Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 112

Metal Building -

Erection, Installation
and
Maintenance Manual
Introduction
The Metal Building Erection, Installation and Maintenance
Manual has been prepared to assist builders in order to erect
buildings properly, quickly and safely.

This manual consists of brief outline of building terminology,


safety, tools required for installation of Pre- engineered building,
engineering documents, anchor bolt setting, material handling
and storage, and building maintenance. It also coves erection of
primary and secondary structures which includes column,
rafters, Purlin, grits, and roofing and walling sheeting.

The erection information presented in this Manual is provided as


a supplement to the erection drawings supplied with Building.
This Manual is intended as a guide, to be used in conjunction
with erection drawings, to help plan and organise installation
work at site. It will help to identify parts, establish a safe erection
sequence, speed up assembly and point out any areas or
procedures requiring special emphasis or attention. The building
erection drawings will always govern with regard to construction
details and specific building parts.

It is strongly recommended that before begin, familiarise with all


the building components and connection details as well as the
sequence of erection. This will help to plan the work and avoid
unnecessary delays during erection.

The builders who refer to the contents of this manual must pay
regard to current regulations for site safety. The builders are
responsible for maintaining strictly the current legal regulations
of labour safety during erection of buildings.

In line with quality objectives and quest for excellence,


Tata BlueScope Steel is now seeking long-term relationships
with qualified builders to provide the best & safest steel building
erection service to our customers.
Content
Part 1 - Tata BlueScope Steel
1. Metal Building Terminology 2 10. Installing Pierced fixed Cladding 65
2. Built-Up Framing System 8 General Installation Procedure
Side-lapping & Positioning Pierced-fixed sheets
3. Roofing, Wall Cladding and Structural Decking 12
Pierced-fixing on Valleys (for Walling only)
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection Pierced-fixing on side-laps
4. PPE and Erection Tools & Equipments 15 11. Installing Concealed fixed Cladding 68
Tools and Quantity Installing KLIP-LOK™ roofs
Erection Tools & Equipments Installing KLIP-LOK™ walls
Mobile Equipments
12. End of Sheets 71
Slings
13. Flashings 74
Scaffolding
14. Insulation 76
ELCB Box
Wall Insulation
Hand Tools
Storage of Insulation Roll
Tips on Gas Cutting, Welding and Grinding
15. General Care, Safety and Handling 78
5. Understanding Engineering Documents 30
Safety
Anchor bolt setting plan
Care and Storage before Installation
Cross Section
Handling Cladding on Site
Roof Framing Plan
Walking on Roofs
Roof Sheeting Layout
Marking out, Cutting and Drilling
Sidewall Sheeting and Framing
Clean Up
Other Drawings
Warn other Contractors
Shipper List
Sealants
6. Foundation and Anchor Bolts 32
Maintenance
Guidelines of Setting of Anchor Bolt
Diagonal method
Part 4 Building Maintenance and Recommendations
Right angle (3-4-50 method) 16. Claims 82
Theodolite method 17. Tolerances 84
7. Material Management at Site 34 18. Building Maintenance 92
Procedure Safety
Material Storage Maintenance of Building Exterior

8. Frame Erection Procedure 38 Gutter Maintenance


Downtake Pipe Maintenance
Pre Lift Check List and Meeting
Penetrations, Flashings, Cappings
Framing Sequence
Roof Sheeting Maintenance
Secondary Structural Connections
Maintenance of Accessories
Part 3 Sheet Installation
19. Annexure 96
9. Roof and Wall Cladding Panel Installation 59
Wall Cladding Installation
Roof sheeting installation
Manufacturing Facility: Tata BlueScope Steel, Bhiwadi

Manufacturing Facility: Tata BlueScope Steel, Chennai

Manufacturing Facility: Tata BlueScope Steel, Pune


Tata BlueScope Steel
Tata BlueScope Steel Limited is an INR 12 bn equal joint venture
between Tata Steel Limited and BlueScope Steel Limited. The
company has three manufacturing facilities consistently
delivering world class services and products. The Building
Solutions manufacturing facilities are based at Pune, Chennai
and Bhiwadi. With four regional offices and 20 sales offices the
Building Solutions Business is on a growth curve. The Building
Solutions facilities at Pune, Bhiwadi and Chennai have been
operational since August, December 2006 and January 2007. In
these facilities, top-of-the-line equipment from leading suppliers
all over the globe has been used. The Coated Steel
manufacturing facility will be operational from the first quarter of
2009 at Jamshedpur. The Jamshedpur facility will have an
annual metallic coating capacity of 250,000 tonnes and paint line
capacity of 150,000 tonnes.Tata BlueScope Steel Limited offers
a comprehensive range of branded steel products for building
and construction applications, including the premium
ZINCALUME® steel, COLORBOND® steel, LYSAGHT™
Cladding and BUTLER™ BUILDING SYSTEMS. All our facilities
are architecturally designed to showcase our leading product
brands. The plant building is a BUTLER™ BUILDING
SYSTEMS, truly representing 100 years of experience in
pre-engineered metal buildings. The LYSAGHT™ Roof and Wall
Cladding has been manufactured from COLORBOND® steel
and ZINCALUME® steel that adds to the aesthetic appeal of
these buildings. Tata BlueScope Steel Limited is annunciating a
revolution by “Creating Your New World”.

Administration Building, Tata BlueScope Steel, Pune

1
1
Metal Building Terminology
ACCESSORY: An extra building component added to a basic CANTILEVER: A projecting beam that is supported and
BSL building, such as a door, window, ventilator, insulation, wire restrained at one end only.
mesh, translucent sheets etc.
CANOPY: An projecting roof structure, below the eave level,
ALUMINISED: Aluminum coated steel supported at one end only.

