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Equipping a Borehole

First English Edition.


January 2011.

Santiago Arnalich
Equipping a Borehole

First English Edition.


January 2011.

ISBN: 978-84-614-0533-6

© Santiago Arnalich Castañeda

All rights reserved. This manual can be photocopied for personal use if your economic situation
does not allow you to buy a copy. Otherwise, please consider buying one to support this kind of
initiative.

If you want to reproduce part of the contents of this book, contact us at the following email:
publicaciones@arnalich.com

Cover photo: Borehole cap protection, Wazir Abad, Afghanistan.

Translation: Oliver Style.

DISCLAIMER: The information contained in this book has been obtained from credible and
internationally respected sources. However, neither Arnalich nor the author can guarantee the
precision of the information published here and are not responsible for any errors, omissions,
or damage caused by the use of this information. It is understood that the information
    
published herein is without a specific purpose and under no circumstances intends to provide
professional engineering services. If these services are required, the assistance of a qualified

 professional is necessary.


Index

1. Introduction 1

1.1 About this book ................................................................ .1


1.2 What is a borehole?.......................................................... .2
1.3 Information to gather ....................................................... .4
1.4 Chronology of an installation ........................................... .4
1.5 Adapting to the context .................................................... .5

2. Viability 7

2.1 Water testing .................................................................... .7


2.2 Interpreting a pumping test .............................................. .8
2.3 Approximate calculation of operating costs ..................... 10
2.4 How to abandon a borehole ............................................. 12

3. Pumping 15

3.1 What happens in the aquifer when you pump? ................ 15


3.2 Determining the optimum flow .......................................... 18
3.3 Determining the pumping height ..................................... 20
3.4 Pump selection ................................................................ 21
3.5 Pump installation depth .................................................... 24

4. Piping 27

4.1 The rising main ................................................................. 27


4.2 Accessories ...................................................................... 28
4.3 Corrosion potential .......................................................... 29

5. Electrical system 33

5.1 Pump cable splice ........................................................... 33


5.2 Cable selection ................................................................ 34
5.3 Level sensors .................................................................. 34
5.4 Control panel ................................................................... 35
5.5 Ground connection .......................................................... 36
5.6 Checking the direction of rotation .................................... 36
ii

6. Energy 39

6.1 Selecting a generator .......................................................39


6.2 Connecting to an existing electrical grid ..........................41
6.3 Mono pumps ...................................................................42

7. Ordering materials 43

7.1 Rules for the purchasing process .....................................43


7.2 The importance of communication ..................................44
7.3 Ordering with precision .....................................................45
7.4 Critical material ................................................................49
7.5 Dividing up orders .............................................................50
7.6 Quality ..............................................................................50

8. The installation 53

8.1 Lowering the pump ..........................................................53


8.2 Other installations ............................................................58
8.3 Tools, materials, and labour ............................................58
8.4 Operation problems .........................................................60

9. Protection 61

9.1 Seal ..................................................................................61


9.2 Fencing ............................................................................61
9.3 Pump house .....................................................................61
9.4 Low-cost boreholes ..........................................................64

Bibliography .............................................................................65
About the author ......................................................................67

APPENDICES 69

A Information gathering checklist ...........................................71


B Physicochemical limits in drinking water ............................72
C Material and tools checklist .................................................74
D Minimum generator sizes ....................................................75
E Flow measurement with the V-notched weir .......................76
F Bowline knots ......................................................................79
G Friction loss tables ..............................................................82

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1. Introduction

1. 1 ABOUT THIS BOOK


This book is intended to provide you with the tools you need to get a borehole up and
running, following drilling, in a Development Cooperation context. You´re probably
dealing with a real-life situation and don´t have time to do exhaustive research to get
up to scratch. The book is intended to be:

99 % fat free. No meticulous explanations or interminable examples. Only


what´s really needed is included.

Simple. One of the common causes of failure is that complexity and


excessive rigour become intimidating and things are left undone. At the risk
of causing offence, the explications take nothing for granted.

Chronological. It roughly follows the logical order you´d do things in.

Practical. With numerous calculation examples.

Self-contained. It´s assumed you are in a remote area without easy access
to information, so the essential things you need to know are all here.
Nonetheless, links to additional information are provided.

The practical aspects of the installation are left in the hands of the technicians.
Although boreholes can be equipped with manual pumps, solar, wind powered, or
vertical mechanical pumps, only submersible electrical pumps are dealt with here.
2 CHAPTER 1. Introduction

If you´re reading this book, drilling the borehole has probably already taken place and
after the drilling company has gone, you´re left with something that looks like this:

Fig. 1.1. Borehole head after drilling and testing, Mudug, Somalia.

This book deals with all the necessary stages to get from here to a fully operating
borehole, ready to hand over to the community.

1. 2 WHAT IS A BOREHOLE?
When it rains, rainwater filters through the ground, descending by the force of gravity
until it reaches a layer of limited permeability, generally clays or bedrock. The result is
an enormous underground lake, an aquifer. The borehole is a pipe installed vertically
which allows access to the aquifer.

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Equipping a Borehole 3

The pipe or well casing also prevents the borehole from collapsing after drilling. At
the point where it enters the aquifer, it is perforated to allow water to enter. These
sections of perforated pipe are called well screens and are surrounded by gravel,
which acts as a roughing filter and allows the water from the aquifer to enter more
effectively. A submersible pump is placed inside the well casing, suspended from
another smaller pipe, the rising main. The rising main allows the water to be pumped
out of the borehole, where it can be connected to a distribution system.

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4 CHAPTER 1. Introduction

1. 3 INFORMATION TO GATHER
Whether you are rehabilitating an old borehole or drilling a new one, you will need to
have the following information available:

1. A pump test. This will let you calculate the flow rate which the borehole is
capable of delivering and the pumping depth.

2. The construction details of the borehole. The diameter dictates the


maximum size of the pump that will fit, allowing sufficient space for cooling.
Since the pump is installed inside a section of casing, the space between the
casing and screen determine where it can be installed. Finally, the depth of
the first screen determines the maximum drawdown level before it is left
uncovered.

3. A water test to determine water quality and anticipate corrosion.

4. Access to energy. The nearest electrical supply point, if there is one, and
the tension. If a generator is required, it needs to be adequately housed.

5. The technical operating conditions. The power of the pump will depend,
among other things, on the length of the rising main and the pumping
elevation.

6. The organisational operating conditions. This will determine the need to


provide accommodation for an operator or guard.

7. Country regulations.

Appendix A contains a checklist of the information to gather.

1. 4 CHRONOLOGY OF AN INSTALLATION
If the distribution system that the borehole supplies is already built, you´re probably
already under a bit of pressure to get the borehole up and running as soon as
possible. To do so, it´s essential to build the pump house while the materials are
being ordered. If there is still no system to connect to, you can take things a little more
slowly.

Equipping a borehole can be divided into four phases:

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Equipping a Borehole 5

1. Viability study. The water is tested to determine whether it´s apt for the
given situation and that the operation of the borehole is economically viable.
Deep boreholes with low flow are unfavourable. Section 2.3 describes how to
determine the operating costs so you can be sure they are within acceptable
limits, which end users are able to pay for.

2. Pump selection and design. The pump will determine the size of the pipes
and the electrical components. Once the pump is selected all the required
components can be ordered. While they are being delivered, the pump
house can be built. Order the pump and the generator (if required) as soon
as possible. Depending on their size and where you are, this can take
several months.

3. Construction of the pump house. To protect the components from the


elements, interference or theft, a pump house must be built, preferably
before the installation. Once you know whether the pump house has to
house a generator, operator, or serve as a local warehouse, find a design
and prepare a construction contract. If there is a local water or pump housing
authority in the region that fits the bill, use their design. Find out if there are
local regulations you need to abide by.

4. Installation and service test. Following the installation, perform an


operating test and check the performance: flow, pressure, and energy
consumption.

On the following page a flow diagram shows the installation process.

Solar pumping is very competitive for small systems. As a rule of thumb (although it
changes with different circumstances and will change over time), consider a solar
pumping system when the power of the pump is below 1 kW. These systems
exceed the purpose of this book. You can learn more about solar pumping in another
of our books: www.arnalich.com/en/books.html

1. 5 ADAPTING TO THE CONTEXT


This book looks at the general approach for this kind of project, focusing on the
technical aspects. Nonetheless, the political and social aspects are decisive and can
vary hugely. In development contexts, each place is distinct. If you want to avoid
problems, make sure you respect the local procedures which are common in the area,
and that you work together with the local water authority.

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6 CHAPTER 1. Introduction

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2. Viability

Equipping a borehole that´s not viable implies a considerable financial outlay and is
potentially dangerous for the population. This chapter will help you decide between
equipping and closing off. To do this, you will need the results of a complete water
analysis and a pumping test.

2. 1 WATER TESTING
Organise the most complete water analysis locally available, using an official
laboratory which is suitably competent. Together with the analysis itself, you will be
provided with an official certificate detailing the composition of the water. Generally,
it´s not a good idea to trust those done by the drilling companies themselves, as they
are not official analysis and hide vested interests to avoid problems with the work
being undertaken.

Collecting samples
It´s important to collect a sufficient quantity of water so that the laboratory can do the
analysis. One and a half litres is usually sufficient. A mineral water bottle is the ideal
container to use. Avoid using old or metal containers to collect the sample. Either
way, consult with the laboratory as to the required quantity and transport conditions.

The most opportune moment to take a sample is after the pumping test. Samples
taken during the development of the borehole are affected by the drilling process.
Boreholes in which cement has been used recently can give high pH and water
hardness values.
8 CHAPTER 2. Viability

In the case of a borehole that has been rehabilitated and that has not been used for
some time, it´s best to install a pump and let the water flow for several hours before
taking the sample.

Results
Appendix B contains a summary of the basic parameters and their maximum values
as recommended by the World Health Organisation. You can also follow the link to
the WHO website to check the values for other substances and find out about their
health effects, their effect on materials and treatment possibilities.

If one of the parameters is beyond the recommended range, there are 4 possibilities:

• The relevant water or health authority considers that the expected benefits
outweigh the possible negative side-effects and water use is authorised.

• That a viable treatment system is available. Always consider the possibility of


treatment by dilution, which consists of mixing water from two different
sources, so that the mixture meets the required values.

• Find an alternative use. For example, boreholes which produce water that is
too saline for human use can be used for livestock (notably goats and
camels) or for the growing of crops which are tolerant to saline water.

• Close off the borehole and find another alternative. Closing a borehole in a
safe way is very important, so that it doesn´t become an entry point for
contamination into the aquifer. This process is described in section 2.4.

The water from a borehole should not be turbid. Turbidity of over 5 NTU indicates that
the borehole has not been properly developed or that there are construction defects.

2. 2 INTERPRETING A PUMPING TEST


A pumping test looks at the evolution of the water level in a borehole which is pumped
at a constant flow. There are many ways of documenting them, but they all contain a
recommended pumping flow rate and a measurement of the drawdown at that flow.

Can it be trusted?
The details of performing a test go beyond the scope of this book, but pay attention to
the following points so as to make sure it can be trusted:

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Equipping a Borehole 9

• Pumping tests should be done over a long period, at least 24 hours, except
in special circumstances (curfews, risks, etc.).

• The pumping flow should be constant. There can be no interruptions (except


those that are planned as part of a staged test) or changes in the pumping
flow.

• It´s common that drilling companies develop the borehole at the same time
as doing the pumping test, to cut costs. Seeing as the objective of
developing the borehole is to clean out the remains from the drilling process
to increase the borehole flow, these kinds of pumping tests are not what they
should be.

• They cannot be done with a compressor. The compressed air method is a


development technique without a constant flow.

• It´s best to be present in person to check that everything is being done as it


should and that the contracted company do not exaggerate or falsify the
results to avoid problems.

Is the flow sufficient?


At this stage, we just want to check that the borehole flow is sufficient for our needs.
The pumping test specifies the maximum exploitable flow. As a general rule, if this
flow is sufficient to meet the daily needs of the population with:

• Less than 14 hours in operation, you can continue with the installation
without further analysis.

• Between 14 and 18 hours, bear in mind that the borehole may become too
small in the near future due to population growth or reduced water levels in
the aquifer due to prolonged exploitation. Furthermore, using the borehole
becomes more expensive for the population.

• Over 18 hours. The borehole does not meet the needs of the population.
Depending on the circumstances, you can decide whether or not to equip
the borehole immediately or wait for a second borehole. If the second
borehole has sufficient flow the first need not be installed. If it doesn´t, a
combined installation can be planned.

Section 3.2 shows the minimum demand values which can be used to work out the
needs of the population.

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10 CHAPTER 2. Viability

Calculation example:

A borehole has been drilled for a semi-urban population of 8000 people. The pumping
test reveals that the maximum capacity of the borehole is 11 l/s. Is this enough to
meet the needs of the population assuming 100 litres per person per day?

With a daily demand of 100 litres per person, the quantity of water consumed is:

8,000 people * 100 l/person*day = 800,000 litres daily demand.

The hourly production is: 11 l/s * 3600 s/hour = 39,600 l/h

The required number of operating hours is:

800,000 l / 39,600 l/h = 20.2 hours

The borehole is too small to meet the needs of the population.

2. 3 APPROXIMATE CALCULATION OF OPERATING COST


Despite delivering water of excellent quality in adequate quantities, it is possible that
the operating costs of a borehole are beyond the reach of the population. This is
generally the case for very deep boreholes.

The main expense derives from energy consumption, which is often far higher than
material, treatment or personnel costs. Therefore, to determine whether the
population is able to pay for the operating costs of the borehole, calculating the
energy consumption cost is usually sufficient.

