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te : . | F covcman + EXAM SKILLS INTE Use of English [Bia TFs at Engten Teacher's Book Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English About the exam ‘The UCLES (University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate) examination leading to the Certificate of Proficiency consists of five papers: Paper 1: Reading q Paper 2: Writing Paper 3: Use of English Paper 4: Listening Paper 5: Speaking From December 2002 each paper contributes 40 marks to the overall total of 200 marks. In order to pass, a candidate must achieve a minimum score of about 60% of the total ‘marks. The marks for all the papers are combined; itis not necessary for candidates to achieve a pass mark in each individual paper. Paper 3 — Use of English Paper 8 contains 5 sections: Part | Consists of: Tests: ‘Marks 5 1 | a cloze test with fifteen the learner's knowledge ‘One mark for each aps. of grammar and vocabulary. correct answer. 2 | a text containing ten gaps. the learner's knowledge of ‘One mark for each Bach gap must be filled with | vocabulary and word formation. | correct answer. ‘a word formed from the stem provided. 3_ | six questions each containing | the learner's knowledge of “Two marks for each three sentences with a gap in |. vocabulary (phrasal verbs, correctly answered them. The missing word is the | collocations. set phrases, etc.). | question. same for the three sentences. Candidates must find one word which fits all three sentences. “© | eight sentences which must be | the learner's knowledge of “Two marks for each transformed using a given word. | grammar and vocabulary. correct answer 5 | © two texts on which you * the learner's awareness of ‘Two marks for each answer a total of four questions.| the use of language in a text. | correct answer. +a summary-writing task based | « the leamer’s ability to extract | + Up to a total of on the two texts relevant information from texts | fourteen marks. and write a short summary. LES New Proficiency Use of English An overview New Proficiency Use of English Students’ Book consists of: ‘+ a comprehensive introduction to the new format Cambridge Proficiency Use of Englis paper with exercises analysing the tasks and building up efficent strategies for dealing ‘with them. + fifteen main units each consisting of a grammar section, a vocabulary section and a section devoted to the summary task. + five ful-length Practice tests at Proficiency level and in Proficiency format, including exam tips. + appendices covering frequenty-used idioms, phrasal verbs, and verbs, nouns and adjectives used with dependent prepositions. ‘The fifteen main units ate theme based and cover all the main topics that are listed by UCLES for the new format exam ((rom December 2002 onward). be ee eee ‘The fifteen main units are theme-based and cover all the main topics that are listed by LUGLES for the new format exam (from December 2002 onwards). New Proficiency Use of English Teacher’s Book contains the sections listed below. + Introducti ‘+ Diagnostic test. This photocopiable test contains 60 fouroption, multiple-choice questions and is based on the Advanced grammar points contained in the fifteen main units of the Student's Book. You may use it at the start of a course to identify which areas of advanced grammar a class or individual student has most difficulty with. + Diagnostic test answer key. ‘+ Answer key to the Students’ Book Introduction, Units 1 t0 15 and the five Practice tests. Now Proficiency Use of English may be used in a number of ways: + Sequentially (i. from Unit 1 to the end in order). + In nonsequential order to supplement grammar practice in the class's main coursebook. * In non-sequential order to provide practice of advanced grammar points which have been identified as causing difficulties by means of the diagnostic test. + In non-sequential order to complement the topic of a coursebook unit and to provide extension and further practice of relevant vocabulary. * By doing the summary sections in sequential order, to provide thorough. step-by-step practice of the skills required for Part 5 of the Use of English paper. Whichever of these methods you use, it is strongly recommended that you work through the Introduction to the new format Paper 3 on pages 6 ~ 19 of the Suudents’ Book with your ‘lass before your students attempt any of the other sections. Grammar Each unit starts with a Grammar overview. This summarises the main points related to the tunit grammar that learners at this level are expected to be familiar with. For easy reference. the information is presented in the form of tables. One way to exploit these would be to ask your students to study the tables at home, and to check any points of difficulty with you at the start of the next lesson. Each unit then presents a number of Advanced grammar points. These are points which commonly cause difficulty at this level and/or which are frequently tested in Cambridge Proficiency Paper 3 questions. Each point consists of one or more Focus questions which are designed to get the students thinking actively and analytically aboot the grammar point. rather than just reading a grammar rule. A brief explanation of the structure and usage of each point follows the Focus activity. You may want to ask your students to cover this explanation with a piece of paper while they do the Focus activity. The Focus questions for each Advanced grammar point have answers in the key. A variety of Practice exercises follow the Advanced grammar points. Those which come carlier in the grammar section practise only the items presented in the Advanced grammar points. The later Practices may also include items from the Grammar overview. In the ‘grammar section of each unit there is at least one Practice exercise in the stvle of Proficiency Paper 3 Part 1 and/or Part 4. Each Practice activity has answers in the Key. Some units also contain activities entitled Use your English. These are designed to encourage freer practice of grammar points that have been studied. These sections do not have answers in the key. (EEFOHGTSNEY WES GE nga Teacher's Book Vocabulary ‘These sections have been specially designed (o reflect the stronger emphasis on vocabulary and word grammar in the new format Cambridge Proficiency exam. The vocabulary items and word grammar which are presented and practised in these sections relate to the overall theme of each unit and thus do not follow exactly the same pattern in every unit. However, every unit contains a word formation task in the style of Proficiency Paper 3, Part 2 and a ‘gapped sentences task in the style of Proficiency Paper 3, Part 3. The vocabulary sections in Some units also contain tasks in the style of Proficiency Paper 3, Part 1 and/or Part 4. Special features Phrasal verbs and idioms are presented in the context of texts or sentences which relate 10 the unit theme. This makes it easier for the students to learn how they actually function in sentences and to deduce their meaning from the context. Practice of these phrasal verbs is also contextualised within the theme, Alphabetical lists of idioms and phrasal verbs appear in the appendices in the Students’ Book. Several activities recommend using dictionaries in lass. At Proficiency level, bilingual dictionaries or companions are not a sufficient guide to the sublleties of meaning or usage ‘which need to be understood and handled by students. Therefor, itis recommended that you have sulficfent copies of advanced level English-English dictionaries, such as the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, for students to consult while working together in pairs or small groups. By looking up new words and alternative meanings, students take an active part in expanding their own vocabulary and are moze likely (o remember new items than if they were translated for them. In addition, several activities in the vocabulary section invite students to add their own ideas and examples to those offered in the book. Again, this encourages an active role in their own learning process and helps to build the learners’ confidence. Possible answers to these activities are suggested in the answer key. Study tips in this section offer ideas for recording and remembering new vocabulary. Its, recommended that you read through these tips in class and invite comments and further examples, where appropriate, from the students. You may also want to check Inter if students are using any of the strategies that have been suggested in earlier units and to discuss which they have found helpful. ‘The vocabulary section also contains Use your English a ‘These are word games, pairwork activities or discussion activities which are designed to offer freer practice of vocabulary and word grammar.’These activities do not have answers in the key. Summary Units 1 to 4 focus in detail on how to answer questions 40 to 43. Units 5 and 6 focus in detail on how to identify the four content points to be included i the summary, Unit 7 focuses on how to rephrase the content points in your own words. Unit 10 deals with paraphrasing the first draft of a summary. Units 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 offer practice of complete Part 5 tasks (Questions 40 — 44) with varying levels of help and guidance, In addition, Practice tests 1 - 5 contain complete Part 5 tasks (Questions 40 0 44) with some tips. Before doing any of the Summary sections, itis strongly reeommended that you work through the introduction to the new format summary task on pages 14 ~ 19 of the Students’ Book with your class. For some units, Information boxes including background information about the topic are provided in the key. Profcency Use of Bagh POSSSSET BOE Practice tests: marking ‘There are five full-length Practice tests in the Students’ Book. Part 1: Questions 1-15 1 mark per correct answer Part 2: Questions 16-25 | 1 mark per correct answer Part 3: Questions 26-31 | 2 marks per correct answer Part 4: Questions 32-39 | 2 marks per correct answer Part 5: Questions 40-43 | 2 marks per correct answer Question 4 Timark for each correctly identified content point plus up to 10 marks for the summarye-writing task Total 75 marks © * To convert to a score ont of 40 (the total possible adjusted score for Proficiency Paper 3), divide the student's total marks by 75 then multiply that figure by 40. Note: Answers to questions 40 ~ 43 are provided in the key. For question 44, the four content points are listed, but model summaries are not provided as it is not possible to anticipate the range of appropriate answers that may be given. Summary: marking First, allocate one matk for each content point which has been comectly identified. There is @ maximum number of ten marks available for the summary writing task itself. “To qualify for high marks (between eight and ten) the summary: ‘+ must be within the limit of 50-70 words. + must not include sections copied word-for-word from the original texts. + should be logically organised with appropriate use of connecting phrases. + should be grammatically accurate and correctly spelt. If the summary fulfils none ofthe criteria listed above, allocate marks between zero and two. Allocate marks for average summaries between three and seven, depending on how well the criteria above have been fulfilled. [BRE Fa ngtsn Tach Book Diagnostic test This test can be used at the start of a course to identify hick areas of advanced grammar a learner entering the CPE level has most difficulty with. TW YOU ssssoesne Wonderful! Is that a new perfume you're wearing? a are smelling b smell will smell d have been smelling 2 . to get in at 19.05. a bound b likely edue sure 3. It gets on my nerves that way that Carol .. about her job. aforever boasts bis forever never boasts. —_is never boasting boasting 4 Since! . you, I have never seen you cry. a have known b know eam knowing knew 5) When [ lived in Paris, I .1...:.-.u strolling along the banks of the river Seine. a was enjoying bhad enjoyed would enjoy used to enjoy 6 We. to the new Harry Potter film on Saturday. If we can get tickets, would you like to come too? a were going b were thinking chad planned dd had been meaning to g0 of going to g0 to g0 7 Our last holiday in Italy was . .. marvellous. aquite b fairly exceedingly d somewhat 8 The louder he talks, .. I become. a very irritated D so ittitated —_¢ the more irritated d mote irritated do 9 She prefers an evening at the cinema .......... to bars or clubs ato going out brather than than going out to go out go out 10 Rod is too poor a new car. athat he can buy bso asto buy _¢ for buying d to buy be famous, but that doesn't necessarily mean he's interesting to b could should dmay a8 well go for lunch now. should will soon TV uninterruptedly for hours. 