ASSEMBLY: Two or more components bolted together CAP PLATE: A plate located at the top of a column or end of a
beam. Also refer to as End plate.
ASTRAGAL: A bent plate fixed at door leaf to cover gap
CAPILLARY ACTION: The action of water rising to a higher
ANCHOR BOLTS: Bolts set in concrete, used to anchor
level due to surface tension.
structural members to concrete foundation.
CAT WALK: A narrow walk way used to provide access to
BASE ANGLE: A continuous angle secured to foundation to
mechanical equipment normally supported on roof platform.
support cladding
CAULKING: A sealant used in making watertight joints.
BASE PLATE: The end plate of a column which rests on the
supporting substructure surface CHECKERED PLATE: Flat hot rolled plate with raised
checkered design to prevent slipping; used for industrial
BASE CHANNEL: A light gauge cold formed channel which
equipment platform, catwalks, stair treads, etc
replaces the base angle when liner or double cladding partitions
are required CLEAR HEIGHT: The vertical dimension from the finished floor
level to the lowest underside point of the rafter.
BEAM: A horizontal structural member designed primarily to
resist moments CLEAR SPAN: A building without internal columns.

BAY: The space between the centre lines of frames or primary CLIP: A bent plate or angle used to fasten two or more members
supporting members in the longitudinal direction of the building. together.
Also called bay spacing or bay length
CLOSURE STRIP: Purpose-made from fillers to fit inside and
BEAD MASTIC: A sealant furnished in a continuous roll. outside profiles of roof and wall panels providing a weather tight
Normally used for sealing end laps of roof panels seal.

BENT PLATE: A plate bent to form an angle. COIL: A roll of steel sheet or wire.

BIRD MESH: Wire mesh used to prevent birds from entering the COLD-FORMED MEMBER: A light gauge structural member
building through the ventilators, louvers and roof monitors. produced from coiled steel stock formed to desired shape at
room temperatures.
BRACE RODS/CABLES: Rods or cables placed diagonally in
the roof and walls for the purpose of transferring wind loads to COLUMN: A vertical structural member used in a building to
the foundation and longitudinally stabilising the building. transfer loads from the roof beams, trusses or rafters to the
foundation.
BRACED BAY: The bay where bracing is provided
CONCRETE NOTCH: A rebate or notch formed along the edge
BRACKET: A structural support projecting from a column or
of the concrete floor slab or grade beam, allowing wall panels to
rafter to which another structural member is fastened.
end below the floor level thus preventing ingress of dust or water.
BUILT UP SECTIONS: A structural member usually an “I” shape
CONTINUOUS RIDGE VENT: Two or more ridge ventilators
made from individual plates welded together.
mounted on the building ridge that allows air circulation.
“C” SECTION: A member formed into a “C” shape profile by cold
roll-forming from coils.

2
Part 1 - Tata BlueScope Steel

Metal Building Terminology


CORNER COLUMN: A column at any corner of a building. DOWNSPOUT ELBOW: Cold-formed sheet metal section or
Corner column may be primary rigid frame column or light end PVC elbow used to carry out, matching the downspout profile,
wall column. attach to lower end of a downspout and curved in such a way as
to direct water away from a wall.
CRANE BEAM: A beam that supports an overhead / underhung
travelling bridge crane. DOWNSPOUT STRAPS: Metal straps used to fix the
downspouts to the side walls.
CRANE CAPACITY: The maximum weight a crane can safely lift.
EAVE: A line along the side wall formed by the intersection of
CRANE RAIL: Rail welded or bolted to a crane beam forming
inside faces or planes of the roof and the side wall panels.
the track on which the crane moves.
EAVE GUTTER: Gutter at eave of the building.
CRANE STOPPER: A small vertical member welded /bolted to a
crane beam to stop the crane bridge at the end of the crane run EAVE HEIGHT: The vertical dimension from the finished floor
area. level to the top of the eave strut.

CURB: Raised flashing around the roof opening to form EAVE STRUT: A structural member, located at the eave, used
waterproof opening. for supporting the roof panels and the wall panels.

CURVED EAVE: Curved panels provided at the eave. EAVE STRUT CLIP: A clip used to support the eave strut.

DAMPER: Baffle plate in a ridge ventilator that can be opened EAVE TRIM/ FLASHING: A sheet metal closure whose function
or closed using the cable catch assembly. is primarily to provide weather tightness at the eave between the
eave gutter and the wall panels.
DEAD LOAD: The self weight of the pre-engineered building
structure including all its components such as frame, floors, END BAY: The first or last bay in the building. It is spacing
secondary members, sheeting, bolts, etc between the outside face of the outer flange of the end wall
columns and the centre line of the interior column.
DESIGN CODES: Regulation developed by recognised
agencies establishing design loads procedures, and END LAP: A term used to describe the lap of roof sheet where
construction details for structure. Examples are, MBMA, AISI, the end of the one sheet overlaps the end of the other sheet
AISC, AWS, IS 800, IS 801 etc. below it.

DOOR GUIDE: An angle, channel or proprietary product used to END WALL: A term used to describe the entire frame structure
restrain a door leaf or curtain during its opening and closing. of a building at gable end.

DOOR STOPPER: A clip bolted to the vertical door member to END WALL COLUMN(S): A vertical member located at the
prevent opening beyond the door limit. endwall which supports the end wall rafter and girts.

DOUBLE CHANNEL: Double or back to back “C” sections END WALL ROOF EXTENSION: Roof cantilevered beyond the
stitched / bolted together. end wall steel line.

