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Р.В. Резник, Т.А. Сорокина, И.В.

Резник

A HISTORY
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

ИСТОРИЯ
АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

Учебное пособие

Рекомендовано Учебно-методическим объединением


по лингвистическому образованию Министерства образования
Российской Федерации в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов и аспирантов лингвистических
вузов и факультетов

Москва
Издательство «Флинта»
Издательство «Наука»
2001
УДК 802.0
ББК 8J.2 Англ
Р 34,

Резник Р.В., Сорокина Т.А., Резник И.В.


A History of the English Language. История английского языка:
Учебное пособие. — М.: Флинта: Наука, 2001. — 496 с.
ISBN 5-89349-176-9 (Флинта)
ISBN 5-02-022584-3 (Наука)

Первая часть пособия — краткий лекционный курс; вторая —


хрестоматия: содержит подборку текстов, включающих образцы древ-
неанглийского, среднеанглийского и новоанглийского периодов, с
вопросами и заданиями к ним; третья — словарь к текстам и крат-
кий справочник по их анализу и переводу. Приложение включает
вопросы для повторения и самоконтроля.
Для студентов и аспирантов лингвистических вузов и факуль-
тетов, а также всех, интересующихся историей английского языка.

Учебное издание
Резник Р.В., Сорокина Т.А., Резник Й.В.

A HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE


ИСТОРИЯ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

Изготовление оригинал-макета ООО "ВЕНЗИ"

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ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
стр.
Оглавление 3
Предисловие 7
Часть 1. Лекции 13
1 Введение. Общая характеристика
германских языков 15
2 Древнеанглийский период. Общая
характеристика 33
3 Среднеанглийский период. Общая
характеристика , 48
4 Новоанглийский период. Общая
характеристика 63
5 Фонетика древнеанглийского периода 77
6 Грамматика древнеанглийского периода.
Система имени 89
7 Грамматика древнеанглийского периода.
Система глагола \ 107
8 Изменения в фонетической системе в
среднеанглийский и новоанглийский
периоды 126
9 Изменения в системе имени в средне-
английский и новоанглийский периоды 145
10 Изменения в системе глагола в средне-
английский и новоанглийский периоды 157
11. Словарный состав английского языка 173
12 Этимологические слои современногого
английского языка 190
Часть 2. Семинары 203
1. Вводный семинар. Германские языки 205
2. Основные характеристики германских
языков. Грамматика 208
3. Обзор периодов в истории английского
языка. Общая характеристика древне-
английского периода 211
4. Фонетика древнеанглийского периода.
Гласные 217
5. Фонетика древнеанглийского периода.
Согласные.' 220
з
2 2 1
Имя
7. Грамматика древнеанглийского периода.
2 2 6
Глагол
8. Древнеанглийский период. Обсуждение .... 228
9. Общая характеристика средне-
английского периода 231
10. Фонетика среднеанглийского периода.
Гласные 240
11. Фонетика среднеанглийского периода.
Согласные 241
12. Грамматика среднеанглийского периода.
Имя : 244
13. Грамматика среднеанглийского периода.
Глагол 247
14. Среднеанглийский период. Обсуждение .... 248
15. Общая характеристика новоанглийского
периода 251
16. Фонетика новоанглийского периода.
Гласные 261
17. Фонетика новоанглийского периода.
Согласные 263
18. Грамматика новоанглийского периода.
Имя 267
19. Грамматика новоанглийского периода.
Глагол : 271
20. Словарный состав английского языка 272
21. Слои словарного состава языка 274
22. Современные правильные и неправильные
формы имени и глагола 277
Часть 3. Ключи 281
Семинары 3 и 6. Путешествие Охтхере 283
Семинары 4, 5 и 7. Хроники 301
Семинары 9, 10 и 12. Чосер 316
Семинары 11 и 13. Тревиза 338
Семинары 15, 16 и 18. Шекспир, "Гамлет" 359
Семинар 20. Шекспир, Сонет 396
Семинар 21. Диккенс 405
Часть 4. Глоссарий 419
Часть 5. Краткое изложение лекций 477
Лекции1-12 '" 479
4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
pages
Оглавление 3
Table of Contents '. 5
Предисловие 7
Foreword 10
Part 1. Lectures 13
1 Introductory. General Characteristics
of Germanic Languages 15
2 Old English. General Characteristics 33
3 Middle English. General Characteristics 48
4 New English. General Characteristics 63
5 Old English phonetics 77
6 Old English grammar. The nominal system 89
7 Old English grammar. The verbal system 107
8 Changes in the phonetic system in Middle
and New English 126
9 Changes in the nominal system in Middle
and New English 145
10 Changes in the verbal system in Middle
and New English 157
11 English vocabulary 173
12 Ethymological strata in Modern English 190
Part 2. Seminars 203
1. Introductory. Germanic languages 205
2. Chief characteristics of Germanic languages.
Grammar 208
3. Survey of the periods in the history of English.
General characteristics of the Old English
period 211
4. Old English phonetics. Vowels 217
5. Old English phonetics. Consonants 220
6. Old English grammar. Noun 221
7. Old English grammar. Verb 226
5
8. Old English. Discussion 228
9. General characteristics of the Middle English
period • 231
10. Middle English phonetics. Vowels 240
11. Middle English phonetics. Consonants 241
12. Middle English grammar. Noun 244
13. Middle English grammar. Verb 247
14. Middle English. Discussion 248
15. General characteristics of the New English
period 251
16. New English phonetics. Vowels 261
17,. New English phonetics. Consonants 263
18. New English grammar. Noun 267
19. New English grammar. Verb 271
20. English wordstock 272
21. Vocabulary layers 274
22. Modern regular and irregular noun and verb
forms 277
Part 3. Keys 281
Key to Seminars 3 & 6. Ohthere's account of his
first voyage 283
Key to Seminars 4,5 & 7. Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle 301
Key to Seminars 9, 10 & 12. Chaucer, Canterbury
Tales ....316
Key to Seminars 11 & 13. Trevisa, About
thelanguages of the inhabitants 338
Key to Seminars 15, 16 & 18. Shakespeare,
Hamlet ; 359
Key to Seminar 20. Shakespeare, Sonnet 396
Key to Seminar 21. Dickens, David Copperfield .... 405
Part 4. Glossary 419
Part 5. Summary 477
Лекции1-12 479

6
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Предлагаемый учебный комплекс предназначен для
студентов и аспирантов-филологов, а также всех лиц,
интересующихся вопросами исторического развития языка и
желающих расширить свои знания о нем.
В состав комплекса входит курс лекций, задания к
семинарам, ключи, словарь и краткое капсульнбе изложение
лекций.
Объем материала (12 лекций и 22 семинаров) рассчитан
на прохождение курса в течение 2 семестров, согласно новой
программе подготовки специалистов на филологических
факультетах институтов и университетов.
Весь комплекс отличает стройность построения по
единому плану. Это относится как к лекциям, так и к
семинарским занятиям, где работа проводится по едидой
логической схеме, от простого к сложному и от общего к
частному, с постепенным углублением и конкретизацией
знаний по каждому периоду исторического развития языка.
Четкость и прозрачность структуры подачи материала и его
анализа позволяет студенту уделить больше внимания
содержательной стороне курса.
Лекции (Часть 1) сопровождаются большим
количеством таблиц и примеров, делающих теоретические
положения более наглядными и запоминающимися. Схемы и
таблицы, кроме того, могут использоваться впоследствии в
ходе выполнения практических, заданий на семинарских
занятиях.
Материалы для проведения семинаров (Часть '2)
содержат теоретические вопросы для обсуждения в классе' и
практические задания. Непременным компонентом каждого
семинара (за исключением вводного) является анализ
аутентичного текста соответствующего исторического
7
периода с точки зрения его фонетических, грамматических и
этимологических особенностей.
Семинары разбиты на блоки, соответствующие
периодам истории английского языка. Первые семинары
каждого блока содержат модель анализа текста; для
последующих семинаров предусмотрена возможность
самостоятельной работы с проверкой сделанного анализа по
ключам, приведенным после семинаров (Часть 3).
Заключительный семинар каждого блока содержит текст для
анализа без ключей, который предлагается провести и
оформить в соответствии с изученной моделью и представить
в качестве составной части итоговой письменной работы,
позволяющей провести оценку усвоения материала.
В книге приводится словарь (Часть 4), содержащий
необходимые сведения структурного и этимологического
характера в отношении всех языковых единиц, содержащихся
в текстах семинаров, и позволяющий студенту проводить их
анализ и выполнять другие практические задания семинаров.
После лекций приводится их краткое капсульное
изложение на русском языке с отсылкой на соответствующие
разделы той или иной лекции (Часть 5). Подобная отсылка
возможна благодаря четкой и достаточно дробной
рубрикации текста лекций. Этот раздел предназначен для
быстрого напоминания основных тем курса, удобства поиска
соответствующей темы, а также может использоваться для
предварительного ознакомления с изучаемой проблематикой
лиц, чьи практические знания языка несколько затрудняют
для них адекватную работу с английским текстом. Выбор
русского языка в качестве языка для изложения капсульного
изложения предмета объясняется стремлением сделать курс
более доступным, расширить круг лиц, которые могли бы
пользоваться предлагаемым пособием, и упростить их
работу.
От имеющихся изданий подобного рода учебный
комплекс, помимо прочего, отличают:
8
— самодостаточность, не требующая привлечения
других источников для усвоения определенного
программой материала;
— четкость и компактность изложения материала;
— ясная структура и модульная система его подачи;
— детальная рубрикация, позволяющая осуществлять
перекрестную отсылку и быстрый поиск нужной
информации;
— возможность использования лицами с разным
уровнем владения английским языком;
— наличие большого объема материала для
семинарских занятий с подробной разработкой
плана их проведения, теоретическими,
практическими и текстовыми заданиями;
— ключи к заданиям по анализу текстов различных
периодов, позволяющие использовать их для
самоконтроля;
— задания для самостоятельной работы, дающие
возможность студентам творчески осмыслить
материал и провести небольшую работу
исследовательского характера, оформленную в виде
письменной итоговой курсовой или
экзаменационной работы;
— тщательно выверенный глоссарий, содержащий
словарные единицы разных периодов английского
языка;
— наличие в конце каждой лекции небольшой статьи
познавательного характера, тематически связанной с
предметом данной лекции и делающей изучение
материала не только полезным, но и приятным.

Авторы
ч
FOREWORD
Trie, present study manual is intended for philology students
Eind post-graduates, as well as all those interested in the problems
of historical development of the language and wishing to extend
their knowledge of it.
T^.manual consists of a set of lectures, seminars including
materials for recapitulation, keys, tasks for independent work arid
control of retention, as well as a glossary.
The scope and volume of the material (12 lectures and 22
seminars) is calculated for a course of studies during 2 semesters,
according to the new program of training specialists at philology
faculties and departments of universities.
Th,e whole complex follows a clearly defined plan. This,
refers both to the lectures and seminars, where all activity is to be
conducted according to. a uniform pattern, from simple to
difficult and from general to particular, with gradual
complication and deepening of knowledge on each period of the
historical development of the language. The clear and. well-
defined structure of the material presentation and analysis allows!
the sjxident to pay more attention to the informative content of the;
course,
The lectures (Part 1) are accompanied by many tables and,
language, examples making the theoretical notions more visual
and easy to remember. Besides that, the schemes and tables can
be used later when fulfilling practical tasks for the seminars.
The'materials for conducting seminars (Part 2) contain
theoretical' problems for discussion in class and practical tasks.
An indispensable.component of each seminar, (except for the
introductory one) is the analysis of an authentic text of the
appropriate historical period from the point of view of its
phonetic, grammar and etymological features.
The' seminars are divided into units corresponding to the
periods in the history of the English language, The first seminars
10
of each unit contain a text analysis pattern; the subsequent
seminars provide for the possibility of independent work to be
checked using the keys.(Part 3). The final seminar of each unit
contains a text for analysis with no keys; a written analysis of this
text is to form a part of the course paper permitting to evaluate
the comprehension and mastering of the material.
The manual includes a glossary (Part 4) containing the
necessary structural and etymological data concerning all
language units to be found in the texts of the seminars and
permitting the student to conduct their analysis and perform other
practical tasks.
There is also a brief capsule summary of the lectures given
in Russian with reference to the appropriate sections of the full
text of the lectures (Part 5). Such reference is possible due to
clear and sufficiently detailed subdivision of the text of the
lectures according to subject headings. This section is intended as
a reminder of the principal topics of the course, allowing a
convenient method of search for an appropriate issue, and can
also be used for preliminary acquaintance with the studied
problems of those whose practical knowledge of the language is
yet not fully adequate for free work with the English text. The
choice of Russian as the language for the summary of the subject
is explained by the desire to make the course easier and more
readily accessible to a larger group of readers.
The manual differs from other similar publications in the
following:
— self-sufficiency requiring no additional sources for
mastering the material stipulated by the programme;
—; clear and concise recital of the material;
— transparent structure and modular system of its
presentation;
— detailed division into subsections permitting cross-
reference and fast finding of the necessary information;
I!
— possibility of use by thos e with a different level of
knowledge of English;
— extensive material for seminars with an in-depth plan,
theoretical, practical and text analysis tasks;
— keys to the analysis of the texts of different periods
allowing their use for self-control;
— tasks for independent work giving the students a
possibility to creatively interpret the material and to
conduct a limited research with the results to be presented
as a written course or exam paper;
— carefully checked-out glossary containing vocabulary
entries of different periods of the English language;
— presence of a brief article at the end of each lecture giving
some interesting facts connected with the topic of the
lecture and making the study of the material not only
useful, but also pleasant.

Authors
Tart 1, Lectures
"Learning makes life more rewarding and enjoyable;
...the worst thing of all is ignorance."
King Alfred the Great

Mappe Monde from a MS of the 9th century at the Strasburg library


- one of the oldest existing maps of the world
List of Lectures
pages

1 Introductory. General Characteristics


of Germanic Languages 15
2 Old English. General Characteristics 33
3 Middle English. General Characteristics 48
4 New English. General Characteristics 63
5 Old English phonetics 77
6 Old English grammar. The nominal system 89
7 Old English grammar. The verbal system 107
8 Changes in the phonetic system in Middle
and New English 126
9 Changes in the nominal system in Middle
and New English 145
10 Changes in the verbal system in Middle
and New English 157
11 English vocabulary 173
12 Ethymological strata in Modern English 190
LECTURE 1.
INTRODUCTORY.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF GERMANIC LANGUAGES
"The Germans themselves I should regard as
aboriginal, and not mixed at all with other races... For
who would leave Asia, or Africa or Italy for Germany, with
its wild country, its inclement skies, its sullen manners and
aspect, unless indeed it were his home? ...The name
Germany, on the other hand, they say is modern and newly
introduced, from the fact that the tribes whichfirstcrossed
the Rhine and drove out the Gauls, and are now called
Tungrians, were then called Germans. Thus what was the
name of a tribe, and not of a race, gradually prevailed, till
all called themselves by this self-invented name of
Germans, which the conquerors had first employed to
inspire terror."
Tacitus, Germania

List of principal questions:


1. The aim of the study Of the subject
2. Inner and outer history of the language
3. Chief characteristics of the Germanic languages
3.1. Phonetics
3.2. Grammar
3.3. Alphabet

\5
PART i. LECTURES

1. The aim of the study of the subject


It is well known that language, whether it is English, Russian
or any other, is a historical phenomenon. As such it does not stay
unchanged for any considerable period of time, or for any time at
all, but it inconstantly changing throughout its history.
The changes affect all the spheres of the language: grammar
and vocabulary, phonetics and spelling. The changes that any
language undergoes are gradual and very slow but pronounced
enough if you compare the stages of its development within a
century or even half a century. You can imagine that with the
passage of time the difference between different stages of the
development of the language grows and you will easily deduce
that if you speak of such a language as English the history of
which embraces over fifteen centuries you will have to analyze
and explain a great number of linguistic data characterizing the
language at different stages of its history.
The aims set before a student of the history of the English
language are as follows:
1. to speak of the characteristics of the language at the
earlier stages of its development;
2. to trace the language from the Old English period up to
modern times;
3. to explain the principal features in the development of
modern language historically.
To achieve those aims a student will have to know the
theoretical basis of the subject and to work with the text to apply
the theoretical knowledge to the practical analysis of English
texts at different periods of the language development.
While speaking about the importance of theoretical courses
we may quoting Simeon Potter's words:

16
1. INTRODUCTORY. GERMANIC LANGUAGES

"We cannot know too much about the language we


speak every day of our lives... knowledge is power. The
power of rightly chosen words is very great, whether
these words are intended to inform, to entertain or to
move."
Simeon Potter, Our language
Thus the main purpose of studying the history of the English
language is to account for the present-day stage of the language
to enable a student of English to read books and speak the
language with understanding and due knowledge of the intricate
and complicates "mechanism" they use.
We said that the history of any language is an unbroken chain
of changes more or less rapid. But though the linguistic tradition
is unbroken it is impossible to study the language of over 15
centuries long without subdividing it into smaller periods. Thus
the history of the English language is generally subdivided
conventionally into Old English (5 th —11 th century), Middle
English (11th—15"' century) and New English (15th century—till
now).

2. Inner and outer history of the language


We are going to speak about the inner and the outer history
of the English language. The outer history of the language is the
events in the life (history) of the people speaking this language
affecting the language, i.e. the history of the people reflected in
their language. The inner history .of the language is the
description of the changes in the language itself, its grammar,
phonetics, vocabulary or spelling.
It is well known that the English language belongs to the
Germanic subdivision of the Indo-European family of languages.
The direct and indirect evidence that we have concerning old
Germanic tribes and dialects is approx-imatelv-.twenty centuries
17
PART I. LECTURES

old. We know that at the beginning of AD Germanic tribes


occupied vast territories in western, central and northern Europe.
The tribes and the dialects they spoke at the time were generally
very much alike, but the degree of similarity varied. It is common
to speak about the East Germanic group of dialects — mainly
spoken in central Europe — Gothic, Vandalic, Burgundian; North
Germanic group of dialects — Old Norwegian, Old Danish, Old
Swedish, Old Icelandic; and the West Germanic group of dialects
— the dialects of Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians and others,
originally spoken in western Europe. The first knowledge of
these tribes comes from the Greek and Roman authors which,
together with archeological data, allows to obtain information on
the structure of their society, habits, customs and languages.
The principal East Germanic language is Gothic. At the
beginning of our era the Goths lived on a territory from the
Vistula to the shores of the Black Sea. The knowledge of Gothic
we have now is almost wholly due to a translation of the Gospels
and other parts of the New Testament made by Ulfilas, a
missionary who christianized the Gothic tribes. Except for some
runic inscriptions in Scandinavia it is the earliest record of a
Germanic language we possess. For a time the Goths played a
prominent part in European history, making extensive conquests
in Italy and Spain. In these districts, however, their language soon
gave place to Latin, and even elsewhere it seems not to have
maintained a very tenacious existence. Gothic survived longest in
the Crimea, where vestiges of it were noted down in the sixteenth
century.
North Germanic is found in Scandinavia and Denmark.
Runic inscriptions from the third century preserve our earliest
traces of the language. In its earlier form the common
Scandinavian language is conveniently spoken of as Old Norse.
From about the eleventh century on, dialectal differences become
noticeable. The Scandinavian languages fall into two groups:
ix
/. INTRODUCTORY. GERMANIC LANGUAGES

Map 1-1. Germanic tribes in Europe


PART 1. LECTURES

an eastern group including Swedish and Danish, and a western


group including Norwegian and Icelandic. Of the early
Scandinavian languages Old Icelandic is much the most
important. Iceland was colonized by settlers from Norway about
A.D. 874 and preserved a body of early heroic literature
unsurpassed among the Germanic peoples. Among the more
important monuments are the Elder or Poetic Edda, a collection
of poems that probably date from the tenth or eleventh century,
the Younger or Prose Edda compiled by Snorri Sturluson (1178—
1241), and about forty sagas, or prose epics, in which the lives
and exploits of various traditional figures are related.
West Germanic is of chief interest to us as the group to which
English belongs. It is divided into two branches, High and Low
German, by the operation of a Second (or High German) Sound-
Shift analogous to that described below as Grimm's Law. This
change, by which West Germanic p, t, k, d, etc. were changed
into other sounds, occurred about A.D. 600 in the southern or
mountainous part of the Germanic area, but did not take place in
the lowlands to the north. Accordingly in early times we
distinguish as Low German tongues Old Saxon, Old Low
Franconian, Old Frisian, and Old English. The last two are
closely related and constitute a special or Anglo-Frisian
subgroup. Old Saxon has become the essential constituent of
modern Low German or Plattdeutsch; Old Low Franconian, with
some mixture of Frisian and Saxon elements, is the basis of
modern Dutch in Holland and Flemish in northern Belgium; and
Frisian survives in the Dutch province of Friesland, in a small
part of Schleswig, in the islands along the coast, etc. High
German comprises a number of dialects and is divided
chronologically into Old High German (before 1100), Middle
High German (1100—1500), and Modern High German (since
1500). High German, especially as spoken in the midlands and
used in the imperial chancery, was popularized by Luther's
20
1. INTRODUCTORY. GERMANIC LANGUAGES

translation of the Bible into it (1522—1532), and since the


sixteenth century has gradually established itself as the literary
language of Germany.

3. Chief characteristics
of the Germanic languages
The barbarian tribes — Goths, Vandals, Lombards, Franks,
Frisians, Teutons, Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Scandinavians —
lived on the fringes of the Roman Empire. All these spoke
Germanic languages, which had distinctive characteristics of
structure and pronunciation which are reflected in its
descendants.

3.1. Phonetics
One of the most important common features of all Germanic
languages is its strong dynamic stress falling on the first root
syllable. The fixed stress emphasised the syllable bearing the
most important semantic element and to a certain degree later
contributed to the reduction of unstressed syllables, changing the
grammatical system of the languages.
The most important feature of the system of Germanic
vowels is the so-called Ablaut, or gradation, which is a
spontaneous, positionally independent alteration of vowels
inhabited by the Germanic languages from the Common Indo-
European period. This ancient phenomenon consisted in
alteration of vowels in the root, suffix or ending depending on the
grammatical form or meaning of the word.
There are two types of Ablaut: quantitative and qualitative.
The qualitative Ablaut is the alteration of different vowels,
mainly the vowels [e] / [a] or [e] / [o]
21
PART I. LECTURES

Old Icelandic bera (to give birth) — barn (baby)


Old High German stelan (to steal) — stal (stole)
Cf.: Russian бреду (I stroll, I wade) — брОД (ford, wade)
Latin tego (to cover, to cloth) — toga (clothes)
Quantitative Ablaut means the change in length of
qualitatively one and the same vowel: normal, lengthened and
reduced. A classic example of the Indo-European Ablaut is the
declension of the Greek word "pater" (father):
[e:] [e] [—\
pater pater patros
(nominative case, (vocative case, (genitive case,
lengthened stage) normal stage) reduced stage)
Ablaut in Germanic languages is a further development of
Indo-European alterations. Here we often find cases with both the
quantitative and qualitative ablaut. It should be also mentioned
that in the zero stage before sonorants an extra-short vowel [u]
was added:
quantitative ablaut
Goth1 qiman (to come) — qums (the arrival)
qualitative ablaut
OHG stelan (to steal) — stal (stole)
quantitative+quaUtative ablaut
OE . findan (tofind)— fand (found, — fundan (found,
past tense) past part.)
Ablaut as a kind of an internal flexion functioned in Old
Gemnanic languages both in form- and word-building, but it was
the most extensive and systematic in the conjugation of strong
verbs.
1
We shall use the following abbreviations for the names of the languages:
Gk - Greek Old - Old Icelandic
Goth - Gothic OSc - Old Scandinavian
Lat - Latin OSx - Old Saxon
OE - Old English Rus - Russian
OHG - Old High German Snsk - Sanskrit
22
/.INTRODUCTORY. GERMANIC LANGUAGES

Another phenomenon common for all Germanic languages


was the tendency of phonetic assimilation of the root vowel to the
vowel of the ending, the so-called -Umlaut, or mutation. There
were several types of mutation, but the most important one was
palatal mutation, or i-Umlaut, when under the influence of the
sounds [i] or.{j] in the suffix or ending the root vowels became
more front and more closed. This process must have taken place
in the 5lh,—6lh centuries, and-can-be,.illustrated by comparing
words from the language of the 'Qothic bible (4lh century)
showing no palatal mutation with corresponding words in other
Germanic languages of a later period.!)
Goth harjis OE here (annyy,
Goth domjan OE deman (deem);
Goth kuni OE cynn (шк
Traces of this tendency can be" seen both in word-building
and form-building as a kind of an internal flexion:
OHG gast (guest) — gestl (guests)
man (man) — mennisco (human)
Speaking about Germanic caiisonans, we should first of all
speak of the correspondence between Indo-European and
Germanic languages which was,presented as- a system of
interconnected facts by the German linguist Jacob Grimm in
1822. This phenomenon is called the First Consonant Shift, or
Grimm's law.
The table below shows-a scheme of Grimm's law with the
examples from Germanic and other Indo-European languages..
However, there are-some, instances where Grimm's law
seems not to apply. These cases were explained by a Dutch
linguist Karl Ver.ner, and the seeming exceptions from Grimm's
law have come to be known as Venter's law.

23
PART 1. LECTURES

7Ш(? /-/. Grimm's law

Indo-European Germanic
1 voiceless stops voiceless fricatives
p tк f p h
Lat pater 0£ fseder (father)
Lat tres Gtff/? preis (three)
Gk kardia <9#G herza (heart)
2 voiced stops voiceless stops
b d g p tк
Rus болото OE pol (pool)
Lat duo Goth twai (two)
Gk egon O/c/ ek (I)
3 voiced aspirated stops' voiced non-aspirated stops
bh dh gh bdg __
Snsk bhratar OE brodor
Lat frater, Rus брат
Snsk madhu OE medu (mead)
Rus мед
*Snsk songha Old syngva (sing)
Gk omphe (voice)

Verner's law explains the changes in the Germanic voiceless


fricatives f p h resulting from the first consonant shift and the
voiceless fricatives depending upon the position of the stress in
the original Indo-European word, namely:

'Note that the correspondencies in the third group are less clear, for aspirated,
stops can be found only in Sanskrit, the other Indo-European languages having
either voiceless fricatives or voiced stops, and the [gh] sound in Sanskrit is only
reconstructed.
24
Л INTRODUCTORY. GERMANIC LANGUAGES

Table 1-2. Verner's law

Indo-European Germanic
p t к s b d/d g z/r
Gk hepta Goth sibun (seven)
Gk pater OSc fadir, OE faeder
G& dekas Gof/г tigus (ten, a dozen)
Sn.yfe ayas Goth aiz, O#G er (bronze)

According to Verner's law, the above change occurred if the


consonant in question was found after an unstressed vowel. It is
especially evident in the forms of Germanic strong verbs, except
the Gothic ones, which allows to conclude that at some time the
stress in the first two verbal stems fell on the root, and in the last
two — on the suffix:
OE teon teah Ш30П to3en (to tug)
OSx tiohan toh tugun gitogan
Goth tiuhan tauh tauhum tauhans
OE ceosan ceas curon coren (to choose)
Old kiosa kaus k0rom k0renn
Goth kiusan kaus kusum kusans

3.2. Grammar
One of the main processes in the development of the
Germanic morphological system was the change in the word
structure. The common Indo-European notional word consisted
of three elements: the root, expressing the lexical meaning, the
inflexion or ending, showing the grammatical form, and the so-
called stem-forming suffix, a formal indicator of the stem type.
However, in Germanic languages the stem-forming suffix fuses
25
PART I. LECTURES

with the ending and is often no longer visible, thus making the
word structure a two-element one. Nevertheless, it should be
taken into account when explaining the differences in the
categorial forms of words originally having different stem-
forming suffixes.
It should also be mentioned that Germanic languages
belonged to the synthetic type of form-building, which means that
they expressed the grammatical meanings by changing the forms
of the word itself, not resorting to any auxiliary words.
The Germanic nouns had a well-developed case system with
1 1
four cases (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative) and two
number forms (singular and.plural). They also had the category of
gender (feminine, masculine and neuter). The means of form-
building were the endings added to the root/stem of the noun.
The Germanic adjectives had two types of declension,
conventionally called strong and weak. Most adjectives could be
declined both in accordance with the strong and weak type.
Agreeing with the noun in gender,' case and noun, the adjective by
its type of declension expressed the idea of definiteness (weak
declension) or indefiniteness (strong declension), the meaning
which was later to become expressed by a grammatical class of
words unknown in Common Germanic — the article.
The adjective also had degrees of comparison, the forms of
which were im most instances formed with the help of suffixes
-iz/oz and -ist/-ost, but their©эдегеalso, instances of suppletivism,
i.e. use of different roots for different forms — a means common
for many Indo-European languages:
Goth leitils—minniza—minnists (little—less—least)
Rus хороший—лучше—7лучший

'Some languages had elements of the instrumental and vocative cases.


26
/. INTRODUCTORY. GERMANIC LANGUAGES

The Germanic verbs are divided into two principal groups:


strong and weak verbs, depending on the way they formed their
past tense forms.
The past tense (or preterite) of strong verbs was formed with
the help of Ablaut, qualitative or quantitative. Depending upon
the phonetic root structure, the exact manifestation of Ablaut
could be somewhat different, and accordingly strong verbs were
further subdivided into classes.
Weak verbs expressed preterite with the help of the dental
suffix -d/-t. They also had stem-forming suffixes, depending on
which they fell into separate classes.
There was also a small group of highly frequent suppletive
verbs forming their forms from different roots, the same as in
other Indo-European languages:
Goth im (/I/am) Rus есть
was (/I/ was) был
The Germanic verb had a well-developed system of
categories, including the category of person (first, second, third),
number (singular and plural)1, tense (past and present, the latter
also used for expressing future actions), mood (indicative,
imperative and optative) and vr : ?e (only in Gothic—active and
mediopassive). The categprial forms employed synthetic means
of form-building.

ЗЛ Alphabet
Although the people of the Germanic tribes were mostly
illiterate, some of the Germanic nations had their own mode of
writing, with a distinctive alphabet called runic, each letter of
which was called a rune. We know that runes were used to record
early stages of Gothic, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, English,

'And in Gothic also dual.


27
PART 1. LECTURES

Frisian, Frankish and various tribal tongues of central Germania,


and they may also have supplied other Germanic languages
without leaving any evidence surviving till today. "On
archaeological grounds the earliest estant runes are dated to the
second century AD. The script continued in use in some regions
throughout the Middle Ages and into early modern times.
The early runes were not written, but incised—runic script
was designed for inscribing, at first on wood, which explains
many of its characteristics. Since runes were designed for
incising in wood, the letter forms, in their earliest stage, eschew
curves, which are hard to cut in such a grainy material. Letters
were made up of vertical strokes, cut at right angles to the grain,
and of slanting strokes which stood distinct from it. Horizontal
strokes, which would mingle with the grain and be hard to
distinguish, were avoided.
Even the earliest examples of the script show there were
variations in some letter forms, so it is not possible to give a
standard pattern for the Germanic runic alphabet. The rune-row
below is one of the most generally accepted variants:

futharkg whni j p e r s t bemlngd о

The earliest known runic alphabet had twenty-four letters


arranged in a peculiar order, which, from the values of its first
letters, is known as the futhark. In early times texts could be
written not only from left to right, but from right to left equally
well. Some texts could even be written with alternate lines in
opposite directions. Even in left-to-right texts an individual letter
could be reversed at whim, and occasionally a letter might be
inverted. There was no distinction between capital and lower-
case letters.

28
1. INTRODUCTORY. GERMANIC LANGUAGES

The Roman equivalents for the Germanic runes given above


are only approximate, for the sounds of Early Germanic did not
coincide with those of Modern English.
We do not know where and when runes were invented. The
obvious similarities with the Roman alphabet brought early
scholars to the belief that the script first appeared among
Germanic peoples living close to the Roman empire, and that the
runes were an adaptation of the more prestigeous alphabet. Early
finds of rune-inscribed objects in eastern Europe (Pietroassa in
Rumania, Dahmsdorf in central Germany and Kowel in the
Ukraine) suggest that runes may have been invented by Goths on
the Danube or beside the Vistula. This is further supported by the
similarity of occasional runes to letters of one or other of the
Greek alphabets. However, continued discovery of early runic
texts in various regions of Europe do not allow to consider the
matter of the origin of runes conclusively proven.
Be it as it may, wherever and whenever they were created,
runes soon spread over the Germanic world, and by 500 AD they
are found not only in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, England, but
also in Poland, Russia and Hungary, recording different Germanic
languages and being cut, stamped, inlaid or impressed on metal,
bone, wood and stone.
Runes were used for many centuries and in many lands,
gradually changing in their passage through time and space. In
England the script died out, superseded by Roman, somewhere in
the eleventh century; in Germany and the Low Countries —
rather sooner. In Scandinavia and its colonies, however, runes
continued well into the Middle Ages. Nevertheless, the later runic
inscriptions are of comparatively little interest, for there is plenty
of other evidence for the state of the language they record,
whereas the early inscriptions are of great importance to the
linguist, for they record material for which there is otherwise
little or no evidence.
29
PART 1. LECTURES

Thus we may summarize the above discussion stating that


the principal features common to all the languages of the
Germanic language area were: (i) fixation of the main stress on
the initial syllable of the word; (ii) the first, or Germanic sound
shift affecting the Indo-European voiceless and voiced stops and
the spirant [s]; (iii) certain vowel changes; (iv) reduction in the
number of cases as compared to Common Indo-European; (v) full
development of the weak declension of the adjective with a
particular categorial meaning; (vi) development of a dental
preterite and appearance of the strong/weak verb distinction;
(vii) a peculiar alphabet.

Some more facts ...

The British

Britain, as far as we can trace men in our island, was first


inhabited by cave-men, who have left no history at all. In the
course of ages they passed away before the Iberians, or
Ivernians, who came from the east and bore a striking
resemblance to the Basques. It may be that some Mongolian
tribe, wandering west, drawn by the instinct which has driven
most race-migrations westward, sent offshoots north and south
— one to brave the dangers of the sea and inhabit Britain and
Ireland, one to cross the Pyrenees and remain sheltered in their
deep ravines. These sturdy voyagers were short and dark, harsh-
featured and long-headed, worshipping the powers of Nature
with mysterious and cruel rites of human sacrifice, holding
beliefs in totems and ancestor-worship. When the stronger and
more civilised Celt came he drove before him these little dark
men, he enslaved their survivors and wedded their women, and
in his turn fell into slavery to the cruel Druidic religion of his
subjects. To these Iberians, and to the Celtic dread of them, we
probably owe all the stories of dwaifs, goblins, elves and earth-

30
1. INTRODUCTORY. GERMANIC J^NGUAGES

gnomes; and if we examine carefully the descriptions of the


abodes of these beings we shall find them not inconsistent with
the earth-dwellings, caves, circle huts, or even with the burial
mounds of the Iberian race.
The race that followed the Iberians, and drove them out or
subdued them, was the proud Aryan Celtic race. Of different
tribes, Gaels, Brythons and Belgcv, they were all one in spirit
and one in physical feature.
Tall, blue-eyed, with fair or red hair, they owerpowered the
diminutive Iberians in every way. Their civilisation was of a
much higher type than that of the Iberians; their weapons, their
war-chariots, their mode of life are all so closely similar to that
of the Greeks of Homer that a theory has been advanced and
ably defended that when on the continent the Celts — Gaelic or
Gaulish tribes from the north of Europe — had been invaded by
the Homeric Greeks. It is to the Celts that we owe a debt of
imperishable culture and civilisation. To them belongs our
passion for the past, the ardent patriotism, the longing for
spiritual beauty, so different from the Saxon materialism.
The Celt, however, had his day of supremacy and passed; the
Roman crushed his power of initiative and made him helpless
and dependent, and the Teuton — whether as Saxon, Angle,
Frisian or Jute — dwelt in his homes and ruled his former lands.
The Teuton was a hardier, more sturdy man than the Celt; he was
by choice a warrior and a sailor, a wanderer to other lands. To
him physical cowardice was the inforgivable sin, next to
treachery to his chieftain. A quiet death-bed was the worst end to
a man's life, in the Anglo-Saxon's creed: it was «a cow's death»,
to be avoided by everything in one's power, the only worthy
finish to a warrior's life being a death in fight. Perhaps there
was little of spiritual insight in the minds of these Angles and
Saxons, little love of beauty; little care for the amenities of life;
but they had a sturdy loyalty, an uprightness, a brave disregard
of death in the cause of duty, which we can still recognise in
modern Englishmen.
When the English, or Anglo-Saxons, as we generally call
them, had settled down in England, united their warring tribes
and developed a somewhat centralised givernment, their whole
national existence was imperilled by the incursions of the Danes,
31
PART I. LECTURES

or Northmen, Vikings from Norway and Iceland, whose fame and


the dread of whom went before them. They were related to the
nations they came to harry and plunder, but their spirit was
different from that of the conquered Teutonic tribes. The
rapturous fight with the elements in which the Northman lived
and moved and had his being, gave him a strain of ruthless
cruelty unlike anything in the more peaceful Anglo-Saxon
character. There was also a power of bold and daring action, of
reckless valour, of rapid conception and execution, which
contrasted strongly with the slower and more placid
temperament of the Anglo-Saxon, and to this strain modern
Englishment probably owe the power of initiative, the love of
adventure and the daring action which have made England the
greatest colonising nation on the earth.
These were far from the last men of many nations that were
brought to England by war, trade, love of adventure or religion
and with whom the English came into contact during their long
and colourful history, all of them leaving their trace. With all
these different elements amalgamated in one, it is no wonder
that the present-day English nation, its nature and beliefs
represented in its language are a unique phenomenon worthy of
careful and detailed study.
after M.I. Ebbutt
LECTURE 2.
OLD ENGLISH.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
"The greatest Englishman that ever lived
was King Alfred."
- Winston Churchill

"Alfred found learning dead and he restored it,


Education neglected and he revived it,
The laws powerless and he gave them force,
The church debased and he raised it,
The land ravaged by afearfid enemy from which
he delivered it - Alfred's name will live as long
as mankind shall respect the past"
(Inscription on the base of the statue
of King Alfred in Wantage,
Oxfordshire, his place of birth)

List of principal questions:


1. Outer history
1.1. Principal written records
1.2. Dialectal classification
1.2.1. The dialects in Old English
1.2.2. Old English written records
2. Inner history
2.1. Phonetics
2.2. Spelling
2.3. Grammar
2.4. Vocabulary
33
PART 1. LECTURES

1. Outer history
As we have already said, the forefathers of the English nation
belonged to the western subdivision of old Germanic tribes, and
the dialects they spoke later lay the foundation of the English
national language.
The history of the English language begins in the fifth
century AD. when the ruthless and barbaric Germanic tribes of
Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians, who up to that time had lived in
western Europe between the Elbe and the Rhine, started their
invasion of the British Isles.
At the time of the invasion Britain was inhabited by the sor
called "romanised Celts", that is, Celts who had lived under the
Roman rule for over four centuries and who had acquired Roman
culture and ways of life and whose language had undergone
certain changes mainly in the form of borrowings from the Latin
language.
The Celtic tribes, whose languages, the same as Germanic,
also belonged to the Indo-European family, were at one time
among its most numerous representatives. At the beginning of our
era the Celts could be found on the territories of the present-day
Spain, Great Britain, western Germany and northern Italy. Before
that they had been known to reach even Greece and Asia Minor.
But under the steady attacks of Italic and Germanic tribes the
Celts had to retreat, so that in the areas where they were once
dominant they have left but the scantiest trace of their presence.
The Celts who first came to Britain gradually spread to
Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. Their languages are
represented in modern times by Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx.
A later wave of Celtic tribes, having occupied for some centuries
the central part of England, were in turn driven westwards by
Germanic imvaders, and their modern language representatives
are Welsh, Cornish and Breton.
34
2. OLD ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

The Romans invaded Britannia as it was then called in 55—


54 ВС when the troops of Julius Caesar and others conquered the
isles. No centralised government was formed, instead there
existed petty principalities under the control of local landlords. In
407 AD, with the departure of the last Roman emissary
Constantine hostilities among the native tribes in England began
anew. To normalise the situation the local chieftains appealed to
influential Germanic tribes who lived on the continent inviting
them to come to their assistance, and in 449 the Germanic troops
Jed by Hengest and Horsa landed in Britain.
The Roman occupation of England left little mark on its fu-
ture. Most of what the Romans did perished after they left, so it is
with the Germanic tribes that the history of England truly begins.
The invaders, or Barbarians, as they were generally called,
who came to the Isles were representatives of a by far inferior
civilisation than the Romans. A bulk of the invaders came from
the most backward and primitive of the Germanic tribes. They
were an agricultural rather than a pastoral people. Their tribal
organisation was rapidly disintegrating.
The invaders came to Britain in hosts consisting not only of
warriors, but also including labourers, women and children. They
plundered the country, took possession of almost all the fertile
land there and partly exterminated, and partly drove away the
native population to the less inhabited mountainous parts of the
country — Cornwall, Wales, Scotland. The rest of the natives
became slaves to the conquerors.
.In view of the historical facts mentioned above it is quite
clear why the language of the invaders underwent so few changes
under the influence of the Celtic tongue as almost no normal
intercourse between the invaded and the invaders was possible,
the latter being very few and far below socially.
It should be noted that nowadays the remnants of the Celtic
group of languages face the threat of complete disappearance,
35
PART 1. LECTURES

unable to survive in the competition with English. Cornish


became extinct already in the 18th century, Manx — after the
second world war. Scottish Gaelic is spoken only in the
Highlands by about 75 thousand people, Irish — by half a
million, the figures showing a steady declining tendency, and the
absolute majority of those speaking these languages are bilingual,
English being no less familiar to them than their former native
tongue. Although in recent years a certain revival of nationalist
sentiments helped to somewhat arrest the decline, many linguists
fear the inevitable disappearance of the whole branch of the Indo-
European family of languages.
We have very little indirect evidence about the beginning of
the Old English period — 5th—7lh centuries. The first written
records were dated as far back as the beginning of the 8th century,
that is why the 5th—7th centuries are generally referred to as "the
pre-written period" of the English language.

1.1. Principal written records


of the Old English period
The principal written records that came to us through the
centuries date from as far back as the 8th century. They were
written with the help of the so-called "Runic Alphabet". This was
an alphabet of some 26 letters, the shape of which is quite
peculiar.

['fuGark], or ['fuGork]

We have already said that it is assumed the Runic alphabet


was composed by Germanic scribes in the II—III centuries AD.
and their angular shape is due to the material those inscriptions
were made on — wood, stone, bone — and the technique of
36
2. OLD ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

"writing" — the letters were not written but carved on those hard
materials. The word "rune" meant "mystery", and those letters
were originally considered to be magic signs known to very few
people, mainly monks, and not understood by the vast majority of
the illiterate population. Among the first Old English runic
inscriptions we generally mention two: the inscription on the so-
called "Franks' casket" — a small box made of whalebone
containing a poem about it1, and the inscription on the "Ruthwell
cross" — a religious poem engraved on a stone cross found in
Scotland.

Rune Anglo-Saxon Name Meaning

P f feoh cattle, wealth


h u ur bison (aurochs)
t> P born thorn
F 0 OS god/mouth
r rad journey/riding
< с cen torch
X gfj] giefu gift
w wyn joy
N h h»gl hail
1* n nied necessity/trouble
1 i is ice
* j gear year
P peor [unknown]
t X
s
eolh
sigel
[unknown]
sun
t t tiw/tir
beorc
Tiw (name of a god)
b birch
M e eoh horse
m man
и man

r 1
ng
lagu
ing
water/sea
Ing (name of a hero)
oe epel land/estate
M d daeg day
a ac oak
a;sc ash
У yr bow

'See a picture of the Franks' casket in Pan 2 — Seminars.


37
PART 1. LECTURES

Map 2-1. Germanic settlement in England

Source: Vie Cambridge Encyclopedia


of the English Language, 199S

38
2. OLD ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

th
In the 7 century the Christian faith was introduced and with
it there came many Latin-speaking monks who brought with them
their own Latin alphabet.
The Latin alphabet was used by the majority of the people
who could read and write. It ousted the Runic alphabet. But the
Latin alphabet could not denote all the sounds in the English
language, for example, the sounds [w], [0]. For that purpose
some runes were preserved — w, p, F*, or some Latin letters were
slightly altered — б to denote the sounds [0], [6] together with
the rune p.
This alphabet that is a combination of the Latin alphabet
with runes and some other innovations is called "insular writing",
i.e. the alphabet typical of the Isles. The majority of Old English
records are written in this insular alphabet. The spelling in these
early records is on the whole phonetic and reasonably consistent,
so that it is possible to learn much about the early pronunciation.

1.2. Dialectal classification


of Old English written records
1.2.1. The dialects in Old English
As we have already said, the onset of invasion by the
members of the four principal Germanic tribes: Angles, Saxons,
Jutes and Frisians — began about the middle of the fourth cen-
tury and their conquest of England was completed within the next
century and a half. By about AD 600 they established their sepa-
rate kingdoms, the principal among them being:
- those formed by the Angles: Northumbria (north of the
river Humber), Mercia (in the centre of England) and East Anglia
— central eastern part of the country;
- those formed by the Saxons — mainly to the south of the
river Thames: Wessex, Sussex and Essex;
- the one formed by the Jutes — Kent.
39
PART 1. LECTURES

Only the Frisians did not form a separate kingdom, but


intermarried with the population belonging to different tribes.
The prevailing importance of these seven kingdoms gave to
the next two centuries the title of Heptarchy. Gradually three of
the seven — Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria — began to estab-
lish some sort of domination over their smaller neighbours. It was
an important step towards the achieving the eventual unity of
England. Another vital factor contributing to the unity was the
appearance of Christianity in England in AD 597, and afterwards
the spread of Christianity and changes of the supremacy of this or
that kingdom follow almost the same course.
The Old English dialects are generally named after the
names of the kingdoms on the territory of which the given dialect
was spoken — the Northumbrian dialect, the Mercian dialect, the
Wessex dialect, etc.
Though the differences between the three types were later to
assume considerable importance, they were at first slight, and
records of the 8th and 9th centuries reveal that Englisc, as it was
collectively called, had by that time emerged as an independent,
language. The virtually complete geographical separation of
England from the Continent was a factor favouring the further
development of those characteristic features that already
distinguished English from its parent Germanic language.
Among the principal Old English dialects the most important
for us is the Wessex dialect, as the majority of Old English
written records that we have can be traced back to that dialect.
But the prominence of the Wessex dialect is also based on other
extralinguistic criteria.
As is known, efforts to unite England failed for a very long
period of time, because as soon as one kingdom became great it
was in the interests of the rest to pull it down. Some historians
say that the reason for that was the lack of the strongest possible
motive towards any union, namely, the presence of a foreign foe.
40
2. OLD ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Such enemy appeared in the second half of the 8lh century, when
the Northmen, particularly the Danes, began their devastating
raids on the isles. At the beginning of the 9th century, when the
Danish invaders destroyed in turn the dynasties of Northumbria,
Mercia and East Anglia, Wessex was left as the sole survivor, and
its leaders became the leaders of the emerging nation.
The most famous of all English kings, Alfred of Wessex,
which would later come to be called Alfred the Great, came to
the throne in 871 and is reputed to have been one of the best
kings ever to rule mankind. He successfully fought with the
Danes who by that time had conquered most of Eastern England
and were moving southwards towards Wessex. Alfred managed to
stop the Danes, although temporarily, and in 878 signed a treaty
with the Danish king dividing England between them.
But Alfred's true greatness lay not in his military, but peace-
time activity. He set aside a half of the revenue to be spent on
educational needs, established schools where the sons of the
nobility could be taught to read and write, brought in foreign
scholars and craftsmen, restored monasteries and convents,
published a collection of laws and enforced them. He also
mastered Latin and translated many books into Anglo-Saxon and
ordered the compilation of the first history book, the Anglo-
Saxon Chronicle, which was continued for more than two
centuries after his death. All this allows to say that even had
Alfred never fought a battle, he would still deserve a place among
the greatest rulers of history.

King Alfred formulated his aims as follows: "Desire for and


possession of earthly power never pleased me overmuch, and I
did not unduly desire this earthly rule... I desired to live worthily
as long as I lived, and to leave after my life, to the men who
should come after me, the memory of me in good works."

41
PART 1. LECTURES

Map 2-2. Old English dialects


2. OLD ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

However, after the death of Alfred the Great in 901 the


supremacy of Wessex gradually began to decline, and for a time,
from 1017 till 1042, the throne was occupied by Danish kings.

1.2.2. Old English written records


Old English written records which are rather numerous are
generally classified either in accordance with the alphabet used
or in accordance with the dialect of the scribe who wrote the
record.
If we speak about the first criterion — the alphabet (runic or
insular) -— the first group is rather scarcely represented (Frank's
casket, Ruthwell cross), the other group having many written
records. But generally the records are classified in accordance
with their dialect: Northumbrian (Franks' casket, Ruthwell cross,
Caedmon's hymns), Mercian (translation of the Psalter), Kentish
(psalms), West Saxon (The Anglo-Saxon chronicle, the
translation of a philosophical treatise Cura Pastoralis, King
Alfred's Orosius — a book on history).
There were also many translations from other dialects, an
example of which is Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English
People (731 AD). Bede, a learned monk at Jarrow, is said to have
assimilated all the learning of his time. He wrote on language,
science and chronology and composed numerous commentaries
on the Old and New Testament.
With the rise of Wessex to the dominant position among the
Old English kingdoms in the 9th and. 10"1 centuries, and thanks to
the powerful influence of their learned King Alfred, the West
Saxon dialect became the chief vehicle of literature. All the
works of literary importance that have survived, both prose and
poetry, are written in West Saxon, with only occasional traces of
other dialects, and in this sense it may be regarded as typical of
the Old English period.
43
PART 1. LECTURES

2. Inner history
During the period the language was developing very slowly.

2.1. Phonetics
The phonetics of the Old English period was characterised
by a system of dynamic stress. The fixed stress fell on the first
root syllable:
agane (gone); 3eseon (see); 3aderian (gather)
The vowels had the following characteristic features:
a) The quantity and the quality of the vowel depended upon its
position in the word. Under stress any vowel could be found,
but in unstressed position there were no diphthongs or long
monophthongs, but only short vowels [a], [ej, [i], [o], [u].
b) The length of the stressed vowels (monophthongs and
diphthongs) was phonemic, which means that there could be
two words differing only in the length of the vowel:
metan (to mete, to measure) — metan (to meet)
pin (pin) — pin (pain)
god (god) — god (good)
ful (full) — ful (foul)
c) there was an exact parallelism of long and short vowels:
Short: а о е u i se у ea eo
Long: а о ё п Т з ё у ё а ё о
The consonants were few. Some of the modern sounds were
non-existent (Ц], [3], Щ №])•
The quality of the consonant very much depended on its
position in the word, especially the resonance (voiced and
voiceless sounds: hlaf [f] (loaf) — hlaford [v] (lord, "bread-keep
and articulation (palatal and velar sounds: climban [k] (to climb)
— cild [k'] (child)), etc.
44
2. OLD ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

2.2. Spelling
The Old English spelling was mainly phonetic, i.e. each
letter as a rule denoted one sound in every environment. Note
should be taken that the letters f, s, J), 5 could denote voiced
consonants in intervocal positions or voiceless otherwise; the
letter с was used to denote the sound [k] (palatal or velar); the
letter у denoted the sound [y] (similar to German [u] in the word
"GemUt" or Russian [ю] in the word "бюро").
The letter 3 could denote three different sounds:
0] — before or after front vowels [ae], [e], [i] :
3iefan (give), зёаг (year), dx^ (day)
[y] — after back vowels Fal, fol, lul and consonants П1 and
M:
da3as (days), fo^ian (follow)
[g] — before consonants and before back vowels [a], [o], [u]:
30d (good), 3leo (glee)

2.3. Grammar
Old English was a synthetic language (the lexical and
grammatical notions of the word were contained in one unit). It
was highly inflected, with many various affixes. The principal
grammatical means were suffixation, vowel interchange and
supplition.
Suffixation:
Ic Сёре (1 keep) — pU Cepst (you keep) — he Серб (he keeps)
Vowel interchange:
WrTtan (to write) — Ic wrat (I wrote)
Supplition:
3Ш1 (to go) — eode (went)

45
PART I. LECTURES

beon (to be) — Ic eom (I am)


bu eart (you are)
he is (he is)
There was no fixed word-order in Old English, the order of
the words in the sentence being relatively free.

2.4. Vocabulary
Almost all of it was composed of native words, there were
very few borrowings.
Borrowings were mainly from Latin:
a) The forefathers of English, when on the Continent, had
contacts with the Roman empire and borrowed words connected
mainly with trade:
ciese (cheese), win (wine), aeppel (apple)
b) They borrowed Latin words from the Romanized Celts:
strast (street), weall (wall), myln (mill)
c) Some borrowings were due to the introduction of
Christianity:
biscop (bishop), deofol (devil), munic (monk)
New words appeared as a result of two processes:
a) word derivation:
' fisc+ere = fiscere (fish —fisher)
wulle+en = wyllen (wool — woolen)
claene+s+ian = claensian (clean — to cleanse)
b) word composition:
sunne + dae3 • = Sunnandas3 (sun + day = Sunday)
mona + dae3 = M5nandae3 (moon + day = Monday).

46
2. OLD ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Some more facts....

Origin of Modern Alphabet


The Northumbrian Alcuin of York (735—804) was the creator
of the modern alphabet. He was an English scholar who, while
head of the cathedral school of York, wrote a history of England.
Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, emperor of the Franks,
invited him to start a palace school at Aachen. Charlemagne
belonged to the famous dynasty of Carolingians. He was a
patron of letters and culture, and during his reign there began a
period of literary and artistic activity upsurge. This period of
intellectual advance, in which Alcuin played a leading role, was
called the Carolingian Renaissance.
Alcuin introduced English scholastic methods to
Charlemagne's empire and wrote poignant love lyrics, but his
farthest-reaching contribution was to normalise the empire's
writing. When Alcuin arrived at Aachen, scribes at one end of
the empire could not read the writing of scribes at the other end.
Ironically, Charlemagne, who was probably illiterate himself,
understood the importance of clear communication and record-
keeping better than his own scribes.
Drawing from English and Irish models, especially the
Insular pointed hand, Alcuin created the Carolingian minuscule
hand, a highly readable script that was used by scribes
throughout the empire. This hand became the model for the
lowercase letters of the I5'h-century Italian Humanistic and
Chancery Cursive hands (the uppercase, letters were modeled
after I"- and 2'"'-centuiy Roman inscriptions in stone, such as
the Trajan Column). These hands in turn became the models for
the Roman and Italic typefaces introduced by Aldus Manutius
(1449—1515), which are the basis for most modern typefaces.
After D.F.B. Reed.
LECTURE 3.
MIDDLE ENGLISH.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
"Never before has such terror appeared in
Britain as we have now sufferedfroma pagan
race, nor was it thought that such an inroad
from the sea could be made. Behold, the
church ofSt Cuthbert spattered with the blood
of the priests of God, despoiled of all its
ornaments; a place more venerable than all
in Britain is given as prey to pagan people."
Alcuin, AD 793
"It is not correct to paint the, Scandinavians
in either black or white; like most people they
were grey... They were no mean, destructive
people: rather people of wide vision who were to
make a considerable contribution to European
wholeness once they had become Christian and
had settled down to become the nations which we
know to-day."
n n . ,. , . D.M. Wilson, AD 1993
(Viking ship prow decoration,
Thames and Hudson archives)
List of principal questions:
1. Outer history
1.1. Scandinavian Invasion
1.2. Norman Conquest
1.3. Formation of the English national language
2. Inner history
2.1. Phonetics
2.2. Grammar
2.3. Word-stock
48
3. MIDDLE ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

1. Outer history
1.1. Scandinavian Invasion
The end of the Old English period and the beginning of
Middle English is marked by two outstanding political events —
the Scandinavian invasion and the Norman conquest.
It is impossible to state the exact date of the Scandinavian
invasion as it was a long process embracing over two centuries,
the first inroads of the Scandinavian Vikings having began as far
back as the end of the 8th century. Various Scandinavian
adventurers at the head of their troops came to England wave
after wave, although the English offered the invaders a stubborn
resistance. At first the invaders fought with the natives, robbed
and plundered the country, but later they began to settle on the
lands they had managed to conquer. The part of England which
suffered more from the invasion was the North-Eastern part of
the country. From that part the invaders trying to conquer the
whole of the country gradually proceeded to the South-West.
The kingdom that was the strongest among many existing in
Britain at that time and that could consequently withstand the
invasion more successfully than any other was the Wessex
kingdom, especially under the rule of King Alfred the Great. King
Alfred the Great was so powerful and successful in his struggle
against the invaders that hostilities ceased for a time and a peace
treaty was concluded — the Treaty of Wedmore, in accordance
with which the territory of the country was subdivided into two
parts: the south-western part remained English under the rule of
King Alfred and the north-eastern part was to be Scandinavian.
That part was referred to as Danela3U or Danelaw, i.e. the
territory which was under the rule of Scandinavians, or "Danes".

49
PART I. LECTURES

The Scandinavians in England remained very strong through


centuries, and at the beginning of the 1 lIh century, namely in the
period between 1016 and 1042 the whole of England came under
the Scandinavian rule — the conquest was completed and the
Danish king was seated on the English throne. Although in 1042
England was back under English power, the English king who
came to the throne — Edward the Confessor — was to be the last
English king for more than three centuries.
The Scandinavian invasion and the subsequent settlement of
the Scandinavian on the territory of England, the constant
contacts and intermixture of the English and the Scandinavians
brought about many changes in different spheres of the English
language: word-stock, grammar and phonetics. The influence of
Scandinavian dialects was especially felt in the North and East
parts of England, where mass settlement of the invaders and
intermarriages with the local population were especially
common. The relative ease of the mutual penetration of the
languages was conditioned by the circumstances of the Anglo-
Scandinavian contacts, i.e.:
a) There existed no political or social barriers between the
English and the Scandinavians, the latter not having formed the
ruling class of the society but living on an equal footing with the
English;
b) There were no cultural barriers between the two people as
they were approximately the same in their culture, habits and
customs due to their common origin, both of the nations being
Germanic.
c) The language difference was not so strong as to make their
mutual understanding impossible, as their speech developed from
the same source — Common Germanic, and the words
composing the basic word-stock of both the languages were the
same, and the grammar systems similar in essence.
3. MIDDLE ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Map 3-1. Viking attacks on England

Source: DM. Wilson


Tile Vikings and their origin, 1993
51
PART 1. LECTURES

1.2. Norman Conquest


The Norman Conquest began in 1066. The Normans were by
origin a Scandinavian tribe who two centuries back began their
inroads on the Northern part of France and finally occupied the
territory on both shores of the Seine. The French King Charles
the Simple ceded to the Normans the territory occupied by them,
which came to be called Normandy. The Normans adopted the
French language and culture, and when they came to Britain they
brought with them the French language.
In 1066 King Edward the Confessor died, and the Norman
Duke William, profiting by the weakness of King Harold who
succeeded King Edward on the English throne, invaded England.
He assembled an army, landed in England and in a battle of
Hastings on October 14, 1066 managed to defeat Harold and
proclaimed himself King of England.
The Norman conquest had far-reaching consequences for the
English people and the English language.
The English nobility perished through different reasons and
was replaced by the Norman barons. The new king William
confiscated the estates of the Anglo-Saxons nobility and
distributed them among the Norman barons. The Norman
conquerors continued pouring into England thousands after
thousands, years and years after the conquest, and during the
reign of King William over 200,000 Frenchmen settled in
England and occupied all positions of prominence in the country,
be it in court, Parliament, Church or school.
The heritage of the Norman Conquest was manifold. It
united England to Western Europe, opening the gates to European
culture and institutions, theology, philosophy and science. The
Conquest in effect meant a social revolution in England. The
lands of the Saxon aristocracy were divided up among the
52
3. MIDDLE ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Normans, who by 1087 composed almost 10% of the total


population. Each landlord, in return for his land, had to take an
oath of allegiance to the king and provide him with military
services if and when required.
The Saxon machinery of government was immensely
reinforced, with a Norman monarch and his officials as effective
centralised controllers. Royal power was spread to provinces,
royal justice was much more impartially done. The Normans
created a strong medieval monarchy which was gradually to
complete the unification of England.
The 13th century witnessed the appearance of the first
Parliament, or a council of barons, which later was changed to a
national Parliament, representing the nobility, clergy, knights of
the shires and major cities.
The Norman conquerors, though Germanic by origin, were
French by their language, habits and customs. They were a people
and a class that stood aloof from the conquered English, whose
habits and customs they despised and whose language they could
not understand. They spoke French and addressed people in
French. They taught their children French — the only language
they could speak, which is noticed by many writers and scholars.
And for more than two centuries after the conquest the English
country was ruled by French-speaking Kings and nobility, and the
French language was the state language of the country.
The Norman Conquest put an end to the West Saxon literary
language. But eventually after a prolonged struggle the English
language got ascendance over French and again became the state
language of the country. The victorious and defeated peoples
continued to speak their own languages. The language spoken
and written by the English continued to develop in accordance
with tendencies already active before the conquest.
The English language emerged after the straggle, but it came
in a different position. Its vocabulary was enriched by a great
53
PART 1. LECTURES

number of French words and its grammatical structure underwent


material changes.
They generally mention-the following decisive steps in the
way upward of the English language after the Norman conquest:
a) 1258 — Proclamation of King Henry III was published
besides French also in English;
b) 1362 — the English language became the language of
Parliament, courts of law; later, at the end of the century — the
language of teaching;
c) the rule of King Henry IV (1399—1413) — the first king
after the conquest whose native tongue was English.
The end of the 14th century also saw the first "English"
translation of the Bible, and Chaucer was writing his "English"
masterpieces. The new merchant class and the spread of lay
learning were building a national civilisation, and by the end of
the century French had probably died out as a spoken language.

1.3. Formation of the English


national language
We can speak about the English national language as a
language understood and mainly used throughout the country
beginning with late Middle English — Early New English. They
generally say that the end of the Middle English period and the
beginning of New English is marked by the following events in
the life of the English people:
1. The end of the war between the White and the Red Rose
— 1485 and the establishment of an absolute monarchy on the
British soil with Henry Tudor as the first absolute monarch — the
political expression of the English nation.
The War of the Roses (1455—1485) was the most important
event of the .15* century which marked the decay of feudalism
and the birth of a new social order. It signified the rise of an
54
3. MIDDLE ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

absolute monarchy in England and a political centralisation, and


consequently a linguistic centralisation leading to a
predominance of the national language over local dialects.
2. The introduction of printing — 1477 by William Caxton
(1422— 1490).
Printing was invented in Germany by Johann Gutenberg in
1438. It quickly spread to other countries and England was
among them. The first English printing office was founded in
1476 by William Caxton, and in 1477 there appeared the first
book to be printed in England called The Dictes and Sayings of
the Philosophers. The appearance of a considerable number of
printed books contributed to the normalisation of spelling and
grammar forms fostering the choice of a single variant over
others. William Caxton established a printing-press at
Westminster, from which he issued a stream of books, many of
them translated from Latin and French by himself. Caxton, a
native of Kent, acquired the London dialect and made a
conscious choice from among competing variants, which he even
described in a preface to one of his translations, saying that he
had submitted it to princess Margaret, sister of the then king, and
"anon she found a default in my English which she commanded
me to amend."
Since that time — the end of the 15"1 century the English
language began its development as the language of the English
nation, whereas up to that time, beginning with the Germanic
conquest of Britain in the 5th century and up to the 15th century,
what we call the English language was no more than a
conglomerate of dialects, first tribal and then local. Indeed, a
notable feature of the Middle English period is the dialectical
variety that finds expression in the written documents. It was only
•ate in the 14lh century that the London dialect, itself a mixture of
the southern and south-eastern dialects, began to emerge as the
dominant type.
55
PART 1. LECTURES

Thus, the English national language was formed on the basis


of the London dialect which was uppermost among Middle
English dialects due to the political, geographical, economic and
"linguistic" position of London which became the capital of
England already in the 11th century — before the Norman
conquest and which was in the 15th century a thriving economic
centre and port of England due to its geographical position near
the estuary of the largest river in England. The geographical
position of London as a large port and city in the centre of the
country where people of the North mingled with "people of the
South, on the one hand, enabled the Londoners to acquire
features of both southern and northern dialects, and on the other
hand, the people coming to London helped to spread the London
dialect all over the country.
The importance of the London dialect as the foundation of
the English national language grew also because of the fact that
many of the best writers of the 14th—15th centuries, and Geoffrey
Chaucer among them, whose poetry achieved tremendous
contemporary prestige and popularity, were Londoners or used
the London dialect in their writings. As we have said, the 15th
century is generally referred to as the time of the beginning of the
English national language. But the literary norm of the language
was established later, already in Early New English, many
English authors of the forthcoming centuries contributing to it,
among them such as Edmund Spenser, Christopher Marlowe, Ben
Johnson and, finally, William Shakespeare.

56
3. MIDDLE ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Map 3-2. Middle English dialects

57
PART 1. LECTURES

2. Inner history
The Middle English period was a time of unprecedentedly
rapid development of the language. For the first three centuries
English was only a spoken language, and as such had no norm
and could develop without any restrain. All the elements of the
language changed fundamentally.

2.1. Phonetics
The stress is dynamic and fixed in the native words. But in
the borrowed French words the stress was on the last syllable:
licour [li'ku:r], nature [na'nr.r], etc.

New consonant sounds developed in native words:


[П ship [f ] child [Cfe] bridge
OE scip cild Ьгусз

The resonance of the consonant does not depend so much on


the position of the consonant, and voiced consonants can appear
not only in intervocal, but also in initial and other positions.

Vowels in unstressed position were reduced:


Old English Middle English

These sounds were in the end of the word, and it neutralised


the difference between the suffixes — the main grammar means.
Compare:

58
3. MIDDLE ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Old English Middle English


Genitive Singular fisces ~~~^—^_ fishes
Nominative Plural fiscas . - " - " " ^ fishes

Vowels under stress underwent mainly quantitative changes.


In Middle English we observe a rhythmic tendency, the aim of
which is to obliterate overlong and overshort sequences. The
tendency is to have in the word one long vowel + one consonant
or one short vowel + two consonants.

2.2. Grammar
The grammar system in Middle English gradually but very
quickly changed fundamentally: the Old English was a synthetic
language, the Middle English at the end of the period — an
analytical language. The principal grammatical means of the Old
English were preserved, but were no longer principal. At the end
of the Middle English period the analytical means, which began
developing in Middle English, are predominant. They are:
1. analytical verb-forms (Chaucer: perfect — hath holpen
(has helped); passive — engendered is (is bom));
2. the use of prepositions for grammatical purposes
(Chaucer; drought of March);
3. a fixed word-order began to develop.

2.3. Word-stock
In Middle English it underwent fundamental changes and
became almost new. If in Old English the word-stock was almost
completely native, in Middle English there were many
borrowings. The principal sources of them were:
1. Scandinavian (those who came in the end of the Old
English period) — over 500 words (take, give, sky, wrong, etc.);
59
PART I. LECTURES

2. French (the language of the Norman conquerors) — over


3500 words (government, army, battle, etc.).
Though the number of the French words is greater, all the
Scandinavian words — common, colloquial, everyday,
indispensable — entered the very core of the language, and their
influence is very great. The French words are generally terms
indispensable only in certain official spheres, but not colloquial.
The Scandinavian borrowings are intensive, the French
borrowings — extensive:
1. the Scandinavians and the English were linguistically
similar (both Germanic), the English and the French — different
(Germanic and Romance languages);
2. the English and the Scandinavians were similar socially
(neither of the nations formed the upper class); the French and
the English were different socially (the French-speaking people
forming the ruling class, the English-speaking — the lower
class);
3. the English and the Scandinavians had similar culture,
habits, customs, traditions; the French and the English —
different;
that is why the assimilation of the French words could not
proceed so quickly and intensively as that of Scandinavian.
The principal means of enriching vocabulary were thus outer
means, i.e. borrowings.

Some more facts....

Who are the Scots?


