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- Fundamental of Physics Halliday Ed. 9 Chapter 23 Homework Solution

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SP-23

Problems: 2, 5, 9, 11, 13, 15, 30, 32, 33, 36, 38, 40, 43, 50, 52, 55, 69, 73, 76, 82

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-2

••2

An electric field given by pierces a Gaussian cube of edge length 2.0

m and positioned as shown in Fig. 23-5. (The magnitude E is in newtons per coulomb and the

position x is in meters.) What is the electric flux through the (a) top face, (b) bottom face, (c) left

face, and (d) back face? (e) What is the net electric flux through the cube?

((My solution))

a=2m

E = ( 4,−3( y 2 + 2), 0)

(a) Top face

a 2E ⋅ n = a 2E ⋅ e y = −a 2 3( y 2 + 2) | y =2 = −18 a 2 = −72

a 2 E ⋅ n = a 2E ⋅ (−e y ) = a 2 3( y 2 + 2) | y =0 = 6a 2 = 24

(c)

left face

right face

a 2E ⋅ n = a 2E ⋅ (e x ) = a 2 (4) = 4a 2 = 16

(d)

back face

E ⋅ n = E ⋅ ( −e z ) = 0

front face

E ⋅ n = E ⋅ (e z ) = 0

(e)

Qnet

Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = = −72 + 24 = −48 N m2/C

ε0

2 3 2 2

1 2

∫ E ⋅ da = ∫ (∇⋅ E)dτ = −6∫ yd τ = −6∫0 ydy ∫1 dx ∫0 dz = −24 2 y 0 = −48

since

∂E x ∂E y ∂E z

∇⋅ E = + + = −6 y

∂x ∂y ∂z

((WileyPlus))

z

2. We use Φ = E ⋅ dA and note that the side length of the cube is (3.0 m–1.0 m) = 2.0 m.

r

(a) On the top face of the cube y = 2.0 m and dA = ( dA ) ĵ . Therefore, we have

r

( )

E = 4iˆ − 3 ( 2.0 ) + 2 ˆj = 4iˆ − 18jˆ . Thus the flux is

2

r r

Φ=∫

top

E ⋅ dA = ∫

top

( 4iˆ − 18jˆ ) ⋅ ( dA) ˆj = −18∫ top

dA = ( −18 ) ( 2.0 ) N ⋅ m 2 C = −72 N ⋅ m2 C.

2

bgej

(b) On the bottom face of the cube y = 0 and dA = dA − j . Therefore, we have

c h

E = 4 i − 3 02 + 2 j = 4 i − 6j . Thus, the flux is

r r

Φ=∫

bottom

E ⋅ dA = ∫

bottom

( 4iˆ − 6ˆj) ⋅ ( dA) ( −ˆj) = 6∫ bottom

dA = 6 ( 2.0 ) N ⋅ m 2 C = +24 N ⋅ m2 C.

2

r

(c) On the left face of the cube dA = ( dA ) −î . So ( )

r

Φ = ∫ Eˆ ⋅ dA = ∫

left

( 4iˆ + E ˆj) ⋅ ( dA) ( −ˆi ) = −4∫ dA = −4 ( 2.0) N ⋅ m C = −16 N ⋅ m C.

left y bottom

2 2 2

r

(d) On the back face of the cube dA = ( dA ) ( −k̂ ) . But since E has no z component E ⋅ dA = 0 .

r r r

Thus, Φ = 0.

(e) We now have to add the flux through all six faces. One can easily verify that the flux through

the front face is zero, while that through the right face is the opposite of that through the left one,

or +16 N·m2/C. Thus the net flux through the cube is

_______________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-5

•5

In Fig. 23-29, a proton is a distance d/2 directly above the center of a square of side d. What is

the magnitude of the electric flux through the square? (Hint: Think of the square as one face of a

cube with edge d.)

((My solution))

q = the charge of proton =

Gauss’ law

qnet

Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da =

ε0

In cube, there are six surfaces. Therefore, the flux through one surface is

q

Φ=

6ε0

((WileyPlus))

5. To exploit the symmetry of the situation, we imagine a closed Gaussian surface in the shape of

a cube, of edge length d, with a proton of charge q = +1.6 ×10−19 C situated at the inside center of

the cube. The cube has six faces, and we expect an equal amount of flux through each face. The

total amount of flux is Φ net = q/ε 0, and we conclude that the flux through the square is one-sixth

of that. Thus,

q 1.6 × 10−19 C

Φ= = = 3.01× 10−9 N ⋅ m 2 C.

