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# 1. Show that the equation 𝑎2 + 𝑏 2 = 𝑐 2 + 5has inﬁnitely many diﬀerent positive integer solutions.

## We can find an integer solution to the equation 𝑎2 − 5 = 𝑐 2 − 𝑏 2 whenever 𝑎 is odd.

Writing 𝑎 = 2𝑛 + 1, we have 𝑐 − 𝑏 𝑐 + 𝑏 = 𝑎2 − 5 = 4𝑛2 − 4𝑛 − 4.
We can take 𝑐 − 𝑏 = 2and 𝑐 + 𝑏 = 2(𝑛2 − 𝑛 − 1). We will prove that these two equations
are solvable with 𝑏 and 𝑐 being integers. Adding the equationsyields 2𝑐 = 2𝑛2 − 2𝑛, so
𝑐 = 𝑛2 − 𝑛. We also have 𝑏 = 𝑐 − 2 = 𝑛2 − 𝑛 − 2. Therefore, for each integer 𝑛, 𝑎 = 2𝑛 +
1, 𝑏 = 𝑛2 − 𝑛 − 2 and 𝑐 = 𝑛2 − 𝑛 yields a solution to the equation 𝑎2 + 𝑏 2 = 𝑐 2 + 5.

## 2. Given 𝑎 > 0, show that

1
𝑎𝑛 1 − 𝑛𝑎 ≤ 𝑛+1
(𝑛 ∈ ℤ+ )
𝑛+1

We have:
1 𝑛 +1 1
𝑎𝑛+1 + 𝑎𝑛+1 + ⋯ 𝑎𝑛+1 + 𝑛+1
≥ 𝑛+1 × 𝑎𝑛+1 𝑛 × 𝑛+1
= 𝑎𝑛
𝑛 𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑠
𝑛+1 𝑛+1
1
⟺ 𝑎𝑛 1 − 𝑛𝑎 ≤ 𝑛+1
.
𝑛+1

𝑎 1 1
+ + = 1.
1+𝑎 1+𝑏 1+𝑐

## Prove that 8𝑎 ≤ 𝑏𝑐.

We have:
1 1
𝑎
+ 𝑏 + 𝑐 =1
1+𝑎 1+1 1+1
𝑏 𝑐
1 1 1
𝑎 1
1− = = 𝑏 + 𝑐 ≥2 𝑏𝑐
1+𝑎 1+𝑎 1+1 1+1 1+𝑏
1
1+𝑐
1
𝑏 𝑐

Similarly,
𝑎
1 𝑐
1 ≥2 1
1+𝑏 1+𝑎 1+𝑐

𝑎
1 𝑏
1 ≥2 1
1+𝑐 1+𝑎 1+𝑏
Multiplying the inequalities together yields
8𝑎
1 𝑏𝑐
1 1
≥ 1 1
1+𝑎 1+𝑏 1+𝑐 1+𝑎 1+𝑏 1+𝑐
Therefore, 8𝑎 ≤ 𝑏𝑐.

4.