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# Chapter 23

SP-23

Problems: 2, 5, 9, 11, 13, 15, 30, 32, 33, 36, 38, 40, 43, 50, 52, 55, 69, 73, 76, 82
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Problem 23-2
••2
An electric field given by pierces a Gaussian cube of edge length 2.0

m and positioned as shown in Fig. 23-5. (The magnitude E is in newtons per coulomb and the
position x is in meters.) What is the electric flux through the (a) top face, (b) bottom face, (c) left
face, and (d) back face? (e) What is the net electric flux through the cube?

((My solution))
a=2m
E = ( 4,−3( y 2 + 2), 0)
(a) Top face

a 2E ⋅ n = a 2E ⋅ e y = −a 2 3( y 2 + 2) | y =2 = −18 a 2 = −72

## (b) bottom face

a 2 E ⋅ n = a 2E ⋅ (−e y ) = a 2 3( y 2 + 2) | y =0 = 6a 2 = 24

(c)

left face

## a 2E ⋅ n = a 2E ⋅ (−e x ) = a 2 (−4) = −4a 2 = −16

right face

a 2E ⋅ n = a 2E ⋅ (e x ) = a 2 (4) = 4a 2 = 16

(d)

back face

E ⋅ n = E ⋅ ( −e z ) = 0

front face

E ⋅ n = E ⋅ (e z ) = 0

(e)
Qnet
Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = = −72 + 24 = −48 N m2/C
ε0

## E = ( 4,−3( y 2 + 2), 0) N/C

2 3 2 2
1 2 
∫ E ⋅ da = ∫ (∇⋅ E)dτ = −6∫ yd τ = −6∫0 ydy ∫1 dx ∫0 dz = −24 2 y 0 = −48

since
∂E x ∂E y ∂E z
∇⋅ E = + + = −6 y
∂x ∂y ∂z

((WileyPlus))  
z
2. We use Φ = E ⋅ dA and note that the side length of the cube is (3.0 m–1.0 m) = 2.0 m.
r
(a) On the top face of the cube y = 2.0 m and dA = ( dA ) ĵ . Therefore, we have
r
( )
E = 4iˆ − 3 ( 2.0 ) + 2 ˆj = 4iˆ − 18jˆ . Thus the flux is
2

r r
Φ=∫
top
E ⋅ dA = ∫
top
( 4iˆ − 18jˆ ) ⋅ ( dA) ˆj = −18∫ top
dA = ( −18 ) ( 2.0 ) N ⋅ m 2 C = −72 N ⋅ m2 C.
2

bgej
(b) On the bottom face of the cube y = 0 and dA = dA − j . Therefore, we have
c h
E = 4 i − 3 02 + 2 j = 4 i − 6j . Thus, the flux is

r r
Φ=∫
bottom
E ⋅ dA = ∫
bottom
( 4iˆ − 6ˆj) ⋅ ( dA) ( −ˆj) = 6∫ bottom
dA = 6 ( 2.0 ) N ⋅ m 2 C = +24 N ⋅ m2 C.
2

r
(c) On the left face of the cube dA = ( dA ) −î . So ( )
r
Φ = ∫ Eˆ ⋅ dA = ∫
left
( 4iˆ + E ˆj) ⋅ ( dA) ( −ˆi ) = −4∫ dA = −4 ( 2.0) N ⋅ m C = −16 N ⋅ m C.
left y bottom
2 2 2

r
(d) On the back face of the cube dA = ( dA ) ( −k̂ ) . But since E has no z component E ⋅ dA = 0 .
r r r

Thus, Φ = 0.

(e) We now have to add the flux through all six faces. One can easily verify that the flux through
the front face is zero, while that through the right face is the opposite of that through the left one,
or +16 N·m2/C. Thus the net flux through the cube is

## Φ = (–72 + 24 – 16 + 0 + 0 + 16) N·m2/C = – 48 N·m2/C.

_______________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-5
•5
In Fig. 23-29, a proton is a distance d/2 directly above the center of a square of side d. What is
the magnitude of the electric flux through the square? (Hint: Think of the square as one face of a
cube with edge d.)
((My solution))
q = the charge of proton =

Gauss’ law

qnet
Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da =
ε0

In cube, there are six surfaces. Therefore, the flux through one surface is

q
Φ=
6ε0

((WileyPlus))
5. To exploit the symmetry of the situation, we imagine a closed Gaussian surface in the shape of
a cube, of edge length d, with a proton of charge q = +1.6 ×10−19 C situated at the inside center of
the cube. The cube has six faces, and we expect an equal amount of flux through each face. The
total amount of flux is Φ net = q/ε 0, and we conclude that the flux through the square is one-sixth
of that. Thus,

q 1.6 × 10−19 C
Φ= = = 3.01× 10−9 N ⋅ m 2 C.
6ε 0 6(8.85 × 10 C N ⋅ m )
−12 2 2
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Problem 23-9
••9
Fig. 23-27 shows a Gaussian surface in the shape of a cube with edge length 1.40 m. What
are (a) the net flux Φ through the surface and (b) the net charge qenc enclosed by the surface if

