can it do]
4 Which program do you need to view a PDF document?
5 Why do people send their DTP files to service bUieaux.?
o Find words in the text with the following meanings.
1 shaPl', ~tyh· and size of d typeface for example Cour ier at l Opt
2 the procE'ss of adjusting {he space betweep characters
3 featurE thdt enable, you to wrap text aroulld imagE". on Ihr- pagl
4 (Y'. tal surface!:. that ~arry rhp imagl" to be primed
S a machine that create' the printing prafes

E C In pairs. discuss the question What Is desktop publishing? in as much

detail as you can. Then look back at the text on page lOS to see how much you

2 Language work: order af adjectives

A Look at the HELP box and then make phrases using the words In the correct
Examplf' ,ImputE" programmer / y,Junq / ' lever
r.J C "VI"'I, young C' )nlputer pmqrommer

1 lftwdrp I dt ,krop publishing I 'JsedriendJy

2 hardWd(€' ompany / reliab!e young
3 Gprrnan Induwy I graph)1 design
4 word pr()("ssing f dPplication~ m( tjern
S ' ny / r,"'w I mu~ player / porrable
HELP box
Order of adjectives

• Adjectives usually (orne befofe thE.' nOun (atso known as the headword)
hey give you conrrol over typogrophk featuru.
For rransfer ro a commercial printer, rhe d()(ument IS

• However, adjectiVes come after certain verbs {e.g.

of the sentence.
be, look. become. seem sound), complementing the subject
erp machmes QI'e exptmsiw.
• AdJ€'Ctlves can also complement the object of the sent!:"nce
ThiS maKes layout 50frware populo, and useful

• This 1'" the usual order of adjectives before a noun:

Opinion Description Origin/Place Material Purpose
POwerful new Headword
high Quality scalablp publishing systems
thin (onts
Ameucan aluminium
printing plates
AdJective,> dIP ordered from the most subjective (e.g nice) to the most objective (e.g. silicon)

Srand names {Mkrosoft, Sony, etc) are conSidered ad)£"ctlves of origin/place

tf there IS more than one adJfftlvP 10 a sentence, they dre usually separdted by commas, unless the adjective
forms an intE'gl al part of the headword (A fanW5Tlc, thin Sony MPl player)
Unil :n

B Translate these sentences into your own language. How does the use of
adjectives differ from English? Think about word order and whether the form of
the adjective changes or not.
1 DTP refers to the use of personal computers to produce high-quality printed documenrs.
2 A page layout application is used to import text from word proceSsing programs and pinures
from painting and drawing programs.
3 In modern commercial printing. DTP files are output directly to the printing plates.

C In pairs, choose an object in your classroom or office and think of three words
to describe it. Put the words into the COrrect order and make a sentence.
Example: PC black, old, DELL
On my desk I've gal an old, block. OELL PC

3 Steps in a DTP publication

A look at this extract from an online tutorial for DTP publishing. Put the steps in
the creation of a DTP document (a-f) into the correct order.
1 0 2 0 3 D 4 0 S O 6 0

o First. the DTP designer decides the e When the text has been edited, the
basic form of the document (the type of
document, general design, colour, fonts, designer imports the pictures and uses
images required, etc.). precise tools to position, scale, crop and
rotate all the items.

4:) The last step is to take the files to a

service bu reau, which witt print the o The next step is to type the text directly
publication. or to import it from a word processing
program like Word or WordPerfect.

G To create the DTP document, the designer

begins by selecting a template or by o Once the file is composed and saved, the
specifying the settings of a new document designer has to prepare it for printing,
(the page size, margins, columns. which involves verifying the colour
paragraph styles, master pages, etc.) . specification, creating a Postscript or PDf
file, exporting the file in HTML format for
the Web, checking proofs, etc.

B ~ Listen to the audio from the online tutorial and check your answers to A.
C Label the features ofthis page designed with Adobe InDesign (1 - 6) with words
from the box.
toolbox layout of master pages dimensions guide horizontal ruler scanned photo

1 - .. - .. _----
.: .:
...... .

,. ~ ... ".

•• ~ ,~n,., ~~a a'''gr


4 5

4 Writing a letter
A Although most written communication these days is carried out by email.
letters are still appropriate for more formal correspondence. Look at this letter.
What is t he writer asking for?

o Rhondda High SchooL

31 Prospect Place. Cardiff. Wales

G The Editor
El Independiente
o 28th March 2008
Moratin, 7
28006 Madrid

Q Dear Sir/ Madam.

o We are writing to ask if you can help us with our school project. We are doing a survey
of the major newspapers in the European Union to find out which computer systems and
desktop publishing programs they use.
o We wouLd be very grateful if you couLd te[ us which hardware. graphic design and page
layout software you use at fl Independiente. CouLd you also tell us how Long your onLine
edition has been running for? Thank you very much in advance.
f) We look forward to hearing from you .
o Yours faithfu[y.
Katherine Powell, student representative

B Match the parts of the letter (a- h) with the descriptions (1-8).
1 lliJ For example, 28 th March 2008. or 28 March 2008 or 28/ 03/ 2008
2 0 This is usually in the top right corner of the lettl'r, but an t, In th CI'ntrl if It' a pnnted
3 0 ltate tho:> reason for writing: l am We ore writing to.. . We ore currently ...
4 0 This sh .uld bI in ludpd on th~ -It han j .i. If th page, b ,fore tht· greeting.
S 0 Start with Dear Sir/Madam or Dear Mrl Mrs/Ms ... v ~ Ms if yr u .](f'" not surE. Iflh n ip 'nt s
married or not. It is often b.~st to USI Ms a' Mrs em dU')t' )ffencl;:
6 0 Mak{: any request: or ask any qUljti >0 ... you r "ed to: We would be grateful ifyou could ...,
Could you also ...
7 0 Request further contact. if necessary We I look forward to hearing from you. Please contact
us by .. .
8 0 If you have started the letter with the person's name (for example, Dear Mr Robinson), then
end with Yours sincerely. If you do nor know thE' nJme of the recipipnt, end with Yours

C Write a letter to a local newspaper, asking for information about the

hardware they use in their production, the page layout software they use, and the
data communications systems they use. Use A and B above to help you.

5 E-publishing versus paper publishing

A look at this web extract about e-publishing. What examples of
e-publishing can you find in the text?

Publishing has existed in its current form for centuries. Ever since paper was first invented,
human beings have found ways of using it to pass on messages to each other. Books,
magazi nes and newspapers are now part of our everyday lives, but with the invention of the
Internet and the speed of new technologica l advances, the world of publishing is changing.
Online newspapers and magazines, blogs, and even e . . book readers are changing the way we
get information. But wilt we ever stop picking up a good old . . fashioned newspaper?
E· publishing versus paper publishing - who will win?

B Work in teams. Team A prepares a list of the advantages of traditional

publishing over e-publishing. Team B prepares a list of the advantages of
e-publishing over traditional publishing.
Use your dictionary, the Internet and your
teacher to help you.

cC Debate your ideas. Which team

has the most convincing position?

ihe ele( frofl/e equivalent
of a primed hook.
1 Multiple forms of media
In pairs, discuss these questions.
1 What different types of content are combined in multimedia
2 How many products :an you think of that incorporate multimedia 7
Make a list.

2 Components and system requirements

A .., Listen to a sales assistant in a computer shop explaining to a customer
system requirements needed to run multimedia software. Which answers (a or b)
best describe what she says?
1 Multimedia is defined as
a the integration of video Jnd telecommunications with traditional computing.
b the integration of text. graphics, audio, video and antmation in a single application,
2 With multimedia encyclopedias,
a you have more fun but you learn more slowly.
b you get much more involved than with print encyclopedias,
3 Interactive games
a use multimedia and virtual reality features.
b do not require much RAM memory.

B . , Listen again and complete this diagram of a multimedia system.

I Multimedia system

Hard wa re Software

Windows Media Player

(l Peripherals or Apple QuickTime
CPU and a lot of RAM
Adobe Flash for
(2) DVD drive (3) media
monitor card
Stereo Audia, video and
large hard drive (8)
or software
15) Hypermedia databases
CD and DVD
Unit 21

3 Multimedia magic!
A Read the text and match the headings (1-4) with the gaps atthe start of each
paragraph (a-d).
1 Sound, MusiC, MIDI
2 Products full of pictures, action and :,Dund
3 Creating and editing movies
4 The potential of multimedia

Multimedia magic!
• You can also listen to music on your PC, or transfer It to a
portable MP3 player. MP3 is short for MPEG audio layer
Multimedia applications are used in all sorts of fields,
For example, museums, banks and estate agents 3, a standard format that compresses audio files. If you
often have information kiosks that use multimedia; want to create your own MP3 flies from CDs, you must
companies produce training programs on optical discs; have a CD ripper, a program that extracts music tracks
businesspeople use Microsoft PowerPaim to create. and saves them on disk as MP3s.
slideshows; and teachers use multimedia to make Audio is becoming a key element of the Web. Many
video projects or to teach subjects like art and music. radiO stations broadcast live over the Internet using
They have all found that moving images and sound streaming audio technology, which lets you listen
can involve viewers emotionally as well as inform them, to audio in a continuous stream while it is being
helping make their message more memorable. transmitted. The broadcast of an event over the Web, for
The power of multimedia software resides in hypertext, example a concert, is called a webcast Be aware that
hypermedia and interactivity (meaning the user is you won't be able to play audio and video on the Web
involved in the programme). If you click on a hypertext unless you have a plug-in like RealPlayer or QuickTime.
link, you can jump to another screen with more c
information about a particular subject. Hypermedia
Video is another important part of multimedia. Video
is Similar, but also uses graphics, audio and video as
computing refers to recording, manipulating and
hypertext elements, storing video in digital format jf you wanted to make
b a movie on your computer, first you would need to
As long as your computer has a sound card, you can capture images with a digital video camera and then
use it to capture sounds in digital format and play them transfer them to your computer. Next, you would need a
back. Sound cards offer two important capabilities: a video editing program like iMovie to cut your favourite
built~in stereo synthesizer and a system called MIDI,
segments, re-sequence the clips and add transitions
or M usical Instrument Digital Interface, which allows and other effects. Finally, you could save your movie on
electroniC musical instruments to communicate with a OVO or post it on websites like YouTube and Google
computers, A Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) lets Video,
you mix and record several tracks of digital audio. d
Multimedia is used to produce dictionaries and
encyclopedias. They often come on OVOs, but some
are also available on the Web. A good example is the
Grolier Online Encyclopedia, which contains thousands
of articles, animations, sounds, dynamic maps and
hyper/inks. Similarly, the Encyclopedia Britannica is now
available online, and a concise version is available for
iPods, POAs and mobile phones. Educational courses on
history, science and foreign languages are also available
on ova. Finally, if you like entertainment, you'll love the
latest multimedia Video games with surround sound,
MIDI DHows your compufer (ocommunicore
music soundcracks, and even him extracts.
With electronic keyboards and orherdevices
B Correct t he technical mistakes in these sentences.
1 MultimE'dia training software is distribu ted on magnetic disks.
2 You m....>d tt. have MIDI on your computer to hear speech and music.
3 A ,tereo synthesizer allows your computer to communicate with electronic mUSical instrumpnls.
4 A ([ ripper converts CDs [0 live streams.
5 ht En ~yr )p~dia Britannica is only availabl on 'WC'

C Match t he words (1- 5) with the definitions (a- e ).

1 hypE'rtext a the process of manipulating vidE'O images
2 hYf-llo'fri ledid b text with link~ whilh tdke you to other pages
3 streaming c a technique for playing sound and video files while they're
4 WE'bccls\ downloading
5 video editing d a live event broadcast over the Internet
e a form of enriched multimedia which allows an interactive and
dynamil linking of visual and audio elements

4 Language work: conditional sentences

A Look at t he HELP box and then complete these sentences with the correct form
of the verbs in brackets.
1 If you (bring) your iigital VI if _amera, we carl makE- a movie on my P{
2 You .....on·t be abl!.: to play those video files if you (not have) [he correct plUg-Ill
3 If {he marketing manager (have) PowerPoint. she could make more ",ffective
4 If I could afford it. I (buy) a new game console.
5 If I had the moneY,1 (invest) in some new mul ti media soh ware.

HELP box
Conditional sentences In the main clause, we can also have a modal (for
example. can or must) or an imperative.
We u~ Jnditional ~ntenCE-. to express that the
<J II,)n In t~ rr lin I,Jl eln nly take place if a :ertaip If }'tIU want to :reate your own MP3 files from your CLlc
C)f jill In (ul ' IIt~ (see b low II examples).1hey are you must hove a (0 r;p{Jf.?f.
tntrodu I~ by if, unless md as long as Unless mE-am if • .,., E' \f and condilional (for more hypo[he[lcal
" ...... and as long as meal prmidedlprovidinq ([hat: ~ituatiorl' ,
. IU I'")'t b at; t" P oJ' aodio und VIdeo )f) the Web If A happ 'f 'd B \1\ auld happen
unless .y( a•• a p ... q in like Reo/Playe, Of OwckTime
f (past simple) would in positive or negative t verb)
y( d( 't ~ Ne a plug-in
If you wonted to mak(; a m lviI' on your mmputer, fint
-r-herl:;" arE- I.vvO type of conditi mal sentence. y{ ~u would you'd f! ~ed co
• The first (onnlttor £11 ~for rt'al or possiblE situations) In thE:- mJin clause, we can also use other modals (e.g.
could, should. might), depending on the meaning.
If A happens B will happen
(present simple) If the verb be appears in the if clause, we ohen USE-
(will in positive or negative -I- verb)
were instead of was, even if the pronoun is I, he, she
If you like f!nlerlUinrnen(, you will love the lares( or it
mulTimedia vl(k~)g(JInp~
If I were you, I'd get a new MP 3 playeT.
8 C In pairs, discuss these questions. Use the second conditional.
What would you do if

1 you had a digital video camera?

If I had a d,girol video camera, I'd
2 you had a home recording srud;')?
3 you couldn't afford an iPod bUl YOll wanted In MP3 playC'r7
4 you won the lottery?
5 S(lIneone stoiA your lapl()p?

5 Applications of multimedia
A Match the descriptions (1 - 5) with the pictures (a-e).
1 Virtual reality
2 DI ,tan.... £:- ,~arnlng

3 A business presentation
4 A touch s( reen information kiosk
5 Aro MMS mobile phone

• b

d e

Useful language
B C In pairs, discuss In dIstonce learning. trNJIrImedIa Is used to '"
how multimedia is used
in the situations above
and then present your
Information IdosIcs Idle adIIanIage oflIIull/lliedia In"'*to ..
In vlrIUaIldIJI/he use ofIfIIIIrim«IIa GIIaws ,.,., to ..
ideas to the rest of the
class. Look at the Useful With 3G mobile phones, ,.,., alii
language box to help Slide _tatlons In~a wldelllllgeofm«lla, sudras ..

c D A friend who writes a b/ag has asked you to contribute a post about the
use of multimedia now and in the future. Write a post (80-120 words) summarizing
what multimedia is. what it can do. and your predictions for what it might be able
to do in the future. Try to use at least two conditional sentences.

1 A typical home page

n 1 Why
In pairs, discuss these questions.
j( Imp, hal Nebsitt
2 ""hat ~ ". difft-len:E- bt:twc-'n a 'lilt \iu dnd:3 weopayp7
3 Who! ~ d home paqe]

-- -._---
Vl h,.. ~ blag Dr ~ ~r' Inal yo. ,t ite:' r
.ri~ the homp pagr> ['.' your partner.
. ..


... _, --
.. -
0 -

.- - o o.oc. _ _ _ ......

-- ---
10 - Hit """"'" 0< . . . . . . ""kefl'
a.. . . _ .. _ ".. a....-

.- & -
ao_.- __
-_ - -
.. _w
_011 •• _-
.. _ __

..... ..... .........

.. _
- -.

1Ioa _ _ _
... ..-.-

-,,-- ._-_

It -
,- -
-__ __ - -
-- .- .._. -- --"-
• •":::" - -
' F..-.,._ . .

' _ '_


.' s.:

_ ..........
~ _

.. _ __

_ _ _ .....
" .....
_ __
!IS ,:::::..::-.:.:;:


__. --- --
.-- - "" - ~ I "'"

The Yahoo!
. ,_ .......
'-IatI~v_Ot\ YIIhoo' M..-e
h')mpPGg(' L_ ' __

2 Web page design

A Read the text on page' '5 and find the following ,
1 the language used to crerlte web ,lo :uments
2 [h tYIJ<;: vf ;,...,f~ ....all= that IL y"U d~ qn u2b PdgE ~ •.'irhout writing HTML c >des
3 thE: format invented by Adobe (0 distribute text files over the Internet
4 metr., J of displaying multiple HTML doclJlnenrs in the same browser window
5 three ammon gr,)phiCs formats u~"'d on website'
6 thrEe f..l pular formats used to ,(Olt Jnd play back video
Unit l)

Web page design

HTML and web editors • Text displayed In a 'ldnety of fonts and zes. M' It
<t flh 'lr(: 3\ ~ilat In t ..... ' • formats: HTML )1 PDF (th4
The CodE bI'hlnd m 1St web pages I~ HTMl hypertext
portablE d ocum nt f }rm.lt that can be viewed with
markup Lmguage) w~ ch .;:on ,ists of commands tailed
Acrob, It /paderl
tags Tags are placed around pi ~s of text to rell the
w,'b browser how to display text or pictures. You can • Background th underlying L llours and pattelns
view the source HTML code of a web page by choosing )f a wee pagE
the Paqe Source option in your web browser. But you • Tables with umns and rows, used to POSIII m
needn't learn HTML in order to build your own website, image~ and text on a P:lgE
Instead, you can use a word processor with web design
• Frames rectangular areas that allow the display 01
capabilities or a dedicated web editor like Macromedia
different pages in thE same browser window
DreamweavE'r or Microsoft FrontPage, Web editors are
user-friendly and 'WYSIWYG (What You See Is Whar YOLI • Cascading Style Sheet s ((55) a mechanism for
Get). Different buttons and menu items let you design a adding styles to web documents. You could use HTML
page without wnting HTMl. code to specify the font, text styles and background
colour, Nowadays. however. It is more common !O USf>
HTMl files have this basic structure:
-S5, This makE it ~asy to apply pre<;entation changes
across a wl'b itt
•• • Graphics, clip art, icons, background templates,
start with <HTMl>
wallpaper, and transparent images camrr If"' forn lat'
have heading text that begins with <HEAD>, which has a
title enclosed between tags and ends with </H EAD>
:Ire .jpg ,oint phptogr3phi ~xPl'rtsgroup idt'al tl
pi :tures With mar.y 0 r~ .gif (graphi ·s Int>:'wha lqi
have body text tha t starts wi t h <BODY>, where you place
the contents of the actual document (i.e. text, images, format) idE'al for picturE 11th fewer :olours. and .png
links, etc.) and ends with </SDDY> {partabl n 'tw )f~ gr,lrh wh :h suppans IE m Ir
end with </HTMl> colours,
You can create links to other web pages by using the tag <A • Hyperlinks highlighted text or pictures (button
HREF..-filename->ilctive te)[t</A> image maps. etc) that act as links to orher pages. If y(
want to share information with people, you can use RSS
Some ba5i, HTMI oUlce xif feeds and provide readers with a link to the feed. RSS
allows subscribers to receive updates of blogs, news.
podcasts, E'tc. BeforE' going live. you should check tloar
Marina's all the links work,
web page
Audio, video and animation
Many website no.... In :orparate audio files, and If
you're designing a site you may like to insert song~
podo<,t' etc The mo common audio formats diE, .wav
M,' Hobbin Window~ lave audi furmat) • .ra (RealAudio tel afl j
I lib I.>IIK md t~. . . . I can pby 1,# Sp • • ,h" .... =-xi I lo.,.~ Ubli .mp3 ~MPEG· Audi ayl r-3).
dlllK1l1 IIir.·f a wOIIIII ... "'...., bul lll) r"owllt "VOlt IS rootb.
ttl.". nv.4Iu ... Full ~ motion video IS I~ In these formats: .avi \audi
IlIIud!- at PoiIroKI 5,.,;-. qB\:. MIKk1d M~
!'.\owllt ,;nll!«l.;! • t MaIbs.
ide( Inter! aVe .mov (QUI -Hime movie) and .mpg
Play. ct, Ae-ooaubu .'" EIIBm. I han I'Iudttd EIl!lolb fOi 1m Y_~ 10 k
fuftn I wo\lklllk, 10 bf .u _ (IT ovinq pi lHt' E q) 'r t group).
M". (a\'.IlI1tt (ICy
ZIInI&on ... 1I1l&11tK1~fuI~ luoda u and iIIK.cu l ut~ w~b ~OO 000 whab~iIIII~ If you wafl l to Ir ~(t 1m ~thing ;p!' :Ial inroyo\lr w 'b
IIldon .- 2000 Yea" oj: ~I~· ~fus\ams. o.~ and Jews 1r."eO lo..rClia pagps. you on USE' .Adobl Flash to indudi interactive
"1)Ca(~rOl IlUll)' nubu M:II Itlllfauoll>l fOl'IL< II ~ """ ~ lyk . lllc Pi.­
J.!!9lli, lud 11K' clwlWtt ell"nc l.. of Ill< peovk animation s and streaming audio Additionally, you
an insert Java applet: small programs that enable II'
HTML fil(' displayed as a web page creation of inreractlve flips. Animations are made up of a
Web page elements series of independent pictures put together in sequence
to look like moving pictures. To see or hear all these filp's.
There are a number of different elements that you can you must have the right plug ~ in , an auxiliary program
use on a web pagL that expands the capabilities of your web browser.
B Read the text again and then match the sentence beginnings (1 - 6) with the
correct endings (a- f).
1 Instruction in HfMl
2 ao:;cading Style Shl'ets are the way
3 A hypedink is any clickable text,
4 A plug· in I! a ~mdll program
5 ava applet~ arE' used to pr( Wide
6 RSS feeds are summaries of web content

a im~g('" or bunon thai take you to another pla(E' on the Web.

b used for handling audio, vldE'O dnd animation files.
c are called rags.
d interactive features to web applicattons.
e to dpnne the presentation )f web page' from fonts and colours to paq€' layout.
f published in the Really Simp'€' Syndication format for download.

