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WARNING!WARNING!

This document is copyright 1997 by Pressure Vessels Inc., and may not be reproduced, stored
This document is copyright 1997 by Pressure Vessels Inc., and
may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical,
recording or otherwise, without prior written permission.
It is intended for single user use. Information about site licenses
and network use may be obtained by contacting:
Pressure Vessels Incorporated
P.O. Box 35365
Tulsa, OK 74153 USA
www.pressure-vessel.com

P

V

H

TentEditi

withforeword by

P

B

Professor of Chemical Engineering University of Tulsa Tulsa, Oklahoma

E

M

oh

PRESSURE VESSEL PUBLISHING, INC.

P.O. Box

35365 “ Tulsa, OK 74153

FOREWORD

Engineers who design equipment for the chemical process industry are sooner or later confronted with the design of pressure vessels and mounting requirements for them. This is very often a frustrating experience for anyone who has not kept up with current literature in the field of code requirements and design equations.

First he must familiarize himself with the latest version of the

applicable code. Then he must search the literature for techniques used in design to meet these codes. Finally he must select material properties and dimensional data from various handbooks and company

catalogs for use in the design equations.

Mr. Megyesy has recognized this problem. For several years he

has been accumulating data on code requirements and calculational

methods.

of his “Calculation Form Sheets” and now has put it all together in

one place in the Pressure Vessel Handbook.

first in the form

He has been presenting this information

I believe that this fills a real need in the pressure vessel industry and that readers will find it extremely useful.

Paul Buthod

PREFACE

This reference book is prepared for the purpose of making formulas, technicaldata, designand construction methods readily available for the designer, detailer, Iayoutmen and others dealing with pressure vessels. Practical men in this industry often have difficulty finding the required data and solutions, these being scattered throughout extensive literature or advanced studies. The author’s aim was to bring together all of the above material under one cover and present it in a convenient form.

The design procedures and formulas of the ASME Code for Pressure Vessels, Section VIII Division I have been utilized as well as those generally accepted sources which are not covered by this Code. From among the alternative construction methods described by the Code the author has selected those which are most frequently used in practice.

In order to provide the greatest serviceability with this Handbook, rarely occurring loadings, special construction methods or materials have been excluded from its scope. Due to the same reason this Handbook deals only with vessels constructed from ferrous material by welding, since the vast majority of the pressure vessels are in this category.

A large part of this book was taken from the works of others, with some of the material placed in different arrangement, and some unchanged.

The author wishes to acknowledge

his indebtedness

to Professor

S4ndor Kalinszky, J&os Bodor, Lasz16F61egyhiizyand J6zsef Gyorii for their material and valuable suggestions, to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and to the publishers, who generously permitted the author to include material from their publications.

The authorwishesalso to thank all those who helpedto improvethis

new edition by their suggestions and corrections.

Suggestions and criticism concerning some errors which may remain in spite of all precautions shall be greatly appreciated. They contribute to the further improvement of this Handbook.

Eugene F. Megyesy

9

CONTENTS

PART I

Design and Construction

of Pressure Vessels

PART II

Geometry and Layout of

Pressure Vessels

PART III

Measures and Weights

PART IV

Design of Steel Structures

11

25’7

321

447

DESIGN

PART L

AND CONSTRUCTION

OF PRESSURE

VESSEL

1.

VesselsUnderinternalPressure_~

~~_~~~~~~~ StressesinCylindricalShel~Definitions,Formulas,Pressureof Fluid, Pressure-TemperatureRatings of American Standard ,CarbonSteelPipe Flanges.

~.~~~~ti~ti~~~~.

15

2. Vessels Under External Pressure Definitions, Formulas, Minimum Required TicknessofCylin- dricalSheH,ChafiforDeteminingThicknessofCylindrical and SphericalVesselsunderExternal PressurewhenConstructedof Carbon Steel,

31

3. Design ofTall Towers Wind Load, Weight of Vessel, Seismic Load, Vibration, Eccen- tric Load, Elastic Stability, Deflection, Combination of Stresses, Design of Skirt Support, Design of Anchor Bolts (approximate method), Design of Base Ring (approximate method), Design of Anchor Bold and Base Ring, Anchor Bolt Chair for Tall Towers.

52

4. Vessel Suppotis Stresses in Large Horizontal Vessels Supported by Two Saddles, Stresses in Vessels on Leg Support, Stresses in Vessels Due to

86

Lug support.

5. Openings Inspection Openings, Openings without Reinforcing Pad, Open- ing with Reinforcing Pad, Extension of Openings, Reinforce- ment of Openings, Strength of Attachments, Joining Openings to Vessels, Length of Couplings and Pipes for Openings.