The energy consumed in the operation of a borehole in kWh per day is:

𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚ℎ
𝑒𝑒 =
3,6 ∗ 106 𝜂𝜂

Where: m, mass of water per day in kg (1 litre of water weighs 1 kg)


h, the pumping height taken from the lowest drawdown point to the water
surface at the point of delivery. If the system is operated under pressure (i.e.
pumps directly into a pressurized distribution network) add 10 meters for
every bar of pressure.
g, 9.8 m/s2

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Equipping a Borehole 11

η, total efficiency (wire to water). For a correctly selected pump, this is


around 60%. To take into account frictional losses in the pipes use a value of
0.5 (50%). That way you´ll avoid having to work out frictional losses for now.

The operating cost is calculated using the local electricity tariff. As generators are
frequently required, you need to know the unit fuel cost of diesel. The average fuel
consumption of a generator is 0.3 litres of diesel per kWh produced.

Calculation example:

A borehole powered by a generator pumps 60,000 litres per day, to a tank with the
overflow situated at an elevation of 35m. The dynamic height of the borehole is 44m
and the cost of diesel is €1.03/l. How much will it cost to pump per day?

The pumping height is 35m + 44m = 79m. The energy consumed is:

𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚ℎ 60,000𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 ∗ 79𝑚𝑚 ∗ 9.8𝑚𝑚/𝑠𝑠 2


𝑒𝑒 = 6
= = 25.8 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘ℎ
3.6 ∗ 10 𝜂𝜂 3.6 ∗ 106 ∗ 0.5

The number of litres of diesel required is:

25.8 kWh * 0.3 l diesel/kWh = 7.74 litres

The daily cost for the local population is: 7.74 l * €1.03/l = € 7.97

Ability to pay

To work out what the


community is able to pay,
the simplest is to look at
what they already pay for
existing services:

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12 CHAPTER 2. Viability

Then, meet with the end-users and discuss what they can and can´t pay. Remember
this is not your decision...just as it´s none of their business whether or not you spend
your salary on cat vitamins or hair tonic!

2. 4 HOW TO ABANDON A BOREHOLE


If you´re unlucky and the borehole isn´t viable, you´ll have to abandon it. It´s
especially important to close off a borehole in a safe way. The objectives of well
abandonment are:

1. Avoiding accidents with animals or children tripping or falling.

2. Avoiding the contamination of the aquifer. The borehole is an easy point of


entry for any kind of contamination. Without the borehole, water has to pass
through several meters of subsoil before reaching the water table. It´s filtered
on its way down. Contaminated water can reach the aquifer directly via the
borehole in large quantities and quickly. This also applies to dry boreholes.

3. Allowing for re-use if needed. A low-flow anti-economic borehole can be


useful as a backup when the main source is out of action.

If the well casing is made of steel, the cheapest and most direct way is to weld on an
end cap and build a cement platform with a 2 meter radius, sloped to the outside
edge.

In boreholes cased with PVC, the platform is built up around the pipe, to form a
reinforced concrete box with a lid. The slab which serves as the lid needs to be
sufficiently heavy to avoid manipulation:

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Equipping a Borehole 13

The sanitary seal is part of the correct construction process of a borehole. If there is
none, it´s best to seal at least a few meters down with cement grout or bentonite.

If future use of the borehole has been discarded, another objective needs to be met:
avoiding water from a horizontal stratum reaching another via the borehole. In this
case, the borehole is backfilled with material similar to that which was extracted
during drilling. Pay special attention not to fill the borehole with materials that can be a
source of contamination.

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3. Pumping

Once you have decided that the borehole is viable, the next step is to select the
pump, and with this, size the remaining components to put it into service. The correct
choice of pump is essential for the economics of the borehole.

3. 1 WHAT HAPPENS IN THE AQUIFER DURING PUMPING?


An aquifer at rest has a roughly horizontal surface. The depth at which the water is
found, measured from the borehole upper end, is called the static level. When water
is pumped from a borehole, a depression in the form of a cone is formed in the centre
of the borehole, similar to a whirlpool in a plug hole. The water level drops noticeably
down to a new level, the dynamic level. The form of the cone depends on the flow
rate. At higher flow rates, the depression cone is more abrupt and the vortex is
lower. The difference in height between the static and dynamic levels is known as the
drawdown.

The difference between the static level and the dynamic level allows a preliminary
approximation of the capacity of the borehole. The most productive boreholes are
those in which the cone forms very slowly. Large flows are required to separate the
static from the dynamic level.
16 CHAPTER 3. Pumping

Yield vs. drawdown curve


The maximum drawdown a borehole can tolerate is generally a few meters above the
first filter. However, it´s uneconomic to pump a borehole to its maximum capacity. As
the pumping rate increases the water level drops, and this means that all the water
pumped from the borehole has to be pumped from a lower level, with higher
pumping costs. It´s very important not to confuse the maximum pumping flow with
the optimum pumping flow.

To decide on the operating flow you need a curve which relates the flow to the
drawdown it produces. These curves can be found in the pumping test report and they
are similar to the one shown below:

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Equipping a Borehole 17

Fig. 3.1. Example of a flow curve vs. drawdown.

First of all, note that if you are pumping at, for example, 8 m3/h, you are doing so at a
depth of 5 meters with respect to the static level. According to what appears in section
2.3, and assuming a daily operating time of 8 hours, €196.7 of diesel is required
annually for this pumping range. If exactly the same amount of water is pumped at
3
20m /h, it is pumped from a depth of 45m, at an annual cost of €1,768, almost ten
times as much. The conclusion is obvious: pump at the lowest reasonable rate!

Secondly, note that if the pumping test


is not done in stages, the curve tends to
have an inflection point, understood as
the point at which it begins to fall more
sharply.

The difference in pumping height


3
between 0 and 6 m /h is only 5 m. The
difference in height between pumping 8
and 8.8 m3/h is more than 30m. To
obtain 800 litres more water (10%) the
energy consumption has increased
250% times:

Moving down along the points of


inflection is going to end up being
expensive!

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18 CHAPTER 3. Pumping

Pumping at lower rates will also allow you to reduce the pipe size through which the
water will flow.

3. 2 DETERMINING THE OPTIMUM FLOW


The optimum flow is not the maximum operating flow. Nevertheless, a lack of
investment is often the reason why boreholes are working at their maximum capacity.
This implies an added cost to end-users, as we´ve just seen.

The importance of the tank


To avoid premature damage to a pump, the number of on and off cycles must be
limited. On the other hand, submersible pumps work on an all-or-nothing basis: they
can´t be run at varying flow rates to meet the population´s needs. This means a
reservoir tank is required to cushion the variations in demand over the course of the
day and avoid the pump being turned on and off continually.

The pump is selected in such a way as


to minimise the size of the tank
(reduced investment costs) and
minimise the pumping depth (reduce
operating costs). The goal is to reduce
the overall cost.

The procedure consists of putting together a daily demand pattern and from there
sizing the tank-pump pair. Then, the total cost of each pump-tank pair is compared.
The theory behind this and calculation examples can be found in Gravity Flow Water
Supply available at www.arnalich.com/en/books.html.

Quick start procedure for choosing the flow rate


If you were getting worried, here comes the good news. Most populations can be
worked out using the following approximation:

1. Calculate the total daily demand of the population.


2. Divide it by 24 to obtain the average hourly flow rate.
3. Multiply this figure by a factor of 1.8 to work out the pump flow rate.
4. Check that the end result is to the left of the point of inflection.

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Equipping a Borehole 19

This approximation provides good pumping economy and near optimal tank size,
ensuring that the pump is only turned on a few times a day. This procedure does not
work for raised tanks, pneumatic tanks, or highly variable water use.

You don´t need to work out future demand projections for the population. Pumps only
last for a few years. Nonetheless, remember that the calculation must be repeated
when the pump is replaced.

Minimum daily demand (l/un.)


Urban inhabitant 50
The daily demand depends a lot on the Rural inhabitant 30
context. Ideally, you´re able to take Student 5
measurements and talk to the population. If Outpatient 5
this isn´t possible, you can use these Inpatient 60
minimum values as a guide: Ablution 2
Camel (once a week) 250
Goat and sheep 5
Cow 20
Horses, mules, and donkeys 20

Calculation example:

A borehole has been equipped for a population of 2,580 people. The average family
has 40 goats, 2 cows and 6 people. Use the quick start method to work out the
optimum pump with the curve in figure 3.1:

The number of families is 2580 / 6 people per family = 430 families.

This means: 430 families * 40 goats per family = 17,200 goats


430 families * 2 cows per family = 860 cows

STEP 1. Using the minimum demand values from the table, the total daily
demand is:
2580 people * 30 litres/person*day = 77,400 litres/day
17,200 goats * 5 litres/goats*day = 86,000 litres/day
860 cows * 20 litres/cow*day = 17,200 litres/day
-------------------------------------------
180,600 litres/day

STEP 2. The average flow is: 180,600 l/day * 1m /1,000 l * 1 day/24h ≈ 7.5 m /h
3 3

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20 CHAPTER 3. Pumping

STEP 3. Adjust the flow: 7.5 m3/h * 1.8 = 13.5 m3/h

STEP 4. Figure 3.1 doesn´t have a marked point of inflection as is often the case.
Here, the tangents to the curve indicate that this is an intermediate and
acceptable pumping rate, from a third of the maximum drawdown.

3. 3 DETERMINING THE PUMPING HEIGHT


This is the second parameter we need for determining the required pump.

The total resistance the pump has to overcome is expressed in meters of height is
called the pumping head. The forces it has to overcome are:

1. The difference in height between the dynamic water level and the surface
where the water is pumped to, the static head. The calculation is done
directly subtracting the elevations.

2. The inertia of the water to be moved from rest to the circulating velocity is the
velocity head. The average working velocities of water systems are
negligible, so you won’t be considering this one.

3. Friction in the pipes, the frictional head. These are calculated using the
frictional loss tables of the given pipe material. The tables and an example of
how to use them can be found in Appendix G.

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Equipping a Borehole 21

4. Pumping into a pressurised system requires that the system pressure is


matched, the pressure head. This value is the pressure of the system being
fed, knowing that every bar or kg/cm2 is equivalent to 10 meters.

The pumping head is the value that is specified on ordering the pump, and is the sum
of all of the previous values.

Calculation example:

Work out the pumping height from the previous exercise, knowing that the static level
is 20 meters, and that the pump pumps into a tank 36 meters above the borehole
entrance, via a PVC pipe 1.2 km long, PN 10, 90 mm in diameter.

The static head is the sum of the drawdown, the static level, and the delivery
3
height to the mouth of the borehole. For 13.5 m /h the drawdown is 15m (from
yield vs drawdown curve).

The static head is: 15m + 20m + 36m = 71m

The frictional loss of the pipes can be read off the tables. 13.5 m3/h corresponds
to 3.75 l/s. Reading the J parameter from the tables, the rising main friction loss is
negligible and that of the PVC pipe:

For 1.2 km the frictional loss is 7 m/km * 1.2km = 8.4 m.

The total head is 71m + 8.4m = 79.4 m, approximately 80m. The required pump is
that which has optimum performance delivering 13.5 m3/h at 80m height.

3. 4 PUMP SELECTION
Once the optimum flow and pumping head are known, the pump selection process is
simple. Pumps have a wide operating range, which means it´s not simply a matter
of finding a pump that will work, but one that works at optimum efficiency. One

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22 CHAPTER 3. Pumping

important issue is to make sure the pump fits inside the borehole allowing for cooling
(that is leaving 1” on to either side).

Pump characteristic curves


These are curves which define the performance of the pumps. Generally they are
grouped into pumps which have the same motor but a varying number of stages.

Fig 3.4. Pump characteristic curves for the pump group SP30 (Courtesy of Grundfos).

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Equipping a Borehole 23

To select a pump, the main criterion is efficiency, as there tend to be several pumps
which meet the flow requirements and pumping head. This is usually the arching
curve in the lower part of the graphs. The process is as follows:

1. Between the curves of different pump models from a variety of


manufacturers, look quickly for those that have the desired flow value
towards the centre-right area of the graph and discard the rest.

2. In the sheets that remain, trace a vertical line for the optimum flow until it
crosses the efficiency line (Eta). Projecting horizontally you find the efficiency
(75% in this case). Choose the sheet with the biggest efficiency value.

3. Trace a vertical line for the optimum flow and a horizontal one for the
pumping head. The curve closest to the point of intersection is the pump to
choose, in this case, it could be the number 9 or 8. Don´t worry if it doesn´t
fall exactly on the curve, that is normal. The SP 17-8 pump will deliver a
slightly lower flow than 13.5 m3/h (exactly 12 m3/h) and the SP 17-9 a little
more (15 m3/h).

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24 CHAPTER 3. Pumping

Selecting with WebCAPs / WinCAPS


If you´re going to use a pump manufactured by Grundfos (distributed in Africa by
Davies and Shirtliff) you can use their software to size the pump very simply.
WinCAPs is the version which you can install on your computer and WebCAPs is the
same application but over the internet: www.grundfos.com
Select “sizing/selection”, then “groundwater supply”, and follow the instructions.

Fig 3.4b. Screenshot of WebCAPs during pump selection (Grundfos).

3. 5 PUMP INSTALLATION DEPTH


This is the depth at which the pump is installed. A common mistake is to think that the
pump should be close to the dynamic water level so that it doesn´t have to pump from
a great depth. Pumping water up through water takes no effort, so for practical
purposes it makes no difference if you are pumping 5 meters below the water level or
50. To visualise this, imagine a bag of water submerged in a lake. You will only notice
it´s weight when you try and raise it out of the water.

Nonetheless, the higher the pump the less pipe and electrical cable you need, and the
installation work required is considerably less.

To protect the pump try:

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Equipping a Borehole 25

1. Installing the pump in a section of well casing. When pumps are installed in a
well screen section, small particles enter the pump directly and cause wear.