DOUBLE FACE TAPE: Used as an aid to fix fibreglass ERECTION DRAWINGS: Drawing and erection instructions
insulation. which identify all the individual components in sufficient detail to
permit the proper assembly of all parts of the metal building
DOUBLE SLIDING DOOR: Sliding door with two leaves.
systems.
DOWNSPOUT: Cold formed sheet metal section or PVC pipe
EWDS: Non-expandable double slope endwall
used to carry water from the gutter of a building to the ground or
storm drainage system. EWSS: Non-expandable single slope endwall

3
EWWX: Non-expandable WX endwall GABLE FLASHING / BARGE FLASHING: A flashing designed
to close the opening between the roof panels and end wall
EXDS: Expandable double slope endwall
cladding.
EXPANSION JOINT: A joint of building allowing for expansion
GAGE OR GAUGE: The distance between holes along the
and contraction
transverse axis of a plate.
EXSS: Expandable single slope endwall
GALVANISED: Steel coated with a layer of zinc for corrosion
EXWX: Expandable WX endwall resistance.
FASCIA: An accessory whose function is to enhance the GIRT: Secondary horizontal member attached to the main frame
appearance of a wall. Also used to cover the ridge or gable of a / endwall columns. Girts support wall cladding.
building
GLAZING: Surface glass
FIELD WORK: Modification or rectification carried out on site.
GROUT: Non-shrinking sand and cement based mixture used
FIN NECK BOLT OR ROUND HEADED BOLT: Flat dome under base plates to obtain a uniform bearing surface.
headed bolt used in framed openings, fascias, and the
GUSSET PLATE: Steel stiffner plate used to help distribute load
mezzanines.
at a connection.
FINISHED FLOOR: Top of the concrete slab or finished surface
HAND RAILS: Horizontal and vertical pipes fixed to the
FIXED BASE: A column that is designed to resist rotational as stringers, edges of mezzanine floors, openings in floors and
well as vertical and horizontal movement. platform walkways.
FLANGE BRACE: An angle member connecting to the inner HANGER DOOR: A large multi leaf door that is used in aircraft
flange of columns / rafters to girt / purlin to provide them with hangars or similar buildings.
lateral support and stability.
HAUNCH: Intersection of the column and rafter.
FLASHING: A sheet metal closure used to provide
HEADER: A horizontal member over an opening in a wall.
weather-tightness in a structure.
HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS: Any bolt made from steel having a
FLUSH MOUNTED: A girt system where the outside flanges of
tensile strength in excess of 690 megapascal (MPa). Some
girts and columns are flush. The girts are supported by the use
examples are: ASTM A 325 etc
of girt clips bolted to the column webs.
HILLSIDE WASHER: A washer having non parallel faces
FOUNDATION: The substructure which supports a building or
normally used on brace cables or rods. Also known as bevel
the other structure.
washer.
FRAMED OPENINGS: Framing (headers, sills and jambs) and
IMPACT LOAD: A dynamic load resulting from the motion,
flashing which surround an opening of a building. Usually
machinery, craneway, elevators and other similar moving forces
provided to accommodate field installed accessories such as
sliding doors, roll up doors, etc INSULATION: Any material used in building construction for
reduction of heat transfer.
GABLE: The triangular portion of the endwall of a building
directly under the sloping roof and above the eave height line. INTERIOR BAY: The distance between the centre lines of two
adjacent interior rigid frame.
GABLE ANGLE: An angle fastened to the purlins at rake for the
attachment of end wall cladding. JACK BEAM: A primary horizontal member used to support
another beam, truss or rafter.

4
Part 1 - Tata BlueScope Steel

Metal Building Terminology


JAMB: Vertical member at the side of a wall opening. MRDS: Modular double slope frame with straight columns

JIB CRANE: A cantilever boom or horizontal beam with a hoist MRSS: Modular single slope frame with straight columns
and trolley.
MRST: Modular single slope frame with tapered columns
JOIST: A horizontal member for supporting the decking of floors
MULLION: A vertical bar or pier between panes or sections of
or roofs.
windows and screens.
LEAN TO OR WX: A structure dependent upon another
MULTI-GABLE BUILDING: Buildings consisting of two or more
structure for lateral stability and having only one slope or pitch
gables across the width of the building.
LINER PANEL: Interior wall or roof sheeting attached to the
MULTI-SPAN BUILDINGS: Buildings with interior columns.
inside flanges of the girts or purlins.
PART MARK: A number physically marked on a piece or
LIVE LOAD: Any variable load that results from intended use of
packing that identifies each component of the building for
structure during its life time.
erection and shipping purposes.
LMSW: Uses truss purlins with 7 _-inch end seats.
PEAK: The upper most point of a gable. Also called peak point
LONGITUDINAL: The direction parallel to the ridge line. or ridge point

LOUVER: A wall opening provided with slanted blades, fixed or PEAK PANEL: Also known as RIDGE PANEL. Used to link and
movable, to allow flow of air inside the building. weather-seal roof panels on opposite slopes.

LRF: Clearspan double slope frame with tapered columns PEAK SIGN: A sign attached to the peak of the building at the
endwall showing the name of the manufacture of building. Also
LRDS: Clearspan double slope frame with straight columns
called as RIDGE SIGN.
LRSS: Clearspan single slope frame with straight columns
PIN CONNECTION: A connection designed to transfer the axial
LRST: Clearspan single slope frame with tapered columns and shear forces between the connecting members but not
MACHINE BOLTS: Mild steel bolts conforming to ASTM A307 moments.
standard specification. POP RIVET: Used for joining flashings and light gauge metal
MEZZANINE: An intermediate floor within a building above the trims & also called as blind rivet.
ground floor that occupies all or part of the building floor area PORTAL FRAME (PORTF): Column and beam bracing used in
and consists of columns, beam, joists, deck panels and edge lieu of standard diagonal bracing rods to provide clear access.
trims to receive reinforced concrete.
PRIMARY FRAMING: The main load carrying members of a
MRF: Modular double slope frame with tapered columns structural system generally the columns, rafters, and/or other
MOMENT: The tendency of a force to cause rotation about a main support members.
point of axis. PRIMER PAINT: The initial coat of paint applied in the shop to
MOMENT CONNECTION: A connection designed to transfer the structural framing of a building for protection against
moment as well as axial and shear forces, between connecting environmental conditions during shipping and erection.
members. PURLIN: A horizontal secondary structural member, bolted to
MONORAIL BEAM: A single beam support for a material the rafters, which transfers the loads from the roof covering to
handling system. It is normally a hot rolled “I” beam. the primary frames.