Language work: modal verbs

A Underline all the modal verbs in the text on page 115 and then look at the HELP
box. Which modal verb from the HELP box does not appear in the text? Can you
think of any other modal verbs?

HELP box
Modal verbs • To talk about ability
We U' (Ill V~ rbs to add extra meaning to T'heyare 'coking for artisr< wh can dr(w and
the main ...erb They are followed by infinitive de\lgn web pages,
without to, Modal verbs are used in the
Could \~ the past lense of can and is used
following ways:
to tal~ about ability in the past.
• Tr E'xprE. a PO' ibihty
• To talk doout obligati.m )r ne<:e iity
You can · could use Adobe f 'ash to inlludr
interactive animations. To seeor hear all These files, you must have The
righT plug-m.
You may like v insert 50nq~ p lCiCOH5, etc
yuu needn't 'am HTML m orot( tl bwoJ
Ih pri':f "rDreamweaver might godown .Yl Jur t)wr wt'bsite.
next momh.
Needn't means don't need to or don't have to
Can and could are ohen interchangeable and I~ u~ed to express a lack of obligation.
wh o'n talk ng about possibi {y. May
and might drE' used to express weaker • 10 g,vE: advice (SE'l Unit )

possibilities and often come before thl: verb Before going live, you should check that all (he
like TO mean It /5 possible you will like. links work
• To d51 for r~rmissi()n

Can/Could/May I use your mobile phone?

May is more formal than can or could
U",t Zl

B Complete these sentences with suitable modal verbs from the HELP box. There
may be more than one possible answer.
1 With Java, I n Iud, )me aHraniv{: bann4'r' In my web' itE-
2 With a web editor, you create- a web document easily_
3 These days, you learn how to use complicated Hl ML codes. Modern web design
software is user-friendly and (onverts 3 vi~ Jal layout into HTMl ode.
4 Once live, you updd(~ your webSite regularly.
5 To view a PDF file, you have Adobe Acrobat Reader.
6 Websites with graphics are more inviting than those written in plain text, 50 you
like to Insert some graphics into your documpnt~
7 I U~I your laptop," f"\ ::od tl print )ut this report.

C In pairs, discuss at least two things

1 you .an now d4 m Ire easily bl _ause of the Intl'rnet.
2 you .:ould do better if you had a fa5ter internet :onnectil)n
3 that may/might happen to the Internet in the next ten years.
4 you must consider when dpsigning a web'>ite.
5 you should take inti account when (h~lsing whIch P' fO buy.

4 Designing a website
A In pairs, think about your favourite websites and discuss these questions.
1 Do you like the way they are designed? Give reasons for your answer.
2 What elements do you think a good webSite should have] Make a list

B . , Listen to an interview with a web designer describing how to design a

website and put these steps into the correct order.
o Write and format the text
ITl Decide the :ontem and strUCture for the website
o Publish the website
o Insert computer graphics and sounds
o Keep the website updated
o Link related pages to each other using hyperlinks

A weh deSigner at w(Jrk

c ., listen again and decide whether these design guidelines are right or
wrong. Tick the correct box.
Right Wrong
1 Plan YG... Nt'b"tE' ..::arefuHy.
0 0
2 Use d web editor. It wilt IT ake It eaSier to create your pages. 0 0
3 Imer! photos )1 animations JUS! to make the pages look attra((ive 0 0
4 du:> ~ Jrgf> r tJmberof grdphlcs yvur pages.
0 0
5 Ust- very bright colours.
0 0
6 Put a lot t ink~ on one page 0 0
7 Check ff- 31 all the links on your web pdge!:. dfE' corrE"( !
0 0
8 Once rhe yare puhlished, update your pages n'guldrlv
0 0
D In small groups, collect information about your college or company and
design a home page for it. Follow the instructions from the interview with the web

5 8/ogs
A In pairs, discuss these questions.

1 What I~ a blog
:2 Whi -~, bl(lqs do you read r(:gularly?

B look at the screenshot

from tpsreport.co.uk, a
popular gaming blog.
Can you see any design
differences between
blogs and normal

C Imagine you
wanted to start your own
blog.ln pairs, discuss
these questions.
, Why W( lid you star your A scfepnshOI 'forn ",",,'.fp'sre,ODff. CGcu 1
own blog to write a diary 0f
your thoughts or to share your
expertise on a particular topic]
:2 What tYPf>!t of m ~ia would you include text, pt )tos, vldpo, audio including poeh asts)7
3 Would you Insert links to other blogs?Whlch ont::';?
4 Would you focus on a particular subjec t or have d mix of several topics?
5 W~ :h I!E' W )uld you use to hi ,t y( ur bloq~

o Write an entry for the blog you've described in C (80-100 words). Introduce
the blog to the world and talk about why you've started it.

Ii Now visit www.cambridge.org /elt/ictfor an online task.

1 Programming
#indude <stdio.h>
main( )
A Cl ln pairs, discuss what you think programming is. (
printf{"good morning\n");
B Look at the definition of programming in the
Glossary. Is it similar to yours? }

2 Steps in programming This C program tells rhe

compuTer fO print the
A Match the words (1 - 5) with the definitions (a- e). message 'good morning'
1 flowchart
2 source code
3 compiler
4 machine code
5 debugging

a Program instructions written in a particular computer language

b The techniques of detecting and correcting errors (or bugs) which may occur in programs
c A diagram representing the successive logical steps of the program
d A special program which converts the source program into machine code - the only language
understood by the processor
e The basic instructions understood by computers; it consists of 1s and Os (binary code)

B . listen to Andrea Finch, a software developer, talking to a group of

students on a training course about how a program is written and check your
answers to A.

C Listen again and put these steps into the correct order.
o Write instructions in a programming language
o Prepare documentation

OJ Understand the problem and plan a solution

o Make a flowchart of the program
o Compile the program (to turn it into machine code)

o Test and debug the program

D m listen again and make detailed notes. In pairs, use your notes to write a
short explanation of what each step in C means.
Unit 24

3 Computer languages
A Read the text. How many high-level computer languages are mentioned?

Computer languages
Unfortunately for us, computers can't understand spoken Programs written in high-level languages must be
English or any other natural language. The only language translated into machine code by a compiler or an
they can understand directly is machine code, which interpreter. A compiler t ranslates the source code into
consists of 15 and Os (binary code), object code - that is, it converts the entire program
into machine code in one go. On the other hand. an
Machine code is too difficult to write. For this
interpreter translates the source code line by line as the
reason, we use symbolic languages to communicate
program is running.
instructions to the computer. For example, a ssembly
languages use abbreviations such 35 ADD, SUB, High -level language (BASIC, C, Jaya, etc.)
MPY to represent instructions. The p rogram is then
translated into machine code by a piece of software Compiler or
called an assembler. Machine code and assembly Interpreter
languages are called low-level languages because low-Ieyellanguage
they are closer to the hardware. They are quite complex
and restricted to particular machines. To make the Assembler

programs easier to write, and to overcome the problem

of intercommunication between different rypes of Machine code (binary)
computer, software developers designed high- level
languages. which are closer to the English language. Hardware
Here are some examples:
It is important not to confuse programming languag es
• FORTRAN was developed by IBM in 1954 and is still
with markup languages, used to create web
used for scientific and engineering applications.
documents. Markup languages use instructions, known
• COBOL (Common Business O riented Language) as markup tags, to format and link text liles. Some
was developed in 1959 and is mainly used for business examples include:
• HTML, which allows us to describe how information
• BASIC was developed in the \ 960s and was widely will be displayed on web pages.
used in microcomputer programming because it was
• XML, which stands for EXtensible M arkup Language.
easy to learn. Visual BASIC is a modern version of the
While HTML uses pre-den ned tags, XML enables us to
old BASIC language, used to build graphical elements
denne our own tags; it is not limited by a fixed set of
such as buttons and windows in Windows programs.
• PASCAL was created in 1971. It is used in universities
• VoiceXML, which makes Web content accessible
to teach the fun d amentals of p ro g ramming.
via voice and phone. VoiceXML is used to create voice
• C was developed in the \ 980s at AT&T. It is used applications that run on the phone, whereas HTML is
to write system software. graphics and commercial used to create visual applications (for example, web
applications. C++ is a version of C which incorporates pages).
object-oriented programming: the p rog rammer
concentrates on particular things (a piece of text. a <xml>
graphic or a table, etc.) and gives each object functions
< name> Andrea Finch </ name>
which can be altered without changi ng the entire
program. For example. to add a new g raphics forma t . the < homework> Write a paragraph describing
programmer needs to rework just the graphics object. the ( language </homework>
This makes programs easier to modify.
• Java w as designed by Sun in 1995 to run on the Web.
Java applets provide animation and interact ive features In rhis XML example we have creared rwo new
on web pages. (See Unit 25) rags: <name> and <homework>

B Read the text again and answer these questions.

, Do computers understand human languages? Why? I Why not?
2 What is the function of an assembler?
3 Why did software developers design high-level languages?
4 Which language is used to teach programming techniques?
5 What is the difference between a compiler and an inrerpreter?
6 Why are HTML and VoiceXML called markup languages?

C Complete these sentences with a computer language from the text.

1 allows us to create our own togs to describe our data better. We aren't constrained
by a pre-defined set of tags the way we are with HTML.
2 IBM developed in the 1950s. It was the first high-level language in data
3 applets are small programs (hat run automatically on web pages and let you
watch animated characters, play games. etc.
4 is the HTML of the voice web. Instead of using a web browser and a keyboard, you
interact with a voice browser by listening to pre-recorded aud io output and sending audio input
through a telephone.
5 This language is widely used in the bUSiness community. For example, the statement ADD VAT to
NET-PRICE could be used in a program.

4 Word building
Look at the words in the boxes. Are they nouns, verbs or adjectives? Write n, vor
adj next to each word. There may be more than one possible answer. Complete the
sentences with words from the boxes.

program programmers programming programmable

1 is the process of writing a program using a computer language.

2 A computer is a set of instructions that tells the computer how to do a speCific
3 Most computer make a plan of the program before they write it.
4 A keyboard allows the user to configure the layout and meaning of the keys.

compile compiler compilation

5 Programs written in a high-level language require - that is, translation into

machine code, the language understood by the processor.
6 A source program is convened into machine code by software called a
7 Programmers usually their programs to generate an object program and diagnose
possible errors.

bug debug debugger debugging

8 Any error or malfunction of a computer program is known as a

9 A is a program used to test and other programs.
10 The process of going through the code to identify the cause of errors and fixing them is called
Unil l4

5 Language work: HELP box

The infinitive
the infinitive
The infinitive with to is used in the (ollowing ways:
A Look at the HELP box and • To express purpose
then make sentences using these
prompts. We use symbolic languages to communicate
instructions to the computer.
1 not easy / write instruC(ions in COBOL
(- in order to communicate ... )
Ir5 not easy to write instructions in COBOL.
Not: ... for to communicate
2 expensive / set up a data-processing area
3 advisable / test the programs under • After adjectives
different conditions BASIC was widely used in the past because it was
4 unusual! write a program that works easy to learn.
correctly the first time it's tested
Machine code is too difficult to write.
5 important / use a good debugger to fix (= not easy enough to write)
• After certain verbs (e.g. afford, demand,
6 easy / learn Visual BASIC
plan, agree, expect, promise, appear, hope,
refuse, arrange, learn, try, decide, manage)
B Choose the correct words (a-c)
to complete these sentences. A lot of companies are now trying to develop
1 We use high-level languages voice applications for web access.
because machine code is too difficult • After the object of certain verbs (e.g. advise,
, understand and debug. encourage, allow, expect, tell, ask. invite,
a read b reading c to read want, enable, order, warn)
2 t went on the course how HTML allows us to describe how information
to be a berter programmer. will be displayed on web pages.
a learn b to learn c for to learn
The bare infinitive (without to) is used in the
3 I'm not interested in that following ways:
computer language.
• After modal verbs (e.g. can, could, may, might,
a learn b learning C to learn
will, would, must, should)
4 He refuses the project
with me. Unfortunately, computers can't understand
spoken English.
a do b doing c todo
5 The engineers warned the employees High-level languages must be translated inro
not the cables. machine code.
a touch b touching c to touch • After the object with the verbs make and let
6 They may not to the Programs make computers perform speCific
conference. tasks.
a come b coming c to come
7 Spyware can make your PC more slowly.
a perform b performing c to perform
8 This program is too slow the simulation.
a do b to do c for doing
C. In pairs, discuss something
1 'I j It II n
2 yl.,..... 'J ,J 1\ Lk u , w. ,

3 y~
•• unl t ) h 10 II 1<)Iy.. ]1

4 j }d I' )me me'o .II) t 'I<m buylnq ne v

S y. j )(peCI tl) t.... n.... udf'd with In }f IIU < , k p

6 if 'n )wltl 1•• .'1 lPlJ '>t

V;sual BASIC and Vo;ceXML

Work in pairs. Student A reads about Visual BASIC, Student B reads about
VoiceXMl. Try not to look at your partner's text. Complete your part of the table.

Visual BASIC dr ,~ d by Mrcrc ;oft VoiceXMl tpnSlb eo M-3fkUP congLJdqf'1

~ n BASIC ,t, d< f' j lCXX> to ,ak web "C Itt rt"
'y, he elpl- .... me F lr In Dr t It J
Ir tructlon JJ"f Visual .... Ie n ogl tlon l-c I tput, 11 ... e
rL r. tl> the echnlQl u)e ("] {( II c(dPd 1l' 0 0 ,-en! md t. x'" tl pee
]fJI h.lol uri {Mg( e n)tl d AI pi (otlvn'
it lor ( tr I( '0 ""' r"lt Imetfae • e p.. "11- where y.)U car hel'lr
€I en -to y .. JLJ t}( ~. e·define<i lbJPCh m.,l.tlln 'lbc t spo·t' ne.'L tl ffi( etc
)uch as '">utt( "'), 0. "nJ dldllX) 1 }XP' It
• €.I-enabled Intrdl t (;...nvate ne-TWO KJI
en bles ~ r( I·Jmmpr tl) ernie I'll/al "Iy 01
Windrw dP~ Won • E' e c )mrr. fee
• JPpklf\( es onlrolll j by VI)rce

Visual BASIC VoiceXMl

Wh<:ll jOf'S v 31 BA' /

V,)I( KMI t-1nd fc

Whf'n -lola- It de -.Ie oped r

Wln1 s. sel )1 '

B Ask your partner about the other language and complete the table.
1 Java applets
A Match the examples of Java programs, known as applets, (a- e) with the
descriptions (1-5).
1 This Land Rover applet allows you to change the look of the vehicle.
2 The Pythagoras theorem applet gives the proof of the Pythagorean theorem without words. It
allows you to manipulate triangles and go through the steps of the geometrical proof.
3 The Jman for Java applet permits medical researchers to view sequential MRI (M agnetic
Resonance Images) of the brain.
4 An analogue clock applet displays the time according to the web user's computer and lets you
set the colours and style of the hands and numbers.
5 A banner applet displays graphic images on websites in order to advertise products or services.

• c e

b d

B Match the terms (1-5) with the definitions (a- e).

1 Java
2 applet
3 plug-in
4 platform-independent
5 object-oriented programming

a an auxiliary program that enables web browsers to support

new content, for example animation ...
b software that can run on any operating system F
c an island in Indonesia, coffee (in American slang), and a <
programming language for internet applications

a computer programming technique that allows the creation
of objects that interact with each other and can be used as the
foundation of others; used to create graphical user interfaces
a small Java applicat ion, usually designed to run automatically
within a web page
Java The Java logo
~ TheJava/anguage
A These statements about Java are all false. Read the text and correct them.
1 Java was invented by Microsoft.
2 With the interpreter, a program is first converted into Java bytecodes.
3 Java is not compatible with most computing platforms.
4 The Java language is single-threaded, one part executing at a time.
S Java has no competitors.
6 Flash files are called animations.

The Java language

Java is a programming language developed by Sun Why is Java popular?
Microsystems, specially designed to run on the Web.
Most programmers like Java because it allows them to
Java programs (called applets) let you watch animated
write applets which make web pages more interactive
characters and moving text, play music, and interact
and attractive. They can create graphical objects (for
with information on the screen (for example, control
example, bar charts and diagrams) and new controls (for
animations and select options).
example, check boxes and push buttons with special
properties). A web page that uses Java can have sounds
Characteristics of the Java language
that play in real time, music that plays in the background,
Java is an object-oriented language, similar to (++, cartoon-style animations, real-time video and interactive
but more dynamic and simplified to eliminate possible games.
programming errors. A Java program is both compiled
The Java Micro Edition platform (Java ME) is used
and interpreted (see Unit 24). First. the source code (a file
in mobile devices. It provides flexible tools to create
with a .java extension) is compiled and converted into
applications that run on mobile phones, PDAs, TV set-
a format called bytecode (a file with a .class extension),
top boxes and printers. Nowadays, most phones are
which can then be executed by a Java interpreter (see
configured to use Java games.
Fig. 1). (am piled Java code can run on most computers
because there are Java interpreters, known as Java
Alternatives to Java
Virtual Machines, for most operating systems.
One alternative to Java is Microsoft's C#, pronounced
Java is multi-threaded, meaning a Java program can
'( sharp; a ,NET language based on C++ with elements
have multiple threads (parts) - that is, many different
from Visual Basic and Java. There are no substantial
things processing independently and continuously. This
differences between C# and Java. When sohware
enables the program to make the best use of available
developers do measurements on pieces of code,
(PU power.
sometimes Java is faster, sometimes CIf is.
Another competitor is Adobe Flash technology,
which supports graphics, a scripting language called
ActionScript, and the streaming of audio and video.
Flash is used to create animation and advertisements,
to integrate video into web pages, and to develop
rich internet applications such as portals. Flash files,
Interpreter traditionally called flash movies, have a .swf file
extension. They may be an object on a web page or be
played in the stand-alone Flash Player.

Fig. I
Unlt ]:5

B Match the words (1 - 6) with the words (a- f) to make technical terms from the
1 Java 4 web a applet d system
2 operating 5 source b page e object
3 programming 6 graphical c code f language

C Complete the sentences with words from the box.

interpreted animated configured used pronounced object-oriented compiled

1 Java lets you watch characters on web pages.

2 Java is an language, similar to C++ but more dynamic.
3 First, the source code of a Java program is into an intermediate format caned
byrecode. This is then by any system possessing a Java interpreter.
4 The Java ME platform is widely in mobile devices.
5 Nowadays, most mobile phones are to use Java games.
6 M icrosoft's ( Ii is a simpl ified version of ( and (++ for the Web. It's '( sharp'.