122

6. Nozzle Loads

153

7. Reinforcement at the Junction of Cone to Cylinder

159

8. Welding of Pressure Vessels Welded Joints, But Welded Joint of Plates of Unequal Thick- nesses, Application of Welding Symbols.

170

9. Regulations, Specifications Code Rules Related to Various Services, Code Rules Related to Various Plate Thicknesses of Vessel, Tanks and Vessels Con- taining Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Properties of Materials, Description of Materials, Specification for The De- sign and Fabrication of Pressure Vessels, Fabrication Toler- ances.

181

10. Materials of Foreign Countries

194

13. Rectangular Tanks

14. Corrosion

15. Miscellaneous

~

o

o

u,mv

u.mv

~

u

ti

~

~

~

u

~

212

221

232

Fabricating Capacities, Pipe and Tube Bending, Pipe Engage- merit, Drill Sizes for Pipe Taps, Bend Allowances, Lengthof Stud Bolts, Pressure Vessel Detailing, Preferred Locations,

CommonErrors,LiRingAttachments, SafeLoadsforRopesand Chains, Transportation ofVessels.

16. Painting Steel Surfaces

~

o

o

~

a

~.

U.V

O

247

1NREFERENCESTHROUGHOUTTHISBOOK"CODE"sTANDSF0RASME

(AMERICAN SOCIETO

MECHANICAENGINEERSY

A

O

VIIRULEL

F

E

I

S

)

AMERICA,

F BOILEL

N

CONSTRUCTION

PRESSURVESSECODSECTIOE

O

R

N

PRESSURVESSELSDIVISIOF

E 1A

NSTANDARDN

N

1

E

R

.

D

S

P

V

Pressure vessels are subject to various loadings, which exert stresses of different intensities in the vessel components. The category and intensity of stresses are the function of the nature of loadings, the geometry and construc- tion of the vessel components.

LOADINGS

a,

b. Weight of the vessel and contents

c. Static reactions from attached equipment, piping, lining, insulation, internals, supports

d. Cyclic and dynamic reactions due to pressure or thermal variations

e. Wind pressure and seismic forces

f.

g“

(Code UG-22)

Internal or external pressure

Impact reactions due to fluid shock Temperature gradients and differential thermal expansion

STRESSES

a. Tensile stress

b. Longitudinal compressive stress

(Code UG-23)

c. General primary membrane stress induced by any combination of loadings. Primary membrane stress plus primary bending stress induced by combination of load- ings, except as provided in d. be- low.

d. General primary membrane stress induced by combination of earth- quake or wind pressure with other

loadings (See definitions

beginn-ing473.)

pages

MAXIMUM

ALLOWABLE

Sa The smaller of S. or the value of factor B determined by the procedure described in Code UG 23 (b) (2)

STRESS

S

1.5 Sa

1.2 times the stress permitted in a., b., or c. This rule applicable to stresses exerted by internal or external pres- sure or axial compressive load on a cylinder.

Seismic force and wind pressure need not be considered to act simulta-

neously.

S.= Maximum allowable stress in tension for carbon and low alloy steel Code Table UCS-23; for high alloy steel Code Table UHA-23., psi. (See properties of materials page 180- 184,)

/

,

STRESSES IN CYLINDRICAL SHELL

Uniforminternalorexternalpressureinducesinthelongitudinalseamtwotimeslargerunit stress than in the circumferentialseam becauseof the geometryof the cylinder.

A vessel under external pressure, when other forces (wind, earthquake, etc. ) are not factors, must be designed to resist the circumferential buckling onlyT C oh .d

providet methoo designh ts meethie requirementd f ’ Wheo othet loadings . a n r r s present, these combined loadings m govera aheavieplatn wily ben requird r e l e that platwhichw satisfactorn e at eresisht circumferentias y h bucklino t onle l g y

T

compressivstresh

d

t

a

externae

pressure u

tensils

odnl

t

strese

internae

e

s

e

pressuud

o

shalb

determineb

t

eh

formulasl

d

y

e

:

$

.

+

D

.

t

FORMULA

S

CIRCUMFERENTIA LLONGITUDINA

JOIN

3

s,

.$

JOINT

s~ = ~

L

l

r

T

,R

S2

s,

‘/

~

D=

P=

s,

s*

[

=

=

=

NOTATIO

N

Meadiameteo vesselinchen r f , s Internao externapressurep l r l s , i

Longitudinal stress, psi Circumferential (hoop) stress, psi Thickness of shell, corrosion allowance excluded, inches

1

EXAMPLE

;iven

D

P=

f

=

=

96 inches

15 psi

0.25 inches

s,

PD

= ~

s* = $

 

15

X

96

=

=

 

~

15

X

96

=

=

 

2

X 0.25

1440 psi

2

p

8

8s

F

towerundeinternao

pressura r wins

loar t

ncritical

heighe

habovd whicd

e

l

t

compred

e

sivstresgovernc

b

sb

approximatee a

t s formuIan

e

hd

y

e

:

H=% 3

wherH = Criticaheigho

2

(

f

l

towere

t t

f

,

h s

.