Our country and people come into recorded history in AD
84, characteristically resisting foreign domination as we were to
do on and off until 1603. By this time the Romans had
penetrated as far as modern Stirling. Calgacus, our native
60
3. MIDDLE ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

leader, addressed his men in the following terms : "The invaders


loot and massacre and call it government. They make a
wilderness and call it peace." The ensuing Battle of Mons
Graupius near Stirling checked the Romans and they retired
behind their fortified line stretching from what is now Glasgow
to Edinburgh.
Christianity was to unite the different tribes into that
conscious entity we now know as "Scottish". About 400 St
Ninian preached the faith to his own Pictish clansfolk. About
550 St Columba came from the famous monastery of lona to
evangelise many Scots and Picts. His friend, St Kentigern of
Glasgow, was the apostle of the Strathclyde Britons. These great
missionaries had many followers and disciples who continued
their apostolate. These men laid a sound foundation, for our
Scottish Christianity with its valuable cultural heritage stems
from them. Today it still informs most of us.
Scots, Picts and Britons have been mentioned and some hold
that these three words denote the "tattooed people". These unite
with the Celt, warrior in name, warrior in our history. Perhaps
our love of colourful tartans and our age-old martial spirit come
from this racial fusion, Angles and Vikings from the seventh
century onwards and Normans from the tenth are assimilated
into our race, giving us much, and taking much. By about the
twelfth century intermarriage and the Christian faith made us
into that united Scottish nation we still are today. About 900 the
word "Scot", originally meaning a native of Ireland, came to
mean one of ourselves.
By 1153 Scotland was one nation, though not all our
national strains were fully integrated. The lovely and remote
isles of the Hebrides did not become ours till 1266, and the
Orkneys and Shetlands not until 1467.
It needed the shock and storm of foreign invasion to fuse us
into a strong and virile nation — yet still fundamentally a kindly
one — a trait which comes into prominence so strikingly in the
long history of Scotland the Brave. Much more unites us now
than divides us. And though many of us have to leave Scotland,
as our small land cannot provide for us all at present, these
people and their descendants come back each year in their

61
PART I. LECTURES

thousands to the land of their ancestors, where they are inspired


and encouraged by the ever-fresh memory of the gallant exploits
of our forefathers.

From Pict and Scot and Cell and Briton,


And Angle, Viking, Norman diversity
We Scots in time from these were forged
Now conscious of our common unity.
Skirl of pipe and swirl of kilt —
A joy to us, a joy to others —
Fond memory of our mountain home
Unites all Scots as hand of brothers.
See Bruce and Wallace nobly fight
To free our folk and lochs and bens
While Burns and Scott and Raeburn too
Make known our land of lovely glens.
Queen Mary lives in spite of fate
In her descendants good and great-
For Charlie Flora death will face,
She, finest flower of Highland race.
Our men of God give out His Word,
New things and old, with charm and wit.
Dear Scotland the Brave aye bless it, Lord,
Hear we that Word by doing it.
After J. A. Carruth
LECTURE 4.
NEW ENGLISH.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

"It was the nation and the race


dwelling all round the globe that
had the lion's heart."
Winston Churchill •

Walter Raleigh, David Livingstone,


explorer of America explorer of Africa

James Cook,
explorer of Australia Benjamin Franklin,
and New Zealand explorer of Antarctica

List of principal questions:


1. Outer history
1.1. Emergence of the nation
1.2. Establishment of the literary norm
1.3. Geographical expansion of English
2. Inner history
2.1. Phonetics
2.2. Grammar
2.3. Word-stock
PART 1. LECTURES

1. Outer history
1.1. Emergence of the nation
The 15 century is a border-line in the history of the English
people. In 1485 there ended the War between the Roses. The end
of the war meant the end of feudalism and the beginning of
capitalism, a new, more peaceful era and the transition between
the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. An absolute monarchy was
established, the first absolute monarch being Henry Tudor. It
meant a real unification of the country, political and economic,
resulted in the development of capitalism and made it inevitable
that one nation and one national language be established.
The first king of the period, Henry VII (1485—1509)
strengthened the monarchy and provided the revenue imperative
for its very existence. During his reign commerce and
shipbuilding were encouraged, and the material wealth of the
country increased. New lands — Newfoundland and Nova Scotia
— were discovered. Following in his steps, his son, Henry VIII
(1509—1547) broke away from the ecclesiastical influence of
Rome, made himself head of the Church of England and of the
State and transferred the property of the monasteries to himself.
Dozens of large ships were built, trade continued to develop, and
new territories were drawn into it. It was during the reign of
Henry's son, Edward VI (1547—1553), that trade with Muscovy,
or Russia, as we call it today, was opened up.
The long reign of Elizabeth I (1558—1603) was one of the
most remarkable for the country, its progress in the discovery and
colonizing field tremendous. Queen Elizabeth's reign was also
particularly rich in learning — it was the age of Shakespeare,
Sidney, Spencer, Bacon, Marlowe and many other famous names.
Nevertheless, the evident achievements in foreign policy,
trade and culture did not put an end to the controversy of various
64
4. NEW ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

powerful forces in the country. Another problem which was to


have far-reaching concequences was that of whether sovereignty
lay with monarch or Parliament advocating the interests of the
new developing classes of society. The strife between the Crown
and Parliament was aggavated by religious differences. The
development of the country required more regular revenue, and
forced the Crown to raise taxes, which met with disapproval from
Parliament.
In the XVII century Charles I (1625—1649) for over a
decade ruled without Parliament, but had finally to reach a
compromise, according to which the powers of Parliament were
greatly extended. Henceforth one legal system was to apply to the
king and his subjects alike, and no taxation was to be raised
without Parliament's consent. However, when Paliament
demanded further concessions, denied the king control of the
army, a crisis followed which is now known under the title of the
Great Rebellion. The Crown lost the ensuing war, Charles I
surrendered and was executed, and for over a decade the country
was ruled by Parliament alone, the most notable leader of that
time being Oliver Cromwell. Granted the title of Lord Protector,
he was a virtual dictator of the nation, heavily relying on the
Army and disillusioning Parliament which had first brought him
to power.
After the death of Oliver Cromwell the Army and Parliament
We
re unable to agree on a government, and the restoration of
monarchy that followed in 1660, when the son of the executed
kin
g, Charles II, was.invited to return to the throne, was more a.
restoration of Parliament than of the King himself. Charles II,
w
ho during the time of Cromwell lived in exile in France,
brought with him from the Continent a keen interest in scientific
development, culture and arts, together with a considerable
mfluence of the French language spoken by his supporters.
PART I. LECTURES

1.2. Establishment of the literary norm


As we have said, in New English there emerged one nation
and one national language. But the English literary norm was
formed only at the end of the 17* century, when there appeared
the first scientific English dictionaries and the first scientific
English grammar. In the 17* and 18* centuries there appeared a
great number of grammar books whose authors tried to stabilise
the use of the language. Thus Samuel Johnson, the author of the
famous Dictionary (1755), wrote that he preferred the use of
"regular and solemn" pronunciation to the "cursory and
colloquial." Many famous writers also greatly contributed to the
formation of English, and among them, first and foremost, the
great Shakespeare.
Early New English (15* — beginning of the 18* century) —
the establishment of the literary norm. The language that was
used in England at that time is reflected in the famous translation
of the Bible called the King James Bible (published in 16И).
Although the language of the Bible is Early Modern English, the
authors tried to use a more solemn and grand style and more
archaic expressions.
A great influence was also connected with the magazine
published by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele called The
Spectator (1711—1714), the authors of which discussed various
questions of the language, including its syntax and the use of
words.
-tit
Late New English — since the 18 century.
If the gradual acceptance of a virtually uniform dialect by all
writers is the most important event in the emergence of Modern
English, it must be recognised that this had already gone a
considerable way before 1500, and it was undoubtedly helped by
Caxton's introduction of printing in 1477. The fact that the
London dialect was used by him in his translations and prefaces,
66
4. NEW ENGUSH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Map 4-1. The Growth of Empire

S m
" " J-K Horrabin. An Alias of European History
67
PART 1. LECTURES

and that Chaucer's works were among the books he published,


led to its rapid diffusion throughout the country. But the adoption
of a standard of spoken English was a slower process. It was not
until Elizabeth's time that the language of the court came to be
generally recognised as the best form of spoken English; and as
late as the 18*, and even the early 19* century country gentlemen
in their occasional visits to polite society in London were no
ashamed to use dialect.
Nevertheless, despite the persistence of wide varieties in
pronunciation, the basic phonetic changes that distinguish
Modern English from Middle English are profound, though they
are not reflected in a similar modification of spelling. The early
printers, whose practice was to prove of decisive importance for
the future, derived their spelling from the Middle English scribes
(a fact that largely accounts for the difficulty of English spelling
today). The most important of these changes was that affecting
the sound of vowels and diphthongs, with the result that the
"continental values" of Middle English were finally replaced by
an approximation to modern pronunciation. Lesser changes also
occurred in the pronunciation of consonants, though some ot
these have since been restored by conscious, and often mistaken,
attempts to adapt pronunciation more closely to the received
spelling.

1.3. Geographical expansion of English


in the li—20* centuries
and its effect on the language
Up to the 17l century the English language was spoken by
the people who lived only on the British Isles (at the time of
William the Conqueror there were about 2 million people), but
even there in the far-away mountainous parts of the country the
people preserved their own Celtic dialects very long into the New
68
4. NEW ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

Map 4-2. The English Language Today

Source,- The Cambridge B^lopedia


"M" English Language, MS
69
PART 1. LECTURES

English period. Thus in Cornwall the local dialect, Cornish died


out in the 18th century. In Wales there arose a tendency to revive
the local Celtic language. In 1893 the Welsh University was
founded, and in 1961 the number of those speaking Welsh
amounted to 650 thousand. In Ireland through centuries a struggle
against English was fought. It reached its climax in 1916 with the
Irish rebellion. In 1922 the Irish free state was formed and in
1949 the new state — Eire — left the Commonwealth of Nations.
Now Eire occupies the whole but the Northern part of Ireland,
which is a part of Britain. The number of people rose from 300
thousand to over 600 thousand, but the majority speak English.
The penetration of the English language to other parts of the
globe mainly began in the 16 century together with the
expansion of British colonialism. The 16' century was an age of
great adventurers, and England's progress in the discovery and
colonising field was tremendous. The first Virginian colony was
founded; Drake circumnavigated the globe; the East India
Company was established and English seamen left their mark in
many parts of the world. In 1620 the famous ship The Mayflower
reached North America in the region which is now the state of
Massachusetts. This marked the beginning of English in the New
World.
The 18 century witnessed the coming of English to India,
where nowadays the language is widely spread, although its
sphere is limited to large cities and a certain social layer, and in
today's India English is a state language together with the native
languages of Hindi and Urdu.,
th In the 18 ' century England conquered Canada. During the
19ft century the colonisation of Australia took place. In the
20 century English penetrated into South Africa.
***
Now about 300 million people speak English as their
national language in various parts of the globe, and many times
70
4. NEW ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

that — as a second language. To foretell the future of any


language, English among them, is of course impossible, but the
mere fact of its wide diffusion throughout the world is a
guarantee that it will continue to change and develop.

2. Inner history
The speed of the development of the language was lesser
than in Middle English. The language developed quickly at the
beginning of the period and slowly — at the end (with the
exception of the word-stock which develops equally quickly
during the whole period). When the literary norm was formed, it,
being always very conservative, prevented the change of the
language, that is why the speed of the development slowed down.

2.1. Phonetics
2. LI. The system of stress
In native words the stress is fixed and falls on the first root
syllable (as in Old English and Middle English). Some of
the borrowed words were not fully assimilated phonetically, that
is why the stress falls on another syllable, those fully assimilated
have the stress on the first root syllable, like in native words.
Native English words are short — they have one or two
syllables, that is why it is a norm, a rhythmic tendency of the
language to have one stressed syllable and one unstressed one =»
in borrowed words there developed a system of two stresses.
Sometimes the stress is used to differentiate the words
formed from the same root by the process called conversion (to
pro'duce— 'produce).

71
PART I. LECTURES

2.1.2. Consonants
a) A new [3] was introduced in borrowed words. Otherwise
the changes were not so great as in Middle English.
b) Vocalisation of consonants (some consonants in some
positions were vocalised — they disappeared, influencing the
preceding vowel).
Ex.: [r] disappeared at the end of the words and before
consonants changing the quantity of the vowel immediately
preceding it:
Middle English New English
for [for] [fo:]
form [form] [fo:m]

2.1.3. Vowels
a) In the unstressed position the vowels that were levelled in
Middle English generally disappeared at the end of the words.
Some of them were preserved for phonetic reasons only, where
the pronunciation without a vowel was impossible.
Compare, for example, the plural forms of nouns:
Old English Middle English New English
-as -es [z] dogs
[s] cats
[iz] dresses
b) All Middle English long vowels underwent the Great
Vowel'Shift (in early New English, 15th—18th century). They
became more narrow and more front. Some of them remained
monophthongs, others developed into diphthongs.
Middle English New English
he
[he:] [hi:] e: => i:
name [na:me] [neim] a: => ei
72
4. NEW ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

2.2. Grammar
In New English it did not change fundamentally. The main
changes are the strengthening of analytical features of the
language:
a) In many more cases empty grammatical words are used
(form-words);
b) Analytical forms of the Middle English are preserved, and
in addition to them in New English non-finite analytical forms
appear (in Middle English only finite forms could be analytical);
c) A fixed word-order is established.

2.3. Word-stock
The vocabulary is changing quickly. Many new words are
formed to express new notions, which are numerous.
Ways of enriching the vocabulary:
1. inner means (conversion: hand => to hand);
2, outer means. The sources here are numberless, as
the English have not only direct, but also indirect (through books,
later — TV, radio, films) contacts with all the world.
In the beginning of the Early New English (15 th —16 th
century) — the epoch of the Renaissance — there are many
borrowings from Greek, Italian, Latin.
The ,17th century is the period of Restoration =>.borrowings
come to the English language from French (a considerable
number of these words being brought by Charles II and his court).
In the 17th century the English appear in America =>
borrowings from the Indians' languages are registered.
In the 18"1 century the English appear in India => borrowings
from this source come to the English language (but these words
73
PART 1. LECTURES

are not very frequent, for they denote some particular reality of
India, ex.: curry).
In the 19* century the English colonisers appear in Australia
and New Zealand => new borrowings follow (kangaroo).
At the end of the 19th—beginning of the 20th century the
English appear in Africa, coming to the regions formerly
colonised by the Dutch => borrowings from Afrikaans and Dutch
appear.
Old English and Middle English Russian borrowings are
scarce — the contacts between the countries and their peoples
were difficult. In New English there are more borrowings: sable
(very dark), astrakhan, mammoth; in the 20lh century — soviet,
kolkhoz, perestroika, etc.

Some more facts...


Modern Dialects
More often than not it is still possible in Britain to tell from a
man's speech from which part of the country, sometimes even
from which county, he comes; while the phonetic differences
between the speech of any American and any Englishman are
even more apparent, although less than three hundred years ago
their accents would have been indistinguishable. With regard to
grammar, leaving aside dialect forms that are locally still »>
everyday use (e.g. such plurals as 'housen', or 'childer', or in
Dorset the indiscriminate use of the pronoun 'en' for 'him' or
'her'), there are significant differences. These are largely
independent of educational background, between our
spontaneous colloquial speech and the written language.
Usually we should write: 'the man to whom I was speaking', 'as
tall as he', 'if I were she', 'am I not?', but most of us say. 'the
man who I was talking to', 'as tall as him', 'if I was her', 'aren't
I?' and it would be hazardous to express a confident opinion as
to which of these grammatical forms, the written or the spoken,
will eventually survive. More immediately obvious, perhaps, are
the changes taking place in respect of vocabulary. In some of the

74
4. NEW ENGLISH. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

older trades and industries the use of specific dialect terms is


still almost essential for the local conduct of everyday business;
while since the beginning of the century thousands of new words,
mainly derived from Greek and Latin, have been created to meet
the needs of scientists and technologists. At the same time, in
every department of life, our borrowing from other languages
continues, particularly from America; though here, more often
than we appreciate, they are simply restoring words and
expressions originally taken from us.
Broadly, these changes are of two kinds: those that arise
from tendencies inherent in the nature of the language; and
those that are the result of external factors. To the fanner belong
many phonetical and grammatical changes, and from their study
of language in general and of the whole history of English in
particular philologists have discovered that these tend to
conform to patterns, and can therefore be stated as 'laws'. The
latter type of development is usually the result of political and
social forces.
Reference has already been made to the effect of
geographical isolation on the early development of English, and
similarly it is clear that the preservation of a number of
Elizabethan and Stuart words and idioms in contemporary
American speech is due to the remoteness of the earliest settlers
from their native land, while political independence and the
encouragement of wholesale immigration from almost every part
of the world were subsequently to cause yet further
differentiation between the two great English-speaking systems.
In contrast to such diversifying influences, others operate in the
direction of greater uniformity, for instance, in the spread of
literacy, increasing dependence on books and the extension of
broadcasting. Remembering that these examples of change and
variety are taken from a short period, it is easier to appreciate
the total qualitative effect produced by a series of small and
gradual modifications in the course of a millennium and a half.
During that period English has been transformed from the
dialect of a few thousand scattered tribesmen into a highly
developed language spoken by millions of people in many parts
of the world.

75
PART 1. LECTURES

In its original form Old English is today only intelligible to


specialists; even Middle English.the language of J. Chaucer, is
not easy to read without a glossary. Thus, while for purposes of
description it is justifiable to treat these as separate periods, and
to distinguish both from a language we are familiar with, it is
equally important to realise that at no stage were the people of
England any more conscious of the changes they were effecting
than we are today.

After D. Crystal
LECTURE 5.
OLD ENGLISH PHONETICS

In such ships Germanic tribes first came to the British Islands.


Souire: Vie Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, 1995

List ofprincipal questions:


1. Old English vowels
1.1. Origin of Old English vowel phonemes
1.2. Changes in Old English vowel phonemes
1.2.1. Breaking
1.2.2. Palatal mutation
1.2.3. Effect of palatal mutation upon grammar
and word-stock
2. Old English consonants
2.1. Dependence of the quality of the consonant
phoneme upon its environment in the word
2.2. Grimm's law, Verner's law
77
PART 1. LECTURES

1. Old English vowels


1.0. There were the following vowel phonemes in Old English
monophthongs diphthongs

a e l 0 u У еа ео
a зё ё I 0 п У ёа ёо
As we see in Old English there existed an exact parallelism
between long vowels and the corresponding short vowels. Not
only monophthongs but even diphthongs found their counterparts
which differed from them not only in quality but also in quantity.
Thus we may say that in the system of vowels both the quality
and the quantity of the vowel was phonemic. All the diphthongs
were falling diphthongs with the first element stronger than the
second, the second element being more open than the first.
Examples:

monophthongs diphthongs
a — a : stan — da3as ёо—ео: ceosan -- heorte
(stone) (days) (choose) (heart)
аё — аз: daed — dae3 ёа — е а : ceas -- eald
(dead) (day) (chose) (old)
6 — o : 3od — 3od
(god) (good)
I — i : wrltan — writen
(write) (written)

1.1. Origin of Old English


vowel phonemes
All Old English vowel phonemes can be traced back to Common
Germanic vowel phonemes. Old English monophthongs are, as a rule,
78
5. OLD ENGLISH PHONETICS

a further development of some Common Germanic monophthongs.


For example:

Old English from Common Germanic


[a]
ёгез (day) dags
0] [i]
bindan (bind) bindan
[o] [u]
coren (chosen) cusans, etc.

Some Old English monophthongs developed from Common


Germanic diphthongs:

Old English from Common Germanic


[a] [ai]
ras (wrote) rais

Old English long diphthongs are a result of some further


development of Common Germanic diphthongs, though in the
course of history the quality of the diphthong may have
undergone a change:

Old English from Common Germanic (Gothic)


ceosan (choose) kiusan
ceas (chose) kaus

Old English short diphthongs originated from monophthongs:

Old English from Common Germanic


eald (old) *ald
heorte (heart) *herte

l
7>
PART I. LECTURES

1.2. Changes in Old English


vowel phonemes
1.2.0. The changes that took place in the prehistoric period of
the development of the English language and which explain the
difference between Old English and Common Germanic vowels were
of two types: assimilative changes and independent (non-assimilative)
changes.
Independent changes do not depend upon the environment
in which the given sound was found. They cannot be explained,
but they are merely stated.
Common Germanic Old English
ai > a
a > аз, etc.
Assimilative changes are explained by the phonetic position
of the sound in the word and the change can and must be
explained. Among the many phonetic assimilative changes which
took place in the prehistoric period of the development of the
English language and which account for the discrepancy between
the Old English and the Common Germanic vowel system the
most important are breaking and palatal mutation.

1.2..1. Breaking
th
The process of breaking took place in the 6 century. It affected
two vowels — [se] and [e] when they were followed by the
consonants [r], [1], [h] generally followed by another consonant.
The resulting vowel was a diphthong (hence the name "breaking"
— a monophthong "was broken" into a diphthong), consequently the
process may be summed up" as diphthongization of short vowels [a?]
and [e] before certain consonant clusters.
80
5. OLD ENGLISH PHONETICS

For example:
a; > ea before r+consonant asrm > earm (arm)
1+consonant asld > eald (old)
h+consonant aehta > eahta (eight)
h final sseh > seah (saw)

e > ea before r+consonant herte > heorte (heart)


lc+consonant melcan > meolcan (to milk)
1 h+consonant selh > seolh (seal)
h final feh > feoh (cattle)

1.2.2. Palatal mutation


The qualitative change of Old English vowels that experts
call palatal mutation, or i-mutation, occurred somewhere during
the 6th—7th centuries. The process affected Germanic words where a
vowel in a stressed syllable was immediately followed by the sound [i]
or [j] in the next syllable. Almost all vowels, both diphthongs and
monophthongs, in the context described above became further
forward and higher, or more palatal and more narrow, with the
exception of [e] and [i] which could go no further. This may be
described as a kind of vowel hamiony — a natural process affecting
many modern languages: the vowels mutate, the change being caused
by their partial assimilation to the following vowel (or semi-vowel).

Monophthongs
a>e * strangipu > strengpu1 (strength)
ae > e *tselian > tellan (to tell)
a > её *halian > hiilan (to heal)
о>e *ofstian > efstan (to hurry)
1
Compare with the root vowel of the noun "talu" from the root of which the
ve
i"b was formed, or in the second case the adjective "slrang" and the noun
"streng".
81
PART 1. LECTURES

о>ё *domian > deman (to deem)


u >у *fullian > fyllan (to fill)
п>у *CUbian > cypan (to announce)
As a result of palatal mutation new phonemes entered the vowel-
system in Old English — the vowel phoneme [y] and. the vowel
phoneme [y], the result of the mutation of [u] and [п], respectively.
Diphthongs
ea > ie *ealdira > ieldra (elder)
ёа > Те *3eleafian > 3el!efan (to believe)
eo > ie *afeorrian > afierran (to remove)
to > Те *3etreowi > 3etnewe (true)

1.2.3. Effect of palatal mutation upon grammar and


word-stock
Though palatal mutation was a phonetic process it left traces
in Old English grammar and word-stock.
Grammar: As a result of the process of palatal mutation
there appeared vowel gradation in the system of the declension of
nouns (root-stem declension). In the system of adjectives we have
vowel gradation in the degrees of comparison, in the system of verbs
vowel gradation is found in Old English irregular weak verbs.1
Word-stock: Palatal mutation resulted in vowel interchange as a
word building means.
Adjective Verb
ful (full) fyllan (fill)
Noun Verb
dom (doom) deman (deem)
Verb Verb
sittan (sit) settan (set)
1
See Lecture 7, Old English Grammar.
82
5. OLD ENGLISH PHONETICS

2. Old English consonants

2.0. The Old English consonant system consisted of some 14


consonant phonemes denoted by the letters
p, b, m, f, t, d, n, s, r, 1, b(5),c, 3, h.
The consonant system in Old English manifested the following
peculiarities.
1. The relatively small number of consonant phonemes — only
14 phonemes.
2. The absence of affricates and fricative consonants which
we now find in the language such as

WL [d 3 ], [J]> [3]
3. Dependence of the quality of the phoneme upon its
environment in the word.
If the first two points require no particular explanation, the
last point calls for a special comment.

2.1. Dependence of the quality of the consonant


phoneme upon its environment in the word
Among the 14 consonant phonemes that existed in Old English
there were at least 5 that gave us positional variants which stand rather
wide apart.
1 • The phonemes denoted by the letters f, J>, d or s are.voiced or
voiceless depending upon their phonetic position. They are generally
voiced in the so-called "intervocaj position" that is between vowels
and voiceless otherwise.
For example:
hlaf[f] — hlaford[v]
(bread) (lord, originally hlafweard — bread-keeper)

83
PART I. LECTURES

36s [s] — 35ses [z]


(goose, Nom. Sing.) (Gen. Sing.)
tod [9] • — to6es [6]
(tooth, Nom. Sing.) (Gen. Sing.)

2. The phoneme denoted by the letter с also gave at least two


1
variants — palatal [k ] and velar [k]. In the majority of cases it was a
velar consonant and palatal generally before the vowel i. Compare:

Cild (child) , SCip (ship)


1
where с denotes the palatal consonant [k ] and such words as

can (can), climban (to climb)


when the letter с denotes the corresponding velar variant of the
phoneme [k].

3. Similar remarks can be made about the phoneme denoted


by the letter 3: we have the voiced velar plosive variant [g] of it at the
beginning of the word before back vowels or consonants or in the
middle of the word after n:

3od (good), 3retan (to greet, to address), запзап (to go),


the voiced velar fricative variant [y] in the middle of the word
between back vowels:

da3as (days),
the voice palatal fricative variant [j] before and after front vowels:

dae3 (day), зёаг (year).


The system of consonant phonemes that we observe in Old
English involves certain peculiarities that are typical of the majority of
Germanic dialects which set them (those Germanic dialects and Old
English among them) apart from the majority of the Indo-European

84
5. OLD ENGLISH PHONETICS

languages. Those peculiarities were mainly accounted for by two


linguists — Jacob Grimm and Karl Verner, hence they are generally
referred to as "Grimm's law" (or the first Germanic consonant shift)
1
and "Verner's Jaw" .

2.2. Grimm's law & Verner's law


Grimm's law explains the correspondence between certain
groups of Germanic and non-Germanic consonants. Those
correspondences involve three sets of Germanic consonants,
consequently they generally speak of three stages of Grimm's law. But
we shall speak here about only one stage which is the simplest to
explain and the most consistent — the Germanic consonants [f], [8],
[h] and the corresponding consonants [p], [t] [k] we find in similar
phonetic environment.
The essence of this stage of the first Germanic consonant shift is
the following:
The voiceless plosive consonants [p], [t], [k] of Indo-
European languages other than Germanic shifted in Germanic
languages into the voiceless fricative consonants [f], [9], [h]. It
was a non-assimilative change which presumably affected
Germanic languages at the beginning of the first millennium AD.
Examples:

Russian Greek Old English


пена fama (foam)
пять fiv (five)
Три 6rie (three)
Ты t>U (thou)
кров, кровля hrof (roof)
kardia heorte (heart)
octo eahta (eight)
' p or more discussion of Grimm's law and Verner's law see Lecture 1.
85
PART 1. LECTURES

It should be noted, however, that these correspondences are not


absolutely clear in all the cases. Some more complicated phenomena
were formulated in the so-called Venter's law.
A careful analysis of Germanic words and the corresponding
Indo-European words other than Germanic shows, however, that
there are certain words or word-forms in Germanic languages
where instead of the expected voiceless fricative consonants we
find in Germanic languages voiced plosive consonants. These
seeming "exceptions" to the rule are a result of the further
development of the fricative consonants which appeared in Germanic
languages after the first consonant shift.
The essence of this change was explained by Karl Verner —
hence its name: Verner's law.
The Germanic voiceless fricative consonants [f], [0], [h] which
appeared due to Grimm's law later became voiced if they were found
after unstressed vowels. Compare:
Latin Old English
pater feeder (father)
t>0 in accordance with Grimm's law, but as the stress in the word
"fseder" in the prehistoric period was on the second syllable the
voiceless fricative consonant [0] became voiced [5]; later the voiced
fricative consonant [6] underwent "hardening" and became [d].
Consequently the whole process of the change may be presented in
the following way:
I.E. [t] > Com. Germ. [9] > [3] > [d]

Grimm's law Verner'slaw hardening


The change referred to as "Verner's law" also affected a fourth
consonant — [s] in addition to the three consonants which appeared
in the language under Grimm's law, i.e. [f], [0], [h]. The [s] was also
voiced after unstressed vowels — [s] > fz], later the resulting
86
5. OLD ENGLISH PHONETICS

consonant [z] became [r] — the change [z] > [r] is called rhotacism.
Verner's law explains the appearance of "consonant gradation" in
some strong verbs. For instance:

I II III IV
cwe9an cwsed cwaedon cweden (say, Strong V)
ceosan ceas curon coren (choose, Strong II), etc.

In Common Germanic the stress in the third and fourth verb-


forms originally fell on the second syllable, hence the consonant
[9] and the consonant [s] which were originally in the forms
cwsdon/cweden and curon/coren became voiced, i.e. *[9] > [6]
and [s] > [z] — Vemer's law, later [5] > [d] — hardening and [z] > [r]
— rhotacism1.

Some more facts...


Relative Chronology

Temporal variation affects any language, giving rise to


various highly distinctive processes and varieties. How, then,
can one know when exactly the changes in the language, if any,
took place?
The time of the change, like that of many language
phenomena, may be established with sufficient accuracy by
relating it to other events, borrowings among them. It would be
clear that foreign words entering the language while a certain
phonetic change was in force would be affected in the same way
as native words, and those borrowed after it was over would
remain unchanged.
Thus, palatal mutation is thought to have begun after the
Anglo-Saxon invaders arrived in Britain, but before the Old
English was first written down, because the words which
emerged in Old English out of the Germanic spoken on the

Rhotacism affected only North and West Germanic languages. It did not affect
ast
Germanic languages and the Gothic language among them.
87
PART 1. LECTURES

Continent looked and, consequently, sounded very different


from their later counterparts in the early days of German. Early
Latin borrowings — those acquired in the pre-written period of
the English language — are affected by palatal mutation:
hat. molina > OE myln (mill),
Lat. caseus > OE cyse (cheese),
although no French word shows the change. This proves that at
the time of the earliest contacts with French the process was no
longer in force.
A still more difficult task is to establish the chronology of
the great consonant shift, described by Jakob Grimm and now
bearing his name as the Grimm's law. At one time it was thought
that the changes took place simultaneously in separate groups
into the Indo-European family had split. But so great a change
must have been resulted from a long and gradual process. The
lower limit is set by the fact that the mutation did not affect
Latin and Greek words borrowed through early contact with
the Mediterranean nations, so that we may take the first century
A.D. as the time by which the first consonant shift was fully
accomplished.
As to the upper limit — the beginning of the change — it is
far more a matter of conjecture, although it had apparently not
begun when certain words were borrowed from the Finns. Thus
we may say that the first consonant change was at its height in
the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era.
It.will be seen further that the situation with phonetic
changes in later periods is considerably simpler, for there exists
written evidence to support the educated guesswork based on
logic and comparative reconstruction.
After O.F. Emerson
LECTURE 6.
OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR.
Т Щ NOMINAL SYSTEM

Anglo-Saxon uniform Norntan uniform


Source: The New Universal Library, 1969

List of principal questions:


1. General survey of the nominal system
2. The noun
2.1.Gender
2.2.Number
2.3.Case
2.4.Homonymity of forms in Old English and its
influence on the further development of noun
forms
3. The pronoun
3.1.Personal pronouns
3.2.Other pronouns
4. The adjective
4.1.Declension of adjectives
4.2.Degrees of comparison of adjectives
89
PART 1. LECTURES

0. Old English grammar


0. The Old English language was a synthetic language which
means that all the principal grammatical notions were expressed
by a change of the form of the word in the narrow meaning of the
term.
The grammatical means that the English language used were
primarily a) suffixation, b) vowel gradation and c) use of
suppletive forms.
Old English was a highly inflected language. The abundance
of inflections resulted from the fact that the paradigm of
declension and the paradigm of conjugation were formed by
many grammatical categories and there was more than one
declension in the system of declension and more than one
conjugation in the system of conjugation due to the splitting of
the once uniform paradigm in accordance with the original
structure of the word.

1. General survey of ihe nominal system


1.0. There were five declinable parts of speech in Old
English1: the noun, the pronoun, the adjective, the numeral,'the
participle. The nominal paradigm in Old English was
characterised by the following grammatical categories (see Table
6.1).
As we can see, the paradigms of different parts of speech had
the same number of grammatical categories but these parts of
speech were different in the number of categorial forms
composing a given grammatical category. Hence the system of
forms of each part of speech requires special consideration.

Among the non-finite forms of the verb the infinitive was also declined.
90
6. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE NOMINAL SYSTEM

Table 6-/.Grammatical categories


of declinable parts of speech

^ \ ^ Categories
Parts^\^^ Gender Number Case
of speech ^ ^ \
Noun + + +
Pronoun + + +
Adjective + + +
Numeral + + +

2. The noun
2.0. The Old English noun paradigm was composed by the
following grammatical categories: gender, number, case.

2.1. Gender
The category of gender was formed by the opposition of
three gender-forms: masculine, feminine and neuter. All nouns,
no matter whether they denoted living beings, inanimate things or
abstract notions belonged to one of the three genders.
The subdivision of Old English nouns in accordance with
their grammatical gender is traditional, the correspondence
between the meaning of the word and its grammatical gender
bei
ng hard to trace.
Some nouns denoting animals were also treated.as neuter,
s
uch as cicen (chicken), hors (horse), etc.
The grammatical gender did not always coincide with the
natural gender of the person and sometimes even contradicted it
(thus, for instance, the noun wifman (woman) was declined as
Masculine).

91
PART I. LECTURES

Compare stSn (stone, masculine), ban (bone, neuter), cwen (queen,


feminine) which belong to different genders but have similar
forms.
More examples:
Masculine
Male beings Lifeless things Abstract notions
faeder (father) hlaf (bread) Stenc (stench)
sunu (son) Stan (stone) faer (fear)
cyning (king) hrof (roof) nama (name)
dom (doom)
Feminine
Female beings Lifeless things Abstract notions
modor (mother) tunge (tongue) trywdu (truth)
dohter (daughter) meolc (milk) huntin3 (hunting)
CWen (queen) lufu (love)
3OS (goose)
Neuter
Living beings Lifeless things Abstract notions
cicen (chicken) ёазе (eye) mod (mood)
hors (horse) scip (ship) riht (right)
madden (maiden)

2.2. Number
The grammatical category of number was formed by the
opposition of two categorial forms: the singular and the plural.

Nominative Singular Nominative Plural


use (fish) fiscas
ёазе (eye) ёазап
t55 (tooth) te6
scip (ship) scipu

92
6. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE NOMINAL SYSTEM

2.3. Case
The Old English noun formed its paradigm by the opposition
of three genders, two numbers and four cases. Thus, presumably,
the noun had twenty-four word-forms.
On the whole the same could be observed in Common
Germanic. In the course of the development of Old English,
however, the original paradigm had undergone great changes due
to the fusion of the original stem suffix and the original
grammatical ending into one element which from the point of
view of Old English is to be regarded as a grammatical ending.
As a result of that fusion nouns that are known to have had
different stem-suffixes originally in Old English acquired
materially different endings in the same case, for example:
Nominative plural
a-stem б-stem n-stem
stan-as (stones) car-a (cares) nam-an (names), etc.
The original stem suffixes were formed both by vowels and
by consonants. Thus there were two respective principal groups
of declensions in Old English: the vowel declension ("strong"
declension) and the consonant declension ("weak" declension).
The vowel (strong) declension comprises four principal
Paradigms: the a-stem, the o-stem, the u-stem and the i-stem
paradigm.
The consonant declension comprises nouns with, the stem
originally ending in -n, -r, -s and some other consonants.
In rare cases, however, the new form is constructed by
adding the ending directly to the root. It is these words that
formed the so-called root-stem declension.

93
PART 1. LECTURES

Table 6-2. Declensions in Old English

^Declension
Vowel (strong) stems Consonant (weak) stem Root
stems
Case \ .
and number\ а о u i n r s

Nom. Sing. stan cam sunu wine nama faeder lamb fot
(stone) (care) (son) (wine) (name) (father) (lamb) (foot)
Nom. Plur. stanas cara suna wine naman fsederos lamb fet

Vowel-Stems. Declension ofa-stem nouns


This type of declension consists of the masculine and the
neuter genders of Old English nouns. As a rule those are common
everyday words that formed the very core of the word-stock, such
as:
ЪШ (bread), hwffirte (wheat), hors (horse), fisc (fish), SCip (ship)
etc.
As is seen from Table 6-3 below, the paradigm of the a-stem
nouns is characterised by the homonymity of the Nominative and
Accusative case-forms. The rest of the forms retain their endings.
The difference between the genders of the nouns is clearly seen
from the different endings in the Nominative and the Accusative
plural, i.e. -as for the masculine and -u for the neuter.1

Consonant stems. Declension ofn-stem nouns


The consonant declensions consisted of nouns with the stern
originally ending in -n, -r, -s and other consonants.2

1
Nouns which had a long stem syllable had the zero ending in the Nominative
and the Accusative Plural (such as sceap (sheep), land (land), etc.)
2
Declensions of stems other than -n are not analysed here as nouns belonging
to them are few and show a tendency to fall under other declensions.
94
6. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE NOMINAL SYSTEM

Table 6-3. Declension of a-stem nouns

Masculine Neuter
Case ^^~^-^^^

Nominative fisc (fish) scip (ship)


Singular

Genitive fisces scipes


Dative fisce scipe
Accusative fisc scip

Nominative fiscas scipu


Genitive fisca scipa
Plural

Dative fiscum scipum


Accusative fiscas scipu

The n-stem class was formed by nouns of all the three


genders, such as nama (name.) — masculine, tunge (tongue) —
feminine, еазе (eye) — neuter.

table 6-4. Declension of n-stem nouns

^*~\Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter


Case^\^

Nominative nama (name) tunge (tongue) еазе (eye)


Singular

Genitive naman tungan еазап


Dative naman tungan еазап
Accusative naman tungan еазе
f

Nominative naman tungan еазап


tungena еазепа
Plural

Genitive namena
Dative namum tungum еазшп
Accusative naman tungan еазап
/

.95
PART 1. LECTURES

The n-stem was the most important among all the


consonant stem declensions. This class of nouns was composed
of common words. The group was very extensive in Old English
and like the a-stem declension it exhibited a tendency to spread
its forms over other declensions.
The original stem-suffix -n may be observed in the majority
of case forms, but very often the grammatical ending had been
dropped in the pre-written period; this phenomenon gave rise to
a well-marked homonymity of the noun forms of the declension.
Five case forms of the masculine and the feminine genders
all the Singular with the exception of the Nominative and the
Nominative and the Accusative plural are homonymous, in case
of neuter nouns only four forms are homonymous, as the
Accusative case of neuter nouns is homonymous to the
Nominative.
Gender oppositions in this declension are also not distinct,
the masculine nouns being different from the feminine only in
the Nominative Singular and from the neuter — in the
Nominative and the Accusative Singular.
Declension of root-stem nouns
Root-stems require special consideration. This class was
not extensive and stood apart among other Old English nouns
due to peculiarities of form-building which was partly retained
in Modern English.
Unlike other classes the root-stem nouns such as man (man,
masculine), mfls (mouse, feminine) originally had no stem-suffix
the grammatical ending was added directly to the root. As a
result of that in the Dative Singular and the Nominative and the
Accusative Plural the root-vowel had undergone palatal
mutation due to the [i]-sound in the grammatical ending of
these forms. Later the ending was dropped and vowel
interchange remained the only means of differentiating the
96
6. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE NOMINAL SYSTEM
1
given forms in the paradigm. The endings of the rest of the
forms are built up on analogy with those of the a-stems, hence the
difference between genders can- be observed only in the Genitive
Singular es for the masculine, -e for the feminine.
Table 6-5. Declension of root-stem nouns

^^^--^^ Gender
Masculine Feminine
Case ^~""~"-~^^^

Nominative man (man) mus (mouse)


Singular

Genitive mannes muse


Dative man mys
Accusative man mus

Nominative men mys


Genitive manna musa
Plural

Dative mannum musum


Accusative men mys

2.4. Homonymity offorms in Old English


and its influence on the further development
of noun forms
In. the prehistoric period of the development of the English
language each case had an ending typical of its uninflected form.
In the course of the development of the English language,
however, due to various semantic and phonetic changes different
cases began to develop similar endings within one and the same
paradigm; this phenomenon gave rise to the well-marked

1
The feminine nouns with the short root had the ending -u in the Nominative
and the Accusative Singular, and -e in the Nominative and the Accusative
Plural.
4 История английского языка 97
PART 1. LECTURES

homonymity of case-forms in English. The reference table given


below show the principal noun suffixes in Old English. The table
serves to prove that the twenty-four word-forms which built up
the noun paradigm had but nine materially different endings.
The most distinct among them are:
-es — genitive singular, masculine and neuter
-a/ena — genitive plural, all genders
-um — dative plural, all genders
-as — nominative and accusative plural, masculine.
As for the rest of the forms their mutual homonymity is
considerable. For example, nouns with the stem originally ending
in -a show gender differences only in the plural, all the forms in
the singular but the nominative being homonymous, irrespective
of gender and case differences.
The existence of different endings of nouns grammatically
alike and homonymous endings of nouns grammatically different
testifies to a certain inadequacy of the morphological devices or
the Old English noun to show the relation of the noun to other
words in the sentence and a need for the development of new
means to denote the grammatical meanings formerly denoted
morphologically.
Table 6-6. Reference table of the principal
grammatical noun suffixes in Old English
- Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case ^ ^ - ^ a l u n 0 i u n a i n
Nominative — e u/o a u u/o e -/e e
Genitive es es a' an e e a an es es an
Dative e e a an e e a an e e an
Accusative — e a an e -/e a an — e e
Nominative as e/es a ana e a a n u/o u an
1
D-i
Genitive
Dative
a
um
a a ena a a
um um um um um
a
um
enr
um
a a ena
um um um
Accusative as e/as a an a e a an u/o/- u an
98
6. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE NOMINAL SYSTEM

3. The pronoun
0. The following classes of pronouns were to be observed in
Old English: personal, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative,
relative and indefinite pronouns.
The system of declension of the pronoun was not the same
for all the classes. It has at least two subsystems that should be
singled out: the declension of personal pronouns on the one hand
and the declension of other pronouns. Although the grammatical
categories of each subsystem were the same, i. e. gender, number,
case, the number of the categorial forms composing those
categories was different.

3.1. The personal pronoun


The Old English personal pronoun similar to the Old English
noun had the grammatical categories of gender, number and case.

Gender
Three genders could be distinguished in the pronominal
paradigm: masculine, feminine and neuter, but different forms for
different genders were found only in the third person singular, the
rest of the forms being indifferent to gender.

The category of number differs from that of the noun as in


the first and second person we find three categorial forms:
singular, dual and plural, for instance:
PART 1. LECTURES

Singular Dual Plural


Icf/j wit (two of us) we (we)
Case
The category of case is built up by the opposition of four
categorial forms, similar to those of the noun: Nominative,
Genitive, Dative, Accusative.
The table below may serve as an example of the declension
of personal pronouns.
Unlike the Old English noun, the paradigm of which was
composed of forms that mainly differed in the ending, the
paradigm of the Old English personal pronouns is built up by
suppletive forms and the homonymity of pronominal forms is not
great. We find it only in the Dative and the Accusative cases.
Table 6-7. Declension of the personal pronoun Ic

Singular Dual Plural

Nominative ic wit we
Genitive mm uncer user, Ore
Dative me unc us
Accusative . mec, me unc usic, us ..

3.2. Other pronouns


All Old English pronouns with the exception of personal
pronouns were declined almost alike. They expressed the
grammatical categories of gender (three forms: masculine,
feminine and neuter), number (two forms: singular and plural)
and case, which was built up by five categorial forms: the
Nominative, the Accusative, the Dative, the Genitive and the
100
6. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE NOMINAL SYSTEM

Instrumental, different from the Dative only in the Singular. See,


for example, the declension of the demonstrative pronoun se in
Table 6-8 below.
If we compare the paradigms of these pronouns with those of
the noun and the personal pronoun we cannot but take notice that
they differed in the number of the categorial forms composing the
categories of case and number.
The personal pronoun unlike the rest of the pronouns and
the noun possessed three categorial forms composing the
category of number.
All the other pronouns unlike the personal pronoun and the
noun had five cases.
Table 6-8. Declension of the demonstrative pronoun se

4. The adjective
4.1. Declension of adjectives
The paradigm of the adjective is similar to that of the noun
and the pronoun, i.e. it comprises Gender, Number, Case.
The grammatical category of case was built up by five forms:
the Nominative, the Accusative, the Dative, the Genitive and the
Instrumental.
101
PART 1. LECTURES

There were two ways of declining Adjectives — the Definite


and the Indefinite declension. The adjective followed the Definite
declension mainly if the noun if modified had another attribute
— a demonstrative pronoun, and they were declined as Indefinite
otherwise.
The grammatical suffixes — forms of cases mainly
coincided with those of nouns with the stem originally ending in
a vowel or -n, yet in some cases we find pronominal suffixes. For
example, in the Genitive Plural, in the Dative singular, etc.

Table 6-9. Declension of adjectives

4.2. Degrees of comparison


The Adjective in Old English changed its forms not only to
show the relation of the given adjective to other words in the sen-
tence which was expressed by the gender, number and case of the
adjective, but also to show the degree of the quality denoted by
the adjective, i.e., the forms of the adjective in Old English could
express degrees of comparison.
102
6. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE NOMINAL SYSTEM

The degrees of comparison were expressed, the same as all


other grammatical notions, synthetically, namely:
a) by means of suffixation:
heard — heardra -— heardost (hard)
b) by means of vowel gradation plus suffixation:
eald — ieldra — ieldest (old)
c) by means of suppletive forms
3od — bettra — betst (good),
the first means being unquestionably the most common.
Both suffixation and the use of suppletive forms in the
formation of the degrees of comparison are original means that
can be traced back to Common Germanic. But the use of vowel
interchange is a feature which is typical of the English language
only and was acquired by the language in the prehistoric period
of its development.
The origin of vowel gradation in the forms
eald — ieldra — ieldest
is a result of the process of palatal mutation which the root-vowel
ea underwent under the influence of the original stem-forming
suffix -i, i.e.
Positive Comparative Superlative
degree degree degree
eald ieldra ieldest
*ealdira *ealdist
ealdira > ieldra ealdist > ieldest
A similar case is observed with strong (strong), long (long),
etc.
***
Summary
A careful study of the systems of declensions of nouns,
pronouns and adjectives shows that the pronominal and adjectival
103
PART I. LECTURES

paradigms are more developed, they are richer in the number 01


word-forms. The homonymity of forms although existing
(especially in the declension of the definite adjective) is not so
pronounced and the oppositions between word-forms are more
evident.
There were three kinds of declensions — noun, pronoun
(with two subdivisions) and adjective. They had the same
grammatical categories, the main difference being in the quantity
of the categorial forms of number (three number-forms m
persona] pronouns) and case (four case-forms — nouns, five
case-forms — personal pronouns and adjectives).
The subdivision within the system of each part of speech was
based on the difference in the material forms (the noun — based
on the original stem-suffix, the pronoun — the number of
categorial forms, the adjective — strong and weak declensions
with the functional difference.

Some more facts...


Irregular Comparisons

Irregularity may be encountered not only in nouns and verbs,


but also in adjectives. Some forms of the degrees of comparison
may be called irregular, for they do not follow the predominant
pattern. The Positives marked below with an asterisk have
borrowed their comparatives and superlatives from other roots.
Such Positives are therefore irregular, because they have no
Comparative or Superlative of their own. The Comparative and
Superlative are also defective, because they have no Positive of
their own. In all the other examples the Comparative and
Superlative are irregular, but formed from the same root as the
Positive.
Bad, ill, evil* worse* worst*
Fore former foremost, first
Good* better* best*
104
6. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE NOMINAL SYSTEM

Hind hinder hindmost


Late later, latter latest, last
Little* less* • least*
Much (quantity)* more* most*
Many (number)* more* most*
Nigh nigher Highest, next
Old older, elder oldest, eldest
Many of the present-day irregular comparatives are
interesting from a historical point of view. Late has later—
latest, beside the older latter—last, both of which have lost
something of their comparative force. Nearer—nearest are
examples of new forms based upon an older comparative near,
the older comparison being nigh—near—next. In a similar way
worser and lesser are based on true comparatives worse, less.
Far has two sets of words used somewhat indiscriminately as
comparative and superlative. These are farther—farthest,
further—furthest, only one of which is original, the
comparative further. The superlative of further was fyrst, our
first, which has become entirely separated from the series. Later
the superlative furthest was formed, and by analogy the
remaining forms with the vowel offar. More—most are from an
original adverb ma, which became an adjective in Middle
English and remained in early Modern English as moe. It may
be mentioned also thai evil was in Old English use the positive
to worse— worst, but in Middle English both a new adjective
badde and ill from the Norse replaced evil in this use.
Another instance of irregularity in the degrees of comparison
is represented by the following five words which are adverbs in
the Positive degree, but adjectives in the Comparative and
Superlative:
far farther farthest
in inner innermost, inmost
out outer, utter uttermost, utmost
beneath nether nethermost
up upper uppermost

105
PART 1. LECTURES

Thus instances of irregularity may be found in all the principal


grammatical classes of English words.
after O.F. Emerson and J.C. Nesfield
LECTURE 7.
OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR.
THE VERBAL SYSTEM

King Edward the Confessor (1042-


1066) with his servant, fragment of a
contemporary embroidery ("Bayeux
tapestry", or "Queen Mathilde's
tapestry", Musee de Bayeux).

List ofprincipal questions:


1. General survey of finite and non-finite forms of
the verb
2. Grammatical categories of the finite forms of the verb
2.1. Person
2.2. Number
2.3. Tense
2.4. Mood
3. Morphological classification of verbs
3.1. Strong verbs
3.2. Weak verbs
3.3. Irregular verbs
107
PART 1. LECTURES

1. General survey of finite and non-finite


forms of the verb
The verb-system in Old English was represented by two sets
of forms: the finite forms of the verb and the non-finite forms of
the verb, or verbals (Infinitive, Participle). Those two types of
forms — the finite and the non-finite — differed more than they
do today from the point of view of their respective grammatical
categories, as the verbals at that historical period were not
conjugated like the verb proper, but were declined like nouns or
adjectives. Thus the infinitive could have two case-forms which
may conventionally be called the "Common" case and the
"Dative" case.
Common case Dative case
Writan (to write) to writenne (so that I shall write)
cepan (to keep) to cepenne (so that I shall keep)
drincan (to drink) to drincenne (so that 1 shall drink)
The so-called Common case form of the Infinitive was
widely used in different syntactical functions, the Dative case
was used on a limited scale and mainly when the Infinitive
functioned as an adverbial modifier of purpose, i.e.
Ic 3a to drincenne (/ go to drink)
The participle had a well-developed system of forms, the
declension of the Participle resembling greatly the declension of
adjectives. The one typically "verbal" grammatical category of
the participle was the category of tense, for example:
Present tense Past tense
writende writen
cepende cept
drincende druncen
108
7. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE VERBAL SYSTEM

2. Grammatical categories
of the finite forms of the verb
As we have already said the system of conjugation mainly
embraced the finite forms of the verb as the non-finite forms
were not conjugated but declined. The system of conjugation of
the Old English verb was built up by four grammatical categories,
those of person, number, tense and mood.

2.1. Person
There were three person forms in Old English: first, second
and third. For example:
First person — Ic write
Second person — pu writes
Third person — he wrlte5
But we have distinct person forms only in the Indicative
mood, the Imperative and the Oblique mood forms reflecting no
person differences and even the Indicative mood forms changing
for person only in the Singular, the plural forms being the same
irrespective of person, for example:

2.2. Number
The grammatical category of number was built up by the
opposition of two number forms — Singular and Plural
Ic write (singular)
we wnta6 (plural)
109
PART I. LECTURES

2.3. Tense
The grammatical category of tense was represented by two
forms: Present tense and Past terise, for example:
Present Past
Indicative Ic write Ic wrat
Oblique Ic write Ic write
There was no Future tense in Old English, future events were
expressed with the help of a present tense verb + an adver
denoting futurity or by a combination of a modal verb (generally
sculan (shall) or willan (will) + an Infinitive, for example:
Wille ic asec3an mserum peodne min aerende
(7 want to tell the glorious prince my mission)

2.4. Mood
There were three mood forms in Old English: Indicative,
Imperative and Oblique, for example:
Indicative Imperative Oblique
pu cepst сер сере
The Indicative Mood and the Imperative Mood were used Ш
cases similar to those in which they are used now But the Oblique
mood in Old English differed greatly from the corresponding
mood in New English. There was only one mood form in Old
English that was used both to express events that are thought of
as unreal or as problematic — today there are two mood forms to
denote those two different kinds of events, conventionally called
the Subjunctive and the Conjunctive!
The forms of the Oblique Mood were also sometimes used in
contexts for which now the Indicative mood would be more
suitable — to present events in the so-called "Indirect speech":
He ssede past pset land sie swipe 1апз.
(He said that that land is very long/large).
110
7, OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR, THE VERBAL SYSTEM

3. Morphological classification
of verbs
All Old English verbs may be subdivided into a number of
groups in accordance with the grammatical means with the help
of which they built their principal stems.
There were two principal means for forming verb-stems in
Old English: (1) by means of vowel interchange of the root vowel
and (2) by means of suffixation.
In accordance with these two methods of the formation of
the verb-stems all the verbs in Old English formed two main
groups — the strong verbs and the weak verbs. There were other
means of the formation of verb-stems in Old English as well, but
the number of verbs belonging to those groups was not large.
A.I. Smirnitsky suggested the following morphological
classification of verbs in Old English.
Table 7-1. Morphological classification
of Old English verbs
Strong verbs Weak verbs Other verbs

I, II, III, IV, V, VI, I, II, III classes suppletive


VII classes irregular (anomalous)
preterite-present verbs

3.1. Strong verbs


The strong verbs are verbs which use vowel-interchange as
the principal means of expressing different grammatical
categories. They differ from weak'ones not only in the manner of
the building of their forms but also in the number of these
principal forms. The strong verbs have four principal forms, the
weak ones — three principal forms.
in
PART 1. LECTURES

These terms "strong" and "weak" were introduced into the


science of philology by the famous German linguist Jacob Grimm
who considered strong verbs to be of "a more noble nature" as
compared with weak verbs, because strong verbs conjugated by
means of vowel interchange better reflected the prehistoric
"golden age" of the language.
This vowel interchange, or "ablaut", which was the principal
grammatical means in the conjugation of the Old English strong
verbs was of two kinds: qualitative and quantitative.
The first five classes are mainly based on the qualitative
ablaut; the sixth class — on the quantitative ablaut; verbs of the
seventh class originally formed their principal forms by means ot
the so-called reduplication of the root syllable, but in the course
of the development of the language that means was obliterated.
The Old English qualitative ablaut is akin to the Common
Germanic ablaut and even Indo-European ablaut — its essence,
as we remember, is the use of the gradation series consisting of a
front vowel, back vowel and zero,
e — o— 0
i — a —0
In Russian, for instance, they use two grades of the series,
e/zero to form the category of tense:
Present tense Past tense
e — беру 0 — брал

Classes of the strong verbs


There were seven principal gradation series in Old English
and there were seven classes of the strong verbs — from I to VII.
As we have already said, the seventh class of the strong verbs
stands apart from the rest of the classes, because it was the only
class formed by verbs which originally used reduplication of the
root-vowel as their principal grammatical means; the sixth class
7. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE VERBAL SYSTEM

of the strong verbs shows a peculiarity that is also typical only of


one class within the system of the strong verbs — original
quantitative gradation; the rest-of the classes — from I to VII —
are characterised by a certain similarity in their original
grammatical means as all of them originally used the same type
of qualitative ablaut, i.e. the interchange of a front vowel — back
vowel — zero in the form of
i —a-~0.
The difference in the gradation series of each of the classes
within the first five was mainly due to the splitting of that one
gradation into variants under the influence of the vowel or the
consonant of the stem that followed the vowel of gradation.
Thus in the first class of the strong verbs the vowel of
gradation was followed by the vowel -i, in the second — by the
vowel -u, in the third, fourth and fifth — by a sonorous consonant
+ another consonant, by one sonorous consonant or by a noise
consonant, respectively.
The root of the verbs of the sixth class consisted only of
consonants, and the purely quantitative vowel interchange of
prehistoric times developed into a quantitative and qualitative
°ne. The verbs of the seventh class show traces of the original
reduplication (addition of an extra syllable including the initial
consonant of the infinitive and having the vowels -e- or -eo- in
the past singular and plural)1.
The original structure of the verb is still quite clear in the
Gothic language. In table 7-3 below the bold type vowel in the
Gothic verb is the vowel of gradation. As is seen from the
examples, in the third and second forms of the verb there was no
vowel of gradation — the zero grade of gradation.

Рог more details on Class VII see also p. 124-125


113
PART 1. LECTURES

Table 7-2. Classes of the strong verbs

^XStems I stem Elstem III stem IV stem


N. Infinitive, Past tense Past tense Past
N. Present tense. singular plural Participle
Class \ Imperative JParUJl__

I nsan (rise) ras rison risen


II ceosan (choose) ceas curon coren
Ш bindan (bind) band bundon bunden
IV teran (tear) tser tseron toren
V etan (eat) set seton eten
VI scacan (shake) scoc scocon scacen
VII hatan (-call) het heton haten

Table 7-3. Old English and Gothic strong verbs

In the following table there is given the paradigm of some


types of strong verbs.

114
7. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE VERBAL SYSTEM

Table 7-4. Conjugation of Old English strong verbs


PART 1. LECTURES

3.2. Weak verbs


The Old English weak verbs are relatively younger than the
strong verbs. They reflect a later stage in the development of
Germanic languages.
They were an open class in Old English, as new verbs that
entered the language generally formed their forms on analogy
with the weak verbs.
Whereas the strong verbs used vowel-interchange as a means
of differentiation among principal verb stems, the weak verbs
used for that purpose suffixation, namely, suffixes -t or -d. For
example:
cepan — cepte — cept (keep)
The strong verbs, as we remember, were "root-stem" verbs,
i.e. they did not have any stem-forming suffix following the root,
but they added their grammatical endings to the root directly. The
weak verbs, however, had a stem-forming suffix that followed the
root and preceded the grammatical ending. By way of an example
we may use a Gothic verb where that original stem-forming
suffix is better preserved than in English.
Infinitive Past tense Past Participle
Singular
I class haus-j-an (hear) haus-i-d-a haus-i-ps

Classes of the weak verbs


In accordance with the character of the stem-suffix the weak
verbs are subdivided into three classes.
If the English strong verbs had four principal forms, the
English weak verbs had three principal forms.
We may draw the following table of the English weak verbs.

116
7. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE VERBAL SYSTEM

Table 7-5. Classes of the weak verbs

Classes Stem Infinitive Past tense Past


suffix Singular Participle
I i deman (deem) demde denied
fyllan (fill) fyllde fylled
1
П oi lufian (love) lufode lufod
locian (look) locode locod

Class I - the stem-suffix -i


The class includes many verbs formed from other nouns,
adjectives or verbs. All of them have a front root vowel — the
result of the palatal mutation due to the -i- element of the stem-
suffix.
e.g. deman <- dom
fyllan <r- ful
In the course of time this palatal stem-suffix was as a rule
lost. It was preserved only in some participles in the form of -e-
(after sonorous consonants):
deman — demde — demed.
Class II - the stem-suffix -oi
The o-element of the suffix is preserved in the past tense and
in the Past Participle.
If the first class of the weak verbs reflected the palatal
mutation of the root-vowel due to the i-element of the stem-
suffix, the root vowel of the weak verbs belonging to the second
class remained unchanged (because of the preceding 6).
luf-oian —> lufeian -» lufean —> lufian
The following table shows the paradigm of weak verbs.

' Of the third class there remained in Old English only three verbs — habban
(haw), libban (live), sec3an (see).
117
PART I. LECTURES

Table 7-6. Conjugation of Old English weak verbs


7. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE VERBAL SYSTEM

3.3. Irregular verbs


Regularity means conformity with some unique principle or
pattern. It does not require any exact material marker. That is
why it is said that most verbs in Old English were regular I in
theor conjugation they followed one of the patterns typical of this
or that class of strong or weak verbs. However, there were also a
few irregular verbs, conjugated in some specific way.

Irregular weak verbs


The majority of the weak verbs belonging to the 1st and 2nd
classes were regular. The weak verbs of the 3 rd class are
considered to be irregular, because the class consists of only three
verbs, following their own individual patterns of form-building.
However, among the Is1 class there were also some irregular
verbs. This irregularity was inherent, but it was manifested in
pre-historic times and in Old English differently. Here we may
speak of such verbs as
tellan — talde — tald (to tell)
sellan — salde — said (to sell)
The sign of irregularity of the weak verbs in Old English was
vowel interchange, a feature not typical of this group of verbs.
The cause of it was the original absence of the sterrwforming
suffix -i- in Past Singular and Past Participle:
* talian — talde — tald
Under the influence of -i- only the form of the infinitive
could change during the process of palatal mutation:
* talian > tellan;
the other two remaining unchanged, and as a result the verb
acquired vowel interchange.

119
PART 1. LECTURES

Irregular strong verbs


There was a group of strong verbs which in the pre-wntten
period lost some of their forms and'preserved the others,
ontis
changing their lexical and grammatical meaning. F
historically past changed so as to become present in meaning.
These verbs are called preterite-present, for in the written peno
they build their present tense forms from the original past
(preterite) ones. The new past tense forms of these verbs in 0
English are built with the help of dental suffixation, like weak
verbs. The majority of preterite-present verbs are defective ver s
— they do not have all the forms of regular verbs, which los
their connection with the other forms and were dropped.
The group of Old English preterite-present verbs includes,
among others, the following:
infinitive Present Present Past Ратсц
Singular Plural Singular
азап 4 азоп ahte азеп
cunnan cann .cunnon cu5e cunnen
sculan sceal sculon scolde —
тазап тэез тазоп meahte —
mot moton moste

The Old English forms of preterite-present verbs correspond


to the following pre-written forms of the verb:

Pre-written Infinitive Past Past Participle u


Singular Plural
Л If
Written Infinitive Present Present Past Participle II
Singular Plural Singular

Preterite-present verbs were further to develop in a number


of different ways.
120
7. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE VERBAL SYSTEM

The verb a^an later developed into several words:


— the infinitive азап as a result of phonetic changes gave
the New English verb owe with the past tense/participle II form
owed built according to the pattern of weak verbs;
— the past participle азеп gave the New English adjective
own from which there was later formed the regular verb own —
owned ~ owned;
— the past tense singular ante developed into the modern
modal verb ought.
The verb cunnan lost its infinitive. The form can began to
be used for the present, the past tense form acquired the dental
suffix -d, in Middle English began to be spelled with -ou- instead
°f -u-, and later acquired the letter -I- on analogy with such verbs
as should and would.
The verb т а з а п also lost its infinitive and participle I, using
the form of таез for its present, and the former meahte gave us
the present-day might.
The verb mot has preserved but one form — must — which
goes back to its past tense form moste and is understood as a
present tense form — it is an example of a second change of its
meaning, when the new past form came to be understood as the
present tense one.
The verb sculan, similar to other verbs of this group, lost its
infinitive, using the form sceal for the present, and the former
sceolde was to develop into should, both verbs nowadays being
used as modal or auxiliary.

Suppletive verbs
Supplition, as we know, is one of the oldest means of form-
building. All Indo-European languages, and English among them,
have suppletive verbs — those building different forms from
different roots. Each of them is a class in itself. Among such
verbs we may mention the following:
121
PART 1. LECTURES

beon —wesan (be)


3§n — eode (go)
don — dyde (do)
The first verb of each of the pairs above is the root for the
Present tense forms, the second — for the past.
wa
A similar phenomenon is observed in German: sein
— ich bin, Russian: быть — есть, иду — шел, Latin: sum -*
fui, French: aller —je vais —j'irai. In fact, the forms of the verb
cortresponding to the present-day be are derived from three
different roots: wes~, es- and be- (for a complete paradigm of the
verbs Ьёоп/wesan and jan/eode see table 7-7 on the next page)-

***
Summary
If we compare the system of conjugation with that of the
system of declension we shall observe a number of instances oi
basic difference between them.
— The principal grammatical means used in the paradigm of
declension was suffixation, in the paradigm of conjugation —'
vowel gradation.
— With reference to the structure of the noun we generally
speak .of three elements of word-structure: root + stem-suffix +
grammatical ending. In the verb we very often have only two
elements — the root and the grammatical ending.
— The system of declension manifested a tendency to
simplification from the point of view of the number of.
declensions and the number of grammatical categories, the
system of conjugation preserved its principal groups and classes
of verbs and also retained and developed its original grammatical
categories.

122
7. OLD ENGUSH GRAMMAR. THE VERBAL SYSTEM

Table 7-7. Conjugation of beon/wesan and зап/eode

Infinitive
wesan/beon 3an/eode

Present hid.
Sing. 1 eom beo 3a
2 eart bist
3 is bif>
Plur. sint, sindon beob зФ
Present Subj.
Sing. sy, si beo За
Plur. syn, sin beon 3§n

Imperative
Sing. Wfes beo За
Plur. waesaf) beof)
Participle I
wesende beonde 3ande, 3an3ende

Past /nd.
Sing. 1 waes code
2 wsere eodest
3 W£BS code
Plur. WJBl'On eodon

Past Subj.
Sing. waere eode
Plur. wSren eoden

Participle II
a*»

123
PART 1. LECTURES

Some more facts...


Reduplication

The seventh class of Old English strong verbs is formed by


the so-called reduplicating verbs, which, as the name implies,
used repetition of their elements as a means of'form-building,
although due to later contracting we see but traces of it in u
English. These verbs are put in a class by themselves because Щ
their unusual pattern of preterits and are significant as fanning
a connecting link between the Teutonic1 and other Indo-
European languages, such as Greek and Latin, which also №
reduplication — one of the oldest word- and form-building
means of any language, encountered even now in some cieo
languages, for example:
now-now (immediately),
fast-fast (very fast)
- in South African English.
Reduplication was perfectly preserved only in Gothic, the
oldest representative of Teutonic, where past tense was formed
by repeating the root syllable, for example:
haitan (to call) —- haihait
tekan (to touch) — taitok.
In Anglo-Saxon examples of reduplication are far less
distinctly preserved, some of the most evident of them being:
hatan (to call) — heht (Gothic 'haihait'),
which shows reduplication by the repetition of'h';
rcedan (to advise)— reord (Gothic 'rairoth'),
which shows reduplication by the repetition of Y;
lacan (to skip) — leolc (Gothic 'lailaik'),
which shows reduplication by the repetition of T.
More commonly the repeated consonant is lost, and ci
diphthong is substituted for the root vowel, as in:

Teutonic = Germanic
124
7. OLD ENGLISH GRAMMAR. THE VERBAL SYSTEM

Gothic Old English


faifall feoll (fell)
haihald heold (held)
Reduplicating verbs differed in one other respect from the
remaining strong verbs, since their four principal steins had but
two different vowels, one for the present and participle and
another —for the preterite singular and plural. However, due to
later changes most of them have lost the pattern, preserving the
vowel interchange to become 'irregular', such as
beat, blow, fall, grow, hold, know, let, throw,
or started to use dental suffixes for their past and participle,
losing the vowel difference completely and thus becoming
'regular':
blend, claw, dread, fold, glow, leap, row, salt, swoop,
wheeze, wield.
The only certain example of the pattern remaining in Modern
English is hight (to call), which in Old English was heht, the
past tense ofhatan and in Gothic — haihait, as shown above.
after O.F. Emerson and J.C. Nesjicld
LECTURE 8.
CHANGES IN THE PHONETIC
SYSTEM IN MIDDLE ENGLISH
AND NEW ENGLISH
William the Conqueror listening
to his messenger, fragment of a
contemporary embroidery
("Bayeux tapestry", or "Queen
Mathilde's tapestry", Musee de
Bayeux).

