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Robert Batson

7th period Honors Chemistry


Dr. Moody
12 December 2010
Chemical Reaction Types lab report:

Introduction: The purpose of the lab was to create a demonstration that presented four
types of chemical reactions (synthesis, decomposition, single-displacement, and double-
displacement). Each type of chemical reaction has different properties and have different
indicators that a reaction has occurred. The experiment exposed other compounds to each
other or put a compound against conditions that would cause a chemical reaction, such as
a compound being exposed to heat. The lab was broken into four parts. The first lab was
a demonstration of synthesis.
Synthesis is a type of chemical reactions in which two compounds or elements are
introduced to each other and produce a single product. The equation for synthesis is
A + B → AB
Synthesis occurs naturally and can be produced for important chemical products
used for the market. Natural synthesis occurs in organisms and an example of organic
synthesis is the separation of gas from natural gas compounds. Synthesis is also used for
the production of consumer products such as a drugs, dye, or flavoring.
Decomposition is the chemical process in which a compound breaks down into
molecules or smaller compounds. It’s essentially the opposite of synthesis. The
decomposition in the lab was a decomposition of Copper (II) Carbonate. Decomposition
is driven by influences to the original composition. It is represented by the equation
AB → A + B
Single displacement reactions are when one element replaces another element in a
compound to form a new compound. In single displacement reactions the element that is
being displaced is reduced. The single displacement formula is
AX + B → AB + X
In the equation the A or B must be either a non-metal or a halogen. In single
displacement reactions there are cation replacements and anion replacements.The lab
uses an aluminum sample and exposes it to copper chloride. This is an example of an
anion replacement.
Materials and Methods: Materials included in the experiment include standard lab
equipment, samples of Magnesium, dioxide, copper carbonate (III), aluminum foil,
copper chloride, AgNO3, CuSO4, Fe(NO3)3, KI, KSCN, and a sample tray.
For the first experiment burn magnesium and observe the reaction. For the second
lab heat copper (II) carbonate in a test tube and observe the reaction. For the third lab add
a small piece of aluminum to a test tube. Cover the aluminum foil with copper chloride
and observe the reaction after several minutes.
The fourth lab calls for an arrangement of each sample (AgNO3, CuSO4,
Fe(NO3)3, KI, KSCN) so that each sample interacts with one another and observe all
reactions.

Results: The first experiment can be represented by the equation


2Mg + O2 → 2MgO
The magnesium reacted with the flame and changed color to produce Magnesium
Oxide
The second lab showed the decomposition of copper (II) carbonate to carbon
dioxide and copper oxide. The compound changed color from blue to black. It is
represented by the chemical equation
CuCO3 → CO2 + CuO
The third lab was a reaction between an aluminum sample and copper chloride.
Bubbles and black pigment appeared near the aluminum sample. Heat was produced by
the reaction. It can be represented by the chemical equation
Have Dr. Moody show you an equation
The fourth lab was multiple reactions that were all examples of double-
displacement chemical reactions. The table below demonstrates the reactions and
observations made.

AgNO3 CuSO4 Fe(NO3)3 KI KSCN

AgNO3 x Cloudy Cloudy- Exploded/Solidified Exploded/White


Orange
CuSO4 Cloudy x No Yellow-Orange Green
reaction
Fe(NO3)3 Cloudy-Orange No x Orange Black
reaction

KI Exploded/Solidified Yellow- Orange x No Reaction


Orange

KSCN Explodes/White Green Black No Reaction x


Cloud

Discussion: In the first lab the magnesium reacted with the flame by producing
magnesium oxide. This is an example of synthesis. Synthesis can occur naturally but also
when one compound or molecule is introduced to another. The reaction occurred because
the magnesium sample was introduced to the flame. It follows the synthesis formula of
A + B → AB or (in the case of the lab) 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO
The reason it needed to be two magnesium molecules is because all chemical
equations must be balanced. The magnesium oxide product appeared as a white powder.
The transition of states of matter was from solid and gas to solid. The signs of a chemical
reaction taking place was color change and an odor that emitted. Magnesium Oxide is a
naturally occurring mineral that can form inside of your body. It is used to supply
magnesium to your body which is necessary for health of nerves and muscles. So the
chemical reaction that was observed in the lab occurs in humans’ bodies naturally all the
time.
The second lab was a demonstration of decomposition. The reaction occurred
when the compound copper (II) carbonate was heated. The compound decomposed to
carbon dioxide and copper oxide. The products exposure to heat is what leads to its
decomposition. Decomposition can best be represented by the formula
AB → A + B
Decomposition often occurs when a compound is introduced to heat or lack of
heat. The lab exemplifies this. Indicators that a chemical reaction had occurred was a
smell and the compound had changed to a black color
The third lab was an example of a single displacement reaction. The aluminum
foil reacted copper chloride by yielding bubbles and black pigment. Also heat was
exerted by the reaction. The single displacement formula is
AB + X → AX + B
With that formula Robert formed the chemical equation that would apply to the
lab. The result is
CuCl + Al → CuAl + Cl
There is room for error in that equation for there could be more molecules that
were not accounted for. The reason the reaction took a relatively long time is because it
took several moments for each molecule of aluminum to displace the chlorine molecules.
Heat was exerted because of the kinetic energies of the molecules rearranging which
could lead to a hypothesis stating that all single (or double) displacement reactions exert
heat due to the exchange of molecules.
The final lab was a demonstration of double-displacement reactions. Each
reaction that occurred in the twenty-five wells was a double-displacement reaction.
Almost every reaction produced a precipitate of solid. Some samples had violent
reactions while others no visible reaction took place. All of the samples produced heat
which supports the previous stated hypothesis that all displacement reactions produce
heat. Some compounds exploded when introduced to others. A reaction like this occurs
when the process of the displacement of molecules rearranges and collides. There are
three switches downstairs. Each corresponds to one of the three light bulbs in the attic.
You can turn the switches on and off and leave them in any position. How would you
identify which switch corresponds to which light bulb, if you are only allowed one trip
upstairs? In the lab reactions that introduced the same compound to each other were not
accounted for. There was no room for human error unless ridiculous proportions were
used.
Each lab illustrated how each kind of chemical reaction contrasts and influences
involved in the reactions. I would still like to pursue the displacement causing heat
hypothesis in further experimentation.