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PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Wiley Series in Chemical Engineering Bird, Armstrong and Hassager: DYNAMICS OF POLYMERIC LIQUIDS, Vol. I FLUID MECHANICS Bird, Hassager, Armstrong and Curtiss: DYNAMICS OF POLYMERIC LIQUIDS, Vol. Il KINETIC THEORY Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot: TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Brownell and Young: PROCESS EQUIPMENT DESIGN: VESSEL DESIGN Davis: NUMERICAL METHODS AND MODELING FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS Doraiswamy and Sharma: HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS ANALYSIS, EXAMPLES AND REACTOR DESIGN, Vol. 1, Vol. 2 Felder and Rousseau: ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES, 2nd Edition Foust, Wenzel, Clump, Maus and Andersen: PRINCIPLES OF UNIT OPERATIONS, 2nd Edition Froment and Bischoff: CHEMICAL REACTOR ANALYSIS AND DESIGN, 2nd Edition Franks: MODELING AND SIMULATION IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Henley and Seader: EQUILIBRIUM-STAGE SEPARATION OPERATIONS IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Hill: AN INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING KINETICS AND REACTOR DESIGN Jawad and Farr: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PROCESS EQUIPMENT Kellogg Company: DESIGN OF PIPING SYSTEMS, Revised 2nd Edition Levenspiel: CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING, 2nd Edition Nauman and Buffham: MIXING IN CONTINUOUS FLOW SYSTEMS Nauman: CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN Rase:_ CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN FOR PROCESS PLANTS PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES, Vol. 1 Rase and Barrow: PIPING DESIGN FOR PROCESS PLANTS Reklaitis: INTRODUCTION TO MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES Rudd, Fathi-Afshar, Trevino and Stadtherr:. PETROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT Rudd and Watson: STRATEGY OF PROCESS ENGINEERING Sandler: CHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS, 2nd Edition Seborg, Edgar and Mellichamp: PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Smith and Corripio:. PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF AUTOMATIC PROCESS CONTROL Smith and Missen: CHEMICAL REACTION EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS Ulrich: A GUIDE TO CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROCESS DESIGN AND ECONOMICS Welty, Wicks and Wilson: FUNDAMENTALS OF MOMENTUM, HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, 3rd Edition Process Dynamics and Control Dale E. Seborg University of California, Santa Barbara Thomas F. Edgar University of Texas at Austin Duncan A. Mellichamp University of California, Santa Barbara 63162 = 0 s€6 b WILEY. John Wiley & Sons New York Chichester Brisbane Toronto Singapore Copyright © 1989, by John Wiley & Sons, Ine: All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada, Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright ‘Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for permission of further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons ISBN 0-471-86389-0 Printed in the United States of America Printed and bound by the Hamilton Printing Company. 2» 19 About the Authors Dale E. Seborg is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Cal- ifornia, Santa Barbara. He received his B.S. degree from the University of Wis- consin and his Ph.D. degree from Princeton University. Before joining UCSB in 1977, he taught at the University of Alberta for nine years. Dr. Seborg has published numerous articles on process control and related topics. He is a co-author of Multivariable Computer Control—A Case Study and coeditor of Chemical Process Control 2. He has received awards from the Joint Automatic Control Conference and the AIChE Southern California Section. He is an active industrial consultant and has served as a director of three organizations: the American Automatic Con- trol Council, the AIChE Computing and Systems Technology Division, and the ASEE ChE Division. Dr. Seborg serves on the editorial boards of the JEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, and Adaptive Control and Signal Processing Thomas F, Edgar is Professor/Chairman of Chemical Engineering at the University of Texas, Austin. He received his B.S.Ch.E. from the University of Kansas and the Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering at Princeton University. Dr. Edgar has been President of the CACHE Corporation, Chairman of the Computing and Systems Technology Division of AIChE, and Vice-President of the American Automatic Control