((My solution))

a = 1.4 m

E = 3.0 y ey N/C

## The electric flux,

Qnet
Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = ( 3.0 ⋅ a ) a 2 − (3.0 ⋅ 0) a 2 = 3a 3 =
ε0

or

Φ = 3a 3 = 8.23 N ⋅ m 2 / C
Qnet = ε0 (3a 3 ) = 7.29 ×10 −11 C

## E = [-4 ex + (6 + 3 y)ey N/C

Qnet
Φ= = ∫ E ⋅ da = ( 6 + 3.0 ⋅ a ) a 2 − (6 + 3.0 ⋅ 0)a 2 = 3a 3
ε0

Then we have

Φ = 3a 3 = 8.23 N ⋅ m 2 / C
Qnet = ε0 (3a 3 ) = 7.29 ×10 −11 C

(a) and (b)

E = 3.0 y ey N/C

3

since

∂E x ∂E y ∂E z
∇⋅ E = + + =3
∂x ∂y ∂z

## ∫E ⋅ da = ∫(∇⋅ E)dτ = 3∫dτ = 3a

3
since

∂E x ∂E y ∂E z
∇⋅ E = + + =3
∂x ∂y ∂z

((WileyPlus))
9. (a) Let A = (1.40 m)2. Then

( )(
Φ = 3.00 y ˆj ⋅ − A ˆj ) y =0
( )( )
+ 3.00 y ˆj ⋅ A ˆj
y =1.40
= ( 3.00 ) ( 1.40 ) ( 1.40 ) = 8.23 N ⋅ m 2 C.
2

## (b) The charge is given by

( )( )
qenc = ε 0 Φ = 8.85 ×10−12 C 2 / N ⋅ m 2 8.23 N ⋅ m 2 C = 7.29 × 10−11 C .

r r r
(c) The electric field can be re-written as E = 3.00 y j + E0 , where E0 = −4.00i+ 6.00
j is a
constant field which does not contribute to the net flux through the cube. Thus Φ is still 8.23
N⋅ m2/C.

## (d) The charge is again given by

( )( )
qenc = ε 0 Φ = 8.85 ×10−12 C 2 / N ⋅ m 2 8.23 N ⋅ m 2 C = 7.29 × 10−11 C .

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Problem 23-11
••11
Figure 23-31 shows a closed Gaussian surface in the shape of a cube of edge length 2.00 m,
with one corner at x1 = 5.00 m, y1 = 4.00 m. The cube lies in a region where the electric field

## vector is given by , with y in meters. What is the net

charge contained by the cube?

((My solution))
x1 = 5.0 m
y1 = 4.0 m
a = 2.0 m (edge length of the cube)
E = (-3, -4y2, 3)

Gauss’ law

Q
Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da =
ε0

Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = 2 2 ( −4 y 2 ) | y =4 −2 2 ( −4 y 2 ) | y =2
= 4( −4 ×16 ) − 4( −4 × 4) = −256 + 64 = −192 N ⋅ m 2 / C

or

## E = (-3, -4y2, 3) N/C

4 5 2 4
1 
Φ = ∫ E ⋅ da = ∫ (∇ ⋅ E) dτ = −8∫ yd τ = −8∫ ydy ∫ dx ∫ dz = −8 × 2 × 2  y 2  = −16 ( 4 2 − 2 2 ) = −192
2 3 0 2 2

since

∂E x ∂E y ∂E z
∇⋅ E = + + = −8 y
∂x ∂y ∂z

((WileyPlus))
11. None of the constant terms will result in a nonzero contribution to the flux (see Eq. 23-4 and
Eq. 23-7), so we focus on the x dependent term only:

## Enonconstant = (−4.00y2 ) (in SI units) .

The face of the cube located at y = 4.00 has area A = 4.00 m2 (and it “faces” the + direction) and
has a “contribution” to the flux equal to

## Enonconstant A = (−4)(42)(4) = –256 N·m/C2.

The face of the cube located at y = 2.00 m has the same area A (however, this one “faces” the –
direction) and a contribution to the flux:

## −Enonconstant A = − (−4)(22)(4) = 64 N·m/C2.

Thus, the net flux is Φ = (−256 + 64) N·m/C2 = −192 N·m/C2. According to Gauss’s law, we
therefore have
qenc = ε 0 Φ = (8.85 ×10−12 C 2 /N ⋅ m 2 )(−192 N ⋅ m 2 C) = −1.70 ×10−9 C.

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Problem 23-13
••13
The electric field in a certain region of Earth's atmosphere is directed vertically down. At
an altitude of 300 m the field has magnitude 60.0 N/C; at an altitude of 200 m, the magnitude is
100 N/C. Find the net amount of charge contained in a cube 100 m on edge, with horizontal faces
at altitudes of 200 and 300 m.

((My solution))

a = 100 m
E1 = 60 N/C
E2 = 100 N/C

Q
Φtotal = ∫ E ⋅ da = = E2 a 2 − E1a 2
ε0
Q = ε0 ( E2 − E1 )a 2 = 3.54 ×10 −6 C

((WileyPlus))
13. Let A be the area of one face of the cube, Eu be the magnitude of the electric field at the upper
face, and El be the magnitude of the field at the lower face. Since the field is downward, the flux
through the upper face is negative and the flux through the lower face is positive. The flux
through the other faces is zero, so the total flux through the cube surface is Φ = A( El − Eu ). The
net charge inside the cube is given by Gauss’ law:

## q = ε 0 Φ = ε 0 A( El − Eu ) = (8.85 ×10−12 C2 / N ⋅ m 2 )(100 m) 2 (100 N/C − 60.0 N/C)

= 3.54 ×10−6 C = 3.54 µ C.

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Problem 23-15
••15
A particle of charge +q is placed at one corner of a Gaussian cube. What multiple of q/ 0 gives
the flux through (a) each cube face forming that corner and (b) each of the other cube faces?