13 Given the chance, many children . a are watching Bwill have will be watching dd will watch watched M4 eosrnses nocturnal creature(s), aOwlisa bAnowlisa cTheowlisa d The owls are © aon Edvaton ted, 2002 Potecopibe Cs | Protiiency Use of Highs TESChEPS HOD 8. . is an instrument for looking at small objects. a A microscope b Microscope ¢ The microscope _d One microscope 16 My brother has .. in the personnel department who might be able to help . you. a the contacts b contact ¢ the contact da contact 17 That's strange - I sent the parcel by courier, so you . now. a must B couldn't ¢ should 18 The engagement ring he gave her . been more beautiful. ‘a couldn't have bmight have ¢ shouldn't haved must have 19 My teacher says it's a pity I didn't start lessons when I was younger, because she thinks I .... .. have become a professional musician. a must b would may could 20 Several witnesses said they saw the woman and child leaving the building together. However, as the child was smiling and holding the woman's hand, they assumed. She srecssenees his mother. a had to be b must be must have been was to be 21 He told me he .. finish a report before he could join us for a drink. a was to ‘b must have to chad to d must have had to 22 This is to be the best film the famous director has made. a argued baceepted hoped d thought 23 He begged eco him fa that she Dthat she __e for her forgiving d her to forgive forgive should forgive 24 That was ssc. Patty last night ~ I haven't had so much fun for years! aany b some cone dno 25 Unfortunately, children nowadays are able, or prepared, to read classic works, such as Peter Pan or Treasure Istand, in the original versions. a little Dlite few da few 26 I would normally have been on that train that was derailed yesterday, but scutes told me I should take my car to work instead. a anything Deverything —_¢ something d nothing 27 We've had a burglar alarm installed in our holiday cottage .... about leaving it unoccupied for long periods. feel happier allest weshould bin order that. ¢ so that we will for fear that we will we should 28. her excellent qualifications, she hasn't yet found a suitable job. a Thanks to b Despite ¢ Although As a result of a ‘© FeasonEdxaton ined, 2002, Potable (DefaGIEREy Hed Sr ngtoh Teacher's Book 29 The plot was complicated it spoiled my enjoyment of the book. avery b such cso dso much 30 cnscsnne these new regulations to come into force, our work would become much more difficult. alf b Should Had d Were 31 Ifyou keep teasing the dog, you shouldn't be surprised that it snaps at you. ado b will eshall ddid 32 If you had paid more attention in class, you better marks now. a would have bwillhave cought to have dd should have 33 She can't have studied chemistry at school if she .. is. what a heavy element a doesn’t even hadn't even wouldn't even —_ d won't even know know known know 34 Td rather ... - all those stories about me as a child to my new boyiriend, Mum. I was awfully embarrassed. a not have told b you didn’t tell ¢ you wouldn't tell d you hadn't told 35 I wish you when I'm telling you something important. awon't interrupt — b wouldn't didn't interrupt hadn't interrupted interrupt 36 What's the matter? You look as though you a ghost. aare seeing b see saw d had seen 37 Oh no! It looks like my rucksack ... bus. a has left Dhas got left had left d had been left behind in the scramble to get on the 38 The book was banned in Britain because it was seen .. minorities. abe bto be © being d having been offensive to racial 39 I think it’s disgraceful that the children aren't .....01 break. alet blet to c allowed d allowed to g0 outside during the 40 The colours you've chosen are lovely, dear, but next time try . shading within the lines a bit more. your a keeping btobekept cand keep d that you should keep 1 The girl said she went up the tree because her brother ............. climb it, ahad dared her bhad dared ~—_¢ was dared d had dared her to 42... ... the news of the birth of her first grandchild, Mary burst into tears of joy. a Hearing b Having heard ¢ Being heard d Having been heard © Fearon Edcaton ited 2002. Photocopable P| Proficiency Use of English Teactiors BOO AB vecssse are staff to enter this area without wearing protective clothing. a Absolutely not b Out ofthe ¢Onnoaccount d In no way question 44 Scarcely had the islanders recovered from the earthquake... the volcano began to erupt. a that b when ethen d than 45 Only after a dozen attempts her driving test a did she pass b she passed —_¢ passed she d was she passed 46 Hardly for the independent candidate. a voted anyone b did anyone anyone voted —_d did vote anyone vote 47 It's the long, light evenings 1 like most about summer. awhy b what e which d that 48 I don't think it’s my fault; computer crashed! .. I did was touch that key there, and the whole aall b when e that d the only - 2 49 What I really want... up your bedroom. ais that you b would be for you cis for you to dis you tidying should tidy to tidy tidy . 50 He doesn’t like children chatting in class. ... he will not put up with. a Such b Those ¢ That d This thing a € eason Eoveon Utd, 2002, Potcopte 1 Present and future tenses 1b; 20: 3b 2. Past and perfect tenses. 4a: 5d: Ob © adiectves and adverbs Jas Be; 9a; 10d 2D oda preset and fare “Ai a3 5) Nouns and ares ‘Me tan ted 6 Modals It: past 17e; 18a; 194 feported speech 20b; 21¢; 29d: 234 8 Determiners and pronouns 2Ab; 25e; 26e i Key to diagnostic test BIGHETERT Ue ot engisn Teacher's Book 9 Clauses 27e; 28b; 29e {0 conditionals 30d: 31; 32a; 33a AD Unreal past and wishes Ses 95; 6a 12 Passives and causatives 37b; 38b; 39d Infinitives and gerunds (A0c; 41b; 42a 14 Inversion 48¢; 44; 45a; 460 6 Proficlency Use of English Teachers Boom Part.1:_Cloze_test. Strategy building | Tes it is impossible to predict earthquakes accurately. gap 1: Strategy building II Tasks a 1 gap 8 2 gaps 2, 7 and 14 3 gaps 3, 6 and 1 4 gaps 9 and 11 S gap 5 6 gap 10 and EY in; 2 for; 8 As; 4 far; S one; 6 only; 7 in; 8 led; 9 result; 10 issued: 14 spite: 12 caused; 13 no; 14 on; 15 rather Part.2; Word formation, Strategy building I! Tasks 17 noun; 19 adverb; 20 adjective; 21 noun; 23 verb; 24 noun; 25 adverb Strategy building Ill Tasks valuable and invaluable; invaluable recount (the other verbs formed from count are account, discount and miscount) Strategy building IV Tasks gaps 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23 and 25 ao 16 restrictions; 17 upbringing; 18 invaluable; 19 outdoors; 20 observant; 24 sleeplessness; 22 increasingly; 23 recounted; 24 income; 25 olllcally Patt_3:Gapped_sentences____ Strategy building 1 Tasks the second one (‘hit is @ noun here; in the other two sentences it is verb) 26 verb (past participle); 27 adjective; 28 noun; 29 verb (past tense); 30 noun; 31 verb (present tense/bare infinitive) Strategy building I! Tasks 26 lad; 27 deep; 28 fight; 29 sank; 30 cusiomy; 31 stand Part4: Key word transformations, Strategy building | Task The key word has been changed. There are too many words Strategy building I! Tasks a 32 * identifying synonymous phase: forever > no matter how ofien + changing verb tense: present continuous > present simple 33 + identifying synonymous phrase: inmediately after > no sooner... than + changing after + gerund > no sooner + past pesfect 34 + idemifying synonymous phrase: stop being unrealistic > bring someone down to earth + changing verb to noun: lost > the loss + identifying dependent preposition the fxs of 35 * identifying synonymous phrase: because > but for... (nat) + changing verb tense and making it negative: simple past > wouldn't have + past participle 36 ‘identifying synonymous phrase: it wasn't someone's fault-> someone's not to blame + identifying dependent preposition + gerund fllowing it: to blame for+ gerund 37 + changing active modal verb to passive verb: must not (enter) > (entry) is forbidden + identifying dependent preposition: forbidden to 38 + idemfying emphatic construction: twas (my athe) wito + Identifying synonymous phrase: persuade > talk someone into + identifying use of gerund ate talk into 39 * identifying synonymous phrase: hha just got dressed > had finished dressing (herselD + changing word connecting clauses: when than a 132 matter how often she warns 33 sooner had she graduated than she went 34 loss of his job brought Phil dawn to 35 for her father's asistance, she wouldn't have 36 not to blame forthe dog chewing 37 is stricly forbidden to anyone 38 my father who talked me into leaening 39 had she finished dressing (hersel) than Part_5: Summary task Detailed look at the task: Questions 40 to 43 Task a2; b3;€1; 44; €2; £4; 93; HL Practice a “They are both about cloning human beingvreproducing humans by cloning, (Biotictaney G2e%t engtisn teacher's Book Text . There is no reason to assume that the success rate for humans would be any better and the disappointment and pain caused by miscarriages, abnormalities and early deaths would undoubtedly be much greater, (Cogent though these arguments against human reproductive cloning are, the prospect of sucess seven more alarming Imagine this scenario: a young boy grows up in the shadow of «gifted brother killed in a car accident. At ‘each stage in his life, the achievements of his deceased sibling are held up o hien and his own fil constantly ridiculed. Normally such a child would ‘protest that he should not have to live up to unreal ‘expectations. But this boy cannot, for he isa clone, created from a cell taken from his brother's body. Or consider the situation in which a person creates a cle of ‘imselfor herself to overcome inert. A child created this way would be the identical genetic copy of his father (or mother). 50 how would he react if his parent succumbed prematurely to an illness of genetic ‘origin? Such wories may once have seemed fanciful and remote, bu, according olan Wilnut, creator of the world’s first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep, the issue is $0 pressing as to demane a national debate among psychologists and biologists. Text 2 - and ths would ask for thase genes to be eliminated from the donor cell. But where should the client, or the law, draw the line? What if the parent knew he or she was likely to pass on a genetic predisposition for depression or dyslexia, or even for a body shape they ‘happen to dislike? Such questions must be resolved before we start playing God with our genes. Furthermore, ifcustomised cloning became widely accepted and practised, how would people regard children who weren't cloned and customised to design ‘specifications? What about children born with disabilities, or even those who did not fit the accepted norms of cloned beauty, health or intelligence? Would society view such children with tolerance or come to ‘see them as errors in the genetic code ~ in short as defective products? If that were to happen, we might lose the mast precious gift of all, the human capacity to empathise with each other. 2,3,4and5 (points 1 and 8 are summarised by point 2, points 6 and 7 are irrelevant) 3,2, 4, 5 (3 and 2 relateto cloning in general; 4 and 5 related to customised cloning) re Proficiency Use of English THaehGes BOO Model summaries Grammar point 3 1b; 2a 3a; de Is the summarythe [A JB [© [D right length? Practice B ies v v 1c; 2a; 3b No= to Tong 7 [No=to0 short Practice Jare all four content [A |B {CTD 4 doube whether Carol wil pass; 2 Is sure to come; 3 about points ceded? tolleave for; 4 (Lordered) is due to, 5 guests are to leave No) 7 Practice D Have the ideas from — [|B [EY 4 wil look; 2 willbe glancing; 3 will aeady be; the texts been 4 vill have: 5 wil fel; 6 fll; 7 pick; 8 phones: 9 see; rephrased in the 10 are bringing: 11 will have spent; 12 agree; 13 appreciate; writer's own words? 