List of principal questions:


1. Changes in the phonetic system in Middle English
1.1. Vowels in the unstressed position
1.2. Vowels under stress
1.2.1. Qualitative changes
1.2.2. Quantitative changes
1.3. Consonants
2. Changes in the phonetic system in New English
2.1. Vowels in the unstressed position
2.2. Vowels under stress
2.2.1. Qualitative changes
2.2.2. Quantitative changes
2.3. Consonants
3. Changes in alphabet and spelling in Middle and
New English
126
8. CHANGES IN THE PHONETIC SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

1. Changes in the phonetic system


in Middle English

1.1. Vowels in the unstressed position


All vowels in the unstressed position underwent a qualitative
change and became the vowel of the type of [э] or [e] unstressed.
This phonetic change had a far-reaching effect upon the system
of the grammatical endings of the English words which now due
to the process of reduction became homonymous. For example:
—forms of strong verbs
Old English writan — wrat — writon — writen
with the suffixes -an, -on, -en different only in the vowel
component became homonymous in Middle English:

writen — wrpt — writen — writen


—forms of nouns
Old English Nominative Plural a-stem fiscas
Genitive Singular fisces
Middle English for both the forms is fisces;
or
Old English Dative Singular fisce
Genitive Plural fisca
Middle English form in both cases is fisce.

1.2. Vowels under stress


1.2.1. Qualitative changes
— Changes of monophthongs
Three long monophthongs underwent changes in Middle
English:
127
PART 1. LECTURES

Table 8-1. Long Monophthongs

^-\Periods Middle English (New English)


Old English

a>9 stan st9n stone


bat bot boat

slaepan slfpen sleep

y>I fyr fir fire

the rest of the monophthongs presenting their original quality, o»


example:
Old English Middle English
tep teeth (though the spelM
6 [5] top tooth devices may be
п1 ut out different)
tTma time
Out of the seven principal Old English short monophthongs-
a, e, o, i, u, ге, у — two changed their quality in Middle English,
thus [ae] became [a] and [y] became [i], the rest of the
monophthongs remaining unchanged, for example:

Old English Middle English


paet that
wses was
fyrst first
but: tell an tellen
hors hors
singan sin gen
putan putten

128
. S. CHANGES IN THE PHONETIC SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

— Changes of diphthongs
All Old English diphthongs were contracted (became
monophthongs) at the end of the Old English period.
Table 8-2. Diphthongs
"\Periods
Old English Middle English
Sounds^\^
ёо>ё deop deep
ёа>| bread bread
eo>e seofon seven
ea>a eald aid

But instead of the former diphthongs that had undergone


contraction at the end of the Old English period there appeared in
tyTiddle English new diphthongs. The new diphthongs sprang into
being due to the vocalization of the consonant [j] after the front
vowels [e] or [ae] or due to the vocalization of the consonant [y]
or the semi-vowel [w] after the back vowels [o] and [a]. For
instance:

Old English Middle English (New English)

da?3 > da3 > dai day


we3 > we3 > wei way
gr§3 > gre3 > grei grey
ёгазап > drawen > drauen draw
аз an > 8 wen > ouen own
Ьоза > bowe > boue bow

Thus in Middle English there appeared four new diphthongs:


[ai], [ei], [au], [ou].

129
PARTI. LECTURES

1.2.2. Quantitative changes


Besides qualitative changes .mentioned above vowels under
stress underwent certain changes in quantity.

— Lengthening of vowels
The first lengthening of vowels took place as early as late
Old English (IX century). All vowels which occurred before the
combinations of consonants such as mb, nd, Id became long.
Old English Middle English (New English)
[i] > [i:] climban climben climb
findan finden find
cild cild child
[u] > [u:] hund hound hound
The second lengthening of vowels took place in Middle
English (XII—XIII century). The vowels [a], [o] and [e] were
affected by the process. This change can be observed when the
given vowels are found in an open syllable.
Old English Middle English (New English)
a>a talu tale tale
e>e sprecan speken speak
09 hopian hopen hope
— Shortening of vowels
All long vowels were shortened in Middle English if they are
found before two consonants (XI century).
Old English Middle English (New English)
cepte cepte keep
wisdom wisdom wisdom
Through phonetic processes the lengthening and the
shortening of vowels mentioned above left traces in grammar and
wordstock.
130
8. CHANGES IN THE PHONETIC SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

Due to it vowel interchange developed in many cases


between:
— different forms of the same word;
— different words formed from the same root.
For instance:
Middle English [i:] — [i] child children
[e:] — [e] kepen but kept
[k] — [i] wis wisdom

1.3. Consonants
The most important change in the consonant system that can
be observed if we compare the Old English and the Middle
English consonant system will be the development of the
fricative consonant [J] and the affricates ftp and [d3] from Old
English palatal consonants or consonant combinations. Thus:
Old English Middle English
И > [tj] cild child
benc bench
cin chin
cicen chicken
[sk1] > [J] scip ship
sceal shall
[g'l > [d 3 ] brycx bridge

Thus we can notice that variants of some Old English


consonant phonemes developed differenly. For example:
The phoneme denoted in Old English by the letter с had two
1
variants: [k] — hard and [k ] — palatal, the former remaining
unchanged, the latter giving us a new phoneme, the phoneme [tj].
131
PART 1. LECTURES

The phoneme denoted by the letters "g" or "сз" and which


1
existed in four variants: [g ], [g] — in spelling "сз" and Ц], IYI
in spelling "g" had the following development:
1
[g ] > [d3] bridge
w e e
Ш> [Yl r vocalized: das3>dai, 3iet>yet,
Ьоза>Ьоие, dra3an>drauen
[g] remained unchanged: 3od > good
Special notice should be taken of the development of su ^
consonant phonemes that had voiced and voiceless vanan
Old English, such as:
[fj — [v] in spelling f
[s] — [z] in spelling s
[9] — [ 5 ] in spelling p, 5
They became different phonemes in Middle English.
* * *
Summary — Middle English

1. Levelling of vowels in the unstressed position.


2. No principally new monophthongs in the system of the
language appeared, but the monophthongs of the [o] and [e] type
may differ: they are either "open" — generally those developed
from the Old English a (stan > stpn) or "close" — developing
from the Old English о (boc > bok (book)).
2. The sounds [аз] and [y] disappeared from the system of the
language.
3. There are no long diphthongs.
4. New diphthongs appeared with the glide more close than
the nucleus (because of the origin) as contrasted to Old English
with the glide more open than the nucleus.
5. No parallelism exists between long and short
monophthongs different only in their quantity.
132
8. CHANGES IN THE PHONETIC SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

6. The quantity of the vowel depends upon its position in the


word, (a, o, e — always long in an open syllable or before Id, mb,
nd. All vowels are always short before two consonants, with the
exception of Id, mb, nd).
Only in one position — in a closed syllable before one
consonant vowels of any quantity could be found (wls but pig).
7. New affricates and the fricative [J] appeared in the system
of the language.
8. The resonance (the voiced or the voiceless nature) of the
consonants ([fj, [v], [s], [z] and [9], [6]) became phonemic.

2. Changes in the phonetic system


in New English

2.1. Vowels in the unstressed position


Vowels in the unstressed position already reduced in Middle
English to the vowel of the [э] type are dropped in New English
if they are found in the endings of words, for example:
Old English Middle English New English
nama name name [neim]
writan writen write [rait]
sunu sone son [sAn]
The vowel in the endings is sometimes preserved — mainly
for phonetic reason:
wanted, dresses
"— without the intermediate vowel it would be very difficult to
Pronounce the endings of such words.

133
PART 1. LECTURES
S. CHANGES IN THE PHONETIC SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW EN GUSH

the resulting vowel is more open, than the resulting vowel in such
cases when the long vowel undergoing the Shift was followed by
a consonant other than "r". For example:
[ei] but [еэ] fate but fare
[i:] but [is] steep but steer
[ai] but [ais] time but tire
[ш] but [иэ] moon but moor
[аи] but [аиэ] house but hour
As a result of the Great Vowel Shift new sounds did not
appear, but the already existing sounds appeared under new
conditions. For instance:
The sound existed The sound appeared
before the Shift after the Shift
[ei] wey make
[u:] hous moon
[i:] time see, etc.
Two short monophthongs changed their quality in new
En
glish (XVII century), the monophthong [a] becoming [as] and
the monophthong [u] becoming [л]. For instance:
Middle English New English
[a] > [аз] that that
[и]>[л] cut cut

However, these processes depended to a certain extent upon


the preceding sound. When the sound [a] was preceded by [w] it
changed into [o]. Compare:
Middle English New English
[a] > [аз] that that
[a] > [o] was was
(but: wax [wseks]).
135
Where the sound [u] was preceded by the consonants [p], И
or [f], the change of [u] into [л] generally did not take place,
hence:
bull, butcher, pull, push, full, etc.
But sometimes even the preceding consonant did not preven
the change, for instance:
Middle English New English
[u] > [л] but [but] but [bAt]
— Changes of diphthongs
Two out of the four Middle English diphthongs changed m
New English, the diphthong [ai] becoming [ei] and the diphthong
[au] contracted to [o:] For example:
Middle English New English
[ai] > [ei] dai day
[au]> [o:] lawe law

2.2.2. Quantitative changes


Among many cases of quantitative changes of vowels in New
English one should pay particular attention to the lengthening of
the vowel, when it was followed by the consonant [r]. Short vow-
els followed by the consonant [r] became long after the disap-
pearance of the given consonant at the end of the word or before
another consonant:
Middle English New English
[a] > [a:] farm farm
[o] > [o:] hors horse
When the consonant [r] stood after the vowels [e], [i], [u],
the resulting vowel was different from the initial vowel not only
in quantity but also in quality. Compare:
136
8. CHANGES IN THE PHONETIC SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

her
fir
fur -
or [h] before [t]: might, night, light.

2.3. Consonants
The changes that affected consonants in New English are not
very numerous. They are as follows.
1) Appearance of a new consonant in the system of English
phonemes — [3] and the development of the consonants [d3J and
Щ] from palatal consonants.
Thus Middle English [sj], [zj], [tj], [dj] gave in New English
the sounds [J], [3], [tf], [cfc]. For example:
fcj] > [J] Asia, ocean
fcH > [3] measure, treasure
Ш > [tf] nature, culture, century
Ш > [d3] soldier
Note should be taken that the above-mentioned change took
place in borrowed words, whereas the sounds [tf], №3], Ш which
appeared in Middle English developed in native words.
2. Certain consonants disappeared at the end of the word or
before another consonant, the most important change of the kind
affecting the consonant [r]:
farm, form, horse, etc.
(see above, quantitative changes of vowels).
3. The fricative consonants [s], [0] and [f] were voiced after
Unstressed vowels or in words having no sentence stress — the
so-called "Verner's Law in New English":
possess, observe, exhibition; dogs, cats; the, this, that,
there, then, though, etc.
137
•I* V V

Summary — New English


The changes that affected the vowel and the consonant
system in New English were great and numerous.
Vowels — Qualitative changes:
1. Disappearance of vowels in the unstressed position at the
end of the word.
2. Changes of all long vowels — the Great Vowel Shift.
3. Changes of two short vowels: [a] > [аг] or [o] and [u] >
[л].
Vowels — Quantitative changes:
4. Changes of two diphthongs: [ai] > [ei], [au] > [o:].
5. Lengthening of vowels before [r] — due to the
vocalisation of consonants.
Consonants:
6. Appearance of the consonant [3] and the consonants [yJ>
[d3] in new positions.
7. Disappearance or vocalisation of the consonant [r].
8. Voicing of consonants — Verner's Law in New English.
9. Positional disappearance:
r vocalised at the end of the word: far
w before r write
к before n knight
h before t light

138
S. CHANGES IN THE PHONETIC SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

3. Changes in alphabet and spelling


in Middle and New English
As we remember, the Old English spelling system was
1 th th
mainly phonetic. However, the 13 and 14 centuries witnessed
many changes in the English language, including its alphabet and
spelling. As a result of these modifications the written form of
the word became much closer to what we have nowadays.
In Middle English the former Anglo-Saxon spelling tradition
was replaced by that of the Norman scribes reflecting the
influence of French and often mixing purely phonetic spelling
with French spelling habits and traditions inherited from Old
English. The scribes substituted the so-called "continental
variant" of the Latin alphabet for the old "insular writing". Some
letters came into disuse, replaced by new means of expressing the
sounds formerly denoted by them — thus the letters p ("thorn")
and p ("wen"), being of runic origin, unknown to the Norman
scribes, disappeared altogether. Some letters, already existing in
Old English but being not very frequent there, expanded their
sphere of use — like the letter k. New letters were added —
among them j , w, v and z. Many digraphs — combinations of
letter!? to denote one sound, both vowel and consonant —
appeared, mostly following the pattern of the French language.
The following letters disappeared:
5, p [6/9] replaced by th: bat — that
3 [g. j] g 3od — g° d
or у зеаг — year
ae [e] e lsetan — leten (let)
P [w] w

Strictly phonetic spelling means that every sound is represented by only one
distinct symbol, and no symbol represents more than one sound
139
PARTLLECTURES

The following letters were introduced:


gfor [g] in god and Щ] in singe
j for $3] in words of French origin: joy, judge
к for [k] instead о/ с before front vowels and n:
drincan — drinken, cnawan — taiowen.
у for [v] instead off as a separate phoneme:
lufu — love [luva]
q/ог [k] {followed by u) in quay
or [kw] in cwen—queen to replace OE cw2
г for [z] as a separate phoneme: zel ( # я "
The following digraphs appeared:
consonant digraphs:
ch for the sound [tj] cild — child
dg У3] Ьгусз — bridge
h
§ 1X3 ri3t—right,
th [5, 6] pencan — thinken,
modor — mother
sh [J] scip — ship
ph [f] щ w < ? r ^ borrowed from Latin'-
phonetics
ch [к] in words borrowed from Latin'-
chemistry
vowel digraphs — to show the length of the vowel:
еа [е] mete — meat
ее [е] fet — feet
оа [о] bat — boat
оо [о] fot — foot
ie [e:] feld — field
ou/ow [u:] hus — hous, tun — town
Until the 17* century reform v was an allograph of u, the two letters often
being interchangeable: over—ouer, love—loue.
" Although sometimes [z] is still rendered by s: losen (lose), chesen (choose).
140
8. CHANGES IN THE PHONETIC SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

Some changes were made for ease of reading and for a better
visual image of the word:
к instead of с boc — book in the final position for
У i by, my better visual separation
w u now of words
Besides, у and w were considered more ornamental than i
and u at the end of the word, allowing to finish it with an elegant
curve.
о instead of u cumen — come close to letters
опзштеп — bigonne consisting only
sunu — sone of vertical
lu$a — love strokes, such as
munuc — monk u/v, n, m

The New English period witnessed the establishment of the


literary norm presupposing a stable system of spelling. However,
the spelling finally fixed in the norm was influenced by many
factors, objective and subjective in character, preserving separate
elements of different epochs and showing traces of attempts to
improve or rationalise it.
In New English with the revival of learning in the 16th
century a new principle of spelling was introduced, later to be
called etymological. It was believed that, whatever the
pronunciation, the spelling should represent to the eye the form
from which the word was derived, especially in words of Latin or
Greek origin. Thus,.the word dett borrowed from French dette
w
as respelled as debt, for it could be traced to Latin debitum,
dout borrowed from French douter — as doubt from Latin
dubitare.
However, the level of learning at that age was far from
Perfect, and many of the so-called etymological spellings were
Wrong. Here it is possible to mention such words as:

141
PART 1. LECTURES

ME ake (from OE acan) respelt as ache from a wrongfully


supposed connection with Greek achos;
ME tonge (from OE tunge) respelt-as tongue on analogy
with French langue, Latin lingua; a

ME iiand (from OE igland) respelt as island from


wrongfully supposed connection with French isle, Latin insu a.
ME scool borrowed in OE from Latin and always writ
with sc- (OE scool) respelt as school, because in Latin the sou
[k] in words of Greek origin was rendered as ch;
ME delit borrowed from French delit came to be spelt wi
mute dighraph -gh- on analogy with light — delight, etc.
At the same time, the major phonetic changes of the регю ^
and first of all, the Great Vowel Shift, found practically n^
corresponding changes in spelling. This resulted in the prese
day system where one sound can be denoted in several ways,
instance:
3 — torn, co&mel, herd, heard, bird, blwrred, erred, stirred,
word;
ou — note, noble, both, toad, toe, soul, dough, mow, brooch,
oh, mauve, beau, depof, yeoman, sew;
one symbol can stand for different sounds:
ch — cfeaos, c/taise, such, cho'u; dracAm (mute)
о — hot, cold, wolf, women, whom, son, button, lost, hero
In addition, there are many so-called "silent letters", the
presence of which can be explained only historically. Among the
latter there are often mentioned the following:.
e {mute e) at the end of words: house, take
b after m: lamb, limb, comb
b before t: debt, doubt
ch — yacht
g before n and m: gnaw, phlegm
h — heir, hour, exhibitor
142
S. CHANGES IN THE PHONETIC SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

к before n: knife, knee


1 — could, yolk, palm
n after m: autumn, column
s — island, aisle
t after s and f and before 1 or n — listen, often, wrestle,
soften
w — wrap, sword, answer
There are also double consonants used not to denote the
quality or quantity of the consonant, but the quantity of the
preceding vowel: bigger, redder, stopper.
All these features make the present-day English system of
spelling one of the most complex and complicated in the world.
As Walter Skeat, the famous specialist in the History of English,
puts it, "we retain a Tudor system of symbols with a Victorian
pronunciation".

Some more facts...

Shakespeare's Pronunciation

Shakespeare's pronunciation, though not ours, was much


more like ours than has always been realized. He pronounced
[e] for [i] in some words just as Pope could still say lay for tea.
The falling together of er, ir, ur (e.g., herd, birth, hurt) was
under way but not yet completed. As is known, M.E. ё was
sometimes open, sometimes close [s: e:] and the two sounds
were still distinct in Shakespeare's day, [e;] and [i:] respectively.
Consequently sea [se:] does not normally rime with see [si:],
heap with keep, speak with seek, etc. Toward the close of the
fifteenth century an attempt was made to distinguish between
them by the spelling. The closer sound was often spelled with ее
or ie (deep, field) while the more open sound was as often
written ea (sea, clean). But the practice was not consistently
carried out. Although the two sounds are now identical, this
143
PART 1. LECTURES

variation in spelling is a reminder of the difference i»


pronunciation that long existed.
We should also probably notice considerable difference m
the pronunciation of words containing M.E. д. This regula) у
developed into fu:J, as in room, food, roof, root, and it retains
this sound in many words today. In some words the vowel was
shortened in the fifteenth century and was unrounded tot e
sound in blood, flood. In still other words, however, it retained
its length until about 1700, but was then shortened without being
unrounded, giving us the sound good, stood, book, fool,
apparent that in Shakespeare's day there was much fluctuation in
the pronunciation of words containing this Middle Eng '
vowel, both in the different parts of the country and in the usage
of different individuals.
Consequently we find in the poetry of the period word we
flood riming not only with blood but with mood and good. №
fact, as late as Dryden we find in the same rime flood—mood-
good, the three developments of the sound at the present day-
is only in recent times that the pronunciation of these words w$
been standardized, and even today there is some vacillation
between a long and short vowel in some of them, e.g., in broom,
room, and roof.
In addition to such differences in the quality of vowels there
were some differences of accent. Shakespeare said persev'er,
demon'strate, and generally aspect', de'testable, while he has
charact'er, com'mendable, envy', se'cure, welcome', etc., i"
contrast to the accentuation that is customaiy in these words
today.
On the whole, however, we should probably have little more
difficulty in understanding Shakespeare's pronunciation than we
experience in listening to a broad Irish brogue.
after A.C. Baugh and T. Cable
LECTURE 9.
CHANGES IN THE NOMINAL
SYSTEM IN MIDDLE ENGLISH AND
NEW ENGLISH

Soldier of James I (1566—


1625) from "A Schoole for
Young Soldiers, containing in
briefe the whole Discipline of
warre"

List of principal questions:


1. General survey of grammar changes in Middle and
New
English.
2. The noun
2.1. Middle English
2.1.1. Morphological classification
2.1.2. Grammatical categories
2.2. New English
2.2.1. Morphological classification
2.1.2. Origin of irregular noun forms
2.1.3. Grammatical categories
3. The adjective
4. The pronoun
5. The article
145
PART 1. LECTURES

1. General survey of grammar changes


in Middle and New English
The grammar system of the language in the Middle and ew
English periods underwent radical changes. As we remember,
principal means of expressing grammatical relations in Old bng
were the following:
—suffixation
— vowel interchange
— use of suppletive forms,
all these means being synthetic. . .
In Middle English and New English many grammatical
notions formerly expressed synthetically either disappeared tro
the grammar system of the language or came to be expressed У
analytical means. There developed the use of analytical form
consisting of a form word and a notional word, and also word order,
special use of prepositions, etc. — analytical means. .
In Middle English and New English we observe the process or
the gradual loss of declension by many parts of speech, formeny
declined. Thus in Middle English there remained only three declinable
parts of speech: the noun, the pronoun and the adjective, against five
existing in Old English (the above plus the infinitive and the participle)-
In New English the noun and the pronoun (mainly personal) are the
only parts of speech that are declined.

2. The noun
2.1. Middle English
1.1.1. Morphological classification
In Old English there were three principal types of declensions: a-
stem, n-stem and root-stem declension, and also minor declensions —
146
9. CHANGES IN THE NOMINAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

i-stem, u-stem and others. These types are preserved in Middle


English, but the number of nouns belonging to the same declension in
Old English and Middle English varies. The n-stem declension though
preserved as a type has lost many of the nouns belonging to it while
the original a-stem declension grows in volume, acquiring new words
from the original n-stem, root-stem declensions, and also different
groups of minor declensions and also borrowed words. For example:
Old English Middle English
a-stem singular stan (stone) singular stpn
plural stanas plural stpnes
n-stem singular nama (name) singular name
plural namen plural namen
root-stem singular boc (book) singular book
plural bee plural bookes
Borrowed singular corage (courage)
plural corages

2.7.2. Grammatical categories


There are only two grammatical categories in the declension of
nouns against three in Old English: number and case, the category of
gender having been lost at the beginning of the Middle English period.
Number
There are two number forms in Middle English: Singular and
Plural. For example:
Old English Middle English
Singular fisc fish
stan stpn
nama name
Plural fiscas fishes
stanas stpnes
naman names
147
PART 1. LECTURES

Case
r e d u
The number of cases in Middle English is | J JJ*
compared to Old English. There are only two cases m №
English: Common and Genetive, the Old English Nomin^ ^
Accusative and Dative case having fused into one case
Common case at the beginning of Middle English.
For example:
Old English Middle English

Nominative stan nama 1


n a
Accusative stan naman \ —» Common case stpn
Dative stane naman J
Genitive stanes naman => Genitive case stones nam

Thus we see that the complicated noun paradigm that existe


Old English was greatly simplified in Middle English, which 1
reflected in the following:
1) reduction of the number of declensions;
2) reduction of the number of grammatical categories;
3) reduction of the number of categorial forms within one
of the two remaining grammatical categories — the category
of case.

2.2. New English


The process of the simplification of the system of noun declension
that was manifest in Middle English continued at the beginning of the
New English period.

2.2.1. Morphological classification


In Old English we could speak of many types of consonant and
vowel declensions, the a-, n- and root-stem being principal among
them. In Middle English we observe only these three declensions:
148
P. CHANGES IN THE NOMINAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

a-stem, n-stem, root-stem. In New English we do not find different


declensions, as the overwhelming majority of nouns is declined in
accordance with the original a-stem declension masculine, the endings
of the plural form -es and. the Possessive -s being traced to the
endings of the original a-stem declension masculine, i.e.:
Old English Middle English
Nominative & Accusative Common Plural
Plural ending -as ending -es
Genitive Singular Genitive Singular
ending -es ending -s
Of the original n-stem and root-stem declensions we have in
New English but isolated forms, generally referred to in modern
grammar books as exceptions, or irregular noun forms.

2.2.2. Origin of modern irregular noun forms


All modern irregular noun forms can be subdivided into several
groups according to their origin:
a) nouns going back to the original a-stem declension, neuter
gender, which had no ending in the nominative and accusative plural
even in Old English, such as:
sheep — sheep (OE sceap — sceap)
deer — deer (OE deor — deor)
b) some nouns of the n-stem declension preserving their plural
f°rm, such as:
ox — oxen (OE oxa — oxan)
c) the original s-stem declension word
child — children (Old English cild — cildra)
In Middle English the final vowel was neutralised and the ending -
n
added on analogy with the nouns of the original n-stem declension.
This shows that the power of the n-stem declension was at the time
still relatively strong.
149
PART

d) remnants of the original root-stem declension, such as:


foot — feet (OE fot — fet)
tooth — teeth (OE to6 — ted)
e) "foreign plurals" — words borrowed in Early New English
from Latin. These words were borrowed by learned people from
scientific books who alone used them, trying to preserve their oiigm
form and not attempting to adapt them to their native language. Among
such words are:
datum — data, automaton — automata, axis — axes, etc.
It should be noted that when in the course of further history these
words entered the language of the whole people, they tended to a
regular plural endings, which gaveriseto such doublets as:
molecula—moleculae and moleculas,
formula —formulae and formulas,
antenna—antennae and antennas,
the irregular form being reserved for the scientific style.
2.2.3. Grammatical categories
The category of gender is formal, traditional already in Old
English; in Middle English and New English nouns have no category от
gender.
The category of number is preserved, manifesting the difference
between singular and lural forms.
The category of case, which underwent reduction first to three
and then to two forms, in New English contains the same number of
case-forms as in Middle English, but the difference is the number of
the nouns used in the Genitive (or Possessive) case — mainly living
beings, and the meaning — mainly the quality or the person who
possesses something.
the boy's book
a women's magazine
a two miles' walk
150
9. CHANGES IN THE NOMINAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

Inanimate nouns are not so common:


the river's bank
the razor's edge
In Modern English, however, we observe a gradual spreading of
the ending -s of the Possessive case to nouns denoting inanimate
things, especially certain geographical notions, such cases as
England's prime minister" being the norm, especially in political style.

3. The adjective
Only two grammatical phenomena that were reflected in the
adjectival paradigm in Old English are preserved in Middle English:
declension and the category of number.
The difference between the Indefinite (strong) and the Definite
(weak) declension is shown by the zero ending for the former and the
ending -e for the latter, but only in the Singular. The forms of the
^finite and the Indefinite declension in the Plural have similar endings.
For instance:
Singular Plural
Indefinite a yong squier
n J • , yonge
Definite the yonge sonne
The difference between number forms is manifest only in the In-
definite (strong) declension, where there is no ending in the Singular
but the ending -e in the Plural.
In New English what remained of the declension in Middle
English disappeared completely and now we have the uninflected form
f
°r the adjective used for all puiposes for which in Old English there
existed a complicated adjectival paradigm with two number-forms,
five case-forms, three gender-forms and two declensions.
As we have seen above, all grammatical categories and
declensions in Middle and New English disappeared. Contrary to that
degrees of comparison of the adjective were not only preserved but
also developed in Middle and New English. For example:
151
PART 1. LECTURES

Table 9-1. Degrees of Comparison

^^\^^ Degree Superlative


Positive Comparative
Period ^*"\.

Old English heard heardra heardost


hard hardre hardest
Middle English
harder hardest
New English hard
Old English eald ieldra/yldra ieldest
Middle English aid eldre eldest
New English old elder eldest 1
- • —

Old English 3od betera betst


Middle English 3ood bettre best
New English good better best

It should be noted, however, that out of the three principal means


of forming degrees of comparison that existed in Old Engli
suffixation, vowel interchange and suppletive forms, there remained
a productive means only one: suffixation, the rest of the means see
only in isolated forms. At the same time there was formed an
developed a new means — analytical, which can be observed in sue
cases encountered, for instance, in the works of J. Chaucer, as:
comfortable — more comfortable.

4. The pronoun
In Old English all pronouns were declined, and the pronominal
paradigm was very complicated. In Middle English the system was
greatly simplified and nowadays what remained of the pronominal
declension is mainly represented by the declension of the personal
pronoun and on a small scale — demonstrative and interrogative
(relative).
152
9. CHANGES IN THE NOMINAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

Case
The four-case system that existed in Old English gave way to a
two-case system in late Middle English and in New English. The
development may be illustrated by the following scheme of the
pronominal paradigm (see Scheme 9-1).

Scheme 9-1. Personal Pronouns


Old English Middle English New English
Nominative Ic =$ Nominative I ,=> Nominative I
Accusative m e c ] >-,,.. л , .
.
Dative me } Objective me => Objective me
Genitive mm
Possessive Pronouns => mine => mine

Gender
As a grammatical phenomenon gender disappeared already in
Middle English, the pronouns he and she referring only to animate
notions and it — to inanimate.
Number
The three number system that existed in Early Old English
(Singular, Dual, Plural) was substituted by a two number system
a
bady in Late Old English.

5. The article
The first elements of the category of the article appeared already
Ь Old English, when the meaning of the demonstrative pronoun was
Weakened, and it approached the status of an article in such phrases
as:
Se mann (the man), S60 see (the sea), "past lond (the land).
153
LECTURES

However, we may not speak of any category if it is not represente


by an opposition of at least two units. Such opposition arose only m
Middle English, when the indefinite article an appeared.
The form of the definite article the can be traced back to the Old
English demonstrative pronoun se (that, masculine, singular), whic 1
the course of history came to be used on analogy with the forms ot
same pronoun having the initial consonant [8] and began to be use
with all nouns, irrespective of their gender or number.
The indefinite article developed from the Old English numeral an.
In Middle English an split into two words: the indefinite pronoun an,
losing a separate stress and undergoing reduction of its vowel, and tne
numeral one, remaining stressed as any other notional word. Later m
indefinite pronoun an grew into the indefinite article a/an, and togethei
with the definite article the formed a new grammatical category — t"6
category of determination, or the category of article.

* * *
Summary
The system of the declinable parts of speech underwent
considerable simplification, at the same time developing new analytical
features:
1. Reduction in the number of the declinable parts of speech.
2. Reduction in the number of declensions (whatever is preserved
follows the a-stem masculine).
3. Reduction in the number of grammatical categories
4. • Reduction in the number of the categorial forms (the category of
number of personal pronouns and case — of all nominal parts of
speech)

5. Formation of a new class of words — article.

154
9. CHANGES IN THE NOMINAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

Some more facts...


TheSHEPuzde
Plotting the way sounds and words changed between Old
and Middle English can be an intriguing business, and one
which cannot always be resolved, as the story of she illustrates.
There is a fairly obvious relationship between most of the Old
English pronouns and their Modem English equivalents. But
what is the link between heo and she? The question has at-
tracted several answers, and remains controversial.
• The simplest solution is to argue that there was a series of
sound changes by which heo gradually changed into she.
1. Sometime between Old and Middle English, the
diphthong altered, the first element becoming shorter and
losing its stress, [he: 9] thus became [hjo:].
2. The fhj] element then came to be articulated closer to the
palate, as [3], in much the same way as happens to modern
English huge.
3. [3] then became [J], to give the modern consonant.
There are certain facts in favour of this theory. Spellings
such as scho are found in very early Middle English in the
north. Also, a similar development took place in a few place
names, such as Old Norse Hjaltland becoming modern
Shetland. The main argument against the theory is that there is
no clear evidence for Step 3 elsewhere in English at any time —
apart from in these few foreign place names. Is it plausible to
propose a sound change which affected only one word? Also,
we are still left with the problem of getting from [o:J to [e:],
which is required in order to produce the modern sound of she.
For this, we have to assume a process such as analogy — the
vowel of she being influenced by that of he. But there is no clear
evidence for this.
• Alternative theories argue that heo comes from seo, the
feminine form of the definite article. The simplest version
postulates similar sound changes to the above, giving [sjo:J as
a result. This is a short, plausible step away from Ifo:}.
However, we are still left with the question of why the jo:)
vowel became fe:].
155
PART I. LECTURES

• A third argument also begins with seo, but takes a different


phonological route. Sometime after the Conquest, we have a lot
of evidence to show that the sound of ёо [е:э] changed to
become close to ё [е:]. This would have had the effect of making
the words heo and he sound the same. In these circumstances,
there would be a need to find a way of keeping the two words
apart; and the suggestion is that seo filled this need.
Why seo? There is a close semantic link between personal
and demonstrative pronouns in many languages, and it can be
seen in Old English too, where seo meant "that" as well US
"the". The same could apply to seo in its relation to heo. It
would be very natural to use the phonetic distinctiveness of the
former to help sort out the ambiguity of the latter. All that
would then be needed was a further consonant change from [si
to If], as the vowel is already on course for its modern sound.
The problem here is in this last step. How can [s] become [f]
in front of an [e:] vowel? It would be the equivalent of a change
from same to shame. To get from [s] to [f], there needs to be
some intervening sound which "pulls" the s in the direction of
the more palatal sound [J]. The obvious candidate is [j], itself a
palatal sound, but the whole point of this third argument is that
there is no [j] left in heo. The possibility of a [j] developing dis-
appeared when we argued that ёо became [e:].
ltl
The origins of she thus remain one of the unsolved puzzles
the history of English.
After D. Crystal
LECTURE 10.
CHANGES IN THE VERBAL
SYSTEM IN MIDDLE ENGLISH
AND NEW ENGLISH

Family worship in 1563


(The Whole Psalms in
foure partes, John Day,
1563)

List ofprincipal questions:


1. Non-finite forms (verbals)
2. Morphological classification of verbs in Middle
English and New English
2.1. Strong verbs
2.1.1. Classes of the strong verbs
2.1.2. Principal forms of the strong verbs
2.2. Weak verbs
2.2.1. Classes of the weak verbs
2.2.2. Principal forms of the weak verbs
2.3. Origin of modem irregular verbs
3- Grammatical categories of the English verb
157
PART I. LECTURES

1. Non-finite forms (verbals)


A comparison of the verbals in Old English and in Middle
and New English shows that the number of verbals ш и
English was less than that in Middle and New English At the en
of the Middle English period a new verbal developed —
Gerund, in addition to the Infinitive and the Participle existing
already in Old English. The Gerund appeared as a result of a
blend between the Old English Present Participle ending ш
'-ende' and the Old English Verbal noun ending in '-inge'. №
the Verbal noun the Gerund acquired the form (the ending
'-ing(e)'), but under the influence of the Participle it became
more "verbal" in meaning
In the process of English history the Verbals are gradually
shifting from the system of declension into the system
conjugation Thus in Old English the verbals existing at the time,
the infinitive and the participle could be declined (see above, О
English). In the course of history the Infinitive (already at the end
of the Old English period) and the Participle (in Middle English)
lost their declension. And at the end of the Middle English and in
New English they acquired elements of conjugation — t n e
grammatical categories of order, voice and aspect (the infinitive)
and the grammatical categories of order and voice (the participle
and the gerund). The Old English preposition to preceding the
Dative case of the infinitive loses its independent meaning and
functions simply as a grammatical particle showing that the
Verbal is an Infinitive.
But even in Modern English we can find such contexts where
the form of the verbal is active, though the meaning is passive:
The book is worth reading.
The coat needs ironing.

15X
, Ю- CHANGES IN THE VERBAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

or the non-perfect form expresses order, i.e. is used to express


events that took place prior to the action of the finite form of the
verbs:
I remember doing...
I thanked him for bringing the happy tidings.
Such phenomena reflect the previous stage of the development of
the English language, when the given verbals were indifferent to
voice and order.

2. Morphological classification of verbs


in Middle English and New English
2.0. The subdivision of Old English verbs into Strong and
Weak is preserved with modifications in Middle English.

2.1. Strong verbs


2.1.1, Classes of the strong verbs
In New English, however, the original regularity that was
observed in the group of strong verbs in Old English and partly in
Middle English is no longer felt due to the following:
0 Splitting of original classes into subclasses, for example:

Old English New English

< rise — rose — risen

bite — bit — bitten


2) Some strong verbs of one class entering another class.
th
Thus, the Old English verb of the
1595 class:
PARTI. LECTURES

sprecan — sprsec — spraicon — sprecen


th
passed into the 5 class in Middle English with the forms
speken — spak — speken — spoken
on analogy with such verbs as
stelen — stal — stelen — stolen.
3) Passing of some strong verbs into the group of weak ver s
and (rarely) vice versa. For example:
Old English New English
I class gripan to grip
glidan to glide
II class creopan to creep
Шозап to lie
III class climban to climb
helpan to help
VI class bacan to bake
waecnan to wake
The contrary process, as we have already said, is quite rare.
Old English New English
hydan to hide
waerian to wear
4) But some weak verbs acquired only some features of the
strong verbs, like the Old English weak verb sceawian •—
Modern English show, showed, but shown.

2.1.2. Principal forms of the strong verbs


The strong Verbs in Old English had four principal forms, for
example:
writan — wrat — writon — writen (to write)
bindan — band — bundon — bunden (to shake)

160
10. CHANGES IN THE VERBAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

In Middle English, however, they exhibited a marked


tendency to have the same vowel in both the forms of the past
tense, thus- gradually reducing the number of the principal forms
to three. In New English we have only three principal forms in
verbs originally belonging to the group of strong verbs:
write — wrote — writen
The vowel that is preserved in the Past tense is generally
traced back to the vowel of Old English past tense singular. For
example:
Old English Middle English New English
I class wrat wrot wrote (to write)
II class scoc shok shook (to shake)
but sometimes it is the vowel of the original past tense plural:
Old English bitan —bat —biton —biten
Middle English biten — bot — biten — biten
New English • bite — bit — bitten
with the Past tense form deriving its vowel from the past tense
plural form of the verb.
Sometimes the vowel of the past tense form was borrowed from
the form of the past participle:
Old English stelan — stsel — staelon — stolen
Middle English stelen — stal — stelen — stolen
New English steal — stole — stolen

2.2. Weak verbs


As we have said above the number of strong verbs was
diminishing in Middle English and New English mainly due to
the passing of some strong verbs into the weak conjugation. Weak
v
ei'bs, however, were becoming more and more numerous, as
they not only preserved in Middle and New English almost all the
verbs that were typical of the group in Old English, but also
i6i
PART 1. LECTURES

added to their group the majority of borrowed verbs and about


seventy verbs originally strong (see above), and also such vei
as:
to call
to want Scandinavian borrowings
to guess

to pierce
to punish French borrowings
to finish

to contribute
to create Latin borrowings
to distribute
Alike strong verbs many weak verbs became irregular in the
course of history, especially weak verbs of the first class This
irregularity was mainly conditioned by qualitative and
quantitative changes that many weak verbs underwent in Middle
English and New English. For instance:
Old English cepan — cepte — cept
Middle English kepen — kepte — kept
New English keep — kept — kept
As we see the Old English weak verb of the first class
became irregular due to the quantitative change — shortening of
the vowel in the second and third forms in Middle English
(before two consonants — for example, pt), thus acquiring
quantitative vowel interchange. This quantitative interchange was
followed by qualitative in New English after the Great vowel
shift, which only the vowel of the first form, being long,
underwent, the short vowel of the second and third forms
retaining their quality.

162
10. CHANGES IN THE VERBAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

2.2.1. Classes of the weak verbs


In Old English there were two principal classes of the weak
verbs. In Middle English some verbs that did not become
irregular lost the class difference and .we have but one class of
verbs going back mainly to the weak verbs of the second class.
For instance:
Old English II class lufian — lufode — lufod (to love)
Middle English loven — lov(e)de — luv(e)d

2.2.2. Principal forms of the weak verbs


In Old English there were three principal forms of the weak
verbs, for instance:
cepan—cepte —cept (to keep)
lufian — lufode — lufod (to love)
In Late Middle English — Early New English, with the loss
of the final -e in the second form the second and the third form
became homonymous, thus we speak of three principal forms of
such verbs as to love or to keep mainly on analogy with original
strong verbs, and also because of the existing tradition as no
Modern English regular verb, originally belonging to the weak
conjugation, shows any trace of difference between the second
and third forms.
Thus in New English due to different phonetic processes and
changes on analogy the two principal groups of verbs that existed
m Old English, strong and weak, gave us two principal groups of
Modern verbs: regular and irregular, neither of which is directly
derived from either of the Old English groups of strong and weak
verbs.

163
PART I. LECTURES

2.3. Origin of modem irregular verbs


In Old English most verbs were regular, although there weie
a number of irregular ones. In Middle English not only the ^
Old English irregular verbs were preserved, but also n
irregular verbs appeared. This was due, first of all, °
disappearance of the division of verbs into strong and weak, m ^
strong verbs losing their regular pattern of conjugation and
becoming irregular.
Another source of irregular verbs was the 1st class of
verbs the irregularity of which was due to several reasons. ^
addition to the examples given above we can show three gr°P
of verbs originally belonging to the 1st class of weak verbs, wni
later became irregular:
a) verbs with a long root vowel, the root ending in -t or -d.
Old English metan — mette — mett
Middle English meten — mette — mett
New English meet — met — met
In Middle English the root vowel of the second and third
forms is shortened due to the rhythmic tendency of the language
requiring the shortening of all vowels if followed by two
consonants. The vowel interchange in Middle English is
quantitative only.
In New English the long root vowel in the first form due to
the great vowel shift is changed qualitatively, so now we have
both quantitative and qualitative vowel interchange in the verb.
b) verbs with a long root vowel, the root ending in a
consonant other than -t or -d:
Old English cepan — cepte — cept
Middle English kepen — kepte — kept
New English keep — kept — kept
164
10. CHANGES IN THE VERBAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

In Middle English the dental suffixation of the 2nd and 3 rd


forms is supplemented with a quantitative vowel interchange
similar to that explained above, and in New English we have both
vowel interchange (quantitative and qualitative) and suffixation
as form-building means.
c) verbs with a short root vowel, the root ending in -t or -d:
Old English settan — sette — sett
Middle English setten — sette — sett
New English set — set — set
No changes took place in the root vowel, the ending
disappeared due to the final reduction of unstressed vowels, and
now the verb forms its forms without any material manifestation.
Even in the 2nd class of weak verbs examples of irregularity
can be found. One of them is the verb to make.
Old English macian — macode — macod
Middle English maken — makede — maked
New English make — made — made
The middle syllable of the 2nd and 3rd forms was lost, making
the verb irregular.
Still another source of irregular verbs may be found in some
loan words borrowed into the language in Middle English and
New English. Although most borrowed verbs formed their forms
in accordance with the weak verbs of the 2nd class, some of them
are irregular. Here it is possible to mention Scandinavian strong
verb borrowings which preserve their original vowel interchange
a
nd thus are nowadays irregular, as:
give — gave — given
take — took — taken
get — got — gotten.
Another irregular loan word is the French borrowing to catch
(caught, caught) which is irregular, forming its forms on analogy
with the verb to teach (taught, taught).
165
PARTLLECTURES

Thus, among New English regular verbs there may be


encountered either native words (almost all Old English weak
verbs of the 2nd class and some Old English strong verbs having
lost their irregularity and forming their forms on analogy with the
weak verbs of the 2nd class, such as to help, to bake, etc.) or
borrowings (almost all loan verbs).

3. Grammatical categories
of the English verb
In Old English the verb had four categories: person, number,
tense and mood.
In Middle English and New English there gradually
developed three more grammatical categories — order, voice ana
aspect.
These grammatical categories used a new grammatical
means for the formation, namely, analytical forms. These
analytical forms developed from free word combinations of the
Old English verbs habban, beon/wesan + an infinitive (or
participle). The way of the formation of those analytical forms
was the following:
In the free word combination habban, beon/wesan + a n
infinitive (or participle) the first element was gradually losing its
lexical meaning, and the second — its grammatical one, thus
tending to become notionally and grammatically inseparable:
idiomatic.
The category of order was the oldest, formed already in
Middle English from the Old English free combination habban +
past participle.
ffie hsefdon hlera cynin.3 awor^enne
(They had already overthrown their king)

166
10. CHANGES IN THE VERBAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

The younge sonne hath in the Ram his halve


course y-runne
(The young sun has run its half-course in the Ram)
... Whan the sonne was to reste,
So hadde I spoked with hem everichon...
(When the sun was about to rest,
So I had spoken with every one of them)
The same idea of order is sometimes still expressed with the
help of the combination to be + participle 2, going back to the
Old English beon + past participle:
This gentleman is happily arrived.
Now he is gone.
The category of voice appeared out of the free combination
°f weorpan (beon) + past participle:
Old English he wearb ofslae3en
(he was slain)
Middle English engendered is the flour
(the flower is generated [born])

The category of aspect was formed in Middle English on the


basis of the free combination of ben (beon) + present participle:
Singinge he was ... al the dai
(he was singing all the day)
The grammatical categories of tense and mood which
existed in Old English acquired new categorial forms.
The Old English present and past tense forms were
supplemented with a special form for the future tense which
a
Ppeared in Middle English out of the free combination of the
Old English modal verbs "sculan" and "willan" with the
infinitive. This free combination of words was split into two
groups: in the first, remaining free, the modal meaning is
Preserved:
167
PART 1. LECTURES

You shall do it — necessity


I will do it — volition
in the second the independent meaning is lost and the fixed word
combination is perceived as the future tense form:
I shall go there.
You will go there.
The category of mood in Old English was represented by
three mood forms, one for each of the moods (indicative,
subjunctive and imperative). The subjunctive in Old English did
not show whether the events were probable or contrary to fact,
but it had two tense forms — past and present, which in the
course of history developed into two subjunctive moods:
- I/he be present — out of the Old English present
tense form of the subjunctive mood
- I/he were present — out of the Old English past tense
form of the subjunctive mood.
The difference between these two subjunctive moods now is
in the shade of probability, and not in the tense, the second one
denoting events which are contrary to fact.
In addition to that at the end of Middle English and the
beginning of New English two more subjunctive mood forms
appeared making use of the analytical form building means:
- I/he should be present — to show events which are
probable, though problematic

- Г should be present 1 — to show imaginary events,


he would be present } contrary to fact.
Here should and would are the subjunctive mood forms of
the Old English sculan and willan.

168
10. CHANGES IN THE VERBAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

* * *

Summary
Thus the system of conjugation in Middle English and New
English is becoming more and more complicated:
1. New non-finite forms appear (the gerund).
2. Conjugation of verbals and disapeareance of their
nomimal categories.
3. New grammatical categories are formed.
4. The already existing grammatical categories acquire new
forms.
5. The predominant regularity of the verbs and' their
conjugation in Old English gives way to many diverse
irregularities.

Some more facts...


Progressive forms
Among the developments as are of most significance in the
language of today one of great importance concerns the verb,
English is distinctly more varied and flexible in some of its
verbal expressions than the other better-known modern
languages. Thus, where the French say 'je chante' or the
German 'ich singe', the English may say 7 sing\ 7 do sing', or
7 am singing'. The do- forms are often called emphatic forms,
and this they sometimes are; but their most important uses are in
negative and interrogative sentences ( 7 don't sing', 'do you
sing'). The forms with 'to be' and the present participle are
generally called progressive forms since their most common use
is to indicate an action as being in progress at the time implied
by the auxiliary. The wide extension of the use of progressive
forms is one of the most important developments of the English
verb in the modern period.

!f>9
PARTLLECTURES

In Old English such expressions as 'he was la-rende' (he was


teaching) are occasionally found, but usually in translations
from Latin. In early Middle English, progressive forms are
distinctly rare, and although their number increases m №
course of the Middle English period, we must credit then
development mainly to the period since the sixteenth centui)'-
The chief factor in their growth is the use of the participle as a
noun governed by the preposition 'on' ('he burst oil
laughing').* This weakened to 'he burst out a-laughing ana.
finally to 'he burst out laughing'. In the same way 'he was on
laughing' became 'he was a-laughing' and 'he was laughing-
Today such forms are freely used in all tenses ('is laughing >
'was laughing', 'will be laughing', etc.).
The extension of such forms to the passive ('the house i
being built') was an even later development. It belongs to the
very end of the eighteenth century. Old English had no
progressive passive. Such an expression as 'the man is love ,
feared, hated' is progressive only in so far as the verbs 'loving >
'fearing', 'hating' imply a continuous state. But no such force
attaches to 'the man is killed', which does not mean the man is
being killed but indicates a completed act. The construction 'the
man is on laughing 'was capable also of a passive significance
under certain circumstances. Thus 'the house is on building' can
only suggest that the house is in process of construction- This
use is found from the fourteenth century on, and in its weakened
form the construction is not unknown today. Colloquially, at
least, we say 'there is nothing doing at the mill this week'. 'The
dinner is cooking' and 'the tea is steeping' are familial'
expressions. In some parts of America one may hear 'there's a
new barn a-building down the road'. When the preposition was
completely lost (on building > a-building > building) the form
became 'the house is building'. Since such an expression may at
times be either active or passive, it had obvious limitations. Thus
'the wagon is making' is a passive, but 'the wagon is making a
noise' is active. And whenever the subject of the sentence is
animate or capable of pe if arming the action, the verb is almost
certain to be in the active voice ('the man is building a house').
With some verbs the construction was impossible in a passive

170
10. CHANGES IN THE VERBAL SYSTEM IN MIDDLE AND NEW ENGLISH

sense. Thus the idea 'he is always being called1 could not be
expressed by 'he is always calling'.
In the last years of the eighteenth century we find the first
traces of our modern expression 'the house is being built'. The
combination of 'being' with a past participle to form a
panicipial phrase had been in use for some time. Shakespeare in
'Hamlet' says: 'which, being kept close, might move more grief
to hide'. This is thought to have suggested the new verb phrase.
It seems first to have been recognized in an English grammar in
1802. As yet it is generally used only in the present and simple
past tense ('is' or 'was being built'). We can hardly say 'the
house has been being built for two years', and we avoid saying
'it will be being built next spring'.
The history of the new progressive passive shows that English
is a living and growing thing, that its grammar is not fixed, that
it will continue to change in the future as it has changed in the
past, even if more slowly. If the need is felt for a new and better
way of expressing an idea, we may rest assured that a way will
be found. But it is interesting to note that even so useful a
construction was at first resisted by many as an unwarranted
innovation.
Although supported by occasional instances, it was
consciously avoided by some and vigorously attacked by others.
In 1837 a writer in the North American Review condemned it as
"an outrage upon English idiom, to be detested, abhorred,
execrated, and given over to six thousand penny-paper editors."
And even so enlightened a student of language as Marsh, in
1859, noted that it "has widely spread, and threatens to establish
itself as another solecism," "The phrase 'the house is being built'
for 'the house is building'," he says, "is an awkward neologism,
which neither convenience, intelligibility, nor syntactical
congruity demands, and the use of which ought therefore to be
discountenanced, as an attempt at the artificial improvement of
the language in a point which needed no amendment."
Artificial it certainly was not. Nothing seems to have been
more gradual and unpremeditated in its beginnings. But, as late
as 1870 Richard Grant White devoted thirty pages of his Words
and Their Uses to an attack upon what still seemed to him a
171
PART 1. LECTURES

neologism. Although the origin of the construction can be traced


back to the latter part of the eighteenth century, its
establishment in the language and ultimate acceptance required
the better part of the century just past.
after A.C. Baugli and T. Cable
LECTURE 11.
ENGLISH VOCABULARY
The habit of smoking (from the title-page
of The Roaring Girle, or Moll Cut-Purse
by T. Middleton and T. Dekker, 1611).
In the 17th century tobacco played a great
part in English colonial and commercial
expansion. Already in the 1590-ies the new
American weed, together with its name,
was wellfamiliar in England.

List of principal questions:


1. Old English
1.1. General characteristics
1.2. Means of enriching vocabulary
1.2.1. Internal means
1.2.2. External means
2. Middle English
2.1. General characteristics
2.2. Means of enriching vocabulary
2.2.1. Internal means
2.2.2. External means
3. New English
3.1. General characteristics
3.2. Means of enriching vocabulary
3.2.1. Internal means
3.2.2. External means
173
PART 1. LECTURES

1. Old English
1.1. General characteristics
The vocabulary of Old English was rather extensive. It is
said to have contained about 50 000 words. These words were
mainly native words. They could be divided into a number or
strata. The oldest stratum was composed of words coming from
the Common Indo-European parent tongue.
Many of these words were inherited by English together with
some other Indo-European languages from the same common
source, and we shall find related words in various Indo-European
languages. Compare:
Old English New English Latin Russian
modor mother mater мать
niht night nox ночь
neowe new novus новый
beran bear ferre брать
Another layer, relatively more recent, was words inherited by
English and other Germanic languages from the same common
Germanic source. You will find them in many languages, but only
those belonging to the Germanic group. Compare:
Old English New English German
еогбе earth Erde
land land Land
see sea See
grene green grim
findan find finden
The third stratum, and that not very extensive, was made up
of words that existed only in English, for instance, the word
174
И. ENGLISH VOCABULARY

clypian (to call), the root preserved in the now somewhat obsolete
word yclept (named).
The vocabulary was changing all the time, old words
becoming extinct and new words entering the language, enriching
it.
As is known, there are two principal ways of enriching the
vocabulary of a language: internal means — those that are
inherent in the language itself, and external means, which result
from contacts between peoples. The English-speaking people of
the period mainly used internal means of enriching the
vocabulary to adapt their language to the expression of more
varied or new notions.

1.2. Means of enriching vocabulary


While creating new words the English language, as we have
mentioned above, principally resorted to its own, internal means:
word derivation, primarily affixation and vowel interchange, and
word composition.

1.2.1. Internal means of enriching vocabulary


— Word derivation
In Old English affixation was widely used as a word-
building means.
There were very many suffixes, with the help of which new
nouns, adjectives, adverbs and sometimes verbs were formed, for
instance:.
— noun suffixes of concrete nouns:
-ere fisc+ere (fisher) , denoting the doer
-estre spinn+estre (spinster) } of the action
J
-in3 'cyn+in3 (king)

175
PART I. LECTURES

— noun suffixes of abstract nouns:


-6 treow+5 (truth)
-nis 30d+nis (goodness)
-Scip freond+SCip (friendship)
-dom freo+dom. (freedom)
-had cild+had (childhood)
— adjective suffixes
-13 Ts+13 (icy), bys+ i3 (busy)
-isc Engl+isc (English), Frens+lSC (French)
-ful car+ful (careful)
-leas slffip+ leas (sleepless)
Prefixes were used on a limited scale and they generally had
a negative meaning:
for- for+3iefan (forgive)
mis- mis+dsed (misdeed)
Ull- un+спб (uncouth)
Vowel interchange:
noun verb
son3 (song) singan (to sing)
dom (doom) deman (to deem)

— Word composition
Word composition was a well-developed means of enriching
vocabulary in Old English. For instance:
Nouns
saS+man (seaman), gold+smid (goldsmith),
monan+da^3 (Monday), sunan+dae3 (Sunday),
Engla+land (land of the Angles, England)
Adjectives
Tc+ceald (ice-cold)

176
11. ENGLISH VOCABULARY

1.2.2. External means of enriching vocabulary


(Old English borrowings)
As we understand, borrowings into a language are a result of
contacts with other nations. The Germanic tribes had but few
contacts with other nations at the beginning of A.D.,
consequently the number of borrowed words in Old English was
not great. The main borrowings that we can single out in Old
English were Latin and Celtic borrowings.
— Latin borrowings
The first Latin borrowings entered the language before the
Germanic tribes of Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians invaded the
British Isles, i.e. at the time when they still lived on the continent.
Due to trade relations with their southern powerful neighbour —
the Roman empire — Germanic tribes learned a number of
products that had been unknown to then, and, consequently, their
names. So the first stratum of borrowings are mainly words
connected with trade. Many of them are preserved in Modern
English, such as:
pound, inch, pepper, cheese, wine, apple, pear, plum, etc.
The second stratum of words was composed of loan Latin
words that the Germanic tribes borrowed already on British soil
from the romanized Celts, whom they had conquered in the 5"1
century. Those were words connected with building and
architecture, as the preserved nowadays:
tile, street, wall, mill, etc.
They denoted objects which the Germanic invaders
encountered on the British Isles.
The third stratum of Latin loan words was composed of
words borrowed after the introduction of the Christian religion.
They are generally of a religious nature, such as the present-day
Words:
177
PART 1. LECTURES

bishop, devil, apostle, monk.


As Latin was the language of learning at the time, there also
entered the language some words that were not directly
connected with religion, such as:
master, school, palm, lion, tiger, plant, astronomy, etc.

— Celtic borrowings
The Celtic language left very few traces in the English
language, because the Germanic conquerors partly exterminate
the local population, partly drove them away to the less feni
mountaineous parts of the country, where they were not withm
reach of the invaders. The Celtic-speaking people who remained
on the territory occupied by the Germanic tribes were slaves, and
even those were not very numerous. It is small wonder therefore
that the number of Celtic loan words was limited. Among the tew
borrowed words we can mention:
d o w n (the downs of Dover), binn (bin - basket, crib, manger).
Some Celtic roots are preserved in geographical names, such
as:
kil (church — Kilbrook), ball (house — Ballantrae), esk (water —
river Esk)
and some others.

2. Middle English
2.1. General characteristics
An analysis of the vocabulary in the Middle English period
shows great instability and constant and rapid change. Many
words became obsolete, and if preserved, then only in some
dialects; many more appeared in the rapidly developing language

17X
11. ENGLISH VOCABULARY

to reflect the ever-changing life of the speakers and under the


influence of contacts with other nations.

2.2. Means of enriching vocabulary


in Middle English

2.2.1. Internal means of enriching vocabulary


Though the majority of Old English suffixes are still
preserved in Middle English, they are becoming less productive,
and words formed by means of word-derivation in Old English
can be treated as such only etymologically.
Words formed by means of word-composition in Old
English, in Middle English are often understood as derived
words.

2.2.2. External means of enriching vocabulary


The principal means of enriching vocabulary in Middle
English are not internal, but external — borrowings. Two
languages in succession enriched the vocabulary of the English
language of the time — the Scandinavian language and the
French language, the nature of the borrowings and their amount
reflecting the conditions of the contacts between the English and
these languages.
— Scandinavian borrowings
The Scandinavian invasion and the subsequent settlement of
the Scandinavians on the territory of England, the constant
contacts and intermixture of the English and the Scandinavians
brought about many changes in different spheres of the English
language: wordstock, grammar and phonetics. The relative ease
of the mutual penetration of the languages was conditioned by the
circumstances of the Anglo-Scandinavian contacts (see above,
Lecture 3).
179
PART 1. LECTURES

Due to contacts between the Scandinavians and the English-


speaking people many words were borrowed from the
Scandinavian language, for example:
Nouns: law, fellow, sky, skirt, skill, skin, egg, anger,
awe, bloom, knife, root, .bull, cake, husband,
leg, wing, guest, loan, race
Adjectives: big, week, wrong, ugly, twin
Verbs: call, cast, take, happen, scare, hail, want, bask,
gape, kindle
Pronouns: they, them, their; and many others.
The conditions and the consequences of various borrowings
were different.
1. Sometimes the English language borrowed a word for
which it had no synonym. These words were simply
added to the vocabulary. Examples:
law, fellow
2. The English synonym was ousted by the borrowing.
Scandinavian taken (to take) and callen (to call) ousted the
English synonyms niman and clypian, respectively.
3. Both the words, the English and the corresponding
Scandinavian, are preserved, but they became different in
meaning. Compare Modern English native words and
Scandinavian borrowings:
Native Scandinavian borrowing
heaven sky
starve die
4. Sometimes a borrowed word and an English word are
etymological doublets, as words originating from the
same source in Common Germanic.

180
U. ENGLISH VOCABULARY

Native Scandinavian borrowing


shirt skirt
shatter scatter
raise rear
5. Sometimes an English word and its Scandinavian doublet
were the same in meaning but slightly different
phonetically, and the phonetic form of the Scandinavian
borrowing is preserved in the English language, having
ousted the English counterpart. For example, Modern
English to give, to get come from the Scandinavian gefa,
geta, which ousted the English 3iefan and 3ietan,
respectively: Similar Modern English words: gift, forget,
guild, gate, again.
6. There may be a shift of meaning. Thus, the word dream
originally meant "joy, pleasure"; under the influence of
the related Scandinavian word it developed its modern
meaning.
— French borrowings
It stands to reason that the Norman conquest and the
subsequent history of the country left deep traces in the English
language, mainly in the form of borrowings in words connected
with such spheres of social and political activity where French-
speaking Normans had occupied for a long time all places of
importance. For example:
— government and legislature:
government, noble, baron, prince, duke, court,
justice, judge, crime, prison, condemn, sentence,
parliament, etc.
— military life:
army, battle, peace, banner, victory, general,
colonel, lieutenant, major, etc.
181
PART 1. LECTURES

— religion:
religion, sermon, prey, saint, charity
— city crafts:
painter, tailor, carpenter (but country occupations
remained English: shepherd, smith)
— pleasure and entertainment:
music, art, feast, pleasure, leisure, supper, dinner,
pork, beef, mutton (but the corresponding names oj
domestic animals remained English: pig, cow, sheep)
— words of everyday life:
air, place, river, large, age, boil, branch, brush,
catch, chain, chair, table, choice, cry, cost
— relationship:
aunt, uncle, nephew, cousin.
The place of the French borrowings within the English
language was different:
1. A word may be borrowed from the French language to
denote notions unknown to the English up to the time:
government, parliament, general, colonel, etc.
2. The English synonym is ousted by the French borrowing:

English French
micel large
here army
§a river
3. Both the words are preserved, but they are stylistically
different:
English French
to begin to commence
to work to labour
182
U. ENGLISH VOCABULARY

to leave to abandon
life existence
look regard
ship vessel
As we see, the French borrowing is generally more literary or
even bookish, .the English word - a common one; but sometimes
the English word is more literary. Compare:
foe (native, English) — enemy (French borrowing).
4. Sometimes the English language borrowed many words
with the same word-building affix. The meaning of the
affix in this case became clear to the English-speaking
people. It entered the system of word-building means of
the English language, and they began to add it to English
words, thus forming word-hybrids. For instance, the
suffix -ment entered the language within such words as
"government", "parliament", "agreement", but later there
appeared such English-French hybrids as:
fulfilment, amazement.
The suffix -ance/-ence, which was an element of such
borrowed words as "innocence", "ignorance", "repentance", now
also forms word-hybrids, such as
hindrance.
A similar thing: French borrowings "admirable", "tolerable",
"reasonable", but also:
readable, eatable, unbearable.
5. One of the consequences of the borrowings from French
was the appearance of ethymological doublets.
— from the Common Indoeuropean:
native borrowed
fatherly paternal
— from the Common Germanic:
183
PART 1. LECTURES ""

native borrowed
yard garden
ward guard
choose choice
— from Latin:
earlier later
(Old English) (Middle English)
borrowing borrowing
mint money
inch ounce
6. Due to the great number of French borrowings there
appeared in the English language such families of words,
which though similar in their root meaning, are different
in origin:
native borrowed
mouth oral
sun solar
see vision
7. There are caiques on the French phrase:
It's no doubt - Se n'est pas doute
Without doubt- Sans doute
Out of doubt - Hors de doute.

3. New English
3.1. General Characteristics
The language in New English is growing very rapidly, the
amount of actually existing words being impossible to estimate.
Though some of the words existing in Old English and Middle
English are no longer used*In New English, the amount of new
words exceeds the number of obsolete ones manifold.

184
11. ENGLISH VOCABULARY

Both internal means and external means are used for the
purpose of enriching the vocabulary, and the importance of either
of them is hard to evaluate.

3.2. Means of enriching vocabulary


in New English
3.2.1. Internal means of enriching vocabulary
The principal inner means in New English is the appearance
of new words formed by means of conversion. Usually new
words are formed by acquiring a new paradigm and function
within a sentence. Thus, book (a noun) has the paradigm book —
books. Book (a verb) has the paradigm book — books — booked
— booking, etc. (The book is on the table - He booked a room.)
Similarly:
man (n) — man (v)
stone (n) — stone (v) — stone (adj)
(as in "a stone bench"), etc.
3.2.2. External means of enriching vocabulary
Very many new words appear in New English due to
borrowing. It is necessary to say here that the process of
borrowing, the sources of loan Words, the nature of the new
words is different from Middle English and their appearance in
the language cannot be understood unless sociolinguistic factors
are taken into consideration.
Chronologically speaking, New English borrowings may be
subdivided into borrowings of the Early New English period —
XV—XVII centuries, the period preceeding the establishment of
the literary norm, and loan words which entered the language
after the establishment of the literary norm — in the XVIII—XX
centuries, the period which is generally alluded to as late New
English.
185
PART 1. LECTURES

— Early New English borrowings (XV—XVII centuries)


Borrowings into the English language in the XV—XVII
centuries are primarily due to political events and also to the
cultural and. trade relations between the English people and
peoples in other countries. Thus , in the XV century — the epoch
of Renaissance, there appeared in the English language many
words borrowed from the Italian tongue:
cameo, archipelago, dilettante, fresco, violin,
balcony, gondola, grotto, volcano;
in the XVI century — Spanish and Portuguese words, such as:
armada, negro, tornado, mosquito, renegade,
matador
and also Latin (the language of culture of the time), for instance:
— verbs, with the characteristic endings -ate, -ute:
aggravate, abbreviate, exaggerate, frustrate,
separate, irritate, contribute, constitute, persecute,
prosecute, execute, etc.,
— adjectives ending in -ant, -ent, -ior, -al:
arrogant, reluctant, evident, obedient, superior,
inferior, senior, junior, dental, cordial, filial.
As a result of numerous Latin borrowings at the time there
appeared many ethymological doublets:
Latin
strictum

(direct) strict strait (through French)

seniorem

senior sir
186
11. ENGLISH VOCABULARY

fас turn

fact feat

defectum

defect defeat
In the XVII century due to relations with the peoples of
America such words were borrowed as:
canoe, maize, potato, tomato, tobacco, mahogany,
cannibal, hammock, squaw, moccasin, wigwam,
etc.
French boirowings — after the Restoration:
ball, ballet, billet, caprice, coquette, intrigue,
fatigue, naive.
—Late New English borrowings (XYHJ—XX centuries)
— German:
kindergarten, waltz, wagon, boy, girl
— French:
magazine, machine, garage, police, engine,
nacelle, aileron
— Indian:
bungalow, jungle, indigo
— Chinese:
coolie, tea
— Arabic:
caravan, divan, alcohol, algebra, coffee, bazaar,
orange, cotton, candy,
IS7
chess
PART 1. LECTURE

—Australian:
kangaroo, boomerang, lubra
— Russian:
Before the October Revolution the borrowings from the
Russian language were mainly words reflecting Russian realm о
the time:
borzoi, samovar, tsar, verst, taiga, etc.
After the Revolution there entered the English language such
words that testified to the political role of this country in the
world, as:
Soviet, bolshevik, kolkhoz.
Cultural and technical achievements are reflected in sue
borrowings as:
sputnik, lunnik, lunokhod, synchrophasotron
and recently such political terms as:
glasnost, perestroika.
In New English there also appeared words formed on the
basis of Greek and Latin vocabulary. They are mainly scientific
or technical terms, such as:
telephone, telegraph, teletype, telefax,
microphone, sociology, politology, electricity, etc.

Some more facts...

The Change of Calendar


Most of the new words coming into the language today have
been derived from the same sources or created by the satne
methods as those that have long been familiar. Among them are
borrowings, many of them reflecting events and changes in the
life of the people, committing to memory the names of their per-
petrators. Here we may recollect the history of calendar.
Julius Caesar in 46 ВС fixed the length of the year at 365
188
U. ENGLISH VOCABULARY

days, and 366 days every fourth year. The months had thirty and
thirty-one days alternately, with the exception of February (then
the last month of the year), which had twenty-nine in ordinary
years, and thirty in leap years. To mark this change of calendar
July was named after its originator.
The Emperor Augustus upset this arrangement by naming
August after himself, and in order that it should have the same
number of days as July, i.e. thirty-one, took one day from Febru-
ary in both ordinary and leap years.
The Julian Calendar made a slight error in the length of the
year, a mere eleven minutes and fourteen seconds; but by the
sixteenth century the cumulative error was about ten days. This
was rectified by Pope Gregory XIII who, in 1582, decreed that 5
October should become the fifteenth. In order to prevent a
recurrence of the fault it was ordained that the centurial years
(i.e. 1600, 1700, etc.) should not be Leap years unless divisible
by 400.
England did not accept this Gregorian calendar until 1752,
thereby causing much confusion between English and
Continental dates, whilst the disparity between the Julian and
Gregorian calendars was now eleven days. An Act of Parliament
in 1750 made 2 September 1752 into 14 September and moved
the first day of the year from 25 March (still reckoned as the be-
ginning of the financial year) to 1 January — 24 March 1700,
for example, was followed by 25 March 1701. In this way
England was brought into line with the rest of Europe.
After E. R. Deldeifield
LECTURE 12.
ETHYMOLOGICAL STRATA
IN MODERN ENGLISH

Figures of Red Indians


on the announcement of
The Lottery for Virginia,
1615 intended for
raising money required
for colonisation of
America.

