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KfNNAMfTAl

TOOL APPLICATION
HANDBOOK
,...

KENNAMfTAL
TOOL
APPLICATION HANDBOOK
No.9
The Ken namelal Tool Applicalion Handbook
is d esigned primarily 10 help ma chine operalOrs,
1001 layoul and 1001 main len a n c e men in Ihe se­
leclion, applicalion, and main le n a n c e of Ke n na­
mela l lOoling 10 oblain maximum econ omic bene­
fils. Tool e n gineers and d esigners should also fi n d
il valuable a s Ihe informalion herein i s based on
d a m from ma ny years of developmenl work in ou r
research laboralOries as well as experience gain ­
ed from aClual shop operalions.

Copyright 196 7 b y Kennametal Inc.,


Latrobe, Pa. 1 5 6 5 0 , U.S.A. A l l rights
reserved. Whenever the following names
appear in this manual they are used as
T r a d em a r k s: K e n n ametal, K e n d ex,
Kenloc, K.Bar, DeVibrator, K2S, K 3 H,
K4H, K 5 H , K6, K 2 1 , K 1 6 5, KM.

KENNAMETAL INC. LATROBE, PA. 15650, U.S.A.


Table of Contents
Page
WHAT KENNAMET AL IS....................... 2
TOOL SELECTIO N . .... .......... ... .... ... .... 3-26
Tool Nomenclature . ........................ 3
Basic Types . .. .. ...... ... ... ....... .. . ..... 4-5
Kennametal Standard Tool Styles.. . . . ... . . . ... 6-7
Kendex "T hrow-Away" Insert Tools............ 8-21
Kendex Boring Bars......................... 16-20
Kendex Adjustable Units..................... 20-21
Kenloc "T hrow-Away" Insert Tools............ 22-24
Kendex Insert Numbering System... ....... . . . . 25
Brazed Tools ............................... 25-26
KendexIndexable Insert Milling Cutters.. ... ... 27
Kennametal Roller DeVibrator. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 28
CUTTING GRADES ............................ 29-34
Grade Description . . ........................ 29-31
Special Purposes Grades. .. .. ... .... .. ... .... . 32
Grade Selection .. . ... ......... ........ ... .. . 33
Tool Wear Analysis or Grade Adjusting.. . .... . . 34
MACHINING HINTS ......... ................. 35-45
Recommended Grades for Different Materials
and Types of Cut.................... . ... . . 44-45
TOOL PERFORMANCE ........................46-50
Trouble Shooting ...... . . ................... 49-50
TOOL WEAR ANALYSIS ...................... .. 51-54
Tool Care .................................53-54
GRINDING ..................... . ......... . ... 55-59
General Instructions ........................ 55
O ffhand Grinding ..... . . . ... . .............. 56
Regrinding Procedure . .................... .. 57
How to Avoid Grinding Cracks................ 57-59
CHIP CONT ROL .......... . ........... . ....... 60·62
Kendex Chip Breaker Plates. ........ .... ... .. . 60
Chip Breakers for Brazed Tools. ... ..... ... . . . 61
Grinding Chip Breakers. . . ..... .......... ... . 62
BORING TOOL ANGLE CHART . . ...... ......... 63
WHAT KENNAMETAL 15
Kennametal is the trade-name for a series of ce­
mented carbide compositions of which the essential
ingredients are tungsten, tantalum, columbium, tita­
nium, and cobalt. The original invention of WTiC2
(tungsten-titanium-carbide ) was the first commer­
cially-successful carbide for cutting stee1. Tod ay
more than 40 different Kennametal compositions
have been developed for specific applications.
Kennametal is produced by exclusive processes
that give it certain d esirable characteristics not
otherwise o btainable. Some o f these methods o f
manufacture, a s well as a number o f Kennametal
products, are covered by U. S. patents.
Since the discovery of the original Kennametal
grade, the company has innovated many tool designs
and tooling techniques, including cutters for high­
rate carbide milling and heavy-duty tooling for ma­
chining steel mill rolls, shell forgings, and railroad
wheels and axles. Kennametal also pioneered the
development of tools with mechanically-held carbide
inserts such as the Kendex, Kennamatic, and heavy
duty type tools. These developments have contrib­
uted to the wider use of carbide cutting tools as well
as to greater machining efficiency.

2
TOOL SELECTION

Too l No menclature
Before begi nning any detailed discussion of tools,
tool selection, and tool performance, it is well to
have certain basic questions of nomenclature settled.
The body of the tool which is held in the machine
and which supports the cutting edge is known as
the shank.
The cutting material, which may be clamped or
brazed to the shank, is the "insert" or "tip."
Perti nent dimensions are illustrated in the dia­
gram below.

• [eU (END CUTTING (OGE ANGLE) • A. {SHANK WIOTH)


• seEA (SIDE CUTTING EDGE ANGLE) • B (SHANk HEIGHT)
• SRI (SIDE RELlEr) • C (SHANK LENGTH)
• Ie (SIDE CLEARANCE) • T (TIP THICKNESS)
• ER (END RELIEF) • W (TIP WIDTH)
• (t (END CLEARANCE) • L (TIP LENGTH)
• BR ( .... CK UKE) • Nft (NOS( RADIUS)
• $It (SIDE RAKE)

Tool Nomenclature diagram

3
KENDEX KENLOC
"THROW-AWAY" "THROW-AWAY"
INSERT INSERT
TOOL TOOL

STANDARD KENDEX
BRAZED SCREW-ON
TOOL INSERT
TOOL

Basic Too l T ypes


I n order to select the proper single-point tool, we
must consider which of the following basic types are
best suited for the particular operation.
A. "Throw-Away" indexable insert tools
1. Kendex tools with insert held in the shank
by a top clamp or by a screw through the
insert.
2. Kenloc* tools with insert held in shank by
a lock pin.
B. Standard brazed tools
*Patents applied for.

4
Re place able Inse rt Too ls
"Throw-Away" insert tools are the most econom­
ical for practically all types of metal-cutting oper­
ations for two reasons: (1) The inserts provide a
number of low-cost, indexable cutting edges. ( 2)
After all edges are used, it is more economical to
replace the insert than it is to regrind a brazed tool.
• Kendex top clamp tools are available in a wide
range of styles and size with negative and positive
rake angles for turning, facing, chamfering, thread­
ing, grooving, profiling, and boring operations.
The top clamp design permits use of utility or
precision inserts with or without chip breaker
plates, as well as inserts with pin lock center
holes.
• Small Kendex "screw-on" insert tools provide
indexable i nserts for jobs where design or size of
holder does not permit the use of clamped insert
tools. On large tools the heavy duty "screw-on"
insert may be indexed "once around" and then
replaced; or it may be reground a limited number
of times - depending on the size of insert and
operation.
• Kenloc tools for general purpose machining utilize
economical inserts with preformed chip control
grooves and central holes for insert locking. All
inserts are negative rake type, usable on top and
bottom faces to provide up to eight indexable
cutting edges. Tools are available with triangular,
square, round, or diamond-shaped inserts.

Brazed Too ls
• Standard brazed tools-which are low in initial
cost-aI'e suitable for most general purpose ma­
chining operatio ns where maximum tool perform­
ance is of secondary importance. They can be easily
modified for special purpose, short run applica­
tions.

5
K enna meta l Standard Too l St y les
Kennametal tools conform to industry standards
and are mad e in styles and sizes for all general types
of machining operations:

Style A for turning, facing, or boring to a square


shoulder.

Style Bfor rough turning, facing, or boring where


a square shoulder is not required.

Style C used for chamfering and plunge grooving.

6
.o� )D
Style 0 for finish turn­ Style E for V-threading
ing, profiling, or cham­ or grooving.
fering.

10
Style Ffor facing, straddle facing, or turning with
shank parallel to work axis.

�I
Style G for turning close to chuck or shoulder, or
facing to a corner.

7
Kendex "Throw -Awa y " Insert Too ls
Kendex "throw-away" insert tools bring the eco­
nomical advantages of indexable, mechanically-held
cutting edges to tools with shanks as small as 3/8-
inch square. They use flat multiple-edge inserts in
triangular, square, round and diamond shapes. In­
serts are clamped in heat-treated holders at negative,
positive or neutral rake angles.
Kendex negative rake tools permit inserts to be
turned over, thus doubling the number of cutting
edges available. Inserts used with positive rake tools
are indexable but cutting edges are provided on
one face only.
Kendex tools are available in many styles and sizes
for practically every type of machining operation.

Kendex Too l Features

• "Throw-away" inserts el iminate regrinding

Cost records show that on most j obs it is more


economical to replace either positive or negative
rake Kendex inserts, after all edges have been
used, than it is to regrind a brazed tool.

• Universal Chip Control

Effective chip control over a wide range of appli­


cations is provided by two methods:
1. Chipbreaker plates (of solid Kennametal ) have
exceptional strength and resistance to "pickup".
Ad justment for best chip control can be obtain­
ed by using different sizes of chipbreaker plates.
2. Kenloc inserts with preformed chip grooves
provide constant chip control over a wide range
of feeds on general machining operations.

8
• Inserts i ndexed in seconds

Up to 8 new cutting edges are available by sim­


ply loosening the quick-acting clamp and rotating
the insert or by turning it over. Thus, tool chang­
ing downtime is greatly reduced as it is not neces­
sary to reposition the tool.

• Sh ims provide positive i nsert seating

Insert seats or shims (of solid Kennametal) pro­


vide hard, fiat backup surfaces. They provide posi­
tive protection [0 the holder and will not "mush
our."

Si mplicit y Of Des i g n

T h e s im p l e d e sign o f
Kendex [Ools i s indicated
by the exploded view draw­
ing. There's nothing com­
plicated [0 cause failure or
require frequent adj ustment . •�"'.IIiI•••
Inserts index quickly and accurately in the sturdy,
heat-treated shank, with cuuing edge perfectly
aligned. The shim is fastened directly [0 the holder

,t�
by a shim screw.
I KTS

Se lection Gu ide
I KTCN.C l¢::?1i
---,1!iJ
'·1 �T"
I iJ
I�
K S_
f
L-_ KTD

r----.--
KRA KTF IiLJ
��


.