((My solution))

(a)
q
Φtotal = ∫ E ⋅ da =
ε0

## There are 8 cubes around the origin. Then we have

1 q
Φ = Φtotal =
8 8ε 0
(b) The flux passing through a, b, and c-faces is the same from the symmetry. The flux passing
through the other faces is zero, since E is perpendicular to the normal direction of the faces. Then
we have

1 q q
Φa = =
3 8ε 0 24ε 0

((WileyPlus))
15. The total flux through any surface that completely surrounds the point charge is q/ε 0.

(a) If we stack identical cubes side by side and directly on top of each other, we will find that
eight cubes meet at any corner. Thus, one-eighth of the field lines emanating from the point
charge pass through a cube with a corner at the charge, and the total flux through the surface of
such a cube is q/8ε 0. Now the field lines are radial, so at each of the three cube faces that meet
at the charge, the lines are parallel to the face and the flux through the face is zero.

(b) The fluxes through each of the other three faces are the same, so the flux through each of
them is one-third of the total. That is, the flux through each of these faces is (1/3)(q/8ε 0) =
q/24ε 0. Thus, the multiple is 1/24 = 0.0417.

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Problem 23-30
••30
In Fig. 23-39, short sections of two very long parallel lines of charge are shown, fixed in place,
separated by L = 8.0 cm. The uniform linear charge densities are +6.0 μC/m for line 1 and -2.0
μC/m for line 2. Where along the x axis shown is the net electric field from the two lines zero?

((My solution))
L = 8.0 cm
λ 1 = 6.0 µ C
λ 2 = 2.0 µ C
λ1
E1 =
2π ε0 r1
λ2
E2 =
2π ε0 r2

There are two possible cases when the net electric field becomes zero.

(i) x>L/2

λ1 λ2
=
L L
2π ε0 ( x + ) 2π ε0 ( x − )
2 2
λ1 λ2
=
L L
x+ x−
2 2

## where r1 = x + L/2 and r2 = x – L/2

(ii) x<-L/2
λ1 λ2
=
L L
2π ε0 (− x − ) 2π ε0 (− x + )
2 2
λ1 λ2
=
L L
x+ x−
2 2

λ1 λ2
=
L L
x+ x−
2 2

## is x = 0.082 m, which is larger than L/2 = 0.04 m [the case (i)].

((WileyPlus))
30. We reason that point P (the point on the x axis where the net electric field is zero) cannot be
between the lines of charge (since their charges have opposite sign). We reason further that P is
not to the left of “line 1” since its magnitude of charge (per unit length) exceeds that of “line 2”;
thus, we look in the region to the right of “line 2” for P. Using Eq. 23-12, we have

2λ1 2λ2
Enet = E1 + E2 = + .
4πε 0 ( x + L / 2) 4πε 0 ( x − L / 2)

##  λ − λ  L  6.0 µ C/m − (−2.0µ C/m)  8.0 cm

x= 1 2  =  = 8.0 cm .
 λ1 + λ2  2  6.0 µ C/m + (−2.0µ C/m)  2

________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-32
••32
A long, nonconducting, solid cylinder of radius 4.0 cm has a nonuniform volume charge density
ρ that is a function of radial distance r from the cylinder axis: ρ = Ar2. For A = 2.5 μC/m5, what is
the magnitude of the electric field at (a) r = 3.0 cm and (b) r = 5.0 cm?
((My solution))
R = 4.0 cm, A = 2.5 mC/m5
ρ( r ) = Ar 2

## For r<R, we apply the Gauss’ law to the Gaussian surface.

r
1
2πrhE r =
ε0 ∫ 2πrdrh ρ(r )
0

2πhA
r
= ∫r
3
dr
ε0 0

or

r
A
Er = ∫r
3
dr
ε0 r 0
(0<r<R)
Ar 4
=
4ε0

For r>R,

R
1
2πrhE r =
ε0 ∫ 2πrdrh ρ(r )
0

2πhA
R

ε0 ∫0
= r 3dr

2πhA 4
= R
4ε0
or

A
Er = R4 (r>R)
4ε0 r

((Mathematica))
I n [ 2 P] : h= 
y s c o  n gs t 9 . 8 0 6, G6 5 6 . 6 7 4 2 18 0 61 17, N A  6 . 0 2 2 1 41 102 37, 9R  8 . 3 1 4 ,4 7 2

m e 9 . 1 0 9 3 8 21 10 35 1,4 u 5  1 . 6 6 0 5 3 18 0 72 78, 2e V  1 . 6 0 2 1 7 16 0 41 98, 7

q e 1 . 6 0 2 1 7 16 0 41 98, 7 c  2 . 9 9 7 9 21 408 ,5  80  1 2 . 5 6 6 3 71 00 76, 1 4
0  8 . 8 5 4 1 8 17 0 81 21, R7 e a 6 . 3 7 12 06 ,  C  1 0 6 , n C  1 0 9 , p C  1 0 1 2,
f C 1 0 1 5, m m  1 0 3 , c m  0 . 0, 1 m  1 0 6 , n m  1 0 9
 1 1
O u t [ 2 g ] = 9 . 8 0 6 , 6 G 5  6 . 6 7 4 2 19 0 , N A  6 . 0 2 2 1 14 02 3,