MONO SLOPE: A building sloped in one direction. RAFTER: A primary beam member supported on columns.

5
RAKE: The intersection of the plane of roof and the plane of the SELF DRILLING SCREWS (SDS): Fasteners used for attaching
gable. panels and trims to girts and purlins, which drill their own holes
and eliminate the pre drilling operation.
REACTION: The resisting forces, at the column bases of a
frame, holding the frame in equilibrium under given loading SELF TAPPING SCREWS: Have same functions as SDS but
conditions. need pre drilled holes.

REVISION: A change that is made to the building design, SHEETING ANGLE: Angle used to support sheeting or cladding.
component details, location of accessories.
SHIMS: Small steel plates used for levelling base plates or for
RIDGE VENTILATOR: The ventilator used at the ridge line packing between structural members.

RIGID FRAME: A structural frame consisting of members joined SHIPPING LIST: A list that enumerates by part number or
together with rigid (or moments) connection as to render the description, each piece of material or assembly to be shipped
frame stable with respect to imposed loads, without the need for
SHOP DETAILS: Drawing details for fabrication of parts and
bracing in its plane.
assemblies.
RIGID FRAME ENDWALL: A system of endwall framing where
SKY LIGHT: Translucent panels used at the roof to transmit
the main interior frame is used at the end wall mostly for purpose
natural light. It is usually made of fibreglass or polycarbonate.
of future expansion.
SLEEVE NUT: A long nut normally used to join two brace rods of
RISERS: The vertical rise of the steps of a staircase.
the same diameter together & is also known as coupling.
ROLL UP DOOR: A door which opens vertically and supported
SLIDING DOOR: A single double leaf door which opens
on a shaft or drum and runs along vertical tracks.
horizontally by means of overhead trolleys or bottom wheels.
ROOF COVERING: The exterior roof skin consisting of panels or
SLOT: An elongated hole.
sheets, their attachments, and weather sealant.
SOFFIT: The underside covering of any exterior portion of the
ROOF CURB: Weatherproof flashing used on roofs to support
metal building such as canopies, fascia and wall roof extension.
power ventilators or ducting. Roof curbs can be of fibreglass or
sheet metal. SOIL PRESSURE: The load per unit area a structure will exert
through the foundation.
ROOF MONITOR: Raised gable, or portion of the main building,
located at the ridge, to allow lighting and ventilation. SPACE SAVER: Building with single gable clear span and
straight column. Wall girts are flush mounted.
ROOF SLOPE: The angle that a roof surface makes with the
horizontal usually expressed in units of vertical rise to 10 units of SPAN: Distance between the supports of beams, girders, or

horizontal run. trusses. In a pre-engineered building this is distance between


interior / exterior columns.
SAG ROD OR SAG ANGLE: A tension member used to limit the
movement of a girt or purlin in the direction of its weaker axis SPECIFICATION: A statement of particulars defining physical

before the installation of sheeting. dimensions, strength and other properties or a statement
defining performance expectations of material or devices.
SECONDARY FRAMING: Members which carry loads to the
primary framing .In metal buildings this term includes purlins, SPLICE: The connection between two structural members.

girts, eave strut, etc. STEEL LINE: The extreme outer limits of the structural framing

SEISMIC LOAD: The assumed lateral load acting in any system of a building to which cladding is attached.

horizontal direction on the structural system due to earthquakes STIFFNER: Plate welded to a member to increase strength of

6
Part 1 - Tata BlueScope Steel

Metal Building Terminology


the web or to provide continuity at connections. VALLEY GUTTER: A channel used to carry off water, normally
from roofs of multigable buildings.
STILES: The vertical side members of a door frame / leaf.
VAPOUR BARRIER: Material used to retard the flow of vapor or
STICH SCREWS: Fasteners used to fasten side laps of panels
moisture into walls and roofs and thus prevent condensation
and for attaching trims or flashings.
within them.
STRUT: A brace fitted into a framework to resist axial /
VENTILATION: The process of changing the air within a
compressive force.
building.
STRUT PURLIN: An additional purlin, in the braced bays,
VENTILATOR: A means of providing air changes within a
located close to the normal purlin at intersection of roof brace
building.
rods as required by the design.
WEB: The portion of a structural member between the flanges.
THROAT: Minimum width of the ventilator air inlet.
WHEEL BASE: The distance between the extreme wheels of a
THRUST: A horizontal component of a reaction.
crane along the crane beam.
TOLERANCE: A fractional allowance for variations from the
WHEEL LOAD: The maximum load which is transferred through
specified standard weight, dimension, etc. of mechanical
the wheels of a crane to a crane beam
construction.
WIND COLUMN: A vertical member supporting a wall system
TRANSLUCENT: Allowing the passage of light, but not
designed to withstand horizontal wind loads usually at end walls.
permitting a clear view of any object. A translucent material is
semi transparent or semi clear. WIND LOAD: The pressure or reaction exerted on a structure by
a given wind velocity.
TRANSVERSE: From sidewall to sidewall of a building.
WX - Clearspan single slope frame with straight columns. Lateral
TREAD: The horizontal step of a staircase.
support provided by adjacent frame.
TRIM: Pre-formed light gauge metal used as a cover to cut
“Z” SECTION: A member formed from coiled steel stock into the
edges, sides or junctions of sheeting.
shape of block “z”. Usually used for purlins and girts.
TRUSS: A structural member, made up of several individual
parts welded or bolted together, designed to carry a tension or
compression force with the complete structure acting as a beam.