14 don’t treat; 15 play; 16 are visiting/are going to visit; es, main ¥ IZ) 7 are traveling; 18 ae looking forward: 19 wil never be; Hardly a all 7 20 admire lArethe ideas linked [A [Bc [D together coherently te sar gah Mocabulary—______. Nis 77/7 [No just a ist of points vy| @ 1 take to~¢;2 fll out with ~f 3 fall or —h; look down gc con —K; 5 come between —a; 6 make up —j:7 get along with =e; 8 lash out at—b; 9 put someone down ~ d; 10 put up with — g: 14 get someone down — i; 12 turn tom; 13 let ‘ someone down —1 uwr 4 a ook up to # look down on, : take against # take to Pattern I all for, come between, turn to Pattern 2 get me down, let me dawn Advanced grammarpoints_ Grammar point 1 Pattern 3 look down on, put up with (1) Are you cooking... (refers to an activity in progres at ‘Pattern 4 fall ut with, get along with, lash ut at the prescot time.) (2) Lexpect... (sative verb ~ not usually used in Oo continuous form.) 1 puting his wife down; 2 looked down on; 3 lashed out at; comes Alek po come haw slng wth 6 t ‘Tfell owt, made up; 8 took against; 9 let me down; (6) reiasts.. (er used satively to refer othe tase folly lls for 11purp wih rather than the activity of trying to see how the food tastes.) Ed students’ own answers. Grammar point 2 [Gi -tion is the most commonly used suffix sentence 2 Practice A 1 is thinking; 2 is forever complaining; 3 suspect, are Rossiiielanewets having: A are having presume, dont want, abhor, S real, detence,credene, arrogance, accuracy, fequency, eae eee ee ee teattecommgca feedom childhood desabiliy, bevy. meme, of isconinaly tucking 7 ae youdolng smelling. don't Péishment,hapines, forgiveness, prevention, coniton, think, smells, 8 are always interrupting, am talking, doesn’, caution, temure, failure, stricture ratte ses; 9 Do ya se, ae not seeing, are looking, appear fa a 1 revolution; 2 connections; 3 development; 4 foundation; 5 existence; 6 significance; 7 stability; 8 commitment; 9 intimacy; 10 happiness 1 got: 2 bringing; 3 cut; 4 love; 5 care 2 3e (cu someone off without a penny) b 4b (here is ite love lost between) € 5a (ake good care of) 43a (ct someone dead) €¢ Ib (get on someone's nerves) 1a get your own back on someone) {9 2b (bring someone down a peg or (v0) 3b (incar) 4 4a (ove at first sigh) {1c Geton lke a house on ire) 42a Qbring out the best in someone) 1 4e (puppy love) 1 of; 2 turn; 3 him; 4 out; 5 love; 6 get; 7 sight; 8 take; 9 like; 10 down Summacy. Ei ey are bath about adoption 1 Questions 3nd 4 2 Questions 1 and 2 a Question 1 4 ‘view (ine 11; 2 ‘hopelessly sy’ (ine 11); 3 “hopelessly rosy view’ (ine 11) Question 2 Wan ateractive feature’; 2 “eyes like saucers’ (line 2) Question 3 1. ‘a third of children waiting to be adopted remain in care for more than three years (negative comment); 2 “languishing (line 7) Question 4 1 ‘children awaiting adoption’; 2 “those being looked after by local authorities’ (lines 8~ 9); 3 ‘come with considerable baggage’ (line 9) 1 ‘bouncing babies and totering toddlers (line 12) 2 ‘obstructive’ (line 9) 3 ‘a strapping adolescent (line 15) (RET ngon Tseder' Book t I unr i 2 oe eek Advanced grammarpoints____ Grammar point 1 Biz 2 (ras going to) Grammar point 2 Sentence 2 Grammar point 3 present Practice A 1b; 2a; 3b; Ac; 5a; 6; Zc; Bb Grammar point 4 2... Tvelved Practice B 11 moved, has improved; 2 has become, has lived 3 have existed, has done; 4 have known, has always used; § have always worn, fell, sprained; 6 have been; has never even ollered; 7 has never cleaned, has owned: & have become, Ihave been married; 9 has only learnt, got married; 10 have ‘been here; have never stopped Practice C 1 have learnt; 2 monopolise; 3 was; 4 had existed; § had. led; 6 epitomised; 7 involved; B remain; 9 was; 10 swelled; 14 were joining/had joined; 12 were fashioning/had fashioned; 13 played; 14 was; 15 fuelled; 16 had already defeated; 17 multiplied; 18 peaked; 19 had begun; 20 sought; 24 grew; 22 has become; 23 remains; 24 will become; 25 will prove Mocabulary. a 1 blow up ~ d;2 break ine; 3 break out from ~ p; 4 bring ina verdict on ~j 5 be brought up on charges of i; 6 come before — hy; 7 be done out of —e; 8 get away with 0; 9 hold up-b; 10 be let off I; 14 make off with — 9; 12 on the run =n; 13 be pulled in — g: 14 be sent down ~ k; 15 be taken 16 turn oneself itm. give oneself up = tum oneself in get/make away with = make off with Proficiency Use of English Teachers BOO a Di bringpat imo 1 blow; 2 up; 3 offavay; 4 broken; § before; 6 up; 7 in B of, 9 Sen; 10 on; 11 in a Z imnaigrate(veb)] to come Into a country in order to lve Ou8 there permanently to preposition | deny, regret, implant Ged) | to strongly fox an idea, feeling, oF way of behaving in someone's mind orto Tor apologise ares, Blame, Forgive, " : punish, feeV/be held responsible ee cs i, conve, repent, suspect, laa Tmpplant Gooun)_| something that has been implied ie = —t someone's body ina medical operation “SS —_e eee Tmperil Geib) [to putsomethingindanger | es Tmpor (erb) — [to bring something inte a comtry om abroad in order to sell t Gi eontess, deny, regret, suspect Tmpor (nour) _| something that is Brought into one country from another inorder to be sold or the processor busines of 1 regretted having wasted /epretted that he had wasted pe ecm om 2 dented being having ben romantically OR dented that ihe wis el boca mee imprison (orb) | to put someone in prison orto keep 3 was acquited of murdering having murdered them somewhere and prevent them 4 was foun innocent of murdering/ having murdered oan) 5. pled/pleaded guilty to (Note: plead has two possible past tense forms) au 6 confessed to having 7 (ho ae) suspected of being 4 antisocial (or anti-social); 2 mistrust; 3 malnutrition; B have been arrested for Guspected)/have been arrested “inedible; 5 miscalelated, 6 impatience 7 disneination; racic B unacceptable; 9 uncharacteristic, 10 immodest 9 hasbeen accused of stealing having stolen 10 has been brought up on charges of 11 were done out of 2 were taken inby 1c; 2b; 3a "Note: the prefix antis sometimes used with a hyphen, and sometimes not. There are no st rules for when a hyphen is _sed or not, but, in general, one i not used in words like antiseptic or anticlimax, where the combination of prefix + nour/adjective Is quite commonly used. Hyphens are frequently used in combinations like ant/-terors, anti fascist, ant-clear. In some words, both spellings may be used, depending on individual preference e.g, anticlockwise or anti-clockwise antisocial or anti-social. zt-coloniaVantiolonil, antiseptic discomfor, disinterest, disobedience, dissatisfied Tmamature, immobile, impolite, implausible incapable, ineligible, inexperience, intolerant mmallormation, malpractice imis- | misbehave, misconduct, miggovernment, misinform Uun- Juncomfonable, undesirable, undo, ungrateful, untrustworthy 1 convictions; 2 social; 3 pleaded/pled; 4 court; 5 term; G resistance; 7 initiative Summary. [they are both about happiness. a Question 1 1 ie Cine 2); singular; 3 ‘song’, ‘money’, Tove’, ‘esearch’ Question 2 1 ‘their absence’; 2 lack; 3 plural; ‘goods’, ‘services’, “uscuries 5 imessemtil / expensive /huxury; 6 the Tack. of inessential / expensive / luxury goods and services Question 3 2 ‘depression’; 3 ‘25-year olds; 4 the depression suffered by 25-year olds/young people/people in their mid-twenties 8 . 1 wealthy westerners / people who live in developed countries 2 looking for /the search for happiness 13 times when people are so involved in what they are doing that they don’t think about themselves, Taformation box| Page #2, Text 2, lines 1-2 "even those of us wi have no lain onthe couch’ = those o us who have not undergone therapy. The phrase refers to the practice, particularly in psychoanalysis, of inviting the ‘patient to lie on a couch while undergoing therapy. ene Ee ae Advanced grammarpoints Grammar point 1 and S Practice A 1 angry, annoyed, irritated 2 enjoyable, nice, pleasant 3 surprised 4 courteous, kind, polite, sympathetic 5 aggressive, bad-tempered, loathsome, rude, unpleasant Practice B aby 2a, 6; Ba, b, di c,d: 5a, 5 6b,d Grammar point 2 tand 3 Practice C 1 The longer he played, the more tied he got. 2 Te sooner you finish typing that report, the earlier you ‘may gp home. 3 The more chocolat biseit I eat, the more I want. 4 The more tted he gts, the clumsier he becomes. 5 The more often I see Sam, the less lke him, Grammar point 3 So convincg a lar was he Grammar point 4 16;2h; 1e (EERE Ua once Teachers Book Practice D 1 dull film was it / dull was the film 2. prefer working at home to spending 3. older he/Tom gets, the more tight-fisted Tore 4. istoo proud to ask anyone to lend 5 in an extremely shocking way/manner 6 had such a peculiar taste 7 faster Sandra drives, the more frightened her 8 would sooner travel by ship than go on 9 think their daoghter is mature enough 10 great a hypocrite is he that Practice E 1 fairlyquite; 2 enough; 3 best; 4 the; 5 wellfvlly; 6 whole/entire; 7 to0; 8 to; 9 more; 10 than Vocabulary. a Th; 2k; 3c; 4g, 5k; 6); 7H; Be; MI; 10d; 1b; 12a Bo ‘meek and mild; 2 back and forth; 3 off and on; hard and fst; 5 well and troly, 6 over and above; 7 ext and dried; 8 fois and square; 9 high and dry; 10 fast and furious; 1 tried and tested; 12 safe and sound a 1 * first and foremost ~ used to introduce the main reason or purpose for something + hale and hearty —very healthy and active * toand fro back and forth 2 depends on dictionary used 3 hale and fro ‘A foremost sciemtisvexpervwriter/anhority et. a hearty lauglvmeal a 1d (as diferent as chalk and cheese); 2f (as dull as dlitchwater); 31 (rink like a fish); Ac (as old as the hills) Sh (sing like a lark); 6b (as hard as nails); 7a (as tough as cold boots); Be (as similar as two peas ina pod); 9g (as pretty asa pleture) 1c; 2a; Be; Ad; Sb Proticiony Use of Hai GEREN a Complimentary | as preuy asa plere, ook wo iclikea duck to water Derogatory | as dallas dichwater, drinks ikea ch, ‘muton dressed as lamb, ikea bull ina china shop, looks lke butter wouldn't melt in her mouth ‘Newal as diffrent as chalk and cheese, a ‘depends | hard as nails as smllar as two peas in ped ikea Ted ag toa bull a Tal] blisfl, chee, delight, disgracefl, fongetfl, playful, esl, wasteful “eats, chaotic, dramatic, ecstatic, ye, materialistic, steatc, therapeutic a dreadful ~ dread (noun and verb) =a feeling of / feel anxiety bout something chat may happen A axsiut—ciever at deceiving people a Possible answers ~ archaic, aquatic, atavistc, chic, ecentric, erratic, frenetic, prolife, rustic, septic, sporadic criti, logie, polemic, statistic, opie critical, logical, polemical, statistical, topical 1 meaningful; 2 therapeutic; 3 stressful; 4 uneventful; ‘5 atmospheric; 6 distasteful; 7 enthusiastic; 8 resentful; 9 unrealistic; 10 hypocritical 1 ack; 2 mild; 3 critical; 4 careful; § distinctly SUNY epee eer ‘They are both about the twenty-four hour society and its drawbacks, o Question 1 1 ‘after six o'clock’, ‘evening’ “lave-night, at all hows of the day or night, “all-night”. Most ofthese refer to night-time Ac 2 the period after midnight / late at night Question 2 an unhappy situation 2No 3 It emphasises the negative aspect of the sitmation, and the fact that nothing can be done to alter it. Question 3 1 negative aspects 2 positive 3 however, there are also drawbacks/disadvantages Question + 1 health problems 2 wofie /set off the gun 3 Yes, cause and elfect 4 number 5 set officanse/lead to a number of/several health problems og 1 people who like staying up laiehwho fee the function Detter at night 2 is severely affected in a negative way 3 the people who were studied 4 to emphasise that working at night i not natal for people Practice tects ase Part 1 1 some; 2 of, 3 merelyfjust; 4 over, 5 here; 6 one; 7 suelvsimilar, 8 contrast; 9 in; 10 so; 11 whorthat; 12 more; 13 only; 14 while; 15 all Part 2 16 sainthood; 17 misrepresentation; 18 impulse; 19 transform; 20 improbable; 24 exceptional; 22 humanity: 23 admirable; 24 unsuccessful, 25 submissive Part 3 26 dead; 27 face; 28 charged; 29 given; 30 last; 34 line Part 4 32 should have ben repaired along 33 no question ofthe team giving up 34 that he should accompany her 35 gap oppearsseems tobe narrowing these 36 expressed a preference for going/being aken 37 lewing/aving let his frend talk him into robbing '38 found her novel so absorbing (at) she forgot 139 found the test plain sailing except Part 5 440 not working very well / operating only with difficuly ‘AY a depressing financially uncertain one (lor older people) ‘42 One in which all unemployed people are paid by the state 43 ‘the growing burden on the healthcare system posed by the ageing population’ (lines 15 ~16) 44 Content poims *+ ‘The social budget has been depleted by high medical costs due to greater life expectancy (Texts 1 and 2). + This budget also pays outa lot of money to suppor the ‘unemployed (Text 2). ‘+ Fewer people are now working and contributing to the budget (Text 1). + By2010 more than a third of the British population will, hhave reached or be approaching retirement age (Test 1). a Advanced_grammat_points___ Grammar point 1 Aand 3 Practice A 11 may net be easy 10 work with, but 2 may not be much of a cook, but '3 may be expensive, but itis more durable 4 may be the bass, but that doesn’t '5 may work in adjoining offices, but 1 all refer vo the present 2b Grammar point 3 tb; 2a Practice B 1c; 2b; 3c; Ab; 5a; 6c; 7b; Ba; 9b Practice C 1 can/may; 2 can/may; 3 should/ought to; 4 will’may; 5 don’t have todon’t need voineedn’t; 6 may/mighvicould; 7 may/will/eould/might; 8 can; 9 will/would; 10 can/may/should; 11 must; 12 must/have 10: 13 should/ought to; #4 could; 15 could/might; 16 might; 7 could fof English Teacher's Book Mocabulary a 1 putin for—I; 2 take up—d 3 change over to; be snowed under ~ I; 5 toil vay ~ e; 6 keep on top of ~ 7 take on ~2; 8 be laid off - I; 9 tum your hand to ~ g: AW bring in —b; 19 bring up—e; 12 take up—j Bistave avay = il away Bitake on Dring in ~ regulations, a salary put in for ~a pay rise, the post of take on —a project, new stall take up ~ grievances, the post of 5 1 brought in, taken up; 2 take on; 3am snowed under, taken on: 4 lay off, turn their hands to; 5 bring up, toiling avwayislving avay, 6 putin fo, changed over to; 7 bringing in, took up, keep ontop of Bui cover | overdraw, verindulge, overpopulated, overrule, ‘oversee, oversleep, overtime, overview under | undercut, underdeveloped, underemployed, undergraduate, undernourished, underprivileged ‘aik | overestimatefinderestimate, uerpalanderpald, coverqualiied/nderqualfied, overrated! underrated, overstaffed/understaled, overtake! undertake, overone/undertone Bo ‘over | overrule, oversee, overview ‘under | undercut, undergradvae BL overtone/undertone ‘overtake = go faster than, and so pass someone or something undertake = agree to doa task a 1 overpopolated; 2 underprivileged; 3 undernourished; A overactive; 5 underage; 6 underdeveloped @ 1 underachieving; 2 overestimated; 3 overnight; A underscores; 5 undermining: 6 underclass; 7 overtime; 8 underpaid; 9 undertake; 10 overlooked rE) Grammar point 2 4,3 and 4 (bu 4s only used when giving a definition) Grammar point 3 They reall adjectives used as nouns 1 The god = good people the great» great people Practice B 1A tapeworm isa parasite which lives in the stomach and intestines of mammals. 