R  8 . 3 1 4 , 4 m 7 e  9 . 1 0 9 3 18 0 3 1, u  1 . 6 6 0 5 14 0 2 7, e V  1 . 6 0 2 1 1 8 0 1 9,

q e  1 . 6 0 2 1 1 8 0 1 9, c  2 . 9 9 7 9 12 08 ,  0  1 . 2 5 6 6 1 4 0 6 ,  0  8 . 8 5 4 1 19 0 1 2,
1 1 1
R e a 6 . 3 7  21 06 ,  C 

 
, n C , p C ,
1 0 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0

 
1 1 1 1
f C , m m , c m  0 . 0 ,1  m  , n m
1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0

I n [ 3 r] : u= l e 1 R  4 . 0c m, A  2 . 5  0C

 
O u t [ 3 R ] = 4 . c m, A  2 . 5 C

A r3
I n [ 4 E] : 1=  . r u l e .1 P h y s c o n s t
4 0

 
3
O u t [ 74 05
] = 8 8 . r1

A R4
I n [ 5 E] : 2=  . r u l e .1 P h y s c o n s t

 
4 0 r

     
0 . 1 8 0 7 0 5
O u t [ 5 ] =
r

           
I n [ 6 E] : t= o  t I f r  0 . 0, 4 E 1, 0  I f r  0 . 0, 4 E 2, 0

O u t [ I6 f] =r  0 . 0 ,4 E 2, 0  I f r  0 . 0 ,4 E 1, 0


I n [ 1 1 P ] l: = o Et t o, t r , 0 , 0 . 1 ,0 P l o t S t  y lR e ,d T h i c , k B a c k g r o uL ni dg h t G, r a y
A x e s L a  b e" rl m " , " E r N C "
E rN C

O u t [ 1 1 ] =
2


 
r m
0 . 0 2 0 . 0 4 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 8 0 . 1 0

I n [ 8 E] : t= o t . r  0
O u t [ 08 ] =

I n [ 9 E] : t= 
o t . r  0 . 0 3 
O
O u t [ 19 .] =9 0 5 8 8

I n [ 1 0 E ] t: = o

u t [ 13 0. ]6 = 1 4 1 1
t . r  0 . 0 5 
((WileyPlus))
32. To evaluate the field using Gauss’ law, we employ a cylindrical surface of area 2 π r L
where L is very large (large enough that contributions from the ends of the cylinder become
irrelevant to the calculation). The volume within this surface is V = π r2 L, or expressed more
appropriate to our needs: dV = 2π rLdr . The charge enclosed is, with A = 2.5 ×10−6 C/m5 ,
r π
qenc = ∫ A r 2 2π r L dr = ALr 4 .
0 2
r r A r3
By Gauss’ law, we find Φ = |E | (2πrL) = qenc / ε 0 ; we thus obtain E = .
4ε0
r
(a) With r = 0.030 m, we find | E | = 1.9 N/C.

(b) Once outside the cylinder, Eq. 23-12 is obeyed. To find λ = q/L we must find the total
charge q. Therefore,
q 1 0.04 2
L L ∫0
= A r 2π r L dr = 1.0 ×10−11 C/m.

r
And the result, for r = 0.050 m, is | E | = λ /2πε 0 r = 3.6 N/C.

_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-33
•33
In Fig. 23-40, two large, thin metal plates are parallel and close to each other. On their inner
faces, the plates have excess surface charge densities of opposite signs and magnitude 7.00 × 10-
22
C/m2. In unit-vector notation, what is the electric field at points (a) to the left of the plates, (b)
to the right of them, and (c) between them?

((My solution))
Inside the metal, there is no electric field E = 0.
We apply the Gauss’ law to the cylinder.

σ∆a
E∆a =
ε0

or

σ
E= = 7.91 ×10 −11 N / C
ε0

((WileyPlus))
33. We use Eq. 23-13.

## (a) To the left of the plates:

r
E = ( σ / 2ε 0 ) ( − ˆi) (from the right plate) + (σ / 2ε 0 )iˆ (from the left one) = 0.

## (b) To the right of the plates:

r
E = ( σ / 2ε 0 ) ˆi (from the right plate) + ( σ / 2ε 0 ) ( − ˆi) (from the left one) = 0.

## (c) Between the plates:

r  σ 
ˆi) +  σ  −ˆi =  σ  ( − ˆi) = −  7.00 ×10 C/m  ˆi = −7.91×10−11 N/C ˆi.
−22

( )
2
E =  ( −      2  ( )
 2ε 0   2ε 0   ε0 
−12
 8.85 ×10 C /N ⋅ m 
2

_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-36
•36
Figure 23-43 shows cross sections through two large, parallel, non-conducting sheets with
identical distributions of positive charge with surface charge density σ = 1.77 × 10-22 C/m2. In
unit-vector notation, what is at points (a) above the sheets, (b) between them, and (c) below
them?

((My solution))
σ = 1.77 x 10-22 C/m2

σ
(a) Ez = = 2.00 ×10 −11 N / C
ε0

(b) Ez = 0.

σ
(c) Ez = − = −2.00 ×10 −11 N / C
ε0

((WileyPlus))
36. According to Eq. 23-13 the electric field due to either sheet of charge with surface charge

density σ = 1.77 × 10 22 C/m2 is perpendicular to the plane of the sheet (pointing away from
the sheet if the charge is positive) and has magnitude E = σ /2ε 0. Using the superposition
principle, we conclude:
− − −
(a) E = σ /ε 0 = (1.77 × 10 22 C/m2)/(8.85 × 10 12 C 2 /N ⋅ m 2 ) = 2.00× 10 11 N/C, pointing in the
r
upward direction, or E = (2.00 ×10−11 N/C)jˆ ;
(b) E = 0;
r
(c) and, E = σ /ε 0, pointing down, or E = −(2.00 ×10−11 N/C)jˆ .

