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The Photography Reader Edited by Liz Wells 442 DAVID BATE techno-ideological project of renaissance picturing systems that has governed Western thought ever since. Perspective remains the arder of Photoshop as much a it does the camera obscura, discovered so long before photography. Education then, should retain a critical distance to, and awareness ofthese functions and face tuations in image culture, Notes 1 Raymond Willams, The Long Rerlsin, London: Hogarth Press, 1992, p. 125 2 ‘Culture’ for Willis means the ‘whole way of le See his Culare ond Sait, Penguia, 1979, 3. This Lyotard’ definition of postmodernism in The Psimodern Conlon, Manchester University Pres, 1986, p, 79 +See Roland Barthes, “That Old Thing, Art..." The Reponailiy of Forms, wanalated by Richard Howard, University of Califoria Press, 1991 5 Peter Wollen, "Photography and Aesthetic", Seen, vol. 19, no. 4, winter 1978-79, 6 The internal diferences within conceptual art and between artes here les impor ‘ane than their collective distinction from “art photography” and photographer, The anathema directed towars the ‘Bn printf the former was only equaled by the hostility to the ‘anu aatheti” by the late. 7 Wictor Burgin (ed) Thinking Photageapby, Macmillan, 1982, p. 2. 8 A.L. Rees and F. Boral, (eds) The Now dre Hutory, Carden Press, 1986 Victor Burgin, The End of de Thos, Macmillan, 1986, p. 204, Author's emphasis, Paul Virilio, The Lost Denson, Semiotexife, 1991 Walter Benjamin, “The Work of Artin the Age of Mechanical Reproduction’, ‘Miaminations, Fontan, 1980, pp. 227-8, 12 Wollen, ‘Photography and Aesthetics” Seen, vol. 19, no. 4, winter 1978-79, p. 17, 15 Mary Kelly, Re Viewsing Modernist Critic’ An afr Moderim, eB. Walk New Museum of Contemporary Art, 1984 p. 97 14 Roland Barthes, Le Chamie coe, Paris: Glliard, 1980, p. 98. (My emphasis) Chapter 42 Allan Sekula READING AN ARCHIVE Photography between labour and capital Every image of the past that is not recognised by the present as one of its own threatens to disippear irretrievably ‘Walter Benjamin’ ‘The invention of photography. For whom? Against whom? Jean-Lue Godard and Jean-Pierre Gorin? Fk 8 282 A8ot1 en voor oF ruorocnarns. Allweremade in the industrial and coal-mining regions of Cape Breton in the ewo decades between 1948 and 1968. All were made by one man, a commercial photographer nated Leslie Shedden, At fst glance, the economics ofthis work seem simple and common enough: proprictor of the biggest and only successful photographic studio in the town of Glace Bay, Shedden produced pictures on demand for « variety of clients, Thus in the range of his commissions we discover the limits of economic rely tions ina coal town, His largest single customer was the coal company. And promt. rent among the less official customers who walked in the door af Shedden Sardio were the coal miners and their families, Somewhere in between the company sn the workers were local shopkeepers who, like Shedden himself, depended on the Iminers' income for their own livelihood and who saw photography ar a sensible ‘means of local promotion, ‘Why stress these economic realities at the outset, aif to flaunt the ‘crude thinking’ often called for by Bertolt Brecht? Surely our understandings of these photographs cannot be reduced to a knowledge of economic conditions, This latter Knowledge is necessary but insufcient; we also need t0 grasp the way in which Photography constructs an imaginary world and passes it olf at reality. The ann of ‘his essay, then, isto try to understand something ofthe relationship between photo- srephic culture and economic lif. How does photography serve to legitimate and ormallse existing power relationships? How does it serve a the voice of authority, 444° ALLAN SEKULA wile simaltancousl claiming to constitute a token of exchange between equal part- te! Wat ives nd angry ce me ean of ctype by photographic means? What resistances are encouraged and strengthened? How 12 Moore pl sacl memory preserved, tataformed, reset an obliterated by photographs? What futures are promised; what fatures are Forgotten? In the broadest sense, these questions concern the ways in wich photography constructs an imaginary economy, From amateralist perspective, thse ae reasonable questions, well worth parsing, Certainly they would seem to he unavoidable for an archive such a tis one, assembled in answer to commercial and industrial demands in a region persitntl