3 Language work: the -ed form

A Look at the HELP box and then put these verbs into the correct column.

stopped asked III Idl /ld/

described decided
produced called
watched executed
published object-oriented
programmed persuaded
configured converted
arranged designed

HELP box
The -edform • To make the adjectival form of some verbs
We use the -ed form in the following ways: Java applerslet you watch animated characters.
• To make the past simple (affirmative) of regular verbs The -ed is pronounced as:
Sun Microsysrems developed Java in 1995. • It! after voiceless sounds: Ip/, Ik/, 19/, lsI, IfI, IIlor
Remember that not all verbs in the past simple end in
Itf/. (e.g. developed, ralked. pronounced)
-ed. See page 166 for a list of irregular verbs. See Unit • Idl aher voiced sounds: fbi, Ig/, 1M, lv, Ivl. I dy, I II,
19 for more about the past simple. I r/; nasal consonants: I ml, Inl, IT]/; and vowels (e,g.
compiled, designed, simplified)
• To make the past participle of regular verbs
Flash is used CO creaceanimacion.
• lid! after 11/ or I dJ (e.g. interpreted, multi-threaded)
B Complete this extract from a lecture handout about Java with the correct form
of the verbs in the box.
call be begin can decide rename have support develop base

The idea for J~.va started in 1990, w hen a team of software engineers at Sun
Microsystems ( I) 10 create a language for a handheld device
that could control ;tnd interact w ith various kinds of electronic appliances,
ranging from Nintendo Game Boys to VCRs and TV set-top boxes. They
(2) an object-orient ed programming bnguage that one of the
engineers, James Gosling, (3 ) Oak. afl<;:f the trce outside his
window. The device even (ti) 3n animated cha racter named
/Jllke, who wou ld go on to hecome Java's mascot.
With the advent of the Web in 1993. the comp~my made a web browser
(5) on the Oak language. i..:lter on. th is langu~.ge was adapted
to the Internet and (6) jm'a. The 1.0 version of Java was
officially introduced by Sun in May 1995.
At that time. web pages (7) only dispby text , pictures and
hyperlinks. With the arrival of Java, web designers (8) able to
include animation and interactive programs on web pages. The first major
appliGliion createcl with ja v;J was Ihe Ho tja va browser. The j ava language
(9) to :Ht ract serious attention from the internet community
and was soon ( 10) by Netscape Navigator and MS Internet
Explorer. Today. Jav~\ is ~\ hot technology that runs on multiple platforms.
including small carcls, embeclcled devices. mobile phones and computers.

C Listen to an extract from the lecture and check your answers to C. listen
carefully to the pronunciation of the verbs that end in -ed.

4 Your experience with computers

A Make notes about the different stages in your computer history.
Add more stages if you want to.
Example: 1990: Played my first computer game. It was.
Possible stages:
• First computer game
• First computer lesson at school/college
• First programming language learnt
• First sohware used
Useful language
• First computer course/qualification When did you first ... ?
• First job Involving computers How long ago did you ... ?
• First steps on the Internet How old were you when ... ?
• First chat online
I started ... in ...
I learnt ... when I was ...
B Ask a partner about their computer history.
Look at the Useful language box to help you. I didn't use the Internet unril ...
1 IT professionals
A Complete these definitions with jobs from the box.

software engineer computer security specialist blog administrator help desk technician
DTP o perator hardware engineer net work administrator webmaster
1 A designs and develops IT devices.
2 A writes computer programs.
3 A edits and deletes posts made by contributors [Q a blog.
4 A uses page layout software to prepare electronic files for
S A manages the hardware and software that comprise a
6 A designs and maintains websites.
7 A works with companies to build secure computer systems.
8 A helps end-users with their computer problems in person,
by email or over the phone.

B ~ Listen to four people on a training course introducing themselves and

talking about their jobs. Which job in A does each person do?
Speaker 1 Speaker 3
Speaker 2 Speaker 4

2 Job advertisements
A tdI ln pairs, read the two job advertisements on page 130 and tick (01) the
most important qualities and abilities (1-10) for each job. Add more to the list if
you can. Which three things do you think are most important for each job?
Senior prog rammer DTP operator
1 logical reasoning 0 0
2 patience and tenacity 0 0
3 being good with figures 0 0
4 imagination 0 0
S sel f-discipline 0 0
6 accuracy 0 0
7 leadership skills 0 0
8 efficiency 0 0
9 creativity 0 0
10 drawing skills 0 0
B &:21
Discuss if you would like to apply for one of the jobs. Give reasons for your
SENIOR PROGRAMMER required by OIGITUM- required for a leading
UK. a leading supplier of business systems to the finandal magazine.
insurance industry.
We are looking for a bright, competent
You will be able to work on the full range of software
QuarkXPress operator with at least
development activities - analysis. design. coding
three years' experience in design and
testing. debugging and Implementation At least two
layout. Skills in Photos hop, freehand or
years' expenence 01 COBOL or C++ 15 necessary_
Illustrator an advantage.
As we are active In Europe. fluency in French Italian
or another European language is desirRble Ability to work in a team and to tight
deadlines is vital.
DonI miss ttllS opportunity to learn new skills and
develop your career. Please apply in writing, with ev and
samples of your work, to Tom Parker,
Production Manager, Financial Monthly,
Send your CV 10 CHRIS SCOn. PERSONNEL Stockton Street, london EC1A 4WW
Apply now
You can visit our website at www.digitum·uk.com

C Look at the online profile for Charles Graham. Which of the jobs above is most
appropriate for him?

Charles Graham 22 years old

Professional summary
I graduated in 2004 with A levels in English , Art and Maths, and went on
to do a course in graphic design and page layout at Highland Art School.
Since 2006 I've been a graphic designer for Promo Print, a company
specializing in publishing catalogues and promotional material, and have
used Adobe InOesign and other OTP software .

3 A letter of application
A Read the letter of application on page 131 and answer these questions.
1 WhiCh job is Sarah Brown applying for?
2 Where did she see the advertisement?
3 How long has she been working as a software engineer?
4 What type of programs has she w ritten?
5 When did she spend three months in Spain?
Dear Mr Scott,

I am writing to apply for the position of Senior Programmer. which was advertised on 28th March in
The Times.
I graduated in May 2002 and did a work placement with Bntish Gas as part of my degree. Before
taking my present Job I worked for a year with NCR. I stayed in this job (I) March
(2) the last three years I have been working as a software engineer for Intelligent
Software. I have designed four programs in COBOL for commercial use, and (3)
January I have been writing programs in C for use In large retail chains. These have been very
successful and we have won several new contracts In the UK and Europe on the strength of my
team's success.

Two years (4) I spent three months in Spain testing our programs and also made
several visits to Italy. so I have a basic knowledge of Spanish and Italian. I now feel ready (or more
responsibility and more challenging work and would welcome the opportunity to leam about a new

I enclose my curriculum vitae. I will be available for an interview at any time.

t look forward to hearing from
you. HELP box
Yours sincerely. for, since, ago, until
• We use for to refer to a period of time.
I've lived in Liverpool for five years.
• We use since to refer to a point in time.
I've been unemployed since May 2005.
• We use ago with the past simple to say when something
B Look atthe HELP box
happened. We put ago after the time period.
and then complete the
/ gor married five years ago.
letter with fOf, since, ago
or until. • We use until to mean up [Q a certain time.
/stayed at high school until I was 18.

4 A job interview
. , Chris Scott, the Personnel Manager at Digitum-UK, is interviewing Sarah
Brown. Listen to part of the interview and complete his notes.

Name: Sarah Drown Programs for

Degree In (/) Database A-nowledge.
(Aston University)
Present joh WOrA-S for Intelligent
Languages l3aSIC Spanish and Italian
Software wn"flng programs In CODOL
WorA- experie nce: andC
NCR (2) (one year)
Soffw'are for 'Re asons for apply;ng:
5 Language work: the present perfect
A Look at the HELP box and then choose the correct words in brackets to
complete these sentences.
1 He ('S never liked /'s never been liking) Maths.
2 They rve worked j've been working) on the project all day.
3 John ('s used /'s been using) the computer for hours - he looks really tired.
4 How many emails (have you written / have you been writing) today?
5 She ('S written /'s been writing) this essay since 9 o'dock.
6 They ('ve interviewed j've been interviewing) live candidates today.

HELP box
Present perfect simple Present perfect continuous
We form the present perfect simple with We form the present perfect continuous with
have!has + past participle. haveJhas been + present participle.
I've used Microsoft Access for many years. Since January I've been writing programs in C.
I haven't used Microsoft Access for years.
We use this tense to talk about:
We use this tense to talk about:
• Actions which started in the past and are still
• States that staned in the past and continue to the happening.
For the last three years I've been working as a software
Since 2006, I've been a compurer opermor for engineer for Intelligent Software.
• Past actions that continue to the present, where we
• Past actions that continue to the present, where we put an emphasis on duration (how long).
put an emphasis on quantity (how many).
She's been working al/ morning.
Ihave designed four programs in COBOL.
Contrast with the past simple
• Personal experiences, especially with ever and never.
We use the past simple to talk about events that
Have you ever worked with databases?
happened at a speCific time in the past that are now
I've never worked with databases.

' graduated in May 2003.

Not: : htJ'II~ gradutJt~d in
I stayed in this job until March 2004.
Two years ago, I spent three months in Spain.

B Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect simple or past simple.
1 She (be) a software engineer si nce 2004.
2 After graduation I (work) for a year with NCR.
3 (you ever work) as an IT consultant?
4 I (lose) myPDA.
5 I (send) my CV last Monday. Have you received it yet?
Make questions using these prompts. In pairs, ask and answer the
1 ever / live Of work in another country]
2 ever / have a bad job interview!
3 ever I do a ob you hated?
4 how long Istudy English?
5 how long I use (omputers?
6 how many emails / receive raday?
7 how many jobs I apply for this year]

Applying for a job ..

Vacancies at eJupiter.co.uk
El Look at the job
advertisement for a
web master at eJupiter. Webmaster
Maria Quintana is interested
in applying. Use her We are seeking a Webmaster for eJupiter.co.uk, a
curriculum vitae on page company dedicated to e-commerce.
155 to write a letter of The successful candidate will manage our website.
application. Follow these You will be responsible for making sure the web server
steps: runs properly. monitOring the traffic through the site.
Paragraph one: reason for wri ting and designing and updating our web pages.
/ am writing to apply for the position Experience of using HTMl and Java is essential.
of . .. Experience of Adobe PDF and Photoshop is an
advantage. The successful candidate will also
Paragraph t wo: education and have knowledge of web editors - MS FrontPage or
training equivalent.
I graduated in (date) ...
, completed a course in ... Send your CV and a covering letter to Jame5 Taylor;
eJupiter Computers. 37 Oak Street. London SW10 6XY
Paragraph three: work experience
For the post X years I have been ...
Since X, have been ...

Paragraph four: personal skills

'spent X months in (country) ...• so I have know/edge of (foreign languages).
lean ...

Paragraph five: reasons why you drc applying for this job
I now feel ready to ... and would welcome rh e opportunity to ...

Paragraph six: closing / availability for interview

I enclose . . . flook forward to '" , will be available for an interview ...

Write your own CV in English, using Maria's CV as a guide.

Think of your ideal job and write a letter of application for it. If you prefer, look
on the Internet for real jobs and practise applying for those.

iii Now visit www.cambridge.org/elt/ict for an online task.

1 Information and communications
technologies (lCT)
A In pairs, discuss these questions.
1 What is an leT system?
2 How many types of I(T system can you think of? Make a list.
3 How can a PC be connected to another computer?

B Label the pictures (1-7) with the leT systems and services in the box.
GPS Call centre Digital radio Teletext Wearable computer Digital TV

I !

1 2 3 4

5 6 7

C Complete these sentences with words and phrases from B and then read the
text on page 136 to check your answers.
1 Digital Audio Broadcasting, or DAB, is the technology behind . DAB is
intended to replace FM in the near future.
2 are designed to be worn on the body or integrated into the user's clothing.
3 Most existing TV sets can be upgraded to by connecting a digital decoder.
4 My grandfather is 75 and he still watches on TV to find out share prices,
weather forecasts and sports results.
5 I work in a . I receive incoming calls with information inquiries. I also make
outgOing calls for telemarketing.
6 Please complete this form and send it by or normal mail.
7 I have a navigation system in my car but I don't use it very ohen. My town
is small and I know it well.
Channels of communication
What are telecommunications? format. Digital TV provides a better quality of picture and
sound and allows broadcasters to deliver more channels.
Telecommunications refers to the transmission
of signals over a distance for the purpose of Digital Terrestrial TV is received via a set·top box, a
communication. Information is transmitted by devices device that decodes the signal received through the
such as the telephone, radio, television, satellite, or aerial. New technologies are being devised to aHow you
computer networks. Examples could be two people to watch TV on your mobile. For example, OMB (Digital
speaking on their mobile phone, a sales department M ultimedia Broadcasting) and OVB-H (Digital Video
sending a fax to a client, or even someone reading Broadcast-Handheld) can send multimedia (radio, TV
the teletext pages on TV. But in the modern warld, and data) to mobile devices.
telecommunications mainly means transferring Audio programs (music, news, sports, etc.) are also
information across the Internet, via modem, phone lines transmitted in a digital radio format called DAB (Digital
or wireless networks. Audio Broadcasting).
Because of telecommunications, people can now
work at home and communicate with their office by Mobile communications
computer and telephone. This is called teleworking. Thanks to wireless connectivity, mobile phones and
It has been predicted that about one third of all work BlackBerrys now let you check your email, browse the
could eventually be performed outSide the workplace. In Web and connect with home or company intra nets, all
call centres. assistance or support is given to customers without wires.
using the telephone, email or online chats. They are also
The use of GPS in cars and PDAs is widespread, so you
used for telemarketing, the process of selling goods
can easily navigate in a foreign city or find the nearest
and services over the phone.
petrol station. In the next few years, GPS chips will be
incorporated into most mobile phones.
Digital TV and radio
Another trend is wearable computers. Can you
In recent years, TV and radio broadcasting has been
imagine wearing a PC on your belt and getting email
revolutionized by developments in satellite and digital
on your sunglasses? Some devices are equipped with a
transmission. Digital TV is a way of transmitting pictures
Wireless modem, a keypad and a small screen; others are
by means of digital signals, in contrast to the analogue
activated by voice. The users of wearable technology are
signals used by traditional TV. Digital TV offers interactive
sometimes even called cyborgs! The term was invented
services and pay multimedia - that is, it can transmit
by Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline in 1960 to describe
movies and shows to TV sets or PCs on a pay-per-view
cybernetic organisms - beings that are part robot, part
basis. It is also widescreen, meaning programmes are
broadcast in a native 16:9 format instead of the old 4:3

o Read the text again and find the following.

1 the device that allows PCs to communicate over telephone lines
2 the practice of working at home and communicating with the office by phone and computer
3 the term that refers to the transmission of audio signals (radio) or audiovisual signals (television)
4 five advantages of digital TV over traditional analogue TV
5 two systems that let you receive multimedia on your mobile phone
6 the term that means without wires
7 devices that deliver email and phone services to users on the move
S the meaning of the term cyborg
2 Language work: the passive
A Look at the HELP box. How do you make the passive in you r language?

:tl!~m~I~H~O=:W different is it to English?
The passive • Past continuous passive
My TV was being repaired, so I couldn't warch the
We form the passive with the verb be + the past
participle of the main verb. When we mention the
agent, we use by. • Present perfect passive
It has been predicted that about one third of all work
The passive is ohen used in technical writing to give an
could eventually be performed outSide the workplace.
objective tone.
• Past perfect passive
• Present simple passive
The system had been infected by a virus.
Information ;s transmitted by devices such as the
telephone, radio, TVor ... • Future simple passive
In the next few years, GPS chips will also be
• Present continuous passive
incorporated into most mobile phones.
New technologies are being devised to allow you to
watch TVan your mobile. • Modal verbs in the passive
It has been predicted that about one-third ofall work
• Past simple passive
could eventually be performed outside the workplace.
The term cyborg was invented by M Clynes and N
Kline in 1960.

B Read the a rticle and unde rl ine all t he examples of the passive.
What tenses are they?

A HACKER has been sent programs illegally. After information. Cook has now
to jai l fo r fraudulent use a n official inqui ry, he was been sentenced to three
o f credit card numbe rs. accused of sortwarc piracy years in prison for steali ng
Nicholas Cook, 26, was and fined [5,000. passwords and obtaining
arrested by police officers money by credit card fraud.
It is reported that in the last
ncar a bank cashpoint last
few years Cook has been Governmen t officials say that
mo mh .
sending m alwarc (ma licious new anti-hacking le!,rislation
Eight months earlier, he software) to phone operators will be introduced in the EU
had been caught copyi ng and attacking mobile phones next year.
hundreds of computer to steal business and personal

------...- ----~ ----~

C Complete these sentences with the passive form of the verbs in brackets.
1 Microp rocessors (make) of silicon.
2 Call centres (use) to deal wi th telephone enquir ies.
3 In recent yea rs, most mobile phones (equip) with Bluetooth.
4 GPS (develop) in the 1970s as a military navigation system.
5 Sorry about t he mess - the computers (replace) at the
6 In the near future, the In ternet (access) more frequently from
PDAs and mobile phones than from desktop computers.
7 Networks (can connect) via satellite.
8 I had to use my laptop this morning while my PC (fix)
3 VolP technology
A ~ Listen to an interview with Sue Reid, a specialist
in telecommunications. What is her prediction about the
future ofVolP?

B . Listen again and answer these questions.

1 What exactly is VoIP?
2 Does the recipient need any special equipment?
3 What is an ATA? What is its function?
4 Whar is rhe advantage ofWi-Fi phones over mobile phones?
5 Do you need to have a VolP service provider?
6 What is spit?
A wireless VolP phone

c t:21 Using the diagram, explain VolP technology in your own words.



Telephone ATA

Wireless access

Wi-Fi phone

Wi-Fi phone
Unit .27

4 Mobile phones lCD screen Brand Built-in camera

Changeable faceplate
A Label the mobile phone with SIM card (Subscriber Identity Module)
features from the box. Wireless support Keypad Ringtone

B ~ In pairs, describe your mobile phone.

Use A and the Useful language box to help you.

Useful language
My phone is a ... It's got a ... With the .. , ; I can ...
The best feature ;s ... I never use the. .. I mostly use it for ...

c ~ In pairs, discuss these questions.

1 How much money do you spend on your mobile?
2 Can you send MMS (multimedia messages) from your mobile?
3 00 you access the Internet from your mobile? Which sites do you
4 Can you listen to music and watch TV on your mobile?
5 00 you use your mobile phone for business? 00 you think it is
secure to carry out financial transactions via mobile phones?
6 Do you ever use your phone while driving?
An Apple iPhone combines
7 Have you ever had to use your phone in an emergency?
three products - a mobile
8 Do you think that prolonged use of mobile phones can affect phone, on iPod, and on
our health (for example cause fatigue and headaches, emit internet device wirh email, web
radiation, excite brain celis, etc.)? browsing, maps and searching

o ,«=·1Write a summary of the discussion in C as if you were posting it on a

blog. Show your summary to other members of your class so that they can add
1 Small networks
A In pairs, discuss these questions.
1 What is a computer network?
2 What are the benefits of LJsing networks?

B . listen to an extract from a lecture on networks and answer these

1 What does LAN stand for?
2 Where are LANs usually located?
3 What is the difference between a wired LAN and a wireless LAN.

C Listen again and label the elements of this LAN.

(1)A wired and wireless LAN





(5) , (6)

u ====~ U Gam ing PDA

Desktop computer Printer Desktop computer console
Unit 11

2 Networking FAQs
A Look at the FAQs (i-vi) without reading the whole text. In pairs, try to answer
as many of the questions as you can.
B Read the whole text and answer these questions.
1 What does PAN stand for?
2 What is a network protocol?
3 How do you log on [0 an Internet Service Provider?
4 WiMAX is a type of wireless netwo rk. What is it used fo r?
5 What equipment do you need to set up a w ireless LAN?
6 What are the advantages and disadvantages of wireless networks?

