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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam

Department of Mechanical Engineering

UNIT – I
1. Define CIM.
CIM is the integration of the total manufacturing enterprising through the use of
integrated systems and data communications coupled with new managerial philosophies that
improve organisational and personal efficiency.

2. Is CIM a concept or a technology?


CIM is both a concept and technology. For top management, CIM is a concept, a
blueprint for success. For middle managers and line managers, CIM is a technology, a physical
realization of resources that are more capable and flexible.

3. What are the concepts of CIM?

4. List various components of CIM.


 Computer Aided Design
 Computer Aided Manufacturing
 CNC machines.
 Flexible manufacturing systems
 Robotics
 Automated material handling systems
 Group Technology
 Computer aided process planning
 Manufacture resource planning
 Computer control systems

5. Define automation.
Automation maybe defined as the process of having machines follow a predetermined
sequence of operations with little or no human labour, using specialised equipment and devices
that perform and control manufacturing process.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

6. What is the main objective of CIM?


The main aim of CIM is to use the advanced information processing technology into all
areas of manufacturing industry in order to
 Make total process more process more productive and efficient.
 Increase product reliability.
 Decrease the cost of production and maintenance relating to the manufacturing system as
well as to the product
 Reduce the number of hazardous jobs and increase the involvement of well educated and
able humans in the manufacturing ability and design.

7. What do you mean by “Islands of Automation”?


The individually automated workstations or processes are called as Islands of automation. In
other words the term represents the various technologies that facilitate manufacturing automation in
isolation, without having integrated with other manufacturing technologies.

8. Differentiate between the islands approach to automation and CIM.


 The primary difference between the islands approach to automation and CIM is that the CIM
is global and the other is local.
 CIM represents the logical evolution of the islands of automation concept.

9. What is the role of CIM is manufacturing?


CIM is most closely associated with functions in manufacturing engineering such a process
planning and numerical control (NC) part programming.

10. Define CAD and CAM.


 CAD maybe defined as any design activity that involves the effective use if computer to
create, modify or document engineering design.
 CAM may be defined as an effective use of computers and computer technology in the
planning, management and control of the manufacturing function.

11. What do you mean by island of software?


When computer software is restricted in its ability to link to other computer softwares it is
known as island of software.

12. What are the important applications of CIM in manufacturing planning?


 Manufacturing planning
 Manufacturing control

13. What are the important applications of CIM in manufacturing control?


 The applications of computer process control are pervasive today in automated production
systems.
 Quality control includes a variety of approaches to ensure the highest possible quality levels in
the manufactured product.
 Shop floor control refers to production management techniques.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

14. What is management?


Management is the process of making decisions and directing the activities of personnel to
achieve stated objective. The objectives are successfully met when efforts are organized by
communicating appropriate information for control and readjustment.

15. What is MAP?


Manufacturing automation protocol (MAP) is an implementation of the OSI model. It is ta
hardware cum software implementable set of rules that facilitate information transfer among
networked computers and computer based equipments.

16. What are the goals of automation in manufacturing industry?


 Process Integration
 Improve Productivity
 Economize on floor space
 Improve quality

17. Define EDI.


Electronic data interchange (EDI) may be defined as the electronic transfer from the computer
to computer (or application to application) of commercial or administrative transactions using an
agreed standard to structure the transaction or message data.

18. What are dedicated and open systems?


The dedicated system refers to a computer system that is dedicated for a specific
application/purpose/machine. Open systems enable any type of computer system to communicate with
any other.

19. What are the benefits of EDI?


Properly installed EDI offers benefits in terms of reduced data errors through the avoidance of
double entry of data, reduced costs through improved business processes, reduced lead time, better
service and customer support through faster and better business processes.

20. What are the key functions of a manufacturing company?


 Marketing
 Engineering
 Production planning
 Plant operations
 Physical distribution
 Business and financial management

21. What is production planning and production control?


 Production planning is the preproduction activity. It is the predetermination of the
manufacturing requirements such as manpower, materials, machines and manufacturing
process.
 Production control, through control mechanism tries to take corrective action to match the
planned and actual production.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

22. What is meant by physical distribution?


It may be defined as the broad range of activities concerned with different movement of
finished products from the end of the production line to the customers. These activities include freight
transportation, inventory control, plant warehouse site selection, order processing, market forecasting
and customer service.

23. What are the responsibilities of facilities engineering?


The responsibilities of facilities engineering include plant automation, planning the installation
of new equipment, planning materials flow and related work handling equipments, planning inventory
staging space and arranging storage for materials and tools.