2. Installing with a section of well screen below, to ensure correct cooling.

3. Leaving a sufficient safety margin so that during seasonal lows in the water
table the pump isn´t left dry during pumping periods. Pumping air will quickly
burn out your pump. Although they are equipped with level sensors which
automatically turn them off, this interrupts the service and multiplies the
number of start ups.

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4. Piping

4. 1 THE RISING MAIN


The rising main connects the pump with the outside world and provides support, as
well as carrying the pumped water to the surface. The pump hangs from this pipe. It´s
threaded at the bottom and is fixed with a bracket at the top of the borehole, or
screwed into an accessory which acts as a lid:

The pipe tends to be made from common galvanised steel in 3 or 6 meter sections,
with threaded unions. The diameter should be the same as that of the pump outlet.
For the kind of boreholes used in a development context, it´ll probably be 2” to 4”.
Only work out the frictional loss for the pipe if it is more than 50m long (see example
in section 3.3). This will normally be negligible.
28 CHAPTER 4. Piping

4. 2 ACCESSORIES
These are installed at the entrance of the borehole and control borehole operation.

There are a number ways of joining the accessories. One practical method is that
found in the photo above. A ´T´ allows for pumping to the water main (A) or to a
washout (B) for testing or cleaning. Following the direction of the flow:

1. 90º elbow. Takes the flow to the horizontal. In the photo a pressure gauge
has been installed.

2. Meter. Measures the volume of water which is circulating. It´s installed


before the ´T´ to measure the flow through the washout too, when testing.
It´s very important that it is installed in the right direction (it comes with a
direction of flow arrow).

3. Non-return valve or check valve. This also has an arrow which indicates the
direction of flow. It only lets the water pass through in one direction and
prevents the water from dropping back down into the borehole once the
pump has stopped. Most pumps have one fitted at the pump outlet. This acts
as a backup.

4. Tee. Allows for pumping to a washout for tests, and for emptying the main
pipe which goes from the accessories to the point of delivery.

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Equipping a Borehole 29

5. Gate valves. There are two and allow the flow to be opened and closed.
When the main valve is shut and the branch valve is opened, the water is
pumped to the washout. If the branch valve is shut and the main one
opened, the water continues to the point of delivery.

6. Tap. For taking samples. When an operator is going to be spending some


time in the pump house, this is essential.

7. Reduction. This is placed at the end of the line and is in fact an “enlarger” in
the direction of flow. The diameter of the rising main tends to be small due to
the space limitations within the borehole. Once the pipe leaves the mouth of
the borehole, it´s diameter tends to require enlargement. The best point to do
this is after all the accessories, as they are much more expensive at larger
diameters.

Working out pipe diameters beyond the accessories is not covered here. However,
bear in mind that it is not necessarily the same as the pump outlet pipe diameter, and
in fact, rarely is.

4. 3 CORROSION POTENTIAL
It´s very important to anticipate whether the water in the aquifer is going to cause
corrosion problems. The rising main and the pump are permanently submerged in
water and corrosion can wreak havoc.

The problem can be particularly acute in the rising main. Corrosion can weaken the
pipe over the course of a few years and can cause the column to fall within the
borehole (with some added bad luck, this becomes irreparable).

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30 CHAPTER 4. Piping

When corrosion is expected, a plastic


pipe must be installed. Pay attention to
the fact that corrosion will reduce the
diameter.

The photo shows a reduction in


diameter due to corrosion (the tuberous
effect) in a piece of pipe from a rising
main in Eritrea.

Working out the corrosion potential


To work out if the water has encrustive or corrosive characteristics, use the Langelier
Index:
IL = pHa - pHs = pHa - ( (9.3 + A + B) - (C + D))

Where:
pHa, pH of the water
A = (Log 10 [Total Dissolved Solids] - 1) / 10
o
B = -13.12 x Log 10 (Water temperature in C + 273) + 34.55
2+
C = Log 10 [Ca in mg/l of CaCO 3 ] – 0.4
D = Log 10 [Alkalinity in mg/l CaCO 3 ]

If IL = 0, the water is in chemical equilibrium.


If IL < 0, the water has a corrosive tendency.
Si IL > 0, the water has an encrusting tendency.

For practical purposes:


If the values are between -0.3 and 0.3, the water won´t give you problems.
Between -0.5 and -0.3, there´ll be some corrosion, but nothing too serious.
If IL< -0.5, corrosion will be a problem.
If IL > 0.5, there will be major deposits.

To make the calculation less confusing, you can use an online calculator, for example:
www.csgnetwork.com/langeliersicalc.html

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Equipping a Borehole 31

Calculation example:

The water test from a borehole shows the following results: pH = 6.7; TDS= 46 mg/l;
Alkalinity = 192 mg/l; Hardness CaCO3 =102 mg/l. If the water is at 12ºC what
precautions should be taken?

The Langelier Index is used to work out whether the water is encrustive or
corrosive:

A = (Log10 [TDS] – 1)/ 10 = (Log10 [46] – 1)/ 10= 0.066


B = -13.12Log10 (To + 273) + 34.55 = -13.12Log10 (285) +34.55= 2.34
C = Log10 [Ca2+ in mg/l of CaCO3] – 0.4 = Log10 [102] – 0.4 = 1.6
D = Log10 [Alkalinity in mg/l CaCO3 = Log10 [192]= 2.28

IL = pHa-((9.3+A+B)-(C+D)) =6.7-((9.3+0.066+2.34)-(1.6+2.28)) = -1.1

The water is highly corrosive. Pipes resistant to corrosion should be used, PVC or
high density polyethylene (HDPE).

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5. Electrical system

5. 1 PUMP-CABLE SPLICE
Normally, the pump comes with around a meter of cable for connecting, via another
cable, to the control panel. The join is done with a splicing kit to ensure water
tightness.

The kit consists of a long thin plastic case where the electrical cables are joined. Once
they are connected, the case is filled with resin giving it mechanical strength and
making it completely water tight.

Fig 5.1. Splicing kit prior to filling with resin (Courtesy of 3M).
34 CHAPTER 5. Electrical system

You´ll normally order the pump with the specified cable already joined to it. Either
way, to resolve silly mistakes or damage to the cable, it´s a good idea to have a spare
at hand. For small defects, you can repair with standard fast setting epoxy resin (e.g.
Araldite 5 min.).

5. 2 CABLE SELECTION
When electrical current travels through a cable, it´s loses voltage. The longer the
distance and the thinner the cable, the greater the voltage drop. Selecting a cable is
about finding the thinnest cable which maintains the voltage within the required
values. Although you will usually ask the provider to size the cable, it´s not a bad idea
to check. You can do so using this table:

MIN.
POWER OF MAX. MAX. DISTANCE (m) FOR CABLE
CABLE 2
MOTOR CURRENT SECTION (mm )
SECTION
kW CV A mm2 1.5 2.5 4 6 10 16
0.37 0.5 3.5 1.5 180
SINGLE PHASE

0.55 0.75 5.0 1.5 121 202


0.75 1.0 6.7 1.5 91 152 243
1.10 1.5 7.2 1.5 63 105 168 252
1.50 2.0 10.6 1.5 49 81 130 195 326
2.25 3.0 15.8 2.5 56 89 134 223
1.10 1.5 3.1 1.5 382 636
1.50 2.0 3.9 1.5 303 505
2.25 3.0 5.5 1.5 210 350
THREE PHASE

3.75 5.0 8.7 1.5 131 218 349


5.63 7.5 13.0 2.5 155 248 372
7.50 10.0 17.2 2.5 115 184 276 460
11.30 15.0 24.0 4.0 126 190 316 505
15.00 20.0 32.0 4.0 95 142 237 380
18.80 25.0 40.0 6.0 114 190 304
22.00 30.0 46.0 10.0 164 262
Source: Davies and Shirtliff based on recommendations by Grundfos.

5. 3 LEVEL SENSORS
The pump needs water for cooling. If it´s pumping dry, it´ll burn out in a matter of
minutes. To avoid this, the pump has integrated level sensors which turn it off
automatically if it runs dry.

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Equipping a Borehole 35

5. 4 CONTROL PANEL
The control panel has the ON and OFF button and the protection. There are models
that offer greater or lesser levels of sophistication. Your pump supplier can advise you
on which panel you should buy.

It´s extremely important that the electrical installation protects people. Protection is
provided with a residual current circuit breaker or differential, which opens the circuit
when it detects a current leak (which is what happens when someone is electrocuted).

In development contexts it´s common to find control


panels without circuit breakers. They are popular
because they are cheaper. Avoid them with care, unless
the generator or installation already has one installed.
Make sure you ask the installers, and look for a switch
similar to the trip switches found in houses. They
normally have a button with a ´T´ for test.

Fig. 5.4. Control panel with no protection: Differential circuit breaker and ground (green
and yellow cable) are missing!

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36 CHAPTER 5. Electrical system

5. 5 GROUND CONNECTION
All electrical installations should be grounded to
protect people. A ground connection is a very simple
and cheap method of protection against
electrocution. It consists of providing a path of very
low resistance such that if there is a leak, the current
can travel more easily to ground than through
someone. It consists of a metal spike driven into the
ground with a salt solution added, connected to the
electrical installation via a cable. Ground cables tend
to be yellow and green. Connect the ground before
doing any operating tests!

GNU Free Documentation license.

5. 6 CHECKING THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION!


Pay attention to this, as it´s a frequent problem which is easy to resolve, but which
nonetheless gets people stuck and leads to some strange conclusions (“the borehole
has collapsed”, fights over responsibilities, etc.).

If you switch around the two phases of three-phase pumps, the motor changes its
direction of rotation. Pumps whose motor spins in the wrong direction continue
pumping water, but at much lower pressure and flows, due to the way in which the
rotor blades are optimised for operation in one particular direction:

Fig 5.5 Simplified representation of the direction of rotation with respect to blade shape.

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Equipping a Borehole 37

A pump which is pumping in the wrong direction is highly inefficient. Although it will
not meet the design requirements it can easily go un-noticed if the installation
conditions are not sufficiently demanding. For this reason, it´s fundamental that you
check the direction of rotation of any pump you are going to install using a
simple method which takes no more than 5 minutes:

1. Connect the pump in a specific way.


2. Turn it on and note the flow and output pressure.
3. Switch the phase cables around and observe what happens.

The connection with higher flow and pressure is the right one. Don´t worry, it´ll be
clear which is which.

Fig 5.5b. Correct rotation. “Corner Point”, refugee camp Lugufu I, Tanzania.

When a pump is turned on, it must fill the rising main pipe completely before it begins
coming out at the mouth of the borehole. It is normal for the water to take several
seconds or minutes to begin coming out.

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6. Energy

6. 1 GENERATORS
Unless you´re working in urban areas, it´s unlikely you´ll have a nearby electrical
supply to connect to. In these cases, power will probably come from a diesel
generator. A generator´s power output is stated in kilowatts (kW), kilovolt amps (kVA)
or sometimes in horsepower (HP):
1 kW ≈ 1.25 KVA ≈ 1.36 HP

For three phase generators, the voltage on each phase is indicated after the forward
slash: 380/220V, or 415/240V.

How much power do I need?


To work out the power required from the generator, follow these steps:

1. Find out the power of the pump. You´ll find it on the nameplate or in the user
manual.

2. Check the surge power factor. Electric motors draw a very large current for a
short time when they start up. The pump manufacturer will tell you what it is.
If you´re lacking data use a factor of 3. Appendix D shows the minimum
values recommended by Grundfos Spain.

3. Derate the generator power. With heat and altitude the generator looses
power. If you don´t have manufacturer data, you need to increase the
capacity by 0.4% for every degree centigrade above 25º, and 1.4% for every
100m above an altitude of 100m.
40 CHAPTER 6. Energy

Fig 6.1 Installation of a borehole generator in Awr Culus, Somalia.

Calculation example:

Calculate the required generator size to power a 10kW pump, situated at an elevation
of 400m in an area where the maximum annual temperature is 34ºC.

STEP 1. The pump consumes 10 kW.

STEP 2. The surge power is: 10 kW * 3 = 30 kW

STEP 3. Derating for altitude: (400m – 100m) * 1.4/100m = 4.2 %


For temperature: (34ºC – 25ºC) * 0.4 = 3.6 %

4.2% of 30 kW is: 0.042 * 30 kW = 1.26 kW


3.6% of 30 kW is: 0.036 * 30 kW = 1.08 kW

The required generator power is: 30 kW + 1.26 kW + 1.08 kW = 32.34 kW.

Because there are only specific sizes commercially available, choose the nearest
size up.

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Equipping a Borehole 41

6. 2 CONNECTING TO AN EXISTING ELECTRICAL GRID


Where there´s a grid available with a more or less stable supply, a generator´s not
needed. The connection process should be done by qualified personnel, and usually
requires authorization from the relevant energy authorities. Depending on the local
context, this can add considerable cost to the project.

Fig. 6.2 Electrification of a borehole, Afshar 2, Kabul, Afghanistan. Transformer and utility
pole.

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42 CHAPTER 6. Energy

6.3 MONO PUMPS


In the generator, the mechanical energy of the diesel engine is transformed into
electricity. If the pump has an efficiency of 60% and the alternator in the generator
has 60%, the combined output will be:

0.6 x 0.6 *100 = 36%.

Note that the real combined output is much less. If the diesel engine powers the pump
directly via belts, these kind of power losses are avoided:

Fig. 6.3. Borehole equipped with a Mono pump.

Mono pumps are those that work through displacement, between two parts that
engage with each other, leaving a small gap between the two. The gaps are displaced
upwards like a never ending screw, similar to the Archimedes screw:

Is this a viable alternative in your area?

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7. Ordering materials

The arrival of materials with nothing missing and on time is essential to avoid delays.
This chapter shows you how to order the material you need.

7. 1 RULES FOR THE PURCHASING PROCESS


You can´t usually just go off and buy the materials when it suits you. To avoid
corruption, the diversion of funds, and to encourage free competition between
suppliers, the purchasing process calls for a regulated procedure once you move
beyond certain quantities.