_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-38
••38
In Fig. 23-44a, an electron is shot directly away from a uniformly charged plastic sheet, at
speed vs = 2.0 × 105 m/s. The sheet is nonconducting, flat, and very large. Figure 23-44b gives
the electron's vertical velocity component v versus time t until the return to the launch point.
What is the sheet's surface charge density?

((My solution))
vs = 2.0 x 105 m/s

σ
E=
2ε0

## The Newton’s second law

F = (−e) E = ma
e eσ
a =− E =−
m 2mε0

v = vs − t
2mε0

At t = t0, v = 0.

vs = t0
2mε0

or
2mε 0
σ = vs = 2.99 x 10-6 C/m2
et0

((WileyPlus))
38. The field due to the sheet is E = . The force (in magnitude) on the electron (due to that field)
is F = eE, and assuming it’s the only force then the acceleration is

a = = slope of the graph ( = 2.0 × 105 m/s divided by 7.0 × 10 12 s) .

Thus we obtain σ = 2.9 × 10 6 C/m2.

________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-40
••40
Figure 23-46 shows a very large nonconducting sheet that has a uniform surface charge density
of σ = -2.00 μC/m2; it also shows a particle of charge Q = 6.00 μC, at distance d from the sheet.
Both are fixed in place. If d 0.200 m, at what (a) positive and (b) negative coordinate on the x
axis (other than infinity) is the net electric field of the sheet and particle zero? (c) If d =
0.800 m, at what coordinate on the x axis is ?

((My solution))
σ = 2.00 µ C/m2
Q = 6.00 µ C
d = 0.2 m or d = 0.8 m

1 Q
EQ =
4πε0 x 2

## The electric field due to the surface charge σ

σ
Eσ =
2ε0

There are two cases where the net electric field becomes zero.

For x>0

Enet = EQ − Eσ = 0

For x<-d,

Enet = −EQ + Eσ = 0

1 Q σ
= ,
4π ε0 x 2
2ε0

1 Q
or =σ
2π x 2

## The solution of this equation:

1 Q
x =± = ±0.690988 m
2π σ

(a), (b)

For d = 0.2 m

(c) d = 0.8 m

## Enet = 0 for x = 0.690988 m.

((WileyPlus))
40. The point where the individual fields cancel cannot be in the region between the sheet and
the particle (−d < x < 0) since the sheet and the particle have opposite-signed charges. The
point(s) could be in the region to the right of the particle (x > 0) and in the region to the left of
the sheet (x < d); this is where the condition

|σ | Q
=
2ε 0 4πε 0 r 2

must hold. Solving this with the given values, we find r = x = ± ≈ ± 0.691 m.

If d = 0.20 m (which is less than the magnitude of r found above), then neither of the points (x ≈
± 0.691 m) is in the “forbidden region” between the particle and the sheet. Thus, both values are
allowed. Thus, we have

## (b) x = − 0.691 m on the negative axis.

(c) If, however, d = 0.80 m (greater than the magnitude of r found above), then one of the points
(x ≈ −0.691 m) is in the “forbidden region” between the particle and the sheet and is disallowed.
In this part, the fields cancel only at the point x ≈ +0.691 m.

_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-43
••43
Figure 23-47 shows a cross section through a very large nonconducting slab of thickness d =
9.40 mm and uniform volume charge density ρ = 5.80 fC/m3. The origin of an x axis is at the
slab's center. What is the magnitude of the slab's electric field at an x coordinate of (a) 0, (b) 2.00
mm, (c) 4.70 mm, and (d) 26.0 mm?

((My solution))
ρ = 5.80 fC/m3
d = 9.40 mm
For 0<x<d/2 For x>d/2
1 1
2 E∆a = (2 x )∆aρ 2 E∆a = d∆aρ
ε0 ε0
ρx ρd
E= E=
ε0 2ε 0

x=0 E=0
x = 2.0 mm E = 1.31 x 10-6 N/C
x = 4.7 mm E = 3.08 x 10-6 N/C


x = 26.0 mm E = 3.08 x 10-6 N/C
E  d 2 0
1 . 0

0 . 5

 1 . 0  0 . 5 0 . 5 1 . 0

x d

 0 . 5

 1 . 0

((WileyPlus))
43. We use a Gaussian surface in the form of a box with rectangular sides. The cross section is
shown with dashed lines in the diagram below. It is centered at the central plane of the slab, so
the left and right faces are each a distance x from the central plane. We take the thickness of the
rectangular solid to be a, the same as its length, so the left and right faces are squares.
The electric field is normal to the left and right faces and is uniform over
them. Since ρ = 5.80 fC/m3 is positive, it points outward at both
faces: toward the left at the left face and toward the right at the right face.
Furthermore, the magnitude is the same at both faces. The electric flux
through each of these faces is Ea2. The field is parallel to the other faces
of the Gaussian surface and the flux through them is zero. The total flux
through the Gaussian surface is Φ = 2 Ea 2 . The volume enclosed by the
Gaussian surface is 2a2x and the charge contained within it is
q = 2a 2 x ρ . Gauss’ law yields

2ε 0Ea2 = 2a2xρ .