6ε 0 6(8.85 × 10 C N ⋅ m )

−12 2 2

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-9

••9

Fig. 23-27 shows a Gaussian surface in the shape of a cube with edge length 1.40 m. What

are (a) the net flux Φ through the surface and (b) the net charge qenc enclosed by the surface if

((My solution))

a = 1.4 m

E = 3.0 y ey N/C

Qnet

Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = ( 3.0 ⋅ a ) a 2 − (3.0 ⋅ 0) a 2 = 3a 3 =

ε0

or

Φ = 3a 3 = 8.23 N ⋅ m 2 / C

Qnet = ε0 (3a 3 ) = 7.29 ×10 −11 C

Qnet

Φ= = ∫ E ⋅ da = ( 6 + 3.0 ⋅ a ) a 2 − (6 + 3.0 ⋅ 0)a 2 = 3a 3

ε0

Then we have

Φ = 3a 3 = 8.23 N ⋅ m 2 / C

Qnet = ε0 (3a 3 ) = 7.29 ×10 −11 C

(a) and (b)

E = 3.0 y ey N/C

3

since

∂E x ∂E y ∂E z

∇⋅ E = + + =3

∂x ∂y ∂z

3

since

∂E x ∂E y ∂E z

∇⋅ E = + + =3

∂x ∂y ∂z

((WileyPlus))

9. (a) Let A = (1.40 m)2. Then

( )(

Φ = 3.00 y ˆj ⋅ − A ˆj ) y =0

( )( )

+ 3.00 y ˆj ⋅ A ˆj

y =1.40

= ( 3.00 ) ( 1.40 ) ( 1.40 ) = 8.23 N ⋅ m 2 C.

2

( )( )

qenc = ε 0 Φ = 8.85 ×10−12 C 2 / N ⋅ m 2 8.23 N ⋅ m 2 C = 7.29 × 10−11 C .

r r r

(c) The electric field can be re-written as E = 3.00 y j + E0 , where E0 = −4.00i+ 6.00

j is a

constant field which does not contribute to the net flux through the cube. Thus Φ is still 8.23

N⋅ m2/C.

( )( )

qenc = ε 0 Φ = 8.85 ×10−12 C 2 / N ⋅ m 2 8.23 N ⋅ m 2 C = 7.29 × 10−11 C .

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-11

••11

Figure 23-31 shows a closed Gaussian surface in the shape of a cube of edge length 2.00 m,

with one corner at x1 = 5.00 m, y1 = 4.00 m. The cube lies in a region where the electric field

charge contained by the cube?

((My solution))

x1 = 5.0 m

y1 = 4.0 m

a = 2.0 m (edge length of the cube)

E = (-3, -4y2, 3)

Gauss’ law

Q

Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da =

ε0

Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = 2 2 ( −4 y 2 ) | y =4 −2 2 ( −4 y 2 ) | y =2

= 4( −4 ×16 ) − 4( −4 × 4) = −256 + 64 = −192 N ⋅ m 2 / C

or

4 5 2 4

1

Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = ∫ (∇ ⋅ E) dτ = −8∫ yd τ = −8∫ ydy ∫ dx ∫ dz = −8 × 2 × 2 y 2 = −16 ( 4 2 − 2 2 ) = −192

2 3 0 2 2

since

∂E x ∂E y ∂E z

∇⋅ E = + + = −8 y

∂x ∂y ∂z

((WileyPlus))

11. None of the constant terms will result in a nonzero contribution to the flux (see Eq. 23-4 and

Eq. 23-7), so we focus on the x dependent term only:

The face of the cube located at y = 4.00 has area A = 4.00 m2 (and it “faces” the + direction) and

has a “contribution” to the flux equal to

The face of the cube located at y = 2.00 m has the same area A (however, this one “faces” the –

direction) and a contribution to the flux:

Thus, the net flux is Φ = (−256 + 64) N·m/C2 = −192 N·m/C2. According to Gauss’s law, we

therefore have

qenc = ε 0 Φ = (8.85 ×10−12 C 2 /N ⋅ m 2 )(−192 N ⋅ m 2 C) = −1.70 ×10−9 C.

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-13

••13

The electric field in a certain region of Earth's atmosphere is directed vertically down. At

an altitude of 300 m the field has magnitude 60.0 N/C; at an altitude of 200 m, the magnitude is

100 N/C. Find the net amount of charge contained in a cube 100 m on edge, with horizontal faces

at altitudes of 200 and 300 m.

((My solution))

a = 100 m

E1 = 60 N/C

E2 = 100 N/C

Q

Φtotal = ∫ E ⋅ da = = E2 a 2 − E1a 2

ε0

Q = ε0 ( E2 − E1 )a 2 = 3.54 ×10 −6 C

((WileyPlus))

13. Let A be the area of one face of the cube, Eu be the magnitude of the electric field at the upper

face, and El be the magnitude of the field at the lower face. Since the field is downward, the flux

through the upper face is negative and the flux through the lower face is positive. The flux

through the other faces is zero, so the total flux through the cube surface is Φ = A( El − Eu ). The

net charge inside the cube is given by Gauss’ law:

= 3.54 ×10−6 C = 3.54 µ C.

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-15

••15

A particle of charge +q is placed at one corner of a Gaussian cube. What multiple of q/ 0 gives

the flux through (a) each cube face forming that corner and (b) each of the other cube faces?