These rules basically define who has to sign the authorization of purchases and how
many supplier quotes are needed.

For practical purposes, establish:

1. Who has to authorize your order and what are the rules within your
organization.

2. Above and beyond which quantity these rules come into play.

3. If there are limitations to what you can buy, decided by the donor. For
example, if all materials which cost more than a certain amount need to be
bought in the EU (Arrrgh!).
44 CHAPTER 7. Ordering materials

7. 2 THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION


There will normally be a person or a logistics department that takes care of placing
orders. This person or department won´t necessarily be a specialist in water supply.
Since human nature is an old friend of ours, unintelligible orders tend to “eat up” desk
space indefinitely and when they are finally processed, you´re left with a never ending
list of errors and misunderstandings. For your order to arrive on site quickly and
without nasty surprises:

1. Define all the material precisely leaving no room for doubt. You´ll soon see
how.

2. Add diagrams and images to the order. The person in charge of the
purchase can then show these to the supplier. This makes their job much
easier and avoids misunderstandings.

3. For less common accessories, include second and third options in case your
first choice isn´t available.

4. Divide your order into areas, for example, all materials related to the pump
together in one section. That way you´ll avoid one accessory holding up the
whole order and will make the logistics easier.

Fig. 7.2. Example of adding details and alternative options to an order, Indonesia.

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Equipping a Borehole 45

7. 3 ORDERING WITH PRECISION


The point here is to define each accessory with its particular characteristics leaving no
room for doubt.

The pump
You need to stay on top of this personally, even if there´s a purchasing department, to
avoid being left with a pump which may be the cheapest but isn´t what´s required. It’s
best to find out which 3 pumps are closest to what you need, get a quote for each,
and if they are in the same price range, buy the one that meets the requirements,
based on strictly technical criteria. Avoid, at all costs, low quality pumps (generally
from China or India).

The operating frequency will depend on the country you´re in. In most places, as in
Europe, the frequency is 50 Hz. In parts of the Americas it´s 60 Hz.

PUMP: Specify the manufacturer, model, frequency and outlet connection:

1 unit Submersible pump Grundfos SP 8A-15, 50 Hz, threaded outlet.

Splicing kit
The number of phases and the voltage is determined by the pump. The kits are made
to fall into voltage ranges (e.g. Low voltage 0-600V), and they are ordered from the
pump supplier.

SPLICING KIT: Voltage and number of phases:

1 unit Submersible splicing kit, 3 phase, 415V.

Submersible cable
Order 20 or 30 meters more than you need to allow for modifications or mistakes.

SUBMERSIBLE CABLE: Length, section, number of phases and connection to pump:

2
245 m Submersible cable 6mm , 3-phase, connected to the pump.

Control panel
This is usually ordered from the pump supplier and you don´t need to provide all that
much detail, just make sure it comes with a differential circuit breaker (section 5.4). It
must have the same power capacity as that of the pump.

CONTROL PANEL: Power, voltage, number of phases, frequency and differential


breaker:

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46 CHAPTER 7. Ordering materials

1 unit Control panel 7.5 kW, 3-phase, 415V with differential circuit breaker.

The generator
Any medium sized generator will be diesel. To make sure spares are available, don´t
try and be too clever and order a model that comes from the other side of the world.
Locally available generators are the best. They may come with a covering to protect
them in outdoor conditions. Specify the operating conditions, especially temperature,
so that the lubricants and coolants are suited to the local environment. Depending on
the configuration of the pump house, you may need to order ducts for the exhaust
gases. Remember that 1 kVa is approximately 0.8kW.

GENERATOR: Fuel, power, voltage, number of phases, protection and temperature.

1 unit Diesel Generator, 30 kVa, 415/240V, without housing, working at 20º-40ºC.

Ground connection
They come in the form of kits. Let the supplier work out the length and section of the
spike. If you´re connecting to an existing grid, the ground connection will come as part
of the contracted design.

1 unit Ground connection kit for the generator

Material for connection to an existing grid


In many cases it´s convenient to include this material in the implementation contract.
That way the company carrying out the contract is responsible for the purchase of the
materials. Either way, include a materials list with approximate prices in the design
contract.

Pipes and accessories


Rising pipe is ordered by the number of pipes of a given length, either 3 or 6m. It´s
best to use 6m lengths, which will half the installation work required and reduce the
risk of leaks. You’ll need a piece 1m long to attach to the pump and probably another
piece to arrive to the installation depth if it is not multiple of 6m (or 3m).

If you need plastic pipe to avoid corrosion, use HDPE. It´s easiest to order a roll of
pipe to meet the installation depth, together with the joining accessories to fix to a
threaded end, already welded on. Rolls of HDPE are only available in diameters of 4”
or less. If using galvanized iron, remember to order the connecting sockets!

RISING MAIN: Material, diameter, pressure, presentation and connection:

6 units Galvanised iron pipe, 4”, 25 bar, in 6m lengths, threaded union

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Equipping a Borehole 47

82m HDPE pipe, 3”, 10 bar, single roll, with 2 welded ends, threaded

Fig. 7.3. Connection of HDPE pipe, in a roll, to a submersible pump.

ACCESSORIES: Type (material), diameter, pressure, and connection:

1 unit Elbow, galvanised iron, 4”, 25 bar, threaded union.


2 units Gate valve 4”, 10 bar, threaded union.
60 units Sockets, galvanised iron, 4”, 25 bar.

Accessories can be joined with threaded joints, generally up to 4”, or with bolted
flanges, for 4” and greater:

Fig. 7.3b. Threaded joints with socket (left) vs. flange joints (right).

© Santiago Arnalich Arnalich. Water and habitat www.arnalich.com


48 CHAPTER 7. Ordering materials

In some cases, notably water meters and for anything over 4” in diameter,
accessories don´t have a threaded union, and a transition between threaded pipe and
flange has to be made. The simplest is to do it with a short pipe, threaded on one end
and with a flange on the other.

When pipes are threaded, systems quickly become impossible to assemble and
disassemble. For a T, for example, the whole installation would have to be rotated to
assemble the pipes. Moreover, a breakage at one point will require disconnecting the
entire installation until that point is reached. Unions are used to allow the pipes to be
taken apart, shown with arrows in the photograph:

Steel cable
Pumps are fixed with a braided steel
cable to avoid fall during installation
and removal, or in case of corrosion
or a faulty pipe union. For plastic
pipes, the cable prevents the pipe
extending fully that would result in the
pump being installed at an incorrect
level. When the water is corrosive, the
cable is protected by a PVC coating.

The cable is attached to the body of the pump, and is fixed with 3 cable clamps. The
same is done at the mouth of the borehole. When there is no cable, use a rope tied
with a bowline knot (Appendix F) fixed below the lid (synthetic ropes disintegrate in
the sun).

CABLE: Diameter, coating


CLAMPS: Diameter.

100m Steel cable 4mm in single roll with PVC coating


6 units Cable clamps 4mm.

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Equipping a Borehole 49

Submersible cable clamps


To prevent the cables getting snagged they are fixed to the rising main every 3
meters. Although most suppliers have rubber clamps, this is commonly done with
strips of rubber cut from an inner tube.

Borehole cover
This closes off the borehole once the pipes have been installed. It can be screwed
onto the rising main or made out of two plates that join together, leaving a circular gap
between them. The second system requires an omega clamp to attach to the pipe, the
same one that´s used while the pump is being lowered. In both cases, there needs to
be enough space for the submersible cable and for a piezometric level meter to
measure the water levels (a hole 3cm in diameter is sufficient).

The cover in two parts is usually made to order from a blacksmith providing the
required dimensions.

BOREHOLE COVER: Diameter of rising main, system and diameter to cover.

1 unit Borehole cover 4” screwed on to rising main, with ring for steel cable.
Diameter greater than 12”

7. 4 CRITICAL MATERIAL
These are the most problematic materials and those that require the most time.

Subcontracts
Some organizations consider implementation contracts as a purchase. In this case,
you´ll have to “place an order” for them. Either way, the electrical connection and
pump house construction contracts will be sufficiently large to call for 3 quotes from 3
different companies. Getting the quotes back takes time, so if you need these kind of
contracts, get on the case sooner rather than later.

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50 CHAPTER 7. Ordering materials

You can install part of the equipment without the pump house, or build the house
before the installation, but both need to be finished for operation to begin.

Expensive material
There are various reasons for ordering the pump and generator early on:

1. They tend to require internal authorisations and quotes from 3 suppliers.

2. The pump you need may not be in stock. Manufactures tend only to stock
the most common pumps and the rest are made to order.

3. In some cases, they need to be ordered from another country. The further
away that is, the more likely it is that it´ll arrive late and damaged.

7. 5 DIVIDING UP ORDERS
In my experience, it´s not a good idea to place all the materials in one order.
Problems, delays and incidents for one element affect all the rest, and getting quotes
becomes more complicated, as not all suppliers offer the same services. A division of
orders which can avoid problems like this is:

1. Order the generator, ground connections and spares in one order.

2. Pump, control panel, submersible cable, borehole cover and splicing kit in
another.

3. Pipe accessories (the pipe itself comes in the next order). For HDPE, include
the pipe here with all the unions already made.

4. Rising main with connection sockets (for GI pipes).

The rest of the materials, non-submersible electrical cable, steel pipes etc. can be
bought beforehand, locally.

7. 6 QUALITY
The purchasing departments tend not to be very familiar with the materials and
usually their only criteria for comparison between quotes is their cost. Quality is
fundamental for these installations. Actively offer your support and advice.

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Equipping a Borehole 51

Avoid low quality pumps and accessories, which have “Made in England” written on
them but which look suspect and products resulting from recycling acrobatics. Note,
for example, the irregular outline, lumps, bubbles and burrs on this gate valve:

Fig. 7.6 Visual defects of a “Made in Italy” gate valve.

© Santiago Arnalich Arnalich. Water and habitat www.arnalich.com


8. The Installation

“Often a few hours of trial and error can save you a couple of minutes reading the
manual.”
(Anonymous)

Each pump has it´s peculiarities. You don´t want to spend a day under the sun, with
the whole team working hard, only to discover that the pump which is 150 m below
your feet has a small plastic safety mechanism which stops it turning accidentally
during transport. Read the manual even before you think of installing it!

8. 1 LOWERING THE PUMP


The main part of the installation involves the placement of the pump. Lowering and
positioning the pump requires the greatest level of coordination and effort. It can take
anything from a few hours to an entire day, depending on the depth of the borehole
and the number of connections.

The process consists of introducing the pump vertically into the borehole while
connecting the piping. As each section of pipe is connected, the pump is lowered 3 or
6m. This continues until the installation depth is reached. The detailed process is
described below:

1. If you´re using galvanised steel pipe, prepare some of the pipe sections by
fixing the threaded sockets on one end, and wrapping Teflon tape or fibers
on the other. The coupling will stop the pipe from falling if the clamp slips.
54 CHAPTER 8. The Installation

2. Drive a section of steel pipe 80cm into the ground, inclined at an angle of 30º
in the opposite direction of the borehole. It´ll act as a brake post to prevent
the pump accidentally falling down the borehole. The steel cable is looped
around it three times, which will stop it slipping in case of a fall. One person
is in charge of letting the cable out as the pump is lowered.

3. Remove the pump from its box and lay it on a smooth horizontal surface, so
that it´s supported over its entire length. It´s easy for the pump shaft to
become deformed if not.

4. Join the submersible cable with the splicing kit if the manufacturer hasn´t
already done so. Never handle the pump by pulling on this cable!

5. Pass the steel cable through the holes of the pump casing and fix 3 cable
clamps, 5cm apart:

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Equipping a Borehole 55

6. Join the first pipe section to the pump. Take special care not to damage the
pump and don´t use any kind of tool to hold or turn it. For the join to be
watertight, use Teflon tape or natural fibres. By the end of this step you´ll
have the pump, with the electrical cable and the first pipe section connected.
The first pipe section is 1 meter long, to make entering the borehole easier. If
the pipe is galvanised steel, screw a coupling on the end to act as a buffer.

7. Place the first omega clamp over the short pipe section, joined to the pump,
with the second over the next pipe section together with the coupling. Make
sure you tighten the screws properly so it doesn´t slip down the pipe.

8. Fix the cable protector clip. This is a homemade part, consisting of a small
length of steel pipe 1” in diameter, 20cm long, with a clip welded on the side.
The submersible cable is passed through the middle and the clip is fixed to
the inside of the borehole entrance.

Its purpose is to protect the


cable mechanically. It´s very
common during an
installation for the column to
pinch the cable against the
mouth of the borehole and
damage it.

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56 CHAPTER 8. The Installation

9. Raise the pump and pipe with the crane and align it with the mouth of the
borehole. The crane tends to be manual, chain operated, with a tripod. If you
can afford a loader crane, it´ll speed things up.

10. Lower the pump until the clamp rests on the mouth of the borehole. Fix the
submersible cable to the rising main with rubber clamp, but this time, leave
the steel cable out.

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Equipping a Borehole 57

11. Release the crane, and let the column rest entirely on the clamp. Fix the pipe
section with the second clamp on it to the crane, and place it over the
coupling at the end of the column. Thread the pipe into the column. If you
have problems, use vegetable oil (i.e. sunflower or palm oil) as a lubricant.

Observe that while two people work joining the pipe, another in the foreground
already has the next one ready, with a third person (sitting on the roll of rope to the
right) in charge of the braking post:

12. Half way up, and at the end of each pipe section, the cables are fixed to the
rising main with a rubber clamp.

13. This continues until the installation depth is reached. Once there, the
borehole lid is screwed in, and the non-threaded lid is fixed in place. The
steel cable is also passed through the ring on the lid and secured with
clamps. Remember there are 3 things referred to as clamps: the omega
shaped ones which secure the pipe, the rubber ones which secure the cable
to the pipe, and the ones that clamp the steel cable to itself.