suffering from economic troubles.) Nonetheless, such quentions are easly eclipsed, or simply left unssked. To understand ths denial of pois, his depoltcation of photographic meaning, we need to examine some of the underlying problems of photographic culture. Before wwe can anewer the questions jst posed, we need to briefly consider what a photo- graphic archive i, and how it might e interpreted, sampled, or reconstructed in 2 Book, The modcl of the archive, of the quantitative ensemble of images, 3 a powerful one in photographic discourse, This model exerts abasic influence on the Gharacter ofthe truth and pleasures experienced in looking at photographs, espe lly today, when photographic books and exhibitions are being assembled from chives aan unprecedented rate, We might even argue that archival ambitions and procedures are intrinsic to photographic practice Morel rtecpotgeeticerive: commerce cies ik Sheds, corporate archives, government archives, muscum archives, historia society archives, amateur archives, family archives, artists’ archives, private collector’ drehives and 40 on. Archives ae property ether of individuals or institutions, and thelr ownership may or may not coincide with authorship. One characteristic of photography is that authorship of individual mages and the control and ownership of archives do not commonly reside in the same individual. Photographers are detail workers when they are not artist or leisure-time amateurs, and thus iis nat “unreasonable forthe legal theorist Bernard Ellman to label photographers the ‘pro Jetarian of creation," Leslie Shedden, for his part, was a combination artisan and small entrepreneur. He contsibated to company aod family archives while retaining hisown ile of negatives. Aris common with commercial photographers, heinchuded these negtives ip the sale of his studio to « younger photographer upon retiring in 1977. “Archives, then, constitute a tarkory of tage: the unity of an archive I frst and foremost that imposed by ownership. Whether or not the photographs ina parti tar archive are offered for sale, the general condition of archives involves the subordination of use to the logic of exchange. Thus not only are the pictures in trchives often literal for sale, but their meanings ae up for grabs. New owners are invited, new interpretations are promised. The purchase of reproduction rights under copyright law i alo the purchase of a certain semantic cence. This semantic nuilblity of pictares in archives exhibits the same abstract logic as that which daracterizes goods in the marketplace. Ii. an archive, the possibility of meaning is “iberatd” from the actual contin- encies of we, But this liberation i also alos an abstraction From the complexity and richness of usc, a loss of context. Thus the specificity of ‘orignal’ uses and PHOTOGRAPHY BETWEEN LABOUR AND CAPITAL 445 meanings can he avoided and even made invisible, when photographs are sclected from an archive and reproduced in a book. (In reverse fashion, photographs can he removed from books and entered into archives, with a similar loss of specificity.) So new meanings come to supplant old ones, with the archive serving a6 a kind of, “clearing house” of meaning. ‘Consider this example: some of the photographs in this book were originally reproduced in the annual report ofthe Dominion Steel and Coal Company, others were carried in miners’ wallets or framed on the mantelpieces of working-class homes, Imagine two different gazes, Imagine the gaze ofa stockholder (who may oF ‘may not have ever Visited a coal mine) thumbing his way to the table of earnings and lingering for a moment on the picture ofa mining machine, presumably the concrete source ofthe abstract wealth being accounted for in those pages. Imagine the gaze of a miner, or of a miner’s spouse, child, parent, sibling, lover or fiend drifting to a portrait during breaks or odd moments during the working day. Most mine workers ‘would agree that the investments behind these looks ~ financial on the one hand, ‘motional on the other ~ are not compatible, But in an archive, the difference, the radical antagonism betwean these locks is eclipsed, Instead we have two carefully made ‘negatives available for reproduction in a book in which all their similarities and di ferences could easly be reduced to ‘purely visual concerns. (And even visual differ- ences ean be homogenired out of existence when negatives fist printed as industrial losses and others printed on flat