24. List the activities carried out by financial department of a manufacturing industry.
1. Company services
2. Payroll
3. Accounts payable, billing and accounts receivable
4. Cost accounting
5. Financial planning and management
6. Strategic planning

25. Specify the activities carried out by marketing department is manufacturing industry.
1. Doing market research
2. Forecasting demand and sales
3. Analysing sales, tackling the performance of products and of market segments
4. Arranging sales activities and advertising campaign
5. Developing and managing marketing channels
6. Managing sales personnel, sales plans and promotions.

UNIT – II

1. Define Group Technology (GT).


Group Technology (GT) is a manufacturing methodology in which identical or
similar components grouped processed together during design, process planning and manufacturing
so that a wide variety of components can be manufactured, at the least expense of time, inventory,
man hours and material handling.

2. List out the stages in Group Technology.


 Production planners to setup the GT database.
 Grouping the parts or components into part-families with some similar characteristics.
 Re-design the shop-floor arrangement according to common shape, function or manufacturing
process and tooling.

3. Define Part family


Part-family is defined as" collection of parts which are similar in terms of geometric
shape, size, and similar processing steps requird in manufacturing, so flow of materials through the
plant improves".

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

4. What are the methods available for solving problems in GT?

5. List the general methods used for grouping parts into families.
 Visual Inspection
 Parts classification and coding system
 Production flow analysis.
6. What is PFA?
Production flow analysis (PFA) is a method for identifying part families and associated
machine groupings that uses the information contained on production route sheets rather on part
drawings.

7. List the steps involved in PFA.


 Data Collection
 Sortation of process routings
 Preparation of PFA chart
 Cluster analysis.

8. What are the 3 basic code structures used in GT applications?


1. Hierarchical codes
2. Attribute codes
3. Decision tree-codes.

9. What is the main difference between hierarchical code and attribute code structures?
In hierarchical structure, the interpretation of each symbol in the sequence depends on the
value of preceding symbols. Whereas in attribute/polycode structure, the interpretation of each symbol
in the sequence doesnot depend on the value of preceding symbols.

10. List any six coding systems that are widely recognised in industries.
1. Optiz classification system
2. MICLASS system
3. DCLASS system
4. KK-3 System
5. CODE system
6. CUTPLAN system

11. What is cellular manufacturing?


Cellular manufacturing (CM) is an application of GT in which dissimilar machines have been
aggregated into cells, each of which is dedicated to the production of a part family.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

12. List any four design considerations guiding the cell formation.
 Parts/products to be fully completed in the cell.
 Higher operator utilisation
 Fewer operations than equipment
 Balanced equipment utilisation in the cell.

13. What is Process planning?


Process planning consists of preparing a set of instructions that describe how to fabricate a
part or build an assembly which will satisfy engineering design specifications. Process planning is
the systematic determination of the methods by which product is to be manufactured, economically
and competitively.

14. List the activities associated with process planning


1. Analysing finished part equipments
2. Determining operating sequence
3. Selecting machines
4. Selecting material parameters
5. Calculating process times
6. Documenting process planning

15. What is meant by CAPP?


CAPP refers to computer aided process planning. CAPP is used to overcome the drawbacks of
manual process planning. With the use of computers in the process planning, one can reduce the
routine clerical work of manufacturing engineers. Also it provides the opportunity to generate
rational, consistent and optimal plans.

16. What are the approaches the CAPP will recognize?


Two approaches to CAPP are traditionally recognized: the variant approach and the
generative approach. Many CAPP systems combine both approaches.

17. Why CAPP systems are called as variant system?


 The investment is less and the development time is shorter. Especially for medium sized
companies which want to establish their own research groups.
 The development costs and hardware costs are lower. Especially for some small companies
where the products do not vary much and who still have process planners.

18. Give the main component of generative CAPP systems.


CAPP system contains of two main components.
 Manufacturing data base (part description, machine tool library etc.)
 Decision logic (to represent the process planner)

19. What are the basic approaches of CAPP?


1. Retrieval (or variant) CAPP system
2. Generative CAPP system.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

20. What are the results of Process Planning?


Routings which specify operations, operation sequences, work centres, standards, tooling and
fixtures. This routing becomes a major input to the manufacturing resource planning system to
define operations for production activity control purpose and define required resources for capacity
requirements planning purposes.
 Process plans which typically provide more detailed, step-by-step work instructions including
dimensions related to individual operations, machining parameters, set-up instructions, and
quality assurance checkpoints.
 Fabrication and assembly drawings to support manufacture (as opposed to engineering
drawings to define the part).