2 Peis/a pet often provie/provides comfort and company for the elderly 3 A telescope isan instrument which allows you to see long distances 4 Orang-utans/The orang-utan ares native tothe forests of ‘Sumatra and Borneo. 5 Lalways give money to charities which help the homeless. {6 A hospice isa place where the verminally il ae looked aftr. 7 Teenagers often go through a phase of being fascinated by the supernatural 8 The unknown can be frightening but often turns out to be more enjoyable than the familiar. Practice C 1 adder isthe only venomous snake native 2 to help the ilinerate are being introduced 3 join the ranks ofthe ‘4 a thesis onthe social behaviour ofthe S critic of the extrvagancelextavagant habits ofthe Practice D 1.0;2 the; 3 an; 4 the; 50; 6 0; 7 0; 8 the; 9 Othe; 10 OAhe; 14 the; 12 the; 13 the; 14 a; 15 the; 16.0; 17 3; 180; 19 an; 20 The; 21 the; 22 a; 23 0; 24 the; 25 the Mocabulaty. a Coumble noms [Uncouniable noms | Purl nouns tens, fowers, clothing courage, | pliers, scissor, friends, ties, land, news sand, | Sits, trousers teenagers {ath a countable noms abunchof Sowers, teenagers ‘a group of animals, frends, teenagers apack of lies, teenagers aseriesof events ies a bunch of a pack of teenagers [Defetieianey of English Tescner’s Book Bi rossibte answers Vabunch of grapes, bananas, amateurs Zagroupof people, buildings, children Bapackol cards, dogs, rogues Aaseriesol accidents, coincidences, tests Note: seriesrelates to things arranged in or events hhappening in a sequence. a uncountable nouns anact of courage abit of cheese, land, news, sand, truth grain of sand, truth anitem of clothing, news apiece of cheese, land, news a pair ofa fight of stars countable nouns - Di ressibte answers V loads of people, books, money, work. Zahandful of people, occasions, salt, loose change Basack of potatoes, coal, cement A apacket of cigarettes, matches, cereal, sap powder Sabexof matches, chocolates, soap powder Garoomful of antiques, people, dust, furniture Tapileof books, wood, luadry B.D 1 Beauty isin the eye of the beholder (Someone's opinion of who or what is beautiful is subjective.) 2 A bird in the hand is worth to inthe bush. (What you hhave now is more important than risking it to try to get something else you do not have.) 3 Anapple aday keeps the doctor avay. (Eating an apple very day will keep you healthy.) 4 Pride comes before a fall (Ifyou are too proud of your achievements, you wil sulfr bad luck) 5 Asttch in time ts worth nine (Its beter to deat with a problem immediately, or it may get worse later.) 6 The meek shall inherit the earth, (A saying of Jesus Crist = Humble people will be happier inthe end than powerful and proud people.) 7 You can't teach an old dog new tricks. (Old people don't want or like to leam anything new) 'B The prof ofthe pudding isin the eating. (You don’t ‘know how good or bad anything will be unui you try it) 9 Fools rush in where angels fear to tread. (Foolish people do things in a hurry, without considering the consequences ltt) 10 Neither aborrower nor lender be. (Don't borrow oF lend money.) Pi | Proticleney Use of Bnglish TeaeliG?s BOOK DnB Noun Verb | ‘Apecive ‘outbreak, eulbulling, fourdisiance, outdated, couburst,aulaw, —foutdo, ougrow, | outoor, outlook, outpatient, Joutlat, outlaw, | outlying, ouset lutlive, ‘outspoken loutrumber, Joutperform, Joustay ‘outburst (burst out) = an explosion /sulden occurrence of something, eg. noise, ange, protest carlook (ook aut) = the prospects for something, eg. the economic outlook; the outlook for tomorrow's weather or your attitude t life, .g, an optimistic outlook oset (et out) = the beginning ‘outspoken (Speak ou) = unafraid to vice an opinion openly outlaw 1 outstrip; 2 backgrounds; 3 outperforming; 4 achievement; 5 underperformance; 6 discouragement; 7 resentment; 8 underprivileged; 9 outstandingly; 10 outshone 1 thinking; 2 came; 3 through; 4 across; 5 ahead ‘come upon = come across (4) ut across = get across (4) work out «think out (1) Summary. a ‘They are both about the ways in which the Dutch education system helps pupils who are not academically gifed. 1d; 63; Tb; 10 + Learners can study at their own pace and follow different pathways with varying academic content (Points 2 and 3) ‘+ Students can move to a more academic pathway / 10 a higher level after completing a less academic ane / a diploma. (Points 3and 4) + Gucceeding in) vocational training builds their confidence and leads to hetter academic results. (Poin 8) + They may repeat classes/years until they reach the ‘minimum standards. (Point 9) 6 EE Advanced _grammatpoints____ Grammar point 1 14; 2b; 3e; Ac; Sa and 3 Grammar point 2 1h; 2c; 34 Practice A ‘4 (no illerence); 2b; 3e (should have become = advice; could have become = unfulfilled possibility); Ae (no difleence); 5b; 6b; 7e (would have taken = decision made in che past, but abandoned; could have taken -unfulilled possiblity) Practice B 1 couldn't have chosen a better present 2 could have gone to lecture/work as a lecturer 3 could/might have given me that 4 should have been handed in 5 illness | would have finished 6 might as well not have gone 7 couldn't have been Auntie Maude who Practice C 1 must have struck; 2 woule/must have found; 3 should Ihave been preserved; 4 had to; 5 was able to; 6 would/must have been worn; 7 could not have been; 8 would have been crushing; 9 most have dazzled; 10 must/would have been; AW had to Vocabulary. a 1 plough through ~ d; 2 delve into ~ £3 hunt down —b; 4 piece together ~ f 5 dig up ~¢; 6 pore over ~g5 7 look up = ¢; B carry out 1,9 trace back ~ by; 10 turn up—a happen on = cur up ‘wade through = plough through a dig up a cum up a carry out a dyyexeavation delve into an archive dig up an ancient manuscript, an artefact, fragments of pottery piece together an ancient manuscript if it sin pleces), fragments of pottery pore over am ancient manuscript a 1 poring; 2 together; 3 ou; 4 digging/turning; 5 cumming; 6 trace; 7 on; 8 delve; 9 up 14; 2h, ¢, 3a; AE, 5) 6b; 7d, g 14; 26, Ba; Ac; Sh; 6b; 7); Bg; 91; 10e 12] “ial ical beneficial, colonial, Diological, farcical, ‘commercial, onspiratoril, experiential, pictorial, preferential, substantial, vestigial denial, sundial; nouns aerial, memorial, oficial ‘methodical, nonsensical, philosophical, typical, ‘whimsical Bi Possible answers bicentennial, burial, commercial, onda, editoria, nical, material, memorial, perennial, potential, sera, testimonial [PSHE Wis Ge magus Teacners BooK lassie ~a very ypical example of something classical = based on or belonging toa traditional style or set ‘of ideas, especially in ror science or connected with the Janguage, literature ete of Ancient Greece and Rome comic = amusing, making you want laugh ‘connected with trade, industry, and the ‘management of money economical = using money, time, goods ee. carefully and without wasting any historic = important because it is, or wll be, remembered as, part of history historical = connected with the study of history politic = sensible and likely to bring advantage; prudent political = connected with the government or public affairs of ‘a country or with the ideas, activities, or advantage of a particular party or group in polities 1 political; 2 lyrically; 3 archaeological; 4 essentially, 5 providentialy, 6 classical; 7 mythical; 8 financially, 9 dictatorally; 10 controvers 1 digging; 2 ploughed: 3 seting; 4 crowned; 5 class Summary. Ei Thee are both about the extinetion of Neanderthal man, Boa 1 no (irrelevant to the subject ofthe summary) 2 no (irrelevant tothe subject of the surnmary) Byes 4 possbly 5 possibly {6 no (no space to include this in 2 50 to 70 word summary) 8 ‘Many anthropologists take the later view: They believe ‘that homo sapiens strangled the opposition, slowly but effectively, by monopolising resources. Neanderthals liked to move around but returned to favourite caves ‘when times got hard. Slowly groups would find that when they went back to those caves they had been taken over by spreading tribes of homo sapiens. it is hard 10 avoid the notion that our meetings with Neanderthals were often violent and fatal. Backed by Improved lingnistle abilities and a capacity to use ‘mental symbols when working out problems, homo sapiens would have been a deadly foe. wm Protictncy Use ot English RRGRST BOOM og ‘moder humans had more complex and specialised tools and their superior language skills would have allowed them to plan and adape their methods of hunting to the circumstances. As the Neanderthals had to compete with the shremder homo sapiens for thelr meals, they would shave suffered bouts of starvation and a consequent decrease in the overall Neanderthal population, which could have been the cause of extinction. tis also possible that when homo sapiens frst ‘encountered Neanderthal man, he could have introduced devastating new diseases, much as the ‘conquistadors did when they arrived in Latin America, Not having developed immunity to these illnesses, Neanderthals would have quickly perished. Another theory postulates that Neanderthals interbred to ‘a greater or lesser extent with the incoming homo sapiens, whose genes eventually became dominant at the expense of the genes delivering Neanderthal characteristics Suggested answer Homo sapiens were more efficient end technologically ‘advanced than Neanderthals and thus starved them of resources, such as shelter and food. Ei Possible answers ‘The Neanderthals could have become extinet asa result of being deliberately exterminated by modern humans, Homo sapiens may also have introduced deadly illnesses to which che Neanderthals were not immune. Another possibility is that homo sapiens and Neanderthals. interbred and the former's genes dominated. Practicetest_2. Part 1 1 since; 2 time; 3 one; 4 less; 5 someone; 6 conclusion; ‘Tack; 8 under: 9 recommenc/suggest; 10 should/may, 11 out; 12 some; 13 lead; 14 gap; 15 whose Part 2 16 mysulled; 17 abandonment; 18 unearthed; 19 disappearance; 20 discovered; 21 spaciousness; 22 powerful; 23 inscriptions; 24 achievements; 25 understanding Part 3 26 break; 27 gold; 28 acquired; 29 responded; 30 clock; 31 study zz Part 4 32 must submit your entry by 33. matter how often | remind her to take 34 Is put at risk, you must adhere 35 but Paul can shed (some) light on 36 the merry-go-round span, the more piercingly 37 ic not been forthe heavy downpour ‘38 until five years had gone by did 39 thelr fallure to learn anything on the fact. Part 5 ‘40 They have litte significance nowadays, /They ate less {Important in people's lives than they used tobe. ‘AY are the first adopt the idea of creating your own career 42 ‘has also pushed work up the agenda’ (line 8) 443 “an increase in the levels of personal interaction at work’ ine 15-16) 44 Content points ‘Work is now the main means by which we define our Adentiy + People shape their own carers, which makes work more interesting + More women work than before, and doa greater variety of jobs + Work has become more sociable and enjoyable om | 7 Advanced_grammat_points____ Grammar point 1 1a; 2e; 3i; 4b, c,h; Sh 61; 74; BI Practice A 1 could go home early since she wasn’t feeling wel. 2 would be here/there by ix thier. 