KSON 1#3 lOA K_TG_-,


,-- I

9
,...
Suggestions For Selecting Kendex Tools

A. Rake Angles
1. Vse Negative Rake Tools:
• For general purpose machining of most mate­
rials-especially rough or i nterrupted Cuts.
• For hard materials on rigid setups.
• For greatest economy as i n s erts can be
turned over.
2. Vse Positive Rake Tools:
• For machining softer steels and nonferrous
metals.
• For gummy, work-hardening alloys.

• For slender parts or thin wall tubing wh ich

will not stand high cutting forces.


• O n low powered machines or setups which

lack rigidity.

B. Selecting Tool Holders


1. Determine the proper tool style for the j ob.
2. Select an insert with adequate cutting edge
length.
3. Choose the largest shank possible.

C. Selecting Inserts
1. Vtility or Precision
• Utility i nserts have top and bottom ground­
for rough machining.
• Precision i nserts have all surfaces ground­

for general rough and finish machining.


• Kenlock inserts with preformed chip control

grooves can be used in all Kendex tools.

10
2. Shapes
• Square Inserts: H ave strong structural shape
(900 point angle ) -Used in lead angle and
chamfering tools.
• Triangular Inserts: H ave 600 point angle­

Used for cutting to square shoulder, for pro­


filing, chamfering, or plunge turning.
• Round Inserts: Provide shallow feed marks

at high feed rates on finishing passes.


-Inherent durable shape is ideal for heavy
roughing cuts.
-Particularly suitable for cutting cast iron .
• Diamond Inserts: 800 nose angle type used

for combination turning and facing tools­


I nserts with 550 nose angle are used in pro­
filing tools .
• Rectangular Inserts: For heavy duty Kendex

tools on cuts greater than 1/2-inch in depth.


• Threading and grooving i nserts.

3. Radius
• Use s m a l l rad ius for steel and materials
w hich cut w ith a continuous chip.
• Use larger radius for cast iron.
4. G,'ade Selection
• See pages 29 through 34.
D. Chip Breakers
Chip breaker plates in various widths are avail­
able to match the size and shape of insert. See
pages 60 and 61. Kenloc inserts with preformed
chip grooves are available for general mach ining
operations. The preformed chip grooves provide
chip control over a wide range of feeds and speeds.

11

-
Kendex Profiling Tools

CHOICE OF INSERTS

11
4'

Positive Rake Preformed PICJin Insert and


Geometry Chip Grooves Chip Breaker Plate

These tools were designed specifically for tracer


lathes in general use today.
Insert is locked securely in place against two back
walls of the insert recess by a lock pin which prevents
any movement of the insert during normal cutting,
back facing, or contouring.
The inserts are diamond shape with 55° nose angles
suitable for practically any profiling job. Three types
of inserts are available for use in the same holder.
1. Style DG and DU inserts with preformed chip
control grooves.
2. Style DP inserts with positive rake geometry.
3. Style DNG plain insert which llses a chip-breaker
plate for chip control.
Inserts are set in the holder at a 5° negative side
and back rake. An effective, positive side rake is pro­
vided by the preformed chip grooves in Style DG and
DU inserts. The Style DP inserts provide positive
back and side rake angles.

12
Kendex Ro ller T u rner Too ls
Kendex roller turner tools with posItive rake,
i ndexable "throw-away" inserts are available for
most models of Warner & Swasey, Gisholt, and
Jones & Lamson roller turners.
Style WSK uses s �uare i nserts
for cutting with a 5 lead angle,
and Style WSK-B uses triangular
i nserts for cutting to a square
shoulder. Both are for Warner &
Swasey roller turners.
Styles GSK and JLK designed
for Gisholt and Jones & Lamson
roller turners use triangular i n­
serts.
KENDEX ROLLER TURNER TOOL STYLES
TOOL Used in Insert
Shank
CAT. Manufacturer's Cat.
Size
NO. Roller Tool No. No.
Warner & Swasey
WSK2 M-1372 Y2x % x2Y2 SPG-322
WS K2B M-1372 Y2x % x2Y2 TPG-222
WS K 3 M-1 37 3 3A x 1 x3 SPG-422
WS K 3 B M-1373 % x1 x3 TPG-322
WSK4 M-1374 Ys x Ills x 3Y2 SPG·422
WSK4B M-1374 Ys x Ills x 3Y2 TPG· 322
WS K 5 M-1375 I x 1�x4 SPG-633
WS K 5 B M-137 5 1 x 1� x4 TPG-433
Gisholt
51 300A,1400A, I xl x 3Y2 TPG-433
GSK6
( 1 500A, 500A
GS K7 700B,1800 l�xll1.!x4 TPG·433

JL K 3
r Jones & Lamson
X-750,TX·813,
TX-865,TX·873, % x1 x4l1.! TPG·322
TX·87 5
JTX·1013,
JL K4
!TX·I038 1 x 1�x 5� TPG·433

13
Kendex Threading Tools

Kendex tools for threading operations are available


in two types:
I. Style KE tools use a special bridge-type clamp
that holds the triangular insert firmly against the
forward wall of the recess to provide accurate
indexability.
2. Style KER and KEL tools are used for threading
close to a shoulder. These tools use a Style T4 in­
sert which may be advanced a number of times to
regrind the cutting point.

Kendex Grooving Tools


The Style KGT grooving
tool utilizes a special trian­
gular Kendex screw-on type
insert to provide three in­
dexable cutting edges and
eliminate tool regrinding.
The inserts are securely fastened on edge at a 50
positive rake angle to provide a sturdy tool for cut­
ting grooves tip to 5/32-inch deep. Minimum and
maximum groove widths are 3/32 a n d 1/4-inch
respectively.

14
Kendex Heavy D u t y Too ls

These tools are designed for more rugged ma­


chining on large lathes and boring mills. The thicker
i nserts used in these tools have cutting edges 1-inch
or more in length. They are securely clamped in
sturdy h o l d er s. R e p l a c e a b l e K e n n a m e t a l chip
breaker plates are available for j obs where chip
control is required.

Kendex Screw-On Insert Tool s

These tools use indexable inserts for jobs where


design or size of holder does not permit use of
standard clamped Kendex tools.
These tools with 3/8 to I-inch s quare shanks
utilize square, round, or triangular inserts. Freedom
from chip obstruction makes them especially suit­
able for boring bars and small shank sizes as used
in screw machines and gang tooling.

15
Kendex Boring Bars
The Kendex principle of i ndexable "throw-away"
inserts is also used in Kendex Boring Bars for all
types of turret lathes, jig borers, chucking machines,
and semiautomatic lathes. Kendex bars are made
with steel shanks or with Kennametal tungsten car­
bide shanks. The latter type (K-Bars) takes advan­
tage of the high rigidity of Kennametal which is
three times that of hardened steel. The bars use
stand ard Kendex positive rake square or triangular
inserts. Larger sizes are available with fixed or ad­
justable cutter heads.

Stiffness of Boring Bars

formula for Deflection of Cylindrical Hollow Boring Bars


6.8WL3
y E (D4-d4)
Y = deflection in inches d = l.D. of bar in inches
W = force in pounds
L= free length of bar in inches E = 29,500,000 for steel
E = modulus of elasticity in psi 85,000,000 for
0= 0.0. of bar in inches Kennametal

The above formula shows that deflection (Y) is


inversely proportional to the Young's Modulus o f
Elasticity of t h e bar material; also that t h e deflection
of the bar is i nfluenced as follows:
1. By the force (W).
2. By the free length to the third power (t3).
3. By the 0.0. to the fourth power (04).
4. By the 1.0. to the fourth power (d4). The 1.0.
does not greatly influence the deflection. For ex­
ample, with an 1.0. one-half of the 0.0. the stiff­
ness is reduced by only 6.25 per cent.

16
Suggestions for Selecting Boring Bars

• Use largest diameter bar for the bore.


• Hold overhang to a minimum.
• Use K-Bars where deflection is excessive.
• Use K-Bars when overhang to bar diameter ex­
ceeds 5 to 1.
• Use DeVibrator K-Bars with special damping
properties when chatter vibration is critical.
Note: To obtain the best results the boring bar must
be held in the machine as rigidly as possible.

Kendex Steel Shank Boring Bars

Fixed Head Types


1. Style BB- l OOO, without lead angle, uses triangular
inserts for boring to a square shoulder.
2. Style BB-2000, with a 15° lead angle, uses a square
insert, for straight through boring operations.
3. Style BB-8000 with regrindable inserts ( Style T-4)
for cutting standard threads to a minimum of 6
threads per inch.
Bar diameters in each style range from 1 to 2-1/2-
inches w ith minimum bore diameters from 1. 156
to 3.000-inches.

17
Kendex Steel Shank Boring Bars (cont'dJ

Adjustable Head Type (BB-30001-Bars are made in


seven shank sizes with minimum bore diameters
from 1.031 to 3. 531-inches.
Style BB-3000 Bars are rugged in construction and
provide simple, accurate setting of the interchange­
able cutting heads for a range of bore diameters by
means of a micrometer adjusting screw.
The adjustable heads for a given diameter bar are
interchangeable with the Style BB-6000 carbide
shank DeVibrator K-Bar shown on page 19. Bars of
1 through 1-1/2-inch diameter accommodate two
sizes of heads. Bars of 1-3/4 to 2-l/2-inch diameter
accommodate three sizes of heads. The adjustable,
offset heads are available in two types:
1. Heads with triangular inserts are suitable for bor­
ing to a square shoulder.
2. Heads with square inserts have a 15° lead angle
for straight through boring.
3. Other type heads-such as threading, grooving,
profiling, etc., are available on request.