21. What are the factors should be considered in selection of tooling?


 The type and amount of the material to be cut
 The surface finish required
 The rigidity and shape of the part .
 The capacity and condition of the available equipment
 The required production volume (high volume jobs usually permit optimum speeds and feeds
while lot jobs may use lower speeds to achieve completion of the lot without regrinding of the
cutting tool)
 The succeeding operations such as finish grinding and honing
 The recommendations given in tables should be considered only as a starting point. A
detailed analysis is further required in each individual case to arrive at the most feasible
solution.

22. What are the prerequisites for process planning?


 Part list
 Annual demand/ batch size
 Accuracy and surface finish requirement
 Equipment details
 Data on cutting fluids, tools, jigs and fixtures, gauges.
 Standard available stock sizes.
 Machining data, data on handling and setup.

23. What is the weakness of PFA?


The weakness of production flow analysis (PFA) that the data used are derived from
production route-sheets. But the process-sequences have been prepared by different process lanners
and the difference is reflected on to these route-sheets.

24. List some commercial variant and generative CAPP software systems
 Some of the commercial variant CAPP systems include CUTPLAN. COMCAPP V, DCLASS
and INTELLICAP.
 Some of the commercial generative CAPP systems include AUTAP, CMPP, GENPLAN and
LOCAM.

25. What is CMPP?


The CMPP stands for computer-managed process planning. It is a commercial generative
process planning system capable of automatically making process decisions.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

UNIT – III

1. Define term production planning and control.


Production planning and control may be defined as the direction and coordination of a firm’s
material and physical facilities towards the attainment of prescribed production of goods, with highest
production efficiency,

2. What is production planning?


It is concerned with
1. Deciding which products to make, how many each, and when they should be completed.
2. Scheduling the production and delivery of the parts and products
3. Planning the manpower and equipment resources needed to accomplish the production plan.

3. What is production control?


Production control is concerned with determining whether the necessary resources to
implement the production plan have been provided or not.

4. Write the activities of production control.


 Shop floor control
 Inventory control
 Manufacturing resource planning
 Just-in time manufacturing systems

5. What is MRP? What is the function of MRP?


It is a planning technique. It translated master production schedule (MPS) of the end products
into a detailed schedule for the raw materials and parts used in those end products.

6. What is master production schedule?


MPS is a detailed plan that states how many end items (i.e the final product to be sold to the
customer) will be available for sale or distribution during specific periods.

7. What is BOM?
The bill of materials designates what items and how many of each are used to make up a
specified final product.

8. What is SFC?
Shop Floor Control (SFC) is defined as the important manufacturing activity that will
control flow of the product and materials on the factory flow involving the quantities, types
of parts, schedule dates, priorities and the status of jobs and orders.

9. What are the functions of SFC?


 Priority control and assignment of shop orders
 Maintain information on work in process for MRP
 Monitor shop order status information
 Provide production output data for capacity control purposes

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

10. What is scheduling?


Operation scheduling is concerned with the problem of assigning specific jobs to specific work
centres on a weekly, daily, hourly basis.
Operation scheduling = Machine loading + Job sequencing

11. What is dispatching?


Dispatching is the function concerned with issuing the individual orders to the machine
operators.

12. What are the phases of SFC?


 Order Release
 Order Scheduling
 Order Progress

13. What is the philosophy of just in time?


It is a management philosophy that strives to eliminate sources of manufacturing waste by
producing the right part in the right place at the right time.

14. What do you mean by priority control in PPC?


The term priority control is used in production planning and control to denote the function that
maintains the appropriate levels for the various production orders in the shop.

15. Define term machine loading and job sequencing.


 Allocating orders to work centres is knows and machine loading
 Determining the priority in which the jobs should be processed is termed as job sequencing.

16. What is the purpose of factory data collection system?


The purpose of the Factory Data Collection (FDS) system in shop floor control is to provide
basic data for monitoring order progress. In a computerized SFC system these data are submitted to
the order progress module for analysis and generation of work order status reports and exception
reports.

17. What is FDS?


The factory data collection system consists of various paper documents, terminals and
automated devices throughout the plant for collecting data on shop floor operations.

18. What is DAS?


A data acquisitions system (DAS) is a computer system used to automatically collect data
from a process or piece of equipment. They either perform an analysis data or transmit the data to
another computer for processing and analysis.