3 (chat) she didn’t need to/didn’t have toAwouldn’t have to Thelp him with his homework that day since he was able to/could manage it on his own. ‘4 we should have taken the second turning on the right, not the first. '5 must be Daphne's daughter since she looked jus like Daphne had atthe same age 6 might join us for a drink after dinner but he alto go and visit his sister in hospital fist 77 were not to write on the question sheet. Practice B Possible answers 1 (We promiseAow tha) this will never happen agin 2 Viewers can vo people off the programme ifthe think they constitute vermpations. 3 Please don't show this programme. 4 The producers of Temptation sland should be ashamed of themselves ~ they are trying to force the destruction of four relationships forthe purposes of enteainment 5 ('msure/onfident that) or viewers wl see thatthe show isnot immoral, but that itis exploring the dynamics, of serious relationships Grammar point 2 2 Practice C Possible answers 2 Before Columbus’ historic voyage, che Earth was (widely) saidthoughtfelieved to be fat. or ‘Before Columbus’ historic voyage, it was saidthought/ believed that the Earth was fat b Sea levels are predicted to vise by 88cm by 2100. or Iris estimated/elieved/predcted/latned that sea levels 1ayfcould rise by 88cm by 2100. «¢ He is rumoured/said 10 be very rich and to own a yacht. or Its rumoured that he is very rich and owns a yacht. d It is reputed/believed/claimed that her next album wall be solo one € It is widely aoceped that Internet charges are too high and should come down. or Tternet charges are agreed tobe too high and it is hoped that they will come down, The film’s production costs ae estimated tobe in the region of £5 million. or Ieisestimated that the films production costs wil be in the region of £5 millon Practice D 1 is understood tobe out of hospital snd 2 is rumouted noc tobe going to make 3 isbelived (that) the chairman will oferhender his or isbelived the chairman will hand in his 4 ecommended (that) you (should) spend no 5 survivors of the fre are reported to have Practice E 1 wel; 2 the; 3 oncewhen; 4 although/hough; 5 few; 6 between; 7 who/that; 8 as, 9 be; 10 remains‘, 11 good: 12 the; 13 all; 44 qualms, 15 despite/notwithstanding Mocabulary. a 1 take up —K; 2 keep up with ~I; 3 take to—a; 4 take your rind off —m:; 5 take par inh; 6 play along —j; 7 tearm up with; 8 put on~i, 9 play on —g; 10 play up~F; 14 send up~e; 12 play it by ear~ dj 13 sail through ~€; 14 take off-b 1 keep up with 2 play (someone) along, 3 ply up ply up a 1. recently he's taken to doing... people's fear. 2 ...s0 friendly that! sailed through it 3 has taken up playing squash afier work ashe says it helps him wo relax and takes his mind offolfice politics. 4... they've been playing her along for six weeks now, 5... prizes take off... 66... want to play my grandmother's senility up/play up my grandmother's senility, bot... ...eould you just play slong? 7 charity s teaming up with students from the drama college to put on an unusual funderaising cabaret. The students who take part inthe cabaret willbe given avopic drawn at random from a hat, for example to send up a famous politician. As they won't know the topics in advance, the students will have to ply it by ear. he's playing on ‘G preposition) +] (someone) +] that clause | + thar+ ing infinitive should boast oVabout, agree, beg, agree, boast, | agree, complaino" |forbid, complain, "| confirm, about, insist instruct, confirm, | demand, on, suggest, finvte, offer, demand, | emphasise, talkabout” — |persuade, " |ernphasise, | imply, propose, imply, insist, | insist, promise, | persuade, | persuade, remind, vow propose, | propose, promise, | remind, remind, | reply, reply, respond, respond, suggest Suggest, Ow 1b; 2a; 3c; Ab; Se; 6; Te; 8a a 1 biological: 2 overproect; 3 unstructured; 4 outdoors; 5 academic; 6 underestimate; 7 psychologically; 8 amisocial; 9 attainment; 10 dissatisfaction 1 ball; 2 sailing, 3 cards; 4 play; 5 fishing Protctenoy Use of ogi RSET BOSE Summary. Ei ey are bth about he Sar Wars ns Content points Text 1 ‘modern cinema's two great money-spinners— Lucas and Spielberg are both regressives, producing what inellect are big-budget children's movies with enough visual panache and sub-spiritual mumbo-jumbo that adults find them entertaining as well. (1) The plot of Star Wars draws heavily fom fairytale and nods to Tolkien in the large (quantities of fury creatures Featured. In addition, examination of box-office history reveals that a high percentage of the most famous movies of all time share tone element: their central characters are either wholly or partially removed from the soil on which the cinemas stand, (2) Text2 novel published soon air he appearance of The Phantom Menace explored the possibility thar te ms are arial parables, Inthe novel, children of the current pre- teen generation obsessively watch Star Wars videos as they are shunted between the separate homes oftheir mummies and daddies, clucching psi Jedi igh-sabres and other i- in merchandise. Crucially, not only do they identify with Luke (3), buta love ofthese celluloid fantasies gives them a bond with thetr parents, who share this language with them. (4) Note 1s, pethaps, no surprise that the most successful cinematic Iranchise of alltime originated in the Seventies. For there {is increasing evidence in our current culture that the ‘generation that grew up in that decade is becoming ‘yrannically nostalgic, engineering the return of their formative obsessions to stage, screen and record store, and imposing their infauations on a new generation. ‘This is nota content point, as the first line ofthe next paragraph says However, parental nostalgia alone cannot explain the continuing popularity ofthe Star Wars series of las Vand 3 8 ‘They are children's movies which adults enjoy a5 well ‘The films appeal to both adults and children. Vand 7 Like many of the best-knowa 1 characters are extraterrestrial 1 children of the curent pre-teen generation’ = young children, 2... the stary ofa boy whose father has left him. Luke ‘Skywalker hasan absemtee dad! children whose fathers have left them = children from a broken home / children with divorced mothers Sideruiby with! = relate to 3 “celluloid fantasies = films 5 ‘share this language’ = they grew up watching the same films Possible answers Young children relate to Luke, whose mother is divorced, as ‘many of theirs are. Their love of the films gives them a bond ‘with their parents, who also grew up watching them, G2 words) ‘The central character comes from a broken home, a fact ‘which many young children can relate to. As their parents also watched Scar Wars in their childhood, their shared love ofthe films forms a bond between them. (8 words) ‘ever, their main | owe | 8 EEE Advanced grammar points__. Grammar point 1 Babete a 8 should be some, as it refers to a group of people, but not all street musicians. bb should be some, as the question is an offer expects the ‘answer "yes! € should be any, as t's a general question f should be any, ast refers to help in any shape or form, nota specific kind of help g shoul be anyone, a tis a conditional sentence Grammar point 2 14; 2b; 3a, 4c Practice A. Ib; 2a, ¢; Be; Ab; 5a, b; 6b; 7b; 12a,¢; 13 92, 1c; 11b; Practice B Suggested answers ‘Uy mother nor my father likesis heen on abstract art 2 one ofthe ten actors / every actor who/that auditioned for the part was unsuitable 3 films she made are considered to be classics. 4 of the plays you've suggested sounds appealing. 5 of the writers shortlisted forthe prize is a woman, Practice C 1 other; 2 thei; 3 none; 4 nothing; 5 each; 6 These; 7 anyone; 8 both; 9 neither; 10 those; 14 few; 12 some Vocabulary a Oniywih | Withor without | With or without relexive proooun | relxive pronoun, rellxive pronoun; ile change in complete change in metning | meaning avail (of), cloister, [deceive, enjoy, — acquit, apply, comport, ingatiat fore, sty. Jeosain, count, Cot) peroe, [resign eo). | dey, distinguish, steel suppor, ret | forget, pace suit a Posse answers Only wah] Wah or wou | With or without refledve pronoun | reflexive pronoun reflexive pono, Tle change in| complete change in meaning _|rmeming ally (with), behave, console, | brace, bury, fensconee, nerve | dress, defend, | compose, install pride (on). | suppor a 1 John absented himself / was absent from 2 toland ingratiate myself with my 23 has resigned herself tothe low 4 why the students hadn't availed themselves of 5 perjured himself because he though it 6 in which you (can) lose yourself may be /ean be Tk; 2b; 34 A, Se; 6; 71; Bj 9c; Oh; 14g; a (Gffeficigncy tee of engin Teacher's Book is 2d; Be; Aa; 5j; 6k; Zg; Bb; 9h; 1OF; 141; Ye Abstract concepts ship Objects / abstract concepts -age People -2e, er/-ot/-itod/-ator, ist -erand -ee eri the person who carries out the verb ee isthe person upon whom the verb is acted. eg. A trainer trains trainees. ge fee ato fe [stip (tor! ater) coinage, | divorcee, | commentator, | earicaturst, Joensorship, footage, |evacuee, |exhibitor, | diarist, —_{tizenship, frontage,| trainee {suecessor, | autist, courtship mileage trainer idealist, spillage philanthropist pianist, sentimental vocalist craftsmanship, dictatorship, horsemanship, leadership, ‘musicianship, relationship, workmanship 1 patronage; 2 sculptors; 3 competitors; innovators; 'S ownership; 6 hardship; 7 sponsorship; 8 finalists; 9 nominees; 10 coverage 1 tone; 2 commission; 3 yourself taste; 5 practice Summary, Eh They are both about the Lomo camera, They unnatural-looking and dull (and when used with a fash, the colours are washed out.) Bveryone in his social circle / All his friends and their friends and acquaintances wanted to have a Lomo camera =, Proficiency Use of English Teche S BOSE “Taking photographs without looking through the viewfinder atthe thing/person you are photographing. ‘devotee’ (line 11) Note: both words, ‘cul’ and ‘devotee’ carry religious overtones. Cente pins ¢ The emer vor now ght who a fash 5 ipods gy cooweeteealyplesing «The metnod of wing produes ings tht ae mor tse tereaiitme amare than onetona fowl «evel mpdicabe Information box] Page 130, Text 2, lines 1 and 4 Henri Cartier-Bresson (born 1908) French photographer and photojournalist. Hels particularly well known for his pevfectly composed photographs and his ability to capkure land record a moment which reveals the significance of his subject. Page 130, Text 2 line 16 [The Notting Hill Carnival isa street carnival which takes place in an area of Lonan once year. Advanced_grammat_points. Grammar point 1 3 =Iestis used to mean ‘in onder to make sure that ‘something will not happen’ or to show that someone is. afraid or worried that a particular thing might happen. Practice A Possible answers 1 we won't be fa from the main sghts/ we'll beable to visit the ae galleries and museums easly we'll beable 19 sample the town’s nightlife. 