Council. He has won the AIChE Colburn Award and the ASEE West- inghouse Award. He has served on the editorial boards for Chemical Engineering Reviews, Computers and Chemical Engineering, and the AIChE Journal, Dr. Edgar has published extensively in the fields of process control, optimization and math- ematical modeling and is author of Coal Processing and Pollution Control and co- author of Optimization of Chemical Processes. Duncan A. Mellichamp is a Professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He received his B.S. degree from Georgia Institute of Technology and his Ph.D. degree from Purdue University. He has taught at UCSB since 1966, having started up the process control program when the de- partment was founded. Prior to that, he was a Research Engineer with the Textile Fibers Department of Du Pont for four years. Dr. Mellichamp was a pioneer in real-time computing and has edited a book, Real-Time Computing with Applications to Data Acquisition and Control. He served in a variety of capacities with CACHE, including Trustee for fifteen years and President. He is the author of numerous research papers and editor or author of several monographs in the areas of process modeling, large-scale systems analysis, and computer control. Preface Process control has undergone significant changes since the 1970s when the avail- ability of inexpensive digital technology began a radical change in instrumentation technology. Pressures associated with increased competition, rapidly changing ec- onomic conditions, more stringent environmental regulations, and the need for more flexible yet more complex processes have given process control engineers an expanded role in the design and operation of processing plants. High-performance measurement and control systems, most often based on the use of digital instru- mentation, play a critical role in making modern industrial plants economically competitive. In the foreseeable future there will be an expanded use of microprocessor- based instrumentation and networks of digital computers. More sophisticated con- trol strategies—including feedforward, supervisory, multivariable, and adaptive control features as well as sophisticated digital logic—are easily justified to maintain plant operation closer to the economic optimum. On the other hand, conventional analog control systems continue to be used in many existing plants. A modern undergraduate course in chemical process control should reflect this rather diverse milieu of theory and applications. It should incorporate process dynamics, computer simulation, feedback control, a discussion of measurement and control hardware (both analog and digital), advanced control strategies, and digital control techniques. This textbook allows the instructor to cover the basic material while providing the flexibility to pursue selected topics in the process control field. It can provide the basis of 20 to 30 weeks of instruction, covering a single course or a sequence of courses at the undergraduate or first year graduate levels. We have divided the text into reasonably short chapters to make the book more readable and to enhance its use in a modular fashion. This organization allows the student to skip some chapters without a loss of continuity. For example, the subject of digital control could be omitted or included readily in a particular course. The mathematical level of the book is oriented toward the “typical” chemical engineering student (who has taken at least one course in differential equations) and the engineer in industry. The additional mathematical tools required for anal- ysis of control systems are introduced as needed in the text. We have emphasized the control techniques that have been found useful in control system design practice and have provided detailed mathematical developments only when they help in understanding the material vii PREFACE The text material has evolved at the Universities of California (Santa Barbara), Alberta, and Texas over the past 20 years. As part of our effort to rethink the teaching of process control, we have omitted outdated topics that are not being used today by process control engineers to design control systems. However, we have included material on frequency response, even though these methods are not often used in the process industries, because they provide valuable insight for the control engineer (indeed, they provide the source of much of the descriptive vo- cabulary used by control engineers). Many people believe that they should be a part of a first course in process control. At the same time, the book has been structured so that an instructor with a preference for transient response design