List of principal questions:


1. General characteristics
2. Native element in Modern English
2.1. Common Indo-European stratum
2.2. Common Germanic stratum
.3. Foreign element in Modern English (borrowings)
3.1. Latin element
3.2. Scandinavian element
3.3. French element
4. Word-hybrids
5. Ethymological doublets
10. ETHYMOLOGICAL STRATA IN MODERN ENGLISH

1. General characteristics
The English vocabulary of today reflects as no other aspect
of the language the many changes in the history of the people and
various contacts which the English speakers had with many
nations and countries. The long and controversial history of the
people is reflected in its vocabulary and especially in the number
of loan words in it, different in origin and time of their entering
the language and the circumstances under which the acquisition
of the foreign element took place. So large is the number of
foreign words in English that it might at first be supposed that the
vocabulary has lost its Germanic nature.
However, the functional role of the native element: the
lotions expressed by native words, their regularity and frequency
of occurrence, lack of restrictions to their use in written and oral
speech of different functional styles, proves that the Germanic
dement still holds a fundamental place, and the English
vocabulary should be called Germanic.

2. Native element in Modern English


English native words form" two ethymological strata: the
Common Indo-European stratum and the Common Germanic
stratum.

2.1. Common Indo-European stratum


The words forming this stratum are the oldest in the
vocabulary. They existed thousands of years B.C., at the time
w
hen it was yet impossible to speak about separate Indo-
European languages, as well as about various nations in Europe.
Words of the Common Indo-European vocabulary have been
'nherited by many modem Indo-European languages, not only
191
PART 1. LECTURES

Germanic, which is often a possible proof of these words


belonging to the Common Indo-European stratum. Compare:

English Latin Russian


mother mater мать
brother frater брат
night nox (noctem) ночь
be fieri быть
stand stare стоять
two duo два
three tres три
ten decem десять, etc.

2.2. Common Germanic stratum


There are also words inherited from Common Germanic
Common Germanic is supposed to exist before it began splitting
into various subgroups around the 1st century B.C.—Г1 century
A.D. These words can be found in various Germanic languages,
but not in Indo-European languages other than Germanic.

English German Swedish


man mann man
earth erde jord
harm harm harm
green gran gron
grey grau gra
The occurrence or non-occurrence of corresponding words in
related languages is often a proof of their common origin. But, of
course, the word could be borrowed from the same source into
different languages, especially if we speak about languages in
modern times.

192
10. ETHYMOLOG1CAL STRATA IN MODERN ENGLISH

3. Foreign element in Modern English


(borrowings)
As we know, borrowed words comprise more than half the
vocabulary of the language. These borrowings entered the
language from many sources, forming consequently various
ethymological strata. The principal ones here are as follows:
— the Latin element
— the Scandinavian element
— the French element.

3.1. Latin element


The first Latin words entered the language of the forefathers
of the English nation before they came to Britain. It happened
during a direct intercourse and trade relations with the peoples of
[he Roman empire. They mainly denote names of household
•terns and products:
apple, pear, plum, cheese, pepper, dish, kettle, etc.
Already on the Isles from the Romanized Celts they
borrowed such words as:
street, wall, mill, tile, port, caster (camp — in such
words as Lancaster, Winchester).
Words of this kind denoted objects of Latin material culture.
Latin words such as:
altar, bishop, candle, church, devil, martyr, monk,
nun, pope, psalm, etc.
Were borrowed after the introduction of the Christian religion (7!h
century), which is reflected in their meaning.
The number of these words inherited from Old English is
almost two hundred.
193
PART I. LECTURES

We mentioned these words as Latin borrowings in the sense


that they entered English from Latin, but many of them were
Greek borrowings into Latin, such as
bishop, church, devil
and many others.
Another major group of Latin borrowings entered English
with the revival of learning (15th—I6ll! centuries). Latin was drawn
upon for scientific nomenclature, as at the time the language was
understood by scientists all over the world, it was considered the
common name-language for science. These words were mainly
borrowed through books, by people who knew Latin well and
tried to preserve the Latin form of the word as much as possible.
Hence such words as:
antenna — antennae, index — indices, datum
data, stratum — strata, phenomenon —
phenomena, axi s— axes, formula — formulae,
etc.
Very many of them have suffixes which clearly mark them as
Latin boiTOwings of the time:
— verbs ending in -ate, -ute:
aggravate, prosecute
— adjectives ending in -ant, -ent, -ior, -al:
reluctant, evident, superior, cordial.
These word-building elements together with the stylistic
sphere of the language where such words are used are generally
sufficient for the word attribution.

3.2. Scandinavian element


Chronologically words of Scandinavian origin entered the
language in the period between the 8th and the 10th centuries due
to the Scandinavian invasions and settlement of Scandinavians on
194
10. ETHYMOLOGICAL STRATA IN MODERN ENGLISH

the British Isles, with subsequent though temporary union of two


important divisions of the Germanic race. It is generally thought
that the amount of words borrowed from this source was about
500, though some linguists surmise that the number could have
been even greater, but due to the similarity of the languages and
scarcity of written records of the time it is not always possible to
say whether the word is a borrowed one or native, inherited from
the same Common Germanic source.
Such words may be mentioned here, as:
they, then, their, husband, fellow, knife, law, leg,
wing, give, get, forgive, forget, take, call, ugly,
wrong.
As we said, words of Scandinavian origin penetrated into the
English language so deeply that their determination is by no
means easy. However, there are some phonetic/spelling features
of the words which in many cases make this attribution authentic
enough. These are as follows:
— words with the sk/sc combination in the spelling, as:
sky, skin, skill, scare, score, scald, busk, bask
(but not some Old French borrowings as task, scare, scan, scape)
— words with the sound [g] or [k] before front vowels [i], [e]
fei], in the spelling i, e, ue, ai, a (open syllable) or at the end of
the word:
give, get, forgive, forget, again, gate, game, keg,
kid, kilt, egg, drag, dregs, flag, hug, leg, log, rig.
There are also personal names of the same origin, ending in
•son:
Jefferson, Johnson
or place names ending in -ly, -thorp, -toft (originally meaning
"village", "hamlet"):
Whitly, Althorp, Lowestoft.
195
PART 1. LECTURES

These places are mainly found in the north-east of England,


where the Scandinavian influence was stronger than in other parts
of England.

3.3. French element


The French element in the English vocabulary is a large and
important one. Words of this origin entered the language in the
Middle and New English periods.
Among Middle English borrowings we generally mention
earlier borrowings, their source being Norman French — the
dialect of William the Conqueror and his followers. They entered
the language in the period beginning with the time of Edward the
Confessor and continued up to the loss of Normandy in 1204.
Later Middle English borrowings have as their source
Parisian French. The time of these borrowings may be estimated
as end of the 13th century and up to 1500.
These words are generally fully assimilated in English and
felt as its integral part:
government, parliament, justice, peace, prison,
court, crime, etc.
Many of these words (though by no means all of them) are
terms used in reference to government and courts of law. •
Later Middle English borrowings are more colloquial words:
air, river, mountain, branch, cage, calm, cost,
table, chair.
The amount of these Middle English borrowings is as
estimated as much as 3,500.
French borrowings of the New English period entered the
language beginning with the 17th century — the time of the
Restoration of monarchy in Britain, which began with the
accession to the throne of Charles II, who had long lived in exile
at the French court:
196
10. ETHYMOLOGICAL STRATA IN MODERN ENGLISH

aggressor, apartment, brunette, campaign, caprice,


caress, console, coquette, cravat, billet-doux, carte
blanche, etc:
Later also such words appeared in the language as:
garage, magazine, policy, machine.
It is interesting to note that the phonetics of French
borrowings always helps us to prove their origin.
These phonetic features are at least two: stress and special
sound/letter features. Concerning the first (stress), words which
do not have stress on the first syllable unless the first syllable is a
prefix are almost always French borrowings of the New English
period. Words containing the sounds [$"] spelled not sh, [d3] —
£°-£ dg, [tj"] — not ch and practically all words with the sound [3] •
are sure to be of French origin:
aviation, social, Asia, soldier, jury, literature,
pleasure, treasure.

4. Word-hybrids
The extensive borrowing from various languages and
assimilation of loan words gave rise to the formation in English
°f a large number of words the elements of which are of different
origin — they are generally termed word-hybrids.
English French
be- -cause because
a- -round around
a- curse accurse
out cry outcry
over power overpower
fore front forefront
salt cell(ar) salt-seller
false hood falsehood
197
PART 1. LECTURES

French English
hobby horse hobbyhorse
scape goat scapegoat'
trouble some troublesome
plenty ful plentiful
aim- -less aimless
re- take retake

English Scandinavian
par- take partake
bandy- leg bandy-legged

French Scandinavian
re- call recall

Latin French
juxta- position juxtaposition

5. Ethymological doublets
Ethymological doublets are words developing from the same
word or root, but which entered the given language, in our case
English, at different times of through different channels.
Classifying them according to the ultimate source of the doublets
we shall receive the following:

Ultimate Modern Period and channel


source doublets
Common Indo-European
*pater fatherly native
paternal M.E. French borrowing

148
10. ETHYMOLOGICAL STRATA IN MODERN ENGLISH

Common Gexmamc.
*gher- yard native
garden M.E. French borrowing
*gens- choose native
choice M.E. French borrowing
*wer ward native
guard M.E. French borrowing
*sker shirt native
skirt M.E. Scandinavian borrowing
*skhed shatter native
scatter M.E. Scandinavian borrowing
Latin
discus disk O.E. Latin borrowing
disc N.E. Latin borrowing
moneta mint O.E. Latin borrowing
money M.E. Latin borrowing
uncia inch O.E. Latin borrowing
ounce M.E. Latin borrowing
defectum defect N.E. Latin borrowing
defeat M.E. Latin borrowing
factum fact N.E. Latin borrowing
feat M.E. Latin borrowing
seniorem senior N.E. Latin borrowing
sir M.E. Latin' borrowing
Greek
adamas diamond Early M.E. French borrowing
adamant Later M.E. French borrowing
fantasia fancy N.E. French borrowing
fantasy M.E. French borrowing
199
PART 1. LECTURES

Hebrew
basam balm M.E. French borrowing
balsam N.E. Latin borrowing

The examples of various ethymological strata in the Modern


English vocabulary mentioned above may serve as a sufficient
testimony of a long and complicated .history of the English
nation and the English language. They prove that language
changes can be understood only in relation to the life of the
people speaking the language.

Some more facts...

Folk etymology
When people hear a foreign or unfamiliar word for the first
time, they try to make sense of it by relating it to words they
know well. They guess what it must mean — and often guess
wrongly. However, if enough people make the same wrong guess,
the error can become part of the language. Such erroneous
forms are called folk or popular etymologies.
Bridegroom provides a good example. What has a groom got
to do with getting married? Is he going to groom the bride? Or
perhaps he is responsible for horses to carry him and his bride
off into the sunset? The true explanation is more prosaic. The
Middle English form was bridgome, which goes back to Old
English brydguma, from "bride" + guma "man". However,
gome died out during the Middle English period. By the 16"
century its meaning was no longer apparent, and it came to be
popularly replaced by a similar-sounding word, grome, "serving
lad". This later developed the sense of "servant having the care
of horses", which is the dominant sense today. But bridegroom
never meant anything more than "bride's man".
Here are a few other folk etymologies:
• sparrow-grass — a popular name for asparagus —
though this vegetable has nothing to do with sparrows.

200
10. ETHYMOLOGICAL STRATA IN MODERN ENGLISH

• cockroach — the name came from Spanish cucuracha,


the first part of which must have been particularly obscure to
English ears. There is no connection with cock.
• salt-cellar — in Old French a salier was a salt-box. When
the word came into English, the connection with salt was
evidently not clear, and people started calling the object a salt-
saler. The modern form has no connection with a cellar.
• sirloin — the first part of the word is simply derived from
the French word sur "above". The form must have greatly
puzzled the people of the Early Middle English period. Unused
to French, they etymologized the form to sir, and then thought
up a legend to make sense of it (the story of the English king
who found this joint of meat so splendid that he gave it a
knighthood.)
After D. Crystal
Tart Z. Seminars

he front panel of the Franks' casket, carved out of whale's bone in


Northumbria in about AD 750 and depicting scenes from classical
egend, Germanic mythology and the Bible. A runic inscription
bribes each panel.
(The original is kept at the British Museum, London)
LIST OF SEMINARS
205
1. Introductory. Germanic languages
2. Chief characteristics of Germanic languages.
Grammar
3. Survey of the periods in the history of English.
General characteristics of the Old English period 21
?17
4. Old English phonetics. Vowels
990
5. Old English phonetics. Consonants
22
6. Old English grammar. Noun
22
7. Old English grammar. Verb
228
8. Old English. Discussion
9. General characteristics of the Middle English
2
period ^'
10. Middle English phonetics. Vowels 240
2
11. Middle English phonetics. Consonants ^
2
12. Middle English grammar. Noun ^
2
13. Middle English grammar. Verb ^'
14. Middle English. Discussion 248
15. General characteristics of the New English
period 251
16. New English phonetics. Vowels 261
17..New English phonetics. Consonants .• 263
18. New English grammar. Noun 267
19. New English grammar. Verb 271
20. English wordstock 272
21. Vocabulary layers 274
22. Modern regular and irregular noun and verb forms 277
SEMINARS 1—2.
GERMANIC LANGUAGES

1- Introductory. Germanic languages


2. Chief characteristics of Germanic languages. Grammar

An early engraving of a gold horn roughly dated about


550 AD, found in Jylland, Sweden. It has a maker's
formula cut in runes round the brim.
205
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 1.
Introductory. Germanic languages
Topics for discussion in class
1. Position of Germanic languages within the Indo-European
family (main groups of languages, with special reference to
Germanic, Celtic, Slavonic).
2. Formation of national Germanic languages in the late Middle
Ages and the new period.
3. Classification of Modern Germanic languages; countries
where they are spoken. The West and North Germanic
subgroups.
4. Old Germanic tribes and dialects: "Common Germanic".
Differentiation of Common Germanic into Germanic
dialects. East, North and West Germanic groups and their
representatives.
5. Development of the system of consonants in the pre-written
period.
6. Grimm's law, Verner's law. Reasons for the departure from
Verner's law in the pre-written period.

Questions and assignments


1. What are the aims of studying the history of a language?
2. What is meant by the outer and inner history of a language?
3. Make a table showing the relationship of English to the other
languages of the Indo-European family. Show the position of
English among allied Germanic languages.
4. What do we mean by the statement that two languages are
"related"? Explain the relations between English and French,
English and Greek, English and Welsh, English and Danish.
206
GERMANIC LANGUAGES

5. What is called the pre-written and written period of a


language?
6. What alphabets employed in the history of Germanic
languages do you know? Speak on the origin and structure of
Germanic alphabets.
7. What is meant by a phonetic law?
8. Show carefully how Grimm's law or any apparent exception
to it is illustrated by the following words:
stand, father, third, sweet.
9. Write down five illustrations of Grimm's law and five
illustrations of Verner's law.

207
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 2.
Chief characteristics of Germanic
languages. Grammar
Topics for discussion in class
1. Development of the system of declension in the pre-written
period.
2. Development of the system of conjugation in the pre-written
period.
3. Means of form-building in the pre-written period.
4. Vowel interchange as a form-building means in the pre-
written period. Ablaut.

Questions and assignments


1. Explain and illustrate the terms "synthetic" and "analytic"
languages. Give examples of modern synthetic and analytical
languages.
2. What form-building means were used in Germanic
languages?
3. What verbal and nominal categories existed in Germanic
languages? Compare them with the categories of modern
languages.
4. Prepare for reading Old English texts: study the table below
and learn to read Old English letters.

208
GERMANIC LANGUAGES

Reading of Old English texts

Letters & Sounds Examples


ж at, cwas6, hwasnne

9 mpnn, lpnd, ond


У pystrodon, clypode, ymb

P past, pystrodon, top


6 [8] cwaed, оббе, du
[6] cwe6an, hwe6er, Ьгобог
f [f] faeder, fot, faran
[v] hlaford, wifan, griefe
s [s] Isaac, his, 3eseon
и rlsan, forleosan, wyrsa
3 [у] ёазап, da3as, SI03
[gJ Запз, sin3an, 1епзга
Ш dae3, be3ite, 3efeohtan,
h his, he, mihte
с [к'] супе, cyssan, cin
M clypode, 3esceot, boc

209
SEMINARS 3—8.
OLD ENGLISH
3. Survey of the periods in the history of English.
General characteristics of the Old English period
4. Old English phonetics. Vowels
5. Old English phonetics. Consonants
6. Old English grammar. Noun
7. Old English grammar. Verb
8. Old English. Discussion

A runic memorial stone from


Yttergarde, Sweden, telling of
a Viking warrior who made
three expeditions to England in
the early 11th century.

211
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 3.
Survey of the periods in the history
of English. General characteristics
of the Old English period
Topics for discussion in class
1. Survey of the three periods in the history of English (dates,
principal historical events and linguistic facts).
2. Old English historical background (Germanic settlement,
West Germanic tribes and Old English dialects).
3. Old English alphabet and pronunciation.
4. Old English written records: runic inscriptions, religious
works, Anglo-Saxon chronicles.

Questions and assignments


1. What is called the pre-written and written Old English?
2. What is the time of the written records below (seminars
3—6)?
3. What is the dialect reflected in the records below (seminars
3—6)?
4. How do we pronounce words in Old English texts (vowels
and consonants — make use of the table in Seminar 2)?
5. How many vowels and consonants were there in Old
English?
6. How does the quality of the consonant depend on the
position of the word in the text?
7. Study the model of phonetic analysis of an Old English text.
Read and translate the text into Modern English / Russian.
212
OLD ENGLISH

Continue the phonetic analysis following the model (analyse


only the underlined words). Check your variant with the key.

From the Alfredian Version of Orosius's


World History; about 893 A.D.
Alfred the Great (849—900), King of Wessex, was an outstanding
military leader, educator and a man of letters of the time. He tried to
restore the cultural traditions of Anglo-Saxon England severely
damaged by the barbaric "inroads of the Danes" and to revive
learning and literature in his country. He also brought about a great
reform in the schools.
He translated into his native tongue some books on geography,
history and philosophy written by the popular authors of IV—VIII
centuries. This was fortunate for the language which became a medium
of expression in the simpler forms of speech itself.
King Alfred's translation from Latin of "The History of the World"
by the Spanish, monk Orosius (V century) is especially valuable as it
contains his own insertions — the descriptions of the sea-voyages in the
North West of Europe of the two Scandinavian merchants, Ohthere and
Wulfstan.
King Alfred's writings favoured flourishing of literature in Wessex
and marked the beginning of the literary tradition later known as "the
Alfredian prose"'.
The extract given below is "From Ohthere's account of his first
voyage". It contains interesting geographical and ethnographical
information of the places he visited. The dialect is West Saxon.

213
PART 2. SEMINARS

Ohthere's account of his first voyage

Ohthere saede his hlaforde, yElfrede cynin?e, bast he gaixa


Nor5monna пофтев! bude. He cwae5 bast he bude on разт lancle
noфweardum wip ba Westsas. He ssde beah bset bast land sie s\#£
1апз поф bonan; ас hit is eal weste, buton on feawum stowum
stycce-maslum wlcia5 Finnas, on huntoSe on wintra and on sumera
on fiscabe be bsere sai.
He sajde bast he a?t suraum cirre wolde fandian hu 1опзе j)£t
land пофгуЬле 1аёзе obbe hwas5er з з т з т о п Ьепогбап рает
westenne bude. J>a for he пофгуЫе be bsem lande; let him ealne
we3 baet weste land on 6st steor-bord. and -ha wTd-see on 6set bjefc
bord. brie da3as. I>a was he swa feor поф swaba hwselhuntan fil£S§i
farab. I>a for he ba 3iet пофгу^е swa feor swa he meahte on Ьзгт
obrum brim da3um 3esi3lan. M Ьёаз past land bjgr east-ry nte °^ e
seo see in on 5set lond, he nysse hwasder, buton he wisse 5ast he бгёг
bad westanwindes and hwon пофап, and si3lde 5a east be lande,
swa-swa he meahte on feower da3um 3esi3ian.
M sceolde he баёг bldan гуМ-пофапу/Ыез; for6aem ba&t land
Ьеаз baer subryhte obbe seo sae in on 6aet land he nysse hwseber. P&
si3lde he bonan sudryhte be lande, swa-swa he on fif da3um 3esi3lan.
Da 1ЖЗ.ЪЗГГ an micel ea up-in on bget land. Pa cirdon hie up-in on oa
ea, for-jbiem hie ne dorston & ф bi Ьззге ёа si3lan for unfripe; for-
pasm 6ast land waes eall зеЬпп on obre healfe bare eas. Ne mette he
ffir nan зеЬпп land, sibban he from his азпит ham for.
Fela spella him ssedon ba Beormas зззЬег зе of hiera азпит
lande зе of baem landum be ymb hie utan wseron, ac he nyste hwjet
bass sobes wass, for-Ъгёт he hit self ne 3eseah. M Finnas, him buhte,
and ba Beormas sprascon neah an 3ebeode. SwTbost he for 6ider,
t5-eacan b a s landes sceawun3e. for bsem hors-hwselum, for-бдат
hie habbad swlbe sepele ban on hiora t5bum, — ba t§6 hie brohton
sume bsem cynin3e —, and hiora hyd.
214
OLD ENGLISH

Model of phonetic analysis

Word as used Analysis Parallels from NE word


m the text cognate
languages or
I related OE words
side [s] — voiceless initially; OE SK^de said
[as] — lengthening of [ae]
(variant form)
due to loss of [g]
cynirnje [у] — palatal mutation of OHG kuning king
[u] — caused by [ij; later
M>[i]
ealra [ea] — breaking of [эе] Gt alls all
before [l]+consonant,
[ж] — from PG [a]
Nor5monna -monn: [o]=[a] — from Gt mann(a) Norman
PG [a], later [a >a>as]
lande [a] — before nasal Gt land land
consonants; [a] — from
PG [a], later [а >а>аг]
t'eah [ea] — from PG [au] Gt fcauh though
SWT{)e p] — lengthening due . Gt s w i n g e —
to loss of [n] before
a fricative
stycce [y] __ palatal mutation OHG Stukki rel. to s t o c k
of [u] caused by [i]
fiscafce [fj — from [p] by R пескарь rel to fish
Grimm's Law •
cirre fi] _ . from [ie] — OS kerrian (v) char
monophthongisation of
diphthongs in EOE
norjjryhte -ryht: [y] — from [ie] — Gt raihts [e] right
monophthpngisation of
diphthongs in EOE

215
PART 2. SEMINAR,с

hwa25er [б] — voiced inter- Gt hvabar whether


vocally, [se] — from
PGfaf
[Её] — palatal mutation cp OE an any
of [a] caused by [i]
steor-bord steor: Гёо] — from rel. to Gt star-board
PG [iuj; stiurjan (v)
bord: [d] — hardening Cf. OSk bord
of [3]
baec-bord [SE] — from PG [a] OSk bak back
brie [9] — from [t] by /?три three
Grimm's Law
da3as [a] — is caused by Gtdagos days
a back vowel in the
next syllable
WffiS [se] — from PG [a] OHG was was
firrest [i] — palatal mutation EOE fierest farther
of [eo] — (feor)
caused by [i]
(-ist) — suffix of
superlative degree:
[eo>ie>i]

farab [a] — from PG [o] Gt faran (inf) fare


3iet [Те] — (Wess) from PG GtytX yet
[ё] — diphthongisation
after palatal [j]
meahte [ea] — breaking of [ac] OHG maht might
before [h]: [a>ae>ea]
obram [o] — from PG [a]; Gt anbar other
lengthening due to the
• loss of [n] before a
fricative
Ьёаз [ea] — from PG [au] Gt baug bow
Ьэзг [Щ — from PG [a], Gt bar there
[8] «— initially voiceless
east [ea] — from PG [au] Gt austr east

216
OLD ENGLISH

Seminar 4.
Old English phonetics. Vowels

Topics for discussion in class


1. The system of Old English vowels and their origin.
2. Assimilative changes of vowels (breaking, palatal mutation)
and their traces in Modern English.

Questions and assignments


'• Make a list of Old English vowels and analyse the
differentiating features between them (in quality and
quantity).
2. Describe the Old English diphthongs and comment upon
their phonological status.
3. Explain the origin of short diphthongs in Old English:
eald (New English old), tealde (New English told),
earm (New English arm), feohtan (New English fight).
4. What are the phonetic conditions of palatal mutation? Give
some Old English or reconstructed forms showing these
conditions. Analyse the results of palatal mutation:
(a) in form-building of nouns in the root-stem declension,
e.g. Old English fot — fgt (New English foot —feet),
mUS —mys (New English mouse — mice)',
(b) in word-building of weak verbs of class 1 from noun and
adjective stems,
e.g. Old English dom — deman (New English doom — deem),
fod — fedan (New English food —feed),
ful — fyllan (New English full —fill).

217
PART 2. SEMINARS

5. Read and translate the text below into Modern English /


Russian (part 1). Make the phonetic analysis following the
model given in Seminar 3 (analyse only the underlined
words). Check your variant with the key.

From the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle


A. 1013
The Old English Chronicle, sometimes called the Anglo-Saxon
Chronicle, contains the history of Britain from the time of Caesars
invasion to the reign of Henry II (1154).
It presents the original and authentic testimony of contemporary
writers to the most important events in the history of the country,
including many interesting facts relative to architecture, agriculture,
coinage, commerce, naval and military events, laws, liberty ana
religion. This ancient record is believed to be the second great
phenomenon in the history of mankind after the Old Testament, pi
there is no other work, ancient or modern, which exhibits at one view a
regular and chronological panorama of a people, described in rapw
succession by different writers, through so many ages, in their own
vernacular language. That is why it may be considered not only as the
primaeval source of factual material for all subsequent historians oj
England, but also as a faithful depository of the national idiom,
providing a very interesting, and extraordinary example of the changes
incident to a language, as well as to a nation, in its historical progress.
The writers of the Chronicle are not known, probably they were
monks, as MSS come from different monasteries. The dialect of the
extract given below is West Saxon. It describes the time of Scandinavian
Invasions in Britain and the fall of the Saxon dynasty.

(Part I)
On бает asftran зёаге рё se arcebiscop wass 3emartyrod, se
cynin3 3esette Lyfine biscop to Cantwarabvrh t5 6am arcest5le;
and on pissum ylcan зёаге, toforan pam топбе Augustus, com
Swe3en сутпз mid his flotan to SandwTc, and wende pa swi6e
218
OLD ENGLISH

габе abutan Eastenglum into Humbra muban. and swa upweard


andlang Trentan, 66 he com to 3enesburuh; and ba sona beah
Uhtred eori and ealle Nor6hymbre to 'him; and eall baet folc on
Lindesi3e, and si65an baet folc into Flfburhingum. and габе baes
eall here be погбап \Vsetlin3a straete, and him man sealde 3islas
of aelcere sclre. Sy66an he unde^eat bast eall folc him to 3ebogen
was, pa bead he {)set man sceolde his here mettian and horsian;
and he 5a wende sybban su6weard mid fulre fyrde, and betsehte
f>a scipu and ba 3islas Cnute his suna; and sy66an he com ofer
Wstlinga strEete, worhton baet maeste yfel bast еётз here don
mihte. Wende pa to Oxenforda, and seo buruhwaru sona beah and
3'slude, and banon to Winceastre, and hi pat ylce dydon. Wende
fra banon eastwerd to Lundene, and mycel his folces adrang on
Temese, for6am be hi nanre Ьгусзе ne cepton.

(Part 2)
f*a he to бгёге Ьупз com, ba nolde seo burhwaru Ьизап ас
heoldan mid fullan wi3e опзеап. for5an Ьжг waes inne se cyng
^belred and Purkyl mid him. Е»а wende Swe3en cyng banon to
Wealingforda, and swa ofer Temese westweard to Baban, and sast
ba5r mid his fyrde. And com ЛЕре1тэег ealdorman byder, and 5a
westernan Ьезепав mid him, and Ы130П ealle to Swe3ene, and hi
3»sludon. I>a he 5us 3efaren heefde. wende ba nor5weard to his
scipum, and eall peodscype hine haefde ba for fulne cyng; and seo
buruhwaru after 5am on Lundene beah and 3islude, forSon hi
QJDdredon baet he hT fordon wolde. Pa wses se cyning vEbelred
sume hwTle mid bam flotan be on Temese. 1аез, and seo hla3fdi3e
gewende ba ofer sae to hire Ьгёбег Ricarde, and se cyning
gewende ba fram 5am flotan to bam middanwintra to Wihtlande,
and waes баёг ba tTd; and sefter Ьэзге tide wende ofer 5a see to
Ricarde, and wses базг mid him ob bone byre b«e(: Swe3en wear6
dead.

219
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 5.
Old English phonetics. Consonants

Topics for discussion in class


1. The system of Old English consonants and their origin.
2. Grimm's law, Verner's law; voicing, devoicing, hardening
. and rhotacism in Old English.

Questions and assignments


1. Make a list of Old English consonants and analyse the
differentiating features between them.
2. What consonant correlations may be observed between
words in English and any other Germanic languages?
3. Find in the text examples showing that voiced and voiceless
fricative consonants (f/v, 0/6, s/z) were conditioned variants
(allophones) of the same phonemes.
4. Read and translate the text above into Modern English /
Russian (part 2). Make the phonetic analysis following the
model given in Seminar 3 (analyse only the underlined
words). Check your variant with the key.

220
OLD ENGLISH

Seminar 6.
Old English grammar. Noun

Topics for discussion in class


1 • Old English nominal system. Means of form-building.
2. Grammatical categories of nouns, adjectives and pronouns.
3. Morphological classification of Old English nouns (types of
declensions).
4. Traces of the Old English declensions in Modern English.
5. Degrees of comparison of adjectives in Old English and their
further history.

Questions and assignments


1- What form-building means were used in the Old English
nominal system?
2. Enumerate the grammatical categories of nouns, adjectives
and pronouns and state the difference between them.
3. Into what types of declensions did the Old English nouns
fall? Why are they termed "stems"?
4. Look through the noun paradigm and find instances of
different means used in form-building.
5. Copy and learn the declension of an a-stem, masculine (e.g.
Stan, New English stone), a root-Stem (e.g. man. New English man)
and an n-stem (e.g. nama. New English name) noun. Point out
the forms or endings which have survived in Modern
English.
6. Explain the difference between the groupings of nouns into
types of declension and the two declensions of adjectives.
221
PART 2. SEMINARS

7. Define the case, number and gender of nouns, pronouns and


adjectives in the following:
foa wildan hranas; ealra norbmonna;
hiera азпшп lande; his yldran sunu;
mine da3as; to him
8. Study the model of grammar and vocabulary analysis of an
Old English text. Consult the text and your translation notes
for Seminar 3 (Ohthere's account of his first voyage).
Continue the grammar and vocabulary analysis following the
model given below. Check your variant with the key.

Model of grammar and vocabulary analysis

Words as used Analysis Corresponding Translation


in the text notes New English
word

Ohthere noun proper, Ohthere


nominative singular (name)
sa;de л
verb, У person say said
singular, past tense,
indicative mood of
secgan. weak verb,
class III
his pronoun
л
personal, his (to) his
У person singular,
masculine, genitive

hlaforde noun, dative singular lord lord


of hlaford, masculine,
a-stem
/Elfrede noun proper, dative Alfred Alfred
singular

сушпзе noun, dative singular of king the King


cynin3, masculine,
a-stem

222
OLD ENGLISH
paet conjunction that that
he pronoun personal, he he
3^ person singular,
masculine, nominative
ealra pronoun indefinite, all of all
plural, genitive of eal
Nor6monna noun, genitive plural of northmen Northmen
Nor5monn, (Scandinavians)
masculine, root-stem
пофтеБ! adverb northmost to the north
bude verb, 3 rd person lived
singular, past tense, (or had lived)
indicative or subjunctive
mood of buan.
anomalous verb
cwae5 verb, 3rd person obs. quoth said
singular, past tense,
indicative mood of
cwse6an, strong verb,
class V
beet conjunction that that
bude see above lived
(or had livedj
o n
preposition ОП on

P^m pronoun demonstrative, that the


dative singular,
masculine of se. seo. pact
lande noun, dative singular of land land
land, neuter, a-stem
norjbweardum adjective, dative northward to the North
singular, neuter of
noroward. used
adverbially
whp preposition with of
P§ pronoun demonstrative, that that (the)
accusative singular,
feminine of se. seo. feast

223
PART 2. SEMINARS

Westsaj noun proper, accusative west sea Atlantic


singular of Westsse, Ocean
feminine, i-stem
beah conjunction though also
jbaet conjunction that that
baet pronoun demonstrative, that that
nominative singular,
neuter of se. seo, past
land noun, nominative land land
singular, neuter, a-stem
sle verb, 3"1 person be is
singular, present tense,
subjunctive mood of
beon. suppletive verb
swibe adverb — very
1апз adjective, nominative long long
singular, neuter, strong
declension
поф adverb north north
£onan adverb thence from there
ас conjunction — but
hit pronoun personal, 3 r i it it
person singular, neuter,
nominative
is verb, 3 rd person singular, is is
present tense, indicative
mood of beon, irregular
verb
eal pronoun/adverb all all
weste adjective, nominative — uninhabited
singular, neuter, strong (waste)
declension
buton conjunction but but
on see above on on/in/at

224
OLD ENGLISH

feawum adjective, dative plural of few few


feaw, strong declension
Stowum noun, dative plural of Stow places
st5w. feminine, wo-stem
stycce- adverb stockmeal here and
maelum there
wlciad verb, У person plural, — live
present tense, indicative
mood of wTcian, weak
verb, class II
Finnas noun proper, nominative Finn (the) Finns
plural of Finn, masculine,
a-stem
on preposition on on/by
hunto5e noun, dative singular of hunt hunting
huntoS. masculine,
a-stem
on see above on on/in
wintra noun, dative singular of winter winter
winter, masculine, u-stem
and conjunction and and
on see above on on/in
sumera noun, dative singular of summer summer
sumor/er. masculine,
u-stem
fiscafce noun, dative singular of fish fishing
fisco57a6. masculine,
a-stem
be preposition by by/from
f>Sre pronoun demonstrative, that that
dative singular, feminine
of se. seo. f>a;t

sae noun, dative singular of sea sea


§ш, feminine, i-stem

225
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 7.
Old English grammar. Verb

Topics for discussion in class


1. Old English verbal system. Means of form-building.
2. Grammatical categories of finite and non-finite forms of the
verb.
3. Morphological classification of Old English verbs.
4. Traces of the Old English verb conjugation in Modern
English.

Questions and assignments


1. Enumerate the grammatical categories of the finite and non-
finite forms, indicating the number of members within each
category.
2. Look through the verb paradigm and find instances of
different form-building means used.
3. What are the main differences between the weak and the
strong verbs? •
4. Why did the strong verbs fall into seven classes? Point out
the differences between them.
5. Copy and learn the principal forms of the strong verbs of
class 1 (e.g. writan. New English write), class 3 (e.g. drincajl,
helpan. New English drink, help), class 5 (e.g. wesan, New English
be).
6. Account for the division of the weak verbs into classes and
point out the differences between them.

226
OLD ENGLISH

7. Copy the conjugation of a weak verb (e.g. locaian. New


English look or macian. New English make) in the present and
past tenses of the indicative mood and say by what means the
verb distinguished person, number and tenses.
8. Define the person, number, tense, mood and the
morphological class of the verb in the following:
he saide; Ohthere bad; he hwa?5;
ba aras he; buhte me; clypode he;
pa Isaac ealdode; bu 3esihst; his ёазап bystrodon
9. Read the text in Seminar 4 (The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle).
Consult your translation notes for Seminars 4—5. Make the
grammar and vocabulary analysis following the model given
in Seminar 6. Check your variant with the key.

227
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 8.
Old English. Discussion

Topics for discussion in class


1. Chronological division in the history of English.
2. Old English. Outer and inner history of the period.
3. Principal features of the Old English phonetic system.
4. Principal features of the Old English grammar system.

Questions and assignments


1. With what languages of Europe is the English language most
closely connected? Describe these relations in more detail.
2. What is meant by runes? Have any runic letters been
admitted to the English alphabet?
3. What Old English phonemes no longer exist in New
English? Give examples from the set of Old English vowels
and consonants.
4. What grammatical categories of Old English no longer exist
in New English? Give examples from the nominal and verbal
paradigm.
5. Read and translate the text below into Modern English /
Russian. Make a complete phonetic, grammar and
vocabulary analysis of the text following the models of
Seminar 3 and Seminar 6. Hand in your written work as
Part 1 of your course project.

228
OLD ENGLISH

From ^Elfric's Translation of the Genesis;


ab. 1000 A.D.
Aelfiic, the most outstanding author of the clerical prose of late Old
English, was abbot of the Ensham Benedictine monastery and a native
ofWessex. His chief writings are numerous Homilies, his translation of
The Lives of Saints" and from the Old Testament as well as of the
book "Ars Grammatica" by Donatus Aurelius (Latin, IV century)
The extract given below is "The Story of Jakob's Deceit" (Old
Testament, Genesis 27) and represents the classical Late West Saxon
dialect.

The Story of Jacob's Deceit


I. Da Isaac ealdode and his ёазап bystrodon, f>aet he ne
mihte nan bin3 3eseon, pa clypode he Esau, his yldran sunu, 2.
and cwae6 to him: ' M 3esihst Jjaet ic ealdi3e, and ic nat hwasnne
Kline da3as азапе beod. 3. Nim bin 3esceot, binne cocur and
pinne Ьозап, and запз ut; and, bonne bu ззшз Ь т з be3ite baes-be
f>u wene 4. paet me Iyci3e, Ьгшз me, paet ic ete and ic pe bletsi3e,
®r-bam-be ic swelte.' 5. Da Rebecca paet 3ehTrde and Esau
uta3an wass, 6. ba cwseb heo to Iacobe, hire suna: 'Ic 3ehlrde past
pin fasder с^азб to Esauwe, pmum Ьгёбег: 7. "Влпз me of binum
hunto6e, paet ic bletsi3e бё beforan drihtne, азг ic swelte." 8.
Sunu mm, hlyste mTnre lare: 9. far to базге heorde and Ьппз me
twa ba betstan tyccenu, baet ic maci3e mete pinum feeder разг-of,
and he ytt lustllce. 10. Donne 6u 6a in brin3St, he ytt and bletsab
be, aer he swelte.' 11. Da cwae6 he to hire: 'J>u wast bast Esau,
mm Ьгббиг, ys ruh, and ic eom sme6e. 12. 3if mm fasder me
handla6 and me 3ecnaew6 ic ondraBde baet he wene baet ic hine
wylle beswTcan and baat he wiri3e me, nass na bletsi3e.' 13. Da
cwasd seo modor to him: 'Sunu mm, S13 seo wiri3nys ofer me! Do
swa ic be эесзе: far and Ьппз P a pin3 be ic be bead.'
229
PART 2. SEMINARS

14. He ferde pa and brohte and sealde hit hys meder, and heo
hit 3earwode, swa heo wiste past his feeder llcode. 15. And heo
scrydde Iacob mid bam deorwurpustan reafe pe heo aet ham mid •
hire haefde; 16. and befeold his handa mid pasra tyccena fellum;
and his swuran, pair he nacod waes, heo befeold. 17. And heo
sealde him pone mete pe heo seap, and hlaf; and he brohte past
his faeder 18. and cwas5: 'Faeder mini' He andswarode and cwas5:
'Hwset eart рп, sunu mln?' 19. And Iacob cwae5: 'Ic eom Esau,
pin frum-cenneda sunu. Ic dyde swa рп me bebude. ArTs upp and
site, and et of mlnum hunto5e, past pu me bletsi3e.' 20. Eft Isaac
cwas6 to his suna: 'Sunu mm, hu mihtest рп hit swa hraedllce
findan?' Pa andswarode he and cwae5: 'Hit waes 3odes willa, bast
me hrasdlice опзёап com past ic wolde.' 21. And Isaac cwas6: '3a
hider near, past ic aethrine pin, sunu mm, and fandi3e hwas5er рп
S13 mln sunu Esau, pe ne S13.' 22. He eode to pam faeder; and
Isaac cwa?5, pa pa he hyne 3e3rapod hasfde: 'WitodlTce seo stemn
ys Iacobes stefn, and pa handa synd Esauwes handa.' 23. And he
ne 3ecneow hine, for-pam pa ruwan handa wseron swilce paes
yldran bropur. He hyne bletsode pa 24. and cwasb: 'Eart pu Esau,
mm sunu?' And he cwse6: 'la leof, ic hit eom.' 25. M cweed Ш
'Brin3 me mete of blnum hunto6e past ic pe bletsi3e.' P»a he pone
mete brohte, he brohte him eac win. Pa he hasfde 3edruncen, 26.
ba cwae6 h i to him: 'Sunu mm, запз hider and cysse me.' 27. He
nealeahte and cyste hine. Sona, swa he hyne on3eat, he bletsode
hine and cw3s6: 'Nfl ys mines suna stenc, swilce pass landes stenc
pe drihten bletsode. 28. Sylle pe 3od of heofenes deawe and of
еогбап fastnisse, and micelnysse hwastes and wines. 29. And
beowion pe eall folc, and 3eeadmedun pe ealle тгёзба. Вео pu
pinra brof)ra hlaford and sin pinre modur suna 3ebi3ed beforan
be. Se бе бе wiri3e, si he awiri3ed; and, se pe be bletsi3e, si he
mid bletsun3e 3efylled.'

230
SEMINARS 9—14.
MIDDLE ENGLISH
9. General characteristics of the Middle English period
10. Middle English phonetics. Vowels
11. Middle English phonetics. Consonants
12. Middle English grammar. Noun
13. Middle English grammar. Verb
14. Middle English. Discussion

The pilgrims outside the walls of the city of Canterbury,


an early 14"' century illustration
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 9.
General characteristics
of the Middle English period

Topics for discussion in class


1. Historical events affecting the English language (the
Scandinavian invasion and the Norman conquest).
2. Changes in Middle English word-stock as compared with
Old English.
3. Innovations in spelling in Middle English as compared with
Old English.
4. Middle English written records.

Questions and assignments


1. Comment on the position of French in the 12th—13'
centuries.
2. Speak of the role of foreign influence in Middle English.
3. Comment on the peculiarities of Middle English borrowings,
their character and distinctive features.
4. What new letters and digraphs denoting consonants appeared
in Middle English?
5. Comment on the origin of the underlined letters and digraphs
in the examples below:
with, that, shoures, droughte, every, Zeghirus
Find more examples of this kind in the text assigned for the
seminar.
6. Study the rules of reading a Middle English text (see the
232
MIDDLE ENGLISH

table below). What new spelling devices denoting vowels


appeared in Middle English?
Use the following examples from the text below as
illustrations:
a) shoures, foweles, yonge;
b) soote, breeth;
c) droghte.
7. Study the model of phonetic analysis of a Middle English
text. Read and translate the text into Modern English /
Russian (part 1, lines 1—18). Continue the phonetic analysis
following the model (analyse only the underlined words).
Check your variant with the key.

Reading of Middle English texts

Letters & Sounds Examples

/. Vowels
1.1. Single letters
a [a] whan, and
[a:] bathed, maken
e [e] ende, wende
[e:] slepen, seken
i [i] his, first
[i:] inspired, shires
u [u] nature, vertu
[u:] but

233
PART 2. SEMINARS

0 [o] croppes, from


[o:] spoken, open
[u] sonne, come

У [i] fyngres
[i:] nyne, ryght

1.2. Digraphs
ее [e:] breeth, eek
ie [i:] grief
00 Co:] root, soote
ou , ow [uO shoures, how
[ou] soule, know
au , aw [au] straunge, lawe
ai, ay [ai] fair, day
ei, ey [ei] wey, reysed

2. Consonants
2.1. Single letters
с M courage^ licour, Caunterbury
[s] certain, perced
g [g] goon, goos
№>] engendred, corages, pilgrimages
f [f] fowels, bifil, y-falle
V [v] veyne, vertu, devout
s [s] his, is, soundry
И seson, devyse

234
MIDDLE ENGLISH

2.2. Digraphs
sh m shoures, shires, shortly
ch MI chaumbres, everichon
th [e] that, thinketh, the
[6] bathed, worthy
gh №'] nyght, ryght, knight
wh [hw] whan, what

From Chaucer's Prologue


to his "Canterbury Tales";
ab. 1384—1400
Geoffrey Chaucer (? ab. 1340—1400) was a bom Londoner. His
father and relatives had some associations with the wine trade and with
the Court. For his early schooling he was sent to St. Paul's Almony and
later went on to be a page in the household of the Countess of Ulster.
There he acquired the finest education in good manners, a matter of
great importance not only in his career as a courtier but also in his
career as a poet. Later in his life he was many times sent abroad on
some commercial and diplomatic missions and finally became a
Comptroller of the customs and Justice of the Peace.
He had a passion for books and read a lot in Latin, French, Anglo-
Norman and Italian. He made himself a considerable expert in
contemporaiy sciences — astronomy, medicine, physics and alchemy.
He was a man of Renaissance and he heralded the beginning of
English Renaissance in literature.
Chaucer's writings are numerous and diverse in subject and literary
manner but "The Canterbury Tales" are his greatest work.
It is a narrative of a pilgrimage that led to the outskirts of
Canterbury to the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket (the archbishop of
Canterbury in the XII century, murdered by the order of the king and
canonized by the Catholic Church). "The Canterbuiy Tales" are not
235
PART 2. SEMINARS

finished. They consist of a Prologue and 24 stories told by the persons


described in the Prologue. These people are of different degrees of the
medieval English society. The Prologue is the portrait of an entire
nation, high and low, old and young, lay and clerical, town and
country. The tales these pilgrims tell come from all over Europe, from
Chaucer's contemporaries (Dante, Boccaccio, Petrarch), from the
ancients, from the Orient.
Geoffrey Chaucer was the most outstanding figure of his time. He is
considered to be "the Father of English Poetry", the founder of literary
language.
He wrote in the London dialect which had by that time acquired
prevailing East Midland features with a considerable Southern
dialectal element. As it was the rise of national English standard
various forms coexisted, both dialectal, old and new (e.g. for to seke —
for to seken; soote — sweete; y-ronne; spoken; hem, her(<OE) — they
(Sc.)), hi bis rhymes (the meter is iambic pentameter); there are many
e-forms (Southern dialectal features descending from Kentish).

The Prologue

i Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote


The droghte of March hath perced to the roote.
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour:
5 Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
The tendre cropes, and the vonge sonne
Hath in the Ram his halve cours y-ronne,
And srnale foweles maken melodye,
io That slepen al the nyght with open ye —
So priketh hem nature in here corages —
Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages,
And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes,

236
MIDDLE ENGLISH

To feme halwes, couthe in sondry londes;


is And specially, from every shires ende
Of Engelond to Caunterbury they wende,
The hooly. blisful martir for to seke,
That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seeke:
Bifil that in that seson on a day.
20 In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay,
Redy to wenden on my pilgrymage
To Caunterbury with ful devout corage,
At nyght were come into that hostelrye
Wei nyne and twenty in a compaignye
25 Of sondry folk by aventure y-falle
In felaweshioe, and pilgrimes were they alle,
That toward Caunterbury wolde ryde.
The chaumbres and the stables weren wyde.
And wel we weren esed atte beste.
30 And shortly, whan the sonne was to reste,
So hadde I spoken with hem everichon,
That I was of her felaweshipe anon,
And made forward erly for to ryse.
To take oure wey ther, as I yow devyse.
35 But natheless, whil I have tyme and space,
Er that I ferther in this tale pace.
Me thynketh it acordaunt to resoun
To telle yow al the condicioun
Of ech of hem, so as it semed me,
40 And whiche they were, and of what degree.
And eek in what array that they were inne;
And at a khyght than wol I first bigynne.

237
PART 2. SEMINARS

Model of phonetic analysis

Word as used Changes of spelling and sounds


in the text
Old English Middle English New English

whan hwsenne whan when


[hw] [hw] > [w]
> [a] > [e]
hw replaced by w

that past that that


Ы > [a] > [ae]
[в] > [6] > [5]
x replaced by a
p replaced by th

with wit) with with


[6] > [в] > [3]
p replaced by th

his his his his


[s] [s] > [z]

shoures scur shour/showr shower


(shour) [sk'] > m[u:rl >Ш
u replaced by ou/ow > [аиэ]
sc replaced by sh
soote swote/swete swote/sweete sweet
[e:] > [e:] > П:]
droghte ёгпзоб droght(e)/ drought
drought
[u:] > [u:] > [аи]
u replaced by o/ou
3 replaced by gh

perced — percen pierce


tpercen) [c:] + vocalized | r)> [IQ]

238
MIDDLE ENGLISH

roote — rote/roote root


lo:] > Iu:] > [u] before
a dental cons.

bathed badode bathed bathed


(bathen) [a] (open syl.) > [a:] > [el]
[ode] > [ede] > W
5 replaced by th

swich SWilc swich/s(w)uch such


[k'J > [tfl
tu]
>
> [Л]
ал
с replaced by ch

which hwilc which which


[k'l > [Ш > №
(hwj [hw] > [wj
hw replaced by wh
с replaced by ch

vertu — vertu virtue


fi] + vocalized [r]> [э:]

flour — flour flower


[u:] + vocalized [r]> [аиэ]

239
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 10.
Middle English phonetics. Vowels

Topics for discussion in class


1. Qualitative changes of long and short vowels in Middle
English.
2. Quantitative changes of vowels in Middle English:
lengthening and shortening.

Questions and assignments


1. What phonetic conditions affected the length of vowels in
Middle English?
2. What change affected the Old English monophthongs in
Middle English? Were the changes positional or
independent? Give examples from the text to illustrate points
1 and 2.
3. What changes did the unstressed vowels undergo in Middle
English? How did it affect the grammatical endings?
4. Comment on the changes of the short monophthongs [as] and
[y] and long monophthongs [а], [аз], [у] in Middle English.
5. Speak of the Old English diphthongs in Middle English.
6. Read and translate the text above into Modern English /
Russian (part 2, lines 19—42). Make the phonetic analysis
following the model given in Seminar 9 (analyse only the
underlined words). Check your variant with the key.

240
MIDDLE ENGLISH

Seminar 11.
Middle English phonetics. Consonants

Topics for discussion in class


1 • Consonant changes in Middle English. The rise of sibilants
and affricates.
2. Development of diphthongs due to vocalisation of
consonants.

Questions and assignments


1- What is the origin of the Modern English consonant
phonemes []"], [tf], $3] in native words?
2- Account for the underlined consonants in:
ship, child, bridge.
3
- What is the origin of the diphthongs [ai], [au], [ou] in
day, now, owe?
4. Read and translate the following text into Modern English /
Russian. Make the phonetic analysis following the model
given in Seminar 9 (analyse only the underlined words).
Check your variant with the key.

From Trevisa's Translation


of "The Polychronicon"; 1387
John de Trevisa {1326 —1412) of Cornwall, though educated at
Oxford, lived most of his life in Gloucestershire (South West of
England) serving as chaplain.

241
PART 2. SEMINARS . •

Trevisa's "The Polychronicon" is the translation from Latin of a


world history written by the English monk Ranulf Higden in the mum
of the 14"1 century. In his translation Trevisa inserted his own commem
marking it by his name (Trevisa), and by (R) the continuation oj
Higden's text.
The extract below shows the language situation in England in tm
tlteE s
Late Middle English period and the role of French in ^ fl
society of the time: the 14"' century witnessed the ascendancy ofbngus
in public life; whereas the practice had been to use French as saw
language (so Higden tells us in his Polychronicon), by the tune J
Trevisa English also gained a new place in the schools.
Trevisa's English of the Polychronicon combines Midland and South
Western dialectal forms, (typical South Western dialect features are we
ending of the Present tense, Plural -eth< OE -ath; the form oj
Participle II (e.g. i-meddled); /y/ > /u/(e.g. burthe < OE ge-byrd).

About the languages of the inhabitants


Chapter 59
As it is i-knowe how meny manere peple beef) in faS ilfiSS'
pere beep also so many dyvers longages and tonge_s; nopeles
Walsche men and Scottes, f>at beep nou3t i-medled wip sfcsl
naciouns, holdefc wel nyh hir firste longage and speche,; but 311
the Scottes pat were somtyme confederat and wonede wip Pe
Pictes drawe somwhat after hir speche; but pe Flemmynges bat
wonep in pe weste side of Wales havep i-left her straunge speche
and spekep Saxonliche i-now. Also Englische men, pey hadde
from the bygynnynge pre manere speche, norperne, sowjieffle'
and middel speche in pe myddel of pe lond, as pey come of f>re
manere peple of Germania, nopeles by comyxtioun and mellynge
firste wip Danes and afterward wip Normans, in meny pe contray.
longage is apayred, and som usep straunge wlafferynge,
chiterynge, harrynge, and garrynge grisbayting. This apayrynge of
the burbe of pe tunge is bycause of tweie pinges; oon is for
242
MIDDLE ENGLISH

children, in scole aqenst pe usage and manere of alle opere


naciouns beef) compelled for to leve hire owne langage, and for
to construe hir lessouns and- here pynges in Frensche, and so pey
havej> sep pe Normans come first in to Engelond. Also gentil men
children beef) i-tau^t to speke Frensche from pe tyme pat pey
beep i-rokked in here cradel. and kunnep speke and playe wip a
Sbiides broche: and uplondisshe men wil likne hym self to gentil
men, and fondep wip greet besynesse for to speke Frensche, for to
be btojde of. Pis manere was moche i-used to for firste deth and
is sippe sumdel i-chaunged; for John Cornwaile, a maister of
grammer, chaunged pe lore in gramer scole and construccioun of
Frensche in to Englische; and Richard Pencriche lerned pe
manere techynge of hym and of opere men of Pencrich; so pat
flow, pe зеге of pure Lorde a powsand pre hundred and foure
Score and fyve, and of pe secounde kyng Richard after pe
conquest nyne. in alle pe gramere scoles of Engelond, children
ievep Frensche and construep and lernep an Englische, and hauep
{)erby avauntage in oon side and disavauntage in anoper side;
here avauntage is pat pey lernep her gramer in lasse tyme pan
children were i-woned to doo; disavauntage is pat now children
°f gramer scole connep na more Frensche pan can hir lift heele.
a
nd pat is harme for hem and bey schulle passe pe see and
travaille in straunge landes and in many oper places.

243
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 12.
Middle English grammar. Noun

Topics for discussion in class


1.Simplification of the case system and types of declension in
Middle English.
2. Means of form-building in Middle English.
3. Rise of the article.

Questions and assignments


1. Describe and account for the loss of inflexions in English
nouns, speak about the remaining inflexions.
2. Discuss the grammatical elements of the words
children's; leaves; men; brethren's; ships
3. Speak of the changes in the adjective paradigm in Middle
English.
4. Study the model of grammar and vocabulary analysis of a
Middle English text. Consult your translation notes for
Seminars 9—10 (Chaucer, The Prologue). Continue the
grammar and vocabulary analysis following the model.
Check your variant with the key.

244
MIDDLE ENGLISH

Model of grammatical and ethymological analysis

wnan that conjunction OE hwsenne when that


(adverb/pronoun)
pffit (pronoun)
(when)

Aprille noun proper OF avrill, April


L aprilis
with preposition with
his pronoun possessive, OE his (pronoun his
masculine, 3rd person personal)
singular
shoures noun, common case, OE sciir shower
plural
soote adjective, plural • OE swote/swete sweet
the definite article OE se, seo, pset the
droghte noun, common case, OE drii3o6 drought
singular
of preposition ftEof of
March noun proper OF mars, march March
(dial.), L martius
hath perced verb, present perfect, OE habban pierce (has
31X| person, singular of OF percier pierced)
percen. weak verb,
class 2
to preposition OE to to
roote noun, common case, OSk rot root
singular
and conjunction OE and and

245
PART 2. SEMINARS

bathed verb, present perfect OE ba6ian bathe {has


(hath bathed), 3rd person, bathed)
singular of bathen. weak
verb, class 2
every pronoun indefinite OE aefre every
veyne nolin, common case, OE veine vein
singular
in preposition 0£in in
swich pronoun indefinite OE swilc such
licour noun, common case, OF licur, L liquor liquor
singular (moisture)
of preposition OEof Of
which pronoun indefinite OE hwilc which
/interrogative
vertu noun, common case, OF vertu virtue
singular (force)
engendred is verb, passive voice, OF engendrer, engender
rd
present tense, 3 person L ingenerane (is
singular of engendren. OE is engendered)
weak verb, class 2
flour noun, common case, OF four flower
singular (blossoming)

246
MIDDLE ENGLISH

Seminar 13.
Middle English grammar. Verb

Topics for discussion in class


1. Historical changes in the verbal system. History of the Old
English categories of tense, number, mood and person.
2. Development of analytical forms and new grammatical
categories in Middle English.

Questions and assignments


1- Give two examples each of (i) strong verbs which have
acquired the weak-type conjugation; (ii) weak verbs which
have acquired the strong-type conjugation.
2. Account for the present and past tense forms of the principal
auxiliary verbs.
3- Account for the past tense forms of the following verbs:
taught, sold, sought, fed, felt, caught
4- Mention some verbs that, being originally preterites, have
come to be used as presents, and account for their usage.
5. Read the text in Seminar 11 (Trevisa, About the languages of
the inhabitants). Consult your translation notes for the
Seminar. Make the grammar and vocabulary analysis
following the model given in Seminar 12. Check your variant
with the key.

247
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 14.
Middle English. Discussion

Topics for discussion in class


1. Middle English. Outer and inner history of the period.
2. Changes in the Middle English spelling system.
3. Changes in the Middle English phonetic system.
4. Changes in the Middle English grammar system.
5. Changes in the Middle English vocabulary.

Questions and assignments


1. What new spelling devices appeared in Middle English?
2. What environment allowed a stressed vowel to preserve its
Old English quantity?
3. What were the sources for the appearance of new categorial
forms? Give exampes from the nominal and verbal
paradigm.
4. Speak on the principal sources of enriching the vocabulary m
Middle English.
5. Read and translate the text below into Modern English /
Russian. Make a complete phonetic, grammar and
vocabulary analysis of the text following the models or
Seminar 9 and Seminar 12. Hand in your written work as
Part 2 of your course project.

248
MIDDLE ENGLISH

From Capgrave's Chronicle of England;


ab. 1463
John Capgrave (1393—1463) was a friar of the Augustinian Order
in England. He obtained a theological university education and was
regarded as one of the most learned men of his time.
Capgrave resided most of his life in the friary at King"s Lynn, where
he wrote in Latin and English sermons, theological works and
commentaries to many books of scripture. Among his books is a
chronicle of English history, which is of considerable importance as an
early English prose work
"The Chronicle of England" starts from the Creation of the World
and ends with the year 1417, evidently stopped by the death of the
author.
It is written in the London dialect bearing but few traces of other
late Middle English dialects.

[1393] In the month of Auguste was it proclamed thorowoute


Ynglond that alle Erishmen be at hom, in her owne lond, in the
fest of Nativite of oure Lady, in peyne of lesing of her hed. It was
proved be experiens that there were com to Ynglond so many
Erischmen that the Erisch cuntre, whech longeth to the king of
Ynglond, was so voyded fro his dwelleris that the wilde Erisch
were com in, and had dominacioune of al that cuntre. And, more
ovyr, it was noted, that in Kyng Edward tyme the Thirde, whan he
had set there his bank, his juges, and his chekyr, he received
every зеге XXX M. pound: and now the kyng Richard was fayn
to paye зег1у to defens of the same cuntre XXX M. mark.
(In this зеге, in the XXI. day of Aprile, was that frere bore
whech mad these Annotaciones.)
And in the same зеге Kyng Richard went into Erland, with
the duke of Glouceter, and erles March, Notingham and
Ruthland. Many of the Erisch lordis wold ha lettid his comyng;
249
PART 2. SEMINARS

but her power was ovyr weyk. Ther was he fro the Nativite of
oure Lady onto Esterne. And in that tyme were sent onto him, be
the clergi of this lond, the archbishop of York and the bishop of
London, praying him that he wold come horn ageyn to oppresse
the malice of Lollardis. For thei laboured sore to take away alle
the possessiones of the Cherch, and aftir to distroye alle the lawes
that were mad to favoure of the Cherch. Whan the kyng herd this,
he hastid him in al goodly maner to com horn ageyn.

[1394] In the XVIII. зеге the kyng held his Parlement at


Dulyn, and thidir com alle the lordes that had mad subjeccion
onto him.
And in that same tyme, Edmund, duke of York, Keper of
Ynglond, held a Parlement at London; to whech Parlement cam
the duke of Gloucetir fro Yrlond, expressing the kyngis costid in
Yrlond: and his legacion was so acceptabil, that the clergy
graunted him a dyme, and the lay fe a fiftene.
In this tyme the Lolardis set up scrowis at Westminster and at
Poules, with abhominable accusaciones of hem that long to the
Cherch, whech sounded in destruccioune of the Sacramentis, ana
of statutes of the Cherch. The meynteyneris of the puple that
were so infect were these: Richard Storry, Lodewik Clifford,
Thomas Latymer, Jon Mountagw. Thei were principal
instraetouris of heretikes. The kyng, whan he had conceyved the
malice of these men, he cleped hem to his presens, and snybbed
hem; forbad hem eke thei schuld no more meynten no swech
materes. Of Richard Story he took a hooth; for he swore on a
book that he schuld nevyr meynten no swech opiniones. And aftir
this hooth the kyng saide: "And I swere here onto the, If evyr thou
breke thin ooth, thou schal deye a foul deth." Thei that were gilty
in this mater withdraw gretly her oterauns of malys.

250
SEMINARS 15—22.
NEW ENGLISH
15. General characteristics of the New English period
16. New English. Phonetics. Vowels
17. New English. Phonetics. Consonants
18. New English Grammar. Noun
19. New English Grammar. Verb
20. English wordstock
21. Vocabulary layers
22. Modern regular and irregular noun and verb forms

William Shakespeare • • the engraving for the First Folio (1623)


251
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 15.
General characteristics
of the New English period

Topics for discussion in class


1. Formation of the British nation and the English national
language in the Early New English period.
2. Expansion of English overseas. Contacts with other
languages.
3. Early New English vocabulary. New means of word-
formation (conversion).
4. Influence of Latin and other languages in the New English
period. Etymological doublets.
5. New English spelling. Principal ways of indicating the
sounds in Modern English.

Questions and assignments


1. Compare the effect of different outside contacts upon the
English language.
2. Speak of the ways of enriching the vocabulary of a language.
Which of them were more important for the New English
period?
3. Speak of "mute" letters in New English.
4. What digraphs are used in New English? Give examples and
explain their pronunciation.
5. What sounds are denoted by the following letters in New
English: a, e, i, o, u?
Which of them are the oldest and which are the newest?
252
NEW ENGLISH

6. Study the model of phonetic analysis of a New English text.


Read and translate the text into Modern English / Russian
(part 1). Continue the phonetic analysis following the model
(analyse only the underlined words). Check your variant with
the key.

William Shakespeare; ab. 1600


William Shakespeare (1565—1616) was born at Stratford-on-Avon.
His father was engaged in various kinds of trade and held various
municipal offices. Shakespeare was educated at a grammar school
learning to read and write and studying the works of some classical
historians, moralists and poets, but he did not go to the university. He
married at the age of 18. How Shakespeare spent the next 8 years or so
until his name begins to appear in London theatre records is not
known. By 1592 he seems to have attracted the attention of the Earl of
Southampton. It was very important for him: although the puritanical
tity of London was generally hostile to the theatre many of the nobility
were good patrons of the drama and friends of actors. From 1594
onward he was a recognised member of the Lord Chamberlain s
Company of players: they had the best theatre, the Globe, and the best
dramatist, Shakespeare. He became a full-time professional man of his
own theatre. For 20 years Shakespeare devoted himself to his art,
writing more than a million words of poetic drama.
Shakespeare lived at a time when ideas and social structure
established in Middle Ages still influenced man 's thought and
behaviour. Alongside that, economic and social orders were disturbed
by the rise of capitalism, expansion of education and by the new wealth
from the discovery of new lands. An interplay of new and old ideas was
typical of the time (in "Hamlet" discussions on man, belief, a
"rotten" state, and times "out of joint" clearly reflect a growing
disquiet and scepticism.)
It is a usual and reasonable opinion that Shakespeare's greatness is
nowhere more visible than in the series of tragedies — "Hamlet",
"Othello", "King Lear". -
With a few exceptions Shakespeare did not invent the plot of his
plays. Sometimes he used old stories ("Hamlet"), sometimes he worked
from the stories of comparatively recent Italian writers, the chronicles,
253
PART 2. SEMINARS

the popular prose fiction of his contemporaries. The source of the plot
("Tragical History of Hamlet, prince of Denmark") was probably the
Icelandic saga of Amleth narrated by Saxo Grammaticus in his history
of Denmark, in "Hamlet" the drama of revenge acquired new
philosophic aspects introduced by the genius of the author.
Given below is an extract from "Hamlet" (mostly MS 2-nd quarto,
published in 1604) which is the Performance "The Murder o]
Gonzago " played by the actors at Hamlet's request.
The language of Shakespeare's plays gives a full representation <?/
the literary language of the Elizabethan Age (the age of literary
Renaissance in Early New English). In Shakespeare's day the syntax
and other aspects of English grammar and vocabulary1 were in a state
of transition from an earlier, highly inflected language. The loss oj
endings obscured the distinguishing marks of various parts of speec
and the result was not so much confusion as freedom.
Shakespeare's ability to create new words and use the living ones in
the full range of their polysemy, his versatile grammar are general^
typical of the Early New English period and sometimes are specificall)
Shakespearean (e.g. more than one negation in the sentence "nor it
not strange"; one stem used as both Past Tense and Participle '
"begunn "; placing a simple verb before the subject in questions Wha
means this...?"; subject-verb semantic agreement "the fruit...sticks..№
fall..."; polysemy of words when all the meanings of the word 'worn
at a time, e.g. posie — 1) poetry, 2) a motto, a short inscription,
mich(ing) — 1) to skulk or retire from view, 2) to steal small things, D
to pilfer, 4) to play truant, etc.)

From Hamlet, Act III, Scene II.


The Performance
(pan 1)

The Trumpets sounds. Dumbe show followes: Enter a King and a


Oueene. the Queene embracing him, and he. her, he takes her vp,
and declines his head vpon her песке, he lyes him downe upon a
bancke of flowers, she seeing him asleepe, leaues him: anori
come in an other man, takes off his crowne. kisses it, щщЦ
254
NEW ENGLISH

poyson in the sleepers eares. and leaues him; the Queene


returne.i finds the King dead, makes passionate action, the
poysner with some- three or foure come in againe, seeme to
condole with her, the dead body is carried away, the poysner
wooes the Queene with gifts, shee seemes harsh awhile, but in the
end accepts hue.
Oph. What meanes this my Lord?
Ham. Marry that munching Mallico, it meanes mischiefe.
Oph- Belike this show imports the argument of the play.
Ham. We shall know by this fellow, [Enter Prologue.]
The Players cannot keepe, they'le tell аЦ.
Oph. Will a tell vs what this show meant?
Ham. I, or any show that you will show him, be not
you ash am'd to show, heele not shame to tell
you what it meanes.
Oph. You are naught, you are naught. He mark the play.
Prol. For vs and for our Tragedie,
Heere stooping to your clemencie,
We begge your hearing patiently.
Ham. Is this a Prologue, or the posie of a ring?
Oph. Tis breefe my Lord.
Ham. As womans loue.
Enter King and Queene.
King. Full thirtie times hath Phebus cart gone round
Neptunes saj£ wash, and Tellus orb'd the ground,
And thirtie dosen Moones with borrowed sheene
About the world haue times twelue thirties beene
Since loue our harts, and Hymen did our hands
Vnite comutuall in most sacred bands.