18
K -Ba rs -Kendex Carbide Sh ank
Bori n g Ba rs

Fixed Head Types (BB-7000 and BB-7S00)- Small


diameter boring bars with shanks of solid Ken na­
metal are designed for precision boring operations.
Their high rigidity practically eliminates deflection.
They are available in diameters from 3/8 through
I-i nch with minimum bore diameters from .500
to 1 .375-inches. Bars are made in two styles:
1. Style BB-7 000 with shank lengths from 6 to 12-
inches.
2. Style BB-7500 with shorter shanks lengths (4
to 9-inches) for j ig boring and similar appli­
cations.

DeVibrator K-Bars* 18B-60001 - These K-Bars are


similar to Style BB-3000 steel bars shown on page 18.
They are made in the same range of diameters and
use the same adjustable, interchangeable cutting
heads. The di fference is in the shank construction.
The DeVibrator K-Bar has a shank of rigid tungsten
*Pacented

19
carbide to mInimize deflection on deep bore jobs.
Inside the shank are "inertia discs" which counter­
act chatter and vibration. In addition to the adjust­
able heads, this bar can be used with fixed heads and
threading heads.

Kendex Adjustable Units For Building


Special Tooling

ONE·WAY ADJUSTMENT UNITS

�o �
soJ�� � C)

30"-('@ � 0 3� � O S

::eI
f---::::

�� S �
�10 �
45 0 4S 0

ki2J � C) L
TWO WAY ADJUSTMENT UNITS

Kendex Adjustable Units provide a versatile and


economical " building-block" approach for develop­
ing Kendex special or "Tailored" tooling to com­
bine boring, facing, and chamfering operations in
one pass.
These units are available in single or two-way
adjustment types. All units utilize standard Kendex
"throw-away" inserts.

20
One-Way A d j ustment Units-Provide radial adj ust­
ment for bore diameter by means of set screw. Units
are designed for setting into pockets milled in heads
or bars and are held in place by a bridge-type clamp.
Three styles with positive rake inserts are available.
• KU-IOO Series with 0° lead angle for boring to a
square shoulder
• KU-200 Series w ith 15° lead angle for straight
through boring
• KU-300 Series with 45° lead angles for chamfering
Two-Way Adjustment Units - Can be adjusted for
bore diameter and shoulder length for close coler­
ance machining. Units are held in place by a
"through-shank" screw co permit flexibility in cool
design. Negative and positive rake units are avail­
able for extra light, light, medium, and heavy duty
applications. The units are available with:
• 0° lead angle for facing and boring to a square

shoulder
• 5° lead angle for straight-through boring

• 5° & 5° reverse lead for boring and facing

• 15° lead angle for chamfering, or straight-through

boring
• 30° lead angle for chamfering or straight-th rough

boring
• 45° lead angle for chamfering or straight-th rough

boring

TYPICAL SPECIAL CUTTER HEADS UTILIZING KENDEX UNITS


AS CUTTING ELEMENTS.

21
,...
Kenloc HThrow-Away" Insert Tools
The Kenloc tooling system provides the most eco­
nomical and versatile indexable insert tooling for all
general purpose machining operations.
A simple yet effective lock pin design, illustrated
on page 23, provides positive locking of the Kenloc
insert.
Kenloc insert with molded chip control grooves
provides up to eight indexable cutting edges.
Kenloc tools are available in a wide range of styles
and shank sizes with cutting angles that conform to
basic industry standards.
The Kenloc tooling system consists of the follow­
ing three main types:
1. Kenloc tools with triangular, square, and round
inserts.
2. Kenloc tools which utilize 800 diamond inserts
with radii on all four corners for cutting to a
square shoulder or with a lead angle.
3. Kenloc Pre-Set tools having same geometry as the
Kenloc diamond insert tools, but with four hold­
er adjusting screws to permit pre-setting when
used in numerical ly-controlled machines.
Kenloc Tool Features
• Positive insert locking-no shift or flutter
• Low holder profile minimizes chip interference
and tool overhang
• Quick indexing with partial turn of lock cup
• Economical Kenloc inserts with pre-formed chip
control grooves

22
Kenloc Positive Locking Action
Positive locking of
the insert is achieved by
the unique shape of the C---l-
Kenloc pin. As shown
in the diagram, the base
of the pin is moved in a
circle by the off-center
hole in the cup ( A).
Point (B ) is in contact
with the sides of the
hole in the tool holder so that the top of the pin ( C)
moves in a circle also, forcing the insert into positive
contact with backwalls.
Since the locking pin is free to rotate at random
during index ing, any wear on the pin is distributed
and cannot affect the locking efficiency.

Kenloc Tools

Kenloc tools with triangular, square, and round


inserts are available in 11 styles for all turning,
facing, and chamfering operations.

23
Kenloc Diamond Insert Tools
These Kenloc tools permit the use of a diamond
insert with radii on all four corners. Six styles of tools
are available which can handle practically every type
of turning and facing operation.

PDN I AF--
P- �-J
i[1J..-
P -J
10·

"s . [jj _
l-- G
L1!JjJ�PJ--{--,
Kenloc Pre-Set Tools
t"-
FOUR ADJUSTING SCREWS FOR PRE-SETTING

These tools have the same clltting edge geometry


as the Kenloc diamond insert tools above but, in addi­
tion, have adjusting screws as shown in the illustra­
tion to permit pre-setting when used in numerically­
controlled machines. The button head screws in the
side of the shank may be reversed as the screw holes
are counter-bored on both sides.

24
Kenna meta l Sta n dard Kendex Insert
Nu mberi ng Syste m
Catalog numbers for Kendex Inserts consist of
three descriptive letters followed by three numbers.
The letters denote the shape, rake, and finish (Util­
ity or Precision) while the numbers indicate the size
of the insert, thickness of i nsert, and size of nose
radius.
For example, the catalog or style number SNG-32 1
designates the insert characteristics as shown below.

S N G-3 2
Shape . .Nose Radi us in 1 /64ths
of an inch
Rake .. .. .Thickness i n 1 / 1 6ths
of an inch
Type of Finish .. I.e. Dia. or Sq. in 1 / 8ths
of an i nch

1 st Letter (Shape) 2nd Letter (Rake) 3 rd Letter (Fi n i sh)


T=Triangle N=Negative G=Precision-All
S=Sq uare P=Positive surfaces
R=Round ground
D=Diamond U=Utility­
P=Pentagon Ground top
and bottom

BRAZED TOOLS
St yle a n d Size Designation
Catalog numbers for Industry Standard Brazed
Tools indicate style of tool with first letter from A
through G. The second letter is either L or R to
d i stinguish between left- a nd right-hand tool s .
Shank cross-sectional size is indicated b y a number
which follows the letter or letters.

25
,..
Square shank tools have catalog numbers indicat­
ing the shank width (or height) in multiples of
l/ 1 6-inch_ For example, AL-4 is a Style A tool, left­
hand, with 4/16 or l/4-inch square shank.
For rectangular shanks, the first digit indicates
shank width in multiples of liS-inch, while the sec­
ond digit gives the shank height in I/4-inch multi­
ples_ Thus a size 44 cool has a shank 4/s or liZ-inch
wide x 4/4 or I-inch high or liz x I-i nch_ Size 90,
which has a I-liz x Z-inch shank section, is the only
tool that does not follow this system of numbering.
The following table shows tool shank dimensions
for all Industry Standard sizes.

SHANK
INDUSTRY STANDARD TOOL STYLE: DIMENSIONS
(inches)

A B C 0 E F G A B C

A-4 B-4 C-4 0-4 1/4 1/4 2


A-S B-S CoS D-s F.-S S/16 S/16 2-1/4
A-6 B-6 C-6 0-6 E-6 3/8 3/8 2-1/2
A- 7 B-7 C-7 0-7 7/16 7116 3
A-8 B-8 C-8 0-8 E-8 F-8 G-8 1/2 1/2 3-1/2
A-IO B-IO C-1O 0-10 E-IO F-IO G-IO SIB �/8 4
A-12 B-12 C-12 0-12 E-12 F-12 G-12 3/4 3/4 4-1/2

-
A-16 B-16 C-16 0-16 F-16 G-16 1 1 7
A-20 B-20 C-20 F-20 G-20 1-1/4 1-1/4 8
A-24 B-24
- G-24 1-1/2 1-1/2 8

-
A-44 B-44 C-44 F-44 G-44 1/2 1 7
A-H B-S4 C-H �/8 1 6
A-SS B-S � C-55
- F-S 5 G-SS 5/8 1-1/4 8
A-64
A-66
B-64 C-64
B-66 C-66 - F-64
1'-66
G-64 3/4
3/4
1
1-1/2
6
8
A-BS
A-86
B-85
B-86 C-86 - F-8S
F-86
G-BS
G-86
1
I
1-1/4
1-1/2
R
8
A-88 B-88 1 10
A-90 B-90 1-1/2 2 14

26
Kennametal Indexable Insert
Milling Cutters
These milling cutters bring the proven advan­
tages of "throw-away" insert tooling to milling
operations. Three main types are available in diam­
eters from 4 to 18 inches for all face milling opera­
tions from light finishing to 3/4-inch depth of cut.
Close tolerances built into the cutter body give accu­
rate insert location and rigid support. A l l cutters
provide quick indexability-just loosen one screw of
self-releasing wedge.

Shear Clear cutters combine positive axial


rake, negative radial rake, and bevel cut­
ting edge which direct the chip away from
the work to provide a clean cutting action
with minimum machine power consump­
tion. Cutters available in coarse and nor­
mal pitch.

Double Negative cutters offer the greatest


economy for milling steel and cast iron.
The negative rake cutting angles provide
eight indexable cutting edges. These cut­
ters are effective for close-to-shoulder mil­
ing as well as for flat work. Cutters are
available in coarse and normal pitch.