## We solve for the magnitude of the electric field: E = ρ x / ε 0 .

(a) For x = 0, E = 0.

(b) For x = 2.00 mm = 2.00 × 10 3 m,

## ρ x (5.80 ×10−15 C/m3 )(2.00 ×10−3 m)

E= = = 1.31×10−6 N/C.
ε0 −12
8.85 ×10 C /N ⋅ m
2 2

(c) For x = d/2 = 4.70 mm = 4.70 × 10 3 m,

## ρ x (5.80 ×10−15 C/m3 )(4.70 ×10−3 m)

E= = = 3.08 ×10−6 N/C.
ε0 −12
8.85 ×10 C /N ⋅ m
2 2

(d) For x = 26.0 mm = 2.60 × 10 2 m, we take a Gaussian surface of the same shape and
orientation, but with x > d/2, so the left and right faces are outside the slab. The total flux through
the surface is again Φ = 2Ea 2 but the charge enclosed is now q = a2dρ . Gauss’ law yields
2ε 0Ea2 = a2dρ , so

## ρ d (5.80 ×10−15 C/m3 )(9.40 × 10−3 m)

E= = = 3.08 ×10−6 N/C.
2ε 0 −12
2(8.85 × 10 C /N ⋅ m )
2 2

_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-50
••50
Figure 23-51 shows two nonconducting spherical shells fixed in place on an x axis. Shell 1
has uniform surface charge density +4.0 μC/m2 on its outer surface and radius 0.50 cm, and shell
2 has uniform surface charge density -2.0 μC/m2 on its outer surface and radius 2.0 cm; the
centers are separated by L = 6.0 cm. Other than at x = ∞, where on the x axis is the net electric
field equal to zero?
((My solution))
σ 1 = 4.0 µ C/m2
r1 = 0.5 cm

Q1 = 4π r12σ 1

## The charge Q1 is on the shell-1

σ 2 = 2.0 µ C/m2
r2 = 2.0 cm

Q2 = 4π r22σ 2
The charge –Q2 is on the shell-2

There are two cases when the net electric field is equal to zero.
(i) For x>L

1 Q1 Q2
Enet = [ 2− ]=0
4π ε0 x ( x − L) 2
or

Q1 Q2
=
x 2
( x − L) 2

or

σ 1 r1 σ 2 r2
2 2

= for x>L
x 2
( x − L) 2

## (ii) For x<0

1 Q Q2
Enet = [− 21 + ]=0
4π ε0 x ( x − L) 2

or

Q1 Q2
=
x 2
( x − L) 2

Then we have

σ 1 r1 σ 2 r2
2 2

= for x<0
x 2
( x − L) 2

## From the above equation, we get

L
x=
r2 σ2

r1 σ1

x = -3.28151 cm (x<0)

or

## x = 1.56772 cm (<L). So that this is not a solution.

((WileyPlus))
50. The point where the individual fields cancel cannot be in the region between the shells since
the shells have opposite-signed charges. It cannot be inside the radius R of one of the shells
since there is only one field contribution there (which would not be canceled by another field
contribution and thus would not lead to zero net field). We note shell 2 has greater magnitude of
charge (|σ 2|A2) than shell 1, which implies the point is not to the right of shell 2 (any such point
would always be closer to the larger charge and thus no possibility for cancellation of equal-
magnitude fields could occur). Consequently, the point should be in the region to the left of shell
1 (at a distance r > R1 from its center); this is where the condition
| q1 | | q2 |
E1 = E2 ⇒ =
4πε 0 r 2
4πε 0 (r + L)2
or
σ 1 A1 | σ 2 | A2
= .
4πε 0 r 2
4πε 0 (r + L )2

Using the fact that the area of a sphere is A = 4π R2, this condition simplifies to

r = = 3.3 cm .

We note that this value satisfies the requirement r > R1. The answer, then, is that the net field
vanishes at x = −r = −3.3 cm.

_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-52
••52
Figure 23-53 shows a spherical shell with uniform volume charge density ρ = 1.84 nC/m3, inner
radius a = 10.0 cm, and outer radius b = 2.00a. What is the magnitude of the electric field at
radial distances (a) r = 0; (b) r = a/2.00, (c) r = a, (d) r = 1.50a, (e) r = b, and (f) r = 3.00b?

((My solution))
ρ = 1.84 nC/m3
a = 10.0 cm
b = 2a = 20.0 cm

For a<r<b

4π ρ1 3
r
1
4πr 2 E = ∫ 4πr ' ρdr ' = (r − a 3 )
2

ε0 a
ε0 3
ρ a3
E= (r − 2 )
3ε0 r

For r>b

4π ρ1 3
b
1
4πr 2 E = ∫ 4πr ' ρdr ' = (b − a 3 )
2

ε0 a
ε0 3
ρ b − a3
3
E= ( )
3ε0 r2

At r = 0 E = 0 N/C
At r = a/2 = 0.05 m, E = 0 N/C
At r = a = 0.10 m E = 0 N/C
At r = 1.5a = 0.15 m E = 7.3188 N/C
At r = b = 0.20 m E = 12.1223 N/C
At r = 3b = 0.60 m E = 1.34692 N/C
((Mathematica))

P h y s c o  n gs t 9 . 8 0 6, G6 5 6 . 6 7 4 2 18 0 61 17, N A  6 . 0 2 2 1 41 102 37, 9
R  8 . 3 1 4 ,4 m 7 e 2 9 . 1 0 9 3 8 21 10 35 1,4 u 5  1 . 6 6 0 5 3 18 0 72 78, 2

e V  1 . 6 0 2 1 7 16 0 41 98, 7q e  1 . 6 0 2 1 7 16 0 41 98, 7 c  2 . 9 9 7 9 21 408 ,5 8