Networking FAQs
i How many types of network are there? NOTE: A router has various Ethernet ports, so you can
Networks are classified according to different criteria: connect various pes to the router via Ethernet cables.
• Geographical area: PANs (Personal Area If you already have a hub or switch connecting a tAN,
Networks) typically include a laptop, a mobile you only need one cable to connect the hub to the
phone and a PDA; lANs cover a building; MANs router.
(Metropolitan Area Networks) cover a campus or a iii How do I log on to the Internet Service
city; WANs (Wide Area Networks) cover a country
or a continent
You need to type in your usemame and password.
• Architecture: In a client-server network. a
Once you are online, you can get email, look
computer acts as a server and stores and distributes
for information on the Web, look up IT words in
information to the other nodes, or clients. In a peer-
didionaries, try out new software, and sign up for
to-peer network, all the computers have the same
RSS feeds, newsletters, etc. It is important that you
capabilities - that is, share files and peripherals
remember to log off after using the Internet. An open
without requiring a separate server computer.
line increases the risk of viruses, and hackers might
• Topology, or layout: In a bus network, all the
break into your computer to steal confidential data.
computers are connected to a main cable, or bus.
In a star network. all data flows through a central iv What is wireless networking?
hub, a common connection point for the devices Wired networks are linked by Ethernet cables, phone
in the network. In a ring network. all devices are lines and high-speed fibre optic cables. Wireless
connected to one another in a continuous loop, or networks, however, use electromagnetic waves, such as
ring. radio waves, to transmit data. These are the main types
• Network protocol : This is the language, or set of of wireless networks:
rules, that computers use to communicate with each
• Satellites - for long dLstances
other. Networks use different protocols. For instance,
the Intemet uses TCPjIP. • WiMAX - for connecting Wi-A hotspots
• Wi-Fi - for medium-range distances
ii How do I install a wired modem router? • Bluetooth - for short distances
A modem router is a device that connects your • GSM - for mobile phones
computer or home LAN to the Internet.
• Plug one end of Ihe phone cord directly inlo a
v What do I need to set up a home wireless
phone jack, and the other end into the ADSL port LAN?
on the router. You'll need computers equipped with a wireless
• Plug one end of the Ethernet cable into your adapter or wireless card, a wireless access point (a
computer's network port and the other end into an wireless router) and a broadband internet connedion.
Ethernet port on the router. vi Which is better, a wired or wireless LAN?
• Turn on your computer. To set up, or configure, the Wired LANs are more difficult to install, but they are

router, you'll need to input some parameters, for cheaper, faster and more reliable. Wireless networks let
example your ISP's name and phone number. you move, or roam, from one access point to another,
but they are less secure and subject to interference.
Computer 2


• •• copyof
.- file.doc WANs cover a large geographic area, like a country
or even multiple countries. They are built by large
In a basic network, two computers are connected by telecommunication companies. The largest WAN in
cable to allow file sharing. existence is {he Internet.



Wi-Fi is the srandard technology for building wireless

In many homes, Ethernet cables are used to connect LANS and public hotspots. Bluetooth networks
computers. Phone or cable TV lines then connect the allow handhelds, mobile phones and other devices to
home LAN to the ISP. Much of (he Internet uses high -speed communicate over short disrances. Cellular networks
fibre optic cable (0 send data over long distances, are used in mobile phone communications.

C In pairs, do this network quiz. See which pair can finish first.
1 This network typically consists of two or more local area networks, covering a large geographical
a LAN b WAN c Intranet
2 This type of network does not have a dedicated server; all the computers are independent.
a peer-to-peer b client-server c Metropolitan Area Network
3 On this topology, all devices are connected to the same circuit, forming a continuous loop.
a star b ring c bus
4 The language used by computers to communicate with each other on the Internet is called
• Ethernet. b ADSL c TCP/IP
5 Which cables are used to transfer information for the Internet over long distances at high
a telephone lines b Ethernet cables ( fibre optic cables
6 Which device allows several computers on a local network to share an internet connection?
a an ADSL port b a router ( an Ethernet port
7 Which device serves as a common connection point for devices in a wireless network?
a wireless access pOint b wired router ( wireless adapter
8 Bluetooth is a wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over
a long distances. b medium-range distances. ( short distances (ten metres or less).
Unil ZI

3 Language work: phrasal verbs

A look at the HELP box. Do you have the equivalent of phrasal verbs in your
language? How do you say the phrasal verbs in the HELP box?

HELP box
Phrasal verbs find out (= learn, discover)
• The meaning of some verbs with particle Search the Web to find out more information
(ohen called phrasal verbs) can be easily about WiMAX.
understood from it s two parts. take up (= occupy)
Fibre optic cables take up less space rhan
Look at the photos. copper cables.
A network consists of two or more. make up (= constitute, form)
Several LANs connected rogether make up a
Separate networks are linked over a public
network, the Interner.
fill in (= write the necessary information)
• However. many phrasal verbs have an You need to fill in this online form.
idiomatic meaning, not predictable from
the meaning of its parts. • When the verb has a preposition associated
with it, the preposition must precede the
carry (= transport); carry out (= execute)
Computers carry out the programs
You can look for information on the Web.
• Certain particles have similar meanings, (not: Jook iflfol'ffltfliOfl for)
regardless of the verb (on/off. in/ out, etc.).
Hackers might break into your PC.
turn on / switch on (not· b~tJk )oUt PE into)
(= start the operation of something)
turn off / switch off When the particle is an adverb, it can
(= stop the operation of something) precede or follow the direct object:

• Other common phrasal verbs in computing You need to type in your username I
include: ... type your username in .
You can look up words in a dictionary /
plug into (= connect)
... look words up in a dictionary.
Plug one end of rhe phone cord into the
Turn on thecompurer. /
Turn (he computer on.
set up (= establish)
What do I need to set up a wireless LAN? If the direct object is a pronoun, the:
sign up (= register, enrol in a service) particle must follow it
Once connected. you can sign up for RSS
You need to type it in.
feeds, newsletters, etc.
(not: typ~ in It)
tryout (= test Of use experimentally)
You can tryout new software on their site.

B Complete these sentences with the correct form of a phrasal verb from the
HELP box.
1 To join the club, this form and send it to our office.
2 TheCPU all the basic operations on the data.
3 Digital music a lot of space - about 10MB for every minute of stereo sound.
4 Thousands of networks the Internet.
5 You can use newsgroups to about the latest trends. customer needs. etc.
C Match the questions (1 - 6) with the answers (a- f).
1 Why was the hacker arrested?
2 Is it OK to log o n to my bank account using public computers in a cybercafe?
3 How do I set up an internet connection at home?
4 Can I download software from yOUf site?
5 How can I add video to instant messaging?
6 What do I need to do to sign up for a Yahoo! email account?

a Yes, but always remember to log off after you've ended your session.
b Yes, you can even try the programs out for a period before you buy them!
c Because he broke into a computer system and stole confidential data.
d Simply install this program and plug the webcam into your computer.
e You need to install the software for your router. Follow the instructions provided by yOUf ISP.
probably in the form of a .pdf file on a CD.
f You have to create a username and password and then give some personal details.

4 WANs and satellites

A D Prepare a description of the network
below to present to the rest of the class. Use
Useful language
The diagram represents/shows ...
PowerPoint if possible. Use the Useful This network;s made up ofI consists of ...
language box, t he HELP box on page 143 Two networks are connected via .. .
and the text on pages 141 - 142 to help you. The computers are linked up to .. .
The satellite receives signals from ...
The signals are sent on to ...
,..._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.....1 The purpose of ... is to ...

Telepho ne

Fibre optic ca ble

Yiirel<,ss router


Laptop Central computer PDA PDA Cent ra l computer PC

B Cl Present you r description to the rest of the class.

1 Game platforms
A C In pairs, discuss these questions.
1 Do you play video games?
2 What are your favourite games? Make a list.

B Label the pictures (a- f) with the types of game

in the box.
PC games Console games Arcade games
Handheld games Mobile phone games
Massively multi player online games

C Video games are played on a va riety of

electronic devices, or platforms. Complete these b
sentences with game platforms from the box and
types of game from B. •" •
Personal computer Video game consoles
Portable gaming devices 3G mobile phones

1 are played on . such as the Sony PS3

or Microsoft Xbox 360. In the past, these electronic devices were just connected to a standard
TV or video monitor; now they can also be connected [Q the Net, via cables or wirelessly.
2 are played on , such as the Sony PSP
and the Nintendo OS. You can also play games on some graphing calculators and watches.
3 Don't worry if you don't have a game console. You can still play
on a III:.; ' r\.,. , ~ " '\
. The graphics are even more impressive if you have a high·
resolution monitor. You can buy games on CDs and DVDs, or
~ j--"'"
" -- •• '~
,''''Ioa ,
download them from the Internet. : 'I~ ' ""

'~ ~ -t '.
' :11 •
. JT
4 allow you to play against other
users in other parts of the world using the Internet - something
unique to electronic gaming. Players connect to a game server
- .- - '

hosted by an ISF! a game company, or an individual enthusiast.

S Some are programmed d
to run natively on the chip of
. For
instance, Snake is installed on many
Nokia phones. Many Java-based games are
also available via download.
6 are played on
coin-operated machines, typically installed
in restaurants, bars and amusement arcades.
For example, you can fly an aircraft or a
spaceship using a joystick.
D C In pairs, discuss these questions. Give reasons for your answers.
1 Which is your favourite game platform? What advantages and disadvantages does it have over
other game platforms?
2 Which game platform would you most like to own?
3 Do you play games on you r mobile phone? What is the experience like?

2 Game genres
A How many different game genres can you think of? In pairs, make a list and
then read the text to see how many genres from your fist are mentioned.

Game genres
There are so many different genres and mixes of
genres that it's difficult to put each game into a
specific category. In the following article we'll cover
the basic genres that differentiate between games.
5 The First- person shooter (FPS) and Action genres
are currently the most popular. Games like Half-Life,
Halo and Call of Duty are the most popular games in
the FPS category. For Action, in novative titles like Halo 3 is very popular on rhe Xbox console; millions of people
also play the game online
the Grand Theft Auto series, Gears of War and Splinter
10 Cell are huge successes. The SimuLation genre has enjoyed wild success,
The Rote-playing game (RPG ) genre has remained 35 including the best-selling PC games of all time: The
strong throughout the entire history of console Sims & The Sims 2. The entire Sims series, designed
and PC gam ing. Current hits like Final Fantasy XII, by Maxis, is dominant in this ge nre. Jet fighter and
Oblivion and the Knights of the Old Republic series flying sims are also importa nt types of simulation
15 are aU based on RPG roots. The recent development game.
of massively mult/player online RPGs has been made 40 Strategy is a genre mai nly restricted to PC, largely
possible by widespread broadba nd access, allowing because the mouse and keyboard are central to
gamers to play internationally with thousands of gameplay. There are a few good Strategy games for
people across the globe in a constant virtual world. console, however. Big names in Strategy include
20 Adventure games and Puzzle games remain strong Warcraft III, Starcraft, Command and Conquer and
despite bei ng limited in scope and technology. The 45 Warhammer 40,000.
new concept of party games - where people play fina lly, we have the Fighting genre. Developed from
together in multiplayer mode - has recently injected early hit games like Street Fighter II, Fighting games
new life into this genre. Titles like Zelda and Wario- have enjoyed a renaissance as they've been updated
25 Ware are familiar names. fully to include 3-D characters and arenas. Titles
Sports games are an increasingly popu lar portion 50 li ke Dead or Alive, Tekken and Soul Calibur are big
of the gaming industry. Electronic Arts (EA) have favourites.
been making games licensed from t he NBA, NFL and So what kind of game player are you? Cha nces are
MlB for over a decade. Anot her sector of the Sports that if you're a PC gamer, you prefer FPS, RPG,
30 industry is the entire raci ng sub-genre. Massive Simulation, and Strategy games. The console gamer
hits like the Burnout and Need for Speed series are 55 typically enjoys Sports, Racing, Fighting, RPGs, and
hugely exciting, and the crashes can be realistic and a few FPS titles. Of cou rse, many people own both
terrifying. a console and a Pc. therefore combining the best of
both worlds. •...
Unit H

B These statements about gaming are all false. Read the text again and
correct them.
1 Role-playing games are currently the most popular.
2 Massively multiplayer online RPGs have been made possible by widespread internet access.
3 Oblivion is an Action game.
4 The Sims series is the least popular in the Simulation category.
5 Strategy games are mainly restricted to game consoles.
6 Warcraft belongs to the Fighting genre.
7 Console gamers typically prefer Simulation and Strategy games.

C Find words or phrases in the text with the following meanings.

1 now; at this time or period (lines 5-10)
2 existing or happening in many places and/or among many people
(lines 15-20)
3 in spite of; notwithstanding (lines 20-25)
4 more and more (lines 25-30)
5 a smaller category within a particular genre (lines 30-35)
6 big successes (lines 30-35)
7 sold in very large numbers (lines 35-40)
8 modernized (lines 45-50)

D ~ In pairs, discuss these questions. Give reasons for your answers.

1 What is your favourite and least favourite genre of game?
2 What are your favourite games? Describe them to your partner.

3 Language work: adverbs
A Look at the HELP box on page 148 and then complete these sentences with the
adverbial form of the words in brackets.
1 Simulation games are (wide) used in both universities and businesses.
2 Massively multiplayer online RPGs have (recent) become more popular, mainly
due to faster internet connections.
3 Strategy is a genre (main) restricted to PC
4 Video games often come with a clear set of motivatIon tools, such as scores and moving to
higher levels when a player performs (good)
5 Cheap PCs don't process data (fast) enough to support high-end games.

B Are the words in bold adjectives or adverbs? Write adj or adv.

1 Atari's platform was the most popular early video game console, and many developers emulated
Atari games to attract customers.
2 The chess game ended early, at the 2411 move.
3 On the TPS Report gaming blog, you will find reviews, a forum and a monthly podcasr.
4 The podcast is broadcast monthly.
5 You have to work hard to succeed in the gaming industry.
6 Some experts say that hard work makes people happy.

HELP box

• We use adverbs to give information about an action. Adverbs of manner, time and
place describe how, when or where something happens.
They've been updated fully to include 3-Dcharaaers. (= manner, Le. how)
The Action genre of games is currently (he most popular. (= rime, l.e. when)
.. allowing garners to play internationally .. (= place, I.e. where)
We also use adverbs to modify adjectives.

Sports games are an increasingly popular portion of the gaming industry.

• We usually form an adverb by adding ·Iy to an adjective.
typical ---... typically
The console gamer typically enjoys Sports, ...

• With adjectives ending in -y, we change the y to i before adding the ending . Iy.
easy -.. easily
The Nintendo Wi; connects easily to the Internet.

• Note that not aU words that end in ·Iy are adverbs. These words are adjectives:
friendly, deadly, lovely, lonely.
• The adverb from good is well.
His French is very good. He speaks French well.

• Some words have the same form as an adjective and an adverb (e.g. fast, hard,
early, late, daily, monthly).
New games require a fast processor. (= adjective)
The processor speed relfs you how fast your PC executes instructions. (= adverb)

4 Present and future trends in gaming

A ~
listen to an interview with Matt Robinson, the administrator of the TPS
Report gaming bJog. How many game platforms does he mention?

B ~
These statements about video games are all false. listen to the interview
again and correct them.
1 Video games are popular because they are fun and addictive.
2 Well-known Hollywood actors appear in video games.
3 The Nintendo Wi; is aimed at hardcore garners.
4 It's free to play World of Warcraft.
5 Holography is an advanced form of photography that uses lasers to produce two-dimensional
6 In the future, gesture recognition systems wilt produce photo-realistic images.
Unil H

C . Listen again and complete these extracts from the interview with adverbs.
1 With a game you are in control of the action.
2 Games are now even more life-like and anractive.
3 A lot of modern games draw inspiration from films and even TV
4 Their released Wii console has an inexpensive, simplistic, pick up 'n' play feel to it.
5 Wii is the most popular of the three machines.
6 Logging onto an separate universe to meet and play alongside your friends has
enormous attraction.
7 Mobile gaming has been about easy, simplistic 2-0 games.

o ~ In pairs, discuss if you agree with everything that Matt says in h is inte rview
about the future of gaming. What are your own predictions?

5 The pros and cons of gaming

A e ln pairs, look at the stateme nts about gaming (1- 4) and say if you agree or
disagree with them. Give reasons for your answers.
1 TV and video games are amusing and can be educational. But tOO much of this kind of
entertainment can be addictive and make children become accustomed to violence.
2 Massively multi player online games are interactive and fun.
3 Video games have negative effects on children and distract them from school and homework.
4 Modern games and simulations offer a great deal of adventure and challenge. In addition, they
can teach skills such as strategic thinking, interpretative analysis and problem solving.

B lE3
Write an essay called The pros ond cons of gaming (80- 120 words).
Use these steps and the Vsefullonguoge box to help you.
• The openin g (paragraph one):
Present the topic in one or two sentences.
• The body (paragraphs two and three):
Give pros (arguments in favour) with facts and examples. Give cons (arguments against) with
facts and examples.
• The d osing (paragraph four):
Summarize your main ideas and give your opinion.

Useful language
To add arguments:
In addition. ... Furthermore, .. '
To introduce opposing ideas:
On the one hand, ... On the other hand, '"
Some people say .. . Others say... However, ...
To express opinions:
In my opinion, ... I believe that ...
It seems to me that ... It's clear that ...
To conclude:
In conclusion, ." To sum up, ... In short, ...
1 Future trends
A ~ In pairs, discuss these questions.
1 What do you think a trend is?
2 What trends in I(T do you think will affect our lives in the future? Make a list.

B Match the texts (1-5) with the pictures (a-e). Which trends from your list in A
are mentioned?

a b

c d e

By all accounts, nanotechnology - the science of • Nanomedicine: By 2020, scientists believe that
making devices from single atoms and molecules - is nana-sized robots, or nanobots, will be injected into
going to have a huge impact on both business and our the body's bloodstream to treat diseases at the
daily lives. Nana devices are measured in nanometres cellular level.
(one billionth of a metre) and are expected to be used in
• Nanomaterials: New materials wi(( be made from
the following areas. carbon atoms in the form of nanotubes, which are
• Nanocomputers: Chip makers will make tiny more flexible, resistant and durable than steel or
microprocessors with nanotransistors, ranging from aluminium. They will be incorporated into all kinds of
60 to 5 nanometres in size. products, for example stain-resistant coatings for
clothes and scratch-resistant paints for cars.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the science of making intelligent humanoid robot. Soon, engineers will have
intelligent machines and programs. The term originated built different types of android, with the form and
in the 1940s, when Alan Turing said: 'A machine has capabilities of humans. Another AI application is expert
artificial intelligence when there is no discernible systems - programs containing everything that an
difference between the conversation generated by the 'expert' knows about a subject. In a few years, doctors
machine and that of an intelligent person: A typical AI will be using expert systems to diagnose illnesses.
application is robotics. One example is ASIMO, Honda's
~"i' you are about to take a holiday in Europe. You criminals. At the immigration checkpoint, you swipe a
walk out to the garage and talk to your car. Recognizing card and place your hand on a small metal surface. The
your voice, the car's doors unlock. On the way to the geometry of your hand matches the code on the card,
airport. you stop at an ATM. A camera mounted on and the gate opens. You're on your way.
the bank machine looks you in the eye, recognizes the
Does it sound futuristic? Well, the future is here.
pattern of your iris and allows you to withdraw cash from
Biometrics uses computer technology to identify
your account. people based on physical characteristics such as
When you enter the airport, a hidden camera compares fingerprints, faCial features, voice, iris and retina patterns.
the digitized image of your face to that of suspected Adapted from the Richmond Times-Dispatch

Ubiquitous computing, also known as pervasive to be accessed anytime and anywhere - in other
computing. is a new approach in which computer words, ubiquitously. In the future people will interact
functions are integrated into everyday life, often in an naturally with hundreds of these smart devices
invisible way. Ubiquitous devices can be anything (objects containing a microchip and memory) every
from smart phones to tiny sensors in homes. offices and day, each invisibly embedded in our environment and
cars, connected to networks, which allow information communicating with each other without cables.

In the ideal smart home, appliances and electroniC Smart homes can remember your living patterns, so
devices work in sync to keep the house secure. For if you like to listen to some classical music when you
example, when a regular alarm system senses that come home from work, your house can do that for you
someone is breaking into the house, it usually alerts auwmatically. They will also know when the house is
the alarm company and then the police. A smart home empty and make sure all appliances are turned off. All
system would go further, turning on the lights in the home devices will be interconnected over a home area
home and then sending a text message to the owner's network where phones, cable services, home cinemas,
phone. Motorola Homesight even sends images captured touch screens, smart mirrors and even the refrigerator
by wireless cameras to phones and pes. will cooperate to make our lives more comfortable.
Adapted from www.businessweekcom

C Read the texts again and answer these questions.

, Which unit of measurement is used in nanotechnology?
2 What are the advantages of nanotubes over regular materials?
3 What will doctors use expert sysfems for?
4 What features are analysed by biometrics?
5 Which trend refers to computers embedded in everyday devices. communicating with each
other over wireless networks7
6 What will the alarm system do jf someone breaks into a smart home?
7 How will devices be interconnected inside the smart home?

o Find words in the texts with the following meanings.

1 a microscopic robot, built with nanotechnology (text 1)
2 a robot that resembles a human (text 2)
3 biological identification of a person (text 3)
4 integrated; inserted inra (text 4)
5 electrical devices, or machines. used in the home (text 5)

E ~ Write a suitable caption for each picture on page 1 SO.