((My solution))

(a)

q

Φtotal = ∫ E ⋅ da =

ε0

1 q

Φ = Φtotal =

8 8ε 0

(b) The flux passing through a, b, and c-faces is the same from the symmetry. The flux passing

through the other faces is zero, since E is perpendicular to the normal direction of the faces. Then

we have

1 q q

Φa = =

3 8ε 0 24ε 0

((WileyPlus))

15. The total flux through any surface that completely surrounds the point charge is q/ε 0.

(a) If we stack identical cubes side by side and directly on top of each other, we will find that

eight cubes meet at any corner. Thus, one-eighth of the field lines emanating from the point

charge pass through a cube with a corner at the charge, and the total flux through the surface of

such a cube is q/8ε 0. Now the field lines are radial, so at each of the three cube faces that meet

at the charge, the lines are parallel to the face and the flux through the face is zero.

(b) The fluxes through each of the other three faces are the same, so the flux through each of

them is one-third of the total. That is, the flux through each of these faces is (1/3)(q/8ε 0) =

q/24ε 0. Thus, the multiple is 1/24 = 0.0417.

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-30

••30

In Fig. 23-39, short sections of two very long parallel lines of charge are shown, fixed in place,

separated by L = 8.0 cm. The uniform linear charge densities are +6.0 μC/m for line 1 and -2.0

μC/m for line 2. Where along the x axis shown is the net electric field from the two lines zero?

((My solution))

L = 8.0 cm

λ 1 = 6.0 µ C

λ 2 = 2.0 µ C

λ1

E1 =

2π ε0 r1

λ2

E2 =

2π ε0 r2

There are two possible cases when the net electric field becomes zero.

(i) x>L/2

λ1 λ2

=

L L

2π ε0 ( x + ) 2π ε0 ( x − )

2 2

λ1 λ2

=

L L

x+ x−

2 2

(ii) x<-L/2

λ1 λ2

=

L L

2π ε0 (− x − ) 2π ε0 (− x + )

2 2

λ1 λ2

=

L L

x+ x−

2 2

λ1 λ2

=

L L

x+ x−

2 2

((WileyPlus))

30. We reason that point P (the point on the x axis where the net electric field is zero) cannot be

between the lines of charge (since their charges have opposite sign). We reason further that P is

not to the left of “line 1” since its magnitude of charge (per unit length) exceeds that of “line 2”;

thus, we look in the region to the right of “line 2” for P. Using Eq. 23-12, we have

2λ1 2λ2

Enet = E1 + E2 = + .

4πε 0 ( x + L / 2) 4πε 0 ( x − L / 2)

x= 1 2 = = 8.0 cm .

λ1 + λ2 2 6.0 µ C/m + (−2.0µ C/m) 2

________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-32

••32

A long, nonconducting, solid cylinder of radius 4.0 cm has a nonuniform volume charge density

ρ that is a function of radial distance r from the cylinder axis: ρ = Ar2. For A = 2.5 μC/m5, what is

the magnitude of the electric field at (a) r = 3.0 cm and (b) r = 5.0 cm?

((My solution))

R = 4.0 cm, A = 2.5 mC/m5

ρ( r ) = Ar 2

r

1

2πrhE r =

ε0 ∫ 2πrdrh ρ(r )

0

2πhA

r

= ∫r

3

dr

ε0 0

or

r

A

Er = ∫r

3

dr

ε0 r 0

(0<r<R)

Ar 4

=

4ε0

For r>R,

R

1

2πrhE r =

ε0 ∫ 2πrdrh ρ(r )

0

2πhA

R

ε0 ∫0

= r 3dr

2πhA 4

= R

4ε0

or

A

Er = R4 (r>R)

4ε0 r

((Mathematica))

I n [ 2 P] : h=

y s c o n gs t 9 . 8 0 6, G6 5 6 . 6 7 4 2 18 0 61 17, N A 6 . 0 2 2 1 41 102 37, 9R 8 . 3 1 4 ,4 7 2

m e 9 . 1 0 9 3 8 21 10 35 1,4 u 5 1 . 6 6 0 5 3 18 0 72 78, 2e V 1 . 6 0 2 1 7 16 0 41 98, 7

q e 1 . 6 0 2 1 7 16 0 41 98, 7 c 2 . 9 9 7 9 21 408 ,5 80 1 2 . 5 6 6 3 71 00 76, 1 4

0 8 . 8 5 4 1 8 17 0 81 21, R7 e a 6 . 3 7 12 06 , C 1 0 6 , n C 1 0 9 , p C 1 0 1 2,

f C 1 0 1 5, m m 1 0 3 , c m 0 . 0, 1 m 1 0 6 , n m 1 0 9

1 1

O u t [ 2 g ] = 9 . 8 0 6 , 6 G 5 6 . 6 7 4 2 19 0 , N A 6 . 0 2 2 1 14 02 3,

R 8 . 3 1 4 , 4 m 7 e 9 . 1 0 9 3 18 0 3 1, u 1 . 6 6 0 5 14 0 2 7, e V 1 . 6 0 2 1 1 8 0 1 9,

q e 1 . 6 0 2 1 1 8 0 1 9, c 2 . 9 9 7 9 12 08 , 0 1 . 2 5 6 6 1 4 0 6 , 0 8 . 8 5 4 1 19 0 1 2,