1.

I

OPERATING PRESSURE

P

N

R

The pressure which is required for the process, served by the vessel, at which the vessel is normally operated.

2. DESIGN PRESSURE

The pressure used in the design ofa vessel. It is recommended to design a vessel and its parts for a higher pressure than the operating pressure. A design pressure higher than the operating pressure with 30 psi or 10 percent, whichever is the greater, will satis@this requirement, The pressure of the fluid and other contents of the vessel should also be taken into consideration. See tables on page 29 for pressure of fluid.

3. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE

The internal pressure at which the weakest element of the vessel is loaded to the ultimate permissible point, when the vessel is assumed to be:

(a)

in corroded condition

(b)

under the effect ofa designated temperature

(c)

in normal operating position at the top

(d)

undertheeffectof otherloadings(wind load, external pressure, hydro- static pressure, etc.) which are additive to the internal pressure.

When calculations are not made, the design pressure may be used as the maximum allowable working pressure (MA WP) code 3-2.

A common practice followed by many users and manufacturers of pressure vessels is to limit the maximum allowable working pressure by the head or shell, not by small elements as flanges, openings, etc.

See tables on page 28 for maximum allowable pressure for flanges.

See tables on page 142 for maximum allowable pressure for pipes.

The term, maximum allowable pressure, new and cold, is used very oflen, It means the pressure at which the weakest element of the vessel is loaded to the ultimate permissible point, when the vessel:

(a)

is not corroded (new)

(b)

t

n

i

h

t

(

t e

and the other conditions (c and d above) also need not to be taken into consideration.

4. HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE

O and one-halfntimes the maximume

pressure to be marked on the vessel when calculations are not made to determine the maximum allowable working pressure.

If the stress value of the vessel material at the design temperature is less than at the test temperature, the hydrostatic test pressure should be increased propor- tionally.

allowable working pressure or the design

Hydrostatitesshalb

conductec

aflea

fabricatiot

l

e hdl

beecompletedr

a l

n

s

n

.

I thicaset

tespressurehshalln be:s

,

e

t

1

)(

StressValueS

.

Temperature

MaxAllow.

x

5

(Or DesignPress.)

.

W.Press.

StressValueS At DesignTemperature

Vesselwhert maximuhallowabls e workine mpressurlimitee b tg e h d flangesshalb testea a pressur, showl i te dtablet e h n n e :

PrimarServicy

e

900 lb

Hydrostatiteso

multi-chambec vesselsCodt

r

(

:

UG-9f

e

e

+

9

)

A Pneumatic test may be used in lieu of a hydrostatic test per Code UG-100

Prootestt establismaximuf allowabls o hworkinmpressurwhee t g he n strengto a paro t n vesseh cannofh yb computet f e witl satisfactort e d h y assuranco safetyprescribei eCodUG-101f , d n e .

5. MAXIMUMALLOWABLESTRESS VALUES

The maximumallowabltensilstresvaluepermittee f e differens materialso d r t s

a

t b usei t desigo cylindricah o e shelld nsubjectee n t loadinf l thaproducs d o g t e longitudinacompressivstresil t shelshale bh determines naccordine l t l e d g CodparUC-2b c & d e . 3 , , .

givei

o

tablr

pag189eT n maximun

e

e

e

allowablhn

compressiv.

m stree

e

s

6. JOINT EFFICIENCY

The efficiency of different types of welded joints are given in table on page

172. The efficiency of seamless heads is tabulated on page 176.

T

thicknesa t maximun hsallowabldworkine mpressurf e t m g o ho e a r e frequentlusetypeo shelay headT d formulan s fo hcylindrical d . shelea s f lr l givef t l.o~gitudinao hseamsincn usuallr e thil governs, e y s .

followinpageh

contaiformulae

g

t

uset s computn

srequiredw h

o

e

a

e

ld

T

efficienci

t

stresi

h girtseawilh e govers

onln

ewheh t

mcircumferential

n

h

joiy

n

e

l

lesthaone-haly t

s

longitudinas

hnjoinfefficiencye

o l w

ht

,

e

n

r

besides the internal pressure additional loadings(wind load, reaction of

saddlesa

that

t

stresi

t

causinlongitudinar

)

bendine

og tensionl

T

reasog f

ih i r

n

mone-hald

.

e

o

e

stresarisinh i

t

girtt seae

gper

pounhs

i

squarn

e

o

.

inch

h

hlongitudinahseame

s

n

e

l

T

formulaf

ht

girtseao accordinglyeh

s

r

e

h

m

t PR = 24SE+ 0.4P

P=

R

2SEt

0.4t

:

s

f

r

A

e

B

.