techniques can teach an entire course with only passing reference to the frequency response material The book is divided into seven parts. Part One presents introductory concepts of process control along with an overview of mathematical modeling based on material and energy balances together with basic principles of chemistry and phys- ics. In Chapter 1 a stirred-tank heater system is used as the vehicle for introducing the student to the concepts of feedback and feedforward control. The development of phenomenological models for representative unit operations is considered in Chapter 2, including liquid storage systems, continuous stirred-tank reactors, staged absorbers, and heat exchangers. Part Two (Chapters 3 through 7) is concerned with dynamic behavior of pro- cesses. In Chapter 3 the Laplace transform is introduced as a general means for solving differential equations and obtaining dynamic responses. When the Laplace transform is used, the concept of a transfer function follows directly (Chapter 4). Once this transform tool is mastered, it can be used to determine transient responses of first- and second-order systems (Chapter 5) and higher-order and distributed- parameter systems (Chapter 6). Chapter 7 presents an alternative approach for obtaining process dynamics, one in which basic phenomenological models are ig- nored in favor of empirical models. Here we specifically consider methods for obtaining dynamic models from step response data Part Three is devoted to the subject of feedback control. Chapters 8 and 9 deal with hardware aspects of measurement and control components. These are “bridging” chapters to the topic of controller design, since we wish to emphasize that a control system contains not only a controller, but also other components— sensors, transmitters, and final control elements—that modify the dynamics of the control loop. Chapters 10 through 13 deal with the analysis and design of feedback control systems, including closed-loop analysis (Chapters 10 and 11), transient response design methods (Chapter 12), and field tuning and troubleshooting of control loops (Chapter 13) Frequency response methods are the focus of Part Four. Frequency response analysis of dynamic systems is covered in Chapter 14, followed by the development of empirical methods to obtain process models using frequency response methods (Chapter 15). Chapter 16 presents the fundamentals of controller design based on frequency response methods, including the important Bode and Nyquist stability criteria. An integrated computer-aided design procedure that makes use of Bode plots, the Nichols chart, and time-domain response is discussed. Chapters 1 through 16 plus Chapter 28 can serve as the core material for most undergraduate courses. However, an undergraduate course should also expose students to advanced control concepts in Part Five. Chapters 17 through 19 include well-known topics such as feedforward, ratio, cascade, and multivariable control, plus time-delay compensation. In Chapter 18 we briefly introduce three promising Prerace = IX techniques: adaptive control, statistical quality control, and expert systems. The final chapter in this group (Chapter 20) is concerned with steady-state optimization in process control, which is often referred to as “supervisory control.” Much of the material in Part Five has not appeared in previous process control textbooks and hence, will be of interest to the industrial practitioner as well. Part Six (Chapters 21 through 27) is devoted to digital computer control. In many ways this material parallels that for analog control techniques covered earlier in the text. Chapter 21 focuses on digital instrumentation, real-time computing, programmable logic controllers and batch sequencing and control. Chapter 22 deals with sampling operations and the filtering of noisy data. Chapters 23 and 24 deal with the dynamics of sampled-data systems. Chapter 23 employs a difference equation approach to represent the discrete model. Chapter 24 presents the classical z-transform approach for calculating dynamic responses (in analogy to Chapters 3, 4, and 5). Chapters 25 through 27 deal with stability criteria and design methods for digital control systems, in analogy to Chapters 11, 12, and 16. Several alternative ways to design controllers are given in Chapter 26, with the emphasis on model- based design methods. Several recent improvements in the standard digital design approaches are outlined, especially for handling disturbances. Chapter 27 presents a powerful new approach, predictive control, in which a process model is explicitly incorporated into the control strategy to predict future process behavior. In Chapter 