1 1 1

R e a 6 . 3 7 21 06 , C

, n C , p C ,

1 0 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0

1 1 1 1

f C , m m , c m 0 . 0 ,1 m , n m

1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0

I n [ 3 r] : u= l e 1 R 4 . 0c m, A 2 . 5 0C

O u t [ 3 R ] = 4 . c m, A 2 . 5 C

A r3

I n [ 4 E] : 1= . r u l e .1 P h y s c o n s t

4 0

3

O u t [ 74 05

] = 8 8 . r1

A R4

I n [ 5 E] : 2= . r u l e .1 P h y s c o n s t

4 0 r

0 . 1 8 0 7 0 5

O u t [ 5 ] =

r

I n [ 6 E] : t= o t I f r 0 . 0, 4 E 1, 0 I f r 0 . 0, 4 E 2, 0

O u t [ I6 f] =r 0 . 0 ,4 E 2, 0 I f r 0 . 0 ,4 E 1, 0

I n [ 1 1 P ] l: = o Et t o, t r , 0 , 0 . 1 ,0 P l o t S t y lR e ,d T h i c , k B a c k g r o uL ni dg h t G, r a y

A x e s L a b e" rl m " , " E r N C "

E rN C

O u t [ 1 1 ] =

2

r m

0 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 8 0 . 1 0

I n [ 8 E] : t= o t . r 0

O u t [ 08 ] =

I n [ 9 E] : t=

o t . r 0 . 0 3

O

O u t [ 19 .] =9 0 5 8 8

I n [ 1 0 E ] t: = o

u t [ 13 0. ]6 = 1 4 1 1

t . r 0 . 0 5

((WileyPlus))

32. To evaluate the field using Gauss’ law, we employ a cylindrical surface of area 2 π r L

where L is very large (large enough that contributions from the ends of the cylinder become

irrelevant to the calculation). The volume within this surface is V = π r2 L, or expressed more

appropriate to our needs: dV = 2π rLdr . The charge enclosed is, with A = 2.5 ×10−6 C/m5 ,

r π

qenc = ∫ A r 2 2π r L dr = ALr 4 .

0 2

r r A r3

By Gauss’ law, we find Φ = |E | (2πrL) = qenc / ε 0 ; we thus obtain E = .

4ε0

r

(a) With r = 0.030 m, we find | E | = 1.9 N/C.

(b) Once outside the cylinder, Eq. 23-12 is obeyed. To find λ = q/L we must find the total

charge q. Therefore,

q 1 0.04 2

L L ∫0

= A r 2π r L dr = 1.0 ×10−11 C/m.

r

And the result, for r = 0.050 m, is | E | = λ /2πε 0 r = 3.6 N/C.

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-33

•33

In Fig. 23-40, two large, thin metal plates are parallel and close to each other. On their inner

faces, the plates have excess surface charge densities of opposite signs and magnitude 7.00 × 10-

22

C/m2. In unit-vector notation, what is the electric field at points (a) to the left of the plates, (b)

to the right of them, and (c) between them?

((My solution))

Inside the metal, there is no electric field E = 0.

We apply the Gauss’ law to the cylinder.

σ∆a

E∆a =

ε0

or

σ

E= = 7.91 ×10 −11 N / C

ε0

((WileyPlus))

33. We use Eq. 23-13.

r

E = ( σ / 2ε 0 ) ( − ˆi) (from the right plate) + (σ / 2ε 0 )iˆ (from the left one) = 0.

r

E = ( σ / 2ε 0 ) ˆi (from the right plate) + ( σ / 2ε 0 ) ( − ˆi) (from the left one) = 0.

r σ

ˆi) + σ −ˆi = σ ( − ˆi) = − 7.00 ×10 C/m ˆi = −7.91×10−11 N/C ˆi.

−22

( )

2

E = ( − 2 ( )

2ε 0 2ε 0 ε0

−12

8.85 ×10 C /N ⋅ m

2

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-36

•36

Figure 23-43 shows cross sections through two large, parallel, non-conducting sheets with

identical distributions of positive charge with surface charge density σ = 1.77 × 10-22 C/m2. In

unit-vector notation, what is at points (a) above the sheets, (b) between them, and (c) below

them?

((My solution))

σ = 1.77 x 10-22 C/m2

σ

(a) Ez = = 2.00 ×10 −11 N / C

ε0

(b) Ez = 0.

σ

(c) Ez = − = −2.00 ×10 −11 N / C

ε0

((WileyPlus))

36. According to Eq. 23-13 the electric field due to either sheet of charge with surface charge

−

density σ = 1.77 × 10 22 C/m2 is perpendicular to the plane of the sheet (pointing away from

the sheet if the charge is positive) and has magnitude E = σ /2ε 0. Using the superposition

principle, we conclude:

− − −

(a) E = σ /ε 0 = (1.77 × 10 22 C/m2)/(8.85 × 10 12 C 2 /N ⋅ m 2 ) = 2.00× 10 11 N/C, pointing in the

r

upward direction, or E = (2.00 ×10−11 N/C)jˆ ;

(b) E = 0;

r

(c) and, E = σ /ε 0, pointing down, or E = −(2.00 ×10−11 N/C)jˆ .