paper and tinted by hand are subjected toa uniform standard of printing for reproduction ina book, Thus the difference between a mode ‘of pictorial address whichis primarily “informational” and one which is ‘sentimental is obscured.) In this sense, archives establish a relation of absroct viol equivalence ‘between pictures. Within this regime ofthe sovereign image, the underlying currents of power are hard to detect, except through the shock of montage, when pictures from antagonistic categories ae juxtaposed in a polemical and disorienting way, Conventional wisdom would have it that photographs transmit immutable truths, But although the very notion of photographic reproduction would seem to suggest that very litle i lost in translation, itis clear that photographic meaning depends largely on context, Despite the powerful impression of reality (imparted bby the mechanical registration of a moment of reflected light acording to the rules ‘of normal perspective), photographs, in themselves, are fragmentary and incom: plete utterances. Meaning is always directed by layout, captions, text, and site and ‘mode of presentation. {...] Thus, since photographic archives tend to suspend ‘meaning and use, within the archive meaning exists in a state that is both residual and potential. The suggestion of past uses coexists with 2 plenitude of possiblities. In functional terms, an active archive is lke a toolshed, a dormant archive lke an abandoned toolshed. (Archives are not like coal mines: meaning is not extracted from nature, but from culture.) In terms borrowed from linguistics, the archive constitutes the paradigm or iconic system from which photographic ‘statements’ are constructed. Archival potentials change over time; the keys are appropriated by different disciplines, discourses, ‘specialties.’ For example, the pictures in photo agency files become available to history when they are no longer useful to topical journalism. Similarly, the new art history of photography at i too prevalent worst rummages through archives of every sort in search of masterpieces to celebrate and sell 446 ALLAN SeEKULA Cy actives ae not neutral: they embody the power inherent in cum oo ————— the Iescon and ls oa language. Within bourgeois slr the poopie pret lhe ben ented onthe very ening nt sly wi he team oe, —=—“ ee ores scoring to nel flere by Hirer, exept, aloe aed hot grden, sam pole fs, al bak. (Reco. phtogply rer he mnt wet Soe wi ne tons) Any erp archive, no mater how sal appease to tno 9 teddy Ne dye ey bee ae pone ot ne argh archives re Inked oto eyed tc eter sc A forthe ry BE llwopicd bare er In an aggre emplicamy bet on acevng ‘ert ventory of opernc. Ara project peal) ran compe dese or comple afar inan late cerenetnpoed byte he quan thy of ation In prc, Inowlege of th ert on only be erp ‘cording to borer mene, Thu the ral perpen eer foto the capa, the poled poke bareate onde egicer not ‘nero the Conner =the wring csr General sealing, ‘orking csc ot ul on meh high ground Ado arves ae contador in charac, With hl confies meaning setae rom wey an or ats regenera lel an emit ode ef uh prema, Paturcrare mardi one way un homoge in ante. —,r—r—sSseses— Ikan ode of somesortamengis contents Normal oes ar ce taxon or dace (xquentay in most arves both method ae we, bu een, chen alcnatng, eves of erganuaon, Taxonomic order nig be bed en spon ‘orp, authori, gene, tena, seonepopy, mile may nd ony ee, precton or ain. Anyone who hese or spl ied trough ox Fay saps undertanst ems (ad eae tefl) arent thee protien, One fom Reece nanan and eprom, between Chronlogy an inventor ‘What ul! be ecg bere ht photographic Dok an xb), frequen ant hlp bat reprise atienay enero sche, ad so dsng ipl cm ase nth be autor ade hy wea terete Herc ice he iin’ ofl plotopply In Fon tote Chena, Unie» fin, poop bok or exten nal ays be Shaved back ito la tapneat ar ack the ace, The nse cn sn eh rs de ih me ee iy nd» chao gad ei aay ge of photopic Frente spats ef scletae and mucin ae w vee ol Tnbl (orconteael to cela town werkng aK a mor cra or Greve mage). Potdgaper, aie eto ae carer can al cam, when Challenged sot herpes obe merely peng og eur ele Som fen seny ea sta far Undeyng the proceso olson dena amoral epic The photoes reflec relly The archive sscntel sales te tnoceble of sefctone aso om PHOTOGRAPHY BETWEEN LABOUR AND CAPITAL 447 Even if one admits ~ as is common enough nowadays ~ that the photograph inerprets realty, it might stil follow that the archive accurately