255
PART 2. SEMINARS

Quee. So many iourneyes may the Sunne and Moone


Make vs againe count ore ere loue be doone,
But woe is me, you are so sicke of late,
So farre from cheere. and from our former state,
That I distrust you, yet though I distrust,
Discomfort you my Lord it nothing must.
For women feare too much, euen as they loue.
And womens feare and loue hold quantitie,
Eyther none, in neither ought, or in extremitie.
Now what my Lord is proofe hath made you know,
And as my loue is ciz'd, my feare is so,
Where loue is great, the litlest doubts are feare.
Where little feares grow great, great loue growes there.
King Faith I must leaue thee loue, and shortly to,
My operant powers their functions leaue to do
And thou shalt Hue in this faire world behind.
Honour'd. belou'd, and haply one as kind.
For husband shalt thou.

(part 2)

Quee. О confound the rest,


Such loue must needes be treason in my brest,
In second husband let me be accurst.
None wed the second, but who kild the first.
Ham. That's wormwood
The instances that second marriage moue
Are base respects of thrift, but none of loue,
A second time I kill my husband dead,
When second husband kisses me in bed.
King I doe belieue you thinke what now you speake.
But what we doe determine, oft we breake,
Purpose is but the slaue to memorie,
256
NEW ENGLISH

Of violent birth, but poore validitie,


Which now the fruite vnripe sticks on the tree.
But faH vnshaken when they mellow bee.
Most necessary tis that we forget
To gay our selues what to our selues is debt.
What to our selues in passion we propose,
The passion ending, doth the purpose lose.
The violence of eyther, griefe. or ioy,
Their owne ennactures with themselues destroy,
Where ioy most reuels, griefe doth most lament,
Greefe ioy, ioy griefes, on slender accedent,
This world is not for aye, nor tis not strange.
That euen our loues should with our fortunes change:
For tis a question left vs yet to proue.
Whether loue lead fortune, or els fortune loue.
The great man downe, you marke his fauourite flyes,
The poore aduaunc'd. makes friends of enemies,
And hetherto doth loue on fortune tend,
For who not needes, shall neuer lacke a friend,
And who in want a hollow friend doth try,
Directly seasons him his enemy.
But orderly to end where I begunne.
Our wills and fates doe so contrary runne.
That our deuises still are ouerthrowne.
Our thoughts are ours, their ends none of our owne,
So thinke thou wilt no second husband wed,
But die thy thoughts when thy first Lord is dead.

257
PART 2. SEMINARS

Model of phonetic analysis

Word as used Changes of spelling and sounds


in the text
Old English Middle English New English

trumpet - trompet trumpet


[u] > [л]
о - a ME spelling device

sound - soun sound


[u:] > [аи]

dumbe dumb domb dumb


[u] [u] > [л]
[b] lost in NE
u replaced by о - a ME spelling device

show rel. to v. sceaw(ian) «. shewe show


[sk1] > Ш > Ш
sc replaced by sh

enter - fn/entre(n) enter


unstressed [e] + vocalised [r] > [э]

king сушпз kyng king


[y] > [i] (East Midland
dialect)
с replaced by к

queene cwen queene queene


[e:] > [e:] > [i:l
cw replaced by qu

embracing — inf. embrace embrace


[a:] > [ci]

258
NEW ENGLISH

he he he he
[e:] > [e:] > [i:l > [i-]

her hire her/e her


[i] [e] + vocalised [r] > [э:]

take(s) inf. takan taken take


[a] [a:] open syllable > [ei]
с replaced by к

decline(s) - inf. declynen decline


[i:] > [ai]

his his his his


[s] [s] > M
head head head head
[ea:] > [e:] > [e] before a dental
consonant

tye(s) inf. Нсзеп liggen/lyen lie


[g] > Из]
[i:] > M

down of-dune a-doune down


[u:] > [u:] > [аи]
u replaced by ou/ow

bancke — banke bank


[a] > [ее]

flower(s) - flour flower


[u:] + vocalised [r] > [аиэ]
ou replaced by ow

see(ing) inf. seon seen see


[e:] > [e:] > [i:]

259
PART 2. SEMINARS

asleep • on-slaep asleep asleep


[ffi] > [e:] > [i'-l
ге replaced by ее '

leaues inf. ISfan leven leave


[аз:] > [e:] > [i:l
гг replaced by ea
f replaced by v
NEW ENGUSB

Seminar 16.
New English. Phonetics. Vowels

Topics for discussion in class


1- Quantitative and qualitative changes of vowels in Early New
English.
2. The Great Vowel shift and other New English vowel
changes; their effect on Modern English.

Questions and assignments


'• What phonetic conditions affected the length of vowels in
Early New English?
2. What change affected the monophthongs [a] and [u] in New
English? Were the changes positional or independent? Give
examples from the text to illustrate points 1 and 2.
3. Make a list of vowels that underwent the Great Vowel shift.
What is the general direction of the shift?
4. What changes did the unstressed vowels undergo in New
English? How did it affect the grammatical endings?
5. Copy the principal forms of the Old English verb wrltan and
the paradigm of the Old English noun stan and trace the
endings to New English.
6. Write out words from the text to show the different spelling
of the sounds [ae], [e:], [ou], [ei], [л], [о], [i:] and explain the
origin of the sounds and spelling.
7. Account historically for the differences in the sound value of
the same letter or digraph, such as "ow", "ea", V \ "i" (in
stressed position). Find words in the text to illustrate your
answer.
261
PART 2. SEMINARS

Read and translate the text above into Modern English /


Russian (part 2). Make the phonetic analysis following the
model given in Seminar 15 (analyse only the underlined
words). Check your variant with the key.
NEW ENGLISH

Seminar 17.
New English. Phonetics. Consonants
Topics for discussion in class
1. Early New English consonant changes.
2. The rise of sibilants and affricates in Early New English.

Questions and assignments


1- What is the origin of the Modern English consonant
phonemes Ц], [3], [tfl, №3] in borrowed words?
2. Account for the underlined consonants in:
a) literature, Asia, soldier, measure.
b) shall, drudgery, occasion, nature
3. Account for the spelling of the fricatives and find examples
in the text to illustrate the same spelling and/or sound.
4. Find words in the text to illustrate the so-called "Verner's
Law" in New English.
5. Account for the "mute" letters "gh", "k" and "1", "r" before
"n" and at the end of words, position of stress in native and
borrowed words.
6. Read and translate the text below into Russian. Make the
phonetic analysis following the model given in Seminar 15.

263
PART 2. SEMINARS

Ben Jonson; ab. 1606—1607


Ben Jonson (1572—1637) began to work as player and playwright
in 1597. He was a very prolific writer, and his plays were given, among
many others, by Shakespeare's company, some with William
Shakespeare in the cast. Ben Jonson is mostly known for court masques
— dramatic entertainments involving dances and disquises, and
comedies which often had a morale in them.
"Volpone, or The Fox" is a comedy first acted in 1606 and printed
a year later. Volpone, a rich Venetian without children, feigns that he is
dying, in order to draw gifts from his would-be heirs. Mosca, his
parasite and confederate, persuades each of these in turn that he is to
be the heir, and thus extracts costly presents from them. One of the
victims of their deceit is Voltore. •

From "Volpone, or The Fox"


MOSCA. You still are what you were, sir. Only you,
Of all the rest, are he, commands his love;
And you do wisely to preserve it thus
With early visitation, and kind notes
Of your good meaning to him, which, I know,
Cannot but come most grateful. — Patron! sir!
Here's Signior Voltore is come —
VOLPONE. What say you?
MOSCA. Sir, Signior Voltore is come this morning
To visit you.
VOLPONE. I thank him.
MOSCA. And hath brought
A piece of antique plate, bought of Saint Mark,
With which he here presents you.
264
NEW ENGLISH

VOLPONE. He is welcome.
Pray him to come more often.
MOSCA. Yes.
VOLTORE. What says he?
MOSCA. He thanks you, and desires you see him often.
VOLPONE. Mosca.
MOSCA. My patron!
VOLPONE. Bring him near; where is he?
I long to feel his hand.
MOSCA. The plate is here, sir.
VOLTORE. How fare you, sir?
VOLPONE. I thank you, Signior Voltore.
Where is the plate? mine eyes are bad.
VOLTORE. I'm sorry
To see you still thus weak.
MOSCA. That he is not weaker.
VOLPONE. You are too munificent.
VOLTORE. No, sir, would to Heaven,
I could as well give health to you, as that plate!
VOLPONE. You give, sir, what you can. I thank you.
Your love
Hath taste in this, and shall not be unanswered.
I pray you see me often.
VOLTORE. Yes. I shall, sir.
VOLPONE. Be not far from me.
MOSCA. Do you observe that, sir?
VOLPONE. Hearken unto me still. It will concern you.
MOSCA. You are a happy man, sir; know your good.
VOLPONE. I cannot now last long —
265
PART 2. SEMINARS

MOSCA. — You are his heir, sir.


VOLTORE. Am I?
VOLPONE. I feel me going — Uhluh! uh! uh!
I'm sailing to my port — Uh! uh! uh! uh!
And I am glad I am so near my haven.
MOSCA. Alas, kind gentleman! Well, we must all go
VOLTORE. But, Mosca —
MOSCA. Age will conquer.
VOLTORE. Pray thee, hear me.
Am I inscribed his heir for certain?
MOSCA. Are you!
I do beseech you, sir, you will vouchsafe
To write me i' your family. All my hopes
Depend upon your worship. I am lost,
Except the rising sun do shine on me.
VOLTORE. It shall both shine and warm thee,
Mosca.
MOSCA. Sir.
I am a man that hath not done your love
All the worst offices: here I wear your keys,
See all your coffers,.and your caskets locked,
Keep the poor inventory of your jewels,
Your plate and monies: am your steward, sir,
Husband your goods here.
VOLTORE. But am I sole heir?

266
NEW ENGLISH

Seminar 18.
New English. Grammar. Noun
Topics for discussion in class
'• Historical changes in the nominal system. History of the Old
English categories of case, number and gender.
2- Origin of modern categorial forms.
3. Development of personal and demonstrative pronouns.

Questions and assignments


1- What form-building means are used in New English as
compared to those in Old English?
2. What is the origin of the Modern English plural ending "es"
and the genitive ending "s" in:
lessons, mother's?
3. Speak of the changes in the number of cases of nouns and
personal pronouns in Middle English and New English.
4. What new personal and possessive pronouns appeared in
English in the course of history?
5. Write out the personal and possessive pronouns from the text
below and account for their origin.
6. Speak of the degrees of comparison of the adjectives in the
text below.
7. Study the model of grammar and vocabulary analysis of a
New English text. Consult your translation notes for
Seminars 15—16. Continue the grammar and vocabulary
analysis following the model. Check your variant with the
key.

267
PART 2. SEMINARS

Model of grammatical and ethymological analysis

Words as Corresponding
used in NE word,
the text translation

trumpets noun, genitive ME trompette, OF Irompette trumpet(S )


case, plural

sounds n. common case, ME soun; OF soun SOUnd(s)

plural (oboes play)

dumbe adjective OE dumb; ME domb dumb

show n. common case, ME sheue, rel. to show


singular OE sceawian (v);
ME shaven (v)
followes verb, present OE fo^ian, weak, 2; follow(s)
tense, 3"1 person, ME followen (The dumb
singular ot show enters)
follow
enter verb, present ME entren weak, 2\ OF entrer enter
tense, plural
of enter

a article, indefinite OE an; ME a/an a

king n. common case OE суптз; ME kyng king


singular

and conjunction OE and; ME and and

queene n. common case OE cwen; ME queen queen


singular (actors playing
the roles of
the King and
the Queen)

268
NEW ENGLISH

the queene the queen


embracing absolute ME embracen, weak 2: embracing
participial OF embracer.
construction
(nominative with
participle I)

him pronoun OE him, hire; ME him him


personal,
objective case,
3'* person,
singular,
masculine

he pronoun OE he; ME he he
personal,
nominative
case, 3rd person,
singular,
masculine

her pronoun OE hire; ME her(e) her


personal,
objective case,
3™ person,
singular,
feminine

takes verb, present OE takan, sir. 6; ME taken take


tense, 3|U person,
singular of take

vp adverb OE up, upp; ME up up


(raises her
from the knees)

declines verb, present ME declynen; OF decliner decline


tense, 3' J person,
singular of decline

his pronoun OE his; ME his his


possessive,
3rd person,
singular,
masculine

269
PART 2. SEMINARS

head n. common case, OE heafod; ME heed head


case, singular

Vpon preposition OE uppon; ME upon upon

песке п. common case, OE hnecca; ME nekke neck


singular (on her
shoulder)
lyes verb, present OE Исзап, sir. 5; ME lyen lie
tense, 3rJ person,
singular of lie

downe adverb OE of-dfme; ME a-doune down

bancke n. common case, ME banke bank (bed)


singular

Of preposition OE of; ME of of

flowers n. common case, OF flour flower(s)


plural

she pronoun OE heo; ME he/she she


personal,
nominative case,
3rf person,
singular,
feminine

seeing v., participle 1 OE seon, sir. 5; ME seen seeing'


of see

asleepe adjective OE on-slajp; ME on sleep, asleep


asleep
leaues v., present OE lsefan, weak, 1; ME leven leave(s)
tense,
3"* person,
singular
of leave

270
NEW ENGLISH

Seminar 19.
New English. Grammar. Verb
Topics for discussion in class
' • Historical changes in the verbal system. History of the Old
English categories of tense, number, mood and person.
2- Development of analytical forms and new grammatical
categories in Early New English.
3- Origin of the main groups of standard and non-standard
verb-forms.

Questions and assignments


'• What form-building means are used in New English as
compared to those in Old English?
2. Write out the analytical verb-forms from the text and
account for their origin.
3- Speak of the origin of non-finite verb forms: the infinitive,
the participles, the gerund.
4- Read the text (Ben Jonson, Volpone, or The Fox). Consult
your translation notes for Seminar 17. Make the grammar
and vocabulary analysis following the model given in
Seminar 18.

271
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 20.
English wordstock

Topics for discussion in class


1. Historical changes in English wordstock.

Questions and assignments


1. Write out from the text examples of native English words,
French (or Latin) and Scandinavian borrowings and trace
them back to the Middle English or Old English periods.
2. Analyse the word-building elements in the following words
and comment on their origin:
favourable, miscalled, nominally, recall, good-natured
3. Account for the etymological layers in the English word-
stock which you discover in the text by describing the
relevant events in the history of Britain.
4. Speak of phonetic marks and components in the
morphological structure of the word helping to distinguish
etymological layers in the English word-stock.
5. Give examples from the text of hybrids with different
etymological components.
6. Read and translate the text given below into Modern English
/ Russian. Make a complete phonetic, grammar and
vocabulary analysis of the text following the models or
Seminar 15 and Seminar 18. Check your variant with the
key.

272
NEW ENGLISH

William Shakespeare,
Sonnets, ab. 1600
Another form of literary work at which Shakespeare excelled was the
writing of sonnets, lyric verse fashionable in Elizabethan England. It is
justly said that there were few poetic compositions of any author or age
that have evoked so much admiration as Shakespeare's sonnets. Most of
them were probably written between 1593 and 1599 and were first
published as a collection in 1609.

Sonnet #153
Cupid laid by his brand, and fell asleep:
A maid of Dian's this advantage found,
And his love-kindling fire did quickly steep
In a cold valley-fountain of that ground;
Which boirow'd from this holy fire of Love
A dateless lively heat, still to endure,
And grew a seething bath, which yet men prove
Against strange maladies a sovereign cure.
But at my mistress' eye Love's brand new-fired,
The boy for trial needs would touch my breast;
I, sick withal, the help of bath desired,
And thither hied, a sad distemper'd guest,
But found no cure: the bath for my help lies
Where Cupid got new fire — my mistress's eyes.

273
PART 2. SEMINARS

Seminar 21.
Vocabulary layers

Topics for discussion in class


1. Geographical expansion of English in the course of history.
2. Etymological strata in New English vocabulary and their
historical explanation.
3. Influence of Latin on English in different periods.
4. Influence of the French language on English in different
periods.
5. Latin and French word-building elements in English.

Questions and assignments


1. From what languages and when did the English language
received the following words:
orange, receive, street, chess, kiln, sovereign,
potato, fetish?
Prove your point of view.
2. Give five examples each of Latin words borrowed to Englisn
directly and via French and state the time of the borrowing-
3. What are word-hybrids? Give examples of word-hybrids
consisting of three or more elements different by origin.
4. Read and translate the text given below into Russian. Make a
grammar and vocabulary analysis of the text following t n e
model of Seminar 18. Pay particular attention to foreign
word-building elements. Check your variant with the key.

274
NEW ENGLISH

Ch. Dickens, "David Copperfield",


a. 1850
Charles Dickens (1812—1870), the son of a government clerk,
underwent in early life, as the result of his family's poverty resulting
from his father's imprisonment, experiences similar to some of those
depicted in "David Copperfield", and received little education. He
became newspaper reporter of debates in the House of Commons and
contributed to other periodicals, the articles that were subsequently
republished as "Sketches of Boz, Illustrative of Every-Day Life and
Every-Day People" (1836—37). These were immediately followed by
"The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club", where Dickens
reached the plentitude of his power and achieved success and financial
ease. "David Coppetfield" appeared in monthly numbers in 1849—50.
Later Dickens was to write of it: "Of all my books I like this the best. "

Extract from Chapter 4


Shall I ever forget those lessons! They were presided over
nominally by my mother, but really by Mr. Murdstone and his
sister, who were always present, and found them a favourable
occasion for giving my mother lessons in that miscalled firmness,
which was the bane of both our lives. I believe I was kept at
home for that purpose. I had been apt enough to learn and willing
enough, when my mother and I had lived alone together. I can
faintly remember learning the alphabet at her knee. To this day,
when I look upon the fat black letters of the primer, the puzzling
novelty of their shapes, and the easy good nature of О and Q and
S seem to present themselves again before me as they used to do.
But they recall no feeling of disgust or reluctance. On the
contrary, I seem to have walked along a path of flowers as far as
the crocodile-book, and to have been cheered by the gentleness of
my mother's voice and manner all the way. But these solemn
275
PART 2. SEMINARS

lessons which succeeded those, I remember as the death-blow at


my peace, and a grievous daily drudgery and misery. They were
very long, very numerous, very hard — perfectly unintelligible,
some of them, to me — and I was generally as much bewildered
by them as I believe my poor mother was herself.
Let me remember how it used to be, and bring one morning
back again.
NEW ENGLISH

Seminar 22.
Modern regular and irregular
noun and verb forms

Topics for discussion in class


1 • Origin of New English irregular noun forms.
2. Groups of modern non-standard verbs descending from Old
English weak verbs.
3. Groups of modern non-standard verbs descending from Old
English strong verbs.

Questions and assignments


1- What traces of the Old English n-stem and root-stem
declensions can we find in New English plural forms of
nouns?
2. Comment on the forms of nouns:
foot — feet; child — children; deer — deer;
ox — oxen; axis — axes
3. Speak of the peculiarities of modal verbs (former preterite-
present) and the verb "to be".
4. Group all verbs in the text below into regular and irregular.
Trace them back to Old English and determine whether they
were weak or strong.
5. Say if the modern division of the verbs into regular and
irregular corresponds to the Old English division into strong
and weak, give examples from your list of verbs to confirm
your answers.
6. Read and translate the text given below into Russian. Make a
277
PART 2. SEMINARS

complete phonetic, grammar and vocabulary analysis of the


text following the models of Seminar 15 and Seminar 18.
Hand in your-written work as Part 3 of your course project.

D. Chrystal, The Cambridge


Encyclopedia of the English Language,
1995
David Crystal, a former professor of linguistics at the University tf
Reading, is a well-known writer, editor, lecturer and broadcaster
divides Ins time between work on language and work on gener
reference publishing. He has written over 40 books on languag >
C xbr
including "Linguistics", "Clinical Linguistics" and "The f 3^e
Encyclopedia of Language". In one of his latest books,
Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language ", he exPi0> ,
various aspects of the history, structure, variety and range of u s .Jf.
English worldwide, writing about difficult concepts in a language a
and accessible to all.

Many observations concerning the English language have


been based on the analysis of language data samples collecte
together as a corpus. Compiling a corpus is very different пот
the traditional practices of citation-gathering or word-watching
which have guided work on dictionaries since the time of v\-
Johnson. Corpora are large and systematic enterprises: whole
texts or whole sections of text are included, such a
conversations, magazine articles, brochures, newspapeis,
lectures, sermons,, broadcasts and chapters of novels.
Considerable thought is given to the selection of material so that,
in the most general case, the corpus can stand as a reasonably
representative sample of the language as a whole — a general, о
standard corpus.
A well-constructed general corpus turns out to be useful in
several ways. It enables investigators to make more objective an
278
NEW ENGLISH

confident descriptions of usage that would be possible through


introspection. It allows them to make statements about frequency
of usage in the language as a whole, as well as comparative
statements about usage in different varieties. It permits them, in
principle, to arrive at a total account of the linguistic features in
any of the texts contained in the corpus. And it provides them
with a source of hypotheses about the way the language works. In
addition, a corpus which is widely accessible enables researchers
in separate locations to collaborate in the analysis of particular
problems, and means that results from a range of projects are
likely to be somewhat more comparable than if different corpora
had been employed.
An early printing shop
Source: The New Uiihvrslty Library, 1973
LIST OF KEYS

Key to Seminars 3 & 6. Ohthere's account of his


first voyage 283
Key to Seminars 4,5 & 7. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 301
Key to Seminars 9, 10 & 12. Chaucer, Canterbury Tales 316
Key to Seminars 11 & 13. Trevisa, About thelanguages
of the inhabitants 338
Key to Seminars 15,16 & 18. Shakespeare, Hamlet 359
Key to Seminar 20. Shakespeare, Sonnet 396
Key to Seminar 21. Dickens, David Copperfield 405
Key to Seminars 3 & 6
Ohthere's account of his first voyage

Ohthere told his lord, King Alfred, that he lived the furthest north
of all Norwegians. He said that he lived in the north of Norway on the
coast of the Atlantic. He also said that the land extends very far north
beyond that point, but it is all uninhabited, except for a few places here
and there where the Finns have their camps, hunting in winter, and in
summerfishingin the sea.
He told how he once wished to find out how far the land
extended due north, or whether anyone lived to the north of the
unpopulated area. He went due north along the coast, keeping the
uninhabited land to starboard and the open sea to port continuously
for three days. He was then as far north as the whale hunters go at
their furthest. He then continued due north as far as he could reach in
the second three days. There the land turned due east, or the sea
penetrated the land he did not know which — but he knew that he
waited there for a west-north-west wind, and then sailed east along
the coast as far as he could sail in four days.
There he had to wait for a due northern wind, because there the
land turned due south, or the sea penetrated the land he did not know
which. Then from there he sailed due south along the coast as far as he
could sail in five days. A great river went up into the land there. They
turned up into the river, not daring to sail beyond it without permission,
since the land on the far side of the river was fully settled. He had not
previously come across any settled district since he left his own home.
The Beormas told him many stories both about their own country
and about the lands which surrounded them, but he did not know how
much of it was true because he had not seen it for himself. "It seemed
to him that the Finnas and the Beormas spoke almost the same
language. His main reason for going there, apart from exploring the
283
PART 3. KEYS

land, was for the walruses, because they have very fine ivory in their
tusks — they brought some of these tusks to the king — and their
hide.

Phonetic analysis
Word as used Analysis Parallels from NE word
in the text cognate
languages or
. I related OE words —
SJEde [s] — voiceless initially; OE S&^de said
[ae] — lengthening of [ffi] -
(variant form)
due to loss of [g]
сушпзе [у] — palatal mutation of OHG kuning king
[u] — caused by [i]; later
[yl>[i]
ealra [ea] — breaking of [ж] — Gt alls all
before [l]+consonant,
[ae] — fromPGfa]
Nor5monna -monn: [p]=[a] — from Gt mann(a) Norman
PG[a],later[a>a>£e]
Iande [a]— before nasal Gfland land
consonants; [a] — from
PG[a],later[a>a>2e]
beah [ea]—fromPG[au] Gffcauh though
swibe [T] — lengthening due to Gt swinbe —
loss of [n] — before
a fricative
Stycce [y 1 — palatal mutation of OHG Stukki rel. to Stock
[u] — caused by [i]
fiscal {!] —from [p]—by R пескарь rel to fish
Grimm's Law
cirre [i] —framfie]— OSkerrian (v) char
monophthongisation of
diphthongs in EOE
norbryhte -ryht:[y] —from[ie]- G?raihts[e] right
monophthpngisation of
diphthongs in EOE
284
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

пи/агбег [б] — voiced intervocally, Gt hvabar whether


M —fromPG[a]
ffini
3 Щ — palatal mutation of cp OE an any
[a] — caused by [i]
steor-bord steonfio] — from ml. to Gt star-board
PG fiuj; stiurjan (v)
bord: [d] — hardening Cf. OSk Ьогб
of [9]
Ьагс-bord [ж]—from PG [a] OSk bak back
tine [0J—from[t] —by /г три three
Grimm's Law
°*a3aS [a] — is caused by a back Gt dagos days
vowel in the next syllable
Wffis [se] —fromPG[a] OHG was was
firrest [i]—palatal mutation of jE'OE'fierest farther
[eo] — (feor) caused by [i]
(-ist)—suffix of
superlative degree:
[eo>ie>i]
fara|> [a]—fromPG[o] Gtfaran(inf) fai«
3iet ре] _ (Wess) from PG [e] Gt 3et yet
- diphthongisation after
palatal Ц]
meahte [eal —breaking of [ге] — O F G m a h t might
before [h]: [a>se>ea]
Фшт [б]—from PG [a]; Gt atfyar other
lengthening due to the
loss of [n] — before a
fricative
Ьёаз [&]—fromPGfau] Gt baug bow
bSr r g ] _ froinPG[a],[0]— G^bar there
initially voiceless
east [ e a ] ~fromPG [аи] Gfaustr east
bad [a]—fromPGfai] Grbaid rel. to bide

285
PART 3. KEYS

sceolde [eo] — diphthongisation Angl scolde should


of [ o l — after [skp]
bidan H—fromPG[e+i] Gfbeidanp] bide
ff [T] — lengthening due to G/fimf five
the loss of [m] — before
a fricative
]ЖЗ [a;]—fromPG[a] Gf lag rel. to lay
an fa]—fromPG[a+i] Gt ains one
unfribe [6] — in the intervocal OSkfridr —
position
healfe [ea] — breaking of [ael— OSk halfr half
before [1+consonant]:
[а>ге>еа]
азпит [a]~fromPG[a+i] G/aiginf/7) own
ham [a]—fromPG[a+i] Grhaims home
wsron [r]—rhotacismof[z],M cf.Gt wesum were
- voicing of [s] by
Verner's Law
hwait [ae] — fromPG[a] O^hvat what
3eseah (Wess.)[ea]— breaking Angl saeh saw
of [ге] before [h]
|buhte [o] lengthening due to cf. Gt bahta thought
the loss of [n] before a (<*6a*)Xta)
fricative
3e-£eode [eo] from PG [iu] Gff>iuda —
to-ёасап [ea]fromPG[au] rel. to Gt aukan e k e
sceawun3e [ea]fromPG [аи] rel. to OSk rel. to show
skauwon (v)
habba5 [bb] — West Germanic OSfchafa have
gennination (*hafjan >
nabban)
tobum [6] in the intervocal tooth
position
te6 [el — palatal mutation of teeth
[o] caused by [i]
286
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

brohton [6]fromPG [a] Gi brahta brought


hyd y] — palatal mutation of OHG hut hide
п] caused by [i]

Grammar analysis
Words as used Analysis Corresponding Translation
in the text notes New English
word

Ohthere noun proper, Ohthere


nominative singular (name)
siSde verb, 3 rd person say said
singular, past tense,
indicative mood of
sec5an, weak verb,
class III
his pronoun personal, his (to) his
3lxl person singular,
masculine, genitive
hlaforde noun, dative singular lord lord
of hlaford, masculine,
a-stem
^Elfirede noun proper, dative Alfred Alfred
singular
cynirnje noun, dative singular of king the King
cynin3. masculine,
a-stem
ffi
P t conjunction that that
he pronoun
rd
personal, he he
3 person singular,
masculine, nominative
e a
"a pronoun indefinite, all of all
plural, genitive of gal
Noromonna noun, genitive plural of northmen Northmen
Цогбтопп, (Scandinavians)
masculine, root-stem
287
PART 3. KEYS

norbmest adverb northmost to the north

bude verb, 3^ person lived


singular, past tense, (or had lived)
indicative or subjunctive
mood of buan.
anomalous verb
cwae5 verb, 3"1 person obs. quoth said
singular, past tense,
indicative mood of
cwa5an, strong verb,
class V
t>aet conjunction that that
on preposition on on
|эаёт pronoun demonstrative, that the
dative singular,
masculine of se, seo. past
lande noun, dative singular of land land
land, neuter, a-stem
norf)weardum adjective, dative northward to the North
singular, neuter of
noroward, used
adverbially
wij) preposition with of
f* pronoun demonstrative, that that (the)
accusative singular,
feminine of se, seo. pset
WestsS noun proper, accusative west sea Atlantic
singular of Westssg. Ocean
feminine, i-stem
t>eah conjunction though also

fccBt conjunction that that

t>aet pronoun demonstrative, that that


nominative singular,
neuter of se, seo. paet
land noun, nominative land land
singular, neuter, a-stem

2S8
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION
SJ rd
e verb, 3 person be is
singular, present tense,
subjunctive mood of
beon. supplelive verb
swibe adverb — very

'^З adjective, nominative long long


singular, neuter, strong
declension
| 1 0
Ф adverb north north
jbonan adverb thence from there
ac conjunction — but
hit pronoun personal, 3rd it it
person singular, neuter,
nominative
is verb, 3"1 person singular, is is
present tense, indicative
mood of beon, irregular
e
verb
al pronoun/adverb all all
Weste adjective, nominative — uninhabited
singular, neuter, strong (waste)
declension
buton conjunction but but
feawum adjective, dative plural of few few
feaw. strong declension
Stowum noun, dative plural of stOW places
stow, feminine, wo-stem
styece- adverb stockmeal here and
maslum there
Wicia5 verb, 3"1 person plural, — live
present tense, indicative
mood ofwician.weak
verb, class II
Finnas noun proper, nominative Finn (the) Finns
plural ofFinn, masculine,
a-stem
o n
preposition on on/by

289
PART 3. KEYS

hunto6e noun, dative singular of hunt hunting


hunto6, masculine,
a-stem
wintra noun, dative singular of winter winter
winter, masculine, u-stem
and conjunction and and
sumera noun, dative singular of summer summer
sumor/er, masculine,
u-stem
fisca|)e noun, dative singular of fish fishing
fiscooVad. masculine,
a-slem
be preposition by by/from
pxre pronoun demonstrative, that that
dative singular, feminine
of se. seo. ftaet
SEE noun, dative singular of s e a sea
sje, feminine, i-stem
ast preposition at at/for
sumum pronoun/adjective, some some
indefinite, dative singular
of sum, strong declension
cirre noun, dative singular of char time
cyr/cir. masculine, i-stem
rd
wolde verb, 3 person singular, would Y°№A'
past tense, indicative /Wisnea
moodofwillan,
anomalous verb
fandian verb, infinitive of fandian, — to explore
weak verb, class II
to adverb how how
1опзе adverb long long
land noun, nominative land land
singular of land, neuter,
a-stem

290
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

norbryhte adverb north right right


(straight) to
the north
1жзе verb, 3'J person singular, lie lay
past tense, subjunctive
mood of Нсзап, strong
verb, class V
о|фе conjunction — ОГ
hwae5er conjunction whether whether
«ВП13 pronoun indefinite any any
3 У
[cf.an)
mon noun, nominative man man
singular of man,
masculine, root-stem
benordan preposition north to the north
ba?m pronoun demonstrative, that (of) that
dative singular of JMgt,
neuter
westenne noun, dative singular of — uninhabited
westen. neuter, ja-stem land
ba adverb — then
for verb, 3rd person singular, fare went/sailed
past tense, indicative
mood of faran, strong
verb, class VI
be preposition by along
rd
let verb, 3 person singular, let let
past tense, indicative
mood of laetan, strong
verb, class VII
him pronoun personal, 3rd him him
person singular,
masculine, nominative
ealnewe3 adverb always always
weste adjective, accusative — uninhabited
singular of weste, neuter, (waste)
strong declension

291
PART 3. KEYS

land noun, accusative singular land land


of land, neuter, a-stem
steor-bord noun, accusative singular star-board star-board
of steor-bord. neuter,
a-stem
ba pronoun demonstrative, that that (the)
accusative singular of
seo. feminine
w!d-sa3 noun, accusative singular wide sea wide sea
ofwid-sae, feminine,
i-stem
baec-bord noun, accusative singular back board backboard
of bacc-bord. neuter, (port Side)
a-stem
brie numeral, nominative three three
/accusative of prie
da3as noun, nominative day days
/accusative plural of das3..
masculine, a-stem
ba adverb — then
rd
W32S verb, 3 person singular, was was
past tense, indicative
mood of wesan. strong
verb, class V
swa... s w a conjunction so (so) as ... as
feor adverb far far
norb adverb north (to the) north
ba pronoun demonstrative, those those
nominative plural of |>a
hwselhuntan noun, nominative plural whale hunt whalemen
of hwaelhunta. masculine;
n-stem
firrest adverb, superlative farthest farthest
degree of feor/fyr
farab verb, plural, present fare go/sail
tense, indicative mood of
faran, strong verb,
class VI
292
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

ballet adverb yet yet


rd
meahte verb, 3 person singular, might could
past tense, indicative
mood ofma?an.
preterite-present verb
bsem pronoun demonstrative, those those
dative plural of past
obrum pronoun indefinite, dative other other
plural of брег
frrlrn numeral, dative of £пе three three
da3um noun, dative plural of days days
da?3, masculine, a-stem
3esi3lan verb, indefinite of siglan, sail (to) sail
weak verb, class I
(3e—prefix)
ba adverb — then
Ьёаз verb, 3"* person singular, bow curved
past tense, indicative (bowed)
mood of biigan. strong
verb, class П
bisr adverb there there
eastryhte adverb east right to the east
seo pronoun demonstrative, that (the) that (the)
nominative singular of
sgo, feminine
n
preposition in in
1
nysse = ne wisse: verb, 3" wit did not know
person singular, past
tense, indicative mood of
witan. preterite-present
verb
buton conjunction but but
ri
Wisse verb, 3 person singular, wit knew
past tense, indicative
mood of witan. preterite
present verb
293
PART 3. KEYS

баёг adverb there there


bad verb, 3rf person singular, bide waited (for)
past tense, indicative
mood of bidan, strong
verb, class I
westanwindes noun, genetive singular west wind wind from
of wcstan-wind, the west
masculine, a-stem
hwon adverb/adjective — a little
norban adverb north from the
north
east adverb east to the east
be =bi: adverb/preposition by by/along
swa-swa conjunction so so...as
feower numeral four four
da3um noun, dative plural of day days
ds3, masculine, a-stem
SCeolde verb, singular, past tense, should should (had to)
of sculan. preterite
present verb
for-daem conjunction — as
beet pronoun demonstrative, that that
nominative singular of
past, neuter
bair adverb there there
subryhte adverb south right right.
*J ь
(straight) to
the south
seo pronoun demonstrative, that that
nominative singular,
feminine
bonan adverb thence from there
ve
fif numeral five fi
ba adverb — then
294
. TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

'Ж3 verb, 3 rt person singular, lay lay (was)


past tense, indicative
mood of licgan, strong
verb, class V
ЯП numeral one one
micel adjective much big
e a
noun, nominative —'• river
singular of ga, feminine,
root-stem (anom.)
up-in adverb u p in u p in
cirdon verb, plural, past tense, char turned
indicative mood of
cyrran, weak verb, class I
™3 pronoun personal, 3"1 — they
person nominative plural
oa pronoun demonstrative, that that
accusative singular of
sgo, feminine
6& noun, accusative singular— river
of ga, feminine, root
stem (anom.)
ne particle — not
dorston verb, plural, past tense, dare dared
indicative mood of
durran. preterite-present
verb
forp adverb forth forth
(forward)
pSre pronoun demonstrative, that that
dative singular of sgo,
feminine
ea noun, dative singular of — river
ga, feminine, root-stem
(anom.)
f° r conjunction for for (out of)
unfripe; noun, dative singular of — hostility
on-frifl. masculine, a-stem
295
PART 3. KEYS .
а
W££S verb, Ъ person singular, was was
past tense, indicative
mood of wesan. strong
verb, class V
eall pronoun indefinite, all all
singular, nominative of
eal
ЗеЬпп verb, participle II of — uninhabited
buan. anomalous verb
ofcre pronoun indefinite, other other
singular, accusative of
oper
healfe noun, accusative singular half half
of heal f. feminine, o-stem
fcalre pronoun demonstrative, that (of) that
genitive singular of seo,
feminine
Sas noun, genitive singular o f — river
ga, feminine, root-stem
(anom.)
neraette verb, 3 r d person singular, meet did not m e e t
past tense, indicative (had not met)
mood of metan, weak
verb, class I
asr adverb ere till then
nan = ne+an: see above an - ПО (none) ПО (llOt one)
pronoun
si|5f>an conjunction/adverb since since
from adverb/preposition from from
ы
his pronoun personal, З his his
person singular,
masculine, genitive of he
азпит adjective, dative singular own own
of азеп
ham noun, dative singular of home home
ham, masculine, a-slem
fela adjective/adverb — many

296
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

spella noun, genitive plural of spell stories


spell, neuter, a-stem
. him pronoun personal, 3rd him him
person singular,
masculine, dative of he
SiEdon verb, plural, past tense, say said
indicative mood of
sec3an. weak verb,
class III
ba pronoun demonstrative, those those
nominative plural
Beormas noun proper plural Permians Permians
a^fcer зе...зе conjunction/pronoun either either ...or
of preposition of of/about
hiera pronoun personal, 3rd — their
person plural genitive
atrium adjective, dative singular own own
of щеп
lande noun, dative singular of land land
land, neuter, a-stem
Ьазт pronoun demonstrative, — those
dative plural
landum noun, dative plural of land lands
land, neuter, a-stem
be conjunction — that
ymb prcposiiion/adverb — about/around
hie pronoun personal, plural, — them
accusative
titan adverb out on (from)
the outside
wEEron verb, plural, past tense, were were
indicative mood of
wesan. strong verb,
class V
ac conjunction — but
297
PART 3. KEYS ..

nyste = ne wiste: verb, 3"1 wit did not know


person singular, past
tense, indicative mood of
witan, preterite-present
verb
hwast pronoun interrogative/ what what
indefinite
f)aes pronoun demonstrative, — that
genitive singular of baet.
neuter
sdpes noun, genitive singular of sooth truth
sob, neuter, a-stcm
waes verb, 3й1 person singular, was was
past tense, indicative
mood of wesan, strong
verb, class V
fbr-фгВт see above aS
hit pronoun personal it it
singular, neuter,
accusative
self pronoun self himself
rd
3eseah verb, 3 person singular, see did (not) see
past tense, indicative
mood of seon. strong
verb, class V
pa pronoun demonstrative, those those
nominative plural
spraecon verb, plural, past tense, speak speak
indicative mood of
sprecan, strong verb,
class V
neah adverb near nearly
an numeral/adjective one one
3epeode noun, accusative singular— language
of зе-'beode. neuter,
ja-stem
SWIDOSt adverb, superlative — mostly
degree
298
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

dider adverb thither there (to thai


place)
to-ёасап adverb/preposition — in addition
(to)
pses pronoun demonstrative, — that
genitive singular of fojgt,
neuter
Iandes noun, genitive singular of land land's
land, neuter, a-stem
sceawur^e noun, genitive singular of showing survey/
sceawun.3. feminine, exploration
o-stcm
'or conjunction for because of
рззт pronoun demonstrative, — those
dative plural
hors-hwaslum noun, dative plural of whale walruses
hors-hw-cl, masculine,
a-stem
hie pronoun personal, 3rd — they
person plural, nominative
habbad verb, plural, present have have
tense, indicative mood of
habhan. weak verb,
class III
swipe adverb — very
aepele adjective — excellent
ban noun, accusative singular bone bone
of ban, neuter, a-stem
hiora pronoun personal, plural, — their
dative
tobum noun, dative plural of teeth teeth
iojj, masculine, root-stem
P^ pronoun demonstrative, those those
accusative plural
tso noun, accusative plural of teeth teeth
lofe, masculine, root-stem
299
PART 3. KEYS

brohton verb, plural, past tense, brought brought


indicative mood of
Ьппзап. strong-weak
verb
sume pronoun/adjective some some
accusative of sum
balm pronoun demonstrative, — (to) that
dative singular of sj,
masculine
сушпзе noun, dative singular of king king
cynin3. masculine, a-stem
hyd noun, accusative plural hide hide (skins)
ofhyd, feminine, l-stem
Key to Seminars 4, 5 & 7
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, A. D. 1013

The year after that Archbishop Elfeah was martyred, the king
appointed Lifing to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. And in the
same year, before the month August, came King Sweyne with his fleet
to Sandwich; and very soon went about East-Anglia into the Humber-
mouth, and so upward along the Trent, until he came to Gainsborough.
Then soon submitted to him Earl Utred, and all the Northumbrians,
and all the people of Lindsey, and afterwards the people of the Five
Boroughs, and soon after all the army to the north of Watling-street;
and hostages were given him from each shire. When he understood
that all the people were subject to him, then ordered he that his army
should have provision and horses; and he then went southward with
his main army, committing his ships and the hostages to his son Knute.
And after he came over Watling-street, they wrought the greatest
mischief that any army could do. Then he went to Oxford; and the
population soon submitted, and gave hostages; thence to Winchester,
where they did the same. Thence went they eastward to London; and
many of the party sunk in the Thames, because they kept not to any
bridge.
When he came to the city, the population would not submit; but
held their ground in full fight against him, because therein was King
Ethelred, and Thurkill with him. Then went King Sweyne thence to
Wallingford; and so over Thames westward to Bath, where he abode
with his army. Thither came Alderman Ethelmar, and all the western
thanes with him, and all submitted to Sweyne, and gave hostages.
When he had thus settled all, then went he northward to his ships; and
all the population fully received him, and considered him full king. The
population of London also after this submitted to him, and gave
hostages; because they dreaded that he would undo them. Then King
301
PART 3. KEYS

Ethelred abode some while with the fleet that lay in the Thames; and
the lady went aftei"vvards over sea to her brother Richard. Then went
the king from the fleet, about midwinter, to the Isle of Wight; and there
abode for the season; after which he went over sea to Richard, with
whom he abode till the time when Sweyne died.

Phonetic analysis
Word as used Analysis Parallels from NE word
in the text cognate
languages or
related OE words

sefteran lac]—from PGlal rel. to Gt aftaro after


Зёаге [ёа] — diphthoneisation of OHG fix
year
[Щ after U ]
wses [a]fromPG [a] Gt was was
сугапз [у] — palatal mutation of OHG kuning king
[uj caused by [i]; later
ly>[i]
(Cantware)- [y] — palatal mutation of OE buvh .
Ьупз [u] caused by [i] (пот. case) borough
(dative case)
тбпбе [о] from PG [a] OHG manod month
swlde [I] — lengthening due lo Gt swings —
loss of In] before
a fricative
East(englum) [ea] from PG [au] rel. to Gt austr EastAnglia
тпбап [п] — lengthening due to Gt munf)s mouth
loss of [n] before
a fricative
up-weard Щ — breaking of [aj rel. in Gt wards upward(s)
before [r+consonant]
andlang [a] from PG [a] before OsklungY along
a nasal consonant
302
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

sona [ojfromPGla] OHGsan soon


bean |ёа] from PG[au] Gt baug bow
eorl [eo] —breaking of [e] OSaxerl earl
before [r+consonant]
ealle [ea] — breaking of [a] Grails all
before [11]
FTf(bui3um) [I] — lengthening due to Gffimf five
loss of [m] before a
fricative
straete [S]fromLat[a] Lat strata street
man [S] from PG [a] before a Gt mann(a) man
nasal consonant; later
[a]>[a]>[ae].
sealde (Wess) [ea] —breaking of fa] cf. Angl salde sold
(past bid. of before [1+consonant] Gt say an sell
Sellan) ' [e] — palatal mutation of
[a] caused by Ц]
11 — doubling due to loss
of[j]
3ebogen [o] — LPG mutation of Gt bugans bow
vowels
bead [eaJfromPG[au] Gt baud —

sceolde [eo] — diphthongisation AnWscolde should


of [o] after [sk'3
;
betffihte (past [Щ — palatal mutation of cf. OE tacen rel. to teach
ii]d.ofh&z [a] caused by [j] (Mi? token)
tsecan)
ofer [v] — voicing in the over
intervocal position
yfel [v] — voicing in the evil
intervocal position
32ШЗ Щ] — palatal mutation of cf. OE an any
[a] caused by [j]
adran3 [a] before nasal rel. to drink
consonants

30?
PART 3. KEYS -

опзеап [ea] ~ diphthongisation OHG again


of [x] after [j] ingangene
гофап [6] — voicing in the
intervocal position
f>sr [ie]fromPG[a] Gt f>ar there
[8] voiceless initially
ealdor(man) [eaj — breaking of [a] OHGbk old
before [1+consonant]
3efaren [a] from PG [o] Gt farans rel. to fare
h&fde (past [v] — voicing in the G/habaida had
uul. o/naboani intervocal position
[ae] from PG [a]
|)eodscipe [eo] from PG [iu] Gf friuda —
ondrsedon [a;]fromPG [a] OHGintratan dread
dead [ea]fromPG [au] Gt daufcs dead
wear6 [ea] —breaking of [a] Gt warfc —
before [r+consonant]

Grammar analysis
Words as used Analysis Corresponding Translation
in the text notes New English
word

on
On preposition Oil ( )
бзет pronoun demonstrative, that (that) the
dative singular, neuter
offset
asfteran preposition after after
Зёаге noun, dative singular of year Уеаг
3§ar, neuter, a-stem
f>e relative particle/ — when
conjunction

304
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

se
pronoun demonstrative, that (the) that (the)
masculine of se
nominative singular
arcebiscop noun, nominative archbishop archbishop
singular of arcebiscop.
masculine, a-stem
w a e s
verb, 3rd person singular, was was
past tense, indicative
mood of wesan.
anomalous verb
3emartyrod verb, participle II of martyr martyred
3emartvrian, weak verb,
class If
суптз noun, nominative king king
singular of cynin3, супз,
masculine, a-stem
3esette verb, 3* person singular, set set (placed)
past tense, indicative
mood of зе-settan. weak
verb, class I
Lyfinc noun proper Lifing
biscop noun, accusative singular bishop bishop
of biscop, masculine,
a-stem
t° preposition to to
Cantwarebyrij noun proper Canterbury Canterbury
barn pronoun demonstrative, that that
dative singular,
masculine of se
arcestole noun, dative singular of re), to arch- archiepiscopal
arcestol. mascuhne, bishop seat
a-stem
bissum pronoun demonstrative, this this
dative singular,
masculine of fees
ylcan filca, pronoun indefinite, ilk (in: of that same
dative singular, weak ilk, archaic)
declension
305
PART 3. KEYS

toforan adverb — before


monSe noun, dative singular of month month
тбпаб. masculine, t-stem
Augustus noun proper August August
1
com verb, 3" person singular, come came
past tense, indicative
mood of cuman. strong
verb, class IV
Sweden noun proper — Sweyne
(the king of
Denmark)

mid preposition — with


his pronoun personal, his his
3 rd person singular,
masculine, genitive of he
> possessive pronoun
flotan noun, dative singular of float fleet
flota. masculine, n-stem
SandwTc noun proper Sandwich Sandwich
(a town in
Kent)
wende verb, 3 rd person singular, wend went
past tense, indicative
mood of wendan. weak
verb, class I
у е г
SWl6e adverb — У^Я!]',
exceedingly
rade adverb rather quickly,
soon
abutan adverb / preposition about about
Eastenglum noun proper, dative .East Anglia East Anglia
into preposition into into
Humbra noun proper, genitive Humber Humber
т
тпбап noun, dative singular of mouth ?Н^ • I
тпба. masculine, n-stem (of the rivet)
SW§ adverb / preposition / SO SO
conjunction
306
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

upweard adverb upward upwards


andlang preposition along along
Trenton noun proper Trent Trent
°o preposition / conjunction — until
"e pronoun personal, he he
3M person singular,
masculine, nominative
3enesburuh noun proper Gainsborough Gainsborough
(a town on
the Trent)
sona adverb soon soon
beah verb, 3rd person singular, bow bowed
past tense, indicative (surrendered)
mood of bG^an. strong
verb, classTl
Uhtred noun proper — Utred
^ noun, nominative earl chief (earl)
singular ofeorl.
masculine, a-stem
ea
^e pronoun indefinite, plural all all
Nor5hymbre noun nominative plural Northumbria Northumb-
ofNor6-hvmbre. nans
masculine, i-slem
™ T1 pronoun personal, him him
3 rd person singular,
masculine, dative of he
^4 pronoun indefinite, all all
singular
P^l pronoun demonstrative, that that
nominative singular,
neuter of bjet
folc
noun, nominative folk folk (people)
singular of fojc, neuter,
a-stem
Lindesi3e noun proper Lindsey Lindsey (in
Lincolnshire)
307
PART 3. KEYS

si55an , adverb since afterwards


FFfbunum noun proper, dative rel. to Five the five
plural of Fifburhinxas Boroughs shires or
baes pronoun demonstrative, this this
nominative singular,
masculine of bes
here noun, nominative — (the enemy's/
singular of here, Danish)
masculine,ja-stem army
Ьё-nordan adverb north to the north
Wa&tlin3an noun proper Watling Watling
strSte noun, dative singular of street street (the
street, feminine, o-stem road built <n
the Romans)
man pronoun indefinite man (man) one
sealde verb, 3rd person singular, sell gave
past tense, indicative
mood of sellan. weak
verb, class I, irregular
3islas noun, nominative / — hostages
accusative plural of з1§Ы,
masculine, a-stem
of preposition of of (from)
e a c n
ailcere pronoun indefinite, each
singular, dative of l i e
sclre noun, dative singular of shire province
sclr.feminine,o-stem
under3eat verb, 3 d person singular, rel. to under, get understood
past tense, indicative
mood of UQdeisietajL,
weak verb, class III
3ebogen verb, past participle of bow subjugate
Ьпзап. strong verb,
class II
td
bead verb, 3 person singular, — ordered
past tense, indicative
mood of be-beodan,
strong verb, class II
308
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

iM conjunction that that


sceolde verb, singular, past tense, should should
subjunctive mood of
sculan. preterite-present
verb
here noun, accusative singular— army
of here, masculine,
ja-stem
mettian verb, infinitive of rel. to meat (to) supply
mettian. weak verb, With food
class II
horsian verb, infinitive of rel. to horse (to) supply
horsian. weak verb, V^Vh horses
class II
sudweard adverb southwards southwards
ПК* preposition — with
"M№ adjective, dative singular filll full
of ful, strong declension
fyrde noun, dative singular of — army
fyrd_, feminine, i-stem (military
expedition)
betashte verb, 3«* person singular, rel. to teach put in trust
past tense, indicative
mood of betaecan. weak
verb, class I, irregular
i?3 pronoun demonstrative, those those
accusative plural of ]эа
SCipu noun, accusative plural ship ships
of scip. neuter, a-stem
3islas noun, accusative plural — hostages
of?isel. masculine,
a-stem
Cnute noun proper, dative — Knute
s s
™ pronoun
rd
possessive, his ™
3 person singular,
masculine
s u n a
noun, dative singular of son son
sunu, masculine, u-stem
309
PART 3. KEYS __

ofer preposition over over


worhton verb, plural, pasl lense, work (they) ,
indicative mood of performed
wircan. weak verb, (.did)
class I, irregular
fret... {>ав1 conjunction that that... that
mzESte adjective, accusative most most
singular, superlative
degree qCmyccl. weak
declension
yfel noun, accusative singular evil evil
of yfeb neuter, i-siem
азтз pronoun indefinite any any
don verb, infinitive of don, do (to) do
anomalous verb
mihte verb, singular, past tense, might might
indicative mood of
ma^an, preterite-present
verb
Oxenaforde noun proper, dative Oxford Oxford
SCO pronoun demonstrative, rel. to t h e the
nominative singular,
feminine of sgo
buruhwaru noun (collective), rel. to b o r o u g h citizens
nominative singular of ("J " town)
buruhwaru. feminine,
o-slem
3islude verb, 3rd person singular, — gave
past tense, indicative Hostages
mood of3islian. weak
verb, class II •
fcanon adverb thence thence (from
v
there)
Winceastre noun proper Winchester Winchester
Hf pronoun personal, — they
3"1 person plural,
nominative of 111
310
- TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

patylce pronoun that ilk (just) the same


dydon verb, past tense, plural, did did
indicative mood of don.
anomalous verb
eastwerd adverb eastwards eastwards

Lundene noun proper London London


m
ycel adverb much much (many

folces noun, genitive singular folk folk


of folc, neuter, a-stem
adi-апз verb, 3ixi person singular, rel. to drink, drowned
past tense, indicative drench
mood of adrincan.
strong verb, class III
Temese noun proper Thames Thames
for 6 a m p e conjunction; 6am — rel. to that as
dative of bjst
nanre =ne+anre, pronoun not one no one
negative, genitive/dative (not a single)
singular, strong
declension
Ьгусзе noun, genitive/dative bridge bridge
singular of hiyS3.
feminine, o-stem
Щ negative particle not (did not)
cepton verb, plural, past tense, k e e p keep •
indicative mood of (guarded)
S&pjn^weak verb, class I
pa . . . p a conjunction/adverb — w h e n . . . then
Згёге pronoun demonstrative, that that
dative singular, feminine
u • of seo
Ь
УПЗ noun, dative singular of borough town (castle)
hurh, feminine, root-stem
nolde =ne+wolde, verb, — did not want
singular, past tense, (wish)
singular, indicative mood
of-Willan, anomalous
verb
311
PART 3. KEYS -

Ьизап verb, infinitive of Ьизап, t>OW to surrender


strong verb, class II
ac conjunction — but
heoldan =heoldon, verb, plural, hold held
past tense, indicative
mood of healdan, strong
verb, class VII
mid preposition (+ dative of — (with)
the noun)
fullan adjective, dative singular iull filfl
of M i weak declension
\vI3e noun, dative singular of — battle
WT3. neuter, a-stem
опзеап adverb against against
forjjan =fcan,conjunction rel. to that because
Ьжг adverb there there
inne adverb in in
ЖЬеШ noun proper — Ethelred
£>urcyl noun proper — Thurkill
(a Danish
freebooter
allied with
Sweyne)
Weallingaforda noun proper, dative Wallingford Wallingford
swa adverb SO SO
ofer adverb/preposition over over
westweard adverb westwards westwards
Bajpan noun proper, dative Bath Bath (a town)
saet verb, 3 ri person singulai-, sit sat
past tense, indicative
mood of sittan. strong
verb, class V
Ж^)е1тжг noun proper — Ethelmar

3)2
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

ealdorman nO
un, nominative alderdman chief
singular of ealdorman. (alderdman)
masculine, root-stem
Mer adverb thither there
(to that place)
waesternan adjective, nominative western western
plural of western, weak
declension
P e 3enas noun, nominative plural — rnen .
ofpegen. masculine, (warriors)
a-stem
bu
3on verb, plural, past tense, bow surrendered
indicative mood of
Ьпчап. strong verb,
class II
3islodon yerb, plural, past tense, — gave hostages
indicative mood of
^islan. weak verb,
class II
^ conjunction — when
Sus
adverb thus thus
3efaren hasfde зс/агеп -verb, participle II fare had gone
of faraiL-Strong verb,
class VI; lU
hffifde — verb, 3 person had
singular, past tense,
indicative mood of
habban. wpak verb,
class III
scipum noun, dative plural of ship ships
scip, neuter, a-stem
freodscipe noun, nominative —: ,. people (tribe)
singular of peod-scype suffix rel. to -ship
m e
pronoun personal, — him
3 rd person singular,
masculine, accusative
•fi 1
Пе
adjective, accusative full fuH
singular of M , strong
declension
ffiter
preposition after after
313
PART 3. KEYS

6am pronoun demonstrative, those those


dative plural of jba
ОП preposition ОП. tt
ondrsedon verb, plural, past tense, dread )л е Г е ^ Г гП
indicative mood of oib (dreaaea;
drasdan, strong verb,
class VII
fraet conjunction that that
hi pronoun personal, — them
•3rd person plural,
accusative of hie
fordon verb, infinitive offordon rel. to do (to) destroy
wolde verb, past tense, singular would would
of willan. anomalous (Wisnecy
verb
sume pronoun indefinite, some some
accusative singular
hwfle noun, accusative singular while while
• ofhwil, feminine, i-stem
f)am pronoun demonstrative, that (the) that (the)
dative singular,
masculine of sg
be conjunction — which (that)
1
laeg verb, 3" person singular, lie lay
past tense, indicative
mood of liejajL.strong
verb, class V
hlaefdi3e noun, nominative lady lady
singular of hlafdlge.
feminine, n-stem
Sffi noun, accusative singular sea sea
of §jg, feminine, i-stem
hire pronoun personal, her her
^""person singular,
feminine, dative of hgo
Ьгфег noun, dative singular of brother brother
brajbor, masculine, r-stem
314
.. TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

Ricarde noun proper Richard Richard


fraw preposition from from
middanwintre noun, dative singular of - midwinter midwinter
-winter, masculine,
u-stem
Wihtlande noun proper, dative Whitland Whitland
a
" pronoun demonstrative that that
И noun, nominative tide period
singular of ud, feminine, (of time)
o-stem
P® I e pronoun demonstrative, that that
dative/genitive singular,
feminine of sgo
^е noun, dative/genitive tide period
singular offid,feminine, (of time)
o-stem
0 9
conjunction — till (until)
бопе pronoun demonstrative, that (the) the
accusative singular,
masculine of se
bye noun, accusative — time (period)
singular, masculine of
byife). i-stem or ja-stem
"eacl adjective, nominative dead dead
singular, strong
declension
weat-б verb, 3«' person singular, -— became (was)
past tense, indicative
mood of weordan. strong
verb, class III
Key to Seminars 9, 10 & 12
From Chaucer's Prologue
to "Canterbury Tales"
1 When in April the sweet showers fall
Andpierce the drought of March to the root, and all
The veins are bathed in liquor of such power
As brings about the engendering of the flower,
5 When also Zephyrus with his sweet breath
Exhales an air in every grove and heath
Upon the tebder shoots, and the young sun
His half-course in the sign of the Ram has run,
And the small fowl are making melody
10 That sleep away the night with open eye
(So nature pricks them and their heart engages)
Then people long to go on pilgrimages
And palmers long to seek the stranger strands
Of far-off saints, hallowed in sundry lands,
15 And specially, from every shire's end
Of England, down to Canterbury they wend
To seek the holy blissful martyr, quick
To give his help to them when they were sick-
It happened in that season that one day
20 In Southwark, at The Tabard, as I lay
Ready to go on pilgrimage nd start
For Canterbury, most devout at heart,
At night there came into that hostelry
Some nine and twenty in a company
25 Of sundry folk happening then to fall
In fellowship, and they were pilgrims all
That towards Canterbury meant to ride.
The rooms and stables of the inn were wide;
316
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

They made us easy, all was of the best.


30 And, briefly, when the sun had gone to rest,
I'd spoken to them all upon the trip
And was soon one with them in fellowship,
Pledged to rise early and to take the way
To Canterbury, as you heard me say.
35 But none the less, while I have time and space,
Before my story takes a further pace,
It seems a reasonable thing to say
What their condition was, the full array
Of each of them, as it appeared to me,
40 According to profession and degree,
And what apparel they were riding in;
And at a Knight I therefore will begin.

1 Когда Апрель обильными дождями


Разрыхлил землю, взрытую ростками,
И, мартовскую жажду утоля,
От корня до зеленого стебля
5 Набухли жилки той весенней силой,
Что в каждой роще почки распустила,
А солнце юное в своем пути
Весь Овна знак успело обойти,
И, ни на миг в ночи не засыпая,
10 Без умолку звенели птичьи стаи,
Так сердце им встревожил зов весны,
Тогда со всех концов родной страны
Паломников бессчетных вереницы
Мощам заморским снова поклониться
15 Стремились истово; но многих влек
Фома Бекет, святой, что им помог
317
PART 3. KEYS

В беде иль исцелил недуг старинный,


Сам смерть прияв, как мученик безвинный.
Случилось мне в ту пору завернуть
20 В харчевню "Табард", в Соуерке, свой путь
Свершая в Кентербери по обету;
Здесь ненароком повстречал я эту
Компанию. Их двадцать девять было.
Цель общая в пути соединила
25 Их дружбою; они — пример всем нам —
Шли поклониться праведным мощам.
Конюшен, комнат в "Табарде" немало,
И никогда в нем тесно не бывало.
Едва обильный ужин отошел,
30 Как я уже со многими нашел
Знакомых общих или подружился
И путь их разделить уговорился.
И вот, покуда скромный мой рассказ
Еще не утомил ушей и глаз,
35 Мне кажется, что было бы уместно
Вам рассказать все то, что мне известно
О спутниках моих: каков их вид,
И звание, и чем кто знаменит
Иль почему в забвенье пребывает;
40 Мой перечень пусть Рыцарь открывает.