 0  1 2 . 5 6 6 3 71 00 76, 1  40  8 . 8 5 4 1 8 17 0 81 21, 7R e a 6 . 3 7 12 06 ,
 C  1 0 6 , n C  1 0 9 , p C  1 0 1 2, f C  1 0 1 5, m m  1 0 3 , c m  0 . 0, 1
 m  1 0 6 , n m  1 0 9

g  9 . 8 0 6 , 6 G 5  6 . 6 7 4 2 19 0 1 1, N A  6 . 0 2 2 1 14 02 3, R  8 . 3 1 4 , 4 7

m e  9 . 1 0 9 3 1 8 0 3 1, u  1 . 6 6 0 5 14 0 2 7, e V  1 . 6 0 2 1 18 0 1 9,
q e  1 . 6 0 2 1 1 8 0 1 9, c  2 . 9 9 7 9 12 08 ,  0  1 . 2 5 6 6 14 0 6 ,

1
 0  8 . 8 5 4 1 1 9 0 1 2, R e a 6 . 3 7 21 06 ,  C  ,
1 0 0 00 0 0
1 1 1

 
n C , p C , f C ,
1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 0

 
1 1 1
m m , c m  0 . 0 ,1  m  , n m
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 0 1 0 0 00 0 00 0 0

r u l e 1 a  1 0c m, b  2 0 . c 0 m,   1 . 8 n 4 C

 
a  1 0 c m, b  2 0 .c m,   1 . 8 n4 C

 a3

 
E 1 r  . r u l e .1 P h y s c o n s t
3 0 r2
0 . 0 0 1

 
6 9 . 2 7 0 4  r
r2

 b3  a3
E 2 . r u l e .1 P h y s c o n s t
3 0 r2

     
0 . 4 8 4 8 9 3
r2

E t o  t I f 0 . 1 r  0 . ,2 E 1, 0
I f r  0 . ,2 E 2, 0
 I f r  0 . ,2 E 2, 0

 I f 0 . 1 r  0 . ,2 E 1, 0
         

P l o Et t o, t r , 0 . ,1 0 . 5, P l o t S t  y lR e ,d T h i c , k
B a c k g r o uL ni dg h t G, r A a x y e s L a b e" rl m " , " E N C "
E N C
1 2

1 0


2

r m
0 . 2 0 . 3 0 . 4 0 . 5

E t o t. r  0

0

E t o t. r  0 . 0 5

0

E t o t. r  0 . 1 0

 
0

E t o t . r  0 . 1 5

 
7 . 3 1 1 8 8

E t o t . r  0 . 2

 
1 2 . 1 2 2 3

E t o t . r  0 . 6
1 . 3 4 6 9 2

E t o t . r  0 . 6
1 . 3 4 6 9 2

((WileyPlus))
52. The field is zero for 0 ≤ r ≤ a as a result of Eq. 23-16. Thus,

(a) E = 0 at r = 0,

## (b) E = 0 at r = a/2.00, and

(c) E = 0 at r = a.

F
4 πr
G
3
IJ
4 πa 3
qenc = ρ
H3 −
3 K.

1 qenc ρ F
4 πr 3 4 πa 3
G IJ
ρ r3 − a3
E=
4 πε 0 r 2
=
4 πε 0r 2 H3

3
=
K
3ε 0 r 2
for a ≤ r ≤ b.

## ρ (1.50a )3 − a 3 ρ a  2.375  (1.84 ×10−9 C/m3 )(0.100 m)  2.375 

E= =  =   = 7.32 N/C.
3ε 0 (1.50a ) 2 3ε 0  2.25  3(8.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 )  2.25 

## ρ (2.00a)3 − a3 ρ a  7  (1.84 ×10−9 C/m3 )(0.100 m)  7 

E= =  =   = 12.1 N/C.
3ε 0 (2.00a ) 2 3ε 0  4  3(8.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 )  4 

2

ρ b3 − a 3
E= .
3ε 0 r 2

## ρ (2.00a)3 − a3 ρ a  7  (1.84 ×10−9 C/m3 )(0.100 m)  7 

E= =  =   = 1.35 N/C.
3ε 0 (6.00a ) 2 3ε 0  36  3(8.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 )  36 
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-55
•••55
A charge distribution that is spherically symmetric but not uniform radially produces an electric
field of magnitude E = Kr4, directed radially outward from the center of the sphere. Here r is the
radial distance from that center, and K is a constant. What is the volume density ρ of the charge
distribution?