catalogues the ensemble of interpretations, and so on again, Songs ofthe innocence of discovery ‘an be sung a any point. Thus the ‘naturalization ofthe cultura,” scea by Roland Barthes a an essential characteristic of photographic discourse, Is repeated and rein forced at virtually every level of the cultural apparatus ~ nes it interrupted by criticism. Jn shore, photographic archives by their very structure maintain a hidden connection between knowledge and power. Any discourse that appeals without scepticism to archival sndards of truth might well be viewed with suspicion, But ‘what narratives and inventories might be constructed, were we to interpret an archive such as this one in a normal fashion? {ean imagine two different sorts of books being made from Shedden's photo _raphs, or for tat matter from any similar archive of functional photographs. On the ‘one hand, we might regard these pictures as ‘historical documents.” We might, on the other hand, treat these photographs as ‘aesthetic objects" Two more or less con, tradictory choices emerge. Are these photographs tobe taken asa transparent means toaknowledge— intimate and detailed even incomplete ~ of industrial Cape Breton in the postwar decades? Or are we to look at these pictures ‘for their own sake,” as ‘opaque ends-in-themselves? Ths second question has a corollary. Are these pictures products of an unexpected vernacular authorship: is Leslie Shedden a “discovery” ‘worthy of a minor seat in an expanding pantheon of photographic artists? ‘Consider the first option, From the first decade of this century, popular histo ries and especially schoolbook histories have increasingly relied on photographic reproductions, Mass culture and mass education lean heavily on photographic realism, mixing pedagogy and entertainment in an avalanche of images. ‘The look of the past can be retrieved, preserved and disseminated in an unprecedented fashion, But awareness of history as an interpretation of the past succumbs to a faith In history as representation. The viewer is confronted, not by hisorcl-eing, but by the appearance of hitoryinef. Photography would seem to gratify the often quoted desire of that ‘master of moder historical scholarship,” Leopold von Ranke, to ‘show what actualy happened, '* Historical narration becomes a mater of appealing to the silent authority of the archive, of unobtrusively linking incontestable docu. ‘ments in a seamless account. (The very term ‘document’ entails a notion of legal or official truth, a6 well as a notion of proximity to and verification of an original event.) Historical narratives that rely primarily on photography almost invariably are both positivist and historicist in character, For positivism, the camera provides ‘mechanical and thus ‘sclentifically" objective evidence or ‘data,’ Photographs are seen as sources of factual, postive knowledge, and thus are appropriate documents for a history that claims a place among the supposedly objective seiences of human behaviour. For historciam, the achive confirms the existence of a linear progres. sion from past to present, and offers the possibility of an easy and unproblematic retrieval ofthe past from the transcendent position offered by the present. At thir worst, pictorial histories offer an extraordinarily reductive view of historical causality: the First World War ‘begins’ with a glimpse of an assusination in Sarajevo: the entry of the United States into the Second World War ‘begins’ with «8 view of wrecked battleships, 440° ALLAN SEKULA “Thus, most val and pictorial histories reproduce the enabled pacers of here drughtn bourgels ele, By doing 10 In "pop fin, they thtend he hegemony of at eultare, wile exbing athe contempt and rear or Popa tea. Te ea tht photgrpy lanier langoge conti peistnt clement of endeacenih t well pedaggil za. "The widespread ust of potogrpiy a ht Mstetons avg that sigulint events ae thse which ene petred, and thus tory takes onthe Rect of pee? But hs petoral spel ea Kind f rer, net depend Gn por peta for is suppsely ‘rw’ material! Since the 1920 he psu pres long with Ue apparatus of cororte publ elavon, publi, ner Teng andgevemment propoganda ave cntuted to replied flow of mags: of dee, war revolute, new product, celebs, pla eer, ofa Ceremonic, public appearence, and 0 on, Fora orn to at ach ples without remarking on these nial we save at bet ad cls wort, What Mould it mean to construct pictorial isto of postwar cos ining a Cape Breton Sy sing pictures fom a