19. Define FMS.


A Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is an individual machine or group of machines served by
an automated materials handling system that is computer controlled and has a tool handling capability.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

20. What are the Objectives of FMS?


 To provide flexible manufacturing facility for pan family components.
 To provide the benefits of grouping the operation in single location.
 To provide the flexibility in producing small and medium parts.
 To maximize the utilization of facilities.
 To have a good management control.

21. What are the components of FMS?


1. Processing stations or workstations
2. Material handling and storage
3. Computer control system
4. Human labour

22. What are the FMS layout configurations?


 In-line layout
 Loop layout
 Ladder layout
 Open fie1d 1ayout
 Robot-centred cell.

23. What are the functions of computers in FMS?


 Workstation control
 Distribution of control instructions to workstations
 Production control
 Traffic control
 Shuttle control
 Work piece monitoring
 Tool control
 Performance monitoring and reporting
 Diagnosis

24. List any two advantages and disadvantages of FMS implementation.


Advantages
 Faster, lower-cost changes from one part to another which will improve capital utilization.
 Lower direct labour cost, due to the reduction in number of workers.
Disadvantages
 Substantial pre-planning activity.
 Expensive, costing millions of dollars.

25. List the applications of FMS.


 Machining
 Assembly
 Sheet-metal press-working
 Forging
 Plastic injection moulding
 Welding
 Textile machinery manufacture
 Semiconductor component manufacture

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

UNIT – IV
1. Why are company models necessary?
They are necessary because they characterise a company in different ways to analyse the
various characteristics such as complexity of their operation, the large amount of data involved, their
cyclic operation, uncertain or variable behaviour of certain parts etc.

2. What are the specific characteristics that have to be incorporated in the CIM system models?
 The complexity of their operation
 The large amount of data involved
 Their cyclic operation
 Uncertain or variate behaviour of certain behaviour
 Their changing nature to accommodate new markets
 Involvement of humans as part of the system

3. What three forms of modelling tool are desirable to characterise company operation?
1. As a representation of the system
2. As a dynamic model
3. As a executable model

4. What are the IDEF modelling tools?


The acronym IDEF stands for Integrated CAM DEFinition. The IDEF modelling tools cover a
range of uses from function modelling to information, simulation, object-oriented analysis and design
and knowledge acquisition.

5. What are the types of IDEF models?

6. Draw simple E-R diagram.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

7. What are ER diagrams?


The entity-relationship (ER) diagrams are used to capture the relationships between entities.

8. What is an activity cycle diagram?


Activity cycle diagram (ACD) is a modelling approach designed to represent the dynamics of
a system.

9. Which IDEF tool is an extension of ER diagram for manufacturing information?


IDEF1 modelling tool is extension of ER diagram for manufacturing information. This is
because, as with ER diagram, in IDEF1 model the data is characterised in terms of entity classes.

10. Write about CIMOSA.


CIMOSA defines a model-based enterprise engineering method which categorizes
manufacturing operations into Generic and Specific (Partial and Particular) functions.

11. How does CIMOSA separate function?


 The CIMOSA modelling Framework in which specific and generic functions are-clearly
separated.
 The CIMOSA Integrating Infrastructure supporting execution of Generic functions and linking
specific functions. It is effectively the communication system which interconnects all of the
functions in the CIM system.
12. What do you mean by the term CIM architecture?
The term ‘CIM architecture’ often applied to a template which can be used for the design and
implementation of a CIM system.

13. What is the role of process planning in CIM architecture?


The process planning function can ensure the profitability or non profitability of a part being
manufactured because of the myriad ways in which a part can be produced.

14. What is data dictionary?


A data dictionary is a catalogue of all the data in the database. The dictionary may include
cross-reference information explaining which programs use which data and which department need
which reports.

15. Explain the terms ‘data repository’ and ‘data store’.


The data represented within a model needs to be stored and to be accessible by the users either
directly or through any application program. The interface between user applications and stored data
within CIM architecture can be conceptualised as a data repository. The data items themselves are
viewed as being held in a data store.

16. What is the function of repository?


The main function of the repository is to isolate applications from changes in the integration
methods, reducing the need for application maintenance.

17. What is production data management (PDM)?


PDM is concerned with the management of the life-cycle data of products.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

18. List the four major modules of any PDM software?


1. Process modules
2. Process project management modules
3. Data management module
4. Data and information kitting module

19. List out any four benefits of implementing the PDM system?
1. Improve design productivity
2. Fewer design changes
3. Improved design and manufacturing accuracy
4. Reduced development times

20. What is meant by data communication?


Data communication is the exchange of data between two devices via some form of
transmission medium.