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-38

••38

In Fig. 23-44a, an electron is shot directly away from a uniformly charged plastic sheet, at

speed vs = 2.0 × 105 m/s. The sheet is nonconducting, flat, and very large. Figure 23-44b gives

the electron's vertical velocity component v versus time t until the return to the launch point.

What is the sheet's surface charge density?

((My solution))

vs = 2.0 x 105 m/s

σ

E=

2ε0

F = (−e) E = ma

e eσ

a =− E =−

m 2mε0

eσ

v = vs − t

2mε0

At t = t0, v = 0.

eσ

vs = t0

2mε0

or

2mε 0

σ = vs = 2.99 x 10-6 C/m2

et0

((WileyPlus))

38. The field due to the sheet is E = . The force (in magnitude) on the electron (due to that field)

is F = eE, and assuming it’s the only force then the acceleration is

−

a = = slope of the graph ( = 2.0 × 105 m/s divided by 7.0 × 10 12 s) .

−

Thus we obtain σ = 2.9 × 10 6 C/m2.

________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-40

••40

Figure 23-46 shows a very large nonconducting sheet that has a uniform surface charge density

of σ = -2.00 μC/m2; it also shows a particle of charge Q = 6.00 μC, at distance d from the sheet.

Both are fixed in place. If d 0.200 m, at what (a) positive and (b) negative coordinate on the x

axis (other than infinity) is the net electric field of the sheet and particle zero? (c) If d =

0.800 m, at what coordinate on the x axis is ?

((My solution))

σ = 2.00 µ C/m2

Q = 6.00 µ C

d = 0.2 m or d = 0.8 m

1 Q

EQ =

4πε0 x 2

σ

Eσ =

2ε0

There are two cases where the net electric field becomes zero.

For x>0

Enet = EQ − Eσ = 0

For x<-d,

Enet = −EQ + Eσ = 0

1 Q σ

= ,

4π ε0 x 2

2ε0

1 Q

or =σ

2π x 2

1 Q

x =± = ±0.690988 m

2π σ

(a), (b)

For d = 0.2 m

(c) d = 0.8 m

((WileyPlus))

40. The point where the individual fields cancel cannot be in the region between the sheet and

the particle (−d < x < 0) since the sheet and the particle have opposite-signed charges. The

point(s) could be in the region to the right of the particle (x > 0) and in the region to the left of

the sheet (x < d); this is where the condition

|σ | Q

=

2ε 0 4πε 0 r 2

must hold. Solving this with the given values, we find r = x = ± ≈ ± 0.691 m.

If d = 0.20 m (which is less than the magnitude of r found above), then neither of the points (x ≈

± 0.691 m) is in the “forbidden region” between the particle and the sheet. Thus, both values are

allowed. Thus, we have

(c) If, however, d = 0.80 m (greater than the magnitude of r found above), then one of the points

(x ≈ −0.691 m) is in the “forbidden region” between the particle and the sheet and is disallowed.

In this part, the fields cancel only at the point x ≈ +0.691 m.

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-43

••43

Figure 23-47 shows a cross section through a very large nonconducting slab of thickness d =

9.40 mm and uniform volume charge density ρ = 5.80 fC/m3. The origin of an x axis is at the

slab's center. What is the magnitude of the slab's electric field at an x coordinate of (a) 0, (b) 2.00

mm, (c) 4.70 mm, and (d) 26.0 mm?

((My solution))

ρ = 5.80 fC/m3

d = 9.40 mm

For 0<x<d/2 For x>d/2

1 1

2 E∆a = (2 x )∆aρ 2 E∆a = d∆aρ

ε0 ε0

ρx ρd

E= E=

ε0 2ε 0

x=0 E=0

x = 2.0 mm E = 1.31 x 10-6 N/C

x = 4.7 mm E = 3.08 x 10-6 N/C

x = 26.0 mm E = 3.08 x 10-6 N/C

E d 2 0

1 . 0

0 . 5

1 . 0 0 . 5 0 . 5 1 . 0

x d

0 . 5

1 . 0

((WileyPlus))

43. We use a Gaussian surface in the form of a box with rectangular sides. The cross section is

shown with dashed lines in the diagram below. It is centered at the central plane of the slab, so

the left and right faces are each a distance x from the central plane. We take the thickness of the

rectangular solid to be a, the same as its length, so the left and right faces are squares.

The electric field is normal to the left and right faces and is uniform over

them. Since ρ = 5.80 fC/m3 is positive, it points outward at both

faces: toward the left at the left face and toward the right at the right face.

Furthermore, the magnitude is the same at both faces. The electric flux

through each of these faces is Ea2. The field is parallel to the other faces

of the Gaussian surface and the flux through them is zero. The total flux

through the Gaussian surface is Φ = 2 Ea 2 . The volume enclosed by the

Gaussian surface is 2a2x and the charge contained within it is

q = 2a 2 x ρ . Gauss’ law yields

2ε 0Ea2 = 2a2xρ .