.

b

 

I

P

N

R

FORMULAS IN TERMS OF INSJDEDIMENSIONS

NOTATION

 

E = Joinefficiencypag1

t

7 .

e

2

P = Desigpressuro

workinpressurp

gs

maxallowabln

R =e Insidrradius.

einchee

, D = eInsiddiameteri inchee ,

S = Stresvaluo

materiapsipags

t

e=

f thicknessl

,inchee

,

s

s

s

 

C

= CorrosioAallowanceinche. n .

 

s

CYLINDRICAL

SHELL

(LONSEAM

G

)

r

1-

I

0

R

-1

-– f

t

R

PR

f= SE–

O.6P

SE t P = m-m

1. Usuallt

t

stresi

lonh

Ss

seai ygoverningh

e

n

e

g

me

.

precedinpageg

s

2

Whe[

walthicknesexceedh

o

te

ns

o . haln

sh

insl

radiuo

t

P exceed0.38S

t

hsi

formulas

rgivE

5

,

CodAppendih 1

shalb

appliede - e

x

2

l

e

ie

.

e

se

f

SPHERE

HEMISPHERICAL

HEAD

.

1.

2

PR

‘= 2SE–0,2P

p=

2SE t

R +0.2t

F

o

o

Whet

headwithouaostraighIlangeu r t s efficient

t heat sheljoinh i i lesthaf te efficiend o l th f { s n

t

e

s

th

.

,

seami

[

headh

h

f

e

s

n

walthicknesexceedh

nR

o

s

0.35.

s

Pe excel

6e

e

0.66S t formulagiveE hi t Cod5 Append, e hs n n e ei

I-3shalb

applied,

l

e

.

2:1

ELLIPSOIDAL

HEAD

1.

PD

‘= 2SE–

O.2P

P= -Dy;jt

F

a

ellipsoidaheadso

minoaxii othen

whert

tha2 1 s

,

r

eh

ratir o lt

majh

rAppends

e

:

,

o

e

Codd

es

n

1-4(c)

.

o

ei

E

X

DESIGDATAN

:

E = 1.00joinefficienco seamle,

t

y

head

s

s

R = 4

e incheinsiddiameter6 e

incheinsidradius8

P

s

s

=

p

desigpressurs

i

D

n

=

stresvaluo sS

0

s 9

I

,

*

*

e

S = 1750p

e

i

t = requirewal[hicknessinchd

e

F

f A

515.7plat@ 650”0

e

l

*

l

E = 0.85efficienco

jointo shela

l

shel

spot-examine,

hemisHeatn

d

s

f

C.A= 0.12inchecorrosioallowunc.

y

f d

5

d

s

n

e

corrodeconditioi

.

d

o

gvaten

n

witt

corrosioallowanch

h

e

n

SEEDESIGNDATAABOVE

I)c[crmincIhc rcquird lhicknms, 01o shell

,=

I(K) x 48.1?5

I7500 x 0.85 -- 0.6

+ C.A.

x

fJse: ().50() in, pkrfc

=

100

().325 in.

() 125 in.

in.

SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE

The head furnishedwithmrtslraigh[ Ilwrge.

Detcrrnirrethe required thickness. I d’ ii hemispherical head.

 

]00

x 48, Izfi

/=

2

x

I7500 x

0.85 -- 0.2

x

I00

=

().16? in.

 

+ C.A.

0.125 in.

 

0.287 in.

 

Use: ().3125 in MIN.

HEAD

 

SEE DESIGN[),N”f’AAIK)VE

fhwrmine the maximum:Ill(nv;IbleIf(whingpressure, P

I’br().5()() in thi~k kh{.11wtlrn Ihc tIS<,Il i, in IICW

currditi(m.

P

=

17500 x ().X5 x ().5(M) -

48

+

x

154psi

—.

SEE DESIGNL)A’rAABOVE

Determine IIw maximumallowuhlcvrn-kingpressure. P I’or().3125 in [hi(k head. when it is in IICNctmdili(m

p ,

,? x

I7500 x 0.X5x 0.3 I25

W

+ 0.2

x

(),3I25

+ IOJ p~i

SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE

Dctcrrninethe requiredthicknessot’a SCJMICSSellipsoidal head

-

2

x

100 X

96.25

17500 x

1.0 0.2 x

+ C.A.

100

= 0,275 in.

0.125 in,

in,

Use: o 437s in, MIN. THK. HEAD

SEE DESIGNDA’I’AABOVE

Determinethe maximumdlmv:iblc U[wkingprcwurc. P for 0,275 in. thick. seamless head \!’heni! is in corroded condition.