14. Remove the protection clip and pass the submersible cable through the hole
in the lid, made for that purpose.

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58 CHAPTER 8. The Installation

15. Connect a small piece of pipe to the lid to lift it at. The lid doesn´t have
anywhere for a clamp to fit in. The way to lower the lid into its place is to use
this piece of pipe, which will then be connected to the elbow.

The lowering process can change a little, depending on the circumstances and the
materials you have at your disposal, although it´ll be much like what has been
described above.

8. 2 OTHER INSTALLATIONS
The electrical connection is done by an electrician. It´s very important to check the
direction of rotation as described in section 5.6. The accessories are installed by a
plumber, once correct operation has been established.

If a generator is used, it´s essential to start up the generator with the pump
turned off, allowing it to run for a few minutes before turning on the pump. If the
generator is started up with the pump connected and turned on, it will be overloaded
and produce electrical peaks which over time can damage both the generator and
pump.

8. 3 TOOLS, MATERIAL, and LABOUR

Tools

Pipe cutters. Used for cutting pipes quickly,


giving a clean finish for cutting a thread.

Die. This is a tool used for cutting thread in pipes:

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Equipping a Borehole 59

Pipe wrench. Used for gripping and turning pipe. Used in pairs, one on each pipe.
Generally available up to 4”.

Chain tong. This is used in place of the pipe wrench for larger diameters.

The remaining tools are the most commonly used: screw drivers, knives, saws etc. If
the borehole entrance is welded, consider whether a welder is required to open it, or
whether it can be opened by knocking off the welding spots with a hammer. To loosen
the omega clamps it´s easiest to use a socket wrench with ratchet wrench.

If a loader crane is used, the chain crane can be avoided together with the tripod.

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60 CHAPTER 8. The Installation

Fig 8.3. Pump installation with tripod (Step 9 in the text). Lugufu, Tanzania.

Material
See appendix C for a list of tools and materials.

Labour
Labour is highly variable depending on local conditions. 4 or 5 day labourers, 1 or 2
plumbers and an electrician will be sufficient in most cases.

8. 4 OPERATION PROBLEMS
It´s possible the borehole doesn´t work as hoped the first time. Pump installation
manuals have a Troubleshooting section. The majority of the time you´ll be dealing
with one of the cases explained in the manual. Consult it to solve any problems.

You must also make sure the performance is what it should be, measuring the
energy consumption with respect to the pump flow. Appendix E shows a very precise
and quick way of measuring flow.

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9. Protection

9. 1 SEAL
The seal involves the placing of an impermeable material, generally clay (bentonite),
or cement, between the borehole pipe and the terrain. Its purpose is to prevent
contaminated ground water entering the borehole rapidly without the filtration and
purification that takes place normally as it descends through the ground.

The seal is usually done during drilling. You won´t normally have to do anything. If it
hasn´t been done, remove the material from the first 2 meters and refill with bentonite.

9. 2 FENCING
The goal of fencing is to prevent access. In urban or built up areas with potentially
dangerous activities it´s best to establish a 30m protection area. If the pump house
prevents access and there is no danger of polluting activities it´s not necessary to
fence off the area.

9. 3 PUMP HOUSE
The pump house provides complete protection for the borehole. It can be smartened
up or kept simple, depending on its function. Look at different models around the
area. If there´s a water authority, they´ll probably already have a chosen model.
62 CHAPTER 9. Protection

It´s very important that the pump house is not an obstacle for maintenance
operations, cleaning of the borehole, installation and disassembly. These sometimes
require a truck. The roof should have an opening that allows for the pipe column to be
raised and lowered. In the case of concrete roofs on which a tripod will be placed, it
needs to have sufficient structural strength to support the weight of the pump column,
full of water.

Together with the protection of the borehole, the pump house can:

1. House the guard/operator.


2. House the generator.
3. Be a small local warehouse.

In hot climates, it is tempting to build a cage with a roof that protects the electrical
parts from the rain. This kind of housing doesn´t provide sufficient protection from dust
and humidity.

Fig. 9.3. Cage pump house, Somalia.

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Equipping a Borehole 63

Fig 9.3b Pump house with generator. Galgaaduud, Somalia.

Fig 9.3c Pump house and transformer in a fenced off area. Afshar, Afghanistan.

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64 CHAPTER 9. Protection

9. 4 LOW-COST BOREHOLES

In some cases, the investment/benefit relation is optimised for other activities, rather
than installing boreholes with good quality installations. The process described here is
for the equipping of a quality borehole. Getting rid of the pump house, sealing with a
platform similar to that described in section 2.4, and fencing off with metal fencing just
in the immediate area around the borehole, can reduce the major costs. Some go
even further and leave out the accessories.

Before equipping a borehole that way, evaluate whether it´s really necessary.
Boreholes without this kind of installation are more vulnerable and last for a shorter
time. They are forgotten about more easily when it comes to maintenance and are
often taken over by other activities, as can be seen in the photo.

Fig 9.4. Low-cost borehole piled up with chemicals and materials, Indonesia.

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Bibliography

1. Arnalich, S. (2,008). Gravity Flow Water Supply. Arnalich, water and habitat.
www.arnalich.com/en/books.html

2. Arnalich, S. (2007). Epanet and Development Aid: An Introduction to Computerised


Water Distribution Modelling. Arnalich, Water and Habitat
www.arnalich.com/en/books.html

3. Arnalich, S. (2007) Epanet and Development Aid: 44 Progressive exercises explained


step-by-step. Arnalich, Water and Habitat.
www.arnalich.com/en/books.html

4. Davis J. y Lambert R. (2002). Engineering in Emergencies. A practical guide for relief


workers. 2º Ed. ITDG publishing.

5. Driscoll, F.G., (1986). Groundwater and Wells. Second Edition, Johnson Division.

6. Fraenkel, P. (1997). Water pumping devices. A handbook for users and choosers. ITDG
Publishing.

7. Grundfos, SP A Catalogue, SP submersible pumps, motors and accesories 50 Hz.

8. Grundfos, Installation and operation instructions SP.

9. Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (2004). Decommissioning of redundant


boreholes and wells.

10. WHO (1996). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2º Ed. Vol. 2 Health criteria and
other supporting information y Addendum to Vol. 2 (1998).
www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/guidelines2/es/index.html (browse)
About the author

Santiago Arnalich.

At 26 years old, he began as the coordinator of the Kabul Project CAWWS Water
Supply, providing water to 565,000 people, probably the most important water supply
project to date. Since then, he has designed improvements for more than a million
people, including refugee camps in Tanzania, the city of Meulaboh following the
Tsunami, and the low-income neighbourhoods of Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Currently he is founder and executive director of Arnalich, Water and Habitat, a


private company with a strong social commitment dedicated to promoting the impact
of humanitarian organisations through training and technical assistance in the fields of
drinking water supply and environmental engineering.
APPENDICES
Equipping a Borehole 71

A. INFORMATION GATHERING CHECKLIST

By no means exhaustive, this is a list of information which could be useful to you:

1. Local population to be served.


2. Typical demand per family.
3. Resources of the local population (animals, vegetable gardens).
4. Distance and elevation of the reservoir tanks.
5. Distance and diameter of the pipes in the system.
6. Maximum and minimum pressure in the system to be connected to.
7. Static level.
8. Diameter of the borehole (can be telescopic).
9. Total depth.
10. Arrangement of the well casing pipe sections and filters.
11. Well casing material and filters.
12. Seal.
13. Construction company.
14. Pump test.
15. Complete water analysis.
16. Distance to the closest neighbouring boreholes.
17. Distance to the nearest points of electrical connection.
18. Electricity prices.
19. Cost of diesel.
20. Cost of existing water supply services.
21. Types of possible connection.
22. Requirements for the authorization of the electrical connection.
23. Country regulations for boreholes.
24. Locally adopted technical regulations.
25. Water authority regulations.
26. Types of pump houses in the area. Water authority design?

If it´s a renovation, also:

1. Why is it not being used?


2. Existing material.
3. Borehole and land property rights.
4. Local population access conditions.

© Santiago Arnalich Arnalich. Water and habitat www.arnalich.com


72 APPENDICES

B. PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL DRINKING WATER STANDARDS

Taken from:
Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality, 2º Ed. Vol. 2 Health criteria and other
supporting information, 1996 (pp. 940-949) y Addendum to Vol. 2 1998 (pp. 281-283)
Geneva, World Health Organisation.

Detailed data relating to the parameters can be found here:


www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/guidelines2/en/index.html

PHYSICAL STANDARDS:
Parameter Comments
Salinity 3000 µs/cm
Turbidity 5 NTU Removable
pH <8 For effective chlorination

WITH ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS:


Limit
Substance Comments
mg/l
Antimony 0.005 Uncommon; not removable using traditional methods
Arsenic 0.01 Removable
Barium 0.7 Treatment with ionic exchange or precipitation
Boron 0.5 Not removable using traditional methods
Cadmium 0.003 Treatment with precipitation or coagulation
Chromium 0.05 Treatment with coagulation
Copper 2 Uncommon; not removable using traditional methods
Cyanide 0.07 Removable with high dose of chlorine
Fluoride 1.5 Removable with activated aluminium
Lead 0.01 Not present in uncontaminated water
Manganese 0.5 Oxidation (aeration) and filtration
Mercury 0.001 Filtration, sedimentation, ionic exchange
Molybdenum 0.07 Not removable
Nickel 0.02 Removable using traditional methods
Nitrate (NO 3- ) 50 Biological elimination or ionic exchange
Nitrite (NO2-) 0.2 Transformation into nitrates through chlorination
Selenium 0.01 Selenium IV with coagulation. Selenium IV not removable
Uranium 0.002 Removable with conventional treatment

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Equipping a Borehole 73

THESE CAN BE A SOURCE OF COMPLAINTS:

Substance Limit mg/l Comments


Aluminium 0.2 Depositions and de-colouring
Copper 1 Clothes and sanitary stains
Iron 0.3 Clothes and sanitary stains
Manganese 0.1 Clothes and sanitary stains
Sodium 200 Bad taste
Sulphates 250 Bad taste, corrosion
Total dissolved solids 1000 Bad taste

BIOLOGICAL:
Parameter Comments

Coliforms 0 In any 100ml sample

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74 APPENDICES

C. MATERIAL AND TOOL CHECKLIST

This is a complete list for a wide range of situations which may arise when lowering
the pump. Decide whether all points are relevant or only some. For example, if you
take pipe wrenches you may not need chain tongs. If you hire electricians or
plumbers, they can bring their own equipment.

Pump house and any other keys! Tools for digging


Food and water for the team Pump
Protective gloves Submersible cable
Pipe cutters Splicing kit
Die Control panel
Pipe wrench Control panel mounting kit
Chain tong Single and three-phase electrical cable
Saw Corrugated tube for burying cables
Welding equipment Nylon ties
Drill and drill bits Ground connection kit
Socket wrench Multimeter
Basic tools Thick rope
(screwdrivers, hammer, etc) Diesel and oil for the generator
Chain crane Teflon tape or fibres (take loads!)
Tripod Cooking oil
Braking post Epoxy glue
Mallet 2-5 kg. Rising mains
Omega clamps Short pipe (1m) threaded
Cable clamps Pipe couplings
Rubber clamps Borehole lid
Cable protection clip Borehole lid elbow
Pipe for raising lid Reduction (pump and pipe different ø)
Steel cable Pipe end cap (if left uncovered)
Cement Accessories (Tees, meters, etc)

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Equipping a Borehole 75

D. MINIMUM GENERATOR SIZES

This chart, courtesy of Grundfos Spain, recommends the minimum generator sizes for
their pumps as a general statement (without taking into account working conditions):

Minimum Minimum
Motor power generator generator
power power
HP kW kW kVA Ratio
4 3,00 8,00 10,00 2,7
5,5 4,00 10,00 12,50 2,5
7,5 5,50 12,50 15,60 2,3
10 7,50 15,00 18,80 2,0
12,5 9,20 18,80 23,50 2,0
15 11,00 22,50 28,00 2,0
17,5 12,80 26,40 33,00 2,1
20 15,00 30,00 37,50 2,0
25 18,50 40,00 50,00 2,2
30 22,00 45,00 56,50 2,0
35 26,00 52,50 65,00 2,0
40 29,50 60,00 75,00 2,0
50 37,00 75,00 94,00 2,0
60 44,00 90,00 112,50 2,0
70 51,50 105,00 131,00 2,0
80 59,00 120,00 150,00 2,0
90 66,00 135,00 170,00 2,0
100 73,50 150,00 190,00 2,0
125 92,00 185,00 230,00 2,0
150 110,00 210,00 260,00 1,9

Notes: 1 kW ≈ 1.25 kVA = 1.36 HP

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E. MEASURING FLOW WITH A V-NOTCH WEIR

This is one of the most practical ways of measuring flows above 2 or 3 litres per
second. It consists of sending the water through a notch in the shape of a V:

Fig. E.1. Measuring the flow from a borehole, Adado, Somalia.

The height reached by the water (measured with a ruler) is proportional to the flow. To
determine the flow use this formula:

Q = 533 * C e 2 g * h 2.5 * tan( β / 2)

Q, flow in l/s.
C e , coefficient, dependent on the construction. Normally, 0.64.
g, gravity, 9.81 m/s2.
h, height of the water in meters.
β, angle of the weir in radians 1.

In normal conditions, g= 9.81 and C e =0.64, so the equation simplifies to:

Q = 1510 * h 2.5 * tan( β / 2)

1 o
To check this, multiply the degrees by 0.01744. E.g. 60 * 0.01744 = 1.046 radians.
Equipping a Borehole 77

The measurement is taken


vertically from the lower apex
of the V to the surface of the
water:

For 60º weir and a measurement of 19 cm, the flow will be:

60º * 0.01744 = 1.046 radians


Q= 1510 * 0.192.5 * tan(1.046/2) =13.7 l/s

If you don´t want to use tangents of angles in radians, build a 60º weir and use this
graph:

Fig. E.2. Flow graph vs. height for a 60º weir.