2 RFIDtags
A Listen to Sarah Wood, an leT
teacher, giving a class about RFID tags.
Which definition (a-c) best describes
a a smart technology worn on the user's body
so that they can email and access the Web
b a technology that uses radio waves and
chip-equipped tags to automatically identify
people or things
c a technology that uses microchips and bar
codes to track people or things at a distance

B ~ Listen again and decide which

answers (a or b) are correct.
1 RFID stands for
a Radio Frequency Identification.
b RadiO Frequency Identification
2 Radio tags
a can only be attached to or embedded
into products. An RF/O micro chip
b can be attached to or embedded into products,
animals and humans.
3 Active RFID tags
a have a communication range of several hundred metres.
b have a communication range of five metres.
4 RFID chips
a will help us track ordinary objects like car keys or books.
b won't be able to locate objects when they are lost or stolen.
5 Radio tags may be implanted under the skin
a to confirm a patient's identity and cure illnesses.
b to give doctors instant access to a patient's medical history.
6 According to consumer organizations, RFIO tags
a could be used to track consumers or to steal a person's identity.
b are secure and private; there is no need for concern.

c ~ In pairs, discuss how secure you think RFID is. Do you agree with the
consumer organizations or the manufacturers? Give reasons for your answers.

3 Language work: future forms

A Look at the HELP box and then choose the correct words in brackets to
complete these sentences.
1 In the future_ I hope we ('II have 'rl g( ng te have lobJts In tr__ h )ml tl heir: u~ Wlt~ th

2 Hey, Nick, be careful. you ('re gl ing te. spi I J'II :.pill) that coffee on th (omputer l
3 It's John's birthday next week. We ('II givf> I're 91.in9 to give) him a mobile phonl
4 My laptop has crashed!
Don't worry.! (,II lend I'm going to lend) you mine
5 The Internet (will probably change lis pfObably goinq to change) the publishing Industry in the
way that TV changed the movie indusllY
6 futurists predict that smart technology (will be I is going to be) incorporated into fabrKs, so
you'll be able to email from your coat t

HELP box
Future forms W( oJ~ be going to ~rt. in th(l following way.
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By I JII W:. ~oum~ nonotf'(hn logy is going to have
• Te talk ab- IUt hOpt's and promises, especially with thr ruyp impo(~ on bu~m "Sl and our daily IVI
word~ expect think hope and probably
W(; u~e th~ future continuou5 will be -ing f >Ifl )i II,
fhf-'y hope thar peoplt will interact naturally vvlt/1 wrb) [0 talk dbout dltions in progre' at a ~pecin rime
hundreds of sman dev, :es 01 a (lme. if' the future.

• To describe dn instant decision, often when w~ make In a few yean, dOc. rors will be using exp~'( ~ysrem~ t(
an offer diagnt}}e Illne)Se~

Uf€ I'll help you wilh your homework.. We use til futurt- PI'rfect (will have + past palllcipl ) 0
talk :lbout -til ns fu h J at a sp ific tim<? in tt-on future
• To talk ab tit fal ts that w ill ineVitably happen
xm enq/O 'f' will have built different fYf>j ) 01 QI -frOId.
She'll be 2 I /0 May.

B Complete these sentences with the correct future form of the verb in brackets.
Use the future continuous or future perfect.
1 Thanks to I(T, by the year W: 0 WE (find) :ures for t~ _ IT aj
diseases of our time,
2 In twenty years' time, some people (live) in space, perhaps
inside a computerized colony_
3 By this time next week, I (work) fOi IBM.
4 By this time next month, I (buy) that BlackBerry that I'VE' bE' 'n
wanting to buy for months.
5 Scientists predict that in twenty years' time nearly everyone (live)
in smart houses.
C In pairs, discuss these predictions. Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons
for your answers. Look at the Usefu//anguage box to help you.
1 Sor It' \Jdy, we'll bl tJlklng to omputt'rs naturally, like friends
2 Mlcroc.hlps Implanted In our drms will serve as ID cards and contain our medical records.
3 Robots will1edrn to build themselves, without human help.
4 ~rnJrt home" will be VOice activated
5 Lomputers will be ubiqUitous and almost
InVl';iblp pm bedded IntO our homes and
"BIIra 'BWiI..-
Inteqratpd Into our lives
Whet. 1
I'm notSfft will
4 Making predictions
I compfeteIytlg(ee/diStIgree with

A Write your own predictions about these topics.

• Work/Jobs

txafllplc By the year 2030, human labour in industry will have been replaced by robots.
Your prediction
• Money
[xarnple Cash will be replaced by electronic money.
Your pr('dlctlon
• Education
Exarnpl ' By the end of this century, every student in every school will have a Pc.
Your predl( t,on
• The Internet

Exarnple People in every country will have high-speed access to the Internet within five years.
Your pred,\.. tlon'

B In pairs, compare your predictions.

Find out more about your partner's .:r GuE5S::r JU5f CAN'T
predictions. PACE TilE fl)1/)RE
Now visit www.cambridge.org/elt/ ict
for an online task.
Curriculum vitae
Personal information
Name: Maria Quintana
Address: Avda Seneca, 5, Madrid 28040
Telephone: 00 34 91 5435201
Email: mquintana0782@telefonka.net
Date of birth: 28/07/82

Education and Training

2006 Online dipLoma in web-based technology for business. www.elearnbusiness.com
2005 (ourse in web design at the Cybernetics College, london: HTML Java and
Macromedia Dreamweaver
2004 Course in computer hardware and networking at the Cybernetics College, london
1999-2004 Degree in Computer Science and Engineering, University of Madrid

Work experience
January 2006 - Part-time Webmaster at www.keo.es; responsible for updating the site and
present using Adobe Flash to create animations
May 2005 - IT consultant at Media Market. speciaLizing in e-commerce and IT strategies
December 2006

IT skills
Knowledge of multiple computer pLatforms (Windows, Mac and Linux); strong database skills
(including the popular open source MySQl database); complete understanding of graphics formats
and Cascading Style Sheets
Personal skills
Social and organizational skills
Good communication skills

Spanish mother tongue; English (Cambridge CAE); Arabic (fluent)
Hobbies and Interests
Web surfing, listening to music and travelling
Miguel Santana, Manager, keo.es
Sam Jakes, Lectu rer, Cybernetics College
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memory, and network capabihtl€'s: the same as fiat-rate internet l, ft'Clrelt ' In\ anl'l l n Access game genre l,ge l lll '3u:nr;) n A Spi' the type
expansIOn board. to the lmernet at any time of the ddY, at a fixed or category of game. For example. a game 11'1
expan sion slots "" ' ,pren!an ,slot '" n and cheap lar,ff. which the player wives puzzles wl)Uld fallintu
The coonectors that allow the u!oer to install Flickr l'fllk;)1 n A w!"bs,te wll£ore U!oers can share Ihe Puzzle game genre. Othf'J genr~s dIe ACtiO 1,
e)(pansioo card~ to impr~ the compute(~ photos. Adventure, Flght,ng. First·pers )tt'. r'Jle-
perfOfm.)oce. floppy disk " flnpi , dl~k' n A d'~k made 01 play,ng, Simulation, Sport~, Sirdtegy, •
eyegaze sys tem l'a lger7 ,~ r .. t amI n A system a flex,bIe plastic mate"al upon whICh data is game platform ,gelm ' pla:l b :nll n Ar
act,vated by tll£o u!oer's eye movements, stored OIl magnetIC HolCks.. Also known ol~ ol e e<:Honl( devICe on whICh" ido.>o gJI re
e-zine l'i:7;:nl n An electronic magazrne. diskefte. A floppy d,sk drive uses 3.S" dl'>ks pldyed. bamples are person< computer~ 'd
flowchart / 'flaut!O:I ' n A diagram which show~ game consolt>s.
F the logiCal steps of a computer program Geographic Information System (G IS)
FAQ l ,cfcl ' kju:1 n Frequently Asked Questions, a folder /' fauld al n A dlretlOly that hold .. 'd3i:a,grreflk mfa'mclIan , ~htJm n A typ
file or web page containing ans-.wfS to questions programs, data files and other folders. of graphiCs software that allows us tt' analy'
asked by internet u~rs or visitors to a webSite, geographiC datil and then ma~e ma~. pi In tilt
font Ifonll nTh£' shape. style and size of a
use of land, predict natural disa~ter', ell
fax If :ek ..1 n A facsimile machine that operates particular typeface, e.g Tlmes Bold at 10pt
by scannrng a paper document so that the gigabyte I'glQ;,baltl n 1,024 megJbytes.
footer I'fulal n Customized le)(t primed in thp
image is sent to a receiving machine which bottom margin of d document glgahertz l'glg;)h3:t ~I n A unil of one thousarxl
produces a copy of the anginal million hertz, or cycles per SE'COf'Id, used to
format I'fJ:mret / l nThe layout of a document.
fibre optic communication /,fa l b;, ,opt rk measure proce~sor speed,
including page numbers, line spac(>s, margins,
ka, mju:nr 'kc r!anl n A way of transmitting paragraph alignment, headPlS and footers, etc. 2 Global Positioning System (GPS)
infO/matlon at high·speed by sending light format a disk v To prepare a disk for use Whpn l,glaub;)1 P;)'ZI!JnllJ , sl~taml n A navigation
through an optical fibre (made of glass or a disk is initialized, the operating system marks syslem formed by variOUS satellites orbiting th
plastic). Fibre optic cables ar£' uSPd to transm,t trach and sectors on It> surface. edrth and therr corresponding receivers on th£'
internet. cab\(> TV and phone signals, earth. II allows GPS recei\lf:'rs to d(>terrnlne their
formatting toolbar 1'f:>:Ill:CII IJ ,I u:loo:1 n A
field lri:ldJ n Aunil of informat'on in a re<:ord.ln 100 at ion, ~p!!'ed and directlO\l
loolbar With icons that allow you to ed'i and
a databilw, InfO/malion is £'ntered via fields.. style your text. For e)(ample, you can changp Google I'gu:gJl/ 1 n A popular search
file I falll n 1 A co!lE'CtiQn of r€'Cords in a font. align le)(I, incffOa<,£' or dt'Crpase indentatIOn £'nglf\E" on the Web 2 v To search the WelJ ior
database. 2 A ~ion of Informallon stored on etc )Olethlng.
disk a document Of a program. formula I' f:>:l11jJI ;,/ n A rruthemat'cal (>quatlOll grammar checker I'grremJ ,t!ckJ n A
file server I'fa l l ,"'-J:val n A fast computE'f that that helps you cakulate and dMlyse data. ooftware utility thai analyses lhe grarnf'lldr '1 d
Slores the programs and data files shared by wfllten text
FORTRAN I'fJ :1 ra! ni n The hr~t hlgh·l~
users in a network. p!"ogramming language and complier. graphical user interface (GUI ,.grreflkal
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) I,fall ,trren .. f:!: developed ,n 1954 by IBM. Today, 't 's SI,II uSE'd in 'ju: ;r:a , mt;,fel~1 n A usedflenaly ,nterf...
' praut aknll n A standard forltansferring file~ bd~ 0' I graphiCS. A GUI uses,) WIM~
mathematiCs, scie!lCt', and Pfl9'net'III'Ig. ~hof\ for
from on£' comput£'r to dnotll£or over a network, FORmula TRAN5Im.)(J erWOfoomem: WindOWS. IConS, menus and
po,nter. Typ,cal eKilmples are the M~~ 0<;, and
filter !'fl ltal n A speoal effect that can bf> fractals I'rrrekt J17) n Geometncal patlern~ that
apphl'd to pictures. are repeated at small scalf:'!, to gen£'rilt£' irregular
M,ue soft WindOWS.
shapes, some of wh,ch d .. oibe obwcts from graphics tablet I'grrefrk .. ,t;cbl.)t nAn Illput
filtering program I' fllt ano ,praugncm/ n
nalure. device which allows the user to enter dra .... 'nljs
Software deSigned to restrict the access to
and sketches into a computer
specific aspects of the Web fragmentation l ,frll'gmall ' lel!ani n The
Find and Replace I, fal nel :md n ' pi c i sl n A condition of a hard disk in which fiks dre d'\lided
command that let~ you find a word or phrase in into p ieces scanerf'd around the di,k. This occur~
a document and change 1110 new text. naturally dfter creating, deleting and modifying hacker I' h:ckal n Someone who Invades
many files, When the operating system cannot a r1etwork's privacy Originally, dll sk,lIed
Firefo)( l ' fal afnk .J n A web bromel, part of the programmers were known 3S hacker';, but
open· source MOlilla prOJect. lind enough contiguous sp.:!ce to store a
complete file, the file is divided InlO SPVeral in the 1990s, the term became synonymous
firewall /'faldw J:I! n A software and/or With crarker, a person who breaks SE'CUflty ell
separated fragments. As disk fragmemallon
hardware deviCe tha t allow~ limited access to computers. Today, the general public use~ hacker
increases, disk efficiency starts de<:fea~ing
an int£'rnal network from the Net. This prevents for both. In the computer Industry. hack r~ are
Intruders from stealif\9 or destroying confidential frames I frc lm7) n 1 Rectangular areas that
known as while hats and Clacker' as bla! 'I hall )1
data allow the dl~ay of different pages in The SdfTlE"
dar~ ide hackers..
browser window. 2 Single piCtures In films.
firmware I' f :!:m .... cal n Permanent software handheld game I'ha'ndhcld ,gclml n A gamr
In~lIuctloo~ contained In Ihe ROM Freehand I'fri:h:l' ndl n A Ma(fomt>d'd
program for creating ve<:tOf graphICs, whICh pldyed on portable gaming deviL' ~ h a~ Ihl
flame I flclm! n An angry or Insulting comment Sony PSP and !he Nintendo D~
use geometrical primiti~ such as poenti, Ion ,
on d diSCUSSion group. handheld scanner " hrendhc1d ,.. k.en J n
curves and poIyqOlls to represenllm.Jg!:'!o.
Flash IrtxII n 1 The Adobe' Flash Playe-r, 2 The A _annef that 15 fl"lO\Ied by hand, ,dpal f
freeware !'fn:".,!' a' n Softwaft' that IS aV.l,ldble
Adobe Flash Prof~siOnal multimedia authoring .aptunng small pictures, Iog~ and bol XI!
free of charge, but prOle ·ted by copyright,
program, uSPd to create anlmallons and hard disk I'ha:d ,dr .. k/ n See hard drive
advertisememr..lt supports a scripting language FrontPage I, fr " nt ' peIU;) 'n A web ed'ior from
Microsoft, uSPd for destgl'llng web page!.. hard drive /' ho:d ,dral vl n A magnet'! '>too 91
called Actionxripl. and Ih£' streaming of audiQ
deVIce that reads and wr,tf:'!, datd on ml"l,
and Video, function /' f,,!)k!:,"1 n A ready·to·use formula
d,~ks (called platters) inside a sealed CJst' A
flash card reader Nhc! ,ko:d ,ri:d al n A devICe that helps you perform a ~pe, ialiled cdlculatlon,
hdrd drive is commonly known as a hard d'5~
that reads and writes a nash memory card, e·9· SUM. A\.o'£RAGE. etl
Strictly speaking, drive refers to the entire unit,
flash drive l' fI.e! ,dntlvl n A USB Storage function keys I'f"rJ k!;)n ,ki: tJ n Keys that containing mult,ple platters, a read/write head
device, small enough to fit on a key ring, uSPd to dPpear at the top of tilt> keybodrd and Coln be and a motor, While hard disk refers to th(> storage
store and transport computer data progfammed 10 do special tasks. medium itself.
flash memory I,fhe! ' mem aril n A type of hardware I' hu:d", cal n The physical un,ts which
non·volat ile memory that can be erased and
make up a computer system. See software
reprogrammed gadget I'g:cd311 ! n A small hardware deVice.
hardware engineer I' ho :dwc;, end31 ,nlaln
Synonymous with gizmo (slang),
flatbed scanner !'flrel bed ,skren!)/ n A scanner Someone who designs and develops IT device'
wi th a gla~s scanning sur face on which objects gamecontroller l'gclnl kJ n,t raul al n A device
header I' hedal n Customized te~t printed In th~
ale placed; similar to a phOIOCoplE'f. used 10 control video gamt>\
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help desk technician I' help ,dc~k InDesign /' rnd rZU In! n A desktop publishing iPhone /' alf;)(Jn! n A device from Apple Ihat
tck ,llIf;:ml n Somf:'OnE' who helps end USE'rs program created by Adobe System!.. combines three products in one: an iPod, a
wltl1 then compUTer problems in person, by ink cartridge 1'lljk ,ko:t rld y n A replaceable mobile phone and an internel communicator.
l"mdll or over tile phone. container that holds the ink of an inkjet printer iPod 1':l lpodl n A family of portable media
hertz I h:l:t,1 n A unit of frequency equal to one inkjet printer I' Iljkd3ct ,pnnt a! n A printer players from Apple. Popular models include the
Y1 e pef se<:ond. named after Heinflch Hem: that generates an Image by spraying tiny drops iPod Nane, the tPod Shuffle-and the full-sized
high-level language l ,h" 1 ,lcv;)1 'la:rJy .... Idy n of Ink at the pa~f By heating the Ink Within the ,Pod that can also be used as a portable hard
A )guage in wh .h each statement represe-nts Pflnt head, Individual drops are e~pelled to make di~
"VI ral machine CI)(l'f InSlrlKtiOns. e.g. COROL. a matrix of dots on the paper. iTunes /' allju:n tJ n A program from Apple that
Pa~.at or C.
input /' In(>01/ 1 n The process of transfel rlng \et~ yrYoJ
play and organize musk and vidf:'O nles.
homednema I ,hau n! ' .. In;:'l11 ;)/ n A system information into the memory from a peripheral on computer or on an iPod. With an Inlernel
that tfle~ to reproduce the cif1E"ma experience UOll 2 v To transfer data, or program InstrUctlon~, connection, iTunes can also connect to the
I tnE'" home. It is al~o called home theaTre and into the compuler. iTunes Store in order to download purchased
Iyplcally IncludE".. a large· screen TV. a hi-fi sy~lem input d evices I' Inpot dl , val~ I zJ n Un,ts mUSI . vid€"os and lXldcasts.
Wllh speak{'fs for surround Y>Und. and a [)II( of hardware which allow Ihe u:;.er 10 enter
ff d( r ,nfO/matlon Into the computer. e.g. the keyboard, J
home page " h;)(Jm ,peldy n , The first page mouse. voice recognitIon deVICes. etc. Java I'd3u;V;)/ nThe programming language
on a webSIte. I h<lt usudlly contains links 10 other Instant Messaging (1M) l ,tn,l;)nt 'mc'oId311J1 n from Sun Microsystems for bUilding internet
~),)ges 2 The default starl'up page on whICh a Exchanging texI mE'"ssages In real·tlme bel ween applications. Java programs (called applelS) let
wf'b browser starts. two or mOlE' people logged into 1M services such you watch animated charac ters and moving te~t.
host h;)(J .. t n A lompotf'f contaIning datil or as AIM. Windows live Messenger and Yahool play mu~ic.. etc.
programs that other I )mpoter~ can access VIii a Messenger. Modern 1M servicE".. also have audiO Java ME l,d3U:V;:' e 'mi:1 n The Jdlla platform.
'twork or modem and video capab t Ml(ro Ed,llon, uY'd to create appll(ation~ thaI
hotspot " hOI ~pn t n The grographiC boundilry Intel /' Int cl l n ThE> company that deSigns and lun on mobile phones. PDAs. TV :;.et·tup bo~~
JVpred by a Wi-FI wlrele~s acce% poInt. produces the processors used in most Pes and pflnters. For example, many phones are
HTML /, c l tfli!cm 'cll n The language used 10 Intel Core 2 Duo /, lntel ,k :>; ,I u: configuled to use Java games.
(redle hYPE'rte~t documenlS (e.g. web pages); 'llju!;)u/ nTechnOlogy thdt includes I wO cores, joystick l 'd3:l"1Ikl n An input devicewilh a
,hort for Hyper/ext Mafkup Language. or processors. Into a single ChiP, offerrng tWICe ver tical lever. used in computer games.
HTML tags ,('rlfti:cmcl 'ta:gz/ n The code' the speed of a traditional chip. JPEG I'd3Clpcgl n A standard for compressing
>l'd l( define-te~t fonl~. fOfmat pafaglaph~ add interactive whiteboard /lOt ;l,a-kt IV and decompresSing image files, developed by
f1~ eTC HTML lag' dIe surrounded by thE' angll" ' waltbJ:dI n A touch'sensitlve prOjection ,.creen the Jolm PhotographiC Expert~ Group. A jpg
br.;.:kets < and lhat allcwtS the u~er to control a computer extenSion IS added 10 many Image files on lhe
HTIP ',cllfti:ti: 'pi: f nThe method by whICh d,rectly, by touchIng the board instead of u~ing Web.
web pages dre transferred from d webSi te to a keyboard. Used ,n presentation si tuations such
your PC; httpdppearsal the beginmng of web as teaching K
Iddre "S and means hypertexT Iramfer prolocol interface I' rnt ;lfc,,1 n Channels arid coollol kerning / ' k :!:n l IJI n The plOCesS of adjusting
hybrid hard disk ,h:llbnd 'ho:d , d l ~kJ n cirCUits which provide a connectIon betWl!en the the spaces between let\er~ to achieve even.
A h LId di~k With integrclled flash mt'ffiO/y. :PU and the perlpheral~. See also user interface conSistent letter spacing
IE'ndPd for I)I'W dptopS and mobi PC~ Internet ''' Int ;)ncll n A global network of keyboard I'ki:bJ:dI n A set of k~ on a
hyper1ink ,,'halpJlllJkl n A te~1. Image 01 comput{'f networks whICh offers servICes such terminal or computer, including Ihe stan<lard
bunon thaI. when dickPd, lakes you 1001ht'r as email, file \(an~fer, oollne chats, newsgroups, Iypewrller k"'Y~ (for leners and numlx>rsl.
de~llniltlons on the Web. and information retrieval on the Web. It evolved funC\lOn keys and seve/al special keys.
hypermedia l'haLpJmi:dial n A form of from the Arpanet of the 70s and uses the TCP/IP kilobit I' kll ;)bJ I I n One thousand bits.
enfLched mul timedia which suppom linking protocol. kiiobyte / 'k ll;)b,HII n A unit for medsuring the
Cjrdph'cs. '>Ound. and yldeo elements in addition internet auction I, rnl;)nct 'J: kf.:ml n A we~lte I1l€'mory or disk space in fhousands of bytes. AI'>O
t{ text element' on whiCh bids are rf,ce,ved and transmitted called k Equals 1.024 bytes.
hypertext ' halp;)tchl ' n TE'kt thaI Cont,llns electronically.
"~,, to lther docum ntl Internet Explorer f, mtanct Ik ' ~pb:;)" nA L
popular web brOwSE'r from Microsoft. laptop l ' l a:pl opl n A small type of portable
Internet Service Provider liSP) f ,mt anet I,::;,: compu l er.
icon 1':1J konl n A pICture replesen ting an obJ('Ct, V I ~ pr"JU, VUJd;)} n The company which gives laser printer l' l clz;) ,prlnta! n A pnmer I hat
such a document. program, folder or hard you access to the Internet. uses a lasel beam to fix the ink (toner) to the
disk inlernet telephony 1,lnt;)nct 11 ' lcf;)ni/ n See papel.
ICT system ,ll l,i:li: ', I, I':>lnl n A system VolP lightpen 1'111 11 pen! n A highly :;.en~ltlve photo-
that uses Infounatl >n and communications internet TV 1, InIJnct ti : ' vi:1 n A TV <oet u~ as elecltl( device which uses the screen as the
I, 'Chnologie's. an Imernet deviCe. positioning reference. The user can paiS the pen
1M server 1,_ITcm " :J:va! n A central sy~lem interpreter h n't ::;,:prtt ;)/ n A special program over the surface of the screen to draw or modify
thai providE'S presence Information about online tha t translates the source code line by line, as the images displayed on I he screen.
uo;ers, and passes instant messages between program is runn ing link 111IJkl n See hyperlink
'h m Intranet /' Int r;:,nct l n A company network link up {,liok ' ... pI v To form a connectIon 11"\
iMac " ;um;ck/ n A dE'sktop computer from that u:;.es public Internet software but rrukes orde-r 10 opelate together.
Apple. Intended for hofll' ;chooi and small the website only acc~slble to employees and Unux I'llnJbl n Operi-source software