(a) For x = 0, E = 0.

−

(b) For x = 2.00 mm = 2.00 × 10 3 m,

E= = = 1.31×10−6 N/C.

ε0 −12

8.85 ×10 C /N ⋅ m

2 2

−

(c) For x = d/2 = 4.70 mm = 4.70 × 10 3 m,

E= = = 3.08 ×10−6 N/C.

ε0 −12

8.85 ×10 C /N ⋅ m

2 2

−

(d) For x = 26.0 mm = 2.60 × 10 2 m, we take a Gaussian surface of the same shape and

orientation, but with x > d/2, so the left and right faces are outside the slab. The total flux through

the surface is again Φ = 2Ea 2 but the charge enclosed is now q = a2dρ . Gauss’ law yields

2ε 0Ea2 = a2dρ , so

E= = = 3.08 ×10−6 N/C.

2ε 0 −12

2(8.85 × 10 C /N ⋅ m )

2 2

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-50

••50

Figure 23-51 shows two nonconducting spherical shells fixed in place on an x axis. Shell 1

has uniform surface charge density +4.0 μC/m2 on its outer surface and radius 0.50 cm, and shell

2 has uniform surface charge density -2.0 μC/m2 on its outer surface and radius 2.0 cm; the

centers are separated by L = 6.0 cm. Other than at x = ∞, where on the x axis is the net electric

field equal to zero?

((My solution))

σ 1 = 4.0 µ C/m2

r1 = 0.5 cm

Q1 = 4π r12σ 1

σ 2 = 2.0 µ C/m2

r2 = 2.0 cm

Q2 = 4π r22σ 2

The charge –Q2 is on the shell-2

There are two cases when the net electric field is equal to zero.

(i) For x>L

1 Q1 Q2

Enet = [ 2− ]=0

4π ε0 x ( x − L) 2

or

Q1 Q2

=

x 2

( x − L) 2

or

σ 1 r1 σ 2 r2

2 2

= for x>L

x 2

( x − L) 2

1 Q Q2

Enet = [− 21 + ]=0

4π ε0 x ( x − L) 2

or

Q1 Q2

=

x 2

( x − L) 2

Then we have

σ 1 r1 σ 2 r2

2 2

= for x<0

x 2

( x − L) 2

L

x=

r2 σ2

1±

r1 σ1

x = -3.28151 cm (x<0)

or

((WileyPlus))

50. The point where the individual fields cancel cannot be in the region between the shells since

the shells have opposite-signed charges. It cannot be inside the radius R of one of the shells

since there is only one field contribution there (which would not be canceled by another field

contribution and thus would not lead to zero net field). We note shell 2 has greater magnitude of

charge (|σ 2|A2) than shell 1, which implies the point is not to the right of shell 2 (any such point

would always be closer to the larger charge and thus no possibility for cancellation of equal-

magnitude fields could occur). Consequently, the point should be in the region to the left of shell

1 (at a distance r > R1 from its center); this is where the condition

| q1 | | q2 |

E1 = E2 ⇒ =

4πε 0 r 2

4πε 0 (r + L)2

or

σ 1 A1 | σ 2 | A2

= .

4πε 0 r 2

4πε 0 (r + L )2

Using the fact that the area of a sphere is A = 4π R2, this condition simplifies to

r = = 3.3 cm .

We note that this value satisfies the requirement r > R1. The answer, then, is that the net field

vanishes at x = −r = −3.3 cm.

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-52

••52

Figure 23-53 shows a spherical shell with uniform volume charge density ρ = 1.84 nC/m3, inner

radius a = 10.0 cm, and outer radius b = 2.00a. What is the magnitude of the electric field at

radial distances (a) r = 0; (b) r = a/2.00, (c) r = a, (d) r = 1.50a, (e) r = b, and (f) r = 3.00b?

((My solution))

ρ = 1.84 nC/m3

a = 10.0 cm

b = 2a = 20.0 cm

For a<r<b

4π ρ1 3

r

1

4πr 2 E = ∫ 4πr ' ρdr ' = (r − a 3 )

2

ε0 a

ε0 3

ρ a3

E= (r − 2 )

3ε0 r

For r>b

4π ρ1 3

b

1

4πr 2 E = ∫ 4πr ' ρdr ' = (b − a 3 )

2

ε0 a

ε0 3

ρ b − a3

3

E= ( )

3ε0 r2

At r = 0 E = 0 N/C

At r = a/2 = 0.05 m, E = 0 N/C

At r = a = 0.10 m E = 0 N/C

At r = 1.5a = 0.15 m E = 7.3188 N/C

At r = b = 0.20 m E = 12.1223 N/C

At r = 3b = 0.60 m E = 1.34692 N/C

((Mathematica))

P h y s c o n gs t 9 . 8 0 6, G6 5 6 . 6 7 4 2 18 0 61 17, N A 6 . 0 2 2 1 41 102 37, 9