Fine Pitch cutters, which utilize the maxi·


mum number of inserts per diameter,
meet all requirements of high production
milling operations. CutterS are available
in both Shear Clear and Double Negative
designs. Kendex octagonal inserts provide
up to 14 cutting edges.

27
Kennametal Roller DeVibrator
The Roller DeVibrator
is a device normally used
as a follower rest on turn­
ing operations to stop
chatter and vibration.
It consists of the fol­
lowi ng: housing with
contact w h eel, "inertia
discs" inside the housing,
supporti ng yoke, and
mounting base.
The operating princi­
ple is as follows : The contact wheel transmits the
vibration from the workpiece to the inertia discs
which make impacts at random against the inside
wall of the housing. These impacts in turn are trans­
mitted back to the workpiece through the contact
wheel to set up a counterforce that damps the
vibrations.

ROllER

ASSEMBLY BASE

28
CUTTING GRADES
A. Grade System
Kennametal has long recognized the basic
characteristics of the metal cutting process
and, as a result, has made available the ac­
companying grade system or network of
standard grades in the form of a triangle. This
network of grades provides an optimum
coverage of the entire range of the machining
area and tool life requirements. The Kenna­
metal grades in the triangle illustrated on
Page 33 are arranged according to their resist­
ance to abrasion, cratering, edge-wear, and
shock. There is a Kennametal grade with
specific characteristics to meet any combin­
ation of machining requirements to provide
optimum performance.
However, three basic grades, K21, K68 and
K45 will machine 90% of your jobs.
B. Grade Description
Following is a brief description of the four­
teen standard Kennametal Cutting Grades:
1. Crater- Resistant Grade
K7H 93.5 RA; 11.10 density; 150,000 psi
TR. High hardness crater-resistant grade
for high-velocity machining at light to
moderate chip loads.
KSH 93.0 RA; 11.50 density; 200,000 psi
TR. Stronger than K7H and more wear­
resistant that K3H. For semi-finishing cuts
on clean steel.
K3H 91.7 RA; 11.10 density; 250,000 psi
TR. General purpose crater-resistant grade
stronger than K5H and more wear-resistant
than KM. For moderate cuts on carbon
and alloy steels of 0.30 C and above, also for
medium to heavy cuts on soft steels with
less carbon.

29
,..

KM 91.0 RA; 12.90 density; 300,000 psi TR.


Strongest crater-resistant grade for heavy
chip loads and interrupted roughing cuts.
Not as durable as K3H.
2. Crater and Edge-Wear Resistant Grades

K45 92.5 R,,; 12.20 density; 250,000 psi TR.


Harder and more wear resistant than K4H
but equal in toughness. For moderate
roughing and finishing cuts on steel with
light to heavy chip loads.
K4H 92.0 R,,; 12.50 density; 250,000 psi
TR. Harder than K2S but with moderate
strength. For moderate to light chip loads
on steel in form tools, large nose radius,
or tools that must dwell.
K2S 91.5 RA; 12. 90 density; 275,000 psi
TR. Stronger than K4H and more wear­
resistant than K21. For heavy to mod­
erate chip loads on medium roughing
operations of moderate interrupti o n .
Al so for l o n g dry cuts where thermal
deformation is a problem.
K21 91.0 RA; 12. 30 density; 250,000 psi
TR. General purpose crater- and edge­
wear resistant grade. Stronger than K2S
but not as wear-resistant. For moderate
to heavy chip loads on roughing cuts or
severe interruptions. Highly resistant to
thermal shock.
3. Edge-Wear Resistant Grades
K 11 9 3.0 RA; 15.20 density; 175,000 psi
TR. Highly edge-wear resistant in fine
finishing o f ferrous a n d n o n-ferrous
metals and plastics. More wear-resistant
than K8 but not as strong.

30
K8 92.5 RA; 15.10 density; 200,000 psi
TR. Stronger than K 11 and more wear­
resistant than K6. For semi-finishing at
�oderate chip loads and abrasive mate-

.6 RA; 14.90 density; 250,000 psi TR.


"Ci:::r:c�1e and more wear resistant than K6
but equal in toughness. For moderate
roughing and finishing of high tempera­
ture alloys, cast iron, and other abrasive
materials. Also for light chip loads on
moderate to hardened steels.

K6 92.0 R,; 14.90 density; 250,000 psi TR.


General purpose edge-wear resistant grade
stronger than K8 and more wear-resistant
than K l . For roughing to semi-finishing
cuts of heavy to moderate chip loads, on
abrasive materials, and light chip loads on
steels.

Kl 90.0 R" 14.10 density; 325,000 psi TR.


Stronger, more shock-resistant than K6
and not as wear-resistant. For moderate to
heavy chip loads on moderate to heavy
interrupted cuts on abrasive materials.

4. Abrasion and Thermal Resistant Grade

K165 93.5 R,,; 5.7 density; 175,000 psi TR.


Thermal resistant titanium carbide with
greater combined crater and edge-wear
resistance than tungsten carbide cutting
tool grades. For high velocity machining
of ferrous and nonferrous alloys at light
chip loads for extreme accuracy and fine
finish.

31
,...

Special Purpose Grades


Although every effort is made to broaden the over­
all area of application of standard grades and to
minimize the number of these grades, there never­
theless exists the need for special purpose grades
possessing special properties. These properties are
achieved primarily by composition changes and
manufacturing processes. These grades are for work
materials which have machining characteristics that
require certain unique properties.
A typical special purpose Grade is C8735.
This grade is similar to K6 but has increased
resistance to build-up characteristics. It is
used for light chip load, low-speed machin­
ing as i n broaching of high tensile strength
alloyed cast iron where abrasion resistance is
required due to the light chip load; also,
resistance to galling or build-up due to the
relatively slow speeds.
Other special grades are available for specific
operations such as machining hot flash formed
on welded tubing and for machining urani urn.

32

��
� �
,,� �

'? �- 7

�K165 Kll\
# K7H K8 \'<'�
g KSH IK4S1 IK68�l1
� K3H K4H K6 ��
� K2S
\K211 Kl��

� KM
• MAXIMUM SHOCK RESISTANCE.

C . Grade Sel ection


1. A quick, easy-co-use guide for selecting the
best grade for a particular operation is pro­
vided by the accompanying triangular grade
system.
Grades along the left side are the most
crater-resistant while those at the right are

33
,..
the most resistant to wear. The center col­
umn includes grades which have a combina­
tion of both crater- and edge-wear resistance.
The nearer to the top of the triangle, the
more abrasion-resistant the grade; while to­
ward the base the grades are more shock­
resistant. This grade chart will enable any
experienced machinist to select and adj ust
grades to obtain the best performance on
any operation.

D. Tool Wear Analysis or


Grade Adjusting
In the triangular grade chart the metal cutting
grades are arranged for analysis and adjust­
ment to provide a correct bala nce between
cratering, edge wear, and strength for satis­
factory tool life. The trend toward the use of
higher alloy and tensile strength cast iron
makes it necessary to consider most ferrous
alloys as one group.

Use of grade chart: Assume that grade K2S


is presently being used. Then, if the tool shows
excessive top wear or cratering, a change to
K3H for crater resistance will correct the con­
dition. If the tool shows excessive flank wear,
then a change to K6S for edge-wear resistance
is recommended. If the tool shows excessive
wear due to abrasion ( both flank wear and
crater wear), then a change to K4H or K45 is
necessary. If chipping ( even after honing) or
breakage is a problem, then a change to K21
for edge strength and shock resistance should
be made.

34
MACHINING HINTS
Modern materials vary greatly in cutting charac­
teristics, and must be machined with suitable tech­
niques. The following hints on machining the more
common of them are i ntended as an aid in setting
up j obs initially. On long runs or repetitive j obs, ad­
j ustments ma y be made by analysis of tool wear.

Steel
Carbon and Alloy Steels-These have much the same
cutting characteristics. Both cut with a continuous
chip and form a built-up edge on the tool if run at
low speeds. As speed increases, a "critical" point is
reached above which the built-up edge is swept away
and cutting is more efficient, tool life greatly ex­
tended, and finish improved. This critical speed is
affected by hard ness of the steel, chip thickness, and
to a lesser degree by the depth of cut. Good cutting
practice is usually 50% to 1 00% above critical speed.
Reference to the table of recommended speeds for
machining steel with Kennametal will show that
soft "gummy" steels, such as boiler plate or SAE
1010, require very high machining speeds to remain
safely above the critical a n d t h u s cut efficiently ,
whereas steel hardened t o 3 0 0 Brinell cuts efficiently
at less than 1/2 the speed. Similarly, light cuts (chip
thickness and depth) require more speed than heavy
cuts.
Because of the strong, continuous chip, steel tends
to crater or erode the top face of the tool, and grades
of Kennametal designed to resist this action are
therefore required. A fiat chip will curl away from
the top face of the tool with comparatively light
force, whereas the same amount of steel in a channel
shaped chip has greater structural rigidity and re-

35
,...
quires more force to deflect. When the tool has a
large nose radius, a curved or channel cross section
is produced in the chip thus requiring higher tool
pressure and power. When the tool has a small nose
radius, a flat ribbon-like chip is produced, tool life
is better, and less power is required. For this reason
a small nose radius is recommended for Ken nametal
steel-cutting tools when the operation makes this
possible.
Stainless Steels-From the standpoint of machining
characteristics, these steels divide into two groups:
The hardenable (magnetic), and the austenitic (non­
magnetic) . Hardenable stainless steels machine
much the same as alloy steels of equal hardness, and
the foregoing recommendations will apply. Austen­
itic stainless steels such as 1 8-8, type 300, etc., are
work hardening, yet soft and gummy in their tend­
ency to tear and to build up on the cutting edge.
The build-up tendency calls for high speed, whereas
the work-hardened chip and machined surface call
for speeds in the lower ranges to prevent excessive
tool wear. The best condition is therefore a compro­
mise, with a feed rate heavy enough to get under the
work-hardened surface of the previous stroke or
revolution, and a speed high enough to avoid exces­
sive build-up, recognizing that tool life w i l l be
shorter than with equivalent j obs on other steels.
High Manganese Steels-For applications involving
severe impact and wear, steels with 12% to 14% of
manganese are frequently used because of their ex­
treme work-hardening properties. These parts can
be successfully machined with grad e K2S Ken na­
metal at speeds of 35 to 1 00 feet per minute and
feeds not less than .015/1. If a finishing cut is to be
taken, at least 1/32", and preferably 1/16", stock
should be allowed so that the finishing tool can get
under the work-hardened surface.