((My solution))

r
1
E= ∫ ρ(r ' )( 4πr ' )dr ' = Kr 4
2

4π ε0 r 2
0
r

2

## Taking the derivative of both side with respect to r,

ρ (r )4πr 2 = 24π ε0 Kr 5
24π ε0 Kr 5
ρ (r ) = = 6ε 0 Kr 3
4πr 2

((WileyPlus))
55. We use
qenc 1 r
E (r ) =
4πε 0 r 2
=
4πε 0 r 2 ∫
0
ρ (r )4πr 2 dr

## to solve for ρ (r) and obtain

ρ (r ) =
ε0 d 2
2
r dr
ε d
r E (r ) = 20
r dr
Kr 6 = 6 Kε 0r 3 .c h
________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-69
69
Figure 23-55 shows, in cross section, three infinitely large nonconducting sheets on which
charge is uniformly spread. The surface charge densities are σ1 = +2.00 μC/m2, σ2 = +4.00 μC/m2,
and σ3 = -5.00 μC/m2, and distance L = 1.50 cm. In unit-vector notation, what is the net electric
field at point P?
((WileyPlus))
69. Since the fields involved are uniform, the precise location of P is not relevant; what is
important is it is above the three sheets, with the positively charged sheets contributing upward
fields and the negatively charged sheet contributing a downward field, which conveniently
conforms to usual conventions (of upward as positive and downward as negative). The net field
is directed upward (+ ˆj) , and (from Eq. 23-13) its magnitude is

## r σ σ σ 1.0 ×10−6 C/m2

|E|= 1 + 2 + 3 = = 5.65 ×104 N C.
2ε 0 2ε 0 2ε 0 2(8.85 ×10 C /N ⋅ m )
−12 2 2

r
In unit-vector notation, we have E = (5.65 ×104 N/C)ˆj .

_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-73
73
A nonconducting solid sphere has a uniform volume charge density ρ. Let be the vector from
the center of the sphere to a general point P within the sphere. (a) Show that the electric field at
P is given by . (Note that the result is independent of the radius of the sphere.) (b)
A spherical cavity is hollowed out of the sphere, as shown in Fig. 23-56. Using superposition
concepts, show that the electric field at all points within the cavity is uniform and equal to
, where is the position vector from the center of the sphere to the center of the
cavity.

((My solution))
(a)

1 4π 3
4πr 2 E1 = r ρ
ε0 3
ρ
E1 = r
3ε0

(b)

1 4π 3
4πr1 E2 = r ( −ρ)
2

ε0 3 1
ρ
E2 = − r1
3ε0

(c)

ρ ρ
E = E1 + E 2 = (r − r1 ) = a
3ε 0 3ε 0

((WileyPlus))
73. (a) From Gauss’ law, we get
r
1 ( 4πρ r 3) r ρ r
r r 3 r
1 qenc r
E( r) = r= = .
4πε 0 r 3 4πε 0 r3 3ε0
(b) The charge distribution in this case is equivalent to that of a whole sphere of charge density
ρ plus a smaller sphere of charge density –ρ that fills the void. By superposition


bg
E r =

+
b g
 
ρr ( − ρ ) r − a
=
ρa

.
3ε 0 3ε 0 3ε 0

_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-76
76
Charge is distributed uniformly throughout the volume of an infinitely long solid cylinder of

radius R. (a) Show that, at a distance r < R from the cylinder axis, where ρ is the
volume charge density. (b) Write an expression for E when r > R.

((My solution))

For r<R,

1
Er ( 2πrh ) = (πr 2 h) ρ
ε0
ρr
Er =
2ε0

For r>R,
1
Er ( 2πrh ) = (πR 2 h) ρ
ε0
ρR 2
Er =


2ε0 r

E  R 2 0
1 . 0

0 . 8

0 . 6

0 . 4

0 . 2

r R
1 2 3 4 5

((WileyPlus))
76. (a) The diagram shows a cross section (or, perhaps more
appropriately, “end view”) of the charged cylinder (solid circle).

## Consider a Gaussian surface in the form of a cylinder with radius r

and length , coaxial with the charged cylinder. An “end view” of
the Gaussian surface is shown as a dashed circle. The charge
enclosed by it is q = ρV = π r 2 l ρ , where V = πr 2 l is the volume of
the cylinder.

If ρ is positive, the electric field lines are radially outward, normal to the Gaussian surface and
distributed uniformly along it. Thus, the total flux through the Gaussian cylinder is
Φ = EAcylinder = E (2π rl ). Now, Gauss’ law leads to

ρr
2πε 0 rl E = π r 2 l ρ ⇒ E = .
2ε 0

(b) Next, we consider a cylindrical Gaussian surface of radius r > R. If the external field Eext then
the flux is Φ = 2π r l Eext . The charge enclosed is the total charge in a section of the charged
cylinder with length l . That is, q = π R 2 l ρ . In this case, Gauss’ law yields

R2 ρ
2πε 0 rl Eext = π R 2 l ρ ⇒ Eext = .
2ε 0 r
_____________________________________________________________________________
Problem 23-82
82
A free electron is placed between two large, parallel, nonconducting plates that are
horizontal and 2.3 cm apart. One plate has a uniform positive charge; the other has an equal
amount of uniform negative charge. The force on the electron due to the electric field between
the plates balances the gravitational force on the electron. What are (a) the magnitude of the
surface charge density on the plates and (b) the direction (up or down) of ?

((My solution))
The electric field between two parallel, non-conducting plates is given by

σ
E=
ε0

## Newton’s second law:

∑F y =0

eE −mg = 0

Then e have

mgε 0
σ= = 4.937 × 10 − 22 C / m 2
e

((WileyPlus))
82. (a) We use meg = eE = eσ /ε 0 to obtain the surface charge density.

m gε
σ= e 0=
( 9.11×10 −31
kg ) ( 9.8 m s ) ( 8.85 ×10−12 C2 /N ⋅ m2 )
= 4.9 ×10−22 C m2 .
e 1.60 × 10−19 C

(b) To cancel the gravitational force that points downward, the electric force must point upward.
r r r
Since Fe = qE , and q = −e < 0 for electron, we see that the field E must point downward.