company public reatone archive without ling tention 10th bs invent in that source? What preset intents ight be served by such Te Ser of andar por histo ls any ground ae pee fn which o make ctl evaluations, In retrieving alow acenion of ragmentary {limps ofthe pst thopectator ifn into condom maginary temporal and feogaphial moby. inthis docted and doorteted sate the oly coherence Stored stat proved by the conta sing poston of the camera, which provides the spectator wit Kind of powerless ermisience. Thus the sector {omes to Wnty with he techie appara, wih de autora initon of photography. nthe feet ts uory, al oher forme a lina remembering Fagin to fd Bt ce machine estes is rth, no by log argument, but by proving an expe Thi experience characters veers between nol, Rormor, nd aavriding sense afte ext ofthe pty oft rtierble Otters forthe viewer the present Ukimatl then, when photographs are ertelypreemed o histor documents, thy re wsorned nt ext thjocs. Accordingly, te pretence tokistorical understanding reais atough at Unrtading has been replaced by sett experience? ‘ut what ‘of eur second option? Suppose we abandoned all pretence to histor ical eplnaton, and treated thee plotgrapt a artworks of one sort or another This book would then bean intentory of sete aevement and/or at ering for antereted ache perusal. The reader may well hve bon prepare fot these lloos bythe simpl nt tht th book hasbeen bled by press wth 2 history of excuve concer withthe contemporary vanguard art of de United Sate and Western Europe (ado leer enten, Cada). Further, ae already Suggested, na more fundamental a the very removal of hese phoogreph ro ‘het inal contents loves neh Tan imagine two aye of converting hee photographs into ‘works of ar, both bit abn, but nether without ample precedent inthe caren fever 0 as- iste photography into the discourse and market of the Se ars The fret ph flows the tdton! lg of romantic, in ncn search fr exec origin ins coberem and corivaling author woe.” The second pth might be PHOTOGRAPHY BETWEEN LABOUR AND CAPITAL 449 labelled ‘post-romantic’ and privileges the subjectivity ofthe collector, connoisseur, and viewer over that of any specific author. This latter mode of reception treats photographs as found objects.” Both strategies can be found in current photographic dliscourse; often they are intertwined in a single book, exhibition, magszine or journal article, The former tends to predominate, largely because ofthe continuing ‘need to validate photography asa fine art, which requires an incessant appeal to the ‘myth of authorship in order to wrest photography away from its reputation a8 a servile and mechanical medium. Photography needs to be won and rewon repeat ‘edly for the ideology of romanticism to take hold," The very fact that this book reproduces photographs by a single author might seem to bean implicit concession to a neo-romantic auteurnm, But it would be difi- cult to make a credible argument for Shedclen’s autonomy asa maker of photographs. Like all commercial photographers, his work involved a negotiation between his oven craft and the demands and expectations of his clients, Further, the presentation of his work was entirely beyond his control. One might hypothetically argue that ‘Shedden was 2 hidden artist, producing an original oeuvre under unfavourable condi- tions. (‘Originality’ isthe essential qualifying condition of genuine art under the terms dictated by romanticism. To the extent that photography was regarded as a copyist’s medium by romanticartcrtisin the nineteenth century, it failed to achieve the status ofthe fine arts.) The problem with auteurism, as with so much else i pho tographic discourse, les in its frequent misunderstanding of actual photographic practice, In the wish-fuliling isolation of the ‘author,’ one loses sight of the social institutions ~ corporation, school, family ~ that are speaking by means of the com ‘mercial photographer's craft. One can sill respect the craft work of the photog- rapher, the skill inherent in work within a set of formal conventions and economic constraints, while refusing to indulge in romantic hyperbole. ‘The possible ‘post romantic’ or ‘post-modern’ reeeption of these photographs Js perhaps even more disturbing and more likely, To the extent that photography still occupies an uncertain and problematic postion within the fine arts, it becomes possible to displace subjectivity, to find refined aesthetic sensibility notin the maker of images, but