318
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

Phonetic analysis
Word as used Changes of spelling and sounds

in the text Old English Middle English New English


whan hwsenne whan when
[hw] [hw] > [w]
[аз] > [a] > [e]
hw replaced by w
that baet that that
fae] > fa] > [as]
[9] > [9] > [6]
ге replaced by a ,
p replaced by th
with wib with with
re] , ,, > [Q] > И
p replaced by th
his his his his
[s] [s] > M
shoures scur shour/showr shower
(shour) [sk'] >•«] > Ш .
[u:r] > [аиэ]
u replaced by ou/ow
sc replaced by sh
soote swote/swete swote/sweete sweet
[e:] > [«] > [i:]
droghte ёгазоб droght(e)/ drought
[u:] > [u:] > [аи]
u replaced by o/ou
3 replaced by gh
nerced — percen pierce
fpercen) [e:]+vocalized [r]> [19]
r o o j ; e — rote/roote root
[o:] > [u:] > [u] before
a dental cons.
bathed ba6ode bathed bathed
(bathen)
v
[a] (open syl.) > [a:] > [ei]
[ode] > [ede] > [d]
d replaced by th
319
PART 3. KEYS

swich swilc swich/s(w)uch such


PC] > [Ш > ЕШ
[и] > [л]
с replaced by ch
which hwilc which which
Ik'] > Ml > Ufl
[hw] [hw] > [w]
hw replaced by wh
с replaced by ch
vertu — yertu virtue
[i] + vocalized [r> [э:]
flour — flour flower
[u:] + vocalized [r]> [аиэ]
eek eac eek eke
[ea:] > [к] > [к]
с replaced by k
breeth breed breeth breath
[x:] > [e:] > [e] before
a dental cons,
ш replaced by ee/ea
б replaced by th
inspired — inspire(n) inspire
(inspiren) [i:] + vocalized [r]> [aia]
heeth hae5 heeth heath
[ж:] > [e:] > [i:]
as replaced by ee/ea
б replaced by th
yonge зеопз/зипз yong young
[u:] > fu] > N
3 replaced by у
и replaced by o/ou
sonne sunne sunne/sonne sun
[и:] > [и] > [Л]
и replaced by о before n or retained
halfe healf half half
[ea] > [a] > [a:]
[1] lost in NE
cours — cours course
[u:l + vocalized [r]> [o:]

320
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

(y)-ronne (зе)-шппеп (y)-ronne run


[u] > [u] > [л]
u replaced by о before n
smale smael smal small1
[аг] > [a] before U > [o:]
ш replaced by a
foweles firsjol fowel/foul fowl
(fowel) [uy] > [u:] > [аи]
из replaced by ow
maken macia6 maken make
[a] open syll. > [a:] > [ei]
slepen slaipa6 slepen sleep
x replaced by e
al eal al(le) all
[ea] > [aj before H. > [o:]
nyght neaht/niht nyght/night night
h replaced by gh
open open open open
fo] open syll. >
[o:] > [ou]
ye еаче езе/уе/еуе eye
[eaTj >
[e:] [i:] > [ai]
3 replaced by
у
nature — nature nature
[a:] > [ei]
[tjur] > [tja]
corages — corage courage
6
Iu] 6 > [л]
thanne banne/bsenne thanne then
a]/[£e] > [a] > [e]
'ej > [в] > [6]
i replaced by th
folk folc folk folk
[o] > [o] before Ik > [o:] > [ou]
palmeres palm palmere palmer
[a] > [a:] before I > [a:]
[1J lost in NE

321
PART 3. KEYS

seken secan seken/seeken seek


[e:] > [e:] > [i:]
с replaced by к
e replaced by ее
straunge — straunge strange
[аи] >[а:] > [ei]
sondry syndri3 sondry sundry
[y] > [u] South West [л]
Midland dial.
Ш] > И >M
у replaced by o/u
3 replaced by у
londes land lond/land land
[a] > [a] > [аз]
specially — specially especially
[sj] > Ш
shires (shire) scTr shire shire
[ski > [П > [fl
[i:] > [г.] [ai] + vocalized M> [aia]
sc replaced by sh
hooly hali3 hooly ' holy
[a:] . > [o:] > [ouj
fo] > ffl > [I]
a replaced by о
3 replaced by у
martir martyr martir/martyr martyr
[a] > [a] + vocalized [r]> [a:]
[tir] > [tir] > [19]
final r vocalized in NE
were wa?ron were(n) were
[a;:] > [e:] + vocalized [r]> [э:]
se replaced by e
seeke seoc seek/sek/sik sick
[eo:] > [e:] . > [i:]
с replaced by к
bifil be-feallan bifallen befall
(bifallen) [ea] > [a] before П > [o:]
ea replaced by a
seson — seson season
e replaced by ea
322
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

day ёаез day day


[ay] > [ai] > [ei]
Ж3 replaced by ay
I ic I I
[ik1] > [i:] > [ai]

lay 1аез lay lay


[ay] > [ai] > [ei]
эез replaced by ay
devout — devout devout
[u:] > [аи]
come cumen come come
[u] > [u] > [л]
u replaced by о before m
nyne ni3on nyne nine
[i] open syl. > [i:] > [ai]
compaignye — compaignye/ company
companye
[u] > [л]
wolde woldon wolden would
(wolden) [o] before Jd > [o:] > [u:] > [u] before
a dental cons.
[1] losl in NE
ryde ffdan iyde(n)/ride(n) ride
[i:] > [1:] > [ai]

chaumbre(s) — chaumbre chamber


/chambre
[au:] > [a:] > [ci]
stable(s) — stable stable
[a:] > [ei]
wyde wTd wyd(e) wide
[i:] > [i:J > [ai]
we we we . we
[e:] > te:] > [i:]>[i-l
esed (esen) — ese(n) ease
[e:] > [i:]
shortly scort-llce shortly shortly
[sk1] > Ш >Ш
lo] + vocalized (i']> [o:]
sc replaced by sh
323
PART 3. KEYS

was wffis was was


Гге] > Га] after [w] > Ы
[s] > [s] > [z]
x replaced by a
hadde hasfde hadde had
[a] > [a] > [ж]
[f] losl in ME
ж replaced by a
spoken sprecen spoken spoken
|o:J > [oul
с replaced by к
made macodon mad(en) made
[a] open syl. > [a:] > [ei]
[codon] > [den] > [d]
forward fore-weard forward forward
[o] > [o] + vocalized [r]> [o:]
[ea] > [a] + vocalized [r]> [э]
erly азг-lTce erlich/erly early
[ж:] > [e:] + vocalized [r]> [э:]
ae replaced by a
for for for for
[o] > [o] + vocalized [r]> [oO
ryse(n) ffsan risen rise
[i:] > [i:] > [ai]
[э] unstressed lost in NE
take(n) tacan taken take
[a] open syl. > [a:] > [ei]
с replaced by к
oure ure our(e) our
[u:] > [u:] + vocalized [r]> [аиэ]
u replaced by ou
wey we3 wey/way way
[e+jT > [ei] > [ei]
3 replaced by у '
ther baer ther/there there
se:] > [e:] + vocalized [r]> [еэ]J
;e] > У > [9]
) replaced by th
as replaced by e

424
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

devyse — devyse devise


И > N
у replaced by 1
but butan but but
[u:] > [u:] > [u] before > [л]
a dental cons.
whil hvwl whil/while while
m > M > [ai]
[hw] > [hw] > [w]
hw replaced by wh
have habbe have have
[a] > [a] > [as]
[bb] > [v] > [v]
tyme fima tyme time
[i:] > fa > [ai]
у replaced by i
space — space space
m > [ei]
er ser er(e) ere
[a?:] > [e:] + vocalized [rl> [еэ]
x replaced by e
ferther fyira ferther/further further
[y] > [el + vocalized [r]> [a:]
[6] > [6]
this feis this this
Г0] > [6] > [в]
p replaced by th
tale talu ' tale tale
[a] opensyl. > [a:] > [ei]
[u] unstressed > [э] lost in NE
pace — pace pace
fa:] > fei]
thynketh Ьепсеб thenketh thinks
/thynketh
[e] > Ш > [i]
p, б replaced by tn
resoun — resoun reason
e:] > [i:]
fu] unstressed > faj

325
PART 3. KEYS _ _ _ _ _

condicioun — condicioun condition


^ , нь> P
_ cioun replaced by tion
ech aslc ech/eech each
Ю >[tjl > [tj]
[a::l >[e:] > [i:]
[1] lost in M E
BE replaced by ee/ea
semed semede semed seemed
[e:l >[e:] > [i:]
[e] >[э] loslinNE
they — they they
[9] > PI
what hwffit what what
[x] > [a] after [w]> [o]
[hw] > [hw] > [w]
hw replaced by wh
degree — degree degree
[e:f > И
an-ay — airay array
[ai] > [ei]
khyght cniht knyght knight
[i] > [i:J due to loss > [ai]
of[h']
[kn] > [kn] > [n]
с replaced by к
h replaced by gh
wol wille will(e)/wull(e) will
/wot(e)..
[i] > [i] Lo] > [i]
first fyrst first first
fy] > [i] (East Midland
dial.) + vocalized [r]> [э:]
у replaced by i
bigynne be-3inne bigynne begin
01 > Igl fel . k_
[e] unstressed > [э] lost in Nfa

326
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

Grammatical and etymological analysis


Words as used Analysis OE or foreign Corresponding
in the text notes prototype NE word,
translation
whan that conjunction OEhwaenne when that
(adverb/pronoun) (when)
p<£t {pronoun)
Aprille noun proper OFayrill, April
L aprilis
with preposition Qfiwip with
his pronoun possessive, OE his (pronoun his
masculine, 3"1 person personal)
singular
shoures noun, common case, OE scur shower
plural
soote adjective, plural OE swote/swete sweet
the definite article OE se, seo, pset the
droghte noun, common case, OE dni^od drought
singular
of preposition OE of of
March noun proper OF mars, march March
(dial.), L martius
hath perced verb, present perfect, OE habban pierce (has
3"1 person, singular of OF percier pierced)
percen. weak verb,
class 2
to preposition OE to to
roote noun, common case, OSk rot root
singular
and conjunction OE and and
bathed verb, present perfect OE badian bathe (Лад-
(hath bathed), Ъл person, bathed)
singular of bathen. weak ;
verb, class 2
327
PART 3. KEYS _____

every pronoun indefinite OE sefre every


veyne noun, common case, OE veine vein
singular
h preposition 0£in in
swich pronoun indefinite OEswilc such
licour noun, common case, OF licur, L liquor liquor
singular (moisture)
of preposition OE of of
which pronoun indefinite OE hwilc which
/interrogative
vertu noun, common case, OF vertu virtue
singular (force)
engendred is verb, passive voice, OF engendrer, engender
present tense, 3"1 person L ingenerane (is engendered)
singular of engendren,
weak verb, class 2
flour noun, common case, OF four flower
singular (blossoming)
Zephirus noun proper L zephyrus Zephyr
eek adverb OEEac eke (too)
SWete see above SOOte see above SOOte SWeet

breeth noun, common case, OE Ьгазб breath


singular
inspired hath verb,
rd
present perfect, OF inspirer inspire (has
3 person, singular of L inspirare inspired)
inspiren, weak verb,
class 2
holt noun, common case, OE holt holt
singular
heeth noun, common case, OE ha§5 heath
singular
tendre adjective OF tendre tender
croppes noun, common case, OE crop crop
plural
328
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

yonge adjective, definite OE зеопз young


declension, singular
sonne noun, common case, OE sunne sun
singular
hath y-ronne verb, present perfect, OE habban ran (has run)
3rd person, singular of OE (зе)-пппап
rynen. strong verb,
class 3
Ram noun proper OE ram n-ansl. from Ram (in the
L Aries Ram —first
sign of
the Zodiac)
halve adjective, definite GEhealf half
declension
cours noun, common case, OF cours, course (half
singular L cursus of his course
smale adjective, plural OEsmasl small
foweles noun, common case, OE fu3ol fowl (birds)
plural
maken verb, present tense, OE macian make
plural, indicative mood
of maken. weak verb,
c l a s s 2
i i i j

melodye noun, common case, OF melodie melody


singular L melodia (phrasal unit -
sing)
that pronoun, relative OE past that
slepen verb, present tense, OE slaipen sleep
plural, indicative mood
of slepen. strong verb,
class 7
al pronoun indefinite' OE eal all
nyght noun, common case, OE nihl night
singular
open adjective, indefinite OE west open
declension

329
PART 3.KEYS -—-

ye
r.uiar m o n c a s e - ОЕёазе
%Visi
eye open-a
mediaeval
belief)
s 0
SO adjective/conjunction OE swa
priketh verb, present tense, OE prician prick
3rd person, singular,
indicative mood of
priken. weak verb,
class 2
hem pronoun personal, OE hie, him them
objective case, plural
nature noun, common case, OF nature, nature
singular L naffira
here pronoun possessive, OE hira, heora, their
plural hiera, hyra
corages noun, common case, OFcorage, courage
plural reimbior (hearts)
thanne adverb/conjunction OE panne then
longen verb, present tense, OE Ian3ian l° n S
plural, indicative mood
of longen, weak verb,
class 2
folk noun, common case OE folc f°^
t 0
to goon verb, infinitive of goon. OE зап »°
anomalous verb
o n
ОП preposition OE on
e
pilgrimages noun, common case, OF pelegrinage pilgrtoag
plural ш
. derived from
ME pilgrym
P
palmeres noun, common case, OF palmier $S/S'«
p U r a
Palestine)

for preposition OE for f° r


toseken verb, infinitive of seken. OE secan to seek
weak verb, class 1,
irregular
330
. TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

straunge adjective OF estrange, strange


L extraneus (foreign)
Strondes noun, common case, OE strand Strand
plural
to preposition OE to to
feme adjective OE fyrn old, far-off
halwes noun, common case, OE Шза hallow
plural (saints)
couthe verb, participle 2 of O£cunan, (un)couth
connen, preterite-present OE cu5 (well-known,
verb, or adjectivised hallowed)
participle
SOndry adjective OE syndri3 sundry
londes noun, common case, OE land land
plural
specially adverb '<?'. to OF especial especially
(adj.), L specialis
from preposition QEfram from
shires noun, genitive case, OE scir shire
singular
ende noun, common case, OE ende end
singular
Engelond noun proper OE Engla-land England
Caunterbury noun proper 0£Cantwarabyri3 Canterbury
M
they pronoun personal, 3 OSc jbeir they
person, plural
wende verb, present tense, OE wendan wend (go)
plural, indicative mood
of wendeju weak verb,
class 1
hooly adjective QEhali3 holy
blisfi.il adjective rel. to OE blis (n) blissful
та г
martir noun, common case, OE martyr, ЙУ
singular L martyr (StTJiomas
a Becket of
Canterbury)
331
PART 3. KEYS

hath holpen verb, present perfect, OE habban, help (has


3td person, singular of OE holpen (pan. 2) helped
helpen, strong verb,
class 3
were(n) verb, past tense, plural, OE wSron vvere
indicative mood of been.
suppletive verb
seeke adjective OE seoc sick
bifil verb, past tense, OE be-feallan befall (it so
indicative mood of happened)
bifallen. strong verb,
class 7
seson noun, common case, OF seson, L satio season
= sesoun singular (time, season)
ОП preposition OEon ОП
a article, indefinite OJSan a
day noun, common case, OE dx3 day
singular (one day)
Southwerk noun proper Southward
(outskirts oj
London)
at preposition OE set at
Tabard noun proper OF tabard Tabard
(here: the name
of a London
inn; tabard —
a sort of cloak)
as adjective/conjunction 0£eal-swa as
I pronoun personal, OE ic I
lsl person singular,
nominative case
lay verb, past tense, singular, OE Нсзап lay (stayed)
indicative mood of lyen,
strong verb, class 5
redy adjective O^raede ready
my pronoun possessive, QEmTn my
1sl person, singular
332
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

fill adjective/adverb OEM full


(most, very)
devout adjective . OF devot devout
corage noun, common case, see above courage
singular (heart)
were come verb, past perfect of OE wesan were come
comen. strong verb, OE cuman, (there came)
class 4 cumen (pan. 2)
into preposition OE in-to into
that pronoun demonstrative, OE se, seo, bast that
singular
hostelrye noun, common case, OF hostellerie hostelry
singular
wel adverb C£wel well
(almost)
nyne numeral, cardinal OE ni3on nine
twenty numeral, cardinal OE twen-ti3 twenty (nine
and twenty =
twenty-nine)
compaignye noun, common case, OF companie company
singular
by preposition/adverb ОЕЫ by
aventure noun, common case, OF aventure, adventure
singular L adventfira (happening)
y-falle verb, infinitive of O£feallan fall
failefn). strong verb,
class 7
felaweshipe noun, common case, OSc felagi fellowship
singular
pilgrimes noun, common case, OF pelegrin, pilgrims
• plural t peregnnus
were verb, past tense, plural, OE wieron were
indicative mood of been,
suppletive verb
alle=al pronoun indefinite OE eal all
333
PART 3. KEYS

toward pronoun relative 0£to-weard toward(s)


wolde(n) verb, past tense, plural of OE willan, would
willen. anomalous verb wolden {past plural)
ryde verb, infinitive of riden, OEfidan ride
strong verb, class 1
chaumbres noun, common case, OF chambre chamber
plural L camera
Stables noun, common case, OF cstable stable
plural L stabulum
wyde adjective OEvnd wide
wel adverb OE wcl well
we pronoun personal, OEwe we
1sl person plural
esed verb, passive voice, past OF eser ease
tense of esen, weak verb,
class 2
atte=at the see above see above at the
beste adjective, superlative OE god; belsl best
degree of good (super!, degree)
shortly adverb OE scort-lTce shortly
to reste verb, infinitive of resten. OE reslan to rest
weak verb, class 1
hadde spoken verb, past perfect of OE habban; had spoken
spcken, strong verb, liaefde (past tense)
class 4 OE sprccan;
sprecen (part. 2)
everichon pronoun indefinite OE Sfre aelc every (all)
that conjunction OE t>32t that
anon adverb OE on an anon (at once)
made(n) verb, past tense, plural, OE macian; made
indicative mood of macodon (past
maken, weak verb, plural)
class 2
forward noun, common case, OE forc-weard forward
singular (made an
agreement)
334
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

erly adverb OE xr-llce early


fbrtoryse verb, infinitive of risen, OEtlsan to rise
strong verb, class 1
to take verb, infinitive of taken. OE tacan to take
strong verb, class 6
oure pronoun possessive, OE Ore our
1sl person, plural
wey noun, common case, OE we3 way
singular
ther adverb ОЕрхт there
yow pronoun personal, plural, OE eow you
objective case
devyse verb, present tense, OF deviser devise (say,
singular of devvsen, describe)
weak verb, class 2
but conjunction OE butan but
natheless adverb OE na-|)y-laes nevertheless
whil conjunction/adverb OEhwil while
have verb, present tense, OE habban have
l s l person, singular of
haven, weak verb,
class 3
tyrne noun, common case, OE tlma time
singular
Space noun, common case, OF espace, Space
singular L spatium
er adverb/conjunction OEisr ere (before)
ferther adjective OE feor; fyrra JSltfter,
(comp, degree) . ШГшеГ
ibis pronoun demonstrative, OE bis this
singular
tale noun, common case, OE talu tale
singular
Pac6 verb, present tense, OF passer pace
singular of paccn/passen.
weak verb, class 2
335
PART 3. KEYS ._

methynketh impersonal construction OE me, тёс think


of the verb thenken. OE bencan (/ think)
weak verb, class 1;
rd
3 person, singular,
present tense

it pronoun personal, OE hit it


objective case, singular,
neuter
acordaunt adjective OF accordant accordant
(according)
to preposition OE to to
resoun noun, common case, OF raison reason
singular L ratio
totelle verb, infinitive of tellen. OEtellan to tell
weak verb, class 1,
irregular
condicioun noun, common case, OF condicion condition
singular

ech pronoun indefinite ОЕяХс each


Semed verb, past tense, singular OE seman seem
of semen, weak verb,
class 2
whiche pronoun indefinite OE hwilc which
/interrogative (what kind of
people)

what pronoun indefinite OE hwael what


/interrogative
degree noun, common case, OF degnSt degree
singular L de+gradus
array noun, common case, OF arrai array
singular
inne adverb OE in in
khyght noun, common case, OE cnihl khight
singular
than adverb/conjunction OE fmnne then

336
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

wol verb,
1
present tense, QEwille will
Г person, singular of
willen, anomalous verb
first adverb OE fyrst first
bigynne verb, infinitive of OE be-3innan begin
bigynnen/begvnnen.
strong verb, class 3
Key to Seminars 11 & 13
TVevisa, About the languages of the inhabitants

As it is known how many kinds of people live on this island, there


are also as many diverse languages and tongues; nevertheless,
Welshmen and Scots that are not in the least mixed with other nations,
hold very near their first language and speech; except that the Scots
who were once confederate and dwelled with the Picts, draw after
their speech; but the Flemings who dwelled in the west side of Wales
have left their foreign speech and speak quite like Saxons. Also
Englishmen had from the beginning three kinds of speech, Northern,
Southern and middle speech in the middle of the land, as they came
from three kinds of people of Germany; nevertheless, by mixing and
mingling first with Danes and afterwards with Normans, in many
respects the country language is impaired, and some use strange
stammering, chattering, snarling, and grating gnashing of teeth. This
impairing of the birth of the tongue is because of two things; one is
because, unlike the situation in all other countries, schoolboys aie
compelled to abandon their own language, and to leam their lessons in
French, and that has gone on since the Normans first came to
England. Also children of the gentry are taught to speak French from
the time that they are rocked in their cradle and can speak and play
with a child's brooch; and country people want to liken themselves to
the gentry and try very hard to speak French to be held as such. This
method was much in use before the Great Sickness, but has since
been somewhat changed; for John Cornwalle, a master of grammar,
changed the learning in grammar school from French into English,
Richard Penrich learned the way of teachning from him and from other
men of Penrich; so that now, in the year of our Lord 1385, and in the
ninth year of the reign of the second king Richard after the conquest, m
all grammar schools in England boys abandon French, and conduct
338
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

their studies in English, which leads to an advantage on the one


hand, and a disadvantage on the other. Their advantage is that
they- learn their grammar in shorter time than boys used to do.
The disadvantage is that boys in grammar schools know no more
French than their left heel, and that is harmful for them if they
should cross the sea and travel in foreign, countries, and in many
other places, too.

Phonetic analysis
Word as used Changes of spelling and sounds
in the text
Old English Middle English New English
is
is is is
[s] Is] И

i-knowe зе-cnawen i-knowe(n) known


[а:] fie] М
he] > [I] lost in NE
[kn] > [kn] > fn]
3 replaced by J
с replaced by к
how hQ how how
[u:] > [u:] > [au]
u replaced by ow

meny=many тагиз many many


[a] > [a] > И

peple — peple people


[e:] > И .

t>is fcis pis/this this


[9] > [в] > ф!
L J
f, replaced by th
iloncHland 13-land iland island
>
[i:] > И М
a > [a] > N
+ s under the influence or isle
339
PART 3. KEYS

|эеге fcser fiere there


las:] > [e:] + vocalized [r] > [еэ]
p replaced by th
x replaced by e

dyvers — dyvers diverse


Ю > [ai]
[e] +vocalized [r]> [э]
у replaced by i

longage(s) — langage language


[a] > [x]
+ [w] under the influence of lingua (Lat)

tonges Шпзе tonge tongue


[u] > [u] > [л]
3 replaced by g
u replaced by о (a ME spelling device)
Walsche= Wylsc Welsh Welsh
Welsh [y:] > [e:] (Kentish dial.] > [e]
[sk'l > Ш >Ш
sc replaced by sh

jiat fcjet fat that


Ш > [a] > [x]
[6] > M > Щ
p replaced by th
ot>er ббег ojber other
[°;] > to:]>[u:]>[u] > W
unstressed [el + vocalized [r] > [a]
5/p replaced by th
nacioun(s) — nacioun nation
[a:] > [ei]
[sjun] > [?эп]

hold(ef)) heald(an) hold(en) hold


[ea] > [a] > [a:] before Jd > [o:] > [ou]

nyh=neer neah neer near


[ea:] > [e:] >[i:] + vocalized [r]> [is]

340
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

firste fyrst first(e) first


[i] + vocalized [r]> [э:]
[у] > [i] (East Midland dial.)
у replaced by i

speche spraic speche speech


[ж] > [e:] > [i:]
[k'] > [tj] > [tj]
[r] lost in ME
зе replaced by e
с replaced by ch

but butan but but


[u:] > [u] > [л]

were wajron were were


[ae:] > [e:] + vocalized [r] > [э:]
se replaced by e

somtyme sume-tyman sometyme sometime


[u] > [u] > [л]
[i:] > ПО > [ai]
u replaced by о (a ME spelling device)
у replaced by i

drawe сказ(аб) drawe draw


[a+j] > [аи] > [о:]
3 replaced by w

side side side side


И > И > M
straunge — straunge strange
[ao]>[a:] > [ei]

Englische Er^Usc Englische English


[sk'] > [fl >Ш
3 replaced by g

hadde ha3fd(on) hadde had


[a] > [a] > [se]
[v] lost in ME
a replaced by a

341
PART 3. KEYS ______

bygynn(ynge) Ье-зтп(ипзе) begynninge beginning


0] > [g] (Scand. influence) > [g]
3 replaced by g

manere — manere manner


fa] > [ae]
unstressed [e] + vocalized [r]> [э]

sowberne sudeme sowberne southern


[u:] > [u] > [л]
unstressed [e] + vocalized [r]> [э]
u replaced by ow/ou
6/b replaced by th

Danes Dene Danes Danes


[e] > [a] under the influence ofDani (Lat)
[a] > [a:] (open syllable) > [ei]
[s] > [z|

afterward asfter-weard afterward afterward(s)


[ae] > [a] > [a:] before [ft]
unstressed [e] + vocalized [r]> [э]
[ea] > [a]+vocalized [r]> [a:] after [w]>[o:]
ae replaced by a
Norman(s) — Norman Norman
[o] +vocalized [r]> [o:]

contray= — countree country


countree [u] > [л]
som sum som(e) some
[u] > [u] > [л]
u replaced by о (a ME spelling device)

burbe=birthe (3e-)byrd burbe/birthe birth


[y] > [u:] South West Midland dial.
[y] > [i] East Midland dial.+vocalized[r]>[9:]
p replaced by th
bycause — bycause because
[аи] > [о:]

oon an oon one


[a:n] >[o:n] > [u:n] > [wu:n] > [\улп]

342
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

child(ren) cild(ru) child(ren) child(ren)


1
[k ] > [tj] > [tj]

scole scol scole school


[o:] > [o:] > [u:]

a3enst оп-зёап ayeyiies/a3enst/agayn against


[ea:] > fe:] - [ai}> [ei]
[gj (Scand. influence)
3 replaced by g

alle eal alte all


[eaj > [a] before U > [o:]

leve lgfan leve(n) leave


[«:] > le:] > [i:]
f replaced by v-

owiie азеп owne own


[a:+j] > [ou] > [ou]
3 ' replaced by w

havep habb(ad) hav(e5) have


[a] > [a] > [в]

i-tau3t (3e-)taht i-tau3t/y-taught taught


Га:1 > [аи] before [hi > [o:]
[h] lost in M E
h replaced by gh

speke sprecan speke(n) .. speak


[ei] > te:] open syllable > [i:]
[r] lost in ME '
с replaced by к

cradel cradol cradel cradle


[a] > [a:] open syllable > [ei]

playe ple3ian playe(n)/pleye(n) play


[e+j] > [ei] > [eil

child(es) cild child child


[k'] > [tj] > [tj]
[i] > Li:] before lid] > [ai]
с replaced by ch
343
PART 3. KEYS

broche — broche brooch


[o:] > [ou]

greet 3reat greet great


tea:] > [e:] > [el]
3 replaced by g
besy(nesse) bisi3/bysi3 besy/busy busy
[y] > [i] East Midland dial> [I]
[y] > [u:] South West Midland dial,
retained in NE spelling

(i-)tolde tald told told


[a] > [a:] before [ld]>lo:]>[ou]

moche trade moche/muchel much


[u:] > [Л]
de
& deaf) deth death
tea:] > [e:] > [el before
a dental cons.
f> replaced by th
i-chaunged _ i-chaunged change(d)
[au]>[a:] > N
maister master maister master
[a] (loss of [j]) > [a:]
unstressed [e] + vocalized [r] > N
lore
lar lore lore
ta:] > [o:] + vocalized [r]> [o:]
gramer _ ^ ^ ^ grammar
[a] > N M
unstressed [e] + vocalized [r] > l a i
construccioun - construccioun construction
[u] > W
tsjun] > [M
lern
(ed) leorn(ode) lera(ed) barn(t)
e
t °] > [e] + vocalized [r]> [э:]

344
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

techynge t s c a n (inf) techen teach


[ж:] > [e:] > [i:l
[k'l > [tfl > [tfl
ae replaced by e/ea

now nu now now


[u:] > [u:] > [аи]
u replaced by ow

Зеге З
еаг Зеге year
[ea:] > [e:] + vocalized [r] > [э:]
3 replaced by У

oure ure oure our


[u:] > [u:] +vocalized [r]> [аиэ]
u replaced by ou

Lord(e) hlaford L(h)overd/lord lord


[a:] > [o:] +vocalized [r]> [э:]

t>owsand f)Qsand fcowsand/thousand thousand


[u:l > [u:] > Ш
unstressed [a] > [э]
p replaced by tn
u replaced by ow/ou
hundred hund-red hundred hundred
[u] > [u] >.[л]

score scorn score score


[ol > [o:] open syllable
L J
•• + vocalized[r]> [or]

fyve ff fyve five


[i:] > [i:] > №

*УЩ cynin 3 kyng .king


• [y] > [i] East Midland dial. > [I]
с replaced by к
п
Упе ш 3 оп пупе nine
М > И > fal]
do
° don doo do
> [ U ]
[o:] > [o:] > ^ '
345
PART 3. KEYS

na=no na na/no no
[a:] > [o:] > [ou]

more' тага more more


[a:] > [o:] + vocalized [r] > [o:]

can can can can


[a] > [a] > [ae]

heele hela heele heel


l«] > [e:] > [i:]

harme hearm harme harm


[ea] > [a] + vocalized [r] > [a:]

schulle scul(on) shulle —


[skf] > Ш

passe — passe pass


[a] > [a:] before [ss]

see sae see sea


[ж] , J L > [e:l > M
ж replaced by ee/ea
place(s) — place place
[a:] > [ei]

Grammatical and etymological analysis


Words as used Analysis Corresponding—
OE or foreign
in the text notes prototype NE word,
translation
-—
as
as conjunction <?£eal-swa
it pronoun personal, OE hit U
3rd person singular,
neuter, nominative case
is verb, 3rd person singular, OE wesan (inf) К
present tense, indicative OE is (Present tense)
mood of been, suppletive
verb
346
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

i-knowe adjective/participle 2 of OE cnawan (in0 known


knowen, strong verb, OE (3e-)cnawen
class 7 (part. 2)
how adverb OEM how
meny adjective/pronoun OE mani^ many
manere noun, common case OF mankre manner
(sorts, kinds
of)
PSple noun, common case OF pueple people
L populus
beep verb, 3rd person plural, OE Ьёоб are
present tense, indicative
mood of been, suppletive
verb
n
preposition OE in in
IS
P pronoun demonstrative, <9£bis this
singular, neuter
ilond noun, common case, ОЕц-\Ш island
singular
pere conjunction ОЕЩг there
a
lso adverb 0£eal-swa also
SO adverb 0£swa so
longages noun, common case, OFlangage- language
plural langue
L lingua
and conjunction OEhnd and
tonges noun, common case, OE tun3e tongue
plural
nopeles adverb OE na-py-ISs nevertheless
Walsche adjective O^Wylisc Welsh
rosn noun, common case, OE men n^0
plural
Scottes noun proper, common OE Scot Scot
case, plural
347
PART 3. KEYS —

pat conjunction OE pxl that


noint adverb, negative OE na-with not (not in
J
the least)
i-medled adjective/participle 2 of OFmedler meddle
medlen, weak verb, (mingled)
class 2
wib preposition OE wifi with
сфег pronoun indefinite OE брег Other
naciouns noun, common case, OF nacion nation
plural L natio
holdep verb, plural, present OE healdan (inf) hold
tense, indicative mood of OE healdajb (pres.
holden, strong verb, tense plural)
class 7
wel adverb OEwd well (very)
nyh preposition / adverb OE neah near
/ adjective
hir pronoun possessive, OE hyra/hira their
plural
firste adjective OE fyrst first
speche noun, common case, OE sprsc speech
singular
but conjunction OE butan but
3if conjunction OEyf if(except)
the definite article OE se, seo, pffit the
pat conjunction OEpaet that (who)
were verb, plural, past tense, OE waeron were
indicative mood of been,
suppletive verb
somtyme adverb OEsume-timan sometime
confederat adjective L conibederatus confederate

348
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

wonede verb, plural, past tense, OE wunian (inf) dwell


indicative mood of OE wunodon (pas; (remained)
wonen, weak verb, tense plural)
class 2

be definite article OE se, seo, past the


Pictes noun proper, common OE Pkt Pict
case, plural
drawe after verb, present tense, OE dra3an (inf) draw after
indicative mood of OE dra3a6 (imitated)
drawen, strong verb,
class 6
Flemmynges noun proper, common Flemish
case, plural
wonep verb, plural, present OE wunian (inf) dwell
tense, indicative mood of OE wunia5
wonen, weak verb, (present tense plural)
class 2
Я preposition OE in П
weste adjective OE wesi west
side noun, common case, OE side side
singular
Of preposition OEof of
Wales noun proper, common OE Wealas Wales
case
havebi-left verb, present perfect OE habba6 have left
plural Of leven, weak (present tense plural)
verb, class 1 «B^aJ
(participle 2)

straunge- adjective ^estrange sgange

spekef) verb, plural, present OE sprecan (inf) speak


tense, indicative mood of OE spreca6
speken, Strong verb, (present tense plural)
class 4
likeS S
Saxonliche „dverb 2КЕЗЯ5- "°"
i-now ad v e rb "Язе-» «««h
349
PART 3. KEYS _

Englische adjective OE En^lhc English


men noun, common case, OE men men
plural
bey pronoun personal, 3rd OScpeir they
person plural
hadde verb, past tense, OE habban <inl) had
indicative mood of OE hajfdon (pasi
haven, weak verb, class 3 tense plural)
from preposition OEfrom from
bygynnynge verbal noun of bigynnen, OE be-зуппап beginning
strong verb, class 3 (inf)
{>ie numeral, cardinal ОЕ$п three
пофете adjective OE побегпе northern
ЭОУфегпе adjective OE siifierne southern
middel adjective СШ middel middle
myddel noun, common case OE middel middle
lond noun, common case, OE lond land
singular
come verb, plural, past tense, OE cuman (inf) came
indicative mood of OE comon (past
comen, strong verb, tense plural
class 4
Germania noun proper Germany
by preposition ОЕЫ by
comyxtioun noun, common case OF commistion mixture
mellynge verbal noun of medlen, OF medler. mingling
mellen, weak verb,
class 2
firste adverb OE fyrst first
Danes noun proper, common OE Dane Dane
case, plural
afterward adverb OE sefter-weard afterwards
350
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

Normans noun proper, common OF Norman Norman


case, plural OSc погбтаб
roeny adjective/pronoun OEташз many (in
many things,
in many
respects)

contray noun, common case, OF contree country


singular
apayred adjective/participle 2 of OF empeirer impaired
empeiren, weak verb,
class 2
sor
n pronoun indefinite OE sum some
use
f> verb, plural, present OF user use
tense, indicative mood of
usen, weak verb, class 2
Wlafferynge gerund of wlaffen, weak OE wlaffian (inf) stammering
verb, class 2
chiterynge gerund of chiteren, weak (imit.) chirping
verb, class 2
harrynge gerund of harren, weak (imit.) with rolling
verb [r]
garrynge participle 1 of garren, rcl. to OE зуггап growling
weak verb
grisbayting noun, common case OE 3rist-betun3 gristbiting
(gritting of
teeth)

this pronoun demonstrative, OE pis this


singular
apayiynge verbal noun of empeiren, of empeirer (inf.) impairing
weak verb, class 2
burpe noun, common case OE зе-byrd birth
/Зе-byrdu
bycause
= (by) cause by - preposition; ОЕЫ because
cause - noun, common OF cause,
case L causa
tweie numeral, cardinal OE twa/Ш two
351
PART 3. KEYS

fringes noun, common case, OE bin3 thing


plural
ООП numeral, cardinal OE an one
for conjunction OE for for
children noun, common case, 0£cildru children
plural
scole noun, common case, OE scol, L scola, school
singular OF escole
a3enst preposition О£оп-зёап against
usage noun, common case OF usage usage (custom)
alle pronoun indefinite ОЕЫ all
opere pronoun indefinite OE oder other
beef) verb, passive voice, OFcompeller are compelled
compelled plural, present tense,
indicative mood of
compellen, weak verb,
class 2
toleve verb, infinitive of leven, ОЕШап to leave
weak verb, class 1
OWne adjective, definite OE азеп own
declension
to construe verb, infinitive of L construere to construe
construen, weak verb,
class 2
lessouns noun, common case, OF lecon, L lectio lesson
plural
frynges noun, common case, OEfyins thing
plurai
havef) verb^ plural, present OE ЬаЬЬаб have
tense, indicative mood of
haven, weak verb, class 2
sep conjunction OE si69an since
first adverb OE fyrst first
Engelond noun proper O£Engla-land England
352
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

gentil (-) men noun, genitive case, ef. F gentilhomme gentlemen


plural
i-tau3t verb, passive voice, OE tascan (inf) taught
plural, present tense, ОЕ{^е-)\Ш
indicative mood of (participle 2)
techen, weak verb,
class 1
to speke verb, infinitive of speken, OE sprecan to speak
strong verb, class 4
tyme noun, common case QEtima time
beep i-rokked verb, passive voice, OE roccian (inf) are rocked
plural, present tense, OE (зе-) roccod
indicative mood of (participle 2)
rokken, weak verb,
class 2
cradel noun, common case, OE cradol cradle
singular
kunnep verb, plural, present tense OE cunnan (inf) can
of connen, preterite OE cunnon
present verb (present tense plural)
playe verb, infinitive of pleyen, 0£ple3ian play
weak verb, class 2
a article, indefinite OE an a
childes noun, genitive case, OEcild child
singular
broche' noun, common case, OE broche brooch
singular
uplondisshe adjective OE пр-lendisc uplandish
wil verb, plural, present OE willan (inf) will (would)
tense, indicative mood or OE willa6 (present
present subjunctive of indicative)
willen, anomalous verb OE willen (present
subjunctive)

likne verb, infinitive of rei. to OE зе-lTc liken


likne(n), weak verb, (adjective)
class 2
hym(-)self pronoun, reflexive OEhim+self himself
(themselves)
353
PART 3. KEYS

fondejj verb, plural, present OE fandian (inf) try


tense, indicative mood of OE fandiab
fonden, weak verb,
class 2
greet adjective OEyeai great
besynesse noun, common case OE bisknes business
(very hard)
to be i-tolde of verb, infinitive passive of OE beon <inf) to be told of
lellen, weak verb, class 1, OE tellan (inf) (to be held
irregular OE tald/teald / rated highly
(participle 2) as such)
was i-used verb, passive voice, OE waes was used
singular, past tense of OF user
usen, weak verb, class 2 L iisare
moche adverb QEmicle much
to adverb OE to too
for preposition OE for for
firsts noun, genitive case, OE first first
singular
deth noun, common case, OE dead death (till
singular the end of the
period until
lately)
sumdel adverb OE sumne dael somewhat
isi-chaunged verb, passive voice, OE wesan (inf) is changed
singular, present tense, OE is (present tense
indicative mood of singular)
chaungen, weak verb, OF changier
class 2
for conjunction OEfor for
John noun proper John
Cornwaile noun proper Cornwall
maister noun, common case, OE ma^ister, from master
singular OF maistre,
L magister

354
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

gramer noun, common case OFgrammaire grammar


L grammaliea
Gr grammatike
chaunged verb, past tense, OFchangier changed
indicative mood of"
chaungen, weak verb,
class 2
lore noun, common case OE lar lore
constmccioun noun, common case F construction construction
(interpretation)
in(-)to preposition OE \r\-\.o into
Englische noun, common case rei. to OE En3lisc English
(adjcciive) (language)
Richard noun proper Richard
Pencriche noun proper Pencrich
lemed verb, past tense, OE leornian (inf) learn
indicative mood of OE leornode (past
lernen, weak verb, class 2 tense singular)
techynge gerund of techen, weak OE tajcan (inf) teaching
verb, class 1, irregular
hym pronoun
rd
personal, 02? him, hine him
3 person singular,
masculine, objective case
now adverb OE nu now
3ere noun, common case, OE зёаг year
singular
ОШ'е pronoun possessive, ОЕпте OUT
sl
l person plural
Lorde noun, common case, OE hlaford Lord
singular
fiowsand numeral (subst.) OE pusend thousand
f)re numeral, cardinal QEpri/ргёо three
hundred noun, common case, OE hund-rcd hundred
singular
355
PART 3. KEYS .

foure numeral, cardinal OEfeower four


score noun, common case, OE scoru score (two
singular ' lens)
fyve numeral, cardinal <?£fif five (the
yearofl385)
secounde numeral, ordinal OF second second
L secundus
kyng noun, common case, OE cynins king
singular
Richard noun proper Richard
conquest noun, common case, OF conqueste conquest
singular
nyne numeral, cardinal ОЕтзоп nine (the
ninth year of
the reign of
the second
king Richard
after the
Conquest)
levef) verb, plural, present OE laifan (inf) leave
tense, indicative mood of OE laefad (present
leven, weak verb, class 1 tense plural)
construef) verb, plural, present L construere construe
tense, indicative mood of
construen, weak verb,
class 2
lernejb verb, plural, present OE leornian (inf) learn
tense, indicative mood of OE leorniaO
lernen, weak verb, class 2 (present tense plural)
an preposition OE an=on on (in)
|эегЬу adverb ОЕЩт-Ы thereby
avauntage noun, common case, OF avantage advantage
singular
side noun, common case, OE side side
singular
disavauntage noun, common case, OF disavantage disadvantage
singular
356
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

anoper pronoun indefinite OE ап+обег another


lasse adjective, comparative OE lalssa less
degree of litel
pan conjunction OE panne than
i-woned participle 2 of wonen, wont
weak verb, class 2 (accustomed)
to d o o verb, infinitive of doon, OE don to d o
anomalous verb
connep verb, plural, present tense OE cunnan (inf) know
indicative mood of OE cunnon
connen, preterite-present (present tense plural)
verb
na negative particle OE па ПО
more adjective, comparative OE тага more
degree of michel
can verb, singular, present OE cunnan (inf) knows
tense, indicative mood of OE can (present
connen, preterite-present tense singular)
verb
lift adjective OElyft/left left
heele noun, common case, OE hela heel
singular
fiat pronoun demonstrative OE pat that
harme noun, common case OE hearm harm
for preposition OE for for
hem pronoun personal, OZJhim/heom them
3rd person plural,
objective case
schulle verb, plural, present OE sculan (inf) have to
tense, preterite-present OE sculon (present
verb tense plural)
passe verb, infinitive of OF passer pass/pace
passe(n), weak verb,
class 2

357
PART 3. KEYS

see noun, common case, OE sae sea


singular
travaille verb, infinitive of OF travail lier travel
travaill(en), weak verb,
class 2
landes noun, common case. OE land land
plural
places noun, common case, OF place, place
plural L platea
Key to Seminars 15,16 & 18
Shakespeare, Hamlet
Hautboys play. The dumb-show enters.
Enter a King and a Queen very lovingly; the Queen
embracing him, and he her. She kneels, and makes show of
protestation unto him. He takes her up, and declines his head
upon her neck: lays him down upon a bank of flowers: she, seeing
him asleep, leaves him. Anon comes in a fellow, takes off his
crown, kisses it, and pours poison in the King's ears, and exit. The
Queen returns; finds the King dead, and makes passionate action.
The Poisoner, with some two or three Mutes, comes in again,
seeming to lament with her. The dead body is carried away. The
Poisoner wooes the Queen with gifts: she seems loath and
unwilling awhile, but in the end accepts his love.
Exeunt
Ophelia What means this, my lord?
Hamlet Marry, this is miching mallecho; it means
mischief.
Oph Belike this show imports the argument of the play.
Enter Prologue
Ham We shall know by this fellow: the players cannot
keep counsel; they'll tell all.
Oph Will he tell us what this show meant?
Ham Ay, or any show that you'll show him: be not you
ashamed to show, he'll not shame to tell you what it
means.
Oph You are naught, you are naught: I'll mark the play.

359
PART 3. KEYS

Prologue For us, and for our tragedy,


Here stooping to your clemency,
We beg your hearing patiently.
Exit
Ham Is this a prologue, or the posy of a ring?
Oph Tis brief, my lord.
Ham As woman's love.
Enter two Players, King and Queen
Player King Full thirty times hath Phoebus' cart gone round
Neptune's salt wash and Tellus' orbed ground,
And thirty dozen moons with borrow'd sheen
About the world have times twelve thirties been,
Since love our hearts and Hymen did our hands
Unite commutual in most sacred bands.
Player Queen So many journeys may the sun and moon
Make us again count o'er ere love be done!
But, woe is me, you are so sick of late,
So far from cheer and from your former state,
That I distrust you. Yet, though I distrust,
Discomfort you, my lord, it nothing must:
For women's fear and love holds quantity;
In neither aught, or in extremity.
Now, what my love is, proof hath made you know;
And as my love is sized, my fear is so:
Where love is great, the littlest doubts are fear;
Where little fears grow great, great love grows there.
Player King 'Faith, I must leave thee, love, and shortly too;
My operant powers their functions leave to do:
And thou shalt live in this fair world behind,
Honour'd, beloved; and haply one as kind
For husband shalt thou—

360
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

Player Queen 0, confound the rest!


Such love must needs be treason in my breast:
In second husband let me be accurst!
None wed the second but who kill'd the first.
Ham [Aside] Wormwood, wormwood.
Player Queen The instances that second marriage move
Are base respects of thrift, but none of love:
A second time I kill my husband dead,
When second husband kisses me in bed.
Player King I do believe you tliink what now you speak;
But what we do determine oft we break.
Purpose is but the slave to memory,
Of violent birth, but poor validity;
Which now, like fruit unripe, sticks on the tree;
But fall, unshaken, when they mellow be.
Most necessary 'tis that we forget
To pay ourselves what to ourselves is debt:
What to ourselves in passion we propose,
The passion ending, doth the purpose lose.
The violence of either grief or joy
Their own enactures with themselves destroy:
Where joy most revels, grief doth most lament;
Griefjoys, joy grieves, on slender accident.
This world is not for aye, nor 'tis not strange
That even our loves should with our fortunes change;
For 'tis a question left us yet to prove,
Whether love lead fortune, or else fortune love.
The great man down, you mark his favourite flies;
The poor advanced makes friends of enemies.
And hitherto doth love on fortune tend;
For who not needs shall never lack a friend,
And who in want a hollow friend doth try,

361
PART 3. KEYS

Directly seasons him his enemy.


But, orderly to end where 1 begun,
Our wills and fates do so contrary run
That our devices still are overthrown;
Our thoughts are ours, their ends none of our own:
So think thou wilt no second husband wed;
But die thy thoughts when thy first lord is dead.

Играют гобои. Начинается пантомима.


Входят актеры — король и королева; весьма нежно
королева обнимает его, а он ее. Она становится на колени и
делает ему знаки уверения. Он поднимает ее и склоняет
голову к ней на плечо; ложится на цветущий дерн; она, видя,
что он уснул, покидает его. Вдруг входит человек, снимает с
него корону, целует ее, вливает яд в уши королю и уходит.
Возвращается королева, застает короля мертвым и
разыгрывает страстное действие. Отравитель, с двумя
или тремя безмолвными, входит снова, делая вид, что
скорбит вместе с нею. Мертвое тело уносят прочь.
Отрааитель улещивает королеву дарами; вначале она как
будто недовольна и несогласна, но наконец принимает его
любовь.
Все уходят.
Офелия Что это значит, мой принц?
Гамлет Это крадущееся малечо, что значит "злодейство".
Офелия Может быть, эта сцена показывает содержание
пьесы?
Входит Пролог.
Гамлет Мы это узнаем от этого молодца; актеры не умеют
хранить тайн; они всегда все скажут.
Офелия Он нам скажет, что значило то, что они сейчас
показывали?
362
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSITION

Гамлет Да, как и все то, что вы ему покажете; вы не


стыдитесь ему показать, а он не постыдится сказать
вам, что это значит.
Офелия Вы нехороший, вы нехороший! Я буду следить за
представлением.
Пролог Пред нашим представлением
Мы просим со смирением
Нас подарить терпением.
(Уходит.)
Гамлет Что это: пролог или стихи для перстня?
Офелия Это коротко, мой принц.
Гамлет Как женская любовь.
Входят актеры — король и королева.
Актер-король Се тридцать раз круг моря и земли
Колеса Феба в беге обтекли,
И тридцатью двенадцать лун на нас
Сияло тридцатью двенадцать раз,
С тех пор как нам связал во цвете дней
Любовь, сердца и руки Гименей.
Актер-королева Пусть столько ж лун и солнц сочтем мы
вновь
Скорей, чем в сердце кончится Любовь!
Но только, ах, ты с некоторых пор
Так озабочен, утомлен и хвор,
Что я полна волненья. Но оно
Тебя ничуть печалить не должно;
Ведь в женщине любовь и страх равны:
Их вовсе нет или они сильны.
Мою любовь ты знаешь с юных дней;
Так вот и страх мой соразмерен с ней.
Растет любовь, растет и страх в крови;
Где много страха, много и любви.
363
PART 3. KEYS

Актер-король Да, нежный друг, разлуки близок час;


Могучих сил огонь во мне погас;
А ты на милом свете будешь жить
В почете и любви; и, может быть,
С другим супругом ты...
Актер-королева О, пощади!
Предательству не жить в моей груди,
Второй супруг — проклятие и стыд!
Второй — для тех, кем первый был убит.
Гамлет (в сторону) Полынь, полынь!
Актер-королева Тех, кто в замужество вступает вновь,
Влечет одна корысть, а не любовь;
И мертвого я умерщвлю опять,
Когда другому дам себя обнять,
Актер-король Я верю, да, так мыслишь ты сейчас,
Но замыслы недолговечны в нас.
Подвластны нашей памяти они:
Могуче их рожденье, хрупки дни;
Так плод неспелый к древу прикреплен,
Но падает, когда созреет он.
Вполне естественно, из нас любой
Забудет долг перед самим собой;
Тому, что в страсти было решено,
Чуть минет страсть, забвенье суждено.
И радость и печаль, бушуя в нас,
Свои решенья губят в тот же час;
Где смех, там плач, — они дружнее всех;
Легко смеется плач и плачет смех.
Не вечен мир, и все мы видим вновь,
Как счастью вслед меняется любовь;
Кому кто служит — мудрый, назови:
Любовь ли счастью, счастье ли любви?
364
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

Вельможа пал, — он не найдет слуги;


Бедняк в удаче, — с ним дружат враги;
• И здесь любовь за счастьем вслед идет;
Кому не нужно, тот друзей найдет,
А кто в нужде спешит к былым друзьям,
Тот в недругов их превращает сам.
Но чтобы речь к началу привести:
Дум и судеб столь разнствуют пути,
Что нашу волю рушит всякий час;
Желанья — наши, их конец вне нас;
Ты новый брак отвергла наперед,
Но я умру — и эта мысль умрет.
translated by M.Lozinsky

Phonetic analysis
Word as used Changes of spelling and sounds
in the text
Old English Middle English New English

trumpet
У
— trompet trumpet
[u] > [л]
о — a ME spelling device
sound — soun sound
[u:] > [аи]
dumbe dumb domb dumb
[u] [u] > [л]
[b] lost in NE
u replaced by о — a ME spelling device
show /•<?/. to v. sceaw(ian) n. shewe show
[sk1] > Ш > Ш
sc replaced by sn
enter — /Vi/entre(n) enter
unstressed [e] + vocalised [r] > (э]

365
PART 3. KEYS

king сушпч kyng king


[y] > [i] (Easl Midland
dialect)
с replaced by к
queene cwen queene queene
[c:j > [e] > [i:]
cw replaced by qu
embracing — »,/ embrace embrace
la:l > [ei]
he he he he
lc:J > [e:] > [i:l>[i-l
her hire her/e her
[i] [e] + vocalised [r] > |э:]
take(s) inf. takan taken take
[a] [a:] open syllable > [ei]
с replaced by к
decline(s) — inf. declynen decline
[i:l > [ai]

his his his his


[si [s] > [z]
head head head head .
[ea:] > [e:] > [e] before a dental
consonant
lye(s) inf. Исзеп liggen/lyen He
[i:] > [aO

down of-dflne a-doune down


[u:] > [u:] > Гаи]
u replaced by ou/ow
bancke — banke bank
[a] > [ж]
flower(s) — flour flower
[u:] + vocalised [r] > [аиэ]
ou replaced byow
see(ing) inf. seon seen see
[c:l > [e:] > [>:]
asleep on-slsep asleep asleep
[аг] > [e:l > 11=1
x replaced by ec
366
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

leaues inf. lasfan leven leave


[ж:] > [e:] > fi:]
ж replaced by ea
f replaced by v

what hwast what what


[ю] > [a] after | w] > [o]
[hw] > [hw] > [w]
hw replaced by wh
a? replaced by a

meanes rnaJnarHinf) menen mean


[SB:] > [e:] > [i:]
зг replaced by e/ca
this bis this this
01 > [01 > [Щ
s]' > is] > M
j replaced by th
my mm myn(e)/my my
{i:] > [i:J > [ai]
lord hlaford l(h)overd/lord lord
[a:] > [o:] + vocalized fr]> [o:]
that bset that that
[аз] > [a] > [ae]
x replaced by a
p replaced by th

mischiefe — mischiefe mischief


[e:] > ПО
belike rel. /оче-Ис y-Iich/lik (be)like
Щ , . > И > M
3 replaced by у
с replaced by к
impoit(s) rel. to port port
[o] + vocalized [r] > [o:]
play р!еза pley/play play
fe+j] > [a] > tei]
3 replaced by у
we we we we
[e:] > [e:] > [i:]>|i-]
shall sceal shal shall
[ea] > [a] > fa]
[sk1] > Ш > Ш
se replaced by sn
367
PART 3. KEYS

know cnavvan (inf) knowen know


[a:] > [o:] > [ou]
[kn] > [kn] > [n]
с replaced by к
can(not) can can can
[a] > [al > [x]
keepe cepan (inf) keepen keep
И > [e:] > [i:]
с replaced by к
e • replaced by ее
all eal aValle all
[ea] > [al before 11 > [o:]
any гёшз eni/any any
[ar.] > [e:] > [a] > И
ae replaced by a
be beo be be
[eo:] > [e:] > fi:]>[i-]
(a)sham('d) rel. to scamean (inf) shamen shame
[a] > [a] > [a:] open syll. > [ei]
w , A
>щ > ш
sc replaced by sh
mark mearc(ian) (inf) mark(en) mark
[ea] > [a] + vocalized [r] > [a:]
с replaced by к
our Ore our our
[u:] > [u:] > [аи] + vocalized [г] >[аиэ]
u replaced by ou
heere her heer here
[e:] > [e:] > (i:] + vocalized [r] > [is]
hearing пуппз heringfe) hearing
[y:] > [e:] (Kent) > [i:]+ vocalized [r]> [is]
у replaced by e/ea
3 replaced by g
patiently rel. to patient (adj) patient(ly)
fa:] > Ы
, . Ltjentl > IJnt]
breefe — breer brief
[e:] > [>:]
thirtie prlti3 thritty/bnty thirty
Yu] > [i] + vocalized [r] > [e:]
p replaced by th
3 replaced by у
368
. TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION
time(s) tlma tyme time
[i:] > И > [ai]
gone 3Ш1 gon(e) gone
Га:] > for] > Го:]
3 replaced by g
round — round round
[u:] > [аи]
salt sealt salt salt
[ea] > [a] before И > [о]
wash wassc wassh wash
[se]1 > [a] after w > [o]
[sk ] > Ш > Ш
EC replaced by a
sc replaced by sh
ground 3rund ground ground
[u] > [u:] before nd > [аи]
3 replaced by g
u replaced by ou
moon(es) mona mone moon
[o:] > [o:] > [u:]>[u]
sheene scyne shene sheen
1(M
№ i iS > Ё
about abutan about(en) about
[u:] > [u:] > [аи]
world woruld world(e) world
[o] > [o] + vocalized [r] > [s:] after w
harts heorte herte heart
[eo] > [e]
[er] > lar] > [a] + vocalized [r] > [a:]
hand(s) hand hand hand
[a] > [a] > [аз]
sacred •— ret. to sacren (inf) sacred
M • > [ei]
band(s) — band band
[a] > [as]
many mante many many
[a] ° > [a] > [as]
3 replaced by у
369
PART 3. KEYS -

may тжз may may


[ae+jj > [ai] > [el]
se replaced by a
3 replaced by у
sunne sunne sonne sun
[u] > [u] > [л]
u replaced by о (a ME spelling device)
count — counten count
[u:] > [аи]
ore aer er/or ere
[ж:] > [e:] + vocalized [r] > [еэ]
ae replaced by e
doone don doon done
[o:] > [o:]>[u:]>[u] > [л]
sicke seoc seek sick
[eo:] > [e:] > [i:] > [i] before к
с replaced by к
farre feor fer far
[eo] > [e]
[er] > [ar] > [aj + vocalized [r] > la:]
cheere — cheer cheer
[e:] > [i:] + vocalized [r] > [is]
former forma former former
[o] > [o] +vocalized [r]> [o:]
unstressed [e] + vocalized [r] > [э]
distrust — dis+trust distrust
[u] > W
must most moste/muste must
[o:] > [o:]> [u:] > [u] > [л]
feare fseran (inf) feren fear
[аг:] > [e:] > [i:] + vocalized [r] > [ia]
x replaced by e/ea
hold healdan (inf) hoolden hold
[ea] > [a]>[a:]beforeld>[o:]>loul
aught awiht, aht aughte aught
[a:+h] > [au+h] > [o:]
a replaced by au
h replaced by gh

370
. TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

now nu now now


fu:J > fu:] > [аи]
u replaced by ow
made macode made made
[a] > [a:] open syll. > [el]
where hwiir where where
[a] > [e:] + vocalized [r] > [еэ]
[hw] > [hw] > fw]
hw replaced by wh
doubts — doute doubt
[u] > [аи]
b. in NE under the
influence of Lat.
dubitare
grow 3rowan growen grow
to:] > [o:] > [ou]
3 replaced by g
there peer ther(e) there
se:l > [e:] + vocalized [r] > [еэ]
'6] > [9] > [6]
i replaced by th
a replaced by e
I 1С I I
[i] + vocalized [tj> [i:]>[M]
thee Ы thee фее
e:] > [e:] > [i:]
'9] > [9] > [6]
j replaced by th
shortly scort-llce short+lich(e)/shortly shortly
1
[sk ] > Ш >Ш
[o] > [o] +vocalized [r]> [o:]
sc replaced by sh
to to to too
[o:] > [o:J > [u:]
power(s) — power power
[u:] > [аи] + vocalized [r] > [аиэ|
do don doon do
[o:] > [o:J > [u:l>|u]

371
PART 3. KEYS

thou bu thou thou


u:] > hi:] > [аи]
6] > [9] > (fll
) replaced by th
faire fse3er fair fair
[ге+j] > [ai] > [ei] + vocalized [r] > [еэ]
ж replaced by a
3 replaced by i
behind be-hindan behynden behind
[i] > [i:] before nd > [ai]
honour('d) — honouren honour
unstressed fu] + vocalized [r] > [э]
[h]lostinNE
one an oon one
[a:] > [o:] > [u:] > [wu:] > [wu] > [WA|
kind cynde kynde kind
[i] > [i:] before nd > [ai]
husband hus-bond husbonde husband
Mjr > [u] > [л]
unstressed [о] > [э]
confound — confound(en) confound
[u] > [аи]
need(es) nyde nede need
[y:l , > [e:] (Kent) > [i:]
у replaced by e/ee
treason — tresoun treason
[e:] > И r ,
unstressed [u] > [э]
accurst rel. w cursian (inf) cursen curse
[u] > [u] + vocalized [r] > [e:]
who hwa who who
[a:] > [or] > [u:]>fu]
[hw] > [hw] > [w]
hw replaced by wh
first fyrst first first ,
[y] > [i] (East Midland) + vocalized [r] > [W
wormwood wermwod wormwud wormwood
/wermode
[o]/[e]+vocalized [r]>|e:]
[o:] > [u:]
372
_ TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

belieue be-lyfan bileven believe


[v:] > [e:](Kent) > [i:]
f replaced by u/v
speake sprecan speken speak
[e] > [e:] open syllable > [i!]
e replaced by e/ea
с replaced by к
determine — determynen determine
fe] + vocalized [r] > [e:]
slaue — slaue/slave slave
[a:] > [ei]
birth (3e)-byrd birthe birth
[fj > [i] + vocalized [r] > [e:]
у replaced by i
poore — poore/poure poor
[o:} > [u:] + vocalized [г] > [из]
which hwilc which which
[hw] > [hw] > fw]
hw replaced by wh
vnripe/umipe un-rlpe unripe uraipe
^ [i:] F > [i:] ^ > [ai] ^
tree treo tree tree
[eo:] > [e:J > И
fall feallan fallen fall
[ea] > [a] before U > [o]
vnshaken rel. to scacan shaken shake
№] > Ш > Ш
[a] > [a:] open syllable > [ei]
sc replaced by sh
с replaced by к
forget for-xitan forgeten forget
[i] > [ej > [e]
|j] replaced by [g] irom Sc.
pay — payen pay
fai] > [ei]
debt — dette debt
[e] > [ej
h in NE under the
influence of Lai.
debeta
373
PART 3. KEYS _____

purpose — purpos purpose


fu] + vocalized [r)> (e:]
lose losian losen lose
|o] > [o:] open syllable> [u:]
griefe — greef grief
fe:l > fi:]
their — faeir their
c:] +vocalized |r)> [еэ]
0] > [fll
) replaced by ih
owne азеп owen own
[a:+y] > [ou] > fou]
3 replaced by w
slender — s(c)lendre slender
unstressed [e] + vocalized [r] > [э]
strange — straunge strange
[au]>la:] > [ci]
euen efne evne/evene even
[e] > [c:] open syllable > ПО
Г replaced by v
should scolde sholde should
[sk1] > [fl > (ji
lo] > U>:1 before ! d > [ u : ] > f u : ] > [ u l before
a dental cons.
UlloslinNE
fortunes — fortune fortune
[o] + vocalized [r]> [0:1
[tjun] > Itfnl
change — chaungen change
[aul>[a:] > [el]
question — questioun question
[tju:n] > |tjn]
proue profian proven prove
[o] > fo:] open syllable > [u:]
f replaced by v
lead laidan leden lead
[as:l > [e:J > |i:]
ж replaced by c/ca

374
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

aduaunc('d) — avauncen advance


[au] > [a:]
[d] in NE under the
influence of Latin
friend(s) freond fiend friend
[eo:] > [к] > [е]
hetherto — hider-to hitherto
fd] > [6] in the vicinity of [r]
neuer naifre never(e) never
[se:] > [e:] > [e]
unstressed [e] + vocalized fr] > [э]
x replaced by e
f replaced by v
lacke — lakken lack
[a] > [a]
want — want(e) want
[a] after [w] > [o]
season(s) — sesounen (inf) season
[e:] > [i:]
unstressed [u] > fa]
order(ly) — ordre order
[o] +vocalized [r]> [0:1
unstressed [e] + vocalized fr] > [э]
begunne be-чиппеп begun(ne) begun
[ul > M > [л]
[y] replaced by [g] under Scand. influence
3 replaced by g
mnne rannfen) ronn(en) run
[u] > [u] > [л]
u replaced by о (a ME spelling device)
deuise(s) — devys device
№ > [ai]
ouerthrowne ofer-ferawan over-throwen . overthrow
[o] > [o:] open syllable > [po]
unstressed [e] + vocalized fr] > [э]
[a:] > to:] > ]oul
f replaced by v
p replaced by th
thought(s) boht tliought thought
fo+h'] > louhf > [o:J
p replaced by lh
h replaced by gh
375
PART 3. KEYS •

thy bin thyn(e)/thy thy


i] > [i:J open syllable > [ai]
;в] > [в] > [б]
) replaced by th

Grammatical and etymological analysis

Words Analysis Ethymology,


Ethyvnology, Corresponding
Corresponding
as used notes prototype NEword,
NEword,
in translation
in the text
the text translation

the article, definite OE se, seo, paet; the


ME pat / that
trumpets noun, genitive case, ME trompette, trumpet(S)
plural OF trompette
sounds noun, common case, ME soun; OF soun sound(s)
plural (oboes play)
dumbe adjective OE dumb; ME domb dumb

show noun, common case, ME sheue, rel. to show


singular OE sceawian (v);
ME shaven (v)
followes verb, present tense, OE fokian, weak, 2; follow(s)
rd
3 person, singular ME followen (The dumb
of follow show enters}
enter verb, present tense, ME entren weak, 2; enter
plural of enter OFentrer
a article, indefinite OE an; ME a/an a
king noun, common case, OE суш'пз; ME kyng king
singular
and conjunction OE and; ME and and
queene noun, common case, OE cwen; ME queen queen
singular (actors playtnS
the roles of tlU
King and the
Queen)
376
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

the queene absolute participial ME embracen, weak, 2; the queen


embracing construction OFembracer embracing
(nominative with
participle I) of embrace
him pronoun personal, OE him, hire; ME him him
objective case,
У* person, singular,
masculine
he pronoun personal, OE he; ME he he
nominative case,
3rd person, singular,
masculine
her pronoun personal, OE hire; ME her(e) her
objective case,
3™ person, singular,
feminine
takes verb, present tense, OE takan, str. 6; take
3rd person, singular ME taken
of take
vp adverb OE up, upp; ME up up (raises her
from the knees)
declines verb, present tense, ME declynen, decline
3rd person, singular OF decliner;
of decline L declmare
his .pronoun possessive, OE his; ME his his
3rd person, singular,
masculine
head noun, common case, OE heafod; ME heed head
singular
Vpon preposition OE uppon; ME upon upon
песке noun, common case OE hnecca; ME nekke neck (on her
case, singular shoulder)
lyes verb, present tense, OE Нсзап, str. 5; lie
3rd person, singular ME lyen
of he
downe adverb OE of-dune; down
ME a-doune
bancke noun, common case, ME banke, OSc banke bank (bed)
singular
of preposition OE of; ME of of
377
PART 3. KEYS -—

flowers noun, common case, ME flour; OF flour; flower(s)


plural L florem, ace. o/flos
she pronoun personal, OE heo; ME he/she she
nominative case,
3rd person, singular,
feminine
seeing verb, participle 1 OE seon, sir. 5; seeing
of see ME seen
asleepe adjective OE on-slEep; asleep
ME on sleep, asleep
leaues verb, present tense, OE liefan, weak, ) ; leave(s)
3"1 person, singular ME leven
of leave
what pronoun interrogative OE hwast, ME what what
meanes verb, present tense, OE тгёпап, weak, I; rnean(s)
3"1 person, singular ME menen
of mean
this pronoun demonstrative OE fcis; ME this this
my pronoun possessive, OE mTn; ME myn(e)/my my
l sl person, singular
lord noun, common case, OE hlaford; ME lord lord С " 7 ^
singular does it mean,
my lordO
marry interjection ME marie ME%(ano$
by St.Mary)

munching verb, participle 1 ME mychen, weak; munching


ofmiche OFmuchier (now dial.-
skulking, |
stealing up to)
mallico noun proper, common OF malice; L malicia malice
case
it = that conjunction OEpset that
mischiefe noun, common case, ME meschief; mischief
singular OF meschief
belike modal word rel. to OE зе-lic, adj.; belike
ME y-lich (probably,
evidently)
378
_ TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

show noun, common case. rel. to OE sceawian, show


singular weak, 2; ME shewen
/vShowen

imports verb, present tense, rel. to OF porter,- import(s)


3rd person, singular L portare
of import
argument noun, common case, ME argument; argument
singular OF argument (plot)
play noun, common case, OE р!еза,- ME pley play
singular /play
we pronoun personal, OE we; ME we we
Is1 person plural,
nominative case
Shall verb, future tense, OE sculan (inf), sceal shall know
I s1 person, indicative (pres. sing.), pret.-pres.,
mood of know ME shal;
OE cnawan, strong, 7;
ME knowen
by preposition OE bl; ME by by (from)
fellow noun, common case, ME fellawe; rel. to fellow
singular Sc felagi
players noun, common case, rel. to OE pje3ian, player(s)
plural weak,2; ME playen (actors)
cannot verb, modal + negative OE cunnan (inf), can can+not
(pres. sing.), pret.-pres.,;
ME can
keepe verb, infinitive OE cepan, weak, 2; keep
of keep MJSkepen (secrets)
they pronoun personal, OB hie; ME they they
3 rd person plural,
nominative case
'11 tell verb, future tense, OE willan, anom. verb; (they)'ll tell
rd
(=will tell) 3 person, indicative ME will;
mood of tejl OE tellan, weak, 1 irreg.;
ME tellen
all pronoun indefinite OE eal; M E al/alle all
VS pronoun
nti
personal, OE us; ME us US
2 person plural,
objective case
379
PART 3. KEYS

meant verb, past tense, OE msnan, weak, I; meant


indicative mood ME menen
of mean
I (yea) particle 0 £ зёа; M£ ye уел (yes)
any pronoun indefinite OE аётз; ME any any
you pronoun personal, OE eow; ME you you
2nd person,
nominative case
will show verb, future tense, OE willan, anom. verb; will show
2 nJ person, ME will
indicative mood OE sceawian, weak, 2;
of show ME showen
be verb, infinitive OE beon, beo (imper.); be
ME been, be (imper.)
not negative particle OE na-wiht; ME not not
asham'd adjective rel. to OE scamian, ashamed
weak, 2; ME shamen (don't be
ashamed)
heel© = pronoun personal, OE he; ME he he'll
hee( 1)= (he 3 rd person singular,
will) masculine, nominative
case
shame verb, infinitive OE scamian, weak, 2; shame
ME shamen (be ashamed)
are verb, present tense, OE wesan (inf), earon are
plural of be /ar (pres. tense),
suppletive; ME am
naught adjective rel to OE na-wiht; naught
ME naught (naughty)
Tie t pronoun personal, OE ic; ME icIiA 1('Щ
= I( 11) 1sl person singular,
nominative case
(shall) verb, future tense, OE mearcian, weak, 2; mark
mark l s l person, indicative MEmarken (see, watcti)
mood of mark
for preposition OE for; ME for tor
our pronoun possessive, OE fire; ME our our
l s l person plural
380
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

tragedie noun, common case OE tragedie; tragedy


ME tragedie
heere adverb OE her; ME heer here
Stooping verb, participle I OE stupian, weak, 1; Stooping
of stoop ME stoupen
to preposition OE to; ME to to
your pronoun possessive, OE eower; ME your(e) your
2nd person
clemencie noun, common case, L dementia clemency
singular
begge verb, present tense, ME beggen, weak, 2; beg
plural, indicative OF begger, noun
mood of beg
heaiing verb, gerund/verbal rel. to OE hyran, hearing
noun of hear weak 1, or OE hyrin3,
noun; ME hering(e),
noun
patiently adverb rel. to ME patient, patiently (we
adjective, OF patient, beg that you
L patens, noun hear patiently)
is verb, present tense, OE wesan, infinitive; is
3lJ person singular OE is; ME is
of be
posie noun, common case, ME poesie=poete; poesy (motto,
singular OF poesie=poete; short
L poeta inscription)
ring noun, common case, OE hnny, ME ryng ring
singular
tis = it is it is
breefe adjective ME breef; OF brief; brief
L brevis
as conjunction OE eal-swa; ME as as
WOmans noun, genitive case, OEwTf-ma'n; WOman('s)
singular ME womman
loue noun, common case, OE Iufu love
singular
381
PART 3. KEYS _____——

full adjeclive OEM; MEM full


thirtie numeral cardinal OE bri-Пз; ME thritty thirty
/pirty
times noun, common case, OE tTma; ME tyme time(s)
plural
hath gone verb, present perfect OE habban, weak, 3; has gone
perfect of go ME haven; OE 3§n (inf);
ME goon (inf)
Phebus noun proper, genitive L Phoebus Phoebus( s)
= Phoebus case, singular"
cart noun, common case, OE crat; rel. to cart
singular OSc kartr
round adverb/preposition rel. to ME round, adj., round
OF roont
Neptunes noun proper, genitive L Neptunus Neptune( S)
case, singular
salt adjective OE sealt; ME salt salt
wash noun, common case, OE wsesc; ME wassh wash
singular (waters)
Tellus noun proper, common L Tellus Tellus
case, singular
orb'd adjective OF orbe; L orbis orbed
ground noun, common case, OE srund; ME ground ground ,
singular (Tellus - barm
in Roman
mythology)
dosen noun, common case, ME dosayn dozen
singular
moones noun, common case, OE mona; ME mone moon(s)
plural
boiTOwed adjective / participle 2 rel. to OE borgian, borrow(ed)
of borrow weak, 2; ME borwen
sheene noun, common case, rel. to OE scyne, adj.; Sheen
singular ME shene, adj.
about preposition OE abutan; about
ME abouten
382
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

world noun, common case, OE woruld; ME worlde world


singular
haue beene verb, present perfect OE habban (inf); have been
of be OEbeon(inf)
twelue numeral, cardinal OE twelf; ME twelve twelve
since conjunction OE si65an; ME sith(e) since
halts noun, common case, OE heorte; ME herte heart(s)
plural
Hymen noun, proper, common L Hymen Hymen
case, singular
did unite verb, past tense, L Qmt (did) unite
indicative mood
of unite
hands noun, common case, OE hand; ME hond hand(s)
plural
comutuall adjective F com-; OF -mutuel; mutual (since
L mutuus love united our
hearts and
Hymen - our
hands)
most adjective / pronoun, OE maest; ME moost most
superlative degree
of much
sacred adjective rel to ME sacren, sacred
weak, 2; OF sacrer
bands noun, common case, ME band, Sc band band(s)
plural
so adverb OE swa; ME so SO
many adjective QE т а т з ; ME many many
ioumeyes noun, common case, ME journee; journey(s)
plural OF journee
may verb, present tense, OE ma^an (inf), та?з may
of may (pres. sing.), pret-pres.,
ME may
sunne noun, common case, OE sunne; ME sonne sun
singular
383
PART 3. KEYS •

make verb, infinitive OE macian, weak, 2; make


ME maken
count verb, infinitive ME counten, weak, 2 count
OF corner; (max the Sun
Lcomputare and the Moon
make us count
again as many
journeys)
ore conjunction OE sr; ME er/or ere (before)
ere=our our
be verb, present tense, OE bion (inf); OE beo be
subjunctive, singular (pres. subj. sing.)
of be
doone verb, participle 2 of do OE don (inf), anom. done
= done verb; OE зе-don
(part. 2); ME doon (inf);
ME y-doon (part. 2)
woe noun, common case, OE wa, ME wo woe
singular
(woe) is interjection (phrasal unit) woe is me!
me
sicke adjective OE seoc; ME seek sick
late adjective OE last; ME lat late
farre adjective OE feor; ME fer far
from preposition OE Mm; ME from from
cheere noun, common case, ME cheer; OF chere cheer
singular
our=your our
former adjective OE forma; ME former former
State noun, common case, OF estat, L statum State
singular
distrust verb, present tense ME dis- + trust, помп, distrust
of distrust re/ to OSc traust, «сия (/a/» vwmed
about you)
yet adverb 0£3lt; ME yet yet
384
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

though conjunction OE beah; ME though though


discomfort verb, infinitive ME disconforten, weak, discomfort
of discomfort 2; OF desconforter
nothing pronoun indefinite OE nan-Ьтз; nothing
ME no-thing
must verb, present tense OE mot, most (past), must (it must
of must pret.-pres.,; ME moot, not discomfort
most(e), must (past) you, milord)
women noun, common case, OE wTf-men; women
plural ME wommen
feare verb, present tense, OE fSran, weak, I; fear
indicative mood of fear ME feren (inf)
too adverb OE to; ME to too
much adverb OE micle; ME much(el) much
euen adverb OE efne; ME even(e) even
loue verb, present tense, OE lufian; ME loven love (women
indicative mood of love fear as much as
they love)
womens noun, genitive case, OE wff-manna; women('s)
plural ME wommen(e)s
feare noun, common case, OE iaer; ME feer fear
singular
hold verb, present tense, OE healdan, strong, 7; hold
indicative mood of hold ME heold(en)
quantitie noun, common case, ME quantitee; quantity
singular OF quantite {correspond to
° each other)

eyther conjunction OE a»3-hwa26er; either


J
ME either
none pronoun, negative OE nan; ME noon none
neither conjunction QE пе+гБз-hwaeaer; neither
ME neither
aught pronoun OE a-wiht; aht; aught
ь
ME aht, aght, aught (anything)