TUBE COLUMN: A vertical structural support member made of


a hollow square tube. Normally used as an interior support
column in multispan buildings or mezzanine floors.

TURN-OF-NUT METHOD: Method of tightening high strength


bolts in accordance with AISC: “Specification for structural joints
using ASTM A 325 BOLTS”

UNIFORM LOAD: Load that covers all or part of a beam or


surface where, throughout the portion covered, the intensity of
load per unit of length or area is the same.

UPLIFT: Wind load on a building which causes a load in the


upward direction.

7
2
Built Up Framing Systems

This basic framing illustration is designed as an aid in the sizes within the limits of the envelope. Material used in this frame
identification and location of the structural members and is optimised to the specific width and height requirements.
components used in the construction of building structures. Frame Specifications:-
There are a number of different types of structural systems LRF Columns: All columns are one piece tapered members with
available from Tata BlueScope Steel to provide a large range of the outside flange plumb. They can be ordered flush or with 8"
space, support and protection possibilities and in light, medium inset from the sidewall structural line as illustrated.
and heavy design loads. Generally, part references and usage LRF Roof Beams: Roof beam profiles may vary. The top flange
will follow a similar pattern for all buildings. of the roof beam will be straight to form the roof slope. The shape
of the web and bottom flange will vary as required to optimise the
Main Frame material used to manufacture the beam.
Main frames consist of two or more columns spanned by roof
beam which support the roof structurals. All wide span buildings
2. Frames - LRDS
are clear span structures with the exception of MRF buildings
which also require the use of interior columns.

Tata BlueScope Steel offers vide range of frame options to suit


the customers requirement at competitive rates. The following
options are available in frames to the customer as;

Clearspan
The LRDS Envelope Frame has a clearspan double slope profile
Clearspan frames are available in straight or tapered columns for
with straight sidewall columns. It offers almost total flexibility in
double slope and single slope profiles, and are used with single
sizes within the limits of the envelope. Material used in this frame
slope width extensions (units supported by an adjacent unit, i.e.
is optimised to the specific width and height requirements.
WX frame).
LRDS Columns: All columns are one piece straight members
Double Slope Profiles -
with the outside flange plumb. They can be ordered flush or with
1. Frames - LRF an 8" inset from the sidewall structural line.
LRDS Roof Beams: Roof beam profiles may vary. The top
flange of the roof beam will be straight to form the roof slope. The
shape of the web and bottom flange will vary as required to
optimise the material used to manufacture the beam.

The LRF Envelope Frame has a clearspan double slope profile


with tapered sidewall columns. It offers almost total flexibility in

8
Part 1 - Tata BlueScope Steel

Single Slope Profiles - Multispan


1. Frames - LRST Multispan frames are available in straight or tapered columns for
double slope and single slope profiles. Frame modules may vary
across the building width, independently by frame within the
building unit. Symmetry of modules is not required (i.e.: 60', 60',
50' would be an acceptable frame module combination for a 170'
wide MRF).

Double Slope Profiles -

Built-Up Frames
1. Frames - MRF
The LRST Frame has a clearspan single slope profile with
tapered sidewall columns. Material used in this frame is
optimised to the specific width and height requirements.
LRST Columns: All columns are one piece tapered members
with the outside flange plumb. They can be ordered flush or with
8" inset from the sidewall structural line.
LRST Roof Beams: Roof beam profiles may vary. The top
The MRF Frame has a modular double slope profile with tapered
flange of the roof beam will be straight to form the roof slope.
sidewall columns. Material used in this frame is optimised to the
The shape of the web and bottom flange will vary as required to
specific width and height requirements.
optimise the material used to manufacture the beam.
MRF Columns: All columns are one piece tapered members
2. Frames - LRSS with the outside flange plumb. They can be ordered flush or with
8" inset from the sidewall structural line.
MRF Roof Beams: Roof beam profiles may vary. The top flange
of the roof beam will be straight to form the roof slope. The
shape of the web and bottom flange will vary as required to
optimise the material used to manufacture the beam.

Free Standing Single Slope Profiles -


The LRSS Frame has a clearspan single slope profile with
straight sidewall columns. Material used in this frame is 1. Frames - MRST
optimised to the specific width and height requirements.

LRSS Columns: All columns are one piece straight members


with the outside flange plumb. They can be ordered flush or with
an 8" inset from the sidewall structural line.

LRSS Roof Beams: Roof beam profiles may vary. The top
flange of the roof beam will be straight to form the roof slope.
THE MRST FRAME has a modular single slope profile with
The shape of the web and bottom flange will vary as required to
tapered sidewall columns. Material used in this frame is
optimise the material used to manufacture the beam.
optimised to the specific width and height requirements.

9
MRST COLUMNS: All columns are one piece tapered members 3. Frames - WX
with the outside flange plumb. They can be ordered flush or with
8" inset from the sidewall structural line.

MRST ROOF BEAMS: Roof beam profiles may vary. The top
flange of the roof beam will be straight to form the roof slope.
The shape of the web and bottom flange will vary as required to
optimise the material used to manufacture the beam.

2. Frames - MRSS
The WX Frames has a clearspan single slope profile with a
straight sidewall column at the low side. WX frames are
designed to attach to the low eave of another unit so as to match
roof slope and eave elevation of the adjoined unit.

- WX frames must attach to a rigid frame such as an LRF for


structural stability.
The MRSS Frame has a modular single slope profile with - WX frames have all pinned joints while rigid frames have fixed
straight sidewall columns. Material used in this frame is joints which make them "standalone" stable.
optimised to the specific width and height requirements. - WX frames with high side columns are not stable without the
The ratio of adjacent module widths cannot be less than 0.5 or support of the adjoined rigid frame because the high side column
more than 2.0. For example, a 20' and 40' module set is allowed, has a pinned joint also. Since beam and post endwalls use
a 20' and 60' module set is not allowed. pinned joints, a WX intermediate frame cannot attach to a beam
and post endwall.
MRSS Columns: All columns are one piece straight
members with the outside flange plumb. WX Columns: All columns are one piece straight members with
They can be ordered flush or with 8" inset from the sidewall the outside flange plumb. They can be ordered flush or with 8"
structural line. inset from the sidewall structural line.