in the viewer. Photographs such as these then become the objects of a secondary voyeurism, which preys upon, and claims superiority to, a mare naive primary act of looking. The strategy here is akin to that initiated and established by Pop Art in the early nineteen-sixties, The aesthetically informed viewer examines the artifacts of mass or ‘popular’ culture with a detached, ironic, and even con- ‘temptuous air. For Pop Art and its derivatives, the look of the sophistiated viewer is always constructed in relation to the inferior look which preceded it. What dis: turbs me about this mode of reception is its covert clit, its implicit claim to the status of ‘superior’ spectatorship. A patronizing, touristic, and mock-critical attitude toward ‘kitsch’ serves to authenticate a high culture that is increasingly indistin- {gulshable from mass culture in many ofits aspects, especially in its dependence on ‘marketing and publicity and its fascination with stardom, The possibility ofthis kind of intellectual and aesthetic arrogance needs to be avoided, especially when a book ‘of photographs by a small-town commercial photographer is published by a press that ‘regularly represents the culture of an international and metropolitan avant-garde In general, then, the hidden imperatives of photographie culture drag usin two contradictory directions: toward ‘science’ and a myth of ‘objective truth’ on the 450. ALLAN SEKULA a eee rae nee eee es eames eae eeeanee ace See ee eee ee eee ee a mab ete a ete che wa Rae eh re a See repre seca eee oe ea estes Socieecn TA cat i Wn Roe npauy nll ean apy rupees eras as eae eas a ee pe rs see eo aera eee see ceed ogee ieee a ee eee Ce geen ee oo ee ae eee oper arene eT een fee oe PHOTOGRAPHY BETWEEN LABOUR AND CAPITAL 451 family photograph, And yet it would scem clear that these are not mutually exch: sive categories. Industrial photographs may well be commissioned, executed, dis. played, and viewed in a spirit of calculation and rationality. Such pictures seem to offer unambiguous truths, the usful truths of applied science, Buta zone of virtu. ally unacknowledged ofits can also be reached by photographs such as these, touch. ing on an aesthetics of power, mastery, and control. The public optim that vuffases these pictures is merely a respectable, sentimentally-oceptable, and ideologically nee- essary substitute For deeper feelings ~ the cloak for anaesthetics of exploitation, In ‘other words, even the blandest pronouncement in words and pictures from an office of corporate public relations has a subtext marked by threats and fear. (After all, “under capitalism everyone's jb ison the line.) Similarly, no family photograph suc. «ceeds in creating a haven of pure sentiment. Ths i especially true for people wha feel the persistent pressure of economic distress and for whom even the making of «photograph has tobe carefully counted as an expense, Granted, there are moments in which the photograph overcomes separation and Joss, therein lies much of the emotional power of photography. Especially in a mining community, the life of ‘the emotions is persistently tied to the instrumental workings underground. More than elsewhere, a photograph can become without warning a tragic memento ‘One aim of this essay, then, is to provide certain conceptual tools for a unified Understanding of the social workings of photography in an industrial environment, ‘This project might take heed of some of Walter Benjamin’s last advice, from hic argument for a historical materialist alternative 10 a historicism that inevitably cempathized ‘with the victors’: ‘There is no document of civilization which is not at the same time a document of barbarism. And just as such a document is not free of barbarism, barbarism taints alo the manner in which i was transmitted from one ovwner to another. A historical materialist therefore disso ates himself from it as far as possible. He regards i a his tack to brush history against the grain,!? Benjamin's wording here is careful. Neither the contents, nor the forms, nor the ‘many receptions and interpretations of the archive of humnan achievements ean be assumed to be innocent. And further, even the concept of “human achievements! has to be used with critical emphasis in an age of automation. The archive has to be read from below, from a position of solidarity with those displaced, deformed, silenced or made invisible by the machineries of profit and progres. Notes 1 Walter Benjamin, “Theses oo