385
/'ЛДГ J. KEYS

extremitie noun, common case, ME cxtremyiee; extremity


singular OF extremite (both fear
and love are
extreme)
now adverb OE nu; ME now now
proofe noun, common case, ME prove; OF preuve proof
singular
hath made verb, present perfect OE macod. pan.2; has made
oi make ME made
know verb, infinitive OE cnawan; know
ME knowen (you А/юн'
the proof of it)
ciz'd = siz'd verb, participle 2 ME (a)ssis(en), vrraA',2; size(d)
of size /r/. /« OF assisen (my fear is me
size of my love)
where adverb OE hwSr; M£ wher(e) where
great adjective OE згёа1; ME greet great
litlest adjective, superlative 0Z? lytel, ISscst (snperl. least
degree of UteJ. degree); ME litel, lestc (smallest)
doubts noun, common case, ME doute; OF doute doubt(s)
plural
grow verb, present tense, OE 3rowan, strong, 7; grow
plural, indicative mood ME growen
of grow
gl'OWes verb, present tense, see above grow(s)
3'd person, singular
of grow
there adverb OE \жг\ ME ther, thar there
faith noun, common case, ME fcith; OF fcid; faith (excl.: by
L (Ides my faith!)
thee pronoun personal, OE f)e, pec; ME thee thee
2"d person singular,
objective case
Shortly adverb О £ scort-lice; shortly
ME shortly
to adverb OE 16; ME to too
operant adjective L operant operant
(effective)
386
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

powers noun, common case, ME power; OF poeir power(s)


plural /pouer
functions noun, common case, F foriclion; L functio fimction(s)
plural (my body will
stop doing its
functions)
thou pronoun personal, OE pii; ME thou thou
2"d person singular,
nominative case
Shalt verb, modal OE sculan (inf), sceait shall
(pres. tense, 2"d person),
pret.-pres.
liue verb, infinitive OE libban, weak, 3; live
ME liven
faire adjective OE fa^er; ME f air fail-
behind adverb OE be-hindan; behind (after
ME be-hynden I'm gone)'
honour'd verb, participle 2 ME honour(en), honour(ecft
of honour weak, 2; OF honorer
belou'd verb, participle 2 rel. to OE lufian, beloved
of love weak, 2; ME loven
haplv adjective rel. to ME hap, noun; (probably)
J
^ OSchapp
one numeral, cardinal OE an; ME oon one
kind adjective OE cynde; ME kynde kind
for preposition 0jEfor;MEfor for
husband noun, common case, OE hus-bond; husband
singular ME husbonde; (honoured,
OSc htisb.6ndi beloved and
probably
someone as
kind as I am
for a husband
'you'll...)
confound verb, imperative mood ME confounden, confound
of confound F confondrc,
L confundcre
387
weak, 2; ME cursen (let me oe
cursed if I
marry a second
husband)

wed verb, subjunctive OE weddian, weak, 1; wed


mood of wed ME wedden
who pronoun, interrogative OE hwa; ME who who
/ indefinite / relative
kild verb, past tense, OE cyllan, weak, 1; kill(ed)
indicative mood of кШ ME killen
first numeral, ordinal OE fyrst, adjective; first (let no
ME first one wed the
second
husband but
she who killed
the first one)

w o r m w o o d noun, common case, OE wermwod; wormwood


singular ME wermode (corrupted
form), wormwud
instances noun, common case, ME instaunce; instance(s)
plural OF instance (motives,
reasons)

marriage noun, common case, ME manage; marriage


singular OF mariage
388
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

moue verb, present tense, ME mov(en), weak, 2; move


indicative mood OF movoir
of move
base adjective ME bas; OF bas base
respects noun, common case, ME respect; respect(s)
plural • OF respect
thrift noun, common case, ME thrift; OSC priu thrift ('ton-
singular considerations
when adverb OE hwanne/hwaenne; when
ME whan(ne)
kisses verb, present tense, OE cyssan, weak, 1; kiss(es)
3rd person, singular, ME kissen
indicative mood of kiss
bed noun, common case, OE bed; ME bed bed
singular /bedde
doe=do see above do
belieue verb, present tense, OE be-Iyfan, weak, I; believe
indicative mood ME bileven
of believe
thinke verb, present tense, OE jbencan, weak, 1, think
indicative mood irregular; ME thynken
of think
Speake verb, present tense, OE sprecan, strong, 5; speak
indicative mood ME speken
of speak
determine verb, present tense, ME determynen, determine
indicative mood weak, 2; OF determiner,
of determine Ldeterminare
oft adverb OE oft; ME oft/often oft/often
breake verb, present tense, OE brecan, strong, 4; break
indicative mood ME breken
of break
purpose noun, common case, ME purpos; purpose
singular OF pourpos;
L propositum
slaue noun, common case, ME sclaue; OF esclave; slave
singular 5c sclyaff; L sclavus
389
PART 3. KEYS

memorie noun, common case, ME mcnioric; memory,


singular OF memorie; L memoria
violent adjective ME violent'; OF violent violent
birth noun, common case, OE зе-byrd; ME birlhe birth (which Ь
singular bornmorm
full of life)
pOOre adjective ME povre/poure; poor
OF povre
validitie noun, common case, F validite; L validitas validity (hWis
singular " short-lived)
which pronoun, relative OE hvvile; ME which which
like adjective OE зе-llc; ME y-lich, lik like
fruite noun, common case, ME fruit; OF fruit; ftuit
singular L fructus
vnripe adjective OE un-ripe; ME unripe unripe
sticks verb, present tense, OE stician, weak, 2; stick(s)
3"1 person, singular, ME stiken
indicative mood of stick
tree noun, common case, OE trco; ME tree tree
singular
fall verb, present tense, OE feallan, strong, 7; fall
indicative mood of fail .ME fallen
vnshaken adjective / participle 2 OE ип+зе-scacen; unshaken
of shake OE sc'acan, strong, 6;
ME shaken
mellow adjective ME mclwe, rel. to mellow
OE melu, noun (ripe)
bee verb, present tense, OE beon (inf/prps. be
subjunctive mood, subj. plural); ME been
plural of be
necessary adjective ME ncccssarie; necessary
OF neccssaire
forget verb, present tense, OE Гог-зу1ап, strong, 5; forget
indicative mood OSc gefen; (we most
«f JoEggt ME (brgeten necessarily
390
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

forge))
Ю pay verb, infinitive ME payen, weak l/2\ to pay
Ofpaier ' J
ourselues pronoun, reflexive OE Ore+self(ves); ourselves
ME ourselves
debt noun, common case, ME deile; OF dette; debt
singular С dt'bita
passion noun, common case, ME passioun; passion
singular OF passion; L passio
propose verb, present tense, F proposer; propose
indicative mood £ pro+poser (promise,
of propose. propose to do)
ending verb, participle I of e_nd_( OE endian, weak, 2; ending
' ME enden
(the passion absolute predicative
ending) construction (nominative
with the participle)
doth verb, present tense, OE don, anomal. verb; do(es)
3"1 person, singular, ME doon
indicative mood of do
lose verb, present tense, OE losian, weak, 1; lose
indicative mood of Josg ME losen
violence noun, common case, ME violence; violence
singular OF violence; (the extremes)
t. violcntia
griefe noun, common case, ME greef; OF gref, grief
singular (taj.; L gravis
юу noun, common case, Af£joyc;0Fjoie; joy
singular l> gauqia
their pronoun possessive, OE hira/heara; their
3rd person plural ME beir(e); OSc pejra
owne adjective OE азеп; ME ovven own
ennactures noun, common case, rel, to ME enacten, enactments
plural verb
themselues pronoun, reflexive ME beim/them+sclves; themselves
OSc peim
PART 3. KEYS

destroy verb, present tense, ME destroyen; destroy


indicative mood OF deslruire (prevent mem

destroy then')

reuels verb, present tense, ME revelen, weak, 2 revel(S)


3 rJ person, singular, OF reveler
indicative mood of revel
lament noun, common case, rel. to F lamenter, verb lament
singular
ioyes verb, present tense, ME joyen, weak, 2; joy(s)
3rf person, singular, OF jour
indicative mood of joy
griefes verb, present tense, ME greven, weak, 2; grieve(s)
3rd person, singular, OF grever; L gravare
indicative mood of grieve
slender adjective ME s(c)lendre; slender
OF esclendre
a
accedent noun, common case, ME accident; Fcid&^ohtest
singular OF accident (by a *Wm
chance)
aye adverb ME ay; OSC ei/ey .tyffijg*'
nor conjunction OE na-hw—per; ПОГ (and)
ME nor
strange adjective ME straunge; Strange fjjj
OF estrange; no wonder)
L extraneus
euen adverb OE efne; ME evne even
/evene
loues noun, common case, OE lufu; ME love love(s)
plural
fortunes noun, common case, ME fortune; fortune(s)
plural OF fortune; L fortiina
should verb, subjunctive mood OE scolde (past subj.)\ should
change of change MEsholde change
ME chaungen, weak, 2;
OF changier

392
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

question noun, common case,. ME questioun; question


singular OF question
left verb, participle 2 OE lsefan, weak, 1; left
of leave OE laft (part. 2); ME left
to proue verb, infinitive OE profian, weak, 2; to prove
ME proven
lead verb, present tense, OE ljedan, weak, !; lead
indicative mood of lead ME leden
els=else adverb OE elles; ME elles/els else
downe adverb OE of-dune; down (when
ME a-doune a great man
gets down,
becomes
a nobody)
fauourite noun, common case, jF/avorit favourite
singular
flyes verb, present tense, OE йёозап, strong, 2; fly (leave him)
3"1 person, singular, MEflyen
indicative mood of fly
poore noun (substantivised ME povre/poure, adj.; poor
adjective) OF povre
aduaunc'd. verb, subjunctive mood ME avauncen, weak, 2; advance(d)
of advance OF avancer (if the poor
advanced, had
luck)
makes verb, present tense, OE macian, weak, 2; make(s)
3"1 person, singular, ME maken
indicative mood of make
friends noun, common case, OE freond; ME trend friend(s)
plural
enemies noun, common case, ME enemy; OF enemi enemy(-ies)
plural
hetherto adverb ME hider-to hitherto
=hitherto.
tend verb, present tense, ME tendcn, weak, 2; tend (love
indicative mood of tend OF lendre depends on
fortune)

393
I'AIif J. KEYS

needes verb, present tense, OE nydan, weak, I; need(s){u7w


3rd person, singular, ME neden is not in need)
indicative mood of need
neuer adverb OE nsfre; ME never(e) never
lacke verb, infinitive ME lakken, weak, 2 lack
want noun, common case, ME want(e); OSc vant want
singular
hollow adjective ret. to OE holh, noun: hollow
ME \\o\ow, adj. (false)
try verb, infinitive ME tryen, weak, 2; try
OF traer
directly adverb rei. to ME direct, adj.; directly
OF direct
seasons verb, present tense, ME sesounen; season(s)
3rd person, singular, OF satsonner (finds)
indicative mood
of season
orderly adjective ret. to ME brdre, noun; orderly
OF ordre
to end verb, infinitive OE cndian, weak, 2; to end
ME cnden
bcgunne verb, participle 2 (used 0 £ be-3innan; begun
as past tense)of begin ME bcgynnen; (began)
OE be-3unnen;
ME bcgunne
wills nouri; common case, #!£wi!la;MEwillc will(s)
plural
fates noun, common case, ME fate; OF fat; fate(s)
plural L falum, '
contrary adjective ME contrarie; contrary
OF contrarie
runne=run verb, infinitive OE rinnan, strong, 3; run
ME rinnen; ME ronncn,
part. 2
dcuiscs noun, common case, Ate devys; OF devis device(s)
plural (plans)
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION
Still adverb .<>£stille;M£sliIIe Still
(constantly)
are ouer- verb, passive vpice, OE ofcr+branan, are over
tnrowne present tense; plural" strong, 7; ME over- thrown
of overthrow ihrowen
thoughts noun, comrnpn ease, ()£t>ohl/3e-poht:
plural ME thought thought(s)
ours pronoun possessive, OE fire; ME ours ours
Is'person plural
ends noun, common case, QE ende; ME ende end(s) (their
plural '" ends are not
ours)
wilt wed verb, future tense, QE willan, anonu verb; will wed
2"a person, singular OE wilt ipres. sine.);
of wed ЩЕ willen, ME wilt
^° a person, pres. sing.)
die verb, present tense, ME deyen/dicn, went; die
indicative mood of die OSc deyja
% pronoun possessive, , (?£ bin; /WE thyn(e) thy
2"" person singular /thy
Key to Seminar 20
Shakespeare, Sonnet

Свой факел уронив, красавец Купидон


Заснул. Одна из дев Дианы подхватила
Огонь любви и вмиг светильник опустила
В холодный ключ воды, но не погас там он.
Из пламени любви священный ключ мгновенно
Впитал бессмертный жар на вечные года,
И стала для людей целительна вода
От злобных болестей, жестоких, как измена.
Зажегши факел вновь от глаз, любимых мною,
Для пробы мальчик им меня коснулся вдруг.
Я исцеленья ждал душой моей больною
От теплых вод, куда тянул меня недуг,
Но исцеленья нет. Ключ животворный льется
В очах возлюбленной, где пламя вновь смеется.

Translated by /L Fyodtirov

Phonetic analysis
Word as used Changes of spelling and sounds
in the text
Old English Middle English New English

Word as used Changes of spelling and sounds


in the text • 1 1 • " "
Old English Middle English New English
laid 1езёе leide laid
[e] + vocalized [y]> [el] > [el]
ез replaced by ei/ai
by be by by
[i:] > [i:l > [ai]
i replaced by у
• TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

his his his his


Is] > [s] > И
brand brand brand brand
[a] > [a] > M
and und and and
[a] > [a] > [в]

fell feoll fell fell


[eo] > [e:] shortened before Д>[е]
asleep onslSpe asieep/aslepe asleep
[o] > И > M
[as] > [e:] > DO
эг replaced by ее

maid mae3den mayde(n) maid


[x] + vocalized fy]> [ai] > [el]
щ replaced by ay

this bis this (his


[8] > [9] > [6]
advantage — avauntage advantage
[au] > fa:]
d on analogy with Lat. ad; (prefix)
found fund(on) found found
[u] > [u:] before nd > [аи]
u replaced by ou
love lufti love love
[u] > [u] > W
[u] > [e] lost in NE
u replaced by о
f replaced by v
fire fyr fir fi^3
[y:] > [i:] + vocalized [r]> [аю]
у replaced by i
steep — stepe steep
[«]> m
quicidy cwic+Ece quykly quickly
- lice > . - ly
cw replaced by qu
с replaced by k/ck
397
PART 3. KEYS _____——

cold cald (Merc),


ceald (WS) cold cold
[eaj>[a]>[a:]beforeld>l°:] > l° u l
that past that that
[as] > [a] > [tc]
[0] > [9] > [fl]
p replaced by th
sc replaced by a
ground 31-und ground ground
[u] > [u:J before nd > [аи]
3 replaced by g
u replaced by ou
which hwile which which
[hw] > [hw] > [w]
fk'l > ftf] • > Ufl
hw replaced by wh
с replaced by ch
holy ШИз holy holy
M > [o:] > lou]
i3 replaced by у
dateless — date+less dateless
[a:] > [ei]
heat hsltu hete heat
[«:] > [e:] > [i:l
ш replaced by e/ea
seething seo5an • sethen seething
|eo:J > [e:] > [i:]
9 replaced by th
bath Ьж5 bath bath
№ > [a] > [a:]
ш replaced by a
5 replaced by th
prove profean proven prove
[o:] > [o:] > [u:]
f replaced by v
strange — Straunge strange
[au]> [a:] > [el]
au replaced by a
398
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

my mm myn(e)/my my
[i:J > [':] > fai]
eye ёазе eye/ye eye
lca:l > [c:]>[i:] > [ai]
3 replaced by у
for for/fore for for
[o] > | o ] +vocalized [r]> [o:]

needs nyd/ned need need(s)


|y:]>|e:](A'cw;> fe:] > M
would wolde wolde would
[o] > [o:] before Id > [u:] > [u] before a
dental consonant
[I] lost in N13
о replaced by ou

toudh — touchen touch


[ul > [л]
breast breost bresl breast
[eo:l > fc:] > IeJ
Г ic I 1
[i] + vocalized (Ш> I'M > №
desired desiren desire(d)
[i:] +vocalized [r]> laio]
thither bider thider thilher
> c
fei > [0] [^
[d] in the vicinity of lr] > [o]
p replaced by th
hied hi3ede hyede hie(d)
[i] + vocalized [y]>[i:] > Ш
3 replaced by y/i

sad saed sad(e) sad


[ю] > Ы > №
x replaced by a

394
PART 3. KEYS .

where hwser wher(e) where


[se:] > [e:] +vocalized |ii> [еэ]
[hw] > [hw] > fw]
hw replaced by wh •
аг replaced by e
got 333t gat got
[se] > [a]>[a:]>[o:] > [o] before a
dental consonant
[3I > [gl from OSc.
3 replaced by g

Grammatical and etymological analysis

Words Analysis OE or foreign prototype Corresponding


as used notes NE word,
in the text translation

Cupid noun proper Lat Cupldo, CupidonTs Cupid


v
(Veiws's son)
laid verb, past tense OE 1есзап (inf.) weak, I; laid
OE legae (past tense, sing.);
ME leide (past tense)
by adverb OE be; ME be/by by
his pronoun OE his (pronoun personal, his
possessive,
rd
3"'person, sing., masculine,
3 person, genitive case); ME his
singular (pronoun possessive)
brand noun, common OE brand; ME brand brand
case, singular (torch, flare)
and conjunction OE and; ME and and
fell verb, past tense OE feallan (inf.) strong, 7; fell
OE feoll (past tense, sing.);
MEM]
asleep adjective OE onslffipe; ME asleep asleep
/aslepe
a art. indefinite OE an; ME a/an a
400
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION ,

maid noun, common OE madden; ME mayde(n) maid


case, singular • (priestess)
Of prep. 0£of .Of
Dian's noun proper, L Diana Diane's
genitive case (Jupiter's
daughter)
this pronoun OE pis (pronoun demonst, this
demonstrative sing., neuter); ME this
advantage noun, common ME avauntage; OF a vantage advantage
case, singular
found verb, past tense OE findan (inf.) strong, 3; found
OE fond; Affifand
love- adjective OE lufu; MElove love-
kmdling (composite) ME kindel (inf.) rel. to kindling
OSc kynd-a
fire noun, common OEfyrjMEfir fire
case
did steep verb, past tense OE don (inf.) anom. verb; did steep
OE dyde; ME dide
ME stepe rel. to OE stiepan
quickly adverb rel. to OE cwic (adverb) quickly
(+lfce);AEBqUyk(+ly>
h preposition OE in il
cold adjective OE chid (Merc), сеа\д(Щ);' cold
Afficold
valley- noun, composite, ME valeie; OF valee Valley.
fountain common case, ME fontayne; OF fontaine; fountain
singular L fontana
that pronoun OE bset (se, seo); ME that that
demonstrative
ground noun, common OE 3iund; ME ground ground
case
which pronoun relative QShwilc; ME which which
borrow'd verb, past tense OE bor3ian (inf.) weak, 2; borrow(ed)
OE bor3ode (past tense);
ME borwian (inf.)
401
PART 3. KEYS ^ _____

from preposition OE fram from

holy adjective OE Ш\у, ME holy holy


dateless adjective rel. to ME date+less (OE leas); dateless
OF date/daltc; L data
Ijvely = adjective rel. to OE Whhan (inf.) weak, 3 (lively) living!
living /participle I /Hfian; AfiElyven
heat noun, common OE hietu; MEhclc heat
case
Still adverb OE stille; Л/Я stille Still
to endure verb, infinitive Л4Е cndure(n), weak 2; to endure
OF endurer: rel. to L durare
grew verb, past tense OE 3rowari (inf.) strong, 7; grew
OE 3reow (past tense sing.);
ME, growen. (inf.); ME grew(e)
seething adjective OE seocten (inf.) strong, 2; seething
/participle I ME selhen
of seethe
bath noun, common OE bazd'; ME bath bath
case, singular
yet adverb ОЁ $yv, ME yel yet
men noun, common OE man (root-stem, masculine, men
case, plural i'»?pj; OE men (plural);
ME men
prove verb, present OE profean weak, 2; prove (test,,
tense, plural ME proven use)
against preposition OE on-jean; ME agayn against
Strange adjective ME- slraunge; OF estrange; Strange
L eselraneus (difficult,
severe)
maladies noun, common F"maladie;MEmaIadie malady(-ies)
case, plural
sovereign adjective ME sovercyng; OF soverian sovereign
cure noun, common ME cure, OF cure, L ciira cure
case, singular
but conjunction OFbutan, Mfibul- but
402
— •• :
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION
al
preposition OE xl, ME at at
т
У pronoun OE mm (pen. pronoun, my
possessive, I" person, genitive case,
1"' person, sing.), ME myn(e)/my
singular
mistress' noun, genitive ME maystresse, mistress('s)
case, singular OF maistrcsse
е
Уе noun, common OE ёазе, ME eye/ye eye
case, singular
love's noun, genitive OE lufu, ME love Jove('s)
case
new-fired (composite) OE newe (adj.), ME newe newfire(d)
participle 2 of rel. to OE fyr (noun),
(new) fire ME fire (noun), ME firen (verb)
toe article definite OE se, seo, pan the
ME pe, peo, past / the
boy noun, common ME boy (origin obscure), boy
case, singular re/. Л? OFris. boi/boy
for preposition <?£ for/fore, ME for tor
trial noun, common rel. to ME tryen, verA, trial ('/«z;
case weak, 2; OF trier
needs noun, common OE nyd, ME need need(s)
case, plural
Would verb, past tense OE wttan(ittf.)pret.-pres. would
of will verb, OE wolde, ЛЛ? wolde
touch verb, infinitive ME touchen, weak, 2; touch
OF techier
breast noun, common OE breost, ME brest breast
case, singular
I pronoun OE'K,MEI I
personal,
Is1 person,
singular
sick adjective OE seoc, ME seek sick
Withal adverb Ш? wi6+eal, iWE withal withal
help noun, common OE help, ME help help
case
403
PART 3. KEYS

desired verb, past tense ME desiren, weak, 2;_ desire(d)


OF desirer, L desTderare
thither adverb G l i d e r , ME thider thither
hied verb, past tense OE hi3ian (inf), OE hi3ede, hie(d) (hurried
ME hyede poet, arch.)
sad adjective OE seed, ME sad(e) Sad

distemper'd adjective ME distempere(d) rel. to distempered


OF distempre (noun)
guest noun, common OE 3iest rel to OSc gestr; guest
case, singular ME guest
ПО pronoun OE no, ME no ПО
indefinite
lies verb, present OE Нсзап strong, 5, lie(s)
tense, 3"1 person, ME liggan/lyen
singular
Where adverb 0J5hwser,M£wher(e) where
got verb, past tense ME geten (inf.), ME gat got (get - inf)
strong, 5; OSc geta,
OE 3ytan/3etan, OE 3aet
(past stem, singular)
eyes noun, common OE ёазе, OE eagan, eye(s)
case, plural ME eye(s)
Key to Seminar 21
Dickens, David Copperfield

Забуду ли я когда-нибудь эти уроки? Считалось, что их


дает мне мать, но в действительности моими наставниками
были мистер Мердстоун с сестрой, которые всегда
присутствовали на этих занятиях и не упускали случая, чтобы
не преподать матери урок этой пресловутой твердости —
проклятия нашей жизни. Мне кажется, именно для этого
меня и оставили дома. Я был понятлив и учился с охотой,
когда мы жили с матерью вдвоем. Теперь мне смутно
вспоминается, как я учился у нее на коленях азбуке. Когда я
гляжу на жирные черные' буквы букваря, их очертания
кажутся мне и теперь такими же загадочно незнакомыми, а
округлые линии О, С, 3 — такими же благодушными, как
тогда. Они не вызывают у меня ни вражды, ни отвращения.
Напротив, мне кажется, я иду по тропинке, усеянной
цветами, в моей книге о крокодилах, и всю дорогу меня
подбадривают ласки матери и. ее мягкий голос. Но эти
торжественные уроки, последовавшие за теми, прежними, я
вспоминаю как смертельный удар, нанесенный моему покою,
как горестную и тяжкую работу, как напасть. Они тянулись
долго, их было много и были они трудны, а некоторые и
вовее непонятны, и наводили на меня страх — такой же
страх, какой, думается мне, наводили они и на мою мать. Мне
хочется припомнить, как все это происходило, и описать
одно такое утро.
translated by A, Krivtsova
PART 3. KEYS •

Phonetic analysis
Word as used Changes of spelling and sounds
in the text
Old English Middle English New English

shall sceal sha! shall


[ea] > [a] > (ж]
[sk-j > m > m
sc replaced by sh
I ic I I
[k'l ttfl
[i] + vocalized [tj> [i:] > [ai)
ever aefre ever(e) ever
[ж:] > [e:] > [e]
unstressed [e] + vocalized [r] > [э]
ж replaced by e
f replaced by' v

forget for-3itan forgeten forget


[for] > [for] > [Го:] > [fa]
Ш > [e] > [e]
fj] replaced by [g] from Sc.
3 replaced by g

those fra tho, thos those


[a:] > [o:] > [ou:]
[6] > [0] > [6]
[s] > M

were wieron weren were


[ж:] > [с:] + vocalized [r] > [e:]

by bl by by
M > [i:] > [ai]
mother modor • moder mother
[o:] > [o:] > [u:] > [и] > [л]
[d] > [d] > [6]
[or] > [er] > [э!
d replaced by th
sister sweostor swuster/suster
/sister sister
[i] from Sc.
[or] > [eri > Is]
406
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

who hwa who who


[a:] > to:] > fu:]>[u|
fhw] > fhw] > [wj
hw replaced by. wh

always ealvewe3 alwey/alwayes always


[ea] > [a] before! > [o:]
[wej] > [wei] > [wez]
ea replaced by a

found fundon ftinden found


[u] > fu:] > [ao]
u replaced by ou

occcasion — occasioun occasion


Ш > [3]
for for for for
[o] > [o] + vocalized fr] > [0:]
giv(ing) 3yfan yivert/given give
[g] from Sc.
that fat that that
[аз] > M > fa;]
[0] > [9] > [fl]
ш replaced by a
p replaced by th

which hvwlc which which


ft1] > 1Ш > 1Ш
[hw] > [hw] > [w]
livy. replaced by wh
bane bana bane bane
[a]>[aj > [a:] opensyll. > [el]
r
our Ore °u our
[u:] > [u:] > [аи] + vocalized [г] >[аоэ]
u replaced by 6u

lives (pi), life ff !if life


M > [i:] > [al]
was wa?s was was
[»] > [a] after w > [0:]
ls| > [s] > fz|
ш replaced by a
407
PART 3. KEYS

home ham hoom home


[a:] > [o:J > [ou]
learn leomian lemen leam
feo] > [e] + vocalized [r] > [e:]

when hwaenne whan when


И > [a] > [e]
[hw] > [hw] > [w]
hw replaced by wh
x replaced by a replaced by e
alone eal-ana alone alone
tea] > (a] > [э]
fa:] > [o:] > [ou]
knee cneo /knee knee
[eo:] > [e:] > [i:]
[kn] . > {kn] > [n]
с replaced by к
day гЗжз day day
[а>ну] >'Дм] > [el]
ae replaced by a
3 replaced by у

fat faet fat fat


M > [a] > M
black blaec black black
N >,[a] > N
с replaced by ck
shape зе-sceap i-shap(e) shape
tea] > [a]>(a:] > [el]
[sk'l ••»',>• Ш > Ш
sc replaced by ,sh

easy — eSy easy


[с:] > И
good xod good good
To:] >'fo:] >.[u:]
3 replaced by g

408
. TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

nature — nature nature


[tj] > Ml
seem seman ..semen seem
[e:] > fe:] > [i:]

(re)call ceallian callen call


[ea] > [a] before Л >. (o:]

feel(ing) felan felen feel


[e:] > [e:] > [i:]

walked wealcan , walken walk


[eal > [a] before Ik > [Э:]
с replaced by к

path paed „path path


[ж] > [a] > [a:] before [8]
x replaced by /, a .'
5 replaced by th

far feor ..,. fer far


[eo] - > Де]
[er] > [ar] > fa] + vocalfeed [r] > fa:]
book boc book book
[o:] > fo:] > [u:]>[u] before к
с replaced by - к

cheered — cheeren cheer


[e:] >[i:] + vocalized [r] > [is]

all eal al/alle all


[ea] >' [a] before!! > {o:]

death dead deeth death


[ea:] >••[«] > [e] before [0]
б replaced by th

hard heard „ hard hai-d


[ea] > [a] f vocalized [r] > [a:]

some sum ' som some


[u] > [u]" . > [л]
u replaced by о

409
PART 3. KEYS

much mice I michel/muchel much


lk'1 > [ф > Ml
[u] > [л]
believe be-lyfan bileven believe
[y:] > [c:] > [i:]
у replaced by ie
f replaced by v

poor — povre/poure
/poor poor
[o:] >[u:l +vocalized (r]> [us]
herself here-self hineself herself
p:] > [i:] + vocalized {r] > [e:]
back bsec back back
Ы > [a] > [ac]
ac replaced by a
с replaced by ck

Grammatical and etymological analysis

Words as used Old English forms Middle English/Early New


in the text English forms
понт
lessons, - as (n-stem declension, -es / - (e)s (common case,
letters, masculine gender, plural)
shapes, nominative/accusative
flowers plural)
mother's - e s (n-stem declension, -es / - (e)'s (possessive
masculine gender, case, singular)
genitive singular)
pronouns
I ic (pronoun personal, (ich) i / 1 (pronoun
I" person singular, personal, Iя person
nominative) singular, nominative)
410
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

me me, mec {pronoun me / me (pronoun


personal, V person personal, /" person
singular, accusative/dative) singular, objective)
my mm (pronoun personal, myn(e), my / mine/my
I"person singular, genitive) (pronoun possessive,
]" person singular)
her hire, hie (pronoun here, her / her (pronoun
personal, 3"' person personal, 3"' person
singular, feminine, singular, feminine,
accusative/dative) objective)
they hie (pronoun personal, 3rd. hie, they/they
person plural'nominative) (pronoun personal, 3"' •
person plural, nominative)
them him, heom (phmoun hem, them / them
personal, 3"1 person plural, (pronoun personal, 3"'
accusative/dative) person plural, objective)
this bis (pronoun this / this (pronoun
demonstrative, demonstrative, singular)
nominative/accusative
singular, neuter)
these fjas (pronoun thes(e) / these (pronoun
danou.stijiiiiic', demonstrative, plural)
nominative/accusative
plural)
•that bajf (pronoun that / that (pronoun
demonstrative, demonstrative, singular)
nominative/accusative
singular, neuter)
those $& (pronoun tho, thos(e) / these
demonstrative, (pronoun demonstrative,
nominative/accusative plural)
plural)

articles
a an (numeral, indefinite an, a (indefinite article)
pronoun)
the se, seo, baet the (definite article)
(demonstrative pronoun)
411
PART 3. KEYS

verbs
shall forget sceal (present singular of shal forgeten / shall
sculan. preterite-present forget
verb) + forsietanfstmng (analytical future tense
verb, 5 class) farm)
(free word-combimation)
were presided beon/wesan (weorjjan) been (was, waren) +
was kept + participle 2 of participle 2 / be (was,
was bewildered intransitive verbs were) + participle 2
(free ward-combinations) (analytical passive voice
farms)
had been habban (hasfde, haven (hadde) +
had lived hsefdon) + direct object + participle 2 / have (had)
participle 2 + participle 2
beon/wesan + participle 2 been + participle 2 of
of intransitive verbs intransitive verbs / be +
(free word-combinations) participle 2 of verbs of
movement
(analytical perfect forms)
giving verbal noun / participle 1 verbal morpheme + ing
learning (overlapping of syntactic (gerund)
functions)

to present -an -en / — (zero ending)


to nave walked to -enne to -en/ to —{zero ending)
(preposition + infinitive, (particle + infinitive)
to have been declined, used in various
cheered syntactic functions)
(to) beon + participle 2 (td) ben / (to) be +
(passive infinitive) participle 2 (passive
infinitive)
(t6)han/(to)have +
participle 2 (perfect
infinitive)
(to) han been/(to) have
been 4 participle 2 (perfect
passive infinitive)
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

Regular and irregular verbs used in the text


Words used
in the text Old English Middle English
regular verbs
preside — presiden (F)
believe belyfan (weak, 1) biliven
leam leornian (weak, 2) lernen
live libban (weak, 3) lyfen
look locian (weak, 2) loken
seem seman (weak, l) semen
meaning influenced by Sc.
use — usen (F)
walk wealcan (strong, 7) walken
bewilder bewildrian (weak, 2) bewildren
(re)call -ceallian (weak, 2) (re)callen
cheer — cheerenfFJ
succeed — succeeden (F)
puzzle — apposailen
(etym. doubtful)
irregular verbs
shall sceal, o/sculan shal
(preterite-present)
forget for-3ietan (strong, 5) foryeten / forgeten
f-geten under the influence
o/ScJ
were wseron, past plural of weren
wesan (strong, 5/
suppletive)
find findan (strong, 3) finden
give 3ifan (strong, 5) yuven / gyven
fgy ven under the influence
ofSc.)
keep cepan (weak, 1) keepen
413
PART 3. KEYS .

can can, present singular of can


Clinnan (preterite-present)
have (had) habban (weak, 3), ha?fde, haven, hadde
past singular
bring Ьппзап (anomalous) bryngen

Principal forms of the verbs used in the text

OE wesan/beon waes waeron weren


ME been was weren been
№ be was were been
OE findan fand ftindon ftmden
ME finden fond founden founden
NE find — found found
OE 3jefan 3eaf 3eafan 3Jfen
ME given gav(e) geven given
NE give gave — given
OE cepan cepte — cept
ME kepen kept(e) — kept
NE keep kept — kept
OE habban haefde — ha?fd
ME haven hadd(e) — hadd
NE have had — had
OE Ьппзап brohte. — broht
ME bringen brought(e) — brought
NE bring brought — brought
OE cunnan cude — cunnen/cud
(can- pres. sing.) .
ME connen couthe — couth /i-coua
NE can (pres. sing.) could — —
OE belyfan belyfode — belyfod
ME behven behved(e) — behved
NE believe believed — believed
OE learnian learnode — learnod
ME lemen lerned(e) — lemed
NE learn learned/learnt — learned/ learro
414
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

OE Iibban lifde ~ lifd


ME liven lived(e) —- lived
NE live lived — lived.

OE locian locode -— locod


ME looken looked(e) — looked
NE look looked — looked

Bofwwedwprdsjised in the text

Scandinavian French Miscellaneous

they < jDeir lesson < OF lcssoun - apt < L opius


L lectionem
tnem<.beim alphabet <
favourable < F, XIV с L alpabetum -
both < babe Gk сЛсра pVa
occasion < OF occasioun
(mis)called, -Loecasionem reluctance < L reluct-
(re)called < ceallian •
'" " + F -ance (see word-
(see word-hybrids) purpose < OF pourpos hybrids)
- L propositum
puzzle < ME
mister ,< OFmaistre apposailen
(etyni. doubtful)
nominal < F nominal -
L nominalis
present < OF present
- L prasscnt-
faintly < OF fcindre
- L fingcre
primer < OF primer
- L primus
novelty < OF novelte
- L nouellitatem
easy < OF ese
nature < OF nature
- L natura
numerous < F miniewux,
L numerosus + F ous
(see word-hybrids)

415
PART 3. KEYS

crocodile < F crocodile


- L crocodTlus
- Gk кроко8еЛо0
contrary < OF contrarie
- L contrarius
flower< OF flour - L florem
preside < F presider (XV c.)
- L prjesiderc
manner < OF maniere
- L maneria
disgust < F desgouster (XVI c.)
- L ais+gustare
voice < Anglo-French voice,
cf. OF vois
grievous < OF grever (v) -
- L grauare
very < OF verai - L uerus
misery < OF miserie - L miserari
gentleness < OF gentil
- L gentilis (see word-hybrids)
use < OF user - L usare
cheer < OF chere - L cara
succeed < OF succeder
- L succedere
remember < OF remembrer
- L rememorarf

Word-hybrids
really real (F) + ly (native, OE lie;
nominally nominal (t) + ly (native, OE He)
firmness firm (L) + ness (native, OE nis;
416
TEXT ANALYSIS AND TRANSLATION

faintly faint (F) + ly (native, OE hcj


good-nature(d) good (native) + nature (F)
recall re (L) + call (Sc)
drudgery drudge (native) + ry (F)
gentleness gentle (F) + ness (native, OE nis)
themselves them (Sc) + selves (native)
generally general (F) + ly (native, OE lie;
reluctance reluct (L) + ance (F)
miscall(ed) mis (native) + call (Sc)
perfectly perfect (F) + ly (native, OE llcj
unintelligible un (native, OE unj + intelligible (F)
Tart 4.
Glossary

A University Scholar
Source: The New University Lilmity. 197$
KEY TO THE DICTIONARY

The words in the Dictionary are given in the usual alphabetical order;
the letters a, ae and a are treated as the same letter a; the letters g and
3 - as g; the letter b (d) follows t. For ease of reference the
alphabetical order is shown on the top of each odd page.

Principal abbreviations and symbols


adj.-adjective n. - noun
adv. — adverb N E - New English
anom. - anomalous neut. - neuter
art. - article num.-numeral
cf. - confer, compare ОЕ-Old English
сотр. - comparative O F - O l d French
conj. - conjunction OSc -Old Scandinavian
ENE - Early New English part.-participle
F — French prep. - preposition
fem. — feminine pron. - pronoun
OFris - Old Frisian superl. - superlative
gen. - genitive v. str. - strong verb
G k - Greek v. weak - weak verb
imit. -imitative > - developed into
indef.-indefinite < - developed from
L - Latin 0 - phrases and word-combinations
masc. — masculine with the vocabulary entry as the head
ME-Middle English word
a(a,ge)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-^>(6)-u-v-w-x-y-z

A •chemist in his laboratory


PART 4. GLOSSARY

азеп, own, adj.; OE annotacioun, annotation (note), «.;


a?enst. against, prep.; ME; < M£; < L annotatio
OE оп-зёап anon, anon (at once), adv.; ME; <
0 E On Sn
a g e v n . again, adv.; ME; <
OE оп-зёап anofcer, another, pron. indef.; ME; <
ЖЗ^ег З ё ^ 3£, either (either ... OEan+oser
or), conjJpron.;OE antique, adj.; NE; < F antique;
L mt
al=ail, all, pron. indef. ; ME; < ~^uus
ОЕЫ Щ , pron. indef.; NE; < OE aeni3;
ME a n y
alas, interjection, NE; < ME/OF
alas 0 a! las = wretched that I am! apayred, impaired, adjJpart. 2, see
selc. each, pron. indef, sing.; OE empeiren
a
all, pron. indef; NE; < OE eal; Payrynge, impairing, verb, п., see
em eiren
~M£al/alle P
a l l o w , v.; NE; < ME alowen; ^ § l e , (excellent),adj.;OE
OF alouer agt, adj.; NE; < L aptus
alone, adv.; NE< ME al one, aloon jgr, ere (till then), adv.; OE
along, prep.; NE; < OE andlang; arcebiscop, archbishop, п., masc,
ME along a-stem; OE
alphabet, п.; NE; < L alpabetum; arcestob (archiepiscopal seat), п.,
Gk c&cpa рлта masc, a-stem; OE
also, also, adv.; ME; < OE eal-swa archbishop, archbishop, п.; ME; <
^rc-bisC0P
0 E
always, adv.; NE; < OE ealne-we3;
ME alwey are, see be; NE
am, see be; NE argument, п.; NE; < ME argument;
af
gument
0 F
an, on (in), prep.; ME; < OE an=on
an, one, numJadj.;OE M i a n , arise, v.,str. 1;OE
analysis. /,; NE; < L analysis ^ Е Ш , array, n,ME; < OF arrai
Ш,Ш,со,«.;ОЕ ^SSr^
and, соф, MEJNE; < OE and art j c l e . п.; NE; < L articulus
andjang, along, prep.; OE ar-pam-pe. (before), conj.; OE
andswarian, answer, v., weak 2; ^ a S j adjJconJA ME. <0 E eai.SWa
Ob
_ , . , . „„ as, conj.; NE;<OE eal-swa; ME as
Eenig, any, pron. Dirfe/!; OE —' J
422
a(a,£e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-^)(5)-u-v-w-x-y-z

asham'd. adj.; NE; < rel. to OE avauntage. advantage, п.; ME, <
scamian, v., weak 2; ME shamen OF avantage
asleep. adj.;NE; < OE on-slaJp; ME aventure. adventure (happening), п.;
on sleep, asleep ME; < OF aventure; L adventura
asleepe. see asleep, ENE away, away, adv.; ME; < OE on-we3
at, at, prep.; ME, NE; < OE xt awyrgan, (curse, damn), v., weak 2;
OE
set, at, prep.; OE
,, _ ' , . , ave, ever, adv.; NE; < ME ay; OSc
aethnnan. (touch, move), v., str. 1; Л/еу
J
OE
aught, (anything), pron.; NE; < OE
a-wiht; aht; ME aht, aght, aught
PART 4. GLOSSARY

В read baking

b a e o b o r d . back board (barboard, be-beodan. bid (order, command),


port side), п., neut., a-stem; OE v.,str.2;OE
back, adv.; NE; < OE base; ME bak bebude. see be-beodan; OE
bad, adj.; NE; < ME badde; OE bed, п.; NE; < OE bed; ME bed/
bzeddel bedde
ban, bone, п., neut., a-stem; OE bee, see be, v. ENE
bancke. bank (bed), п.; NE; < ME been, be, suppl. v.; ME; < OE beon
banke
beef), (are), see been
band, п.; NE; < ME band; 5c band
befealdan. fold (cover), v., str. 7;
bane, п.; NE; < OE bana; ME bane OE
bank, bank, п.; ME; < F banque beforan. before, adv./prep.; OE
base, adj.; NE; < ME bas; OF bas before, adv./prep.; NE; <
OE beforan; ME biforen, biforn
base, v.; NE; < F baser
begge, beg, v., ENE; < ME beggen,
bath. п.; NE; < OE ЬжЗ; ME bath v., weak 2; OF begger, noun
bathen, bathe, v., weak 2; ME; < begin, v.; NE; <; < OE be-3innan, v.,
OE badian str. 3; ME begynnen
be. by (along), prep.; OE begitan, beget (get, obtain, find), v.,
be. v. anom.; NE; < OE beon; str. 5; OE
ME been begunne. part. 2 (may be used as
bead, see be-beodan; OE past tense), see begin, ENE
beah, see Ьпзап; OE behind, adv.; NE; < OE be-hindan;
ME be-hynden
424
a(a,£e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t- J b(d)-u-v-w-x-y-z

beHeue, see believe, ENE birth, п.; NE; < OE зе-byrd;


Ш birthe
believe, v.; NE; < OE be-lyfan, v., >
weak 1; MZ? bileven bJSCOp, bishop, п., masc, a-stem; OE
belike, (probably, evidently), modal bishop, bishop, п.; ME; < OE biscop
word, ENE; < rel. to OE зе-llc, ,, , ,. ..„ _„ , . ,,
adjective;
J
MEJ y-lich И Щ , « 4 ; NE; < OE blac, bl<ec;
MEblak
belou'd. beloved, part. 2, see love, м-+ • „ ., , _л г ,
EHE bletsian. bless, v., weak 2; OE
Ьё-ПОГбап. north (northwards), ЪШШЩ, blessing, n.fem., o-stem;
Ot/
advJprep.; OE
beon. be, v., anom. (pres. t. sing. ^ Ш М blissful, adj.; ME; < rel. to
o t b h s
beo, bist, bis; pi. beon; past t. ' "•
wass, etc. - see wesanj; OE blow, п.; NE; < ME blowe (origin
b e r e n . bear, v., str. 4; ME; < obscure)
OE beran boga, bow, n. masc, n-stem; OE
beseech, v.; NE; < OE besecan, v., book, п.; ME, NE; < OE boc; ME
weak 1; ME besechen book
beste. best, adj., superl. degr., see bore, see beren ; ME
good
, borrow, v.; NE; < OE bor3ian, v.,
beswican. (deceive, betray), v., weak 2; ME borwen
str.l;OE
, ,,_ borrow'd, adj. I part. 2 of borrow,
besynesse. business , п.; Mb; < NE;seehorrow
OE bisi^nes
, _ , . both, pron.; NE; < ME babe;
beteecan. (put in trust), v., weak 1, S c щ е щ{г
irreg. ; OE > rel. to NE teach
, ._, , , - boy, п.; NE; < ME boy (origin
beteehte, v., past t.; see betscan; obscure), rel. to OFris. boi/boy
, , , brand, (torch, flare); п.; NE; <
betst. best, adj. /adv., superl. degr., Q E b r a n d ; ш b r a n d
see 3od; OE
, .,j , „„, -,J • breake, break, v., ENE; <
bewilder v.; NE; < OE bewildnan, ОЕЪтеат, v., str. 4; ME breken
v., weak 2; ME bewildren
. ., , . . , . , , ЛЕ, breast, п.; NE; < OE breost,
bldan, bide (wait), v., str. 1; 0 £ iiffibrest
b i f a l l e n , befall (0 bifil - i t so b r e e f e , brief, «,/;., ЯЛТЕ; <
happened , v., str. 7; M^; < M£ breef; OF brief; L brevis
OE be-feallan
bjgyjmen,begyj2nen,begm,v.,,m breeth, b r e a t h 'п.;МБ-,<ОЕЪйб
3; ME; < OE be-3innan
425
PART 4. GLOSSARY

breken, break, v>., str. 4; ME; < burh, borough (town, castle), п., fem.,
OE brecan root-stem; OE
brest, see breast, п., ENE buruhwaru, (citizens of a town), п.,
. -i ,_t лг, fem., 5-stem; OE > rel. to
b r ^ e r , «., see brobor; OE ^ b'orough
b r i l ^ v.;NE; <O£brin3an,onom. v.; Ь ш ф е birth д M E <0 E 3 e . b y r d /
M£ bryngen —sTbyrdu
Ь ш з а п , bring, v., яг.-н-евА; OE ^ conj. m m . < QE Ш ш

b r
^ F d K a S t . '4- NElft °E< b r 5 d ' bQtan, bflton, but,conj.;OE
ME brood, adj. + ME casten, v.; '
OSc kasta buy, v.; NE; < OE Ьусзап, v., weak
b r o c h e . brooch, „.; ME; < /; M£ buggen, biggen
0£broche bjl, prep./adv.; NE; < OE bl, be;
brochure. „.; NE; < rel. to ME also bz
F brocher, v. bycause = (by) cause, because,
ЫШШ1, brough, ,,m , Pl, m %£&c,S- ** *
Ьппзап; Oh
br&orMoth^rmscr-stennOE Щ®Ь (bjd, incline, subject), v..
brjC3,bridge,п.,fem.,o-stem;OE b y g y n n y n g e . beginning, verbal
bflan, (stay, inhabit), v.,anom.\OE noun, see bigynnen
bude. v., past t. sing. Ind. or sub]. byr(e), (time, period), /;., i-stem orju-
mood; see buan; OE stem; OE
b u g a n , bow (curve, subjugate, by rig, /?., dat. sing.; see burh; OE
surrender), v., str. 2; OE
bugon, v.,pl.,pastt.;seeЬпзап;OE
a(a,£e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-J3(6)-u-v-w-x-y-z

С arpenter with his tools


of trade

can, can (know), see connen; ME cheere, cheer, п., ENE; <
, „n лг. ME cheer; OF chere
can, v. modal, NE; < OE cunnan
(inf), can (pres. sing.), pret.-pres.; chekyr, (exchequer, п.; ME; <
ME can OF eschequier
cart, п.; NE; < OE erst; rel. to cherch, church, п.; ME; <
OSc kartr OE cirice; Gk кирихкои
c a s e , п.; NE; < ME cas, caas; child, child,п.;ME; < OEcild
OF cas; L casus children, children, п., pi.; ME; <
c a s k e t , п.; NE; < Span casco, OEcMvu
confused with F cassette (small c h i t e r e n c h i r p ? v-> w m k 2. ME. <
box
) (imit.)
cepan, keep (guard), v., weak 1; OE c h i t e r v n g e c h i r p i n g f gemnd> s e e

certain, adj.; NE; < OF certein, chiteren


certain; L certus + stiff, -anus citation, п.; NE; < ME citacion;
change, v.; NE; < ME chaungen, i'., L citation
weak 2; OF changier dz'd = MA, part. 2; see size, ENE
СЩШ, «.; NE; < ME chapitte c l e m e n c j e > c l e m e n c y > „ ENE <
chapitre; OF chapitre, Lclemen t i a
L capitulum, cf. L caput
i
c h a
. . . Т.ЖГ7. ^ clepen. (call, summon), v., weak 2;
" m u b r t ' c ^ m b e r ' "" ; ME' < ~Ш < OE clipian > re/, ro
OF chambre;L camera • ЛЖ yclept, arf/
с Ь {
* и " | е п ' c I ? a n S e - v., weaft 2; ME; d e ; c l e r g v , clergy, /г.; ME; <
< OF changwsr OFclergie;Z,clericus
cheer, y.; /V£; < c/. ME cheere,
f?F chiere, n.
427
PART 4. GLOSSARY

clypian, (call), v., weak 2;0E> rel. concern, v.; NE; < F concerner;
to NE yclept, adj. L concernere
c n a w a n , know (recognise), v., conceven, conceive, v., weak 2;
strong 7; OE ME; < OF concevir; L concipere
COCUr. (case for arrows), n. masc, a- COndicioun, condition, п.; ME; <
stem; OE OF condicion
coffer, п.; NE; < ME/OF cofre; confederate confederate, adj.; ME;
L cophinum; Gk kdqnvocr < L confoederatus
cold, adj.; NE; < OE cald (Merc), confident, adj.; NE; < L confident
c^d(WS); ME cold confound. v.,; NE; <
c o l l a b o r a t e , v.; NE; < rel. to ME confounden; F confondre;
F collaborer; L collaborare L confundere
collect, v.; NE; < OF collecter; COMien, can (know), v., pret.-pres.;
L collectare ME; < OE cunnan
come, v.; NE; < OE cuman, v., str. 4; conquer, v.; NE; < ME conqueren;
ME comen OF conquerre; L conquirere
c o m e n , come, v., str. 4; ME; < c o n q u e s t , conquest, п.; ME; <
OE cuman OF conqueste
command, v.-.NE: <Fcommander, considerable, adj.; NE; <
L commendare L considerabilis
compaignye. company, п.; ME; < construccioun, construction
OFcompanie (interpretation), п.; ME; <
F construction
comparable, adj.; NE; < rel. to
F comparer, v.; L comparare + construct. v.;NE; <L construct
OF -able; L -abilis
construen. construe, v., weak 2;
comparative, adj.; NE; < ME; <L construere
L comparatlvus
c o n t a m , v . ; NE; < ME conteinen;
COmpellen, compel, v., weak 2; OFcontenir
ME;<OF compeller
contrary, adj.; NE; < ME contrarie;
compile, v.; NE; < F compiler; OF contrarie
Lcompflare
c o n t r a y , country, п.; Mb, <
COmutuall, mutual, adj., ENE; < OF contree
Fcom-;OF-mutuel;Imutuus
c n n v e r S a t i o n . п.; NE; <
c o m y n g , coming, verb, noun / ME conuersacion; OF
gerund, see comen; ME conversation; L conversation
comyxtioun, mixture, п.; ME; < OF corage, courage (heart), п.; ME; <
commistion OF corage; rel. to L cor
428
a(a,£e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(5)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-j[3(6)--u-v-w-x-y-z

corpora, п. plur.; see corpus; NE CUntre, country, п.; ME; <


OF countree
corpus, п.; NE; < L corpus
cure, п.; NE; < ME cure, OF cure,
cost, cost, п.; ME; < rel. to L cura
OF coster, v.; L constare
CWae5, quoth (obs., said), v., past t.
count, v.; NE; < ME counten, v., sing.; see cw£e6an; OE
weak 2; OF conter; L computare
cwaedan. (say), v., str. 5; OE
cours. course, п.; ME; < OF cours;
L cursus CVnin5, king, п., masc, a-stem; OE
COuthe. (un)couth (well-known, СУГ. cir, char, chore (odd job), п.,
hallowed), part. 2, see connen; masc, i-stem; OE > rel. toNE char
ME; < OE cunan; OE сиб in charwoman
cradel. cradle, п.; ME; < OE cradol cyrran, char (do a turn of work,
perform), v., weak 1;OE> rel. to
crocodile, п.; NE; < F crocodile; NE char in charwoman
L crocodilus; Gk крокобеЛоа
cyssan, kiss, v., weak 1; OE
croppe, crop, п., pi.; ME; < OE crop
cuman, come, v., str. 4; OE
PART 4. GLOSSARY

D octor visiting his patients

d a g , day, п., masc, astern; OE depend, v.; NE; < OF dependre;


L d e
daily, adj.; NE; < OE ds 3 -lic; Pendere
MEdayly description, п.; NE; < rel. to
data, „.; NE; < ME/OF date; L data f* ^ ^ * ;0 F ^ П ^ ' '
L descrTbere
d a t e l e s s , adj.; NE; < rel. to Н р ч ! г р „ . NV. . ME d e s i f e n v.,
й
testoE'Z date/datt£; L d3ta +
^1ЪрВЬ*£1А*
Ш day, „ , ME, NE; < OE d , 3 ; ^ w ^ ^ < <Ш ^ ^
ME also dffii destrutre
dead, dead, adj.; OE destruccioun destruction, п.; ME;
J
' <OF destruction
death, n.;NE;<OEde*s;MEdeth d e t e r m i n e > v.; NE; <
deaw., dew, n. masc/neut, wa-stem; ME determynen, v., weak 2,
OE OF determiner
debt, п.; NE; < ME dette; OF dette; deth, death, п.; ME; < OE dea6
L debita
deuise. device (plan), п., ENE; <
decline, (bend aside), v.; NE; < ME devys; OF devis
- H S y n e " ' °F
fLfdeclmare deCUner;
devout,
QF
devout, adj.; ME; <
d e y o t


?ilfV w n S 5 f«,« ; ME;
*" dewsen. devise (say, describe), v.,
OF defense; L defensa ~ ^ 2 ; M£; < OF deviser
degree, degree, n.;ME;< OF d&gr6t; d e v e n die v w e a J f e ; M£?; <
Lde+gradus —fejeyia
deorwurde, dearworth (precious), dictionary, п.; NE; < L dictionarius
adj; OE
430
a(a,£e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-{3(6)-u-v-w-x-y-z

die, v.; NE; < ME deyen/dien, v., dorston. dare, v., past t. pi., (see
weak; OSc deyja durranj; OE
different, adj.: NE: < F different: dosen, dozen, п.; NE; <
L different(em) ME dosayn; OF dosaine
d i r e c t l y , adv.; NE; < rel. to doth, does, see do, ENE
ME direct, of/; OF direct d o u b t . „.; NE; < ME doute;
disavauntage. disadvantage. /;.: OF doute
ME; < OF disavantage downe. down, adv., ENE; < OE of-
discomfort. п.; NE; < dune; ME a-doune
ME disconforten, v., weak 2; d r a w e n d r a w , v „ л б ш <
OF desconforter 0£dra 3 an; 0 draw after - imitate
disgust «•; ЛГЯ; < /• desgouster; d r i h t e n { Ш d) „. ,„ fl.
Ldis+gustare Sl^OE
Ш-Stemper'd, « g ; ЛГС; • < drmcan, drink, v.,^-.J;OF
MF distempere(d) re/, to '
OFdistempre,и. droghte, drought, /г.; ME; <
u3
d i s t r o y e n . destroy, v., weak 2; °
MF; < OF distruire drudgery, п.; NE; < rel. to OE
distrust, v.; NE; < ME dis- + trust, *%&*• v - ^ 2 ; M £ ё г е У е п +
/г., rel. to OSc traust, /г.
A »,„ лт- j - j duke, duke, /;.; MF; < OF due;
do, v.; NF; < OE don, anomal. v.; —^Ux
MF doon
J * „ ,,^/лг. J * d u m b e , dumb, adj., ENE; <
doctor, п.; NE; < ME/OF doctour; 0 Fdurnb; ME domb
L doctor
, „хт„ , durran. dare, v.. pret.-pres.: OE
doe, do, v., FiVF; see do ^
. . . . . . dweller, dweller, п.; ME; < rel. to
dommacioune, domination, п.; OEdwelkn v
ME; < OF dominacion;
L dominatio dydon, did, v., past t., pi. (see d5n;;
don, do, v., anom.; OE
л , I / r n>,j.n dyme, dime (one-tenth). /;.: ME; <
doon, do, anom. v.; ME; < OE don " ^ F d i s m e ; L decima
doone, done, part. 2; see do, ENE
PART 4. GLOSSARY

E mily - a personification
of spring

ёа, (river), n.Jem., root-stem (anom.); easy, adj.; NE; < ME esy; OF ese
0 E
ech. each, pron. indef.; ME; < OE %\c
вас, eke (also, as well), adv.; OE , , , , , -~ „ л р 5Яр
eek. eke (too), adv.; ME; < OE eac
eadmedan. (show submission), v.. «.. . . . , , .,. np >
—^aTVOE eft, (again, afterwards), ««?v.; CiJ >
rel. to NE after
ea^e,eye,n.neut.,n-stem;OE , , , . . „ ni? »UPS-
—*-' J ejs = else, adv.; NE; < OE ell»,
eald, old,flflf/.(сотр. yldra; sup. M£ elles/els
yWeSt;;
°E embrace, v.; iV£; < M£ embracen,
ealdian, (grow) old, v., weak 2; OE v., weak 2; OF embracer
ealdorman. alderdman, (chief), п., empeiren, impair, v., weak 2; ME; <
masc, root-stem; OE OF empeirer
eall. all,pron. indef. sing.; OE employ. v.\ NE; < F employer
ealle. pron. indef., pi. (see eallj; OE enable, v.; NE; < ME enablen, en- +
0 Fable;L habilis
ealne W J , always, adv.; OE
"^ Ш ' < 0 Eй
egril, adjJadv, NE; < OE a>rllce; ^ ^Ш ^ ,
ME erly end, v.; NE; < OE endian, v., weak I,
ME e n d e n
eart,^wesan;OE
> e n d ' "' ; ME' < 0 E
east, east, adv.; OE ^ ^
eastryhte, east right (to the east), "^Й^в^иЙГ'Я^
adv 0E
- Ldurare
eastwerd, eastward, (eastwards), e n e m v n • NE- < ME enemy;
«dv.;OE —Wtmrni'
432
a(a,a3)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-^(6)-u-v-w-x-y-z

engendren, engender,.v., weak 2; esterne. Easter, п.; ME; <


ME; < OF engendrer; L ingenerane OE Eastru
ennacture. (enactment),' п., ENE; < etan, eat, v., str. 5; OE
rel. to ME enacten, v.; NE enact ^ ^ ^ ^ < Q E ^
enough, adv.; NE; < OE 3enoh, ME evne/even(e)
Зепбз; ME inoh, enogh ^ ^ ady. m < QE _ f r e . ш ^
Ш entre e v e r i c h o n
^ f2,- Ot
O entrer
F ^ " "" Wmk ш . < QE
- ^У
- f r e -«J c Pron. indef,
enterprise, «.; NE; < OF enterprise ц ^ ^ p w n Ш ф .ш . <
eode. (went), v. anom., past t., see OE asfre
n 0E
3* '> evyr. ever, adv.: ME: < OE eefre
eojn, « e wesan; O£ experiens. experience, п.; ME; <
eorl, earl, (chief), п., masc, a-stem; OE OF experience
eorde, earth,n. fern.,n-stem; OE expressen, express, v., weak 2;
, , . ,.„ ME;<OFexpresser;Lexpressare
er, ere (before), adv/conj.; ME; <
OExr extremme. extremity, п., ENE; <
ME extremytee; OF extremite
ere, see our, OE „_ л п
i , „v /и? • 1 SS& п.; NE; < OE ea^, ME eye/yo
erles. earl, п.; ME; < OE eorl ^~ _
~— „ ___ ,. eyther. either, cow..ENE: < OEЩ-
erlj:, early, adv.; ME; < OE aer-lice hw£e5er; ME either
esen. ease, v., weak 2; ME; < OF eser
PART 4. GLOSSARY

F riar- a pillar of his Order

faeder, father, п. masc, r-stem; OE fauourite, favourite, п., ENE; <


MF favorit; Lfau6fem
faintly, adv.; NE; < ME feint;
OF feint + ly (OE licj favourable, adj. ;NE;<OF favour;
fltojjj. ad,, ENE; < OE f*3er; L
0™£&L«* ** ^
£а <
Mth, я7лЖ;< ME feith; OF feid; ^ ^ о и г ^ а " о г "^ ^ '
OI t a v o u r Ь t a v o r
L fides; 0 «ri.; by my faith! '
fain й
M l , v.; NE; < OE feallan, v., 5Гг. 7 ^ ' ' * ; М ^ ! < °E f ^ n
ME fallen fe, fee, п.; ME; < OE feoh; OF fe
f a l l e ( n ) . fall, v., str. 7; ME; < feare. fear, п., ENE; < OE fSr;
0 £ feallan ME feet
fandian. (explore, try, prove), v., weak feare, fear, v., ENE; < OE Шгап, V:-.
2; OE weak 1; ME feren
£ar,adj./adv.;NE;<OEfeor;MEkr f e a t u r e , п.; NE; < ME feture,
featUre; OF Шк
'>L Ш Ш
faran. fare (go, travel), v., str. 6; OE
fare, v.; NE; < OE faran, v., str. 6; Шш> f
™>adJ-'0E
ME faren feeling, п.; NE; < rel. to OE felatt,
Щщ, see fa, ENE v., weak 1; ME Men
fat nAi • MF- *• nv ten- M P <v fel, (skin, hide), n. neut., a-stem; OE
tat, adj.,Nb,< Ub rastt; Mb tat — у r ^ (Q NE f e e j
< Ш fate F Ы ; 13
^Шт^' '' ° fe ' (^my),adjyadv.;OE
jy-. . r „ . л „ felaweshipe, fellowship,».; ME; <
tffitniS, fatness,n.fem.,jo-stem; OE O~ScWaS~
434
a(a,s)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-.j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-jj(5)-u-v-w-x-y-z

fellow. n.\ NE; < ME fellawe; rel. to follow, v.; NE; < OE fo^ian, v., weak
Sc felagi 2; ME followen
feor, far,adv.;OE fonden, (try), v., weak 2; ME; <
"miMer, four, num.; OE <W flndian
f e m e , (old, far-off), adj, ME; < MJor (because of), co,ijSPrep,;OE,
OE fyrn '
iWfi,™ * ^.u * M. J- **r? forbeden, forbid, v., str. 2; ME; <
« £ £ , farther, further, adj.; ME; < OEfor-kodm
OE feor; fyrra (comp. degree)
fest, feast, „.; ME; < OF feste; ferdon, (destroy), v.; J e e do; ^
L festa forget v.; NE; < OE for-3ytan, v.,
trt r- ,-,„ str. 5; OSc geten; ME forgeten
III, five, num.; OE
fj f - ntx _. t , ~.t „,. former, a<//.; ME; < (?£• forma;
tlttene. fifteen (one-fifteenth), /ZHHI.; M/? former
ME; < OE fif-tyne " °
«. , .._, __, ,. , fortune, ».; A^g; < ME fortune;
hM, v. NE; < OE findan; 6»F fortune; £ fortuna
ME fynden
findan, find, ,,st,3;OE todb, toth. o*.;OT
fire, «,^;<^ryr;M£fir ^MmU, ^),conj,OE
firmness. „, iV^; < ME, OF ferme; ferfean, (because), c . n ; , ^
Lfirmus+ 0 # -nisj forward, forward, n.; ME; < OE fore-
~ . , , , weard
Iirrest. farthest, adv., superl. d.; see
fio7; OE foul, foul (ugly), adj.; ME; < OE ful
first, num. / adj. /adv.; ME, NE; < fountain, n.; NE; < ME fontayne;
OE fyrst; ME also firste OF fontaine; L fontana
fiscad. fiscod, (fishing),«., /nflJC, a- foure, four, ;iwn.; Af£; < OE feower
•rt'«w; ^ ^ fowel. fowl (bird),«.; M£; <OE firjol
jSote, float (fleet),«., majc., «^«»; f^^^ {tomtprep_. 0E
OE
fre uenCV
flour, flower, n,ME;<OF flour q ' "-; ^ <; ME
L frec uentia
l F
flower. „.; NE; < ME flour; k f f J T ' "" ' <° "^
OF flour; Lflorem,ace. of flos
fl^e,fly,v., O f t < Otf fleo3an, , , ^ ^ "* < °E f r 5 o n d ;
str. 2; ME flyen
fitlfi, folk (people), „., M « t . a ^ « . ; to, torn,prep, ME; <0E Mm
OE from, advJprep.; OE, ME, NE; <
folk. n.;ME,m<OB folc OE also fAm
435
PART 4. GLOSSARY

fruite. fruit, п., ENE; < ME fruit; function, п.; NE; < F fonction;
OF fruit; L fructus L functio
frum-cenneda, (first-born), adj.; fyllan. fill (completely satisfy), v.,
OE weak h OE
fill, full (most, very), adj/adv.; ME; < fyrd. (army, military expedition), п.,
OEM fem.,i-stem;OE
Ы, full, adj.; OE fjjvg, five, num.; ME; < OE fif
full, adj.; NE; < OE, ME ful
G unfire diagram

gan. go, v. anom. (past t. - eodej; g e m a r t y r o d , part. 2; see


OE 3emartyriart; OE
garren. (growl), v., weak; ME;< rel. general adj.; NE; < OF general;
to ОЕзуггап Lgeneralis
gather, v.; NE; < OE 3aderian, v., generally, adv.; NE; < OF general;
weak 2; ME gaderen L generalise OE lie
3 | a , yea (yes), particle; OE gentilMman. gentleman, п.; ME; <
л_ с/. F gentilhomme
Зёаг, year, и., neut., a-stem; OE , •• . ; •
. , gentle, adj.; NE; < OF gentil;
g e a r w i a n . (make ready, make, ^ gen tilis
clothe), v., weak 2; OE A1
gentleman, « e gentle, man
^ebl^ed. see bv^an; OE *—~ .,„ n r ..,
** , J ' л i лп gentleness. «.; ЛЖ; < OF gentil;
^ebogen. part. 2; see Ьпзап; OE XgentTlis + (?£ nis
gebfln. part. 2; see bQan; OE gere. year, /г.; Affi1; < OE зёаг
gecneow. see cnawan; OF, gerly. yearly,flrfv.;ME; < OE 3Sai- +
lice
gedruncen. see drincan; OE
qeeadmedun, see eadmedan; OE s e s e a h saw, v., past t., sing.; see
° seon; OE
Seferen, part. 2; see faran; 0 * g e s g o n . s e e s6on; 0 £
З е Щ Ы , see fyllan; O£ ? e s e t t a n . set, v., weak V; №
SeSEipian, see 3rapian; O£ g e . s i ? I a n , s a i I ,,,, шак 1; OE
Sehlrde, see hyran ; № з § § Ш й > ^ ^ ^
gemartyrian. martyr, v, weak 2;
OE > rel. to NE martvr
437
PART 4. GLOSSARY

get, v.;iVE;<0£3ytan/3etan, v.,str. grateful, adj.; NE; < OF grat-;


