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VI.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Predisposing Factor
Precipitating Factor
1. 50 years old
1. Exposure to 2. Filipino
chemical and 3. history of
bacterial agents.
smoking, and
Virulent Microorganism
drinking alcohol
2. Hospitalizations 4. nature of work
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
because of
malaria.
Microorganism eneters the nose( nasal passages)

Passes through the larynx, pharynx, trachea

Microorganism enters and affects both airway and lung parenchyma

Airway damage Lung invasion

Infiltration of bronchi flattening of epithelial cells

Infectious organism lodges macrophages and leukocytes

Stimulation in bronchioles necrosis of bronchial tissues mucus and phlegm production


Alveolar collapse narrowing of air passage COUGHING

Productive/non-productive

Increase pyrogen in the body DIFFICULTY OF BREATHING

FEVER

I. Ecologic Model
A. Hypothesis
In the case of the patient, he has Community Acquired Pneumonia. This is probably due to
the environment of the patient wherein he acquired a bacterial or viral infection which led to his
disease. His lifestyle may have also contributed to the disease in which he was a previous
smoker of 3-pack years.

B. Predisposing Factors

1. Host

- yo

- male

- Previous smoker and alcohol drinker

2. Agents

A. Biologic: Streptoccocus Pneumoniae infection

B. Chemical: Previous substance abuse smoking

3. Environmental

A. Physical: Possible contact with person with Pneumonia

B. Socio-Economic: Exposure with persons with Pneumonia either in workplace,


community and home

C. Ecologic Model
Agent
streptococcus Pneumoniae

Host
-Male
- Previous smoker and alcohol
drinker

Environment
A. Physical: Possible contact with person with Pneumonia

B. Socio-Economic: Exposure with persons with Pneumonia either in


workplace, community and home

A. Analysis
Community Acquired Pneumonia is an inflammatory process involving the respiratory
bronchioles, alveolar space and walls, and lobes, caused primarily by chemical irritants or by
specific bacterial, viral, fungal, mycoplasmal, or parasitic organisms. (Medical Surgical Nursing by
Hargrove-Huttel 4th ed. P.97 )

Living in an unhealthy palce predisposes the individual to develop certain diseases especially
those within the respiratory system. (Brunner and Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical- Surgical Nursing 11th ed.
P.643)

B. Conclusion
We conclude that Pneumonia can be prevented if we always clean the environment,
practicing proper hand washing; personal hygiene and use of personal protective equipments are
the things that are very important. Personal discipline is a crucial factor. Pneumonia may lead to
other chronic respiratory diseases, early detection of this may prevent the progression and right
interventions may be given.

F. Recommendations

As nurses, we are focused on promoting wellness. The client should focus controlling
infections and secretions, relieving airway obstruction and preventing complications. This
includes the prolonged use of antibiotics to prevent detrimental infections. While smoking has
found to be one of the irritants, it should certainly be prevented to avoid other complications.