MRSS Roof Beams: Roof beam profiles may vary. The top WX Roof Beams Roof beam profiles may vary. The top flange
flange of the roof beam will be straight to form the roof slope. of the roof beam will be straight to form the roof slope. The
The shape of the web and bottom flange will vary as required to shape of the web and bottom flange will vary as required to opti-
optimise the material used to manufacture the beam. mise the material used to manufacture the beam.

4. Frames - ENDWALL
Endwall frames can be a pinned endwall frame or semi- rigid
endwall frame. In either case, the frames are designed only for
the loads on the endwall and are NOT designed for future expan-
sion. Both frames use an H-section roof beam.

10
Part 1 - Tata BlueScope Steel

Semi - Rigid Endwall Frames


The semi-rigid endwall frame uses a light Clearspan or Modular
rigid frame with straight columns and endwall posts rotated 90
degrees. This frame is NOT expandable in the future.

Expandable Endwall Frames


Utilises an interior frames located 2' inset from the endwall struc-
tural line (with pinned endwall posts) which allow for future
length expansion of the building. A building with possibility of

Built-Up Frames
Future Expansion must be specified at the beginning of the proj-
ect in order to be considered in the design and highlighted on the
drawings.

5. Frames - MIXED

11
3
Roofing, Wall Cladding and Structural Decking

Profile Design Benefits

MR-24® • First Launch in 1969


• 600 mm Wide Panel
• Cross Flutes
• Factory Punched Structurals and Panels
• Field Formed 180 degree double lock Seam
• Improved to make it 100% leak proof
• Tested and proven technology world wide

KLIP-LOK™ 770 • KLIP-LOK™ 770 profiled sheeting of 770 mm cover width 31 mm crests depth with 3
intermediate pan at 256mm distance
• Two longitudinal stiffeners between ribs makes it a strong profile
• Clip fixed system – no piercing on roof sheeting
• Visually striking bold rib makes a strong statement rising from the flat pans
• Concealed fix system controls thermal expansion and contraction most effectively
• On-site roll forming option to provide single length sheet from ridge to eave
• Economical design, easy installation and outstanding value
• Fixed on the specially designed clip - KL-77
• Manufactured from high strength steel ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel

KLIP-LOK™ 700 • KLIP-LOK™ 700 profiled sheeting of 700 mm cover width 43 mm crests depth with
3 intermediate pan at 233 mm distance with cross micro flutes
• Clip fix system - no piercing on roof sheeting
• Cross micro-flutes makes it a strong profile
• Visually striking bold rib makes a strong statement rising from the flat pans
• Concealed fix system controls thermal expansion and contraction most effectively
• Economical design, easy installation and outstanding value
• Fixed on the specially designed clip - KL-70
• Manufactured from high strength steel ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel

BR-II™ 900 • BR-II™ is a 900 mm wide coverage profile with 38.1mm deep ribs with pitch of
304.8 mm centre to centre and two stiffeners at every pan
• Specially designed end laps, with anti-capillary side lap, which makes to leak proof
• Strongest and fully tested roofing profile
• Available in factory punched option- to assure proper fit and alignment of each panel
joint ensuring weathertightness
• Pre-formed sealant grooves and guides promote accurate sealant placement between
panels
• Manufactured from high strength steel ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel

12
Part 1 - Tata BlueScope Steel

Profile Design Benefits

TRIMDEK® 1015 • TRIMDEK® 1015 is 1015 mm wide coverage profile with 28.5 mm deep ribs with
subtle square fluting in the five pan at nominal 203 mm centre-to-centre
• Unique Anti-capillary side lap which makes it leak proof
• Excellent spanning capacity
• Covers large surface area
• Manufactured from high strength steel ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel

SPANDEK® 935 • SPANDEK® 935 is 935 mm wide coverage profile with 24mm deep ribs at 93.5 mm
centre to centre
• Unique anti-capillary side-lap which makes it leak proof
• Bold and strong appearance
• Longer Spanning capability
• Strongest cladding can withstand high wind load, snow load or impact load
• Manufactured from high strength steel ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel

Roofing and Wall Cladding


CUSTOM ORB® 990 • CUSTOM ORB® is 990 mm wide coverage profile with 19 mm deep ribs with pitch of
76.2 mm centre to centre.
• Smooth sinusoidal profile
• Covers large surface area
• Long , wide strong and easy to install
• Wall panels can be installed in horizontal as well as in vertical direction
• Can be curved for stylish architectural design (by using G300 grade material)
• Manufactured from high strength steel ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel

SHADOWRIB™ • SHADOWRIB profile sheeting is 900 mm wide coverage profile with 38.1 mm deep
ribs at 300 mm center-to-center with two flutes in between the ribs
• Engineered to withstand high wind load and pressure
• Wide pan visibility gives an aesthetically pleasing look to the exterior of the building
• Fewer fasteners than most ribbed panels
• Fasteners are recessed deep in the corrugation, Shadowall panel gives walls an
attractive uniform pattern
• Manufactured from high strength steel ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel

PANELRIB® 1110 • PANELRIB® is 1110 mm cover width, 3.5 mm longitudinal flutes


• Lightest wall cladding for interior and exterior application
• Provides easy solution for false ceiling and wall partition
• Panels can be installed in horizontal as well as in vertical direction
• Manufactured from high strength steel ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel

13
Profile Design Benefits

FLEXICLAD™ 1110 • FLEXICLAD™ profile sheeting is 1110 mm wide coverage profile with 11.6 mm deep
ribs at 222 mm center-to-center with three stiffeners in between the ribs.
• Cover very wide surface area
• Quick, easy and economical to install
• Manufactured from high strength steel ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel

STYLWALL® STYLWALL® panel is plain 406 wide coverage panel


• Laminated with the rigid insulation board on the inside, which improves insulation
properties of the wall and maintains its flatness
• Rigid backer along with a special joint allows for simple and secure installation
• Each new panel is nested perfectly against the next, causing no unsightly variation in
the joint size
• Concealed fastening system makes it leak proof
• Manufactured it from COLORBOND® steel or ZINCALUME® steel (G300)

Structural Decking
Profile Design Benefits

SMARTDEK™ 51 • Can be used with steel or concrete structural buildings


• High rigidity performance
• Inherent internal ceiling and increased interior height; Flexible range of accessories
meets your hanging requirement
• Used in composite design, LYSAGHT SMARTDEK™ 51 performs as positive
reinforcement as well as permanent formwork, providing savings in concrete and
reinforcing steel.
• The fast and simple installation of this high-strength product gives immediate access
to a working platform and requires no stripping after concrete curing
• Keeps the construction site neat and safe
• Provides overall construction cost savings
• Manufactured from high tensile(G550) GALVANISED steel with coating mass of 275
g/m2 total on both side

14
4
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Safety Policies and


Protective Personal Equipments

Our Health, Safety, Environment and Our actions


Community (HSEC) Policy To meet our HSEC commitments, we will set targets, develop,
implement and maintain management standards and systems,
Tata BlueScope Steel Limited, our health, safety, environment and comply with relevant industry standards and legal
and community responsibilities are integral to the way we do requirements.
business. We will regularly monitor and report publicly on our progress. We
Our commitments will engage with our stakeholders to build relationships based on
We are committed to continual improvement in our HSEC per- honesty, openness and mutual trust and share responsibility for
formance. meeting the goals of our HSEC Policy.

Health and Safety


We aspire to zero harm to people. Our fundamental belief is that
all injuries can be prevented. This responsibility starts with each
one of us.

Environment
We care for the environment. We are committed to the efficient
use of resources, reducing and preventing pollution, and product
stewardship.

Community
We strive to be valued corporate citizens in our communities. We

PPE and Erection Tools& Equipments


respect the values and cultural heritage of local people.

List of PPE and Safety Tools Required


All PPE's and safety tools should be CE certified rather than IS certification.
Safety equipment is the responsibility of each Builder.

Safety Helmets Safety Shoes Safety Goggles

15
Hand Gloves (Electrical) Ear Mask Life Line (PP Rope)

Hand Gloves (Other) Dust Mask Crawling Board

Face Shield Full Body Harness Fire Extinguisher

First Aid Box Safety Net Sand Buckets

Apron Fall Arrestor Electrical Board

16
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Erection Tools
List is based on an average size crew and may need to expand as required.

Tool Name Qty. Remarks

Allen Key Set 1

Belts 4 With test certificates

Bolt Bag 8

PPE and Erection Tools& Equipments


Box End Wrenches 2 Sets assortment 12 mm to
32 mm dia Bolts

Brooms 2

17
Tool Name Qty. Remarks

Cable Clamps Assorted Sizes

Caulking Guns 4 Cartridge Type

Chain Block 1 Tonne With test Certificates

Chain Block 3 Tonne With test Certificates

Chisel 2

Chalk-Line 4

18
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Tool Name Qty. Remarks

Crow Bars 2 Heavy Duty

Drift Pins 4 Heavy Duty

D-Shackle 6

Dust Pans 2

PPE and Erection Tools& Equipments


Electric Arc Welder 1 With leads and extra welding
head

Electric Drill Motors 2 12 mm (1/2 inch) with twist


drill bits

19
Tool Name Qty. Remarks

Electric Extension Cords Sufficient for maximum


number of tools

Extension Ladder 2 6 meters

Framing and Tri Squares 1

Gas Cutting Torch 1 With hose, gauges and flash


back arrestor

Hacksaw 4 With assorted blades

Hammers 2 Shop, sledge, rubber

20
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Tool Name Qty. Remarks

Level 2 Each 1.2 meters, 2 meters

P P Rope 1/2 inch 100 m

P P Rope 3/8 inch 100 m

Nylon Line 3/8 inch 100 m

Open End Wrenches 2 Sets assorted sizes 12 mm to PPE and Erection Tools& Equipments
32 mm dia bolts

Pipe Wrench 4 14 inches

21
Tool Name Qty. Remarks

Plumb Bob & Chaulk String 2

Pop Rivet Tool 2 Manual

Pop Rivet Tool 2 Electric

Power Generator To supply job site electrical

Power Impact Wrench 2 With assortment of impact


sockets for 12, 16, 20, 24 &
32 mm dia nuts & bolts

Screw Guns 2 With Magnetic Socket Heads


and replacement drivers

22
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Tool Name Qty. Remarks

Sheet Metal Nibber 1 Electric Sheet Cutting tool


with replacements bits

Sheet Metal Cutter 2 Each left, right, straight

Skill Saw 1 Electric or gas powered with


metal & carbide tip blades

Slings 4 With test certificates

Socket Wrenches 2 sets 12 mm (1/2inch) drive PPE and Erection Tools& Equipments
with assorted sockets and
ratchet drive handle