36
Cast Iron
Gray Iron-This machines with a crumbling chip
and has very little tendency to build up along the
cutting edge. Machi ning techniques are therefore
quite different than for steel. Because of freedom
from a built-up edge, there is no lower limit or criti­
cal speed to be considered, and tool wear is almost
directly proportional to speed of cutting. Speeds up
to 400 ft. per min., depend ing upon feed rate and
depth of cut, are common. For normal cutting, such
as .025" feed and .200" depth of cut, speeds of 275
ft. per min. where pieces per tool grind is important,
and up to 350 ft. per min. where cutting speed is
more important than tool life, are common.
The low-strength chip breaks i nto a crumbly
powder, so a large nose radius permits better finish,
faster feed, and longer tool l ife.

High Tensile Cast Iron-Addition of alloys such as


nickel, or use of steel scrap i n cast irons to obtain
higher strength cast irons, has become almost
universal. These additions have little effect on the
machining characteristics ex cept that the chip i s
mechanically stronger a n d h a s some tendency to
crater the top surface of the tool. The edge wear
resistant grades of Kennametal ( K l, K6, K68, and
K8 ) have had egough of the crater-resistant carbides
added to them to resist this mild cratering. O n some
high tensile iron it is necessary to use more crater
resistant grades (K21, K 4H), especially if higher
speed ranges are used.

Chilled Iron-Surfaces of cast-iron parts deli berately


chilled to high hardnesses, such as rolling mill rolls,
are very abrasive on the cutting tools. Tool life is
extended to a practical range by use of lower cutting

37
,...
speeds and stretching the chip out over a long cut­
ting edge to finish the job with a minimum of foot­
age passing over the cutting edge. Use of large
diameter rounds or extreme lead angles on longi­
tudinal feeds, or broad tools on cross feeds, accom­
plish this purpose. K6 or K8 are used for edge-wear
resistance.

Non- Ferrous Materials


Copper Alloys-The alloys of copper machine with
a low strength chip and can be run 500 to 1000 ft.
per min. with a good tool life. The aluminum bronze
alloys have some tendency to build up on the cutting
edge, but a speed of 250 to 500 ft. per min., depend­
ing upon hardness, will prevent this buildup. Grade
K6 or K68 is generally used.
Al uminum and M agnesium Al loys - These light­
weight alloys machine readily with K6, K68 or K8
Kennametal at speeds over 500 ft. per min. The low
tensile chip exerts little pressure on the tool. Rakes
and clearances may therefore be increased to as much
as 150 for greater life and freer cutting.
Plastics-None of the common types present great
machining problems but when they are coinbined
with fillers or fibers such as clay, asbestos, cotton ,
paper, glass, etc., they may become quite abrasive.
The more abrasive the filler, the lower the practical
machining speed and shorter the tool life. Use of
K6, K68, K8 or K i l Kennametal to resist wear and
speeds of 200 to 12,000 ft. per min., depending
upon abrasive qualities and desired tool life, are
recommended.
Use of the foregoing suggestions will give satis­
factory tool performance on practically all jobs, but
if the volume of work justifies further investigation,
tool performance can often be improved by a test run.
A logical procedure is given on pages 51 and 52.

38
H i g h Stren g t h Steel s
There is con sid era b l e overlapping o f high
strength steels or ultra-high strength steels (iron
base alloys) and high temperature alloys (iron base,
nickel base, and cobalt base a l l oys) . The high
strength steels are those with tensile strength levels
of 200,000 psi to 400,000 psi from room tempera­
ture to a few hundred degrees fahrenheit. The high
temperature alloys also have high tensile strength
but are able to retain their strength to much higher
temperatures.
Most steels in the general category ofhigh strength
steel s can be readily machined with the harder
grades K45, K5H, and K7H which are intended
for machining steel. The cutting edges must be
moderately to heavily honed to insure maximum
edge strength.
A suitable cutting fluid is recommended primarily
to serve as a coolant for removing the high heat
generated in the chip making process. Adequately
powered machine tools should be used as the forces
of cutting are very high due to higher tensile strength
levels. The tool shank should be as large as permis­
sible and as sturdy as possible. The workpiece must
be well clamped or chucked and well supported to
avoid loosening due to machining forces.
Depending on the hard ness of the workpiece,
feeds should be reduced by 10 to 20% and speeds
by 20 to 50% of those used for most alloy steels in
order to obtain reasonable tool life.
Positive rake Kendex tools with 150 or 300 lead
angle should be used wherever possible. Negative
rake Kendex tools of the same lead angle should be
used only when it is necessary to avoid excessive

39
chipping and/or breakage of the insert. A positive
rake insert of a tough grade, moderately honed to
avoid edge breakdown, will generally be found
most suitable.

H i g h Te mperatu re A llo ys
The high temperature or heat-resistant alloys have
an excellent combi nation of high-temperature
strength and resistance to oxidation. These mate­
rials are difficult to machine due to their high alloy
content, and must be machined at reduced cutti ng
speeds. There are generally five basic reasons for
difficulty in machining these superalloys:
1. Work-hardening
2. High strength levels
3. Abrasiveness
4. High heat generated
5. Low thermal conductivity
All five of these factors result in poor machinabil­
ity. Although there are many standard high tempera­
ture a l loys , there are even more compo s ition
variations of these with many more heat treatment
or processing variations. However, for the sake of
simplicity, these alloys can be grouped i nto three
major classifications: iron base, nickel base and
cobalt base.
In general, machining recommednations for these
alloys are as follows: *

Iron Base
Roughi,lg General Fi,lishing
Depth of Cut 1 /8 - 3 /8 1 / 1 6- 1 /4 1/32-3/32
Feed . 0 1 0-.040 .008-.0 2 0 .003-.0 1 0
Speed, sfm 3 0- 1 00 5 0- 1 2 5 7 5 - 2 00
Grade KM-K 2 1 K 2 S-K6 K68-K8

40
Nickel Base
Roughing General Finishing
Depth of Cut 1 /8 - 1 /4 1 / 1 6- 3 / 1 6 1 / 3 2-3/3 2
Feed .0 1 0-.0 3 5 .008- . 0 2 0 .003-.0 1 0
Speed, sfm 3 0-90 5 0- 1 00 7 0- 1 7 5
Grade KM-K2 1 K4H-K6 K6B-KB

Co balt Base
Roughing General Finishing
Depth of Cut 1 / 1 6- 3/ 1 6 1 / 3 2 - 1 /8 1/3 2-3/32
Feed .0 1 0-. 0 3 0 .008-. 0 2 0 . 0 0 3 - .0 1 0
Speed, sfm 2 5- 7 5 4 0-90 60- 1 2 5
Grade KM-K2 1 K 2 S-K4 H K45-K6B
*These mach i n ing recommendations are intended as start­
ing ranges only as each job requires special attention a n d
fi n a l conditions depend largely on heat treatment and struc­
ture of the workpiece as well as part configuration.

Tips for machining super alloys:


1. Tool must be kept sharp at all times; a few ex­
tra minutes of tool life can be very costly.
2. Tool should be slightly honed and care exer­
cised for the proper amount-heavy hone,
heavy feed; light hone, light feed. When feeds
of less than 0.003 are required to produce fin­
ish or size, a slight lapping of the cutting edge
and no honing is desirable.
3. Carbide tools are almost mandatory, although
there are exceptions.
4. Tool overhang must be kept to minimum­
less than one-to-one ratio of overhang to shank
height is preferred . Use mechanically held
tooling whenever possible-preferably throw­
away styles.
5. Avoid excessive tool wear to minimize cuttin g
forces. Excessive tool forces affect size a n d tool
h o l d e r mai ntenance. Remember, cutti n g
edges, particularly throw-away inserts, are ex­
pendable. Don't try to prove how long they

41
,...
can last. Don't trade dollars in machine time
for pen nies in tool cost.
6. Use positive rake tools wherever possible.
7. Use negative rake tools only where necessary
and where surface speeds can be kept in the
higher ranges.
8 . Machine tool must be kept rigid.
9. Machine tool should be "overpowered . "
1 0 . Workpiece must b e well clamped.
1 1. Workpiece must be supported to avoid flexing.
12. Depth of cut should be deep enough to avoid
glazing.
13. Feed should be positive to avoid dwelling
a nd work-hardening.
14. Minimum chip discoloration is desirable.
15. Each job requires special consideration. This
requires ingenuity on the part of tool engi­
neers.
Above all, it is important to keep in mind that
the same good shop practice that is applied in ma­
chining carbon and alloy steels should be observed.
However, in machining high temperature alloys
such practices are ma ndatory.
Because these a lloys are relatively difficult to
machine and each alloy requires special attention,
we invite you to get in touch with your Kennametal
Carbide E ngineer for assistance in esta blishing
optimum tool performance.

Ref ractory Metals


The "Big Four" refractory metals are molybdenum,
tungsten, ta ntalum and columbium. These four
metals, along with a number of others which have
melting points above 3 600°F, are relatively difficult
to cut but they can be machined once basic proce­
dures are understood.