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imagesetter /' rm l d3" ctJI n A professional
pl"lnter that generates high·resolution output on
authorized U<oel~
invoice l' lnvJI'" n A document Showing lhE'
items pUf(ha'>ed. quantities. prices, etc.. and
developed under the GNU General Public
liCense. This means anybody can copy its source
code, change It and distribute it
paper or microfilm. requesting Ddymem for a credit order. liquid cr ystal display I ,lrkwld
inch IlIIfl n The equivalent of 2.S4 cm. or /2.27 IP address 1:1I'pi: ;:',drcsl n A number which ' kn st;)1 dJ , ~plc ll n A fla t-screen display made
POint' It is rep!eSE'nted by the symbol" idemifies a computer on the Inlernet Every of two glass plates with a liquid CI)'Stal material
indentation l, rndcn 'tcIJanl n The space computer OI"lthE' Net has a uniquE'" IP ilddres~ between them. The cryslals block the light
Ut>tw!:'{>n 1hE' paqe margins and where the text e.g. In differem quantilies 10 Cfeale the IrnogE'.
alig!1s. IP spoo fing / at ,pi: " pu:fllJl n Making one Active-matrrx LCOs use TFT (th," film tranSistor)
compuler look II~e another to gain unaulhoflzed technology. p!'oducing very sharp images.

lithium-i on battery 1,IIOiam ,alan ' ba:t aril n A master pag e l'mo:sta ,pc rdy" A page you MP4 player l empi:'b:r ,plctal n A portable
type of a battery composed of lithium, a metallic d~ign which can be applied to any document media player thaI plays video in the MPEG-4
chemical €'lemem. used in PDAs. camefas and page. You can place text and picture boxes. format. It is like an MP3 player that can play video
mobile phones. headers and footers, and page rules. e-te. 00 a
load 1I:KKl1 vTo read program Instructions Into
the main memory
maSlet page, which ensures a consistent look on
all pag~.
MPEG I'empcg/ n A standard for compl~~lng
and decompre-sSlng IIicIeo files; developed by Ihe
local area network (LAN) 1,I;)Obi ,caria media player I'mi:dia ,plCl ai n Software Ihat Moving Pictur~ Experts Group.
' nct w:J:kJ n A group of computer devic~ plays audio, video or animation files. mUlti-format playback /m ... lti,r::l:ma:t
imerconnected within a ~mall ph)'SICal area, like a megabit l'mcgablt l n A milllOf"l binary digitS 'plclba:kI n The feature- of a media player that
home or office oollding. (1,024 kilobits). makes it compatible With many file formats,
log in/on 1, log ' m/l,log ' onl O'Togaln acc~sto megabyte I' mcgabaltl n 1,024 kilobytes. ilXluding DVD-vldeo. DlvX. MP3 music Of JPEG
a computer system or nelwork megahertz I'mcgah:s:t '" n A unit of a m.lhon Images.
log out/off 1, log 'aull' ,log 'or! vTo Sign off; cycles per se<ond. ~ to measure proc~sor multi-funct ion printer Im ... 1t i,f"'l)kI;)n 'prrnt a!
to end a computer session. The opposite of log ,peed nAn ·all-In-one· device that can work as a printer.
in/on. megapixel /' mcgaprkscl/ n One million pixels. a scanner, a fax and a photocopier.
login/logon l 'log lw I 'logonl n The process of memory card l' mcnl"Jri ,ko:d/" A removable multimedia l ,m"lt i'mi:dial n The integration
identifying yourself when entering a computer module used to store imag~ 10 digital cameras, of text, graphics. audio. video and anrmation In a
sys tem or network. You usually type your user to record voice and mUSiC on MP3 playels, or Single application.
name and password to back up data on PDAs. They are made up of multitasking l' m"h i ,to :sk rl)/ n The exe.:ullon
low-level lan guage 1,1:lU ,lcv;)1 ' l,crJ9wrd3r' " flash memory chips (e.g. CompartFlash, SPcurf' of sE'veral tasks at the same time
A programming language tha t Is IIery close to Digital). See fla sh memory multi-th readed I'm"lt i,Orcdld/ adl Refers to
machme language. See assembly language menu bar I'rncnju: ,00:/ n A row of words at a computer program that has multiple threads
the top of the screen that open up menus when (parts). i.e. many different things processing
M selectf'd. indf'pendently and continuously. This enables
Mac OS I, ma:k ;)O'e!>! n An operating system message thread s I'me'ld3 ,Ured.,) n A !.ElliE'S of the program to make the best use of available
created by Apple and used on Macintosh interrelated mess.ages on a given topic -PU power
computers. microchip l'malkratIIp/ n See ch ip MySpace! l' mar~pcl "'; nA soclJI networklnq Silt.'
MacBook f m;ckbuk/ n A Macintosh notebccl: that allows users to share messages. In{el~ts.
Microsoft Access I, rnarkrasoft ',ck sc .J n A
compuler blog!, phOlos, mUSIC and videos WIth fflf"nds
relational database managemem sy~lem.
machine code Ima'Ii:n ,k;)U(IJ n Bmary code Microsoft Office I,m:ukra,nf, ' of I" n
numbers; the only language Ihal computers can N
An integrated package- that,nc::lude!o <;orTlE'
understand directly nanobot /' nren;)O,bot / n A mlCff cop lobot.
combination of Word. Excel. PowerPomt, Acc~s
magnetic storage devices / ma:Y,nctrk ' ..t -:l: built by means of nanorechnology
and Outlook. along with va{iou~ internet and
nd3 d r, vUlsr.,) n dt>vices that store data by otoo utilities. nanocomputer l, n:cn:lUI,.am 'pju :t ;)' n A
magnetiZing particles on a disk Of tape (e.g. hard mc :ule·slzed computer, the,ire of a grain
MIDI I'mldiJ n A standard for conOE'(lIng
drive. tape drive). computers and muslCallnSlrumems. MIDI fil~ of sand. e.g. a Quantum computer. a DNA
magnetic tape /ma:y ,ncllk ' tcrp! n A computer, etc.
contain the .midi elltenslor), short for Musicol
sequential SIOIage device used fOI data Imtrumenl Digitallnterface. nanotechnology l, na:n;)Otck ' nol.xl3l-' n ThE
collectioo, backup and archiving. A tape conSISts scie-nce of making small dE'Vi(~ from singl
millisecond I'mrh"ck;mdi n One thou~ndth
of a magnetiC coatmg on a thin plastic Sl!Ip. atoms and molecules.
ofa second
mail merging / 'mcil ,1ll:s:d3IU/ n ThE' process of nanotube /' n:cn;)t),tju:bl n Extremely small
mobile (phone) /' maubarl/ n (US: cell phone)
combining a dalaww file Wi th a word processor tube mad!? from pure carbon. Nanotubes i1f<'
A phone connf:>Cted to the telephone system by
to personalize a standard letter !?~pected to be used in the developmpnt of
radiO, rather than by a wife
mail server I' merl ,':S:v;)/ n The compu ter materials for buildings, cars, airplanes, clothes.
modem l 'm;)U(jernl n A device that corwem etc.
where your Internet Service PrOVidE'r Stores your the digital signals used by computers Into thp
emails. netiquette I' nctlkcll "'Net etiqUf'lIe'; good
analogue 5ignals used by the telephOne lines,
mailbox I' mc rlbok,' n The place-where your manners when communicaTl"9 online
thus allOWing access to the Internet. ShOlt for
email program SIOf~ new email for you. M()()ulalarIDEModula/or. NetMeeting /' ncl ,mi:tr!) " AVolP and vld,
mailing Iist l' mc rllrJ , 11 ~t l n A system used to conff>rt'!Xing program from M'crosoft
modem-router I' m;)U(jcm ,rll:l aI n A device
d,stfloote email to many different SUbscflbers that connects various computers (e.g. a home Netscape Navigator I,nct o;kcrp ' n1C\ rycll;)
at once. LAN) to the Int{>fne\. n A web brOW'Rr developed by Nel' a~
main memorY /, mcln 'mcl1l;)riJ nThe sec\lon ommunications
monitor I'monrt al n An output device With
which holds the Instructions and data currently a screen on which WOlds Of PIClur~ can be network i' net w:J:kJ n A sy!otem of )(Tlput1;'r
bel"9 processed; also referred to as the shown. Also called a display screen. deVI' or·nodes' (e.g. PC5 and pllnters)
.mmedlQreoccf'S! noreOf Infernal memory. PC\ motherboard l' m t.tbb:J:di n The main circuil IfI\f"ICOf"If"M"C.ted so thaI infOfma\l W"\ and
make- use of (WQ types of main memory: RAM resoorCE , can be shared by a largE umbel Qi
board of a computer. whICh cOflt;llns the
",d ROM users
procesSOf, memory chip\' expansion slots and
Macintosh /' ma:k Int nil n A popular computer controlle-rs for periphelals. conf)f>(ted by buses. network administrator I,nct .... :J: I,.
from Apple. Inuoduced in 1984; the first -.xI'mlflr~t rcltai n Someone wl"lr mdnagt's tilt'
mous@ /mau",,"Asma!! input deviCe used to
computer WIth a graphICal user interface. hardware and software that compuS€' a r¥.'twork
5pecify the posltioo of the cursor Of to make
mainframe I'mclnfrClm/ n The largE'St and choices from menus. A mechanical mouse has a newsgroups I' nj u :zgru:p,1 n The publ
most ~rfuj type of computer. Mainframes rubber 01 metal bal! underneath that IS mllro by dl ;cussion areas which make up Usenf'!. The
proce-ss enormous amounts of data and ale used the user. An oplical mouse use~ light (a laser) to COntents are COf1!ributed by people who §f'm
In large installations. detect the mouse·s movement. and can be wired artICles (messages) or respond to artldf'l.
malware /' m:cl wc;)/ n Malicious software. 01 wireless newsreader I' nju:z,ri:da/ n A program that
created 10 damage computer data. It includes MP3 / ,cmpi : 'Ori:1 n 1 A standilrd format that reads and sends articles to newsgroups.
viruses, worms. TrOjan horses and spywale. compresses mUSIC files, enabling them to be nickname l' nlkncl m/ n A name used by a
markup language / 'mo:k"p ,Itcl)gwrd y " A transmitted over the Net more eaSily. 2 A file participant on mailing lim or chat sessiom
computer la"9uage that uses instruCllons, called containing a SClog 01 other audio data that is in~tead of the real name.
markup tags, to format and link web documents. encoded using the MP3 standard node InJOdl n Any computer devl(f' in a
marquee select tools Imo:,ki: ~ r ' lckl ,1U :17J n MP3 player I cmpi: 'Ori: ,pICI;)/ n A dig!lal music nE'(work
Tools used to selt"Ct a particular part of an image. player that supports the MP3 format
non-volatile memory Inon, VOI;)tllIJ ' mcm;)ril paint bucket I' pew t ,bAk l tl n A tool used to fill platform-independent l,pl1e t f:j :m
n Permanent memory, able to hold data Without in an area with it COIOUL mdl ' pend:m tJ ad) Refers to software that can
power. ROM and Flash memory are examples of Palm as i,pu:m ;")o'cs! n An operating system lun on any computer system.
non-volatile memory. used on Palm hand-held devices. platter !'pla:t;,! n A magnetiC plate, or disk, that
notebook computer !, naolbllk k;)m 'pju:t;)1 palmtop !'JXI:mt up! n A hand-held personal constitutes part of a hard disk drive. There may
n A light, pClItable computer that is generally computer. be only one or several planers in a drive.
thinner Ihan a laptop. Pascal /pa:s'ka:l! fI A high-level language PlayStation l 'pic l ,sl elf ;)nl n A video game
numeric keypad Inju :,mcnk 'ki:pa:dI n A created In 1971, named after the mathematician console from Sony.
small key section that appears to the right of Blaise Pascal. Its highly structured design plotter I' plnt:ll n A graphics output device
Ihe main keyboard and contdins numeric and facilitates the rapid locatioll and correction of which is used to make variOUS types of
editing keys. coding errors, Today, it's used in universities to engineering drawings.
teach the fundamentals of programming. plug -ins l' pIAQ l n7) n Special programs which
o password !' po:sw:.I:dI n A secret word which extend the capabilities of a web browsel so that
object-oriented programming l, obd3rkt must be entered before access is given to it it can handle audio, video, 3D and animation
,;,:ricntld ' pr;)ugf(crnlfjl n A technique Ihal computer system or website. elements.
dllows Ihecreation of objects that inteldct with pa ste IpCl~t l liTo Insert a copy 01 text or podcast I' pooku: stl n An audio recording that
edch other and can be used as the foundation of graphics, held in the computer's memory, at a Is distributed by subscription (paid or unpaid)
olhers. Used to develop graphical user Interfaces. chosen position of a document. over Ihe Internet uSing RSS feeds, for playback on
offline 1,0f'l<lI nl ad, Of adv Not connected to the PC I ,pi: '~i:f n A personal compulet", which mobile devices and PCs: COlOed from iPOO and
Internet carries out processing on a single ch ip. PCs ale broadCAST
online l' onlarnl ad;orad",Connected to the often classitied by size and portability: desktop point / pJrnt l n A unit used to measure font
Internet. PCs. laptops, tablet PCs and PDAs. types and Ihe dislance between basehne-s, A
online banking /, onlarn 'b:Cl)k llJ / n Performing PC game I, pbi: 'ge rm! n A game played on a point is a subdivision of a pica: there are 12
(ran'lodctions and payments through a bank's personal compuler. points in a pica and 72.27 points in an inch.
website Also known as IflIemer banking peer-to-peer I,PI:l 1:1 'pI;)1 n A network pointer l' pJlnt;)/ n 1 A small picture that
onscreen keyboard l on,skri:n 'ki:b;):dI n A architecture in which all the computers have Ihe follows the mouse movements. 2 The cursor
graphic representation of a keyboard on the 'Iodme capabilities, i.e. share files and p€'lIpherals, which locates the insertion point on the screen,
computN '>Creen, allowing people with mobility without requirrng a separate server computer. i.e. indicales where the next c\)oraCler will be
problems to type data using d JOYStick or peer-to-peer file-sharing l, pI;) t~ ,PI;) displayed
pointing device_ 'fall,IC;)W)! n A form ofP2P networking which port / p;): I! n A socket or channel in Ihe rear
open-source !'JupJn ,:<.J:s! ad; Refers to eliminates Ihe need for cemral servers, allOwing panel of the computer into which you can plug
the source code (of software) that is free and all computers to communicate and shale a wide range of peripherals: modems, scanners,
available to anyone who would like to use it or resource$ (music files, videos, etc.) as equals. digital cameras, etc. See USB port.
modlfyi! pen drive !'pcn ,dnllvl n See flash drive portable DVD player l, p;);I;)bal di:vi: 'di:
operating system !' Op;)rclt rl) ,~r~t;)ml n A peripherals I p-:J' r rf;)r:llzl n The units attached ,picl;)1 n A handheld device with a built·in OVD
set of programs that control the hardware and to the computer, classified into three types: input drive and a screen.
software of a computer system. Typical functions devices, output devices and storage devices. portable hard drive !,p"J:t;)bJI 'hu :d ,dralvl n
include handling input/oulput operaIJons, An external hard drive that is connected to the
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
running programs and organizing tiles on disks. USB or FireWire port of the computer.
!, PJ:~an;)1 ,d ld3rl:l1 a'sls t :lnt l n A tiny
optical character recognition I, opt Ik;)1 computer which can be held in one hand. The portable media player l,p;,:t;)b;,J 'mi:di a
'ka:r;)kt;) rcbg,nII;)n l nTechnology that term PDA refer~ 10 a variety of hand-held devices, ,p1cl ;)/ n A handheld device that plays audio and
allows computers to recognize text Input into palmtops and pocket PCs. For input, you type at video files.
a system wllh d scanner. After a Pdge has been a small keyboard or use a stylus. II can be used PostScript !' paosskrrpt! n A page descnption
>Cdnned, an OCR program identities fonts, styles as a personal olganizer, a mobile phone 01 an or graphin language developed by Adobe
and graphic areas. internet device. Systems. A PostScripl font is any font defined in
optical disc I,nptrbl 'dl~kl (] A sloragedevice phishing I'f IfllJl n Getling passwords of online this language, e.g. TImes or Helvetica
in which data is recorded as micro<,(opic 'pits'by bank accounts or credit card numbers by using power-line internet l ,p:w;)lar n 'rnl Jnct! n
a laser beam. The data is read by photoelectric emalls that look like real organizations, but are in A technology that provides low-cost internet
sensors which do not make active contact With Idct fake; short for ptmword horvesling fishing. access via the power plug.
the storage medium.
phosphor I'fnsf;,! n The material or su~tance PowerPoint I' pau;)pJJntl n A presentatron
output !'alltput! l n The results produced by a of the CRT screen that lights up when struck by graphics program from Microsoft
computer. 2 v To transfer information from a CPU an elecHon beam. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) I,pn t i ,gild
to an output device.
Photoshop l' f:llJt;)uIopl n An image 'pnvJ~ i! n A freeware program, wnllen by Phil
output devices /' ,101 pot dr , V<lrSlzJ n The manipulallon program developed by Adobe Zimmerman, designed to send email privately
units of hardware which display the results Systems. primary colours f, pralm;)ri 'kAI:lzJ n These
produced by the computer (e.g. plotters, primers,
PictBridge I' PI kbndJi n A technology are red, green and blue (AGB) in computers.
developed by Canon Ihatlets you print images Compare with the colours conSidered ba~ic in
from a memory card in a digital camera or inks (magen ta, yellow and cyan).
P a camera phone directly to the printer (no primitives I'pnm It IV7.l n The basic shapes used
.pdf I, pi:di:'cfl n A portable document form<lI computer is neceS'lodfy). to construct graphical objects: lines, polygons,
from Adobe, commonly used to distribute text
piracy !' p:llf;)sil n The illegal copying and etc.
tiles oller Ihe Inlernet, and read with Acrobat
distribUlion of copyrighted programs and files. print preview I,pnnt 'pri:v ju:! n A function
pixel l' plk~;)JI n The smaliest unit on a display that shows how pages will look when printed.
page descriptio n language I,PCld3
'>Creen or bitmapped Image (usually a coloured printer I'prrnt;)/ n An output device which
dr 's krrrf;)n ,Ja:IJQwld31 n A computer dot).
language that de'>Cribes how to print the te)(\ convem data into printed form. The output from
dnd images on each page of the document plasma screen I' pJ:czm:l ,~ kri:nl n A display a printer is referred to as a print·out Of hard copy-
that generales images by a plasma discharge, printer driver I'pnnt;) ,dralv;)! n A program
Page -layout program !,pcld3 'lcraut
which contains noble. non-harmful gases. It installed to control a particular type of printer
,pr;)ugncml n Application software used to
allows for larger screens and wide viewing printing plate ! ,prrnt rn 'pIClt! n A metal
Import texts and i!iuslfations, and to combine
angles. 5urface that carlies the image 10 be printed.
and arrange them all on a page; e.g. Adobe
platesener t plelt sct;)! n A machine that processor !' pr:'lO~c~;)' n The chip that processe~
InDesign or QualkXPless.
create-s the printing plates. the inslfuctions prOVided by the software See
central processing unit (CPU).
program I'pmogra:rnl n A wt of instructions resolution l, rt'7al'u :fanl nThe maxImum Second Ufe I.~ck,)nd 'hu ff n A 3·0 VIrtual world
that tells the compuler how to do a speCific task. number of pixels in the herllerllal and vefllCa! on the Internet, entirely built and, lwned by It~
The ta~k can IX' anytlw19 from tile- solution to a dllectiQrls of tilt> loCreen; alloO ref ..rs to the restdems.
Maths problem to the productiOn of a graphics numlX'r of pixt'ls per l/"ICh, SKtor /'~ckl;) n A part of a II kk on a magr 'tiC
p.Kkage. rewritable I r i: ' ral l ;,hll ad, Able to he le-wnllt>-n d ,
programmer I'pr:lOQra: rn ai n Someone who many tImes. seek time l',i: l ,ta lm! n Tn ilveragt:' t,me
wntes computer programs. right dick I,mlt ' k ll k! v To p!e~s dnd 1t>lE>aloe Ih required fOf the lead/wI,te head 01" disk dr've 10
programming l'pr,wgra.'1ll1 0f n The process right button on a I'"l100'>1;'': thiS acllon d"plJys a m IVE' ilnd access data. mea~ured ,n mIl ,secr.>flds.
of Willing iI progrilm USII"Ig iI computE'f IiInglklge. list of commands AI '<l ween (Iffif'
protocol l' pr;)O \ ;)Knll n A set of rules whICh RIM Inml n An ope-rallng ~tem u<,ed on setup /, WI '" pl vToinslalldnd mtigurt'
determine the format~ by which informatiOn BlackBerry communICatIon devi(~ deve-lopt'd hardware or software
may be exchanged between dIfferent systems, by Research tn Motion. set·topbo" I "et ,t op ' bok, nAdt Plhat
proxy I' pmk,il n A computer <'(orver which ring topology 1, 111) t n 'p nl:xl3il n One 01 tht> connects to a TV and to an ext,-,rnal source
controls the traffic between thE' Internet and a three principal topologies for a LAN. in which all 01 sIgNI (e.g. a satellite diSh or cable TV) and
private network. deviCes are Interconnecte<! in iI continuous loop, converts the signal intO con tent thf>n d,,>pl~~
or ring on the TV screen.
Q ringtone I'not ;xm l n A dIgital sound hie played setup l' wl"pl n The way In whICh a pregr,lm )r
QuarkXpress ! ,k wu: k lk '~p rc,! n A page by a telephone to announce an Incoming call. deVICe IS configured
I,wout application produced by Quark ripping / 'nplljl n Converl lllQ music tracks flOm shareware l 'f c;)wc;,1 n Sof fware dls\fibuled
query I' k w loril n A r('Quest for data; in a a CD \0 the MP3 format similarly 10 freeware. but requI!lng payment alter
ddlabase, a functiOn I hal illlow~ you to ex tract rotation Ir;)'ICl f ;)nl n TUfOlng an objE'CI around a trial period, Also known as 'try beforE' you buy'
data accordIng to cena ln condItions or cnteflil. its axis. software
QuickTime /' k w lk l arrnl n Software from Apple router I' ru:t al n A dE"Vlce used to transm il d,lt.1 shopping cart I'J OPII) ,ku: tl n Sohware thai
that E'nabk-s users to play. edIt, and mdnlpulale bet......een two ComputE'fS or n!"tworks. See al'>O lets you (hoose products from a webSIte and
multlmedid file~, moclem-router and wirefess router proces'>E's the order through thE' pl1ymPflI
routine Iru:' t i:nI n A pIece of od!' whlfh galeway
R performs a speCific task In the operdtion of a sign up " <;':lI n '"I" v To register in a IVlce
radio tags I'rc ldi;)O ,t:t:g7) n MIcrochips program or systE'm. signature " 'Ignatf~ n A flit> WIth per>onal
attached 10, or embedde<! intO, pt'odu(ts. animals row Ir;:,ol n A hOflzomalliot> of boxe ... labE' :eel informatIon that IS automat,cdlly an, _hoed aIlhe'
or people. fOf the purpoloe of IdentIfication with a numlX'r, in a sprt'ad~t program. end ,,( an emaIl meso age.
radio -frequency identification (RFIO) RSS feed lu:e~ 'c~ ,fi:dI n A web leed format silicon chip ' " ll l;)n ,tflP 'I A deVICe made up
" r c ldi;)1.1 ,fri: k .... ;)nh i al denll f l ' ke IJ;ml n that allows su~ribers to rl'(eM upjatt'S of )f a semi--<onducting maten )01. wh ·tl
Technology thai uses rad,o waves and chip· bIog~ news. po(ka~ts. etl ontalns a set of integrated (irCUI!S
equipped taqs (calle<! RFIO tags) to automatically
run a program I" ... n a ' pr;)Uyr:cml 1'10 simulation !, ~ 'mja' Ie I J;)!ll n Lr 19' ClO'p>Jlt'1
Identify people or thll'"I9~ models (plograms) to imltale leal fE' or rru .. t'
execute a specific program: to U<,f'.\ plog/dm
random access memory (RAM) pred tlOns.
I,rre nd;)m ' a: k ~c~ ,meOl;)ril n The part 01 5 sip-and -puff ,' IP ,a!nd 'p" f ' n A \E'(hnoloqy
thE' maIn memOly which stores informmion that allows someonE' with quadriplegia!O
save I 'c i 1'1 v To copy InformatIon from tht' RAM
temporanly whIle you are work ing. RAM requires contlOl the computer by SIPPing and pulfmg a,r
to a storage df'ViCE
a continuous power supply to retaIn Informalion. through a mouth-comrolled lube or JOyStICk
Compare WIth ROM scale I sk c lll v 1 To mJgrl'ly or shrink a par\lcul,u
font. 2 To make an objE'CtlargE'r or sml1l1er in any site /,;] lt ' n See website
raster graphics I' m :, t ;) ,yra; fll" ,I n Images
dlrE'Ction Skype ! , kalpl n A program thatl1l1ows you h)
~lOred and displayed as pI xels. which (dn
scan I, krenl v To digitile an imagE' by pa~Silly I! make voICe and vidro calls from a campul!'r
become diStorted when manlDulated. Also called
b,t·mapped qrophics. through a scanner. slide scanner I' ~ J a ,d " kre n;, ' n A dev" u...ed
scanner 1 '!> ~ :c n ;)1 n An Input device that to \ an 3Smm slides or film negatlv .11>0 ';11 d
read -only memory (ROM) / ,r i:d' ;)Onl i
, rnc m ~ ril n Chip~ 01 memory contaInIng
scans (reads) the Image as a SE'fll"S of dots and a film 'Kannel
,nformatIon which IS plesent and jX'rmanenl introouces the informatlOll into the computE'r\ smart device r ' ll1u:t dl , v:lf ~1 n An ob ~t
AlSO known a~ fllrnworc memory containing a microchip and mem( y,
read/write head I,r i:d ,ra il 'hed/ n The pan screen magnifier r , k ri:n ,rm t:gnlf:II;)1 n smart home ~ mo:t ,h;)Om n A r )r"nE' wherE"
of a di~k drive Ihat reads lind WlltE'S dala on a Software Ihal enlarges te~t and Imdgh on the all It .yst!'ms (security. !ighIS. appr f'IC~
magnC'li disk. saeen. makIng the contE'n{ mOfe leadabl fOl ITS. audio·vldeo deviCes. etc.1 "re
U'iE'rs WIth low viSIOn. 1/l1( Lonnf'(te-d to allow the automal md
RealPlayer l ' n alpICI.)/ n A medIa pktyer,
screen reader i',k ri:n ,ri :da n Sohwl1re lOt th rfill Itl' )fItral)f the hl)ll1E'.
created by Real~tworks. Ihal pklys a vaflety of
audio and vieiro IOfmat~. blind that convert' .It lOllI. lt' ltO ~po~ smart phone ,mo :t ,f ;)On 'n A mobl
words phi rw WIth advanced functions, provl,j'nq -iOICe
real -time 1' r1;)1talml adl Refers 10 something
screen saver r ~ lrj:n , ,c rva r A Pfc..g1am that rVlet' as well as any comblilation of email, lex!
live, Simultaneous (withOUI delay). e.g real'lIme
darkens the screen ilftt'f vou h"VE' not worked ml ~glng, web access, vo,ee re<.:order Cdffi':!'l'a.
for SE'Vt'fal mlnutel DesIgned to prOtect an M~ TV or video player and organizer
reboot I ri: ' bu : tl vTo restartlhe computer
unchanging imagE from burning intO the S{f('t'n smileys 1'l>mal li:7 1 n Faces madelrom
record I'reb :dI n A unit of a file conSisting of a punctUdtlon characters 10 express emOllOl"l5
screen size I' .. kri :n " all} n The vIewIng area of
number of interrelated data elemt>nts (fiE'lds), In email messages, e.g.:·) fOf happy. olm
a monitor; measured dlagon.llly. in IIlche~
register l'r cd3 1'1,-./ n The componenl In surpn'>E'd, etc. Also called emoll(OIJS.
scroll /, kr;)01I v To move a document in its
the plocessor or other chip whICh holds the software I' , ofw.:;) / nThe sel of program
window by uSlf19 scroll bars so that lext in
instruction from the memory whIle it b beIng instructIOns that 11'11 th~ computE"r whatlodo,
another part of Ihe document is visibte.
eXE'Cuted See hardware
scroll bar I'sli.r;){Jl ,bu:1 n A hOfILontal or
re lational database Irr ' lc lfafl ;)1 ,d c ll abc l'" software engineer I ',ufwc;) c nd3 I,J1I;)/ n
vertical bar COntaining a box that i~ (licked and
n A datdbase ~ystem thdt maintdlns separate, dragged to the dE'sired dirE'Ction, Som(>Qne who willes computer programs. alS<)
related files (tables), but combine~ data elements known as programmer or programmer rlnrl/y\l.
from the filE'S for queries and reports, search IS:J :l fl vTo look lor specific informatIon
search engine /' s:J: t f ,cnd3 1nl n A program Solaris 1,;) ' lu :n~1 n A Unix-basP'd operating
rendering l'r c nd;)TlfJI n A technique thdt system, developed by Sun Mi(fosy~tE'ms.
generates realistic renE'Cllons, shadows and that allow~ users to search a large databa;e of
web addresses and intE'roet resources, Examples which runs on SPARC computer~ and aIr r
highlights. wOf~statlon~.
ilre Google and Yahoo '