28 we emphasize that process control is as much an art as it is a science. We consider general issues such as the influence of process design on process control and the selection of controlled and manipulated variables. We conclude with an industrial case study. Chapter 28 should be used at the end of a typical undergraduate course. This book has been classroom-tested for several years at the University of California, Santa Barbara and at the University of Texas at Austin, where we have received invaluable “feedback” from our undergraduate and graduate students. Engineering personnel from many companies who utilized portions of the manu- script in various short courses have provided useful suggestions. David Cardner (Du Pont) provided useful background information for the industrial case study in Chapter 28. We also gratefully acknowledge the very helpful classroom evaluations by Dominique Bonvin (ETH, Zurich), Sandra Harris (Clarkson University), Manfred Morari (Caltech), Jim Rawlings (University of Texas), Sirish Shah (University of Alberta), and Alan Schneider (University of California, San Diego), who used earlier versions of the book in their classes. Mukul Agarwal provided numerous helpful suggestions while preparing the Solution Manual for the book. Finally, we gratefully commend Carina Billigmeier, Barbara Merlo, and Bee Hanson for their skill and patience in typing the numerous versions of the text. Dale E. Seborg Thomas F. Edgar Duncan A. Mellichamp Contents PART ONE INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS 1. Introduction to Process Control 1.1 Hlustrative Example /3 1.2 Classification of Control Strategies /5 1.3 Process Control and Block Diagrams /7 1.4 Control and Modeling Philosophies /8 1.5 Analog or Digital Control? /10 1.6 Economic Justification of Process Control /12 2. Mathematical Modeling of Chemical Processes /16 2.1 The Rationale for Mathematical Modeling /16 2.2. Dynamic versus Steady-State Models /17 2.3 General Modeling Principles /18 2.4 Degrees of Freedom in Modeling /21 2.5 Models of Several Representative Processes /25 2.6 Solution of Dynamic Models and the Use of Digital Simulators /34 PART TWO TRANSIENT BEHAVIOR OF PROCESSES 3. Laplace Transforms /43 3.1 The Laplace Transform of Representative Functions /43 3.2 Solution of Differential Equations by Laplace Transform Techniques /49 3.3 Partial Fraction Expansion /51 3.4 Other Laplace Transform Properties /59 3.5 A Transient Response Example /63 xi xii CONTENTS 4. The Transfer Function /75 4.1 Development of a Transfer Function /75 4.2 Properties of Transfer Functions /82 4.3 Linearization of Nonlinear Models /86 5. Dynamic Behavior of First-Order and Second-Order Systems /1(0 5.1 Standard Process Inputs /101 5.2 Response of First-Order Systems /105 5.3 Response of Integrating Process Units /110 5.4 Response of Second-Order Systems /113 6. Dynamic Response Characteristics of More Complicated Systems /130 6.1 Poles and Zeros and Their Effect on System Response /130 6.2 Time Delays /138 6.3 Approximation of Higher-Order Systems /145 6.4 Interacting and Noninteracting Processes /147 6.5 Staged Systems /149 6.6 Transfer Function Models for Distributed Systems /151 6.7 Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) Processes /154 7. Development of Empirical Dynamic Models from Step Response Data /164 7.1 Development of Models by Linear and Nonlinear Regression /164 7.2 Graphical Fitting of First-Order Models Using Step Tests /169 7.3 Fitting Second-Order Models Using Step Tests /173 PART THREE FEEDBACK CONTROL 8. Feedback Controllers /183 8.1 Stirred-Tank Heater Example /183 8.2 Controllers /184 8.3 Digital Versions of PID Controllers /195 9. Control System Instrumentation /199 9.1 Transducers and Transmitters /200 9.2 Final Control Elements /205 9.3 Transmission Lines /213 9.4 Accuracy in Instrumentation /214 10. Dynamic Behavior of Closed-Loop Control Systems § /224 10.1 Block Diagram Representation /224 10.2 Closed-Loop Transfer Functions /228 10.3 Closed-Loop Responses of Simple Control Systems /235 CONTENTS xiii 11. Stability of Closed-Loop Control Systems /252 11.1 General Stability Criterion /254 11.2 Routh Stability Criterion /260 11.3 Direct Substitution Method /263 11.4 Root Locus Diagrams /264 12. Controller Design Based on Transient Response Criteria /272 12.1 Performance Criteria for Closed-Loop Systems /272 12.2 Direct Synthesis Method /273 12.3 Internal Model Control /278 12.4 Design Relations for PID Controllers /282 12.5 Comparison of Controller Design Relations /287 13. Controller Tuning and Troubleshooting Control Loops /294 13.1 Guidelines for Common Control Loops /294 13.2 Trial and Error Tuning /296 13.3 