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78 APPENDICES

The quickest and simplest for boreholes may be to use a weir in a 200 litre barrel of
petrol:

Once the V-notch has been marked and cut, place the pipe in the barrel down to the
bottom and fill it half way up with stones. The stones will dissipate turbulence and
leave a smooth surface for accurate measurement. Then check the barrel is
horizontal. Place rocks in the area where the water will flow out so that the soil isn´t
eroded and the barrel doesn´t tip forwards.

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Equipping a Borehole 79

F. BOWLINE KNOTS

There may not be a steel cable there when you need one, or you may need to tie
something securely to a rope. Normally there´ll be an interminable mess of knots,
based on the assumption that each successive knot makes it more secure. This isn´t
the case, especially with synthetic rope, and can end up being dangerous. Use a
bowline, a classic sailor’s knot which is easy to undo but which will break the rope
before coming undone:

1. Begin by making a
loop, paying close
attention that the free
end passes over the
rest of the rope.

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80 APPENDICES

2. Pass the rope through


the object you´re securing
to. Here a saying is useful
to remember the steps: the
end is a snake and the loop
is a well...

3. Pass the end of the rope


from bottom to top through
the loop: the snake comes
out of the well...

4. Pass the end of the rope


below: the snake curls
round the tree...

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Equipping a Borehole 81

5. Pass the end through the loop, parallel to the way you did before: the snake
goes back into the well...

6. Check that the final knot has the shape of an 8 and that it is not a slipknot!

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82 APPENDICES

G. FRICTION LOSS TABLES. ( PLASTIC PIPE)


(Courtesy of Uralita)

Below you will find the friction loss tables for the most commonly used pipes. Due to
space limitations not all pipes are listed. If you´re looking for data that isn´t available
here, go to www.arnalich.com/dwnl/headloss.zip.

To use the tables you need to know what material you´re working with, the maximum
pressure (PN), and the type of water you´ll be transporting (clean/dirty). For a flow of
0.02 l/s, an HDPE of 25mm at 16 bar, carrying clean water (k=0.01), has a head loss
of 0.6 m/km.

25 - PN 16 CLEAN WATER: K=0.01


Head loss Q V
(m/km) (l/s) (m/s)
0.50 0.018 0.06
0.60 0.020 0.06
0.70 0.022 0.07

J, head loss; Q, flow and V, velocity.

Important: head loss varies somewhat from one manufacturer to another. If a


manufacturer provides you with reliable data, use this instead.

Calculation example:

Calculate the head loss in 5 km of 63 mm HDPE PN 10 pipe which carries a flow of 2


l/s?

1. In the HDPE tables, 63mm, PN 10, the head loss for 2.038 l/s is 15
m/km:
2.

3. The head loss is: H = 15 m/km * 5 km = 75m.

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Equipping a Borehole 83

HDPE 25 -ID 20.4mm- PN 16 HDPE 32 - ID 26.2mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 0.018 0.06 0.50 0.037 0.07
0.60 0.020 0.06 0.60 0.041 0.08
0.70 0.022 0.07 0.70 0.045 0.08
0.80 0.024 0.07 0.80 0.049 0.09
0.90 0.026 0.08 0.90 0.052 0.10
1.00 0.028 0.08 1.00 0.056 0.10
1.10 0.029 0.09 1.10 0.059 0.11
1.20 0.031 0.09 1.20 0.062 0.11
1.30 0.032 0.10 1.30 0.065 0.12
1.40 0.034 0.10 1.40 0.068 0.13
1.50 0.035 0.11 1.50 0.071 0.13
1.60 0.037 0.11 1.60 0.073 0.14
1.70 0.038 0.12 1.70 0.076 0.14
1.80 0.039 0.12 1.80 0.079 0.15
1.90 0.041 0.12 1.90 0.081 0.15
2.00 0.042 0.13 2.00 0.084 0.16
2.25 0.045 0.14 2.25 0.090 0.17
2.50 0.048 0.15 2.50 0.095 0.18
2.75 0.050 0.15 2.75 0.101 0.19
3.00 0.053 0.16 3.00 0.106 0.20
3.25 0.056 0.17 3.25 0.111 0.21
3.50 0.058 0.18 3.50 0.116 0.22
3.75 0.061 0.19 3.75 0.121 0.22
4.00 0.063 0.19 4.00 0.125 0.23
4.25 0.065 0.20 4.25 0.130 0.24
4.50 0.067 0.21 4.50 0.134 0.25
4.75 0.070 0.21 4.75 0.139 0.26
5.00 0.072 0.22 5.00 0.143 0.26
5.50 0.076 0.23 5.50 0.151 0.28
6.00 0.080 0.24 6.00 0.159 0.29
6.50 0.084 0.26 6.50 0.166 0.31
7.00 0.087 0.27 7.00 0.173 0.32
7.50 0.091 0.28 7.50 0.180 0.33
8.00 0.094 0.29 8.00 0.187 0.35
8.50 0.098 0.30 8.50 0.194 0.36
9.00 0.101 0.31 9.00 0.200 0.37
10.00 0.107 0.33 10.00 0.213 0.39
12.00 0.119 0.36 12.00 0.236 0.44
15.00 0.136 0.41 15.00 0.269 0.50
20.00 0.160 0.49 20.00 0.316 0.59
30.00 0.202 0.62 30.00 0.398 0.74
45.00 0.254 0.78 45.00 0.501 0.93
60.00 0.299 0.91 60.00 0.589 1.09

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84 APPENDICES

HDPE 40 - ID 35.2mm- PN 10 HDPE 40 - ID 32.6mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 0.084 0.09 0.50 0.068 0.08
0.60 0.093 0.10 0.60 0.075 0.09
0.70 0.102 0.10 0.70 0.083 0.10
0.80 0.111 0.11 0.80 0.089 0.11
0.90 0.118 0.12 0.90 0.096 0.11
1.00 0.126 0.13 1.00 0.102 0.12
1.10 0.133 0.14 1.10 0.108 0.13
1.20 0.140 0.14 1.20 0.113 0.14
1.30 0.147 0.15 1.30 0.119 0.14
1.40 0.153 0.16 1.40 0.124 0.15
1.50 0.160 0.16 1.50 0.129 0.15
1.60 0.166 0.17 1.60 0.134 0.16
1.70 0.172 0.18 1.70 0.139 0.17
1.80 0.178 0.18 1.80 0.144 0.17
1.90 0.183 0.19 1.90 0.148 0.18
2.00 0.189 0.19 2.00 0.153 0.18
2.25 0.202 0.21 2.25 0.164 0.20
2.50 0.215 0.22 2.50 0.174 0.21
2.75 0.227 0.23 2.75 0.184 0.22
3.00 0.239 0.25 3.00 0.193 0.23
3.25 0.250 0.26 3.25 0.203 0.24
3.50 0.261 0.27 3.50 0.211 0.25
3.75 0.272 0.28 3.75 0.220 0.26
4.00 0.282 0.29 4.00 0.228 0.27
4.25 0.292 0.30 4.25 0.237 0.28
4.50 0.302 0.31 4.50 0.244 0.29
4.75 0.311 0.32 4.75 0.252 0.30
5.00 0.320 0.33 5.00 0.260 0.31
5.50 0.338 0.35 5.50 0.274 0.33
6.00 0.356 0.37 6.00 0.288 0.35
6.50 0.372 0.38 6.50 0.302 0.36
7.00 0.388 0.40 7.00 0.315 0.38
7.50 0.404 0.42 7.50 0.328 0.39
8.00 0.419 0.43 8.00 0.340 0.41
8.50 0.434 0.45 8.50 0.352 0.42
9.00 0.448 0.46 9.00 0.364 0.44
10.00 0.476 0.49 10.00 0.386 0.46
12.00 0.528 0.54 12.00 0.429 0.51
15.00 0.599 0.62 15.00 0.487 0.58
20.00 0.705 0.72 20.00 0.573 0.69
30.00 0.885 0.91 30.00 0.720 0.86
45.00 1.111 1.14 45.00 0.904 1.08
60.00 1.304 1.34 60.00 1.061 1.27

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Equipping a Borehole 85

HDPE 63 - ID 55.4mm- PN 10 HDPE 63 - ID 51.4mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 0.293 0.12 0.50 0.239 0.12
0.60 0.326 0.14 0.60 0.265 0.13
0.70 0.357 0.15 0.70 0.290 0.14
0.80 0.385 0.16 0.80 0.314 0.15
0.90 0.412 0.17 0.90 0.336 0.16
1.00 0.438 0.18 1.00 0.357 0.17
1.10 0.463 0.19 1.10 0.377 0.18
1.20 0.487 0.20 1.20 0.396 0.19
1.30 0.510 0.21 1.30 0.415 0.20
1.40 0.532 0.22 1.40 0.433 0.21
1.50 0.553 0.23 1.50 0.451 0.22
1.60 0.574 0.24 1.60 0.468 0.23
1.70 0.594 0.25 1.70 0.484 0.23
1.80 0.614 0.25 1.80 0.501 0.24
1.90 0.633 0.26 1.90 0.516 0.25
2.00 0.652 0.27 2.00 0.532 0.26
2.25 0.698 0.29 2.25 0.569 0.27
2.50 0.741 0.31 2.50 0.604 0.29
2.75 0.782 0.32 2.75 0.638 0.31
3.00 0.822 0.34 3.00 0.671 0.32
3.25 0.860 0.36 3.25 0.702 0.34
3.50 0.897 0.37 3.50 0.732 0.35
3.75 0.933 0.39 3.75 0.762 0.37
4.00 0.968 0.40 4.00 0.790 0.38
4.25 1.002 0.42 4.25 0.818 0.39
4.50 1.035 0.43 4.50 0.845 0.41
4.75 1.067 0.44 4.75 0.871 0.42
5.00 1.099 0.46 5.00 0.897 0.43
5.50 1.159 0.48 5.50 0.947 0.46
6.00 1.218 0.51 6.00 0.994 0.48
6.50 1.274 0.53 6.50 1.040 0.50
7.00 1.329 0.55 7.00 1.085 0.52
7.50 1.381 0.57 7.50 1.128 0.54
8.00 1.432 0.59 8.00 1.170 0.56
8.50 1.482 0.61 8.50 1.211 0.58
9.00 1.531 0.63 9.00 1.250 0.60
10.00 1.624 0.67 10.00 1.327 0.64
12.00 1.799 0.75 12.00 1.470 0.71
15.00 2.038 0.85 15.00 1.666 0.80
20.00 2.393 0.99 20.00 1.957 0.94
30.00 2.998 1.24 30.00 2.452 1.18
45.00 3.752 1.56 45.00 3.070 1.48
60.00 4.396 1.82 60.00 3.598 1.73

© Santiago Arnalich Arnalich. Water and habitat www.arnalich.com


86 APPENDICES

HDPE 90 - ID 79.2mm- PN 10 HDPE 90 - ID 73.6mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 0.780 0.16 0.50 0.639 0.15
0.60 0.866 0.18 0.60 0.709 0.17
0.70 0.946 0.19 0.70 0.775 0.18
0.80 1.021 0.21 0.80 0.837 0.20
0.90 1.092 0.22 0.90 0.895 0.21
1.00 1.160 0.24 1.00 0.950 0.22
1.10 1.225 0.25 1.10 1.004 0.24
1.20 1.287 0.26 1.20 1.055 0.25
1.30 1.347 0.27 1.30 1.104 0.26
1.40 1.405 0.29 1.40 1.152 0.27
1.50 1.461 0.30 1.50 1.198 0.28
1.60 1.516 0.31 1.60 1.243 0.29
1.70 1.569 0.32 1.70 1.286 0.30
1.80 1.620 0.33 1.80 1.329 0.31
1.90 1.671 0.34 1.90 1.370 0.32
2.00 1.720 0.35 2.00 1.410 0.33
2.25 1.839 0.37 2.25 1.508 0.35
2.50 1.951 0.40 2.50 1.600 0.38
2.75 2.059 0.42 2.75 1.689 0.40
3.00 2.163 0.44 3.00 1.774 0.42
3.25 2.263 0.46 3.25 1.856 0.44
3.50 2.359 0.48 3.50 1.936 0.45
3.75 2.452 0.50 3.75 2.012 0.47
4.00 2.543 0.52 4.00 2.087 0.49
4.25 2.631 0.53 4.25 2.159 0.51
4.50 2.717 0.55 4.50 2.230 0.52
4.75 2.801 0.57 4.75 2.299 0.54
5.00 2.882 0.59 5.00 2.366 0.56
5.50 3.041 0.62 5.50 2.496 0.59
6.00 3.192 0.65 6.00 2.621 0.62
6.50 3.339 0.68 6.50 2.741 0.64
7.00 3.480 0.71 7.00 2.857 0.67
7.50 3.617 0.73 7.50 2.970 0.70
8.00 3.749 0.76 8.00 3.079 0.72
8.50 3.878 0.79 8.50 3.185 0.75
9.00 4.004 0.81 9.00 3.288 0.77
10.00 4.246 0.86 10.00 3.487 0.82
12.00 4.699 0.95 12.00 3.860 0.91
15.00 5.318 1.08 15.00 4.370 1.03
20.00 6.236 1.27 20.00 5.125 1.20
30.00 7.798 1.58 30.00 6.411 1.51
45.00 9.740 1.98 45.00 8.011 1.88
60.00 11.398 2.31 60.00 9.377 2.20