21. Differentiate the function of bridges and gateways in network?


Bridges are used to connect similar networks whereas gateways are used to connect dissimilar
networks.

22. What is meant by multiplexing?


Multiplexing is the transmission of multiple signals over a signal communication channel.

23. What is CSMA/CD?


CSMA/CD, the carrier sense multiple access with collision detection, is a network control
technique that describes the rules for managing/controlling access to network.

24. What is network management?


Network management can be defined as OAM & P (operation, administration, maintenance
and provisioning) of network and services.

25. Distinguish analog with digital transmission?


In analog transmission, the signals are transmitted by varying one of the physical
characteristics, continuously as a function of time. In digital transmission, the string 0’s and 1’s are
transmitted.

UNIT - V
1. What is network architecture?
Network architecture describes the components, the function performed and the interfaces
between the components of a network.

2. Define an open system with respect to data communication.


An open system may be defined as a system that implements sufficient open specifications or
standards for interfaces, services and supporting formats to enable properly engineered application
software: to be ported with minimal changes across a wide range of systems for one or more
suppliers; to interoperate with other applications on local and remote systems; to interact with people
in a style which facilititates user probability.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

3. Name 2 organisations that have published de facto standards relating to open systems.
1. The International Electrochemical Commission (IEC)
2. The International Organisation for Standards (ISO).

4. Define OSI.
Open systems interconnection (OSI) reference model is an international standards organization
(ISO) standard that specifies the conceptual structure of systems that are to communicate with each
other.

5. Name the different layers of OSI.


1. Physical layer
2. Data link layer
3. Network layer
4. Transport layer
5. Session layer
6. Presentation layer
7. Application layer

6. What is the function of data link layer in OSI model?


The data link layer handles the task of transferring information across the physical link by
sending blocks of data.

7. What is the function of physical layers?


The physical layer consists of the hardware that drives the network and circuits.

8. In what way the function of network layer differs from that of data link layer.
The data link layer oversees the delivery of the packet between 2 systems on the same
network. The network layer ensures that each packet gets from its point of origin to its final
destination.

9. What is the use of transport layers is OSI?


The transport layer performs the service of sending and receiving segments of data to session
layers. It also provides flow control, sequence numbering and message acknowledgement.

10. What is the use of session layers in OSI?


The session layer allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them. It
establishes, maintains, synchronizes and manages the interaction between communication systems.

11. List some of the network standards that have been developed based on the OSI reference
model.
1. MAP
2. TOP
3. TCP/IP
4. DECENT

12. What is MAP?


Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) is a specialized LAN designed for a factory
environment. It is hardware cum-software implementable set of rules that facilitate information
transfer among networked computers and computer-based equipment.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

13. What is TOP?


TOP stands for technical and office protocol. It is a subset of the OSI standards for technical
and office applications. It provides a framework in which software can be developed for the full range
of office and factory automation problems.

14. Define database.


A database is a collection of files as an organized assembly of information that users can
access for various purposes; that is, adding, deleting, or modifying data.

15. Define data model.


A data model is a logical representation of a collection of data elements. Data models are the
basic building blocks for designing all databases.

16. Define DBMS.


DBMS stands for Database management system. A program which lets you manage
information in databases. The program we use to organize our data and the actual data structure we
create with that program.

17. What is data modelling?


Data modelling is a method of depicting graphically data groupings and the relationship
between groupings.

18. Classify data models.


1. Record based data models
 Hierarchical data models
 Network data models
 Relational data models
2. Object oriented data models

19. What is hierarchical data model?


The hierarchical data model is similar to the network data model except that the relationships
among the records are represented in the form of tree structure.

20. What is a relational data model?


A relational data model relates or connects data in different files through the use of a key field,
or common data element.

21. What is a network data model?


A network data model is simply a graph wherein nodes represent unique records, and links
between nodes represent association between the corresponding records.

22. What is an object-oriented database system?


It uses “objects”, software written in small, rescuable chunks, as elements within database
files.

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The Indian Engineering College – Vadakankulam
Department of Mechanical Engineering

23. What is data association?


A link describes an association between two records.
The following are the different types of data associations used in DBMS in manufacturing scenario.
 One-to-one association
 One-to-many association
 Many-to-many association

24. List out the database operators.


 Union
 Intersection
 Difference
 Product
 Select
 Project
 Join
 Divide

25. List some important features of DBMS.


 Data dictionary
 Utilities
 Query language
 Report generator
 Access security
 Data recovery

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