2 ry bag being mislaid by the arin /osing my suitcase. ' they should ger out of contol / they should aceldenally start a major forest fire. 4 you protcet yourself from sunburn / you don't get sunburnt 5 they should lose tele way / they should stray ff the path 6 1on’t be bored ifthe weathers bad can catch up on the reading I don't have time to do the rest ofthe year. = Grammar point 2 Practice B 1 spent so much money on my sunataer holiday that 1 ‘won't be able to afford a skiing one as wel. My summer holiday was so expensive that I won't be able to afford a skiing holiday as well. 2 The coach journey was so ful that I'l go by train next {had such an awl coach journey that Ill goby train next time. '3 My aunt's first ever foreign holiday was such a success that she's now planning to travel abroad every year. My aunt's frst ever foreign holiday was so successful that she’s now planning to travel abroad every year. ‘4 The pool at the hotel was so lovely that we only went 10 the beach a couple of times. The hotel had such a lovely pool that we only went fo the beach a couple of times. '5 Sam loves the island of Mykonos so much that he's gone there every summer for the lat ten years. ‘Sam has such a love of Mykonos that he's gone there every summer for the last ten years Practice C 1 such; 2 which/that; 3 so; 4 Although: 5 who; 6 However, 7 of; B who; 9 Consequently/Therelore; 10 lest Practice D 1 despite having studied the holiday brochure in 2 import animal products lest they should spread 3 was so informative that ‘was so delayed that $5 whose father is one of Thailand's 8 order not to miss a/hs Bight, Harry 9 even though they found the (coach) journey there Mocabulaty. a 1 cake off 2 make offi 3 set out ~€; 4 see someone off =a; 5 get off g; 6 catch up with ~ dj; 7 make for ~€; get in—b; 9 set down —j; 10 turn back —h 1 make for 2 cur (someone) back 1 got off; 2 turned back; 3 made for; sce us off 5 setting cout; 6 get in; 7 making for; 8 made off; 9 catch up with her; 10 turning her back; 11 set them down; 12 took olf stemmed from b brought about [Brough about siemmed from caused, created, contributed | was attributed to, 10, led to, resulted in, resulted from sparked olf contributed 10 vwas attributed to 1 other pollutants contribute 10 2 to stem from diving 3 can befis attributed tothe strength 4 has brought sboura lot of culural change(s) 5 of the reef has resulted in the loss sless fo abeabe [as les some feonterpible, | contemprnus, alles, | loathsome, owleigeabi, | disastous, | remorseless | quarelsome, memorable, | glorious, troublesome permissible, | prosperous, sustainable, | spacious, tolerable | suspicious a contempt ~ contemptsious is applied toa person who fels camtempt contemptible relates to behaviour which inspires contempt 1 contemptible 2 comempeuous a cumbersome « slow and difficult or heavy and dificult to move gruesome = unpleasant and shocking {oothsome = asty ‘winsome = pleasant, tractive Other possibilities handsome, noisome (= extremely unpleasant), wholesome (likely 10 make you healthy) 1 furiously; 2 meddlesome; 3 fashionable; 4 daundless, 5 insatiable; 6 uresome; 7 contemptuous; 8 circuitous, ‘boundless; 10 laborious [ejesianey its or engin Teachers Book 1 remote; 2 value; 3 trouble; set; § head, Summary. El They are both about the impacts of tourism. ‘The legislation introduced by governments to control noise levels and waste disposal 1 good 2 ‘a vicious circle” isa cycle of bad causes and effects; the author wants to show a cycle of positive causes and effects ‘To emphasise the fact that the more tourists care about the environment, the more responsible the tourist industry will become / the better the tourist industry will protect the ED They ae hypocria ane nrealisi ED thefts of ours (ine 8) a) oni Text] _governments have started introducing new regulations, particularly in the transport sector. (1) Airlines and airports, fr example, have been obliged to progressively minimise noise levels and eruise operators hhave had to establish codes of conduct for waste disposal This enforced environmental responsibility is now being augmented by a broader vison. Because ft Is selling clean air, clean beaches and unspoiled scenery, the travel and tourism sector has has realised that by protecting the environment ~it preserves its core business assets. Furthermore, effective conservation of energy, waste and water can significantly reduce costs. (2) Ten 2 But do local people want to stay as they are? Why should they not enjoy the fruits of tourisin? Tourism is in many places actually keeping alive or even reviving local traditions and crafts, (3) Proficiency Use of Engi ERT BTN The travel industry can set standards in the areas of energy reduction, waste disposal and water savings. Many hotels now recycle waste and encourage energy efficiency. (same as 2) Increasingly, tourist destinations are realising that inappropriate development may spoil their natural attractions (4) — the Caribbean island of c Lucia recently earned down a ‘scheme to put a cable car and restaurant on top ofits Deautiful ewin mountain peak, the Pitons. Content points + Governments ate introducing stricter environmental controls ‘+ Companies in the travel industry are implementing their ‘own measures to lessen their environmental impact. + Tourism benefits local economies and traditional erat. + Tourist destinations are rejecting unsuitable developments ‘im areas of natural beauty Practice.test 3___ Part 1 1 something 2 suc 3 despite ecg; 5 bt; 6 None Yates 8 hws 9 so; 1 for o,f Hang 18 being evencualyfnlly 3 in Part 2 16 unpretentious; 17 spirituality; 18 contractors; 19 reliable; 20 costly; 24 soulless; 22 overlooking: 23 commissioned; 24 represented; 25 modernity Part 3 26 time; 27 entertained; 28 water; 29 accepted; 30 sharp; 31 up Part 4 32 it not been for Bob, we would have ‘33 that he would tell the truth /10 tell the truth from, 34 make a written complaint will the authorities 35 advised to carry water let they should be 36 as wel leave now that the band have 37 might I can't put my Bnger on 38 logical was his argument that no-one/nobody could 39 should make commoting Part 5 40 nobody can agree At the studies analysed by Professor Farnham 482 that they ae of poor quality and that some advertise covertly) 43 ‘vulnerable aodiences (line 4) es 44 Content points ‘+ TVadventsing can encourage consumerism, especially in children who watch TV alone, (for ~Text 1) + TVadvertsing may be les influential than the role of parents in shaping children’s buying habits, (against — Text 1) ‘+ Banning T advertising could lead to a decline inthe quality of children’s TV programmes. (against ~ Text 2) + Advertising may even be beneficial a it teaches children t0 be discriminating about products and the way they are ‘marketed. (against — Text 2) i _— Advanced_grammatpoints___. Grammar point 1 6,24; 3b Grammar point 2 1c; 2a; 3b 13h; 2-28; 3-16 Practice A 1 Ifyou will eat nothing but fruit, 2 Should you feel drowsy after taking the pills, 3 Were the hospital to build a new wing, 4 I you happen to find that new diet book on sae at the airport, 5 Ii she will keep/go on smoking, 6 Had the nutritionist been properly rained, Practice B Possible answers 1 you will eat nothing but fruit, don't blame me if you waste away / you may not get all the vitamins your body needs 2 Should you feel drowsy after taking the pills, do not drive ‘or operate machinery. '3 Were the hospital to build 2 new wing there would be less ‘overcrowding in the main wards the waiting list for beds could he reduced. 4 Iyou happen to fin that new diet hook on sale a the airport could you get me a copy, please? 5 If she will keepfgo on smoking, it's her own grave she'll be digging /she'l never ge over that nasty cough she's got. 6 Had the mtritinist been properly trained, she woulda’t have given inaccurate advice fo the mathers of al those undernourished babies /sbe wouldn't have put me on a diet which inereased my blood pressure instead of ‘ringing it down, Grammar point 3 1b; 2a Practice C 1 ight fel more energetic if Uh taken / hadn't forgotten to take these vitamin pills you gave me. 2 He mst have been playing computer games half the night if his eyes are sored and pully 43 Ifher childhood hadn't been so unhappy /Ishe had had «happier childhood, she might not / she would probably not suller from anorexia no 4fjohn's looking so tanned and healthy, he mast have ‘een on another skiing holiday. 5 Adam can’t have gone tothe gym afterall ifhe's back already. 6 She wouldn't be too tired vo study if she hadn't been out at aclu until 4.00am, 7 If she's put on so much weight, she can't have stuck to hee diet £8 My sister might be keener on spors if our gym teacher at school hadn't always been sarcastic to hee. Practice D children to eat more healthily not been snowed under I would to die from this iliness it would be the doctor's timely arrival we would have taken, 1s soon as I get home from to.court unless she let im ‘not acl a climbing accident he might should the government go ahead ‘immediately ifthe substance comes / should the substance come had attended that lesson, I would know Mo cab ay enero o 1 get over—k; 2 tire someone out ~€; 3 pep someone up ty; 4 get someone / something back ~ mi; 5 build up~ g; Goring on ~a: 7 clear up §;8 put on —£, 9 burn off- n; 10 work out ~€; 11 pass out —; 12 come to—I; 13 pass away ~b; 14 pall through —j wavousens Bienteer EB your tos, tia rl, the ving rom (EBBEIANEY Uae oF ngioh Teacher's Book your strength, your confidence, a collection of somethi (coins, paintings, ete.) fat, extra kilos, clothes, a funny voice or a strange expression a come round = come to ass on = pas aay Bac bealthy, fe tired, unhealthy, unfit, [on top form, full of beans, | (abit) below par, in good shape, in perfect | all in off colour, run down, health in the pink, under the weather, intiptop condition washed out a 1 down; 2 pep; 3 back; 4 brought; § out; 6 build: 7 0; £8 put;9 down: 10 cook; 14 take; 12 got; 13 working; oft 1 drug company; 2 heart transplant; 3 cancer patent; leg injury; 5 government health cuts; 6 family man; 7 emergency ward 8 boule opener, 9 factory waste; 10 safety officer Possible answers family doctor, friend, members, ear, home government spokesman, buildings, policy, offces hospital grounds, stall, poicy, regulations police procedure, caf, uniform, regulations school premises, rules, stall, gate, uniform @ 4c; 25; 3b, 44 Diver a fo __[lypers [iter = Foreon,—Ryperideal, | imerooneced, | predaernine, foreground, hypermarket, | interdependent, | premature, foresight," iypenension, | merice, | premediate, forethought, iypereniiate|ntemarry, | preocopy, forewarn fimermingl, | preseniment interplanetary Proficioney Use of English TEachey= BOOM hypertension = high blood pressure byperventilate = breathe very fast and uncontrollably forecast (¥) ~ forecast (n) forewarn (v) —forewaming (n) ‘interact (¥) interaction (n) Jntermarry (v) ~ intermarriage (n) Sntermingle (v) — intermingling (0) remediate (v) - premeditation (n) preoceupy (v) ~ preoccupation (n) 1 occurrence; 2 dramatically; 3 predisposition; 4 interlinked: tendency, 6 predestined; 7pollsion; Bover-enthusiastic: 9 exposure; 10 interselationship; 11 foresee; 12 disorders; 13 hypersensitive; #4 unafected 1 work; 2 washing; 3 clear; ran; § passed Summaty. a “They are both about ways of reducing the risks of serious side-effects from drugs. Content points Text | Scientists have found that a substantial number of people have an inactive version of the gene CYP2D6 which produces a liver enzyme that helps the body to process many commonly-presecibed drugs. If this enzyme is deficient, x drug will ether be metabolised to0 quickly and not do the work it was intended 10 do, ‘or will not be processed at all, thus causing adverse reactions. (1) many scientists believe the fature of medicine lies in establishing and recording each patient's genetic ‘code on 2 DNA chip, so that all treatments with drugs, either in emergencies or in routine visits to the GP, ‘ean be safely tailored to the patient's genetic make- up.) Text2 In faet, there are major problems with the safety net. A recent survey found that a quarter of information sheets on new drugs did not in fact carry the black triangle symbol. As doctors cannot be expected to ‘know by heart which among the thousands of ‘medicines available are new, the blame for non- reporting of side effects from these drugs lies fair and square with the mamafuctarers. (3) There are other weaknesses. Filling in a yellow form is voluntary. Some doctors fill n stacks. some hardly any ~ the average is less than one a year per doctor. wo Yes lines 1~3and lines 4-5 2Yes lines 1-3 3No Yes lines 4S and 3-8 a Tagene test 2 t0 process drugs 3 ‘metabolise’ (line 10 of Text 1) 4 frequently used 1 genetic encoding on DNA chips 2 drug treatments 3 adapted 1 drug companies 2 medicines are new; the procednres for reporting Patients could be given a new gene test which shows ‘whether they may be unable to metabolise many frequently used drugs. In future, genetic encoding on DNA chips wil allow drug treatments tobe adapted 0a paien’s genetic make-up. In addition, drug companies Should be stricter about informing doctors that medicines are new and the procedures for reporting side-ffcts should be improved. 1 err Advanced grammat_points____ Grammar point 1 42,2 Lwish {was thinner; 3 1c; 3b: 4a Practice A Suggested answers 11 Towish Thad your ability to pick up foreign languages easily wish I could pick up foreign languages 2s easily as you 2 Steve wishes he could go to university, but bis father expects him to join the family business. Steve wishes his father would let him go to university rather than join the family business 3 L wish I wasn't overweight T wish L could lose some weight, 4 Lwish [had gone to university when I had the chance. wish Fd taken the chance of going to university when 1 had it. 5 L wish {could go on holiday with you to Spain, but {don’t think Il be able to take any more time off work. wish I could take some more time off work, then 1 could .g0 on holiday with you to Spain. Grammar point 2 1 presemt; 2 past; 3 past 1b; 2c; 3a Grammar point 3 1:26, 3C; 44 Practice B a 2a; 3b; a Se; 6D; 7a Ba: 9a; 0b Practice C 1 she felt as ifshe had seen 2 rather have become a vet, 3 only Thadin’t confided in 4 rather you hadn't talked 5 high time you decided what career 6 Sophie wishes she had married Bob instead 7 wonldn’t criticise me as ivthis ruins @ rather you removed your shoes before PREIS Ue of engisn Teacher's Book Practice D 1 with; 2 the; 3 were; 4 their; 5 to; 6 much; 7 put; 8 whileAwhereas; 9 own; 10 about; 11 who/that; 12 time; 13 its; 14 botlveach; 15 to; 16 as, 17 would; 18 such Mocabulary____ a chest, ear 1 head; 2 shoulder; 3 hand; 4 mouth; 5 nose; 6 back; foot; 8 finger; 9 toe; 10 face; 11 elbow ‘Le; 2a; 3F, Ah; St; 6) 7g; Bk; 9d; 10b; Ite 1g; 2e; 3b; Ah Sd; 61; 7c; Ba 1 3b (from ear to ear) 2 Ig Gall fingers and thumbs) 3 5d (hand in hand) 4 4h (from head to toe) 5 6f (neck and neck) 6 Te (eye weve 7 2e (cheek by owl) £8 Ba (tongue in cheek) 1 That boy is good at finding/getting into trouble. 