the Philosophy of History” (1940), in lemintion,e Hannah Arend, trans. Harry Zohn (New York, 1969), p.255. Jean-Luc Godard and Jean-Pierre Gorin, Yene Es (Rome, Paris, Berlin, 1969), ln Script published in Jean-Luc Godard, Weeleod/ Wind fiom the Est (New York, 1972), 17, Fb epee in cology i erfore not the ptm of the red relations Which govern the existence of individuals, but the imaginary relation of these 2 452 10 ALLAN SEKULA Individuals to the veal relations its which they live.” Louis Althusser, ‘Kdeology and Ideological State Apparstuss’ (1969), in Lenin and Philo ond Orker Ey, trans Ben Brewster (New York, 1971), p. 165. Althusser's model of ideology i based in parton Marx and in part on the work ofthe psychoanalyst Jaques Lacan, Without belabouring this lineage, of explaining i further, I would like to refer dhe Canadian reader expecially toa work by Lacan's fst English ansator and crtal interpreter ‘Anthony Willen; The Imaginary Canadian: dn Examination for Discovery (Vancouver. 1980) Bernard Edelman, Le Droit sat par la phaogrphic Pars, 1973), rans. Elizabeth Kingdom. Owacrhip of the lege: Eleeot for ¢ Mort Thay of Law (Londen. 1979), pas Roland Barthes, ‘Rhétorique de Vimage,” Communications 4 (1964). in Image, Musi Tea, trans, Stephen Heath New York. 1977), pt Leopold von Ranke, preface to Hisorer of the Lain and Germanic Navon from 1494-1514, in The Yori of Hato, ed, Frite Stern (New York, 1972), p57 See Guy Debord, a Sad dv spc (Pari, 1967), unauthorized translation, Socyy ofthe Speaacte Detroit, 1970, revised edition, 1977. ‘We might think ere of the reliance hy the executive branch ofthe United States {government on “photo opportunities," For a dacusion af an unrelated example see Susan Sontay's discon of Lent Rifenstal' alibi that Temp ofthe Wall was merely ‘an innocent documentary of the orchertrated-fr-cinema 1934 Nuremberg Rally of the National Scilists. Sontag quotes Ricfensabl “Everything i genuine. Je hisory~ pure hur.” Susan Sontag, “Fascinating Fascism," New York Review of Boks, Vol. XXil, No. 1 February 1975), reprinted in Under the Sia of Sarum, (New York 1980). p82, “Two recent books counter this prevailing tendency in "vital history” by directing attention to the power relationships behind the making of pictares: C. Herron, 5. Hollnite, W. Roberts, R, Storey, All The Our Hands Hore Done Prot Hioy ef ‘he Horan Werks (Oskalle, Ontario, 1981): and rah Graham-Brown Paleintane and Ther Seciety 1880-1946 (London, 1980), Jn the first category are books which discover unsung commercial photographers: ge, Mike Dislarmer, Disfrmer: The Heber Springs Porc, text by Julia Selly (Danbury. New Hampshire, 1976), ln the second category are books which tery tothe aesthetic sense ofthe collector; eg. Sun Wage, A Bok of Phitgrph fom the Collation of Sara Wapitlf (New York, 1978), “This passage restates an argument made in my essay, “The Traffic in Photographs! The Ant Journal, Vol. 41, No. I Spring 1981, pp.15-! Walter Benjamin, "Theses on the Philosophy of History,’ pp.256-57. Index abstract seeing 93 sxademic spectator 369-71 access, consent and 254, 275-87 Adams, A. 176, 28, 31-2 Adamson, R138 Adas, M. 367, ‘Adobe Photoshop 225 advertisements 109, 160-1, 210-11, 245, 311-12; rhetoric of the image 11425 aesthetic moment 211-15, 267-8 aMleevity 211-15 Aca 313, 314 Agee, J. 268-9 agency, abandonment of 186 sgony, photographs of 254, 288-90 Alesander, V. 155, 160, 11-2, 163, 182 Alinder, MS. 232 Alles, N.W.219 Allende, S, 315, 319 Allouls, M. 370 Alloway, L, 102 Altamira 67-8 ‘aks 393 Aman, R, 222 Alvarado, M364 Americ if 175-6 America Online 230, American Civil War 70, 100, Amos, E394 snamnesis 27-8 anchorage 117-18, Andrew, D. 6-7 ‘Anglo-American formalism 83 anonymity of phowgrapher 71-4 ‘ppropriation 152-5, 171-3 Arbiter Fotographe’ 191 Abus, D. 264, 270, 437 auchitectare 165, archives: digital 229-34; industrial, environment 420, 443-52 Armheim, R. 219 Amoux, A. 8 arrangement 5, 172 arresting images 289 at 70-1, 89; conceptual are 437; Institutions 419, 422-7, mechanical reproduction and 15, 42-52; photographs as ator technology 55-7; photographs ofan industrial envionment 4448-50; photography ae meta-att 62, photography as new instrument of ikon 94-5; postmodernlemn in 166-70, 177-8, 188-9; revolutionary at 56-7, 82-3; scence vs 50-1, 224-5, 450, thoory, photography and 20, 435-42 art photography 32, 77-8, 103, 173; evelopment of 436-17; mature and sell 4411; and postmodernism 149, 152-63; and realty 315-16