42
Kennametal carbides can be used most successfully to machin e these metals
but since most all machining operations are special cases, no overall fixed rules
apply. In general however, it must be kept in mind that feeds are moderate,
speeds and depths of cut are low, and tool life is relatively short. The followin g
data are given as suggested starting points.
Lead Nose Depth
Angle* Radius Grade of Cut Feed Speed

Molybde'lII m (Mo)
.010·
Roughing 1 5 ' · 30' 1 /64 . 1 / 3 2 K6·K6S 1 / 1 6 · I /S ,020 1 00·200
,005-
Finishing 1 5 '-30' 1 /64- 1 /3 2 KS-K I I 1 /32·1(\6 ,0 1 5 1 50-300

Ttmgsten (IV)
.020-
Roughing 3 0 ' -4 5 ' 1 / 3 2 - 3/64 K6-K6B 1 / 1 6- 1 /8 ,040 20-60
,0 1 5 -
Finishing 1 5 ' -3 0 ' 1 /64- 1 / 3 2 KS-K I I 1 /3 2 - 1 / 1 6 ,030 50-SO

Tan/alum (Ta)
.0 1 5 -
Roughing 1 5 '-30' 1 /64 · 1 / 3 2 K2 1 -K2S 1 ( \ 6· 3 / 1 6 ,030 60- 1 00
,00 5 ·
Finishing 1 5 '-30' 1 /64- 1 / 3 2 K4H-K45 1 /64- 1 / 1 6 ,020 80-200

Columbium (Cb)
.0 1 0-
Roughing 3 0 ' -4 5 ' 1 /3 2 - 3/64 KG·K6S 1 /32-1 / 1 6 .030 2 5 ·60
,OOS-
of>.. Finishing 30'-45' 1 /64. 1 / 3 2 KS-K I I 1 /64 · 1 / 3 2 .0 1 5 50-70

*Using Positive Rake Kendex Tools.


...
...
Suggested Grades and Machining Conditions for Various Work Materials and Types of Cut
F I N I S H I NG R O U G H I N G

Work Material Hardneq


Up to IA. Depth lA, :tn. Depth �--% Depth Y._ l,i Depth %-'A Depth %& Up Depth
Und� OOS Feed 005- 015 Feed 010- 030 Feed 02D- 050 Feed 03D- . 070 Feed 040-,100 Feed

BHN RC Sp«d Grade Sp«d Grade Sp«d Grade Sp«d Or.d� Sp«d Grade Sp«d Grade

150 1500-2000 1000 1600 500-1 200 315-500 300-<50 275400

----;oo:J2OO � '""""Ji"HsO ---;;s:::;;s ,


i!:
200 1 200-1800

;:;
250-375

" '" I
:l
0 � � '< � JO(HOO 2ScHOO :;
'" '"
250 800-l S0 225-350

300 32 650-850 '" � � � rn=JSO I 200-325

----.00::600 i!' --;oo:::;so '" � � '� I 1 75- 300


'" - :2 - f---
350 37 550 700
Free Machinina Steel"

3SHsO � 3 0
i!'
Plain Carbon Steeil,

;:;
.00 43 450 600 250....00
.. 1 75- 0 1 50- 215

'" '"
Alloy Steeb. and

400 & SOO Series
. JoCHoO ----rn:J5O '"
I --;so=rn I
:;;
42S . 400-550 1 75-250 1 25-250

I
Stainless Steel.

� '" � :2 '" rn:2SO I


450

47 375-500 )50-225 1 06-225

'" I � --.-;s::;oo 1""00-225 �


f---
47S 330-400 200-300

i2 '"
••

'"
:e
so. 51 300-375 r-rn--m- '"
� � '"
� � '"
----;s:;oo
- f---
I ---.o �
-o:i7S
m
SSO
53

SS
250 375

200-275 I
1 25-200

l OG - I SO
- - I-
ROUGHING FINISHING
BHN R E M A R K S
Sp«d F"'" Grade Sp«d F"'" Grllde

200 & 300 5es'in UM: KI (or heavy rouchina. Ulle K l l (or fine finishina;_ UK
SlainJ", Stech IS()-.2S0 12S�300 OIS 02> KI·Kft 250--600 010� 020 K08·K8 �itive rake toolin& to avoid excessive work hardening.

Ca.t St�'. IS()-.280 180�2S0 OIS 030 K 2 1 · K1S K1S·K4l1


KSH or K7H may be uacd rOf" fine finiahin& at .005 reed or
2<41')-500 005- 0 1 5
leu at 400-600 .rm.
2!>O.....00 '<40 200 012 02> K1S·K4H 1 80�3S0 005- 010 K4H·K45

ArmOf" Plate Steel 250 320 80- 125 010 020 K1S·K411 125-175 .oS OIS K45·K5U 3°'5° Ne,ative land at I ...., II. reed required.
Work harden. KVCTely. UK �itive reed and depth or cut
Hiah Manganeae Steel 1 70-210 35 80 020- 030 K1S-K4H 50-125 015- 020 K45-K51-1 to avoid dwelling.

Hiah Speed Steel 200 320 120 220 01 0- 020 K.UI·K5H 200 350 005- OIS K.5H·K71-1 Hi,hcr ,peed, required ir build·up occur•.
Tool Steel ISO 225 ISO 230 010 020 K311·K511 200-300 005- 015 K5H· K 7 1-1 U.ually require poIitive rake tooling.
TOOL PERFORMANCE
Previous sections of this manual have dealt with
tool selection, choosing the proper grade of Kenna­
metal to use, a nd specific recommendations for
speeds and feeds for various materials to be cut.
After having followed these recommendations, tool
performance should be examined to d etermine
whether the number of pieces per cutti ng edge is
adequate; whether the cost per piece is i n line with
other jobs.
Tool performance is an evaluation of the produc­
tion cost per workpiece produced. After all measures
of cost and performance have been made, it is the
cost of the finished piece that is most important.
This means that tool performance is not an inde­
pendent or arbitrarily established measure, but one
which is a distinct part of the over-all production
operation.
There is a minimum tool performance which must
be achieved and this is generally established from
previous data concerning the job. I nformation that
follows in this manual will aid in checking tool
troubles which can cause unacceptable performance.
But even when the tools are performing satisfac­
torily, production costs may be un necessarily high.
Tool life, which is most generally stated i n units
of time, is the key to production economics. With
the advent of the indexable "throw-away" i n sert
Kendex tooling, tool life took on new significance.
Tool change time, which previously had been an
important element in downtime, became a very small
part of the nonproductive part of an operation. The
critical need to " make the tool last," in order to
reduce costly tool changing, was eliminated. How­
ever, due to the entrenched practice of measuri ng
tool life in units of time, the potential advantages

46
of Kendex insert tooling has not and is not being
fully real ized . R e cognition of the fact that tool­
change time only amounts to one or two minutes
with Kendex insert tooling suggests that shorter
tool life is desirable-if production rates and costs
can be improved. Application of this principle i n
actual practice h a s proven its merit.
The following examples demonstrate the sound­
ness of measuring tool performance i n units of "cost
per piece" rather than tool life in minutes.

TypiOiI ElImpi.. Sa,.. Machi... . . . SI,.. Tills • . . Sarno wwtpi_

Job No. 1 Job No. 2 Job No. 3 Job No.4


24O· lrllhn 2S·Mln. 1S·M!n. lS·Mln 1M-Min. !I)·Mln. 120-Mln. 22·Mln.
Tool life TOO/ lile Too/ lile TooI lJle Tool LJle Toof l.le Tool lJfe Too/ lile
Selup Setup Setup Setup Setup Setup Setup Setup

Machine Cost per Hour $ 8.00 $ 8.00 $10.00 $10.00 $ 9.00 $ 9.00 $ 9.00 $ 9.00
Tool Cosl per Hour $ .04 $ .40 $ .36 $ .76 $ .14 $ .215 $ .14 $ .77
Cosl per 8·H""r Shift $64.32 $67.20 $82.88 $86.08 $73.12 $73.72 $73.12 $78.16
Pieces per Shift 51 181 8 17 94 h(s./pc.. 41hfS.{pc. 8 16
em ,or Ploco I 1.26 I .37 110.36 1 5.0& SI59.16 Im..l 1 '.14 1 4.a

Cost Reduclion 70% 51 % 56% 47%

These examples demonstrate that a tool is per­


forming best when it produces finished pieces at the
lowest possible cost. This concept is applicable to
all types of single-point tools and even certain multi­
point tools. Even if a brazed tool must be ground
twice as often, while producing twice as many pieces
per hour, there will be a definite reduction in the
net cost per piece. For example:

47
Tool Life

2 Hours 1 Hour

Machine Cost per hour $ 8 .00 $ 8.00

Tool Cost per hour


$4.00 initial tool cost

$ 5 . 2 5 regrinding @ $0.7 5/grind


(7 regrinds per too l )

Total tool cost $ 9. 2 5

$9 . 2 5
Cost per edge -- = $ 1 . 1 6
8
$ 0.58 $ 1.16

Total Cost per 8-hour shift $68.64 $73.28

Pieces per shift 20 35

Total Cost per piece $ 3.34 $ 2 . 09

Here again, it is shown that tool performance


should be measured by the cost of the finished piece,
rather than by some arbitrarily chosen number of
minutes.
The precedi ng data obviously pertains to tool per­
formance when no serious tool troubles are encount­
ered. Tool troubles may be easily classified but are
not necessarily accurately defined. Excessive tool
breakage or tool wear must be measured against
what experience has established as normal for each
job. Some tool wear, chipping, and even breakage
must be considered a part of tool consumption but
when these tool life factors become excessive, an
analysis of the possible causes can help reduce or
eliminate the trouble.
Systematic checking of major factors which affect
tool performance can bring a quick solution to tool
trouble. Most tool troubles can be traced to:

48
1 . Machine conditions. 5. Poor chip control.

2 . Variations i n the mate­ 6 . Use of the wrong grade


rial being cut. of carbide.
3. I mproper tool selection.
7. I m proper grinding.
4. I n c orr e c t s p e e d s a n d
feeds.