2 He understands/works with figures easily. 3 Lind T dificult to choose colours that go well together / that would be appropriate to decorate a oom, etc: 4 Your daughter picks up languages easily Possible answers an eat for music aneye for detailfor a bargain ahead for business a nose for a good restaurant 1 shouldered the burden of raising his sister's 2 was handed down from my grandfather to my 3 Harry would foot the bill when he invites 4 you would back me up 5 a nose for scandal so she would make 6 don't see eye to eye about their 7 elbow my way through (the crowd/a lot of people) Profilency Use of English Teschar SOG acute _illnessdisease, pain, pneumonia (Note: not arthritis, as this is usually a long-term problem, ‘nota sudden and severe one.) arthritis, illness, pain (Note: not pneumonia, as this is a sudden and severe problem.) chronic ull Infectious illness/disease throbbing pain inflamed glands, knee, leg, throat sore knee, leg, throat swollen glands, knee, leg, throat sprained knee blinding, excruciating, nagging, severe, sharp, stabbing, ‘unendurable ‘an acute shortage of water /acute distress /acute embarrassment (acute = very severe) acute hearing /an acute sense of smell (acute = very sensitive) ‘am acute mind /an acute understanding /acote observations {acute = intelligent, perceptive) an acute angle (mathematics — acute = less than 90 degrees) inflamed eyes, skin, finger; an inflamed cuthvound anywhere nthe body ankle, wrist, elbow, neck breal/come out in arash/spots comedown with cold, an illness (an infectious, but not usually severe one, eu, measles) contract addiseas, tuberculosis run ‘ever temperature ward off stoold,n disease, anillness 1 sore; 2 come out in; 3 went down with; 4 infectious; 5 sprained; 6 running; 7 contracted; 8 coming down with; 9 throbbing pain; 10 glands; 11 ward off B 1 expectancy; 2 unprecedented 3 foundations; 4 deterioration; § immutable; 6 preordained; 7 preconceptions; 8 overumed; 9 unawidable; 10 indefinitely —_— 1 inger 2 shoulder, 3 hand eo ee Summaty. a They are both about the findings of The Hurnan Genome Project. ‘To make a comparison between human genes and managers of businesses, becanse some of our genes are in charge of ‘more than one function, BX sere variations ines 19 -20) sjunie Cine 3); siteer” (line 6) “That their ideas may not be as crazy as most people had thought. Tea When the Human Genome Project begen, researchers on the project had predicted they might find 70,000 to 140,000 genes. They also believed that one gene ‘contained the code for one protein which would have ‘one function. Instead, the international consortium of ‘scientists discovered that the human genome ‘contained only about 30,000 genes. (1) the proportionately smaller nuraberof genes means thet biologists can no longer assume that one genc is 2 ‘Blueprint for one protein that has one function. It ‘seems that nature has found a way of making ‘executive! genes that do very sophisticated ‘management work, (2) ur siaiarty ata molecular level to other creatures provides confirmation of Darwin's theory of evolution ‘formulated 150 yeas ago. The same genes, with some adjustments, bave been used throughout the 3.8 bilion year ‘story of evolution. What is now clear is that as we move up the ladder of complexity from single cell ercatures, through small znimals like worms and fies, to human beings, what are added are increasingly varied and ‘subtle control genes. (2) Text 2 Researchers on the Human Genome Project were somewhat taken aback to find that the genes themselves occupy a mere 1.1% of human chromosomes. A lot of the rest is just rubbish, plain and simple. (3) The research indicates that at least half of the human ‘genome may consist of DNA that started out 2s Independent viruses or virus-like entities. To make ‘matters worse, hundreds of other genes seem to have been imported directly from bacteria, (4) og The third discovery mentioned in Test 1 (that modern ‘humans all evolved out of the same three or four ‘groups in Africa) should not be inckuded inthe surmmary, ast did not come as a surprise. The research also bears out the long-standing theory Content points + The human genome contains fr fewer genes than expected. + Some human genes perform more than one function. + A huge percentage of the human genome is junk’ + The human genome appears to have been genetically ‘modified by bacteria and viruses information box| Page 174, Text, line Yond Text 2 line 8 [The Human Genome Project was st up in 1990. Ibis coordinated by the US. Department of Energy and the National insiutes for Health. The main goals ofthe project are to identify all the genes in human DNA and determine the chemical sequences that ake up human, IDNA. The research referred tin these two texts was published asa ‘working draft in February 2001. The projects expected tobe completed in 2003. Page 174. Tex 1, lines + nd 6, Tet 2, lines 2, 5 and 10 [A genome isall the DNA inn organism, including its genes. DNA is made up of four similar chemicals that are repeated milion of times throughout a genome Page 174, Txt 2 ine 1 ‘Afaga fish isa variety of paler fish which is eaten in Japan If incorrectly prepared, iti highly poisonous and can cause death when eaten. [oraiiasy ae ot magn Teachers Book unit | 12 eek ik aed Advanced _grammar_points___ Grammar point 1 Ad; 2h; 3f, 4b; Sc; 6g; Te; Ba Practice A 1 should be made to reduce the air pollution they produce. 2 aren't allowed to smoke in here. 3 should he seen to behave with honesty and dignity. 4fifty businesses in the area have been helped to implement buy et down hea was slowed onal slr ‘panel on my root 6 in the cown centre is felt to have reached unbearable ‘proportions. 17 as heard o say that environmental problems were of na ‘concern to her Grammar point 2 a th; 2a Ba Practice B ‘Ww, 2W; 35; 4; 55; OW. Practice C 1 are getting married 2 haa his licence suspended after being / having been arrested 3 to ind out why those poor people got stuck. 4 will have to become accustomed to '5 govlave ourselves vaccinated Practice D 1 on; 2 be; 3 has; 4 by; 5 of; 6 have: 7 so; 8 given; 9 whichfthat; 10 then; 11 The; 12 inherited; 13 no; ‘Wi risk/chance/danger; 15 is; 16 would; 17 co; 18 have; 19 order, 20 will; 24 instead; 22 them Mocabulary. haat, torrent Proficiency Use of Engst Teachers BOOK 2 stormed; 3 breeze; 4 flooded; § clouded; 6 shower; 7 cloud; 8 rained; 9 breezes; 10 shower; 11 looced; 12 stormed 1b; 2c; 3e; a; SE 6d a 4 1b (aod of complains) 2-51 (loods of ears) 3 3e (a storm of protest) 4 2c (ashover of compliments) 5 4a (torrent of abuse) {6 64 (gales of laughter) a 1 stole my thunder 2 weather the storm 3 alice like thunder 4 castor ina teacup 5 took the wind aut of my sails 6 under the sun 7 gevwind of 8 on cloud nine 9 a sunny disposition 10 head in the clouds classified, defined, diagnosed, labelled, regarded, sed, viewed for intended, used, made from extracted in included, involved, positioned, situated into divided, grouped of composed, made on based, positioned, situated to attributed, confined, linked, related, subjected, transferred with assoctated, coupled Beernd 1 are associated with lifeliving 2 was incorrectly labelled as being / having come 3 longer viewed as, 4 was diagnosed 2s having / having contracted / sullering from '5 be linked o the chemicals used for 6 isconfined 10 1b, ; 2c; 3a, d —_— de em-fen- re decompress, | embitter, encase, | refuel, replace, econtaminate, | encourage, enlarge | restate, retry defrost, delouse, demotivate ae fem-fen- © ecompression, —embitierment, refuel, decontamination, enclosure, replacement, defrost (x), "encouragement, _| restatement, delouse (x), enlargement revrial demativation eform » change the usual shape of samething so tha its usefulness or appearance is spoiled degenerate = beceme worse Aevalze = 1) reduce the value of currency; 2) make ‘someone or something seem less important or valuable than they really are devitalize = ake the power or strength away from something reform = 1) change a system. lw. organisation etc so that it ‘operates ina more effective way: 2) change your behaviour and become a better person regenerate = make something develop and grow strong again revalue = 1) examine something agin in order to calculate its present value; 2) increase the value ofa country's ‘money in relation o that of ether countries, revitalize = pu new strength or power into something 1 reappraise; 2 unequivocally: 3 deforestation; 4 recycle; 5 decomposing; 6 endangering: 7 unanimity; 8 enact; 9 reaffirmed; 10 renewsble 1 fish; 2 wolf, 3 worm: 4 dogs: § ext Summary a ‘They are both about the drawbacks of aquaculture (lish farming) Bi eeptca a (tnan-made) alterations in the patterns of which fish eat which otber fish ‘to emphasise thatthe farmed fish’s living conditions are cramped and unhealthy the mbxure of pesticides, uneaten fish feed and sewage produced by the salman Text | ‘Much fish farming relies heavily on fish feed, that is, ‘capturing small sh ike mackerel and anchovy and leding them to cunivorous farmed lsh. In the production ofthe tn most commanly farmed fish, roughly 2kg of wild fish foed ate required for every kilogram offre fish produced. This means that athe moment fish feed ts further draining wild fish stocks, without even producing an equivalent mass of farmed fish. (1) tis not only through changes in food chain interactions that aquaculture depletes wild fish stocks, but also by spreading diseases from farmed 10 wild fish. (2) 1's difficult to persuade farmed fish to keep tw thelr pens, as is shown by the fact chat nearly half of the salmon aught by North Addinic fishermen are of farmed origin. A further worry is that farmed fish may spawn with wild fish and dilute the genetic makeup of their offspring, making them less well-adapted to their environment than their wild parents. (3) Text2 Perhaps the cruelest irony ofthe growth in fish farming is that it has come close to driving Wild fish, the very creatures it was designed t save, othe brink of extinction. Inthe past 10 yeas. wild salmon stocks have declined to all-time lows, and inthe north-west Highland, conte ofthe Scotish aquaculture industry. stocks have been devastated. The ‘cause is infestations of sea lice caused by the proximity of farmed salmon, (2) These are kept in cages, usually situated at the mouths of lakes which open onto the sex. The cages ar vast, but the fish are packed in ght with upto 250.000 of them batting for survival in each one. At these densities. the fish are at the mercy of disease and parasites are rife. (2) Although sea lice area naturally ‘cursing parasite foun in wid fist anda ealehy adult fish would sormally- cary five or sx, in the wild fisheries close tothe fish farms, salmen an sea trout have been feund with ‘up t0 300 lice on them. The solution forthe farmed fish isthe use of vaccinations and toxic pesticides. As their cages are open to the ‘environment, these chemicals seep into the surrounding water and can damage the habitats around the cages. (4) The intensive feeding regimes also cerry a heavy cost. In many farms, the fish are fed automatically, and much of the feed drops straight through the cages to gather on the bottom of the lake along with the ammonium-rich salmon excreta. (4) It is estimated that a 1,000-tonne salmon fara = small by current industry standards — produces sewage waste equivalent to a town of 20,000 people. The resulting mix disturbs the chemical Balance of delicate marine habitats. (4) Content points + More fish are consumed on fish farms than are produced, so wild stocks are depleted. (definite drawback ~ Text 1) * Diseases and parasites are spread from farmed fish to wild cones. (definite drawback ~ Texts 1 and 2) + The marine habitat {s becoming polluted by chemical, nutrients and sewage from fish farms. (definite drawback — Text 2) * Should escaped farmed fish breed with wild fish their offspring may also be less well-adapted to life inthe wild. (potential