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Equipping a Borehole 87

HDPE 110 - ID 96.8mm- PN 10 HDPE 110 - ID 90mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 1.347 0.18 0.50 1.105 0.17
0.60 1.495 0.20 0.60 1.227 0.19
0.70 1.632 0.22 0.70 1.339 0.21
0.80 1.761 0.24 0.80 1.445 0.23
0.90 1.883 0.26 0.90 1.546 0.24
1.00 1.999 0.27 1.00 1.641 0.26
1.10 2.110 0.29 1.10 1.732 0.27
1.20 2.216 0.30 1.20 1.820 0.29
1.30 2.319 0.32 1.30 1.904 0.30
1.40 2.418 0.33 1.40 1.986 0.31
1.50 2.514 0.34 1.50 2.065 0.32
1.60 2.608 0.35 1.60 2.142 0.34
1.70 2.698 0.37 1.70 2.217 0.35
1.80 2.787 0.38 1.80 2.289 0.36
1.90 2.873 0.39 1.90 2.360 0.37
2.00 2.957 0.40 2.00 2.430 0.38
2.25 3.160 0.43 2.25 2.597 0.41
2.50 3.353 0.46 2.50 2.755 0.43
2.75 3.537 0.48 2.75 2.907 0.46
3.00 3.714 0.50 3.00 3.053 0.48
3.25 3.885 0.53 3.25 3.193 0.50
3.50 4.049 0.55 3.50 3.329 0.52
3.75 4.209 0.57 3.75 3.460 0.54
4.00 4.364 0.59 4.00 3.588 0.56
4.25 4.514 0.61 4.25 3.712 0.58
4.50 4.661 0.63 4.50 3.832 0.60
4.75 4.804 0.65 4.75 3.950 0.62
5.00 4.943 0.67 5.00 4.065 0.64
5.50 5.213 0.71 5.50 4.287 0.67
6.00 5.472 0.74 6.00 4.501 0.71
6.50 5.722 0.78 6.50 4.706 0.74
7.00 5.962 0.81 7.00 4.905 0.77
7.50 6.196 0.84 7.50 5.097 0.80
8.00 6.422 0.87 8.00 5.283 0.83
8.50 6.642 0.90 8.50 5.464 0.86
9.00 6.856 0.93 9.00 5.641 0.89
10.00 7.268 0.99 10.00 5.981 0.94
12.00 8.040 1.09 12.00 6.617 1.04
15.00 9.095 1.24 15.00 7.486 1.18
20.00 10.656 1.45 20.00 8.774 1.38
30.00 13.312 1.81 30.00 10.965 1.72
45.00 16.612 2.26 45.00 13.688 2.15
60.00 19.426 2.64 60.00 16.010 2.52

© Santiago Arnalich Arnalich. Water and habitat www.arnalich.com


88 APPENDICES

HDPE 160 - ID 141mm- PN 10 HDPE 160 - ID 130.8mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 3.732 0.24 0.50 3.046 0.23
0.60 4.136 0.26 0.60 3.377 0.25
0.70 4.512 0.29 0.70 3.685 0.27
0.80 4.865 0.31 0.80 3.973 0.30
0.90 5.198 0.33 0.90 4.246 0.32
1.00 5.515 0.35 1.00 4.506 0.34
1.10 5.818 0.37 1.10 4.754 0.35
1.20 6.110 0.39 1.20 4.992 0.37
1.30 6.390 0.41 1.30 5.222 0.39
1.40 6.661 0.43 1.40 5.443 0.41
1.50 6.923 0.44 1.50 5.658 0.42
1.60 7.178 0.46 1.60 5.867 0.44
1.70 7.426 0.48 1.70 6.069 0.45
1.80 7.667 0.49 1.80 6.267 0.47
1.90 7.902 0.51 1.90 6.459 0.48
2.00 8.131 0.52 2.00 6.647 0.49
2.25 8.684 0.56 2.25 7.100 0.53
2.50 9.209 0.59 2.50 7.530 0.56
2.75 9.711 0.62 2.75 7.941 0.59
3.00 10.193 0.65 3.00 8.335 0.62
3.25 10.656 0.68 3.25 8.715 0.65
3.50 11.104 0.71 3.50 9.082 0.68
3.75 11.538 0.74 3.75 9.438 0.70
4.00 11.959 0.77 4.00 9.782 0.73
4.25 12.367 0.79 4.25 10.117 0.75
4.50 12.765 0.82 4.50 10.443 0.78
4.75 13.154 0.84 4.75 10.761 0.80
5.00 13.532 0.87 5.00 11.072 0.82
5.50 14.265 0.91 5.50 11.672 0.87
6.00 14.968 0.96 6.00 12.248 0.91
6.50 15.644 1.00 6.50 12.803 0.95
7.00 16.298 1.04 7.00 13.338 0.99
7.50 16.930 1.08 7.50 13.856 1.03
8.00 17.543 1.12 8.00 14.359 1.07
8.50 18.138 1.16 8.50 14.847 1.10
9.00 18.718 1.20 9.00 15.322 1.14
10.00 19.835 1.27 10.00 16.238 1.21
12.00 21.924 1.40 12.00 17.951 1.34
15.00 24.775 1.59 15.00 20.290 1.51
20.00 28.994 1.86 20.00 23.750 1.77
30.00 36.156 2.32 30.00 29.627 2.20
45.00 45.043 2.88 45.00 36.921 2.75
60.00 52.609 3.37 60.00 43.133 3.21

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Equipping a Borehole 89

HDPE 200 - ID 176.2mm- PN 10 HDPE 200 - ID 163.6mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 6.805 0.28 0.50 5.573 0.27
0.60 7.539 0.31 0.60 6.175 0.29
0.70 8.221 0.34 0.70 6.734 0.32
0.80 8.860 0.36 0.80 7.258 0.35
0.90 9.463 0.39 0.90 7.754 0.37
1.00 10.038 0.41 1.00 8.225 0.39
1.10 10.587 0.43 1.10 8.676 0.41
1.20 11.114 0.46 1.20 9.108 0.43
1.30 11.621 0.48 1.30 9.525 0.45
1.40 12.112 0.50 1.40 9.928 0.47
1.50 12.586 0.52 1.50 10.317 0.49
1.60 13.047 0.54 1.60 10.695 0.51
1.70 13.495 0.55 1.70 11.063 0.53
1.80 13.931 0.57 1.80 11.421 0.54
1.90 14.356 0.59 1.90 11.770 0.56
2.00 14.771 0.61 2.00 12.111 0.58
2.25 15.769 0.65 2.25 12.931 0.62
2.50 16.719 0.69 2.50 13.710 0.65
2.75 17.625 0.72 2.75 14.455 0.69
3.00 18.496 0.76 3.00 15.170 0.72
3.25 19.333 0.79 3.25 15.858 0.75
3.50 20.142 0.83 3.50 16.523 0.79
3.75 20.925 0.86 3.75 17.166 0.82
4.00 21.684 0.89 4.00 17.790 0.85
4.25 22.422 0.92 4.25 18.396 0.88
4.50 23.140 0.95 4.50 18.986 0.90
4.75 23.840 0.98 4.75 19.562 0.93
5.00 24.524 1.01 5.00 20.123 0.96
5.50 25.846 1.06 5.50 21.209 1.01
6.00 27.113 1.11 6.00 22.251 1.06
6.50 28.333 1.16 6.50 23.254 1.11
7.00 29.510 1.21 7.00 24.221 1.15
7.50 30.650 1.26 7.50 25.158 1.20
8.00 31.754 1.30 8.00 26.066 1.24
8.50 32.828 1.35 8.50 26.948 1.28
9.00 33.872 1.39 9.00 27.807 1.32
10.00 35.884 1.47 10.00 29.461 1.40
12.00 39.645 1.63 12.00 32.554 1.55
15.00 44.778 1.84 15.00 36.775 1.75
20.00 52.366 2.15 20.00 43.017 2.05
30.00 65.239 2.68 30.00 53.609 2.55
45.00 81.195 3.33 45.00 66.741 3.17
60.00 94.771 3.89 60.00 77.918 3.71

© Santiago Arnalich Arnalich. Water and habitat www.arnalich.com


90 APPENDICES

PVC 40 - ID 36.2mm- PN 10 PVC 40 - ID 34mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 0.091 0.09 0.50 0.076 0.08
0.60 0.101 0.10 0.60 0.085 0.09
0.70 0.110 0.11 0.70 0.093 0.10
0.80 0.119 0.12 0.80 0.100 0.11
0.90 0.128 0.12 0.90 0.108 0.12
1.00 0.136 0.13 1.00 0.114 0.13
1.10 0.144 0.14 1.10 0.121 0.13
1.20 0.151 0.15 1.20 0.127 0.14
1.30 0.159 0.15 1.30 0.133 0.15
1.40 0.166 0.16 1.40 0.139 0.15
1.50 0.172 0.17 1.50 0.145 0.16
1.60 0.179 0.17 1.60 0.151 0.17
1.70 0.186 0.18 1.70 0.156 0.17
1.80 0.192 0.19 1.80 0.161 0.18
1.90 0.198 0.19 1.90 0.167 0.18
2.00 0.204 0.20 2.00 0.172 0.19
2.25 0.218 0.21 2.25 0.184 0.20
2.50 0.232 0.23 2.50 0.195 0.22
2.75 0.245 0.24 2.75 0.206 0.23
3.00 0.258 0.25 3.00 0.217 0.24
3.25 0.270 0.26 3.25 0.227 0.25
3.50 0.282 0.27 3.50 0.237 0.26
3.75 0.293 0.28 3.75 0.247 0.27
4.00 0.304 0.30 4.00 0.256 0.28
4.25 0.315 0.31 4.25 0.265 0.29
4.50 0.326 0.32 4.50 0.274 0.30
4.75 0.336 0.33 4.75 0.283 0.31
5.00 0.346 0.34 5.00 0.291 0.32
5.50 0.365 0.35 5.50 0.308 0.34
6.00 0.384 0.37 6.00 0.324 0.36
6.50 0.402 0.39 6.50 0.339 0.37
7.00 0.419 0.41 7.00 0.353 0.39
7.50 0.436 0.42 7.50 0.368 0.40
8.00 0.452 0.44 8.00 0.381 0.42
8.50 0.468 0.45 8.50 0.395 0.43
9.00 0.484 0.47 9.00 0.408 0.45
10.00 0.514 0.50 10.00 0.433 0.48
12.00 0.570 0.55 12.00 0.481 0.53
15.00 0.646 0.63 15.00 0.545 0.60
20.00 0.760 0.74 20.00 0.642 0.71
30.00 0.955 0.93 30.00 0.806 0.89
45.00 1.198 1.16 45.00 1.012 1.11
60.00 1.406 1.37 60.00 1.188 1.31

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Equipping a Borehole 91

PVC 63 - ID 57mm- PN 10 PVC 63 - ID 53.6mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 0.317 0.12 0.50 0.268 0.12
0.60 0.353 0.14 0.60 0.298 0.13
0.70 0.385 0.15 0.70 0.326 0.14
0.80 0.416 0.16 0.80 0.352 0.16
0.90 0.446 0.17 0.90 0.377 0.17
1.00 0.474 0.19 1.00 0.400 0.18
1.10 0.500 0.20 1.10 0.423 0.19
1.20 0.526 0.21 1.20 0.445 0.20
1.30 0.551 0.22 1.30 0.466 0.21
1.40 0.575 0.23 1.40 0.486 0.22
1.50 0.598 0.23 1.50 0.506 0.22
1.60 0.620 0.24 1.60 0.525 0.23
1.70 0.642 0.25 1.70 0.543 0.24
1.80 0.664 0.26 1.80 0.561 0.25
1.90 0.684 0.27 1.90 0.579 0.26
2.00 0.705 0.28 2.00 0.596 0.26
2.25 0.754 0.30 2.25 0.638 0.28
2.50 0.801 0.31 2.50 0.677 0.30
2.75 0.845 0.33 2.75 0.715 0.32
3.00 0.888 0.35 3.00 0.752 0.33
3.25 0.929 0.36 3.25 0.787 0.35
3.50 0.969 0.38 3.50 0.820 0.36
3.75 1.008 0.40 3.75 0.853 0.38
4.00 1.046 0.41 4.00 0.885 0.39
4.25 1.082 0.42 4.25 0.916 0.41
4.50 1.118 0.44 4.50 0.946 0.42
4.75 1.153 0.45 4.75 0.976 0.43
5.00 1.187 0.47 5.00 1.005 0.45
5.50 1.252 0.49 5.50 1.060 0.47
6.00 1.315 0.52 6.00 1.114 0.49
6.50 1.376 0.54 6.50 1.165 0.52
7.00 1.435 0.56 7.00 1.215 0.54
7.50 1.492 0.58 7.50 1.263 0.56
8.00 1.547 0.61 8.00 1.310 0.58
8.50 1.601 0.63 8.50 1.356 0.60
9.00 1.653 0.65 9.00 1.400 0.62
10.00 1.754 0.69 10.00 1.486 0.66
12.00 1.942 0.76 12.00 1.646 0.73
15.00 2.200 0.86 15.00 1.865 0.83
20.00 2.583 1.01 20.00 2.190 0.97
30.00 3.236 1.27 30.00 2.744 1.22
45.00 4.049 1.59 45.00 3.435 1.52
60.00 4.744 1.86 60.00 4.025 1.78