When tool trouble develops, check the job against


the previous operating conditions to determine
whether any changes or deviations have occurred in
any of these seven factors. Such a check may provide
a clue to the trouble. The following section,
"Trouble Shooting," lists possible causes of tool
trouble grouped according to t h e n ature of the
trouble being experienced. This listing i s another
aid to locating the cause of tool troubles. Complete
details of analysis of tool wear and tool breakage
are presented in the next section of this manual.

Trou ble Sh ooting


Some o f the more common troubles which occur
on the j ob are ch ippi ng, cracking or breaking,
chatter, torn finish, wear, crater, and glaze. Some of
the common causes of such troubles are:
Chipping
1 . "Saw toothed" or too keen a cutting edge. 2. Chip breaker
too narrow. 3. Chatter. 4. Scale or i nclusions. 5. I n correct
grade. 6. Too much relief. 7. Lack of rigidity. 8. I mproper
grinding.

Cracking or Breaking
1 . Feed tOO heavy. 2. Worn or chipped cutting edges.
3. I m properly applied coolant. 4 . Too much rake or relief.
5. Too much overhang. 6. Lack of rigid ity in set-up.
7. Speed toO slow. 8 . Too much variation i n depth of cut for
size of tip. 9. I n correct grade. 1 0. Chatter. 1 1 . Braze or
grinding strains. 1 2 . Bu ilt-up edges.

49
ChaHer
1 . Tool not on ce nter. 2. I n s u ffi c ie nt relief or. clear a n ce.
3 . Too much rake. 4 . Too much overha n g . 5. Nose radius
too large. 6 . Feed too high. 7 _ Lack of r i g id ity in set-up.
8 . I ns u ffi c ie n t horsepower.

Torn Finish
1 . Speed toO low. 2 . Dull tool. 3 . Chip breaker too narrow.
4. I mproper grind ing.

Wear
1. Speed too high. 2. Feed too light. 3. I n correct grade.
4 . Nose radius toO large. 5. I mpr oper g r ind in g .

Glaze
1 . Dull tool. 2. Feed too light. 3. Nose radius toO large.
4. I ns u ffi c ie nt relief.

Build-Up
1. Speed too low. 2. Finer fi nish g r ind needed. 3. Too little
rake.

Crater
1 . Speed too high. 2. Feed too high. 3 . I n correct grade.

NOT E : Bu ild-up on the top tool surface, which resu lts In


crater wear, is d irectly related to machining speed.
A t lower machining speed, the tool force is higher but the
tool temperature is lower. At higher machin ing speed, the
tool forces a r e lower but the tool tempera ture is higher.
Two types of build-up may occur, depending upon ma­
chin ing speed :
1 . Pressure weld bu ild-up caused by high tool forces with
too low machining speed. When the build-up is pushed
off by chip pressure, it pulls loose small particles of the
top tool surface.
2. Temperature weld build-up caused by high tool tem­
perature with too high machining speed. The adhesion
a nd abras ion of the chips on the top tool surface cause
cratering of the softened tool material.
For various work materials there is an optimum machin ing
speed which results in minimum crater wear. As this optimu m
speed is far below present high production machinin g speeds,
the most economica l machin ing speed wou ld be tha t which
bala nces crater wear against prod u ction requirements.

50
TO O L W EAR A N A LYSIS
Check Speed of Work - Relation
of Speed to Feed - Grade of Carbide

Visual inspection of a dull tool, and consideration of


conditions that produce wear, together with refer­
ence to the following tables, may suggest changes in
procedure that will lead to better performance and
longer tool life. Brazed tools are illustrated, however,
most conditions also apply to "throw-away" insert
tooling.
Abnormal Dulling 1 5 I ndicated by:
( 1 ) Breakdown of edge, from chipping or breaking
( see suggested procedure on page 52 ) .
( 2 ) Excessive edge wear, from abrasion ( see Fig. 1 ) .
( 3 ) Excessive top surface wear, from cratering ( see
Fig. 2 ) .
( 4 ) H eat checks ( see Fig. 3 ) .

EXCESSIVE EDGE WEAR EXCESSIVE TOP HEAT CHECKS


This condition can be SURFACE WEAR This condition (on b.
caused by: This condition (on be co used by:
( 1 ) Running Ihe work at caused by: ( 1 ) Use of a grade hav­
100 high speed. ( 1 ) Running the work at ing insufficient heat
( 2 ) CUlling wilh 100 lighl 100 high speed. * conduct ivity rate.
feed. ( 2 ) C U l l i n g wilh 100 (2) Use of coolant wilh
( 3) Using a carbide hav· heavy feed. poor ' ' we((ing "
ing' insufficient abra­ (3) Using a carbide hav­ p r o p: e c t i e s or low
sion resistance. ing insufficient crater­ speCific heat (heat
ing resistance. capacity) .
( 3) Inadequate or inter­
m i neor coo l a n t
Maximum tool life is realized when neither edge wear supply.
no, top surfoce wear is .xcessive. (4) Improper grinding.

*See NOle on Page 50.

51
C H E C K OF C A R B I D E G R A D E : Use th e one m o st
su itable for the job. Kennametal metal-cutting
Grades are classified into four general types of car­
bide. with different degrees of hardness in each.
( See pages 29 through 32. )
Check Speed of the Work-To ascertain if speed is
within the proper range for the hardness of material
being machined it should be checked with the table
on pages 44 and 4 5.
Check Relation of Speed to Feed-The table below
can be used to adjust speed and feed on a particular
j ob to balance the two sources of wear (edge abra­
sion and top surface cratering) for maximum life.

IEUTIOI OF SPEU TO FEU


I F TOOL SHOWS-

EXCESSIVE EDGE WEAR

Higher Speed! and lighler feed, go IOQerher 01 do


lower Speed, and Heayier Feeds

For example, if a tool shows excessive cratering, a


decrease in speed or reduction in feed will no doubt
improve conditions ( see note on page 50 ) . If it
shows excessive edge wear, a reduction in speed or
increase in feed may remedy the trouble.
This table, however, provides for adjustment with­
in the limits of a single carbide grade only, and
further analysis may indicate that additional im­
provement in tool life can be obtained by changing
to a grade that is more suitable for the job in ques­
tion-see page 33.

52
Kendex Too l Care
The ever-increasing use of Kendex i ndexable i n­
sert tooling eliminates many potential sources of
tool trouble as encountered with brazed tools. The
mechanical tool, however, must be used correctly
and maintained in good working order if it is to
provide maximum efficiency. The following check
list will help keep such tools working.
1. Use the correct i nsert.
2. Use the most effective chip breaker.
3. Replace damaged shims.
4. Keep the i nsert recess clean.
5. Replace bent or cracked clamps.
6. Check holder carefully after an accident.
7. Do not "over-run" inserts.

8. Do not over-wrench clamping screw.


9. Select the most suitable holder for the job.
1 0. Mount holder rigidl y with mi nimum over­
hang.
1 1 . The holder can be d amaged-d o n 't try to
prove it!

Probably one of the most common causes of tool


trouble with indexable insert tooling is the con­
tinued use of a holder that has been damaged in a n
accident. A broken or badly chipped s h i m cannot
provide the support needed for good performance.
In addition, serious smashups sometimes damage
one or both of the supporti n g back walls of the
holder. This condition usually cannot be repaired
satisfactorily and a new holder will undoubtedly
prove to be the least costly solution.

53
To a s sure proper use o f Kendex holders, and
tools in general, requires only two or three pre­
cautions.
1. Change the i n sert before i t breaks. R u n n i n g an
i n sert for " j ust a few more" pieces is hazardous.
2. Clean the recess, shim, chip breaker, and i n sert
on each i ndex. Dirt in the recess or pocket or
work material welded to the i n sert or c h i p breaker
res u l t in poor seati ng-th is will cause trouble.
3 . Seat i nsert securely and tighten clamp moderately.
When replacing the i n sert in the holder make
sure it seats firmly, so that it does not "rock" i n
a n y d i rection.
U se only the wrench i ntended to tighten the clamp.
Wrench exte n s i o n s are nOt needed.

O bservance of these principles in the use, opera­


tion, and maintenance of Kendex holders will pro­
vide long life, efficient performance, and maximum
economy.

Brazed Tool Care


A lthough brazed tools have been repl aced by
Kendex tools on many operations, there are numer­
ous machining jobs which can be done economically
with brazed tools. The general principles regarding
care of Kendex tools also apply to brazed tools. The
following hints will aid in avoiding trouble.
1 . Select the most suitable tool.
2. Mount it rigidly with minimum overhang.
3. Do not permit excessive wear to develop.
4. Exercise good grinding practice when recon­
ditioning.
5. When brazing, follow recommended proce­
dures.

54
GRIN D ING TOOLS
Genera l Instruct ions
Although Kennametal compositions are extremely
hard, no difficulty need be experienced in grinding
Kennametal single-point tools when proper grind­
ing procedures are followed .
The essential requirement is to avoid "thermal
shock " caused by a sudden change in temperature.
The greatest possibility of thermal shock is in brazed
tools due to the difference in expansion rates of car­
bide and steel. W h e n crater resistant grades o f
carbide are heated, they expand about one-half as
much as steel. The wear resistant grades expand
one-third as much as steel. Therefore, a brazed tool is
already strained and grinding heat may cause failure.
A dull brazed tool can be res harpe ned several times
by simply touching up on a fine grit diamond wheel.
Only the tip need be ground. However, a tip that has
been chipped or broken requires extensive grinding
of both steel and carbide and a tool may be damaged
in one of two ways:
1. If the surface of the carbide is overheated, while
the interior remains comparatively cool, un­
equal expansion will cause "crazing"-a net­
work of hairline cracks or checks on the surface.
2. If the steel is overheated while carbide remains
comparatively cool, as when grinding away the
shank below the tip, heat cracks will develop.
This manual gives only general information on
tool grinding. For detailed procedure refer to publi­
cations available from grinding wheel manufacturers
such as "Grinding Carbide Tools" published by the
Norton Company.