Continuous Cycling Method /297 13.4 Process Reaction Curve Method /302 13.5 Troubleshooting Control Loops /306 PART FOUR FREQUENCY RESPONSE METHODS 14, Frequency Response Analysis /313 14.1 Sinusoidal Forcing of a First-Order Process /313 14.2 Sinusoidal Forcing of an nth-Order Process /315 14.3 Bode Diagrams /319 14.4 Nyquist Diagrams /332 15, Development of Emp Response Data /339 al Models from Frequency 15.1 General Rules for Graphically Fitting Transfer Function Models /339 15.2 Numerical Techniques for Estimating Transfer Function Models /343 15.3 The Use of Pulse Tests to Obtain Frequency Response Data /344 16. Controller Design Using Frequency Responses Criteria /358 16.1 Frequency Response Characteristics of Feedback Controllers /358 16.2 Bode and Nyquist Stability Criteria /362 16.3 Effect of Controllers on Open-Loop Frequency Response /367 16.4 Gain and Phase Margins /370 16.5 Closed-Loop Frequency Response /372 16.6 Computer-Aided Design of Feedback Controllers /376 xiv CONTENTS PART FIVE ADVANCED CONTROL TECHNIQUES 17. Feedforward and Ratio Control /387 17.1 Introduction to Feedforward Control /388 17.2 Ratio Control /390 17.3 Feedforward Controller Design Based on Steady-State Models /393 17.4 Controller Design Based on Dynamic Models /397 17.5 Tuning Feedforward Controllers /404 17.6 Configurations for Feedforward-Feedback Control /407 18. Advanced Control Strategies /412 18.1 Cascade Control /412 18.2 Time-Delay Compensation and Inferential Control /419 18.3 Selective Control/Override Systems /424 18.4 Adaptive Control Systems /427 18.5 Statistical Quality Control /431 18.6 Expert Systems /434 19. Control of Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output Processes | /443 19.1 Process Interactions and Control Loop Interactions /444 19.2 Pairing of Controlled and Manipulated Variables /453 19.3 Strategies for Reducing Control Loop Interactions /461 19.4 Decoupling Control Systems /463 19.5 Multivariable Control Techniques /468 20. Supervisory Control /474 20.1 Basic Requirements in Supervisory Control /474 20.2 Applications for Supervisory Control /476 20.3 The Formulation and Solution of Optimization Problems /478 20.4 Unconstrained Optimization /481 20.5 Constrained Optimization /488 PART SIX DIGITAL CONTROL TECHNIQUES 21. Digital Computer Control /501 21.1 Role for Digital Computer Systems in Process Control /502 21.2 Distributed Instrumentation and Control Systems /S04 21.3 General Purpose Digital Data Acquisition and Control Hardware 8 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. CONTENTS XV 21.4 Digital Control Software /515 21.5 A Table-Driven PID Controller /518 21.6 Programmable Logic Controllers and Batch Process Control /520 Sampling and Filtering of Continuous Measurements /530 22.1 Sampling and Signal Reconstruction /530 22.2 Selection of the Sampling Period /533 22.3 Signal Processing and Data Filtering /538 22.4 Comparison of Analog and Digital Filters /542 22.5 Effect of Filter Selection on Control System Performance /545 Development of Discrete-Time Models /549 23.1 Finite Difference Models /549 23.2 Exact Discretization for Linear Systems /552 23.3 Higher-Order Systems /553 23.4 Fitting Discrete-Time Equations to Process Data /553 Dynamic Response of Discrete-Time Systems /559 24.1 The z-Transform /559 24.2 Inversion of z-Transforms /566 24.3 The Pulse Transfer Function /571 24.4 Relating Pulse Transfer Functions to Difference Equations /573 24.5 Effect of Pole and Zero Locations /581 24.6 Conversion between Laplace and z-Transforms /583 Analysis of Sampled-Data Control Systems /590 25.1 Open-Loop Block Diagram Analysis /590 25.2. Development of Closed-Loop Transfer Functions /598 25.3 Stability of Sampled-Data Control Systems /602 Design of Digital Controllers /614 26.1 Digital PID Controller /614 26.2 Selection of Digital PID Controller Parameters /618 26.3 Direct Synthesis Methods /622 26.4 Digital Feedforward Control /634 26.5 Combined Load Estimation and Time-Delay Compensation /637 Predictive Control Techniques /649 27.1 Discrete Convolution Models /649 27.2 z-Transform Analysis of Convolution Models /652 27.3 Matrix Forms for Predictive Models /654 27.4 Controller Design Method /656 27.5 Tuning the Predictive Controller /661 27.6 Predictive Control of MIMO Systems /666 xvi CONTENTS PART SEVEN PROCESS CONTROL STRATEGIES 28. The Art of Process Control /673 28.1 The Influence of Process Design on Process Control /673 28.2 Degrees of Freedom for Process Control (Revisited) /677 28.3 Control System Design Considerations /681 28.4 Singular Value Analysis /689 28.5 Industrial Case Study: Three-Reactor System /694 APPENDIX: Professional Software for Process Control /701 INDEX /705