© Santiago Arnalich Arnalich. Water and habitat www.arnalich.com


92 APPENDICES

PVC 90 - ID 81.4mm- PN 10 PVC 90 - ID 76.6mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 0.841 0.16 0.50 0.712 0.15
0.60 0.933 0.18 0.60 0.791 0.17
0.70 1.019 0.20 0.70 0.864 0.19
0.80 1.100 0.21 0.80 0.933 0.20
0.90 1.177 0.23 0.90 0.998 0.22
1.00 1.250 0.24 1.00 1.060 0.23
1.10 1.319 0.25 1.10 1.119 0.24
1.20 1.386 0.27 1.20 1.176 0.26
1.30 1.451 0.28 1.30 1.230 0.27
1.40 1.513 0.29 1.40 1.283 0.28
1.50 1.574 0.30 1.50 1.335 0.29
1.60 1.632 0.31 1.60 1.385 0.30
1.70 1.689 0.32 1.70 1.433 0.31
1.80 1.745 0.34 1.80 1.480 0.32
1.90 1.799 0.35 1.90 1.526 0.33
2.00 1.852 0.36 2.00 1.571 0.34
2.25 1.980 0.38 2.25 1.680 0.36
2.50 2.101 0.40 2.50 1.783 0.39
2.75 2.217 0.43 2.75 1.882 0.41
3.00 2.329 0.45 3.00 1.976 0.43
3.25 2.436 0.47 3.25 2.068 0.45
3.50 2.540 0.49 3.50 2.156 0.47
3.75 2.640 0.51 3.75 2.241 0.49
4.00 2.738 0.53 4.00 2.324 0.50
4.25 2.833 0.54 4.25 2.405 0.52
4.50 2.925 0.56 4.50 2.483 0.54
4.75 3.015 0.58 4.75 2.560 0.56
5.00 3.103 0.60 5.00 2.635 0.57
5.50 3.273 0.63 5.50 2.779 0.60
6.00 3.436 0.66 6.00 2.918 0.63
6.50 3.594 0.69 6.50 3.052 0.66
7.00 3.746 0.72 7.00 3.181 0.69
7.50 3.893 0.75 7.50 3.306 0.72
8.00 4.035 0.78 8.00 3.428 0.74
8.50 4.174 0.80 8.50 3.546 0.77
9.00 4.309 0.83 9.00 3.661 0.79
10.00 4.570 0.88 10.00 3.882 0.84
12.00 5.057 0.97 12.00 4.297 0.93
15.00 5.723 1.10 15.00 4.864 1.06
20.00 6.710 1.29 20.00 5.704 1.24
30.00 8.389 1.61 30.00 7.133 1.55
45.00 10.478 2.01 45.00 8.912 1.93
60.00 12.260 2.36 60.00 10.429 2.26

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Equipping a Borehole 93

PVC 110 - ID 101.6mm- PN 10 PVC 110 - ID 96.8mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 1.536 0.19 0.50 1.347 0.18
0.60 1.705 0.21 0.60 1.495 0.20
0.70 1.861 0.23 0.70 1.632 0.22
0.80 2.008 0.25 0.80 1.761 0.24
0.90 2.146 0.26 0.90 1.883 0.26
1.00 2.278 0.28 1.00 1.999 0.27
1.10 2.405 0.30 1.10 2.110 0.29
1.20 2.526 0.31 1.20 2.216 0.30
1.30 2.643 0.33 1.30 2.319 0.32
1.40 2.756 0.34 1.40 2.418 0.33
1.50 2.865 0.35 1.50 2.514 0.34
1.60 2.971 0.37 1.60 2.608 0.35
1.70 3.075 0.38 1.70 2.698 0.37
1.80 3.175 0.39 1.80 2.787 0.38
1.90 3.273 0.40 1.90 2.873 0.39
2.00 3.369 0.42 2.00 2.957 0.40
2.25 3.600 0.44 2.25 3.160 0.43
2.50 3.819 0.47 2.50 3.353 0.46
2.75 4.029 0.50 2.75 3.537 0.48
3.00 4.231 0.52 3.00 3.714 0.50
3.25 4.425 0.55 3.25 3.885 0.53
3.50 4.612 0.57 3.50 4.049 0.55
3.75 4.793 0.59 3.75 4.209 0.57
4.00 4.970 0.61 4.00 4.364 0.59
4.25 5.141 0.63 4.25 4.514 0.61
4.50 5.307 0.65 4.50 4.661 0.63
4.75 5.470 0.67 4.75 4.804 0.65
5.00 5.629 0.69 5.00 4.943 0.67
5.50 5.936 0.73 5.50 5.213 0.71
6.00 6.230 0.77 6.00 5.472 0.74
6.50 6.514 0.80 6.50 5.722 0.78
7.00 6.788 0.84 7.00 5.962 0.81
7.50 7.053 0.87 7.50 6.196 0.84
8.00 7.310 0.90 8.00 6.422 0.87
8.50 7.560 0.93 8.50 6.642 0.90
9.00 7.803 0.96 9.00 6.856 0.93
10.00 8.272 1.02 10.00 7.268 0.99
12.00 9.150 1.13 12.00 8.040 1.09
15.00 10.349 1.28 15.00 9.095 1.24
20.00 12.124 1.50 20.00 10.656 1.45
30.00 15.142 1.87 30.00 13.312 1.81
45.00 18.891 2.33 45.00 16.612 2.26
60.00 22.088 2.72 60.00 19.426 2.64

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94 APPENDICES

PVC 160 - ID 147.6mm- PN 10 PVC 160 - ID 141mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 4.222 0.25 0.50 3.732 0.24
0.60 4.680 0.27 0.60 4.136 0.26
0.70 5.104 0.30 0.70 4.512 0.29
0.80 5.503 0.32 0.80 4.865 0.31
0.90 5.879 0.34 0.90 5.198 0.33
1.00 6.238 0.36 1.00 5.515 0.35
1.10 6.580 0.38 1.10 5.818 0.37
1.20 6.909 0.40 1.20 6.110 0.39
1.30 7.226 0.42 1.30 6.390 0.41
1.40 7.532 0.44 1.40 6.661 0.43
1.50 7.828 0.46 1.50 6.923 0.44
1.60 8.116 0.47 1.60 7.178 0.46
1.70 8.395 0.49 1.70 7.426 0.48
1.80 8.668 0.51 1.80 7.667 0.49
1.90 8.933 0.52 1.90 7.902 0.51
2.00 9.193 0.54 2.00 8.131 0.52
2.25 9.816 0.57 2.25 8.684 0.56
2.50 10.409 0.61 2.50 9.209 0.59
2.75 10.976 0.64 2.75 9.711 0.62
3.00 11.520 0.67 3.00 10.193 0.65
3.25 12.044 0.70 3.25 10.656 0.68
3.50 12.550 0.73 3.50 11.104 0.71
3.75 13.039 0.76 3.75 11.538 0.74
4.00 13.514 0.79 4.00 11.959 0.77
4.25 13.976 0.82 4.25 12.367 0.79
4.50 14.425 0.84 4.50 12.765 0.82
4.75 14.863 0.87 4.75 13.154 0.84
5.00 15.291 0.89 5.00 13.532 0.87
5.50 16.118 0.94 5.50 14.265 0.91
6.00 16.911 0.99 6.00 14.968 0.96
6.50 17.675 1.03 6.50 15.644 1.00
7.00 18.412 1.08 7.00 16.298 1.04
7.50 19.125 1.12 7.50 16.930 1.08
8.00 19.817 1.16 8.00 17.543 1.12
8.50 20.490 1.20 8.50 18.138 1.16
9.00 21.144 1.24 9.00 18.718 1.20
10.00 22.404 1.31 10.00 19.835 1.27
12.00 24.761 1.45 12.00 21.924 1.40
15.00 27.979 1.64 15.00 24.775 1.59
20.00 32.738 1.91 20.00 28.994 1.86
30.00 40.818 2.39 30.00 36.156 2.32
45.00 50.839 2.97 45.00 45.043 2.88
60.00 59.371 3.47 60.00 52.609 3.37

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Equipping a Borehole 95

PVC 200 - ID 184.6mm- PN 10 PVC 200 - ID 176.2mm- PN 16


J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s) J (m/km) Q (l/s) v (m/s)
0.50 7.714 0.29 0.50 6.805 0.28
0.60 8.545 0.32 0.60 7.539 0.31
0.70 9.316 0.35 0.70 8.221 0.34
0.80 10.04 0.38 0.80 8.86 0.36
0.90 10.723 0.4 0.90 9.463 0.39
1.00 11.373 0.42 1.00 10.038 0.41
1.10 11.995 0.45 1.10 10.587 0.43
1.20 12.591 0.47 1.20 11.114 0.46
1.30 13.166 0.49 1.30 11.621 0.48
1.40 13.721 0.51 1.40 12.112 0.5
1.50 14.258 0.53 1.50 12.586 0.52
1.60 14.779 0.55 1.60 13.047 0.54
1.70 15.286 0.57 1.70 13.495 0.55
1.80 15.779 0.59 1.80 13.931 0.57
1.90 16.26 0.61 1.90 14.356 0.59
2.00 16.73 0.63 2.00 14.771 0.61
2.25 17.86 0.67 2.25 15.769 0.65
2.50 18.934 0.71 2.50 16.719 0.69
2.75 19.96 0.75 2.75 17.625 0.72
3.00 20.944 0.78 3.00 18.496 0.76
3.25 21.892 0.82 3.25 19.333 0.79
3.50 22.807 0.85 3.50 20.142 0.83
3.75 23.692 0.89 3.75 20.925 0.86
4.00 24.551 0.92 4.00 21.684 0.89
4.25 25.386 0.95 4.25 22.422 0.92
4.50 26.198 0.98 4.50 23.14 0.95
4.75 26.99 1.01 4.75 23.84 0.98
5.00 27.763 1.04 5.00 24.524 1.01
5.50 29.258 1.09 5.50 25.846 1.06
6.00 30.691 1.15 6.00 27.113 1.11
6.50 32.071 1.2 6.50 28.333 1.16
7.00 33.402 1.25 7.00 29.51 1.21
7.50 34.691 1.3 7.50 30.65 1.26
8.00 35.94 1.34 8.00 31.754 1.3
8.50 37.154 1.39 8.50 32.828 1.35
9.00 38.335 1.43 9.00 33.872 1.39
10.00 40.609 1.52 10.00 35.88 1.47
12.00 44.862 1.68 12.00 39.65 1.63
15.00 50.665 1.89 15.00 44.78 1.84
20.00 59.242 2.21 20.00 52.37 2.15
30.00 73.791 2.76 30.00 65.24 2.68
45.00 91.821 3.43 45.00 81.20 3.33
60.00 107.159 4.00 60.00 94.77 3.89

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96 APPENDICES

G bis. FRICTION LOSS TABLE (GALVANIZED IRON)

Approximate values for head loss in m/km of galvanized iron pipe, calculated using
the Hazen-Williams formula for middle-aged pipe.

Important: head loss varies somewhat from one manufacturer to another. If a


manufacturer provides you with reliable data, use this instead.

Flow 1/2" 1" 1 1/2" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6"


l/s 15mm 25mm 40mm 50mm 80mm 100mm 125mm 150mm
0.02 2.28
0.05 12.46 1.22
Head loss values in
0.1 45.00 4.39 m/km
0.15 95.34 9.31 0.94
0.2 162.44 15.86 1.61
0.25 245.56 23.97 2.43

than 3 m/s). Coefficient C-110 used for pipe of less than 3” diameter, and
Values calculated without velocity adjustments (valid for velocities of less

C-120 for 3” and over, for middle aged pipe with neutral water (Langelier
0.3 344.19 33.60 3.41 1.15
0.35 457.92 44.71 4.53 1.53
0.4 586.40 57.25 5.80 1.96
0.45 729.33 71.20 7.22 2.43
0.5 886.48 86.55 8.77 2.96
0.6 121.31 12.30 4.15
0.7 161.39 16.36 5.52
0.8 206.67 20.95 7.07
0.9 257.05 26.06 8.79
1 312.43 31.67 10.68 0.92
1.1 372.75 37.79 12.75 1.10
1.2 437.93 44.40 14.98 1.29
Index value of ± 0.5).

1.3 507.90 51.49 17.37 1.50


1.4 582.62 59.06 19.92 1.72
1.5 662.03 67.11 22.64 1.95
1.6 746.08 75.63 25.51 2.20
1.7 84.62 28.55 2.46
1.8 94.07 31.73 2.74
1.9 103.98 35.07 3.03 1.02
2 57.13 38.57 3.33 1.12
2.2 64.38 46.02 3.97 1.34

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Equipping a Borehole 97

2.4 72.03 54.06 4.66 1.57


2.6 80.07 62.70 5.41 1.83
2.8 88.50 71.92 6.21 2.09
3 97.32 81.73 7.05 2.38
3.2 116.11 92.10 7.95 2.68
3.4 136.41 103.05 8.89 3.00 1.01
3.6 158.21 114.55 9.88 3.33 1.12
3.8 181.49 126.62 10.93 3.69 1.24
4 206.22 139.24 12.01 4.05 1.37
4.5 232.41 173.18 14.94 5.04 1.70
5 210.49 18.16 6.13 2.07
5.5 251.13 21.67 7.31 2.47 1.01
6 295.04 25.46 8.59 2.90 1.19
6.5 342.18 29.53 9.96 3.36 1.38
7 33.87 11.43 3.85 1.59
8 43.37 14.63 4.94 2.03
9 53.94 18.20 6.14 2.53
10 65.57 22.12 7.46 3.07
11 78.23 26.39 8.90 3.66
12 91.90 31.00 10.46 4.30
15 138.94 46.87 15.81 6.51
20 236.70 79.84 26.93 11.08
25 357.83 120.70 40.72 16.76
30 169.19 57.07 23.49
40 288.24 97.23 40.01
50 435.75 146.99 60.49
l/s 15mm 25mm 40mm 50mm 80mm 100mm 125mm 150mm
Flow 1/2" 1" 1 1/2" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6"

To calculate intermediate values, you can use the Hazen-Williams formula, taking into
account the warnings and values detailed in the box:

10,7 LQ1,852 Where:


h=
C 1,852 D 4,87 h, head loss in meters; L, length in meters; C, friction
3
coeffcient and D, diamater in meters and Q flow in m /s

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NOTES

Version 1.0

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