55
,...

Offhand G ri n ding
Use of proper Grinding Wheels is extremely im­
portant. Medium bond silicon carbide wheels. 46 to
60 grit for roughing and 90 to 1 20 grit for finishing,
are generally recomme n d e d . A lumi n u m oxide
wheels are suitable for rough gri nding the shank
steel below the tip but care must be taken to avoid
grinding the tip or overheating the steel.
Diamond cup wheels of 100 to 220 grit, resi noid
or vitrified bonds, are generally used for offhand
finish gri nding of carbide cutting tools. Metal-bond
wheels are normally slower i n their cutting action
but are more durable and the face of the metal bond
wheel will remain flat a nd true much longer than
either the resi noid or vitrified bond types.
FoJlow the recommendations of your wheel manu­
facturer as to suitability of wheel for your purpose
and method of dressing.

Wet G ri n di n g
The u s e o f wet gri nding for roughing o f steel
shanks and silicon carbide grinding of parts made
from Kennametal is recommended to minimize the
possibility of overheati ng. Wet gri nding usually
allows the use of a more durable wheel, it is faster
than dry gri nding and reduces the abrasive dust
condition.
A fluid specially compounded for carbide grinding
is generally satisfactory. Many suitable compounds
are available. The coolant should flow liberally o nto
the wheel a nd cover the entire working surface of the
tool. I ntermittent or i nsufficient flow may produce
alternate heating and quenching of the tool and
cause tip to crack due to temperature changes.

56
Regrinding Procedure
A considerable saving in carbide, as well as i n
grinding wheels, can b e made b y regrinding tools
more frequently. If possible, have a regular schedule
for regrinding tools after a certain number of pieces
have been machined or after the tools have been
used over a definite period of time. Do not put off
regrinding until the cutting edge is chipped o r
broken. Some plants consider a roughing tool too
dull when it shows a p proximately O.030-inch edge
wear land. Wear lan d on finishing tools should not
be much greater than the feed. Resharpening a nor­
mally-dulled tool requires only a small amount of
grinding with a diamond wheel to provide a sharp
cutting edge.

How to Avoid Grinding Cracks


Cracks caused by faulty gri nding practices are of
two types and both result from "thermal shock."
They are:
1. " Crazing" or minute checks on the tip from
sudden heating of the surface.
2. Larger cracks fr om heating of the tip a n d
shank, usually parallel to the braze joint.
Crazing-This is caused by raising the temperature
of the surface of the tip too rapidly (for a depth of
about O.O l O-i nch) to a high temperature, thereby
creating a marked difference in the rate of expansion
between the surface and the comparatively cool in­
terior of the tip.
The high surface strain results in many fine cracks,
often visible only under a powerful magnifying glass
after the tip is lightly sand-blasted, or wet blasted,
as shown in sketch A.

57
,..

To prevent cra z i ng in offhand grinding:

1 . A void useof alundum wheels or silicon carbide


wheels with too hard a bond.
2. A void placing too much pressure on a small
area of contact when decreasing the clearance
of a tool even while grinding with the proper
type of wheel.
3. A void poor cutting action of a low concentra­
tion diamond wheel.
4. A void dry grinding.

To prevent cra z i ng in mach i ne grind ing:

1. A void u s e of hard bond wheels a n d l o w surface


foot rate in surface grinder or other positive
feed machine.
2. A void feed rate of over 1f2-thousandths of an
inch per pass for the harder grades and not
over 1f2-thousandths of an inch for the softer
metal grades per pass with diamond wheels.
3. A void use of a loaded diamond wheel, particu­
l arly when grinding steel and Ken nametal in
the same pass.
4. A void use of a low conce ntration diamo nd
wheel.
5. A void dry grinding.

58
A tool crazed on the broad top surface of the tip
will sometimes lose a section back of the cutting
where there is apparently no strain, as shown i n
sketch B.
A crazed tip surface may also develop along the
side of the cutting edge as shown in sketch C. The
breaks run straight down and occur when the tool
is cutting, as though from too high pressure.
Heat Cracks-The second and larger type of crack
in a tool tip is more easily seen. It usually appears
near to, and parallel with, a brazed surface as shown
i n sketch D. Or it may start at the edge of a tip, then
swing arou nd parallel to the braze. This type of
crack is caused by:
1. Unequal expansion of steel and carbide which
can be caused by overheating the shank while
the tip remai ns cool. This ofte n occurs when
steel is being snagged away beneath the tip.
2. Rapid cooli ng after grinding.
3. An i nterrupted flow of coolant which allows
the tool to heat up while cutting and then to
be suddenly quenched when the flow of coolant
is restored.
Whenever a tool shank is blue below the tip from
the heat of grindi ng, a crack of this type will prob­
ably be found in the tip. However, the crack may
not become apparent until the tool is in use. Such
cracking can be preve nted by careful wet gri nding.

59
,..

CHIP CONTROL
Chip control and disposal present no great prob­
lem on j obs involving irregular or interrupted cuts,
or brittle materials. as the chip will break up with­
out mechanical assistance.
However, when machining tough, stringy mate­
rials which cut with a continuous chip, a chip
breaker is desirable to coil the chip or break it up
into relatively short lengths for easy disposal. A
properly directed flow of coolant also helps break
the chip coil and helps wash the chips into the pan.

Kendex C h i p Breaker Plates


O n mechanically-held insert type tools, such as
Kendex tooling, a separate chip breaker plate of
hard carbide is used. Proper chip control can be ob­
tained by varying the distance between the chip
breaker plate and the cutting edge. The chip should
be broken in the largest possible coils to keep cut­
ting pressures to a minimum.
A solid Kennametal chip breaker plate for use on
the Kendex tools provides ideal chip control and
eliminates expensive chip breaker grinding. This
mechanical chip breaker has a wide range of appli­
cation as shown in the illustration where the same
chip breaker was used at 0.0 1 4 and 0.036-inch feed
to provide effective chip control. Kenloc inserts with
preformed chip grooves are available for general
machining operations.

60
Feed, 0.0 1 4 -inch Feed, O.03 6-inch
EFFECTIVE CHIP CONTROL OVER A WIDE RANGE OF FEEDS.

KFND£% rOCUING
,'
MII'
.,I,.,,,, , '''' ... tAUt",.' ,#

PRE-FORMED CHIP GROOVES PROVIDE ECONOMICAL CHIP CONTROL ON


GENERAL MACHINING OPERATIONS.

Brazed Too l s
Three types o r desi g ns of chip breakers are used:
Parallel, Angular, and Groove as shown i n the ac­
companying illustrations. The depth is usually held
fairly constant while the width is varied to obtain
the desired chip control.

PARAIll L TYPE ANCULAR TYPE CRooVE TYPE

61
Gri n d i n g C h i p Breakers
B R A Z E D TOO LS
Chip breaker grooves should be ground on a sur­
face grin der, or one desig ned especi ally for the
purpose, with either resinoid or vitrified bonded
diamond wheels only. The wheel should be wider
than the width of chip breaker so that, when the
wheel is reversed on its spindle, there is no position
of the wheel face that does not engage the work.
Wheels II4-inch wide may be vitrified or resinoid
bonded 150 to 220 grit. If the wheel is less than
Ikinch wide, use relatively hard resinoid bonded
wheel in 150 grit size.
Light feed per pass and rapid table traverse are
essential to prevent tip surface from checking. Forty
to sixty table passes per minute, with not over Y3 of
a thousandth per pass vertical feed assures rapid,
safe grinding with maximum wheel life. The wheel
should be kept clean by a flow of soluble oil in water,
or a kerosene-moistened wick.
Correct corner radius
on wheel is b e t w e e n
o n e a n d t wo t i m e s
depth o f the chip
breaker.

CROSS·SEeTIOR OF DlaMOIl WMEn

CORRECT SHAPE TURN WHEEl rRUE WHEEl


WHEN !tA:lIj ARE AROUND ON TO saUARE
BflWffN ONE SPINDlE WHEN f....CE WHEN
ANO TWO TIMES NEAR CORNU BOTH CORNEll
DEPTH Of IS OVER TWICE RADII AilE
CHIP BREAlCfR DEPTH Of GROOVE TOO LARGE

62
Boring Tool Angle Chart

EffECTIVE
END RELIEf

TOOL
END
R EUEF
- ---

Yo 1 1 ',4 1'/, 1% 2'/, 3'/, + 17 · -1 1·


1 1 ',4 1 '1, 1% 2'/, 3 3'/, 4 + 14 · - S·
1',4 1 '1, 1% 2 2 '1, 3 3 '1, 4 + 12 · - 6·
I'/' 1% 2 2'/, 3 3 '1, 4 + 10 · - 4·
1% 2'/, 3 3'/, 4 + 9° - 3·
2 2 '1, 3 3'/, 4 10 + 7° _ 1°
2 '1, 3 3'/, 4 5 10 12 + 6° 0°
3 3'/, 4 6 10 12 14 + 5° + 1·
3'/, 4 7 8 10 12 14 IS + 4° + r
4 10 12 14 16 20 24 + 3° + 3°

63
,..

For Additional Help


The suggestions contained in the foregoing pages
are based on years of experience in the development
and application of Kennametal to a wide variety of
metalworking problems. They cover the situations
most frequently encountered in customary machin­
ing operations.
Naturally, conditions will vary in different shops
and on different j obs, and certain unusual problems
not covered in this manual will arise from time to
time. Some of these problems are adequately covered
in other Ken nametal publications, which we will
be glad to send you at your request. For others,
Kennametal engineers will help you work out the
best possible methods for using our products.
Call on us when you need further information or
assistance.
SA·20 ( 15 ) L7 Printed in U.S.A.
KENNAMETAL I N C . LATROBE, PA. 1 5650

Kf MNAMfTAl
�--- . - " - - , ,.- -