2

X

X 0.275

96.?5 + 0.2 x 0.275—

17500 X

1,0

=

10(1psi

f

r

I

P

N

FORMULAS IN TERMS OF INSIDE DIMENS1ONS

1

NOTATION

D = Insiddiameterinche

,

e

P = Desigpressuro

workinpressurp

gs

S = .Str;svaluo

L

=

e

maxallowabln

a

r

.

e

O

halo t

e

incIudn

(aph

e

f

fee

angledegree, i

s

shh

materiapsipags

e

= Insidradiuo f l , disince e

r = Insidknucklradiuince e hs

E = Joinefficiencypag1

t

R

7, r = Walthicknessinchl e 2

,

= Insidradiusinchee , = Corrosioallowanceincn s

h

e

CONE

CONICAL

SECTION

c

a (SE–=

O.6P)o

2SEt c

‘= 2D + 1.2ts

a

a

o

1 T halapeangleh a n great.t e 3 fo xh , e0at

E

*

<

M

M

A

~

%

~

‘D

2 Wheni greatetha3 specianaly. a 0i reqs r n au ;s (CodAppendi1-5(e)e x )

\

ASMFLANGEA

DISHH EN

D E

(TORISPHERICAHEAL

Whe‘

=

162/

0.885PL

o. 1

f= SE–

SEt P= 0.885 L+0.lt

n

P

When Vr lestha1

PLM

‘= 2SE–

O.2P

‘=

2SEt

LM+oo2t

VALUEO

FACTO“

S

M F

1.01.5 J r 0

0

R

3

:

L

=

D + 2t

2

13.

(see note

1

2 on facp

a

ED

f r

s

D

0

i

n

21

E

DESIGN DATA:

P = lOOpsidesignpressure

S

E

= 17500psistressvalueof

SA515-70plate@650°F

= 0.85,efficiencyofspot-examined

joints

E = 1.00,jointefficiencyofsearnless

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Cos30° = 0.866 Determine the required thickness, r of a cone

100x 96.25

2X 0.866(17500X

+C.A.

0,125in.

0.500in.

Use0,500in.plate

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

L/r = 16$

Determine the required thickness, tof a seamless ASME flanged and dished head.

f=

0.885X100x96.I25

17500x 1.0-0.1x 100

+C.A.

Use0.625in.plate

=0.486 in.

0.125in.

0.611in.

SEEDESIGNDATAABOVE

Knuckle radius r = 6 in. L/r=

~= 1.75 from table.

Determine the required thickness t of a

seamless ASME head.

~=

61

(j

flanged and dished

t=

100x96,125X1.75

2 x 17500

100

0.481 in.

+C.A.

0.125in.

0.606in.

Use0.625in.min.thickhead

X

R

= 48inchesinsideradius*

96inchesinsidediameter*

~ = requiredwallthickness,inches L = 30°0nehalfoftheapexangle t = Resuiredwallthicknessinches C.A = 0,125inchescon-osionallowance * incorrodedconditiongreaterwith thecorrosionallowance

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

Determine the maximum allowable working pressure, P for 0.500 in. thick cone, when the vessel is in new condition.

D =

2 x

xO.85xO.500x0.866

96+ 1.2XOo500Xo.866

= 133psi

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

Determine the maximum allowable working pressure, P for 0.6875 in. thick seamless head, when the vessel is in new condition.

p.

17500x1,0x0,6875

0.885x96+ 0,1 x0,6875

= 141psi

SEEDESIGNDATAABOVE

%

~

Knuckle radius r = 6 in. L/r=

A4= 1.75 from table

Determine the maximum allowable working pressure, P for a 0.481 in. thick seamless head when the vessel is in corroded condition.

= 16

p=

2 x 17500X1.0xO.481

96.125X1.75+0,2

xO.481

= 100psi

NOTE: When the ratio L i greatetha/ 163non-Codo f rconstructions r n t val, e o h )

A4mab

calculateb

t

formulay

illhe%d

e(

+

k

L/ry

:

=

3

)

22

I

P

N

FORMULAS IN TERMS OF OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS

NOTATION

E = Joint efficiency,page 1

7

eOutsididiameterinc= e h

P = Desigpressuro

workinpressurp :

gs

maxallowabln

=e Outsidr radius,.

einches

e

,

S = Stresvaluo

materiapsipags

e= Walf thicknessl

,

l

inche

,

1 8 A + R b G3) ~ B @ f R d’ c h
1
8
A
+
R
b
G3)
~
B
@
f
R
d’
c
h
-
+
u
h
= D14

9 C.A: = Comosionallowance,inches

CYLINDRICAL

* =

SE

PR

+ 0.4P

SHELL

P

(LOS

E

= R

y;4t

.