R 8 . 3 1 4 ,4 m 7 e 2 9 . 1 0 9 3 8 21 10 35 1,4 u 5 1 . 6 6 0 5 3 18 0 72 78, 2

e V 1 . 6 0 2 1 7 16 0 41 98, 7q e 1 . 6 0 2 1 7 16 0 41 98, 7 c 2 . 9 9 7 9 21 408 ,5 8

0 1 2 . 5 6 6 3 71 00 76, 1 40 8 . 8 5 4 1 8 17 0 81 21, 7R e a 6 . 3 7 12 06 ,

C 1 0 6 , n C 1 0 9 , p C 1 0 1 2, f C 1 0 1 5, m m 1 0 3 , c m 0 . 0, 1

m 1 0 6 , n m 1 0 9

g 9 . 8 0 6 , 6 G 5 6 . 6 7 4 2 19 0 1 1, N A 6 . 0 2 2 1 14 02 3, R 8 . 3 1 4 , 4 7

m e 9 . 1 0 9 3 1 8 0 3 1, u 1 . 6 6 0 5 14 0 2 7, e V 1 . 6 0 2 1 18 0 1 9,

q e 1 . 6 0 2 1 1 8 0 1 9, c 2 . 9 9 7 9 12 08 , 0 1 . 2 5 6 6 14 0 6 ,

1

0 8 . 8 5 4 1 1 9 0 1 2, R e a 6 . 3 7 21 06 , C ,

1 0 0 00 0 0

1 1 1

n C , p C , f C ,

1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0

1 1 1

m m , c m 0 . 0 ,1 m , n m

1 0 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0

r u l e 1 a 1 0c m, b 2 0 . c 0 m, 1 . 8 n 4 C

a 1 0 c m, b 2 0 .c m, 1 . 8 n4 C

a3

E 1 r . r u l e .1 P h y s c o n s t

3 0 r2

0 . 0 0 1

6 9 . 2 7 0 4 r

r2

b3 a3

E 2 . r u l e .1 P h y s c o n s t

3 0 r2

0 . 4 8 4 8 9 3

r2

E t o t I f 0 . 1 r 0 . ,2 E 1, 0

I f r 0 . ,2 E 2, 0

I f r 0 . ,2 E 2, 0

I f 0 . 1 r 0 . ,2 E 1, 0

P l o Et t o, t r , 0 . ,1 0 . 5, P l o t S t y lR e ,d T h i c , k

B a c k g r o uL ni dg h t G, r A a x y e s L a b e" rl m " , " E N C "

E N C

1 2

1 0

2

r m

0 . 2 0 . 3 0 . 4 0 . 5

E t o t. r 0

0

E t o t. r 0 . 0 5

0

E t o t. r 0 . 1 0

0

E t o t . r 0 . 1 5

7 . 3 1 1 8 8

E t o t . r 0 . 2

1 2 . 1 2 2 3

E t o t . r 0 . 6

1 . 3 4 6 9 2

E t o t . r 0 . 6

1 . 3 4 6 9 2

((WileyPlus))

52. The field is zero for 0 ≤ r ≤ a as a result of Eq. 23-16. Thus,

(a) E = 0 at r = 0,

(c) E = 0 at r = a.

F

4 πr

G

3

IJ

4 πa 3

qenc = ρ

H3 −

3 K.

1 qenc ρ F

4 πr 3 4 πa 3

G IJ

ρ r3 − a3

E=

4 πε 0 r 2

=

4 πε 0r 2 H3

−

3

=

K

3ε 0 r 2

for a ≤ r ≤ b.

E= = = = 7.32 N/C.

3ε 0 (1.50a ) 2 3ε 0 2.25 3(8.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 ) 2.25

E= = = = 12.1 N/C.

3ε 0 (2.00a ) 2 3ε 0 4 3(8.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 ) 4

2

ρ b3 − a 3

E= .

3ε 0 r 2

E= = = = 1.35 N/C.

3ε 0 (6.00a ) 2 3ε 0 36 3(8.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 ) 36

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-55

•••55

A charge distribution that is spherically symmetric but not uniform radially produces an electric

field of magnitude E = Kr4, directed radially outward from the center of the sphere. Here r is the

radial distance from that center, and K is a constant. What is the volume density ρ of the charge

distribution?

((My solution))

r

1

E= ∫ ρ(r ' )( 4πr ' )dr ' = Kr 4

2

4π ε0 r 2

0

r

2

ρ (r )4πr 2 = 24π ε0 Kr 5

24π ε0 Kr 5

ρ (r ) = = 6ε 0 Kr 3

4πr 2

((WileyPlus))

55. We use

qenc 1 r

E (r ) =

4πε 0 r 2

=

4πε 0 r 2 ∫

0

ρ (r )4πr 2 dr

ρ (r ) =

ε0 d 2

2

r dr

ε d

r E (r ) = 20

r dr

Kr 6 = 6 Kε 0r 3 .c h

________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-69

69

Figure 23-55 shows, in cross section, three infinitely large nonconducting sheets on which

charge is uniformly spread. The surface charge densities are σ1 = +2.00 μC/m2, σ2 = +4.00 μC/m2,

and σ3 = -5.00 μC/m2, and distance L = 1.50 cm. In unit-vector notation, what is the net electric

field at point P?