5; OSc geta; ME geten L gratus + - ful (E)
5efoeode. (language), п., neut., ja- graunten, grant, v., weak 2; ME', <
stem; OE OF graanter, creanter; L creantare,
K; credentia
3if, if (except), conj.', ME; < OE 3 if >"•
<
W* ё
Шу,ш1,Ж;<0Е5уЩ ^Veef'•' ^ ^ ' ^
3 i s ^ (hostage), п., masc, astern; ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ . ME. < 0 E ъхШ

31ШШ1, (givehostages),., , ^ 2 ; ^tSStJ^^^


griefe> 8rief' "- Ж Я ;
<М ^ greef;
2ive vNE-< OE ^ifan v йг 5-

;
glad, «*•; m < OE 5Ш; ME glad « ^ g
^ ' -• ^ f ^
go. v.; Л^£; < OE зап, suppl.; OF grever; Lgravare
MB goon f&i^ grievous. «^.; MJ; < r«Z. »
3Od, god, masc, a-steml OE OF grever, v.; L grauare -.
5od. good, arf/. {decrees of сотр.: grisbayting. grist biting (gritting of
betera, betst); OE teeth), п.; ME; < OE 3rist-betun3
good, good, adj./п.; ME, NE; < g r o u n d , п.; NE; < OE 3™ n d ;
OE 3od; betst (superl. degree) ME ground
g o o d l y , goodly, adj.; ME; < grow, v.:NE; < OE?rowan, v., str. 7;
OE 3od-Hc ME growen
goon, go, verb, anom. v.; ME; < g u e s t п.; NE; < OE 3iest; rel. to
OE^an OSc gestr; ME guest
gramer, grammar, п.; ME; < OF g u i d e , v.; NE; < ME gyden;
graniraaire; L grammatica; OF guier; F guider
Gk урариатисг)
5 r 5 p i a n . grope (touch, feel by.
touch), v., weak 2; OE
_a(a,ge)-b-c-d-e-f-g(,^)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-b(5)-u-v-w-x-y-z

habban. have, v., weak3; OE harrynge. (with rolling "r"),


gerund, see harren
had, see han, haven ; ME..
hart heart, п., ENE; < OE theorte;
hadde. had, see haven • ME herte
haefde, had; see habban; OE hasten, hasten, v., weak 2; ME; <
halve, half,aclj.;ME;,<OEhmlf "' - OF haster •
halwe. hallow, (saint), п.; ME; < hath, see have, ENE
OEhal^a . . ,' haue, see have, ENE.
ham, home, n.,ntosc, a-stem; OE have, v.; ЛЖ; < OE habban; v., wea/c
han. haven, have, v., weak 3;>ME; 3; ME haven
., <O£habb.an .. haven, have, v.. weak 3: ME: <
hand, hand, n.fenu u-stern; OE • O£ habban
:
hand, п.:NE\ < ОЕ ЪШ\MEhond haven, n.\NR\ < OE haifan,
' hasfene; ME havene
handjign, handle, v., weaA; 2; OE . , .,
he, he, /?ran. pera. (ЙСС. hme, «a/.
haply, (probably), «&"., ЯЛЖ; < rel. , him, *ei*. hisj; OE .
to ДЖ hap, noun; OSc happ .
he, he, pron. pars.; ME, NE; <
happy, adj.; NE; < rel. to ME hap, QE he
""SchapP head, п.; NE; < OE hSafod;
h a r d , adj.; NE; < OE heard; i № heed
ME hard
healdan. heoldon. hold, v., str. 7;
• harme. harm, п.; ME; < OE hearm QE
harren. (speak with rolling "r"), v., healf, half, n.Jem., o-stem; OE
. weak; ME; < (imit.)
439
PART 4. GLOSSARY

health, п.; NE; < OF ЬГБШ, hS15u; here, adv.; NE; < OE her; ME heer
ME h d t h e
here, their, pron. pass., pi; ME; <
hearing, gerund/verbal п.; NE; < 02?hira,heora,hiera,hyra
rel. to OE hyran, v., weak 1; or . „_л„ u л ц . Ш7- <

OEhyrin3)n,MEhering(e),„. **%&£?• V" " ^ ' '


Ь 1
^ ЙЬ5: ; мр S h^2f h e ° r C n i a n ' heretik. heretic, п.; ME; <
v.,weak2,MEbatea " ^ " h e r e t i q u e ; L haereticus;
heat, п.; NE; < OE hstu; ME hete GA: aipenKo?
h e a v e n , п.; NE; < OE heofon, herself, pron. reflex.; NE; see her, +
hefon; ME heuen OE, ME, NE self
hed. head, п.; ME; < OE heafod hetherto. hitherto, adv., ENE; <
heeje = he4L£;V2? OE, ME hider-to
heele. heel,«.; M£; < ШШ1а М, Me ( t h e y ) , / ; ^ . ^ ^ ; ^
hgere, here, adv., ЯЛЖ; < OE her; Ь ^ ' hither'adv- 0 E vr.p.
ME heer hie, (hurried - poet, arch.), v., » •
< 0 E h i 3 i a n (»'& ME hye6&
heeth. heath,«.; ME; <ОЕЬГЯ
heir, п.; NEj < ME/OF heir; b t a , (their),pron.per*.,seebM*,
L herem, heredem
held, held, see holden,; M£ Ь М , p/wi. pen.; ME, ЛВ;.< OB him,
hire
hebrt.;^;<O£help,MEhelp hme,(him),pr O n.pm.;^h5;^
hfi Г М
feelphan1P' " ' " - ^' £ ;<
Ьшт, (their)^^./,^,,^^,!^
hS Ш
? b * h T £ m ' ' O T - * • '•' МП, «heir, P ™ , Pos,, pi, ME; <
OE hyra/hira
m
da^^^&CC-% hke^Pro,per*,seeMo;OE
> h i s ' p r o n ' p e r s A s e e Ы'> °Е
Ш
heofon, heaven, n. masc, astern; _, .
OE his, his, pron. poss., masc; ME, NE;
< 0 E h i s (prO7h perS }
her, (their), pron. pers.; ME; < '
OE hie hit, it, pron. pers. (dot. him, gen-
his ); O i ?
her, pron. pers.; NE; < OE hire; ' • . _,
ME her(e). hlaf, loaf (bread), n. masc, a-stem; Oh
herd, heard, see heren,; ME hlaefdfoe, lady, n.,fem., n-stem; OE
here, (army), п., masc.Ja-stem; OE hlaford, lord,п., masc, astern; OE
440
_a(a,^)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-|3C5)-u-v-w.-x-v-z

hlvstan. listen, v., weak 1; OE huntod, (hunting), п., masc, a-stem;


OE
hold, v.; NE; < OE healdan, v., str. 7;
ME heold(en) husband, п.; NE; < OE hus-bond;
ME husbonde; OSc hiisb6ndi
h o l d e n . hold, v., str. 7; ME; <
OE healdan hwaelhunta, whale hunt(er),
(whaleman), п., masc, n-stem; OE
hollow, adj.; NE; < rel. to OE holh,
п.; ME holow, adj. hwaenne, when, adverb; OE
holt, holt, п.; ME; < OE holt hwaet, what, pron. intenog. /indef.;
OE
holy, adj.; NE; < OE ЬаНз; ME holy
hwaite, wheat, n. masc, ja-stem; OE
hom, h o o m . home, п.; ME; <
OEhmn hwaeder, whether, conj.; OE
home, п.; NE; < OE ham; ME hoom hwll while,n.,fem., i-stem;OE
honour, v.; NE; <ME honour(en), v., hwon, (a little), adv/adj.; OE
weak 2; OF honorer hy. hi» Ый, (they), pron. pers. (dat.
hooly. holy, adj.; ME; < OE hali3 him, gen. hyra, hiera, heoraj; OE
booth, see ooth ; ME hyd. hide (skin), п., fern., i-stem; OE
hojje, п.; NE; < OE hopa; ME hope hym. him, pron. pers.; ME; <
OE him, hine
hors-hwael. whale (walrus), п., masc,
a-stem; OE hymMself. himself (themselves),
pron. reflexive; ME; <
horsian. (supply with horses), v., OE him+self
weak 2; OE > rel. to NE horse
hyne. hind (member of a household,
k o s t e l r y e . hostelry, п.; ME; < farm worker, etc.), «• masc,
OF hostellerie n-stem; OE
how, adv.; ME, NE; < OE Ш hypothesis; п.; NE; <
hraedlice. (quickly, soon), adj.; OE L hypothesis; Gk wcoQeaiq
Ы, how, adv.; OE iiyran, hear, v., weak 1; OE
h u n d r e d , hundred, п.; ME; < hys, his (its), pron. pers.; see he and
OE hund-red hit; OE
PART 4. GLOSSARY

I .nnkeeper serving a meal

I, pron. pen.; ME, NE; < OE ic; infecten. infect, v., weak 2; ME; <
ME also: ich rel. to OF infect, past part.)
L see yen L infectus
im in adv ME
& see 3 ea; OE ^' ' '> > < 0E i n
1c, I, pron. pers. (ace. mec, me, dot. '^^in'adv/'0E
me, gen. minj; OE i-now. enough, adv.; ME; < OE 3 e "
1-chaunged. changed, part. 2; see
chaungen inscribe, v.; NE; < L inscrlbere
idel. idle (vain, empty), adj.; ME; < inspiren. inspire, v., weak 2; ME; <
OE Idel OF inspirer; L inspirare
if, conj.; ME, NE; < OE $.f; ME also instance, n.; NE; < ME instaunce;
3if OF instance
i-knowe. known, adjJpart. 2; see instructour, instructor, n.; ME; <
knowen L instructor
3L!ie = r i l ; ENE into, into, prep.; OE, ME, NE
i-leffc Mt,part. 2;seeleven introspection. «.; NE; < rel. to
L
llond. island, „.; ME; < 0Z?I3-land i^spicere, v.
MHedJed, meddled (mingled),
B
adj./ i n v e n t o r y , w.; NE; < rel. to
part. 2; see medlen * J F mventer; L muent+are
import ,;NE;<rel. to OF porter; iny^gator, ^J^
L portare ^ investrgator; cf. F investigated
in, in, prep.; OE, ME, NE iourneve. see journey, ENE
include, v.; NE; < L includere
442
a(a,a&)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-i3(9)-u-v-w-x-y-z

iflX> joy, «., ENE; < ME joye; l-tau^t taught, pdrt.2,,see techen;
ftFjoie;Z,gaudia MB
i2X§> joy, v., ENE) < ME joyen, v., i-tolde, told, part. 2; see tellen; MB
. W e ^ 2 ; 0 F J"our Wised, used, port. 2; J e e usen; M £
1§, see be; iV£; been; M ^ j.woned. wont (accustomed), part.
iir it, pron. pers., neut:, ME, NE; < 2; see wonien; ME
OEhit
PART 4. GLOSSARY

I esters amusing the king

jest. «.; NE; < ME/OF geste; joye. joy, «.; ME; < OF joie;
L gesta; 0 ME tell a "geste" - tell L gaudia
tales like a professional storyteller, . . . , n. MF-<
"gestour" JOVen, rejoice, v.; weak 2; Mil, <
OF jour; L gaiudere
MB
^ W i ^ S a " ' 0We ' ; J W judge, „, ME; < OF juge;
Ljudex
journey, «.; A^E; < ME journee;
OFjournee
.a(a,^)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-b(9)-u-v-w-x-y-z

K ight infallarmour

li§§E, V.; NE; < OE cepan, v., weak kiss, v.; NE; < OE cyssan* v., weak
2; ME kepen 1\ ME kissen
feggge, see keep, v., ENE knee, «.; A^; < OE cneo; M£ cneo,
kne
k e g e r , keeper, n.; MJE; < cf.
OScepan know, v.: NE; < OE cnawaru v.. str.
«„-„, .T_ __ • ,_,_, 7;MEknowen
Kgy, /?.; A^JS; < OE CBB3; M£ keye
mi »rr» ^.r. n / » Ioiowen, kno^y) v., •j/r. 7; ME; <
gm,v.;NE';<OEcyllan,v.,weakl] 0E cn g wan
ME1 killen
M M , a*'.; ^ ; < OS cynde; tattStt Wght.n.;MB;<OTcnihr
M£ kynde kunnep. can, see connen; ME
kindling, adj.; NE; < ME kindel kyng, king,«.; ME; < OE cynin3
finf.) rel. to OSc kynd-a
king. n.;ME, NE; < OE cynin3
PART 4. GLOSSARY

L awyer- servant of Justice

labouren. labour, v., weak 2; ME; < Iawe, law, n.; ME; < OE Ia3u; e/j
OF labourer; L laborare OSc log
lacke, lack, v., ENE; < ME lakken, lay., lay, adj.; ME; < OF lai; L laicusj
V Weak 2
" lav, v,: A^JB; < 0 E Iec3an, v., we^
lady, lady, n.; ME; < OE hla;fdl3e; 1; past t. Xz^de, ; ME leggen;
ME also ladye leyen; past t. leide
l a m e n t n.; NE; < rel. to F lamenter, lead, v.; NE; < OE lffidan, v., weak 1\
verb iWEleden ,r
land, land, n., «eM?., a-stem; OE learn, v.; NE', < OE leornian, v., weak
land, land, n.;ME;<OEland 2;M£:iernen

lar, lore (teaching), n. fern., o-stem; Iegacion< legacJOUS. legation, n.\


ME; < OF legation; L legatio
<
^Wiargfi'larlS ^ ^ iMf, Hef (dear, beloved), ^ ; , ^ -f
lasse. less, adj., comp. degree of 1123311, lie (tell lies), v.,str.2;OE >
litel; ME; < OE laessa l e r n e n , learn, v., weak 2; ME; <
0E l e o r n i a n
last, v.; NE; < OE testan, v., weak 1; ''
ME lasten, lesten lesen. lose, v., sfr. 2; ME; >f
iltan,let,v.,^.7;O^ O£leosan
i * i- ATT- /«ji t , „ , lesing. losing (loss, perdition),
late, adj.; NE; < OE 1st; ME lat —J^nd, see lesen; ME
446
a(a,^)-b-c-d-ft-f-g(^)-h-i-j-k-I-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-l3(5)-u-v-w-x-y-z

ifiSSfin, n.\ NE; < ME lessoun; location, n.;NE: <Llocation


OFle9on;Z,lectionem Joj±, v.; M?; < OE lucan, v., ,m 2;
ifiSSOun, lesson, n.; ME; < ME lokken
OFkgo^L lectio ]ond, land, „ , ME; <OE fond
let, v. A®; < 0E Uetan; Affi leten M g ^ .m . <m ^ m ,ong
Mm, Hv.,str. 7i-m<0El**m l o n g a g e . i a n g u a g e , „.. M E ; <
ifiiler, «.; NE; < ME lettre; OF langage, langue; L lingua
OFlettre;Llittera . . . longe. l o n g . ^ v . : ^
mm, leave, v., weak 1; ME; < [ongen, long (belong), v., weak 2;
uziaztan ME; < OE lanyan
llcsan, lie (rest), v., str. 5; OE j fiO j £; v . ^ g . < 0 £ : 1Scian> v-> w g a j t
fician, like (please), v-.H'^/t ;;£>£" 2;Affiloken
Ikpur, liquor (moisture),«.; M^; < lord, «.; A?£; < O£ hlaford;
OF licur,L liquor MSIorde
Ue, (rest) v.; MJ; < OE lic^n v., j/r. Ifirde, lord, «.; MB; < O£" hlaford
• 5, ME liggan/lyen lore, lore, n.; ME; < <?^ lar
Mt, left, «#.; ME1; < OE lyffleft j 0 J g ) v>. NE; < 0E ] o s i a n ) v>> weak j .
iikg, fl^-.; NE; < OE 3e-lTc; ME y- ME losen
lic
h. Hk .. toue, jee love,«., EiVE
likely, arfv.; MB; < OE 3e-lic; ME y- j o u e see h E m
" lich, lik + OE -lie, ME -ly "
... ,„ 1/p ,, love, /;.; WE; < OE lufu; ME love
llkne. liken, v.. weak 2; ME; < rel. to
•• OE 3e-llc, adj. love, v.; NE; <; < OE lufian, v., weak
linguistic, ail; NE; < F linguiste 2; ME loven
(L lingua + ist) + OE-Tc love-Kindlmg. arfy. (composite),
litlest, (least, smallest), ^ ; . ^ H . ^ « • l o ^ k i n d l i "§
ofe^. <7/litel, EiVE; < OE lytel; test lustllce. lustily (willingly, gladly),
(superldegr.); ME litel, leste adv.; OE
Hue, see live, v., EiVE l^e, lie, v., ENE; < OE Iic3an, v., str.
live, v.;NE;<OElibban,v.,weak3; 5;ME\yen
ME liven lyen. lie (stay), v., j^r. 5; ME; <
OE I i c a n
lively j«e living, ENE 3
livingl adj./part. 1, NE; < rel. to
#Elibban v., weak 3 I; lifian;
ME lyven
447
PART 4. GLOSSARY

M .agician consulting the stars

macian, make, v., weak 2; OE man, man (one),pron. indef.; OE


mad(e). see maken,; ME man, man, п., masc, root-stem; OE
made(n).madcpastt...yeemaken m a n , man, и.; OE, ME* NE; <
made, part. 2 see make. NE OE also man
mXm,™y,V.,Pre,-PreS,OE «^SS^ ^ ^
magazine, п.; NE; < F magasin . „.. NE; < OF maniere;
m a n n e r

masgd. (kin, clan, tribe), n. fem., Lmanena


o-stem; OE many, adj. I adv. /pron,) MB, NE; <
maid, maid (priestess), п.; NE; < ОЕтЫз
OE m^en; ME mayde(n) ш ^ „,„,,„. M £ . < 0 E m a r c
ШШЬ mas,er, „ , ME; < ^ < m e a r o i a n , v .,
3
- weafc 2; MJS marken
^МЁ тайп °* ™С™'"" " * * marriage, п.; NE; < ME manage;:
' <?F manage
m a t e make, v . wefl/c 2 ; . № < m a r r y . • i n t e r j e c t i o i i , NE; <•
Ub macian . M£ marie 0 used in ME as an
m a l a d y , п.; NE; < F maladie; oath by St.Mary
M£maladie
martir,martyr,«.;№;<O£:,martyr;
malice, malice, п.; ME; < Lmartyr
OF malice; L malitia, malicia m g e s t e , most, adj., superl. degr.; seet
m a l l i c o , malice, п., ENE; < mycel;OE
OF malice; L malicia m a t e r ( e ) , matter, п.; ME; <
malvs, see malice ; ME OF matiere; L materia
448
a{a,a)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-K5)'U-v-w-x-y-z

^^Snal, n.,NE; < ME materyal; micel, much (big), adj.; OE


£ materialis . , ,
micelnvs, (greatness, size;
fflay, v.; NE; < OE m&ym (in/), mae3 multitude), n. fern., jo-stem; OE
(pres. sing.),Pret.-pres-ME may m M ^ 0$. ME; < OEmiek ,
m,mQ,Pron.pers,seeic;OE ^A^i^prep-OE
m
£°n' ^^ UE m
' <
°E mS>
"iM^nwinter.midwinter, n.,masc,
u-stem; OE
ffl^flte, might,v.,p^f.; Je ema 3 an; m i d d e l m i d d l e > adu ME; <
. OE middel
^^ME'menen °E m*mU' ^ "** mMe
' m i g h t V past
' " "' Se° m^m'
ffi^ins, n.; NE; < ret. to mM%, mi&ty,adj.; OE
vb masnan, v., weak 1; •*'
MBmenen- mln, mine (my), prpn. posses., sing.;
0E
fflgdiai, meilen. (mingle), v., weak
2; ME; < OF medler mine, mine (my), pron. posses.,
mpii.,,, .. . ,. A?J?. . plural,seemin; OE
IHEUOW, (ripe), adj.; NE; < ^ _
ME melwe, rel. to OE melu,«. mine, pron. poss.; NE; < OE min;
ME
mellxnge, mingling, verbal noun; ™a
see medlen miscall, v.; NE; < OE mis +
m , , , , „ OSc kalla; OEceallian,v., weak2;
m e l o d i e , melody, n.; ME; < j^caiien
OF melodie; L melodia; 0 maken . . . . ,. . .,..„
melodye - sing (phrasal unit) mischiefe, mischief, ;
n., tNt; <
_ . _,.,-, ^ M£'meschief;£?i 'meschief
n i e m o r i e , memory, «., ENE; < , .
MiB memorie; OF memorie; misery, /«.; A^^; < OF misene;
Lmemoria LmiserM
meny. many, adj./pron.; ME; < mister, n.;NE; < OF maistre
O£ m5ni3 mistress,«.; NE; < ME maystresse,
metan. meet, v., weak 1;OE OF maistresse
mete, meat (food), n. masc, i-stem; moche, much, adv.; ME; < OE micle
OE modor, mother, n.fem., r-stem; OE
mettian, (supply withfood),v., weak ( m^n) QE
2;OE> ret. to NE meat ' \
,
meyntenen. , . (aid),
maintain . .,. v., weak> monas-
* »month, n., masc, t-stem; OE
2; ME; < OF maintenir; L manu money, n.; NE; < ME moneye;
tenere ("hold in the hand") OF moneie; L moneta
449
PART 4. GLOSSARY

monies, see money munching, {now dial - s k ^ m g '


stealing up to), n.; Nh; <
month, month, n.; ME; < OE monaf) ME mychen, weak; OF muchier
m o o n , n.; NE; < OE mona; munificent, adj.; NE; <rd-J°
ME mone F munificence, n.; L mumdicenQa
more, adj. /adv.; ME, NE; < OE mar m u s t , v.; NE; < OE mot, most (pafi,
morning. «.; NE\ < pret.-pres.; ME moot, mostW,
OE mor3en, morwen + OE uny, must (past)
ME morwen, morn(e) + ing
mu5a. mouth (ofthe river), n.,mash
most, adj. I pron.; NE; < OE maest; n-stem; OE
ME moost
my. pron. poss.; ME, NE; < OE nun;
m o t h e r , n.; NE; < OE modor;
ME moder ME also myn(e)
o u e . move, v., ENE; < mycel. much (many of), advJadj:, OE
ME mov(en), v., weak 2; myddel. middle,«.; ME; <OE*M&
OF movoir
m u c h , adv.; NE; < OE micle;
ME much(el)
a(a,a5)-b-c-d-ft-f-g(^)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-f3(5)-u-v-w-x-y-z

N«.
US, no," adv. /neg. part; OE neah, nigh, near (nearly), adj. /adv. /
"• prep.; OE; see also near
HaU no, negat. particle; ME; <
OE na nealaecan, (approach), v., we«/t /;
nacjjoun, nation, «.; MJE; < _ . •„,
Of nacion; £ natio nealeante, see nealascan; OE
aacod, naked off.; 6>J? DME, 1 «^- / a<iv - ; Arj?= < 0 £ : n6ar J
MJE nerre
fian = ne+an, not one, (no one, not _
a siniie),^7™. /**•; ^ nea£, mgh, near (nearly) adj. /adv. /
Mnre = ne+anre, not one, (no one,
^^oTashTglel^n.n^.j^nan; necessary, arfy.; iV5; <
& r
Qg ME necessane; OF necessaire
nan sins, nothing, n. neut., a-stem; n e £ ^ , neck, n., ENE; < OE hnecca;
-Qjg—•*' M& nekke
rises. = ne wais, see wesan; 6>J? need, n.; NE; < OE nyd, AflS need
nat = ne+wat see wltan; OE neede, need, v., ENE; < OE nydan,
, , ,.„ v., weak I; ME neden
natheless, nevertheless, adv.; ME;
<OEni-bv-lSs needes, needs, adv., ENE; <
<c/inapy O£: nyde; ME nede(s)
nativite, nativity, n.; ME; < ...
OF nativite; L natlvitas neitner, con].; NE; < OE ne+a33-
„„ «„ . hwa}3er; ME neither
nature, «.; ME, NE; < OF nature;
—XTnltura neuer,_ never, adv., ENE; <
,. n.in i <?£ naefre; ME never(e)
naught, naughty, arf;., £W£; < rel.
to OE na-wiht; ME naught nevyr. never, adv.; ME; < OE naefre
ne not, neg. part.; OE new, adj.; NE; < OE newe, ME newe
' 451
PART 4. GLOSSARY

new-fired, part. 2 (composite) of not, negat. particle, NE; < OE na-


(new) fire (v), NE; see new, fire wiht; ME not
news, (tidings), n.,NE translation note, п.; NE; < F note; L nota
(caique) ofF nouvelles
noten. note, v.; ME; < OF nqter;
newspaper, п., see news, paper; L notare
NE
nojteles, nevertheless, q'dv.; ME. <
niman, (take), v., str. 4; OE OE na-fiy-ljes
ПО. pron. indef.; NE; < OE no, nothing, pron. indef.; NE; <
ME no OE папфтз; ME no-thing
nolde = ne+WOlde. v.; see willan; nomt. not (not in the least), adv.;
OE ME; <0Ena-with
nominally, adv.; NE; < F nominal; n o v e l , п.; NE; < It novella;
L nominalis + OE He F nouvelle
none, pron. neg.; NE; < OE nan; novelty, п.; NE' < OF noveliteit;
ME noon L nouellitatem
nor, conj.; NE; < OE na-hwas5er; now. adv.;ME,NE;<OEm
ME nor
nfl, now, adv.; OE
norf), north, adv.; OE
numerous. adj.;NE;< F numereiw,
norban. north (from the north), adv.; L numerosus + F ous
OE
nyght. night, п.; ME; < OE nib
погфегпе. northern, adj.; ME\ <
Ш?погдегпе nyh, near,prep./adv. /adj.; ME;<
OE neah
norfjmest.riorthmost,adv.; OE
nyne. nine, num.; ME; < OE шЗ<эп
norforyhte. north right (straight to the
north), adv.; OE nysse = ne wisse. v,; see witan; OE
norf)Ward. northward, adj., used nyste = ne wiste. v.; see witan; OjE
adverbially; OE
_a(a,ffi)-b-c-ci-e-f-g(3)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-|j(a)-u-v-w-x-y-2

bservance of Sunday fl

obiective,arf/.;A^;<tobjectTvus o n l i , adj.; NE; < OE an-lic;


k • MI? Meoonlicn
ft
~ff<£2vsSe!ianj S'ME observed onto, onto, pre/;.; ME; < OE unto
v.; F observer; I observare g g ^ one> numAME; < OE an
gbgervg, v.; NE; <OF observer; QQ^ o a t h ) fl . M £ ; < 0 £ a S

iobseruare open, open, adj.;


y
ME; < OE open
flccas oh. n.; NE; < OF occas.oun; " * — ' ; ^
it occasionem fififrant, (effective), arfj.; NE; <
_ iT_, I. operant; fre/,tooperate, v)
^rffr-ftWOWflWW npinLn. opinion, „, ME; <
LQierj, over, advJprep.; OE OF opinion; L opTnio
Office, n.; NE; < ME office; o p p r e s s e n o p p r e s s e ) v-i w e a ^ 2;
£, officium ME; < OF oppresser; L opressare
oft, see often, adv., ENE Oj^ conj-. # # . < ^ £ a-hw^er,
o f ten< adv) tffc < ^ oft; ME oft/ awjier; ME other, outher, auther
often gvtf&,adj.;NE;<OFoTbQ;Lorbis
on, on (in, by), prep, /adv.; OE, ME, o r d e r l y adj . NE. < rd w M£
NE ordre, n.; OF ordre
gngrgdall,dread,v,str.7;OE S£& e r e ( b e f o r e ) j conj^ ENE. <

one, ««;«•; A*; < OE Sn>ME o o n 0E S r ; M £ l e r / o r

o»3Mtt» a 2 a i n ' against, «rfv. /prep.; Oterauns. outeraunce. utterance


—^jjfi (extremity), «.; ME; < rel. to
^ y ^ (grasp, perceive, OEKadv,MEo^co,nP.de8.
fia +t ance
Sfestend>feel),«'.,^r.5;O£
453
PART 4. GLOSSARY

od, (till, until), prep, /conj.; OE Ours, pron. poss.; NE; < OE ure;
ME ours
брег, other, pron. indef.; OE
OUrselues. ourselves, pron. reflex.,
Oper, Opere. other, pron. indef.; ENE; < OE Ore+self(ves);
ME; < OE ббег ME ourselves
Oppe, (or), conj.; OE Out, adv.; NE; < OE ut; ME out
ouerthrowe. v., ENE; < over, adv. /prep.; NE; <OE.ofer,
OE ofer+jpriman, v., str. 7; ME ouer
ME over-throwen
o v y r , over (too), adv.; ME; <
ought see owe, ENE OE ofer
ought, v. modal, NE; < OE a^an Owe, (possess), v.; NE; < OE азап;
(inf), ahte (past), pret.-pres.; ME азеп, awen, owen
ME aughte, oughte
OWne. own, adj.; ME; ENE; <
our, pron. poss.; NE; < OE ure; OE азеп; ME also owen
ME our
pure, our, pron. poss.; ME; < OE ure
a(a,^)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-bCQ)-u-v-w-x-y-z

P. rioress on a pilgrimage

Дасеп, расе, v., weak 2; ME; < peace, п.; NE; < ME, OF pais;
OF passer ' ipacem
mimer, paImer,/i.;Af£;<0Fpalmier peple, people, п.;ME; < OFpueple;
L
»,« populus
fiap_er, п.; OE, ME, NE; < .
£ papyrus; G*ramupogfrwZ>.of percen, pierce, v., и><^ 2; ME; <
WrL «W OFpercier
Barlement. parliament, п.; ME; < perfectly adv.; NE; < ME perfit;
0 F
OFparlement P a r f i t ; L Perfectus+ OE he
particular arfy.; Л^; < permit, v.; NE; < OF permettre;
ME particuler; OF particulier L permittere
passen pass/pace, v., weak 2; ME; peyne, pain, я.; ME; < OF peine;
Poena
L
^OF'passer
Passion, /г.; ME; < MiS passioun; piece, п.; NE; < ME/OF piece
OF passion; L passio p i l g r i m , pilgrim, л.; МЯ; <
path, п.; NE; < OE ршб; ME path OF pelegrin; L peregrmus
Patiently, adv.; NE; < rel. to pilgrimage, pilgrimage, п.; ME; <
ME patient, adj., OF patient, OF pelegrinage or derived from
L patens, n. MEpilgrym
p a t r o n , п.; NE; < F patron; place, place, п.; ME; < OF place;
L patronum L platea
pay. V.;NE;<ME payen, weak 1 or plate, п.; NE; < ME/OF plate;
2; OF paier L platta
п а у е й , pay. "•» weak J o r 2'< M E > < play, п.; NE; < OE р1еза; ME pley/
(5Fpaier play
455
PART 4. GLOSSARY -

playen. pleyen. play, v., weak 2; p r e s e n t , v.; NE; < OF presenter;


ME; < OE ple3ian L prassentare
player, player (actor), «.; NE; < rel. preserve, v.; NE; < OF preserver;
to OE ple3ian, v., weak 2; L pra-seruare
ME playen p r e s i d e , v.; NE; < OF presider;
poor, adj.; NE; < ME povre/poure; L prassidare
OF vre
P° p r i k e n . prick, v., weak 2; ME; <
poore. poor, n. (substantivised OEprician
adj.), ENE; < ME povre/poure, p r j m e r „ . N£; < OF primer;
adjective; OF povre L p]flmus
pjort, n.; NE; < F porte; L porta p r i n c i p a l , principal, adj.; ME; <
posie. poesy (motto, short OF principal; L principalis
inscription), n., ENE; < principle, n.: NE; < ME pryncipal;
ME poesie = poete; OF principal; L principalis
OF poesie = poete; L poeta ,, _ »*ir/p
. ^ p r o b l e m . «.; NE; < ME/F
p o s s e s s i o u n . possesssion, «.; probleme;Lproblema
ME; < OF possession, , . . t, ?.
L possessio p r o c l a m e n , proclaim, v., weak 2,
ME; < OF proclamer,
possible, adj.; NE; < ME possyble, L proclamare
TpoiiMfc, °F P SSiMe;
° W ^ g t , ..; NE: < jr p.ojec,
Lprojectum
POUM.pound, n.; ME; < OB pwdi {e f> ,uENE<<
L pOndO
ME preve; OF preuve
p o w e r , „.; ME, NE; < OF poeir/ p r o p o s e . v i V £ . < ^ prO p OS er;
pouer
Lpro+poser
p r a c l i c e , n.; NE; < ME practise, p r o u e . prove, v ,. ENE;' <
rel. to practise, v.; OF practiser; * o F profian, v., weak 2;
Lpractizere ME proven
pray., v.; NE; < ME preyen, v., weak proven, prove, v., weak 2; ME; <
2;OFprener;Lprecan OE pr 5fi a n; rel. to OF proven;
L
p r a y e n , preyen. pray, v., weak 2; Prob3re
ME; < OF preiier; L precari provide, v.; NE; < L providere
p r e s e n s , presence, «.; ME; < puple, see pgple ; ME
OF presence; L praesentia, XTr, %jrr,
praesens p u r p o s e , n.; NE; < ME purposs;
OF pourpos; Z- propositum
p r e s e n t , aJy.; iVE; < OF present; puzzIe NE < MjB apposailen
456
a(a,as)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-.i-k-l-m-n-0rp-q-r-s-t-}3(6)-u-v-w-x-y-z

uarrel at a tournament

ШШх, п., ME; < F qualite; q u e e n e , queen, п., ENE; <


L qualitas, qualitatem (ace.) OE cwen; ME queen
l, п., NE; < ME/OF querele; question, п.; NE; < ME questioun;
Z-querela Of question
fluantitie. quantity, п., ENE; < quickly, adv.; NE; rel. to OE cwic
ME quantitee; OF quantite (adv.) (+hce); ME quyk (+ly)
PART 4. GLOSSARY

ive- a steward supervising


the estates and tenants
for the landowner

ra5e, rather, adv.; OE researcher, п.; NE; < OF/L re- +


ME serche; OF cerchier +
range, v.; NE; < F ranger, rel. to OE/ME -er
OF reng, п., OHG hrinc; cf.
OE Ъпщ (NE ring) resoun. reason, п.; ME; < OF raison;
L ratio
reaf. (garment, clothing, armour), n.
neut., a-stem; OE r e s p e c t п.; NE; < ME respect;
OF respect
really, adv.; NE; < OF reel; L realis
+ ly (native, OE \xc) rest, п.; NE; < OF reste; L restare, v.
reasonably. adv.; NE; < r e s t e n . rest, v., weak 1; ME; <
ME resoun, п.; OF raison; L ratio OE restan
+ OF -able; L -abilis + OE -lie; result, п.; NE; < rel. to F resulter, v.,
ME -lich, -ly L resultare
recall, v.; NE; < L re + OSc kalla; reuel. revel, v., ENE; < ME revelen,
OE ceallian, v., weak 2; ME callen v., weak 2; OF reveler
r e c e i v e n . receive, v., weak 2; riden. ride, v., str. 1;ME; < OE ndan
ME; < OF receivre; L recipere
ring, п.; NE; < OE hrin3; ME ryng
redy. ready, adj.; ME; < OE rede
rise, v.; NE; < OE rlsan, v., str. 1;
reluctance, п.; NE; < L reluct + ME risen
F -ance
rokken, rock, v. weak 2; ME; <
remember. v.; NE; < OE roccian
OF remembrer; L rememoran
roote, root, п.; ME; < OSc rot
representative, adj.; NE; <
OF/F representatif; round, adv. /prep.; NE; < rel. to
L reprasentatlv(us) ME round, adj., OF roont

458
a(a,ae)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-{3(d)-u-v-w-x-y-2

ruh, rough, adj.; OE ryht-norfoan-wind,rightnorth wind


M.IO xrr. ,,J-- r . , / , p (direct north wind), n., masc, a-
K
rule, n., NE; < ME reule, nwle; OF s(em. QE
riule, reule; L regula '
run5v.>^;<O^rinnan,,,^5; rM2!run,,J^i;M^;<^rinnan
ME rinnen rysen, rise, v., str. 1; ME; < OE ffsan
JTUWan. see ruh fw ^e/(?re vovvefaj;

PART 4. GLOSSARY

s quire dressed in all his finery

Sjg, sea, n.Jem., i-stem; OE schal. see schulle ; ME


s a c r a m e n t , sacrament, n.: ME: < schuld. see schulle; ME
L sacramentum s c h u l l e . shall (have to), pret.-pres.
s a c r e d , adj.; NE; < rel. to verb; ME; < OE sculan
MBsacren, v., weak 2; OF sacrer „„.„ . . . ^,M./IF
scip. ship,«., neut., a-stem; UP
sad, adj.; NE; < OE ssed, ME sad(e) _ .. . . , f , ? vtem-
~ SCiJC, shire (province), n.Jem., a-stem,
safe, adj.; NE; < ME sauf; L saluum OE
saide. see seven ; ME scote. school, >».; M^; < OE scol;
L s c o l a ; 0 F CSCole
sajl, v.; NE; < OE si3lan, v., weak 1
andse$ian, v., weak2; MEseiten score, score (two tens), ».', Wo; <
saint, n. / a # ; NE; < ME seint, O^scoru
saint; OF seint; L sanctum scrowe. (scroll, roll of parchment,
cnlt n,v, • MI?- ^ nj? coni*. TUIV ann written document), n.; ME; <
salt, adj.,mNE; < /OE
Sm
sealt; ME salt QF e s c r Q u e > rd w m escroW
^^ ^w /7W'!';M^< scrvddan. shroud (cover and
Sc sami, O ^ same conceal), v., weaJt 7; OE ••
S
^ampiSslmSSamPle; C/
S^UfelH, shall,v.,^.-p.,;OF'
that pm
» ^ < « W ^ * ^JBfeJ!?^*•• ' "
Mil seggen
sceawun^. (survey.exploration), „., flfl»«ld,v..p«r*.:«<.«llan;flS
fem.,o-stem;OE s e a s o n , v.; ME1; < M£ sesounen;
OF s a i s o n n e ! t
sceolde. should, v., past t. sing, (see
sculanj; OE §£M» see sgoflan; O£
460
a(a,£e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(?;)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-br5)-u-v-w-x-v-z

secganT say, v., weak 3; OE sermon, n.; NE; < ME sermun,


, ,,„ , sermoun; OF sermon;
Second, num.; NE; < ME secounde; L Serm5nem
OF second
j »,,-, segon = Sgsoun, season (time),«.;
secounde, second, num.; ME; < ME; < 0F s e s o n ; L s a t i o
OF second; L secundus
.. . , . setten, set, v., weak 1; ME; <
section, n.; NE; < L sechon(em) tfzTsettan
see n.; NE; < OE seon, v., str. 5; ^ sinC6) •. ME. < 0E s i a 5 a n
ME seen
several, adj.; NE; < F several;
see, sea, n.; ME; < OE see ZTseparal
seeke, sick, adj.; ME; < OE seoc seyjen, say, v., weak 3; ME; <
seem, v.; NE; < OE seman, v., weak OE sec3an
1 (meaning influenced by Sc); }
s ia ;] v . NE; < 0E s c u l a n (in^
MB semen sceal (pres. sing.), pret.-pres.;
seethe, v.; NE; < OE seosan, v.; str. ME shal
2; ME sethen shalt. see shall, ENE
seething, adjJpart. 1, see seethe, shame, v.; NE; < OE scamian, v.,
NE weak 2; ME shamen
seken, seek, v., weak 1, img.\ME;< s h a p e n . NE. < 0E 3e.sceap;
OE secan ME i-shape
selectioji,«.; NE; <I sciecti6n(em) §M pwn pgr^ NE; < QE h e o .
self,self(hims<zlf),pwji.;OE ME he/she
sellan sell (give, hand over), u., sheene, sheen, n., ENE; < rel. to
weak 1, irrcgA OE OE scyne, adj; ME shene, adj.
semen seem, i'., weak 2; ME; < shine.' v.; NE; < OE sclnan, v., str. 1;
OEskman M£ shynen
send en send, v., weak 1; ME;, < shjre, shire,«.; ME; < 02? scir
OE scndan shortly, adv.; ME, NE; < OE scort-
S eo (that), pron. demonstr.fetn., see lice
s'e; OZ? > «/. » NE the s h o u I d . V-. ^ ; < 0E s c u I a n f W f
Sgon see,v.,str.5i.0E scolde f/»«sr subjunct.j;
ME sholde
seoSan, seethe (boil, cook, by
-polling), v.. -y""- 2<0E shoure, shower, it.; ME; < OE scur
ggggratg, oajf.; NE; < ME separate; ishow. n.; NE; < ME sheue, «•/. to
t separatus 0/j sceawian, v., weak 2;
ME shaven/shewen/showen
161
PART 4. GLOSSARY

show, v.; NE; < OE sceawian, v., solemn, adj.; NE; < ME,
weak 2; ME shaven/shewen/ OFsolempne;L solemnem
showen
_ som, some, pron. indef.; ME;<
SI, see beon, wesan; OE OE sum
sick, adj.; NE; < OE seoc, ME seek s o m e , pron.; NE; < OE sum;
sjcke, sick, adj., ENE,see sick M£som
. A a ., ,„ «„ _, somewhat. /?ron. / adv.; NE; <
Side, side, n.; ME; < OE side OE sum hwxt; ME som-what ^^
Sje, « « beon, wesan; O^ somtvme. sometime, adv.; ME; <
SJ3, see beon, wesan; O£ OE sume-timan
Sin, see beon, wesan; OE sona, soon, arfv.; OE
Since, con;.; ME; < OE si3San; s o n d r v . sundry, aJ/.; ME:
ME sith(e) (?£syndri3
SJT, «.; iVS; < short for sire, F sire; sonne. sun,«.; ME; < OE sunne
L senior
soote. sweet, adj.; ME; < OE swotfe/
Sister, n.; NE; < OE sweostor; swete
ME suster (form influenced by §QX& s o r e ( h a r d ) > adv / adj.. ME;k
bc)
OEsare
SJttan,sit,v.,^r.5;O£ S r r v . adj.; NE; < OE saris;
o
si55an. since (afterwards), advJeonj.; ME sory
0E
SO t h a t . conj.,NE; < OE swa;
Size, v.; NE; < ME (a)ssis(en)i v., ME swo, so + OEfcaet; Affi that.,
wea^ 2; rel. to OF assisen ^ s o o t h ( t r u t h ) > n#> n e M t ) a.stem-

slaue. slave, n., JEWE; < ME sclaue; 0#


OFesclave; 5c sclyaff; L sclavus S0Und. n.; NE; < ME soun;
slender, adj.; NE; < ME s(c)lendre; OF soun
OF esclendre sounden. sounen. sound, v., weak
s l e p e n . sleep, v., str. 7; ME; < 2;ME; < OF suner; L sonare
OFslSpen s o u r c e , n.; NE; < ME source;
smale. small, adj.; ME; < OE smasl OF sours
smede, smooth,adj.; OE sovereign, adj.; NE; '<
, , ,, ME sovereyng; OF spvenan
snybben. snubben. snub, v., weak . ,_
2; ME; < Sc snibbe, snubba sowperne. southern, adj.; ME; <
OE suoerne
SO, conjJadv.; ME, NE; < OE swa ,,_ . „
* space, space, n.; ME; < OF espace;
SOlg, adj.; NE; < OF sol; L solum Lspatium
462
a(a,£e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-}j(d)-u-v-w-x-y-2

s p e a k e . speak, v., ENE;'< stoop, n.\ NE;'< OE stupian, v.,


OE sprecan, v., str. 5; ME speken weak J; ME stoupen
s p e c h e . speech, n.; ME; < stow, stow (place),«., fern., wo-stem;
OE spralc OE
specially, especially, adv.; ME; < Strange, adj.; NE; < ME straunge;
rel. to OF especial (adj.), OF estrange; L extraneus
Ispecialis street, street (the road built by the
s p e k e n . speak, v., str. 4; ME; < Romans), n.,fern., o-stem;OE
OE sprecan s t r a u n g e , strange (foreign), adj.;
spell, spell (story), n., neut., a-stem; ME; < OF estrange! L extraneus
OE
strond, strand (shore), n.; ME; <
sprecan. speak, v., str. 5; OE OE strand
Stable, stable, n.; ME; < OF estable; stycce- mSIum. stockmeal (here
Lstabulum and there), adv.; 02?
stand, v.;NE;<OEstandan,v.,str. s u b j e c c i o n . subjeccioun.
6; ME stonden subjection, n.; ME; <
.rr, .. OF subjection,
J
L subiectio
J
standard, adj.; NE; <
OF estandard; L standardum succeed, v.; NE; < OF succeder;
r . . L succedere
State. «.; NE; < OF estat, L statum
Ijrr,ME, s u c h , pron.; NE; < OE swilc;
statement, n.; NE; < ME/OF estat; —^fE Swich/swuch
L status + OF -ment
,rr, />r. t * • SJUHJ some,pronJadj.;OE
statut. statute, «.; ME; < OF statut; ' 'y •"
• L statutum sumdel. (somewhat), adv.; ME; <
.„ , OE sumne dael
Steep, v.; NE; < ME stepen rel. to
OE stlepan, v., weak 1 sume. some, pron. indef.; OE
stefn, (voice, sound), n. masc. / Sumer, sumor. summer. /;.. masc. u-
, neut. /fern., o-stem; OE stem; OE
slgnM!, = stefn, see above; OE sun, n.; NE; < OE sunne; ME sonne
stenc, stench, n. masc, i-stem; OE sunne. see sun, n., ENE
5|ggr-bord, star-board,«., neut., a- sunu. son, n., masc, u-stem; OE•
swm 0E
su|)rvhte. south right (right/straight
gjgVjrardL »•; NE; < OE stlweard to the south), adv.; OE
stick, v.; NE; < OE stician, v., weak sudweard. southward (southwards),
—2TM#stiken adv.;OE
Still, adv.; NE; < OE stille; ME stille SWa, so, adv. /prep, /conj.; OE
463
PART 4. GLOSSARY

swa... swa. so (so as... as), conj;, OE SWTde. (very much, exceedingly),^.;
OE
SWech. such, pron.; ME; < OE swilc
SWfjbOSt. (mostly), adv., superl. d:,see
SWeltan. (die, perish), v., str. 3; OE swi6e; OE
sweren, swear, v., str. 6; ME; < Swore, see sweren ; ME
OE swerian
swura. (neck), n. mascn-stem; OE
SWete. sweet, see soote; ME
sylle; see sellan; OE
SWJch, such, pron. indef.; ME; <
OE swilc synd. see wesan; OE
SWJlc, such, pron.; OE systematic, adj.; NE;, <
L systematic(us)
take, v.; NE; < OE takan, v., str. 6; t h a t , pron. demonstr ./pron. relat./
ME taken conj.; ME, NE;<OE ba?t (se, seo)
t a k e n , take, v., str. 6; ME; < the, art.; ME, NE; < OE se, seo,
OE tacan; cf. OSc taka 6aet; ME also bat / that
tale, tale, п.; МЯ; < 0 Я talu thee, pron. pers.; NE; < OE f>e, J)ec;
t a s t e , v.; NE; < ME_ tasten;
OF taster; L taxitare, taxare their, pron. poss. ; M?; < 0Z? hira /
, , .,„ heara;MEbeir(e); OScbeira
v
techen, teach, v., и/ед^ 1; ME; < *
OE tecan them, see they; NE
techvnge, teaching, gerund, see themselues, see themselves, ENE
techen; ME themselves, pron. reflex.; NE; <
tell v.; NE; < OE tellan, v., weak 1, ME f>eim/them; OSc {)eim +
' 'irreg.; ME tellen OE self
tellen, tell, v., weak I, irreg.; ME; < t h e r . there, adv./conj.; ME; <
ДО tellan OE baer
tend, v.; NE; < ME tenden, v., weak there, adv.; NE; < OE Ьагг; ME ther,
2;'OFtendre thar
tendre tender, adj.;ME; < OFtendr& these, pron. demonstr.; ME, NE; <
thise
^ 7 ; NE; < F texte; L textus °*** M E a l
" ' a
"™ PL
<
^p^m'aiso&?Bi &%$*• "«*•• ™-' <ME ^
П С 1 а П V
ti^i i*?at 2; Mb tnanken ^
Рш^тШ ' " 1ЫШЬ thither (to that place), adv.;
M£,.< O£, ^jder

465
PART 4. GLOSSARY

thin, thine, thy, pron. poss.; ME; < to^prep.; ME, NE; < OE to
E n
° & tO,to,prep.;OE
thinke, think, v., ENE; < . , , . „ _„,_
OE pencan, v., weak 1, irregular; & ' t 0 0 ' adv/>ME' < 0E t o
ME thynken too, adv.;NE;< OE t5; ME to, too
t h i r d e , third, num.; ME; < to-eacan. fin addition to). advJprep.;
OE pridda OE
t h i r t i e , thirty, num.; ENE; < toforan, (before),adv.;OE
0F,priti3;MEthritty/pirty
together, pron. demonstr.; NE; <
this, pron. demonstr.; ME, NE; < OE to-^sedere; ME toeedere
OEpis x °
A . . , tonge. tongue, n.; ME; < OE tun3e
t h i t h e r , adv.; NE; < OE f>ider, 777" ,
M£ thider total. «<://.; AE; < F total; L total(is)
t h o r o w o u t e , throughout, prep.; tQ&, tooth, n., ma^c, root-stem; OE
ME; < OE frurh-ut touch, v.; AE; < ME touchen, v.,
t h o s e , pron. demonstr.; NE; < weak2, OF tochier
OE f)os; ME thos toward, toward(s), pron. relative;
thou, (you), / W H . pers., ENE; < ME;<OEto-weard
OEt>\x; ME thou traditional, adj.; NE; <
t h o u g h , conj.; NE; < OE £eah; F traditional; L traditional(is)
ME t h o u h
8 t r a g e d i e . tragedy, «., ENE; <
0E
t h o u g h t , n.; NE; < OE Jjoht / tragedie; ME tragedie
3e-{)oht; ME thought travaillen. travel, v., weak 2; ME; <
thrift, n.; NE; < ME thrift; OSc fnift OF travaillier
through, prep.; iVfi; < 0 £ f>urh; treason, n.; A^£; < M£ tresoun;
M£ thurgh OF tresoun
thus, adv.; NE; < OE fws; M£ thus iE£§. "•'. ME; < OiS treo; M£ tree
trial
thy, (you), pron. p o ^ ; ENE; < i «•; A^5 < rc/- ^ ME tryen, v.,
OE $>m; ME thyn(e)/thy weak 2; OF trier
thynken, think, v., weak 1; ME; < trumpet, /!.; iV£; < ME trompette,
O£'fyncan^metnynketn-1[tnink, OF trompette
impers. construction ^ v . NE-t < ME trye^ Vi> wefl/t 2 ;
tld, tide (period of time), «., /em., OFtraer
o-stem; OE turn, v.; A'E; < <?^ turnian, v., weak
time, n.; NE; < OE tima; M£ tyme 2; ME turnen; re/, to OF turner;
Us = it is, ENE
466
a(a,£e)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-|3(5)-u-v-w-x-y-z

twa, two, num.; OE twice, num.; NE; < ME twies;


tweie. two, num.; ME; < OB trtto O£ twiwa, twi3es
t w e l u e . twelve, num.; ENE; < ^^cen, (kid), „ neut., a-stem; OE
OE twelf; ME twelve, twelue tyme, time, n.; ME; < OE tima
t w e n t y , twenty, num.; ME; <
OEiwen-ti3
PART 4. GLOSSARY

T hree Catholic
zealots fleeing
persecution

jba, (then), adv.; OE p_agt vice, that ilk (just the same),
fct, (when), conj.; OE Pronr' O E

|>a, those, pron. demons*., pi; OE ^ j p ' ( w h e n " t h e n ) ' conjJadv.;


ujm, yet, «*.; «? M j w h i c h > t h a t ) > pwn r d a t
,
б а е т , foam, that (those), pron. conj. (often placed in
demonstr.; see se; OE combination with pronouns); OE
p a n , than, conj.; ME; < OE fcanne fee, the, art.; ME; < OE se, seo, |>aet
foanne, foonne, than, then (when), foeah. though, cwy.; OJB
COT;., foe5en. (warrior), п., inasc, a-stein;
|>anon, thence (from there), adv.; 0Л? OE
5Г£Г, |)Sra, there, дЛ. /conj.; OE f)eodscipe. (people, tribe),n.;OE;<
»— , , , suffix rel. toNE-ship
JJ
o a e r e , that, pro/i. demonstr., dat. sing., *
fem.; see seo; OE foeowian. (serve), v\; weak 2; OE
|)ser-of, thereof, adv.; OE fcerby. thereby, adv.; ME; < OE
> * i • i fcaer-b!
pa3S, p e s , шг^, /;го/г. demonstr.;
OE fcere, there, adv./conj.; ME; <
paes-f>e, ^ей pss, pe; OE
_ _, . . , pes, this, рго/г. demonstr., masc; OE
9get, that, co«/. / pron. demonstr.; f
1
<7J5" p e y , they, р/шг. perj.; MJE ; <
OScb&a
bat, that, pro/7, demonstrJpron. relatJ
conj.;ME;<OE$azt Older, thither (there, to that place),
' . __ adv. OE
paet... paet, that... that, conj.; OE
468
a(a,a)-b-c-d-e-f-g('Q-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-b(d)-u-v-w-x-v-z

frjn, thine, thy, pron. posses.; OE fere, three, num.; ME; < OE f>n
fcing. thing, n. neut., astern; OE frrle. three, num.; OE
jbing, thing, n.; ME; < OE f>in3 forim. see f>rle; OE
fois. this, pro/i. demonstr.; ME; < feu, thee, thou (you), pron. pers,
OE f)is sing. (ace. pec, $e, dat. £e, gen.
bissum. this, pron. demonstr., dat. *""* °E
sing., masc. (see jbes,); OE dus. thus, adv.; OE
foonan. thence (from there), adv.; OE ftyder, thither (there, to that place),
-done, that (the),pron. demonstr.;see _a V"'
se; Oi? foystrian, (become dark), v., wea/t 2;
bowsand. thousand, ««/». (subst.);
ME; < OE fcusend
PART 4. GLOSSARY

^шшУ ncleSam

unanswered, adj.; NE; < rel. to upweard, upward (upwards), adv.;


OE un + OE andswarian, v., weak OE
2; ME answeren
US. pron. pers.; NE; < OE us; ME us
undergietan. (understand), v., weak
3; OE > rel. to NE under, get usage, usage (custom), п.; ME, NE;
< OF usage
unfrid. (hostility), п., masc, astern;
OE use, v.; NE; < F user, L Qsare

unintelligible, adj. ;NE;<OEun + useful, adj.; NE; < ME/OF us;


Fintelligible;/, intelligibilis L Osus + OE/ME -ful

unite, v.; NE; < L unit u s e n . use, v., weak 2; ME; <
OF user; L usare
unto, prep.; < rel. to und (OFries,
Goth, OSax) + OE to; ME unto fit, out, adv.; OE

up, adv.; NE; < OE up, upp; ME up fltagan. (go out, go forth), v.,
anom.; OE
up-in, up in, adv.; OE Utan. out (on/from the outside), adv.;
uplondisshe, uplandish, adj.; ME; OE
< OE up-lendisc
u p o n , prep.; NE; < OE uppon;
ME upon
a(a,ae)-b-c-d-e-f-g(3)-h-i-j-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-l3(6)-u-v-w-x-y-z

V. irtuous wife

validitie. validity, п., ENE; < v i s i t a t i o n . «.; NE; < rel. to


F validite; L validitas F visiter; L uisitare + F -tion
valley, п.; NE; < ME valeie; vnripe. unripe, adj., ENE; < OE un-
OF valee ripe; ME unripe
valley-fountain, n. (composite), vnshaken, unshaken, adj. I part. 2
see valley, fountain; NE of shake, ENE; < OE ип+зе-
scacen; OE scacan (inf), v., str. 6;
variety. n.;NE; < rel. to ME varien, ME shaken
v.; OF varier; L variare; F variete,
n.;L varietas voice, п.; NE; < ME, OF vois;
L uocem
vertu. virtue (force), п.; ME; <
OF vertu vouch, v.; NE; < MF voucher;
L uocare
Very, adv.; NE; < OF verai; L ueras
vouchsafe, v.; NE; see vouch, safe
yeyne. vein, п.; ME; < OE veine
voyden. void, v., weak ; ME; < rel.
Violence, п.; NE; < ME violence; to OF voide, adj.
OF violence; L violentia
Vp. see up, ENE
violent, adj.; NE; < ME violent;
OF violent Vpon. see upon, ENE
visit, v.; # # ; < F visiter; L uisitare VS, see us, ENE,
PART 4. GLOSSARY

w ifeofBath

walk, v.; NE; < OE wealcan, v., str. wel, well (almost, very), adv.; ME; <
7; ME walken OEwel
want, n.; NE; < ME want(e); OSc welcome, see well, come; NE
Vant
well, adv.; NE; < OE, ME wel
warm, adj.:NE: < OE wearm .- ,tU. ,
——— •* w e n a n . ween (think, suppose,
wasron. were, v., past t.; see wesan; believe), v., weak I; OE
w e n d a n . wend (go), v., weak 1; OE
waes. was, v.,past
y t. (see wesan); OE •, ,, . , , H,p.
' w e n d e n . wend (go), v., weak 1;ME;
wash, n.; NE; < OE wsesc; ME wassh < OE wendan
Wast, see witan; OE w e n t , went , past t., see wenden;
Western, western, adj.; OE
w a t c h , v , NE; < OE wa^ccan, v., ^^Mk, (become), v., str. 3;OE
weak 3; ME wacchen were(n). were, pas? f., see been; ME
way, n.; NE; < OE we3; ME wey, were. seebe,NE
Way
w e s a n . (be), v., 5?r. 5, defective
we, /?ron. perj.; ME, NE; < OE we fprej. /. sing, eom, eart, is; pi. sint,
.,,««ir /• \rc i * /IE- - synd. sindan, sindon; pcwf f. wass,
3£§aSi
' ^ ' ^ ^ r e t t o ° W££Can ' w«ron; J M y . si, sl 3 , pi. sin; « «
y.,w^7;M£:weken beon);OE
w e a r v^; yVE; < O£ werian, v., weak w e s t a n w i n d . west wind,«., /WOK?., fl-
/;M£weren s(em.OE '
Weddian V
^•'ME^wcdden ' "' ^ ^ weste. waste (uninhabited), arfj.; O£
weste, west, at//.; ME; < OE west
472
a(a,a)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-i-k-i-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-b(d)-u-v-w-x-y-z

Westen. waste (uninhabited land), n., willan, will (want, wish), v., mom.; OE
neut.,ja-stem;OE .,, .,, ,
WlHen, will (would), anom. verb;
westwearri, westward (westwards), ME; < OE willan
adv.;OE
win, wine, n. neut., astern; OE
WJ5£, way, n.; ME; <0Ewe^ . . «„
3 W WC
^ J winter, winter,».. masc. u-stem: OE
a§yk, weak, adj.;ME;<OEwac • „ , , . ,. ,
y
' Wircan, work (perform, do), v., weak
S h a n , when, adv. /pron.; ME; < 1, irreg.; OE
waenne
wirisan. wyrgan. (outlaw, curse),
Shat) pron. indef./interrogative; v.,weakl;OE
ME,NE;<OE^xt wisely, adv.; NE; < OE wis;
ffihech, which, pron. rel.; ME; < ME wys + OE lie
WJSSe, (knew), v., past t.; see witan;
SJien, adv.; NE; < OE hwanne/ OE
hwa3nne;M£:whan(ne) ^ wiste. J g g witan; O£
^^whSSrNEi < 0E hwSr:
HBM*
wit (know observe know
' ' '
mn wner(e) understand), v., pret.-pres. (pres.
Svlnch., /?^o/z. rel. / indef. / t. sing, wat, wast, wat; pi. witon;
interrogative, ME, NE; < past t. wisse, wist; part. 2 witenj;
0 £ hwile; MEflfaowhiche 0£"
SEll!l,whUe,awyVflrfi».;MB;<Ofihwil with, prep.; ME, NE; < OE wid;
S!hQ,pron. interrog./indef./rel.; NE;
< OE hwa; ME who withal. Wv.; A^£; < C751 wifl+eal;
ffihole, ^ y , ^ ; < O£ hal; ME hal/ ^ withal
whole Wlthdrawen. withdraw, v., str. 6;
, __ M£; < £>£" wi3 + dra3an
V^lCian. (live), v., »pea& 2; O£
•J i „,,„ nT^ -J Wltodhc, (certain, sure), «*#.; OJ?
w i d e l y , arfv., £A^£; < OE wid;
ME wyd + OE -lie, ME -ly wijj, with, /;/•<?/?.; OE, ME
Wld-saL wide sea, 7i., fern., i-stem; OE wlaffen, stammer, v., weak 2; ME; <
~Z ._ OEwlaffian
Wlj, (battle), n., neut., a-stem; OE
... __ ... wlaifervnge. stammering, gerund;
Wilde, wild,adj.;ME;<OEwide — j e e wlaffen
Will, «.; A®; <OEwilla; ME wille y ^ n . ^jj. < 0 £ wg; M £ wo; 0
Will, v.; A^E; < OE willan, omwia/. v.; woe is me! - interjection (phrasal
Uttit
ME willen >
Willa. will, n. m « , n-jton; OE wol, will, see wilien; ME
473
PART 4. GLOSSARY

wold, would, see willen; ME wormwood, п.; NE;. <


OE wermwod; ME wermode
wolde, would (wished), v., past t.;see (corrupted form)
willan; OE
w o r s h i p , п.; NE; < short for
wolde(n), would, see willen; ME; < worthship, OE weor5 scipe;
OE willan, wolden (pastpi.) ME worth ship
woman, п.; NE; < OE wlf-man; Worst, adv.; NE; < OE wyrst;
ME womman ME wurst, werst
WOnen, (dwell, remain), v., weak 2; Would, v., see will; NE
ME; < OE wunian
write, v.;NE; < OE wrltan, v., str. 1;
WOnien, (be used to, dwell, remain),
ME writen
v., weak 2; ME; < OE wunian
Word, //.; OE, ME, NE wyde, wide, adj.; ME; < OE wld

WOrhton, v., past t.; see wircan; OE wylle, see willa; OE

work, п.; NE; < OE weorc; ME were


w o r l d , п.; NE; < OE woruld;
ME worlde
a(a,ge)-b-c-d-e-f-g(^)-h-i-i-k-l-m-n-o-p-q-r-s-t-l3(9)-u-v-w-x-y-z

Y eoman - a proper forester

y_§, eye, n.; ME; < OE Ea^e. yonge. young, adj.; ME; < OE3eon3
yes, particle, NE; < OE yse, 3ese; YOU, pron. pers.; NE; < OE eow;
ME yis, yus ME you
.Vet, adv.; NE; < OE 3it; ME yet your, pron. poss.; NE; < OE eower;
fcfaUe,falUee fallen; MS M2?your(e)
,,P l .„ y o w , you, pron. pers.; ME; <
J
yjel, evil, n.,neut.,i-stem;OE o~E ^ow
yjc = i k , ilk (same) (0 of that ilk, y . r o n n e . r u n ) p a r U 2 ; see r y n e n ; ME
archaic - the same), pron. indef.;
OE y§. - IS, see wesan; OE
yldre. elder, fli/;., comp degr., see ^ t t = 1M, jee etan; OE
eald;<9£
ymb. (about/around),prepJadv.; OE
Tart 5.
Summary

Philosopher in his study


John Stanbridse, London, 1520
Основные вехи в истории английского языка
449 - высадка первых германцев на Британские острова
7 век - введение Христианства
7- 9 века - Семицарствие. Территориальные диалекты
871 -901 - правление короля Альфреда Великого
9 век - скандинавское завоевание
878 - раздел Британских островов на зоны англо-
саксонского и датского (скандинавского) правления
9-10 века- превосходство Уэссекса и уэссекского диалекта
- основного диалекта древнеанглийского периода
1017-1042 - переход всей Англии под власть датского
(скандинавского) короля
1066 - Битва при Гастингсе. Норманнское завоевание
11-13 века - французский язык - язык государственного
устройства, судопроизводства и обучения
13 век - первый Парламент страны
1258 - Прокламация короля Генриха III впервые
опубликована на французском и английском языках
14 в е к - возврат английского языка во все сферы жизни
страны. Лондонский диалект - основной диалект
языка. Творчество Дж. Чосера
1477 - введение книгопечатания
1455-1485 - война Алой и Белой Розы. Централизация
страны, образование национального языка.
15 в е к - установление абсолютной монархии
16 в е к - разрыв с Римской католической церковью
16-17 века - начало эпохи Великих географических
открытий
1649-1660 - Великая буржуазная революция. Правление
Оливера Кромвеля
1660 - реставрация монархии
17-18 века - установление литературной нормы
английского языка. Творчество Уильяма Шекспира
17-20 века - географическая экспансия английского языка
17 век - первые английские поселенцы в Америке
18 век - колонизация Индии и Канады
19 век - освоение Австралии
20 век - появление английских поселенцев в Южной Африке
Лекция 1. Введение. Общие характеристики
германских языков
/. Цель изучения предмета. Любой язык представляет собой
постоянно изменяющееся историческое явление. Изменения охватывают
все аспекты языка: грамматику и словарь, фонетику и письменность.
Основная цель изучения истории языка состоит в объяснении
сегодняшнего этапа его существования, позволяющем лучше понять его
современные особенности.
2. Внутренняя и внешняя история языка. Внешняя история
любого языка - это события в жизни народа, говорящего на нем,
оказывающие влияние на сам язык, это отражение истории людей в
языке, на котором они говорят. Внутренняя история языка описывает
изменения, происходящие в самом языке, его грамматике, словарном
составе, фонетическом строе и письменности.
3. Основные характеристики германских языков. Германские
языки принадлежат к индоевропе