A N

1 Usuallt stresi t lonh s . iygoverh e e sS an en g pag1 e 4

2 Whet walthicknesexceedh o. hn o et il a ns n slhs radiuo P exceed0.38S t forms rgivE sh u5 e

t

CodAppendih 1

shalb

applie - e

x

2e

l

SPHERE and HEMISPHERICAL HEAD

f

1

=

2SE

PR

+

0.8P

P

-

~

y;

B*

.

F

o t heat sheljoinh i i i l t f te eeffid h o l st hca f o t seami t headh h f e s n e .

headwithouaostraighflang. ur t s effit

s

thce

 

R

P

S

t

E

h

,

e

1

1-3,shallbe applied.

2:1

ELLIPSOIDAL

HEAD

PD

= 2S45+1,8P

P=D~l

.

F

minoaxii othetha2:1s

rat.

ellipsoidaheadso whert

,a

Apper

or t

-

l m

so

h

e1s

a

r

C

hei

nd n4,

j

23

E

DESIGN DATA:

P = IOOpsidesignpressure

S = 17500psistressva1ueof

E=

E = 1.00,jointefficiencyofseamless

SA515-70plate@650°F

O.8&efliciencyofspot-examined

joints ofshellandhemis.headtoshell

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

Determine the required thickness, t of a shell

‘=

100X48

17500x0.85-0.4x 100 ‘0”322 ‘n”

+C.A.

0.125in.

0.447in.

Use:0.500in.thickplate

X

E = 1.OOjointefficiencyofseamlessheads l? =48inchesoutsideriidius

D=

96 inchesoutsidediameter

t =Requiredwallthickness,inches C.A.= 0.125inchescorosionallowance

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

Determine the maximum allowable working pressure, P for 0.500 in. thick shell when the vessel is in new condi- tion.

P=

17500xO.85xO.500

48-0.4 x0,500

= 155psi

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE Head furnished without straight flange.

Determine the required thickness, tof a hemispherical head.

Determine the maximum allowable working pressure, P for 0.3125 in. thick head, when the vessel is in new condition.

t=

2x17500 %;t0.8x100

‘0-161 ‘r-

ip.

2x 17500xO.85x().3125 48-0.8 x0,3125

=194psi

+C.A0.12i

.

n

5

.

0.286in.

Use:0.3215in.min.thickhead

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

Determine the required thickness t of a seamless ellipsoidal head.

Determine the maximum allowable working pressure, P for 0.273 in. thick head, when it is in new condition.

t=

100x96

2 x 17500X 1.01.8

p. +

2 x 17500x1.0X

X

96-1.8 xO.273

=100psi

+C.A.

0,125in.

0.398in.

Use0.4375in.min.thickhead

I

P

N

FORMULASIN TERMSOF OUTSIDEDIMENSIONS

N~ATIO

P = Designpressureor

N

Outsidediameter.inches ~ = one half of the included(apex)

max. allowable

workinpressurpsi

g

e angledegree,

S = S&esvaluo

materiapsipags

L = Outsidradiuo disince

e

f

l

,

e

r = Insidknucklradiince

u

E = Joinefficiencypag1

t

7,

= Walthicknessinchl e 2

Corrosioallowancincn s

R = Outsidradiusinchee

,

C.A: =

)

E

M

@

f

d

L

‘=2

1

2

CONE

CONICAL SECTION

PD Cos CY(SE+ O.4P)

p=

2bsEfCos CY

D –0.8t

a

T

When“

halapeangleh a n

e

3 of

xh

great.t

,

i greatetha30°speci.analya

i

reqs r

n

)

(CodAppendi1-5(e)e

x

AsMFLANGEA

DISHHEN

E

(TORISPHERICAHEAL

r

D

WhenL/= 162

0.885PL

2=SE + 0.8P

P=

SEt

0.885L–

O.8t

/

 

WheLesT

1

h

6 n

 

a 2

.

i

 

2SEt

PL M f= 2SE+P(M–

O.2)’

‘=

ML –t(ikf-O.2)

 

VALUES OF FACTOR M

2.02.53.00

0

3.54

.

5

0

1.21.75

/

2.22.73.25

r

5

5

4.05

6.

5

6

. 5 0

1.01.01.10

6

0

 

%

7

:

L - t = D

2

.

,

s

shh

e h

e

eh

e0a t

au,

ED

D

s

.00

25

E

X

3ESIGN DATA:

P = IOOpsidesignpressure

S

E

E

R

D =

= 17500psistressvalueof SA 515-70plate@650°F

= 0.85,efficiencyofspot-examinedjoints t =

= 1.00,jointefficiencyofseamlessheads

= 48inchesoutsideradius

96inchesoutsidedimeter

~ = 3@onehalfoftheapexmgle

L

= 96inchesoutsideradiusofdish

Requiredwallthickness,inches

C.A = 0.125inchescomosionallowmce

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

:0s 30° = 0.866 Determine the required thickness, of a cone

00

96

t

‘=2 x0.866X(l\50; X0.85+Oc4X100) =

+-CA.