((WileyPlus))

69. Since the fields involved are uniform, the precise location of P is not relevant; what is

important is it is above the three sheets, with the positively charged sheets contributing upward

fields and the negatively charged sheet contributing a downward field, which conveniently

conforms to usual conventions (of upward as positive and downward as negative). The net field

is directed upward (+ ˆj) , and (from Eq. 23-13) its magnitude is

|E|= 1 + 2 + 3 = = 5.65 ×104 N C.

2ε 0 2ε 0 2ε 0 2(8.85 ×10 C /N ⋅ m )

−12 2 2

r

In unit-vector notation, we have E = (5.65 ×104 N/C)ˆj .

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-73

73

A nonconducting solid sphere has a uniform volume charge density ρ. Let be the vector from

the center of the sphere to a general point P within the sphere. (a) Show that the electric field at

P is given by . (Note that the result is independent of the radius of the sphere.) (b)

A spherical cavity is hollowed out of the sphere, as shown in Fig. 23-56. Using superposition

concepts, show that the electric field at all points within the cavity is uniform and equal to

, where is the position vector from the center of the sphere to the center of the

cavity.

((My solution))

(a)

1 4π 3

4πr 2 E1 = r ρ

ε0 3

ρ

E1 = r

3ε0

(b)

1 4π 3

4πr1 E2 = r ( −ρ)

2

ε0 3 1

ρ

E2 = − r1

3ε0

(c)

ρ ρ

E = E1 + E 2 = (r − r1 ) = a

3ε 0 3ε 0

((WileyPlus))

73. (a) From Gauss’ law, we get

r

1 ( 4πρ r 3) r ρ r

r r 3 r

1 qenc r

E( r) = r= = .

4πε 0 r 3 4πε 0 r3 3ε0

(b) The charge distribution in this case is equivalent to that of a whole sphere of charge density

ρ plus a smaller sphere of charge density –ρ that fills the void. By superposition

bg

E r =

+

b g

ρr ( − ρ ) r − a

=

ρa

.

3ε 0 3ε 0 3ε 0

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-76

76

Charge is distributed uniformly throughout the volume of an infinitely long solid cylinder of

radius R. (a) Show that, at a distance r < R from the cylinder axis, where ρ is the

volume charge density. (b) Write an expression for E when r > R.

((My solution))

For r<R,

1

Er ( 2πrh ) = (πr 2 h) ρ

ε0

ρr

Er =

2ε0

For r>R,

1

Er ( 2πrh ) = (πR 2 h) ρ

ε0

ρR 2

Er =

2ε0 r

E R 2 0

1 . 0

0 . 8

0 . 6

0 . 4

0 . 2

r R

1 2 3 4 5

((WileyPlus))

76. (a) The diagram shows a cross section (or, perhaps more

appropriately, “end view”) of the charged cylinder (solid circle).

and length , coaxial with the charged cylinder. An “end view” of

the Gaussian surface is shown as a dashed circle. The charge

enclosed by it is q = ρV = π r 2 l ρ , where V = πr 2 l is the volume of

the cylinder.

If ρ is positive, the electric field lines are radially outward, normal to the Gaussian surface and

distributed uniformly along it. Thus, the total flux through the Gaussian cylinder is

Φ = EAcylinder = E (2π rl ). Now, Gauss’ law leads to

ρr

2πε 0 rl E = π r 2 l ρ ⇒ E = .

2ε 0

(b) Next, we consider a cylindrical Gaussian surface of radius r > R. If the external field Eext then

the flux is Φ = 2π r l Eext . The charge enclosed is the total charge in a section of the charged

cylinder with length l . That is, q = π R 2 l ρ . In this case, Gauss’ law yields

R2 ρ

2πε 0 rl Eext = π R 2 l ρ ⇒ Eext = .

2ε 0 r

_____________________________________________________________________________

Problem 23-82

82

A free electron is placed between two large, parallel, nonconducting plates that are

horizontal and 2.3 cm apart. One plate has a uniform positive charge; the other has an equal

amount of uniform negative charge. The force on the electron due to the electric field between

the plates balances the gravitational force on the electron. What are (a) the magnitude of the

surface charge density on the plates and (b) the direction (up or down) of ?

((My solution))

The electric field between two parallel, non-conducting plates is given by

σ

E=

ε0

∑F y =0

eE −mg = 0

Then e have

mgε 0

σ= = 4.937 × 10 − 22 C / m 2

e

((WileyPlus))

82. (a) We use meg = eE = eσ /ε 0 to obtain the surface charge density.

m gε

σ= e 0=

( 9.11×10 −31

kg ) ( 9.8 m s ) ( 8.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 )

= 4.9 ×10−22 C m2 .

e 1.60 × 10−19 C

(b) To cancel the gravitational force that points downward, the electric force must point upward.

r r r

Since Fe = qE , and q = −e < 0 for electron, we see that the field E must point downward.

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