solid modeling /,s ohd ' modahlJ! n A technique system software l' SI~lam ,~orwe;)/ nThe touch pad I' IAIJ,pa:.dI n A poinllng device
for represf'nling ~hd OOje<:ts. this includes programs that controllhe basrc functions of a consisting of a soh pad which is senSitive to
SpI?(ifying and tining the surfaces to give the computer, eg operating systems, programming tinger movemen t or pressure_ Used on portable
apPPilrance of a ]-0 SOlid OOje<:t with volume, softwafe, device duvels and utilities. 1'(,
sort I.. ,,:tl v To -Iassify; to reorder data into a
track Ilrreid n An area marked on the surface
n€'wsequence, T of a disk. When a disk is Initialized, the operating
sou nd ca rd r 'lwnd ,ko:dl n An expansion card lablet PC /, l rebbt pi:',>i:1 n A type of notebook system divides its surface Into circulal tracks,
that Pfoces~ audIO sigN I~; also caUed a sound computer that has an LCD ~feen on which you each DOe containing several sector~. Tracks and
board. can wllte with a stylus Of digital pen. The screen ~tors are used 10 organiZe the information
source code !' .. :>;, ,bod! n 1 Computer can be eaSily folded or rOtated stOfed 0fI dIsk.
Instructions written in a high-level language like te lecommunications I ,t ell b, mju: n I 'kclf ~m 7J trackball ! 'lra:lo:b.J:V n A stationary dl"vlCe that
C )r Pa~aL 2 Thto HTML code~ of a wt'b page. n The Ifansmls!>ion of signals Oller a distance for works Ilkea mouse turned upsidedown. The
spam Isp:rml n UnsoliCited, junk eITld11 the purpose of communiCation. ball spins ffeely to contrallhe fJlO\Il?fTlent of the
spa mming /'s pa:mllJI n PoSling unsolicited telegraph I' tc hgro:fI n A communications curSOI on the scleen. Used in lapwps i1nd CAD
advertl' InglTlE sages system that transmits and receives simple workstations.
speaker "~ pi:lo: ;)/ n A d€'vice thai provides electromagnetic Impulses. A me5sage translation II r:cnz' lclf:Jnl n MO\Ilng an obJE'Ct
lund OUtput. al~ called a loudspeaker A pair of tranSfMted by telegraph ~ a telegram. to a different location.
~pt'aker. uSlJally plug intO the computer's sound telemarketing /' Iell ,mu; kIt IIJI n The process Trojan horse 1,1raod3;)n 'h.J:sl n Malicious
"d 01 selling goods and services ave! the telephone. software disguised as a useful program.
speech-synthesizer I, ~ pi:tf ', rnO;)..a17'} ' n A teletext I' tchtcksl l n A melhod of two-dimensional12-D) 1, 1u:d l'mcnf;)n;)V ad!
device that produces audiO output. communicating ,nfOfmatiOn by using TV signals. Hillring only rwo dimenSIOns. length and width
spell checker I' ~pc\ ,Ifck;)/ n A utilily 10 correct An eXlfa signal is broadcast with the TV piCture 2-D drawings look flat
typing mistakes afld Ifanslated into Text on the screen by a type style I' laip ,slall/ lI A visual characteristic
spit "pI! n Sp.1m lunwanted messagt's) CNef of a typeface, e,g. plain text, Italic. bold, etc.
Inlernt'ttelephony. telework ing ! "Ch ,W3:k llJl n The pt"acllce of typeface I' tlup,fclsJ n The design of a
spooler /',pu:b/ n A Ulility which makes it working at home and communicating with set of pfinted chalacters. such as Arial and
Ihe office by phOnE' and computer. Also called
IX )~Ibk !O send one document to the pllnter Courier, The words typeface and (om ilfe used
Iby '!ating a lemporary lile for It) so IhaT fhe Interchangeably. but the typeface IS the pllmary
JS€'r 'an work on ilnother Telnet !" c!ne t! n A PJotcxol and a program d~ign, while the font is the particular use of a
sp read sheet r "llrcdJi:f l n A program for which is used to log directly into remOle typeface, such as the size leg, 12 POintS) and
computer systems. This enables you to run style (e.g. normal. Itotic, bold).
fmal\! 'al planning which allows the u~ 10
maly"", InformattOn Pfesemed in tabular fOfm. by programs kepi on them and edit flies difectly
man'pulating rows and columns. terabyt e /' tCr.lb.1!t / n 1,024 gigabytes. u
spywa re I'''palwc;)/ n A type of software Ihat terminal /' t :J:m !n:>J/ nA hardware device, often Undo l ... n'd u :1 n A command that reverses
~ts Information from your computer wilhout equipped with a keyboard and a I/id~ screen. or erases the tast editing change done to the
v 1.11 -.osent. Ihfough which data can be entered Of displayed document
standard toolbar 1'~ la:.nd;)(1 ,t u:lbo:1 n A text flow I'lcht ,ri.)U/ n A feature that enables Uniform Resource locator (URL) I, ju:nlf;):m
lOW 01 icons that, when clicked, aCtivate ceflain you to wrap text around images on the page. n 'z.:"l:s 1~,kc l l;)/ nThe addressofa ~Ieon the
)mrnands of a pt"ogram For example. in a textphone l' tck~ 1 f:){ml n A phone With a smal! Internet, e.g. hltpJlwww.bbc.co.ukJradiO.
W{\{d proces~or, It al~ ~ 10 save 01 pl"int screen and a keyboard that transcribes spoken UNIX l'ju:n lk!.1 n An opetal!ng system,
d dr cument. Include d hyperlink, check the voiCe as text; It is used by people With heaflng Of designed by Bell laboratories in the USA. found
~pel lng, etc speech difficulties, on mainframes and workstations in corporale
star topology I, ~ I u: I o'poJ;xt3il n One of the texturing !'1ck'itf;)nol n Adding paint. colour InStallations.
thrf" pl"IflClp<"1 topologies fOf a LAN _In WhICh and filters to an object In order to achieve a update I... p'dc,tl vTo make somethIng more
a,l data OOW\ through a central hub, a common given look and feel modern or suitable fOf use now by adding
:onnection point for the devices on the network thermal t ran sfer printer 1,03: n1;)1 't rren~f3: information or changing ilS design.
storage del/ice /'."t J:nd3 dl , val~1 n A hdrdware ,prrnt;)/ n A printt'f thaT produces colour images upgradable / ... p'greld;)bV odjCan be upgraded
dE v I used to IE'l:ord and store ddta. e.g a hard by adhpring wax-based ink onto papef. Of expanded
dl~~ DVO Of flash memory cald, thesaurus tOl 'SJ:(;) V n A utility fot searching upgrade l ... p 'grc ldI v To acid or replace
store " IJ:I v To copy data from the COmputer's synonyms and antonyms hardware or software in order to expand the
'nternal memOfy to a StOfogE' device, such as a three -dimensional (J-D) I,Ori:dl'mcnJ;)n;)1I computer's power.
d,~~ tape Of flash melTlOl'y card. ad} HaVlf191hree dl/Tlensions eg, wldth,length, upload IAp'I:lOdI v To send tiles 10 a cenlfaJ,
st ream ing !'~ 1 ri:mlUI n A te(hnlQue for and depth. 3-D draWings fepreS£>nt obtects more often remote computer. Compare with
l!ansmlwng sound dnd video so that It can be accurately, download.
P" ~ssed as a continuous stream. The files are tilt-and-swivel stand I, tllt ,lend ,.. wlv;)1 US8 /, ju:cs'bi:1 n A Universal Serial 8us, a
played 'Nhl'~ they are downloadlOg '~ ':cndl n A kind of stand lhallels you move the hardware Interface that allows penpheral devices
stylus I' ~ta l l;)" n A pen-shaped tool th<lt IS monitor up Of around, so you can use it althe (diSC dliV5, modems, cameras, etc.) to be easily
u~ed to draw imdges or point \0 menus on righl angle and height connected 10 a computer,
p/"es ,ure·sens,tlve ~reens leg on PDAs). toner I' t :lOn;v n A special ink powder used in USB pon Ij u :cs'bi: ,p.J: 11 n A USB socket on a
subject !'sAbd3lkl l n The line that desc/lbE>s [he copy machines and Ia~f printer!>. computer deYICe into whiCh you can plug a USB
"Intent of an email toolbar /' tu: lbo:/ n A row of icons en a cable
sub routine 1'''Abru: ,1i:nJ n A set of instructions computer sc reen that, when clicked, activate Usenet I 'j u :znctl n A large collection of
which perform~ it '>pecific functIOn of the Certain functions of a PJogram. Toolbars are used discussion areas lcalled news,groups) on the
pU'9 l am. in programs like MS WOld Of as add·ens for web Intemet
surf I ...;d ! vTa navigate and '>earch 101 browselS (e.g. the Google tool bar). userinterface I, ju:z;) ' rnt;)fcI ~ n The
information on the Web toolbox 1'1u:lbok,1 n A collection of draWing slanda rd procedures fOf interaction with specific
Symbian OS !,~ lmbi:j;)n ;)(J'esl n An operating and painting tools, computers.
system u~ed by )ffiE" phon~ makers. including topology II D'pDbd3i1 n The layout 01 shape of user. friendly l, ju : 7.~ 'frcndlil adj A sy~tem that
Nokia and Siemens, a netVYOfk. See bus_star and ring topologies is easy to learn and easy 10 use
system clock 1' ~I"I,}m ,kink! n A clock that touch screen !'tAtf ,skri:nJ n A d isplay screen username I'ju :z;)ne lml n 1 the part of an email
mea~ules md sYI"Khronizes the flow of data. that is sensitive to the touch of a finger or Stylus. address that rdentlfies the user of the service. 2
Used in PDAs_ portable game consoles. and The name you use to identify yourself when you
many ty~ of infom13tion kiOSk\. log OI1to a computer system Of neTWOfk; also
called user 10.
utility Iju~ ' t II;)til n A small program designed known as the WOIId Wrde Web. VW{W or Wl By wireless l'wfl lala sl ad) Having no wires; wlti100l
to improve the performance of the system, using a special program known as a browser. you the use of cables,
System utility refers to a diverse field COVf'ring can find information on nearly any tOPIC you can Wireless access point (WAP) I,war.)b , 'rek,c'
anything from software dMigned 10 help)'Ou Imagine ,p :untf n A devICe that connects Wile! 'ss
back up your hard disk or locate files. to dnti-virus Web Accessibility Initiative (WAil f, wc b communication deviCe5 logethe-r \( form a
progrdm~ 01 rOUllne~ used by lhe sy<.otem. ak sesa' bll:)li r,nII:)ll vl n A pro O'{' thattfIE wife s~ netWOl'k
to make the Web iKCM iblt> 10 peepl! wilh wireless adapter I, waral a" a'drept.) n A dE'1I1 e
V disabilities. thataddswrrel connectivity!. a1 ,mputPr
Vector graphics I'vekt:) ,gr:cfrk .J n Imcl9E"S web editor I'v.cb ,edit ;)/' n Software thallt't; or POA.I! is attiKhed via a PC card ,,[ a SB porI
represented through the use of geomelfic you design web pages WIthout wrIting HTMl Th(>1(' dre thlee main types of wtlele~s adapt"r'):
ob,iects such as tille'>, CUI~ and polygons. codes. Blu('\ooth, cellular (for mobiles) and Wt·F (for
based on mathematical "'CIuattOns. They can be web page l'wcb ,pcrdy n An individual laptops and desktop Pes)
changed or scaled Without losing Quality, documenl OfIlhe Web. Identified by Its own wireless LAN l ,w ar.)l a, 'Iren "A Wit
video adapter I'vrdi :KJ a,drepl;)/' n A expansion unique URL Web page~ contain different area netWOlk.linking t'NO or more )mpull'r\
card that proce~~s images and sends the video elements, such as lext. pICtures. video.link~, etc. wilhout cables.
signa\~ to thE" mOllltor; also called video graph -s
webcam I' ..... ebka!ml n A web camera u'>ed 10 wireless network /, waI JIJ~ ' ncl w:d.!" Any
board send live video Images via thE' Interr1f't, type of network that uses electromagnt·tl
video editing /,v rdi:)o ,cd rt l OI nThe process of webcasting I' webko: !> trrJ' n Sending audiO and wal'(";, such as rddlO waves. to transmit data
manipulating video Images, video live over the Internet. Thesp are the main types: satellites for long
video projector /' vrdi ao pr a,d3ckt a/ n A webmaster I'wcb,mo: <; t :'ll n Someone distances, WiMAX for connectingWi·Fi hOhpot"
device that prOjects images on a large screen responsible for designing, deVE'loping, marketing WI-FI for medium-range distances, Bluetooth for
uSing a lens system, or maintaining websites shOll distances. and GSM for mobile phOfles.
videoblog I' vldiaohlogl n A blog that Include5 website f' .....c b~nrl l n A collection of web pages wireless rOUler I, war ala:. 'ru:t ,) n A de ,lICe
video (usually Including a homl'page), set up by an which allows computelS to communicaw via
videoconferencing /'v rdi au, k o nfarallt su,ll n organilatlon Of an Individual. WhICh ar€' usually radoO walles, Also called w'rl'Io ,ocr, rx nr 01
A technology thaI allows organizations to create ba51' Horion.
stored on the same server. The paqes are all
VIrtual meetlllgs With participants In multiple inked together; you can move from ont> paqe to Word IWl:dI n A WOtd pr-OCE'ISOf lu ",t M )It
locations. enabling the-m to talk to and o;ee eiKh another by clicking on words 01 pt 'IUres cal ed word processor I'w3:d ,prao:.c,>'} ' nAn
other. hyper/inks app! cation tnal manipulates le.t and produces
virtual interface I, v3~ tIu;)J ' mt :)fc r,,1 n A type wide area network (WAN) I, ward ,c:)ri a document~ SUItable fnr printing
of interfdce based on vlnual reality techlllQUE 'net w l :kl n A network tnat extE'f\ds outsrd~ word wrap /' w3:d ,ra;p nAn edlrlng 13< Ilrty
The user puts on a heold-moumed display, and a building or small area. For long dl~tance wh :h automallcall}' mOVf'S a word 10 tn
uses data gtOVf'S and other devices which make communications. LAN5 are u~ually cOflnected n-'J(I hne if there is flOt enough space fo Ih
you feel as if you are In a 3·0 world into a WAN, The Largest WAN is thE" Internet -ampl >le 'NOrd OIl the cUllent IIrn
virtua l reality I, v l:tIu ;,1 ri ':cl;)t il n A Wi-fi I'warfarl n A lerm from theW,·fi Alliance. workstation l' w l :k,s t erIJnI n 1 A high·
computer·generated sp.:tCe in which the U\€'r which certifies that flE'tWOl'k deviCes comply WIth peffo.mance computer, typically u'·~ tor
Interacts with artificial objects through 3·D the IEEE 802.11 wlfelMs specificatlOfls. A typical graphl(~. CAD. software development lfld
computer SimulatiOn, This is done by using Wi-Fi setup contains one or more Wifeless ilCCE ;cientlnc applications, 2 Any )mputer
sensory perrpheral'>. such as data gloves and points (base stations) and vallous Comput!:'r connected to a nel'NOlk
head-mounted displays. !O giV(> the feeling of devices acting a~ chents. World Wide Web /,wl:ld ,w<lld 'wenl n
being immersed into an illusion,uy. yet sensate, Wi-fi ph one I, wllIflll ' r:)On! n A mobile phone W.b
world that can switch from the cellular network to a worm fW3:mf n A self·copying program thJ1
virus I' valrao;,/ n A piece of software which wireless VolP network and vice versa spreads through email attachments; II replicares
attaches Itself to a file. Once you fun an infected Wii Iwi:1 n A Video game console from itself and sends a copy to everyonE' in cl contJct
program, the v"us quickly spread$ to the system Nintendo, introduced In 2006. list.
files and other <,()ftwdre. Some vilu\€'S can
wiki I' wl ki:/ n A collaborative webSite whose
deslroy Ihe contents of hard disks. X
content can be edited by anyone who ha~ access
VlsuaIBASIC /,v r3u:)1 °bcr't ki n A high-level to it, e.g. WlkiWikiWeb, W,klpedia. etc. Xbox 360 I,cksbok s ,Ori: '.,rk "t i ' n A VldE'O
pr-ogramming language, developed by Microsoft game console from Mlcrosofl
WiMAX 1'" almrehl n A technology that
in 1990. used to create graphiCal user interfiKes
enables lhe delivery of wireless broadband XMl /,c koic m 'cI/ n ExtenSible Markup
In WindOWS applICations
access as an alternative to cable and ADSl. language. While HTMl uses pre·defm{'d IdQl"
VolP N:Jrp/ n Voice over Imeff)(>t Pl'otocol, shOlt for Worldwidl'lnreroperablhlyfor Ml(rowoV(' XML allows us 10 create our own t<l9~ to benel'
which allOM you to make phone calls USIng the Access. di cflbe-data
Imernet Instead of the regular phone hnes.
wi ndow /' wlndau/ n A scrollable viewing area
voice re<ognition l,v:Jr<; rcbg ' nrI;ml n A on screen. which can contain files Of fold!'r ... y
technology thai allow~ computl'fs to imerpret Yahoo! I jo: ' hu: n A leading \oIIeb perlJI
Windows l'wrnd:)Oz/ n The operating sy<.otem
human speech, ConvertIng spoken wOfds into
from Microsoft thatluns on fl1O'>t PCs. The most With a mix of news, entertainment and '\('
digitized text or instrUCtions. shopping, as well as search engine ,me",,,,1
recent versiOns are Window; 2000, Windows XP
VoiceXMl /,v:JI'> c hem 'cV n A markup and Windows Vista. directory. enlall and 1M serVICes.
language which makes web content acc~slble
Windows Mobile l,wrnd:KJ7 ' m:KJb..1rll n An YouTube I'ju:tju:bl n A popular wE'b~lte whrch
via voice and phOne. Short for Voice ExtenSIbk> lets users upload, View. and share Video (lop!..
operating system used on many PDAs and
Malkup language
volatile memorY /,v ol;,tall ' mem:)ril n Z
Windows Vista I, w l nd;)!J]. 'v r ~t ;v n The /lE'w
Temporary memory (e.g. RAM); It doesn't hold its
Windows. released in 2007.11 Includes !.eCurrW .zip fZ Ip! n An extension that Identiftes
contents Without power,
improvements. a new graphical U$er interface. compressed files. To decompress them you need
and new ways of $earching information a shareware program like WinZip.
wired / wal;xll ad) Equipped with a ~ystem of zoom 17u:ml n A tool u~ed to magnlfy,lreit~ of
wearable computer I, wCJrabJI an image when you are doing clo\€', detailed
wires (cables),
bm ' pju:t;)/ n A computer thaI is worn on the work
body,Of integrated into Ihe user's clothing wireframe I, wOlla ' frcllll/ n The drawing of a
model by tracing features like edgE'S or contour
Web I w eb! n A network of documents that
works in a hypelleKt envllonmenl. i.e. using lext
that contains hnks to other documents. It's also