=0.372 in.

0.125in.

0.497in.

Use:0.500in.thickplate

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

Determine the maximum allowable working pressure, P for 0.500 in. thick cone.

~= 2X 17500XC).85X().5()()X().866 96- (0.8xO.500xO.866)

= 134psi

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

L/r = 16$ Determine the required thickness, t seamless ASME flanged and dished head.

of a

‘=

0,885x 100x96 17500x1.0+0.8x 100 =0.483 in.

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

Determine the maximum allowable working pressure, P for 0.625 in. thick seamless head, when the vessel is in corroded condition.

17500x 1.0xO.625

P=

0.885

+C.A.

0.125in.

0.608in.

Use0.62in.min.thickhead

:

5

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

Knuckle radius r= 6 i M

M 1.75 from table.

Determine the required

seamless ASME head.

%

~

= 1

thickness tof a

flanged and dished

t= 2x 17500x1.0x

100X96X1.75

100(1.75-0.2) =0.478 in.

0.125in.

0.603in.

+-CA.

Use0.625in.min.thickhead

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE

K

r

p= 6 in. L/r=

~

=16

~= 1.75 from table. Determine the maximum allowable working pressure, P for a 0.478 in. thick seamless head when the vessel is in corroded condition.

‘=

2X17500x1.OX().478

.

1.75X96-0478(1.75-0.2)=100ps*

NOTE: Whet

ratio L

i hgreatethan / 1

e , (non-Codo

f

n

t

:v

r 6constructions r

hl

e ao

M maybcalculateb

t

formulaeA

h%d

+ ~

ly

e (

:

=

3

)

)

&u

I

NOTATION

F

E

P

Y

P

= Internal or external design pressure psi E=joint efficiency

d

=Inside diameter ofshell, in.

 

S

=Maximumaflowable

stiessvalue

ofmaterial,

psi

t

= Minimum required thickness of head, exclusive of corrosion allowance, in.

t~

= Actual thickness of head exclusive of corrosion allowance, in.

tr

=

Minimumrequired thicknessof seamless shell for pressure, in.

t~

= Actual thickness of shell, exclusive of corrosion allowance, in.

27

I

E

E

P

DESIGNDATA

P

d

s

tr =0.243 i required thicknessn

t~ =0.3125 in. actual thickness ofshell. DETERMINE THE MINIMUM REQUIRED THICKNESS, t

= 300 psi design pressure E=joint efficiency

=24in. inside diameter ofshell

=15,0001psi

maximum allowable stress value of SA-515-60 plate

of seamless.

shell for pressure.

t=d

~

0.13 PISE =

head

Use l.250in.

24

Checking the limitationof

~

0.13x300/15,000

x

1 =

1.223 in.

t~

1.250

=

=

0.052,

d

24

Theratio

ofhead

thickness to the diameter of the shell is satisfactory

SEE DESIGN DATA ABOVE

c

 

0.243

= 0.33

;

= 0,33

= 0.26

 

s

0.3125

t

=

d

=

=

24

Use 1.75 in. plate

0.26 x 300/1

~,000 x

1

== 1.731 in.

Using thicker plate for shell, alesser

t~ =

0.375 i

c

= 0.33 +

n

0.243

= 0.33 0.375

thickness wfil be satisfactory for the head

.

= 0.214

t=

Use 1.625 in. plate

d

&

=

24

J

0.214 x 300/15,000 x 1 =

1.57 in.

The shell thickness shall be maintained along a distance 2 J dt, from the inside face of the head

2

m

=

6 in”

-

.

.

.

.

28

PRESSURE TEMPERATURE RATINGS

F

FLANGES ANDR

STEEPIPO

FLANGEDL

E

FITTINGS

American National Standard ANSI B16.5-1981

HYDROSTATIC

TEST

PRESSURE,PSIG

TEMPERATURE,F

150lb.

450

300 l

1125

4

l

1500

6

b

lb.

0

2225

900 l

b

0

3350

.

1

0

l

5575

b

. 25

0

l

9275

MAXIMUMALLOWABLENON-SHOCKpRESSURE PSIG.