drawback Text 1) Practice test4_ Part 1 1 well; 2 while/and 3 between; 4 resuting/consequent; 5 disease; 6 place/put; 7 taken; 8 down; 9 should; 10 harm; 14 from; 12 for; 13 Nor; 14 it; 15 on Part 2 16 contributors; 17 abnormal; 18 coincident; 19 childhood; 20 cleanliness; 21 emergence; 22 coexist; 23 vocalisations; 24 relationship/interreationship, 25 enable Part 3 26 life; 27 count; 28 admitted; 29 blood; 30 ready; 31 jumped Part 4 ‘32 long as my car has been repaired by 33 having taken the maney despite the evidence 3a had complete faith in his deputy’s 35 are said to have healing ‘36 had we arrived at the resort when 37 did not live up tothe critics’ 39 couldn't make head nor tal of 40 only Ihadn't dropped out of Part 5 41 the number of whales they allow themselves to catch, ‘each year 441 “culled” (line 18) 42 to emphasise the fac that different nations have different Ideas about what should or should not be estes {43 they see hunting whales for food as par. oftheir cultural heritage 44 Content points ‘+ The minke isnot an endangered species. + Theic numbers need to be controlled so that fish stocks are not depleted ‘+ Eating whale meat is part ofJapan’s culture and other ‘nations should not make value judgements about ths. *+ The scale ofthe proposed commercial whaling would be small Tnformation box| [Page 194, lines 2, 4 andl 10 |A moratorium isan oll period of time. I stopping of an activity for a om 3 eee Advanced_grammar_points__. Grammar point 1 1b; 2b; 3b; as Sb Grammar point 2 candi a € She dared him (o ell the boss what he really thought of him, (When followed by an object (him) dre takes the full infinitive.) Tm ying wo find out what happened. (The construction and + infinitive afer try can only be used when there is no ending (-ed, -s or ~ing) on the verb try.) Practice A ‘1c; 2a; 3b; 4b; Sb; 6c; 7b; 8a; 9c Grammar point 3 , te; 2c, 3a; 4b ‘on/upon could be added to sentence 4 (On/Upon reading ...) Practice B to inform you that your contract has not 2 graduating she was immediaiely offered a job 3 three years to write the book, being encouraged 4 spent his father’s inheritance, Charles set out to 5 would like to try bungee-jumping, 1 know 6 not keeping up my eaely inerest 7 up ater Lhad tied wo solve the Practice C 1 tobe encoded: 2 to reer, 3 negotiating; 4 wo act; 5 wo challenge; 6 emerge; 7 walking; 8 Being fved/Having been fitted; 9 to detect; 10 having been relayed 111 allow; 12 to step, 13 Having pushed; 14 to behave; 18 to create; 16 (10) observe; 17 t0 fashion; 18 develop Mocabular, a 1 boll avay —-ay; 2 wipe out— hs 3 break down~ e;4 break up—K:5 come up with ~0; 6 get rid of—g: 7 give out —p: Bilt off 9 let out ~j; 10 pat out ~n; 11 run down —a $Wrun one; 13 rimou ~b; 14 send out 4 15 tum something into = 16 tur of -k change into = turn into put off = cur off set off = let off 1 give out 2 break down 1b 2b; 3, b; a, b; Se; 62, €; Tbe 1 put out: 2 gave out; 3 sent out; 4 turning/changing into, ‘came up with; 5 run on; 6 setting/leting off, 7 got rid of, un out 1K; 2b; 3g; a; Sd; 6c; Th; Be; 9F; 10); 11 1-4;2-11,3-2;4-8;5 -5,6-1 a 1 Totell you the truth /Tnall honesty 2 bearing in mind that / considering that 3 w putt milly ‘4. Genenlly speaking / On the whole 5 waa long story short 6 Tobe pesfetl frank / Frankly peaking 7 make matters worse 8 wsumup 9 judging ftom appearances /as far as Ican see 10 To put itanother way /In other words Dau cen aCe) [ise Tighten, moisten. [electily [carbonise redden, (clecirfication), __|(earbonisation), straighten, Lalsify(alsllication), feconomise (x), threaten, worsen | slorify (glorification), erie Tiquety liquefaction), | fertilisation), solidify liquidise (2), (olidiication) | magretise magnetisation), primase (optimisation), [symbolise (Gymbolistion), aporise Geaporisation) a liquid 1) liquefy (make something become liquid), 2) Tiquidise (rush fruit or vegetables into a thick liquid) 1 liquidise 2 liquely aeconamise 6 liquidise Verb "Noun denoting a process clarify ‘dariicat versity diversify | diversification Invensity Intensify | intensification mobility mobilise | mobilisation popularity | popularise | popularisation utlity wulise utilisation B 1 intensified 2 recharging; 3 lengthening; 4 minimising; 5 chemical; 6 continuously: 7 pollution; 8 utils 9 simplify; 10 liquefied; 11 pressurised; 12 lessening; 13 motorists [DBE Wt teacher Book 1 lightened: 2 boiled; 3 give; 4 running Summary rere a ‘They are both about objets fram space/comets and asteroids hicing the earth Bhat itey axe now quite ely happen ‘An impact on the earth by an object measuring 1 kilometre in diameter. (lines 10 ~ 11) TD bier for sheer ‘a nuclear winter (line 4) ‘a mini-ice age’ (line 5) ‘scraining world food supplies (line 6) near-earth objects = asteroids and comets on orbits that cross that of the earth (lines 24) Text 1 Am asteroid of this size that hit solid earth would form 4a crater ten times its own size (1) and would shower the stratosphere with dust, blotting out the sun, shutting down all plant growth and condemning those who survived to death by cold and starvation. (2) comets are aggregates of ie and dust which are weakly held together so that when they hit the atmosphere they start breaking up. As they get further down the pressure increases and they break up even fster, resulting in an explosion with a brilliant lash and scorching heat. A blast like that over a densely- populated area would kill 1.5 million people. (3) Tet 2 The press and Hollywood often focus on the impact ofa large asteroid, say 1 km in diameter, which would wipe out life within proximity ofthe impact site. (1) More seriously, it would affect the whole world in indirect ways. The dust and/or vapour cloud created by an impact to either the land or the ocean could be big enough to create a ‘auclear winter’, like a mini-ice age, and disrupt climate patterns, adversely aecting major food:growing regions of the world and straining world food supplies. 2) Profconcy Uso of Bagh MaSSS ETN (Of much greater concern should be asteroids in the 30 to 200 metre range, which are far greater in number. The Meteor Crater in Arizona, measuring roughly a kilometre in diameter, was caused by a nickel-iron rock only abut 30 -metres across. That's avery small asteroid which we ‘coulda’ see from telescopes until i's right above Earth ~ when it's much too late todo anything bur duck for cover. However, as seventy per cent of the Earth is covered by oceans, an ocean impact is more likely and would also ‘be much more damaging. An asterold hitting land causes mainly localised damage. An asteroid hitting the ocean could create a tsunami (huge tidal wave) it would inflict catastrophic damage to coastal cities. (4) ‘Option 2 is better, as both texts talc about the actual elfects ‘of small asteroids on land, rather than the possible elects, and Text 2 also indicates asteroids are much more likely to ‘strike the sea than the land. Content points + The impact of large asteroid would destroy life in the immediate area, + Inthe longer-term it could create major climate changes and worldwide fod shortages. + A simaller asteroid landing inthe sea could trigger tidal vwaves and lood coastal cities + The explosion from a comet breaking up afer entering eanth’s atmosphere would be devastating over a populous Pa Ce” Adyvanced.grammarpoints____ Grammar point 1 1 prepositional phrases (1,2, 3, 6,8); adverbs (3,4, 7) and adverbial phrases (5) 2 They are inverted, ie. the verb comes before the subject. 3 Because only intransitive verbs may be inverted ater prepositional phrases and saw isa transitive verb, ‘Additional notes Fst listed point This construction is malnly used in ‘written English and is used to provide the setting for a description. Second listed point This construction can be used in spoken point as well as written English, to make a narrative sound ‘more dramatic, Practice A 1 There goes my last £20 noe 2 Rarely have had such fan a wedding 3 Onno account should you lift heavy objects afer the ‘operation. 4 There, atthe back of he cupboard as the ring had lost. '5 On the door ofthe fridge Mary had stuck a note saying “Tm leaving. {6 Down the middle of the oad ran a torrent of greenish water. 1 Not for one mitted I believe that story you tld me. Grammar point 2 11 than should be when. 2 when should be than 3 reached I should be I reached ‘4 wanted any children should be any children wanted Practice B 1 Only when the audience burst out laughing did the interpreter realise he'd made a mistake. 2 Barely had the boat left the harbour when it began to sink, 13 No sooner had Susan stormed out the door in a temper than she came back to apologise. 4 Not until you ask me politely will iron your shirt for you. '5 Hardly had I digested my Iunch when they served us afiernoon tea. 6 Only after you've finished your psychology caurse can you ‘think about training as child psychologist, 7 Scarcely had we arrived at our holiday destination when tay father phoned to say may mother was very I. Practice C 1 has he Tost the/my book, but he denies 2 do his behaviour and dedication meet the expected 3 no circumstances must this patent be left 4 had he been faced with such a 5 1.000 pandas are thought to still exist 6 was the woman’s anxiety that only by taking 7 under the sola, lay the missing 8 sooner had she qualified asa psychiatrist than Practice D 1 Although; 2 among; 3 other; 4 t0; 5 sooner 6 than; 7 in; B by; 9 was; 10 on; 11 Nowhere; 12 but; 13 after, ¥8 did 15 Barely/Scarcely: 16 well Nocabulary. a 1 tell someone off —n; 2 give someone a tlking-t0~ a 3 point out — 0; 4 reel off; 5 talk back —a; 6 calm down ~e;7 feelings are running high ~ ¢; 8 talk someone into ~j;, 9 gabble away ~ m; 10 join in with ~ by; 11 pipe down ~: 12 talk down to ~4; 13 take in p; 14 bottle emotions up — bi; 45 break off; 16 break in—g; 17 talk someone through something ~f Bier outot ztalk into Bi atc someone ound 1 Afier years of bottling (up) his emotions (up), Bob finds. 2... may be able to reel (off) the numbers from 1 to 100 (of isasign 3. Feelings are running high about 4... take (in) much of what Tom said (fn) as he was gabbling away as usual. 5S \.-that Pm talking down to you; .. so I want to talk ‘you through it firs. 6... should break off for coffe... be able to talk them. round. 7 Lwould tell my child off /give my child a good talking-to ifhe talked back . 8 ...t0 point out that. ifyou want to join in with 9 manage 1 talk my sister ont of asking fora divorce and into going for 10... please calm down? ...ifyou keep breaking in just pipe down while level-headed -minded, -willed ‘sweet tempered weak willed ‘cold-blooded = lacking in pity — commonly collocates with, keillemurder/violence ec. 7 ) i pal WG uglliagi pe 3 as i ala E oh 2 ot] ap of a4 hd i zi ok ra) PSSST STS 5 aE 8 : 5 e)| of | of Eq HES = & Bae. 2% ae i = 3: fe =} {| el] sip at/ st 3 3 gid t of By 3/4/54) Wig tt 3H al eae fies . ES) MS bg a ‘CUCLES 2002 Photocopable e]tfayoaloy et] 0] =D) Bl 0] 8) §f-al-a}--a)-f-)-a}---0 fst] lot ct scan ez[sa[sialsisiaiels| [#l=/s/e[s/2/s/s/e1ela! no Tum over for Parts 3-5 => names nibs spaces noo ‘bre eh ° ForParts 2,3, 4 and &: Wit cate 5) Universrr¥ of CAMBRIDGE i ForPart : Mark ONE lotr or ech queston. Use a pencil " uci 2m htc Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex M20 258 England and Associated Companies throughout the World ‘www.longman.com © Pearson Education Limited 2002 ‘The right of Fiona Scott-Barrett to be identified as the author of this Work has been asserted by her in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, Alll rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the Publishers. ISBN 0 582 50478 3 First published in 2002 Second impression 2003 Printed in Spain by Mateu Cromo Sample OMR answer sheet is reproduced by permission, of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. Design by Studio Image & Photographic Art Edited by Lee Coveney Produced and managed by PROCESS ELT Loukas Ioannou (www.geocities.com/provess.elt) LONGMAN EXAM SKILLS New Proficiency Use of English Proficiency Use of English is ideal for students preparing for Paper 3 of the Revised Proficiency exam. It provides comprehensive coverage of all the essential areas of grammar and vocabulary, while training students in all the skills and techniques required for taking Paper 3 of the CPE exam successfully. The Proficiency Use of English Teacher’s Book includes: Y An Introduction to Paper 3 of the Revised exam and to the Students’ Book, YA photocopiable Diagnostic test with key. Y Complete answer key with information boxes. Y The University of Cambridge sample answer sheets. Components: Proficiency Use of English Students’ Book Proficiency Use of English Teacher’s Book 220, 4661-3 Vv