These are the most important irregular verbs. They can be divided into the following groups (A-E):

A All three forms the same C Past simple = Past participle cont.
Base Past simple Pa st Translation Base Past simple Past Translation
participle participle
bet bet bet hear heard heard ................
coSt cost cost hold held held
cut cut cut .................. keep kept kept
hit hit hit lay laid laid
hurt hurt hurt lead led led
set set set learn learnt learn t
let let let leave left left ..................
put put put lend lent lent ..................
shut shut shut light lit lit
spread spread spread lose lost lost ..................

read read Iredl read Iredl make made made

mean meant meant ..................
B Base = Past simple
meet met met ..................
Base Past simple Past Trans/ation pay paid paid
say said said ..................
beat beat beaten
sell sold sold ..................
C Past simple = Past participle send sent Sent
shine shone shone
Base Past simple Past Translation
participle shOot shot shot

bend bent bent ..................

sit sat sat
bleed bled bled .................
sleep slept slept .................
bring brought brought spend spent spent .............. _.
build bUilt built ..................
stand stood stood
buy bought bought stick stuck stuck ..................
catch caught caught strike struck struck
deal dealt dealt sweep swept swept ..................

reed red red teach taught taught

reel felt (elt tell told told
fight fought rought think thought thought ..................
find found found understand understood understood ..................

get got got win won won ..................

hang hung hung

have had had
DBase = Past participle E All three forms different cont.
Base Past simpl e Past Trans/arion Base Past simple Past Translation
pa rticiple participle
become became become ............. give gave given
come came come ............. go went gone
run ran run grow grew grown
hide hid hidden
know knew known
E All three f orms different lie lay lain
Base Past sim ple Past Translation overwrite overwrote overwritten
pa rticip le ride rode ridden
arise arose arisen ......... ring rang rung .........
awake awoke awoken rise rose risen
be was/were been see saw seen
begin began begun shake shook shaken
bite bit bitten show showed shown
blow blew blown shrink shrank shrunk
break broke broken sing sang sung
choose chose chosen ........... sink sank sunk
do did done .......... speak spoke spoken
draw drew drawn steal stole stolen
drink drank drunk swear swore sworn
drive drove driven swim swam swum .........
eat ate eaten take took taken
rail rell fallen tear tore torn
ny new flown ............. throw threw thrown
forbid forbade forbidden wake woke woken
forget forgot forgotten wear wore worn
forgive forgave forgiven withdraw withdrew withdrawn
freeze froze frozen .......... write wrote written
AOSl Asymmetric '9 tdl OVO-/ +RW Digital Ver~tilf" Disc- LAN Local Area NetWOfk
' RSl repetillVf.' strain injUry
"-Ib<.nber lne Rewritabll laser light Amplification by RSS Really '>imple Syndical'
AI Ar!lncia! Intelligence DVO DigItal Versaille Disc or DigItal Stimulated Emission of Radiation Rich Site Summary
AIM AOllnstant Mes~nger Video Disc LCD liquid-Crystal Display
ALU ArithmetIC logIC Unit OVO-R DIgital Versatde Dlsc- LISP liSt Processing SORAM Synchronov~ Dyn.
AMO Advanced MICro [)(.v,ces Re<:ordable
Random Acce5~ Mt'rTI(lI'y
ASCII Ameflcan Standard Code for OVO·ROM DigItal Versatile Disc·
.mov QuickTIme movie SIM (card) Sub'>CribE'r Idenl
InformJtlon Intercl1.'1ngE' ReJd Only Memory
Mac Macintosl1 computer Module
AT&T AmerIcan lelephonl & OVI DigItal Video Interface
MAN Metropolitan Area Network SMS ShOll Mes~ge S€'rVI({
Te-l '9IJph compony
MB Megabyte (l,024 kilobyte-s) SMTP Simple Mail Transfer I
ATA Analogue Telephone AdaptUf EEPROM E :uically Erasable
MHz Megahertz SOL Structured Query lang
ATM Automated Tellt'r MachIne Programmable ROM
MIDI Musical Instrument DigItal SSl 5e<ure- 5ocke-ts layer
AVI AudiO Video Intl'dace EPS Encapsulated PostScript
Interfa<e SXGA Super XGA (E~tende<
MIPS MillOn Instructions Per Graphics Arlay)
BASIC Beq,nners AI purpQ5e FAO Frequently Asked Questions )econd
Symbolic Instruct,on Code FORTRAN FORmula TRANslation
MMS Multimedia messages TAN TranSJ<tlOf) AuthofiZat
BBS Bulletin Board System FTP FileTransferProtocol Number
Modem MOdulator/DfModulator
Bce: B Ind carbon (or courtesy) TB Terabyte (1,024 gigabyte
MP3 MPEG-I Ldyer-3 Audio
wpy GB Gtgabyte (1.024 mt'qabytes)
MPEG Moving Pictures Expens TCPJIP TransmiSSIOn Corme
BIOS BaSI( Input/Output System GHz Gigahertz Protocol J Internet Protocol
bit binary digit GIF Graphic Intercnange Format TFT Thin Film TranSistor (diS
ms mitti~ond
bps bitS pel second GIS Geographic Information TIFF Tagged Image File Fou
NIC NetWOlk Inlerface Card
CAD Computer·Alded Dt>sign GNU "'u's Not UNIX UMTS Univt'fsal Mobile
NUl Network User identifier
Cc: Carbon (or COUrtesy) copy GPS Global PosltlOnlll(J S)'5tem TelecommunICations Systen
CCO Charge-Couplt'(! Devices GSM Globdl System for Mobile URl Uniform Resource Loea
OCR OptICal Character Recognition
CO Comp.Kt Disc communication USB UniVf'rsal Seflal Bus
OLE MiCrosoft's Objecllinking and
cd/m2 C-Indela pef ~udre metre GUI Grdphlcal US('{ IntE'fface
Embedding standard
CO-R Compoct Disc-Recordable OLEO Dfgank light-Emltllng VAT Value Added Ta~
CO-ROM Compact Di~-R€'ad Only HOD Hard Disk Drive Diodes (display) VCR Videocassette Recorder
M.;omory HO-OVO High Definltion·Digital OOP Objl"(t Oriented Programming VOU Visual Display UnIt
CO-RW Compact Oisc·Rewfltablf" VersatilE> Oi~k
OS Operatll'l9 S~tem VGA Video Graptllc_s Adapte
CERN -onsell EurOpf'en pour la HOTV High·definition 'TeleVIsion
VoiceXML VOice ExtenSIble
Re<nprcne Nucleaire HP Hewletl'PilCkard L,mguage
• pdf portable document format
COBOL COmmon Business· HTML Hypertext Markup language VolP Voice over Internet Prc
PAN Personal Area Network
Orlt'ntE'd language HTIP Hypel\ext Tramfer Protocol VRMl Virtual Reality Mocleli.
PC 1Personal Computer; 2 Program
CPU _entral ProcessIng Unit Hz Hertz Counter Malkup) language
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
PCl Pnnter COfltrollanguage
CSS Cascading Style Sheets 1I0 lnputJOutput .wav Windows wave audiO f
POA Personal Digital A5sistanl
CTP Computer To PIJte IBM International BUSI/1('5S W3 ~ Web In Glossary
POL Page Description language
CU .ontr( Unl\ MachinE'S WAI Web Acc~slblilty InlUdt
PGP PrellY Good Privacy
ICO I Seek You WAN Wide- Area Network.
PIN Personalldentiflc:ation Number
DAB D\9ltal AudiO Broadcasting ICT Information and WAP 1 wireless access point
pillet picture element
DAW DigItal AudIO Wor!(s,tatlon Communications Technologies 2 Wireless Application PrOt()(
png portabtt> network graphic
DBMS Database Management 1M Instant M5SJglng Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity
ppm pages pel m,nute
System IP Imerl"lE'f Protocot WiMAX Worldv'nde Interope
PPP Point to Pain! Protocol
DOR Double Data Rilte (RAM) IR Instruction RegiSter fOf MIcrowave Access
DlMM Dual In-line Memory Module IrOA Infrared Data ASSOCiat ion WIMP Window,lcon, Menu (
.ra RealAudio nil'
OLP Digltal·light pfocessing ISP Intemet Service ProvIder mouse) and Pointer
RAM Random Access Memory
OMB DIgItal MultImedIa IT InformatIOn lechnoloqy WP Word Proc~slng
RGB Red, Green. Blue
Broadcasl!ng WWW WorldWldeWeb
RFIO Radio·Frequency
ONS Domain Name Sy~tem JPG (or JPEG) JOint PnOtographiC WYSIWYG What You See Is II
dpl dotS per inch E~pemGroup You Get
RIM Research In Motion
DTP Ot>~ktop PubUshlng
RIP Raster Image ProcesSOl
OTTV Digital Terr5tflallelev;~ion k 1 kilo, used to denote a thousand; XGA Extende(l Graphic~ Arrd
2 1,024 bytes RISC Reduced Instruction Set
OVB-H OIgital Video Broadcast- XML ExtenSible Markup lJn(
Handhe-Id KB kilobyte (1,024 bytes) WXGA Wide- XGA (E~tended
ROM Read Only Memory
Graphics Array)
rpm Ievolutioos pef minute