50b

-20 to 100

285

740

990

1480

2220

3705

6170

-

200

260

675

900

1350

2025

3375

5625

300

230

655

875

1315

1970

3280

5470

400

200

635

845

1270

1900

3170

5280

500

170

600

800

1200

1795

2995

4990

600

140

550

730

1095

1640

2735

4560

650

125

535

715

1075

1610

2685

4475

700

110

535

710

1065

1600

2665

4440

750

95

505

670

1010

1510

2520

4200

800

80

410

550

325

1235

2060

3430

850

65

270

355

535

805

1340

2230

900

50

170

230

345

515

860

1430

950

35

105

140

205

310

515

860

1000

20

50

70

105

155

260

430

Ratings apply to materials:

SA-1051’2

SA-515-702

SA-516-702

SA-537-C1.13

SA-216-WCB2

NOTES:

SA-181-70]’2

SA-350-LF2

1. For service temperatures above 850 F it is recommended that killed steels containing not less than 0.10070residual silicon be used.

2. Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800 F, the carbide phase of carbon steel may be converted to graphite.

3. T

materiashalh n

b

usei ethickneso

l

21/2t

i e

d

n

abovl

s

n

e

Flangesof ANSIB16.5shall not be used for higher ratings exceptwhereit is

justified by the design methods of the Code.

Ratings are maximum allowable non-shock working pressures expressedas gage

pressure, at

temperatures shown,

may be interpolated between

the tabulated

temperatures and

Temperatures are those on the inside of the pressure-containing shell of the

flangeI

generali

i

t

sama.

thahon

t,

containet s emateriahe

s

t

f

e

d

l

P

STATIC

F

HEAD

2 -

The fluid in the vessel exerts pressure on the vessel wall. The intensity of the pressure when the fluid is at rest is equal in all directions on the sides or

bottom of the vessel and i d

t

t

heighu

o

t h

o ht e

fluis aboe

p

t

of

he v

a

T

vessel

whict

pressuri

consideredh

t

h

e

e

s

.

statiheahwheapplicable shalc b

nt

t

.

added

e desigpressul h

eo

dt

o

e

di

n

T

water

T

tableshalb

tablebeloh shot

fint

ha

.

relatione

w

t

sbetweeh

h

dfluido

wpressure

as

n

e

,

heign o

t

e

givs

e

pressurf

otheo

enthae

waterrt

y valur

hi

e e

ie consideratc h

nt

hd

multipliewitt s

specifil

o

t

gravite

fluih

y

f

Pressuri

Poundp

ef

SquarInce

s

Differenn

eo

r

Headro

Wath

t

e

di

s e

Head

1

Fee

o

2

0

3 ,

t

4

5

6

7

8

9

b

watea

Fahrenheiequal.43rpountpressurt p

squs i

3

end

inco fde a e

feee

rto y a ta dbh

heaonr negiveih t

bt o

y

.

T

multiplt

fint

pressurp

feeheab

squarh

.433h

d

y

e

t

Heado

Watei

FeeCorrespondins

ft rCertain

g

Pressut

o

n

a e c n

r

 

i

Poundp

SquarInce

n

s

r

e

h

 

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

0

 

i

t

30

f

T

quiccomparisoo

o

requirer platk

a

thicknesn

weightf d

for variousne

smaterialsdand

at different degree of radiographic examination.

A Stress values at tem~. -20 to 650° F.

.

 

S

5

3

A

B

 

SA-28C

S

515-65

S

5

S

516-6S 5

A1

A1

0

0

5

6

85V0J. E.

11730

12750

14875

 

100Yo J.

E.

13800

15000

17500

B Ratios of Stress Values

 
 

11730

12750

13800

14875

15000

17500

 

11730

1.09

1.18

1.27

1.28

1.49

 

12750

0.92

1.08

1.17

1.18

1.37

13800

0.85

0.92

1.08

1.09

1.27

14875

0.79

0.86

0.93

1.01

1.18

15000

0.78

0.85

0.92

0.99

1.17

17500

0.67

0.73

0.79

0.85

0.86

Table A shows the stress value of the most frequently used shell and head materials.

Table B shows the ratios of these stress values.

EXAMPLE:

1. Foravesselusing

SA 5 15-70 plate, whenspotradiographed,

therequiredthickness

0.4426 inches and the weight of the vessel 12600 lbs.

2. What plate thickness will be required and what will the weight of the vessel be, using SA 285-C plate and fill radiographic examination:

In case 1. The stress value of the material 14875

In case 2. The stress value of the material 13800

The ratio of the two stress values tlom Table B = 1.08. In this proportion will be increased the required plate thickness and the weight of the vessel.

0.4426 x 1.08 = 0.4780 in.

12600 X 1.08=

13608 lb.

31

E

DesigPressurn

e

P

X

Vesselintendef servicundes o externad workinr pressuree r o 1 l p o lg e ss whica t b stamper witth Code symboo e h ddenotinhcompliane e w l t gi c

rolef externapressureo

externapressuro 1S p o 2l p

externapressurewhichevei smallerl Cod, L -r ( sJ . 2 f e G 8 )

shals

br