Spreader Bar 1 3 m, 5 m each with


test certificates

23
Tool Name Qty. Remarks

Spud Wrenches 5 Each assorted sizes 12 mm


to 32 mm dia bolts

Staple Guns (Big) 4 With steples

Steel Cable 100 m With eight turnbuckles

Steel Measuring Tapes 4 Each 3 m and 5 m

Steel Measuring Tapes 2 Each 15 m and 30 m

Torque Wrench 2 2000 N-m

24
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Tool Name Qty. Remarks

Transit and Level Rod 2

Turnbuckle with Klein Grip 1

Vice grip pliers 10

Water can with cup holder

Wedge 4 PPE and Erection Tools& Equipments

Work Platform 2 Steel

25
Erection Tools and Equipments load of hoisting operations.
All tools and equipment used for installation must have test • All suspended load must have tag lines.
certificates and calibration certificates if required. The • Prior to start of any lifting work, the location for
concerned Product Consultant / Project Safety Officer / position of the cranes and materials laid down at the
Project Manager or competent person should check the erection areas shall be identified. Job safety and risk
certificates before using the equipments on site. analysis shall be done (you can also refer to
Customer Site Installation Safety Procedure). All
Mobile Equipment cranes and its safety devices and rigging equipment
• Mobile equipment includes delivery trucks, truck cranes, shall have appropriate certificates and suitable
hoists etc. capacities for the intended lifting operation. All crane
• Only certified mobile equipment and qualified operators are operators shall be experienced and have valid
permitted to enter the site. licenses from relevant government authorities. The

• All power lines must be barricaded or flagged when


there is a danger of contact by mobile equipment. Lines,
which could be reached accidentally, must be de-energised
or otherwise made safe before any work is started.
• No equipment is to be operated over the top of power lines.
• Never operate equipment closer than 4.5 m to a voltage line
of 220 volts or more.
• Only an appointed signalman may give signals to the crane load charts should be always available in the
operators except for emergency stop signal. operators cabin.
• Stay clear of moving equipment whenever there is danger • The crane shall be positioned and out riggers set
from swinging booms, crane cabs, suspended loads, etc… prior to lifting. Boom length, boom angle, operation
• Accessible areas within the swing radius of the rear of radius and safe lifting capacity shall be assessed as
the rotating superstructure of the crane shall be per crane manufacturer's load chart prior to the lift.
barricaded. • Damage to completed paintwork shall be
• Avoid walking near or walking under a suspended avoided/minimised at all stages of the erection work
by using nylon slings or belts and protective pads in

26
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

contact with steel work or by lifting with anchor destroyed immediately.


shackles through bolt holes. • In lifting operations, protect slings from abuse.
12.0 21 Protect slings by padding sharp corners, and never
jerk the load. Jerking may triple the load on the sling.
8.5
7.9 20
2.0 7.0
4.5
6.5 19
16.5 3.5
9.8

• Hang up slings when not in use.


18
12.0 2.8
13.0 8.5 17
9.5 6.5 2.35 2.5
16

• Never overload a sling.


5.8 5.5
15
25.0 2.0
4.6 1.85 14
22.0 3.7
25.0 17.5 1.8

Scaffolds
4.0 13
17500

17.0 16.0
12.0 3.3 1.34 1.6 12
11.0 13.0
15000

2.7
8.5 10.0 3.0 11
30.0 7.2 1.3 1.55

• Scaffolds shall be planned and installed in a way so


10
30.0 2.5
11000

2.0 9
30.0 27.0 7.0
5.5 2.3

as not to restrict crane access and boom clearances


8
7000

25.0 19.0
18.0 7
6

or make erection activities difficult.


12.0 4.0 5.0 1.7 2.1
5
8.8 1.5
1.0 4

• Scaffolds must always be placed on a firm ground


6.0 3
7.0 3.5 3.5 1.6 2.0 1.0 1.25
2

position and foot bases always supported by


1
0

adequate wood planks with minimum size


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Tag lines and load lines 200 x 200 mm.


• Tag lines and load lines must be carefully inspected
• Scaffolds installed separately must be fixed to static
each time they are taken down. Defective or
structure at a minimum space of 1.5 m and every
damaged rope or cable will be cut immediately to
prevent further use.
• Before any load is lifted with any rigging for the first
time, a qualified supervisor will inspect all portions of
the rigging and a static load test will be performed i.e.
lift the load clear of the ground, hold for final
inspection of slings, shackles etc. prior to lifting the

PPE and Erection Tools& Equipments


item into the air.
• Tag lines must be flagged where they cross any path
or roadway.

Slings upper scaffold frame must be fixed to the below scaf


• All slings are to be inspected each day prior to their fold by steel rod or scaffold tubing in a safe method.
use. This includes chain, wire rope and synthetic • All scaffolds shall be installed with handrails, midrails,
slings and their attachments, i.e. master links, ladders, and a platform at every floor level. Handrails
alligators, clips, hooks, quick-alloys etc. and midrails should be steel pipe D 50 x 2 mm and be
• Defective cables and slings shall be cut and fixed at 0.5 m and 1 m above each platform. At each
ladder anchor points, an appropriate wire 'tie-off' shall
be used to tighten.
• Access-to-roof scaffolds shall have at least 6 support
Chain Sling Synthetic Web Sling Wire Web Sling feet as recommended.

27
ELCB Box • Be sure the machine is inoperable before removing
• The electrical system for installation works at site requires safety guards when making repairs or adjustment.
having overload CB and ELCB. • Report all the frayed, broken equipment to team
• The ELCB box must be standardised leader.
including the sealed box, ELCB (30mA
- 60mA), 3 pin sealed plugs for outlets. Tips on
• For extended power supply distances Gas Cutting, Welding and Grinding
an ELCB box is required every 30 m.
Gas Cutting, Welding
• At least, 1 of ELCB shall be put on the
roof when doing the roof installation. • Only qualified, properly trained, and instructed
personnel are permitted to use oxygen, fuel gas, weld
Hand Tools equipment. The Project Safety Supervisor must

• All hand tools to be fixed with wrist lanyards for perform an initial check and record the document

prevention of dropping. prior to permitting use.

• Tools are to be carried in purpose made tool belts • Keep oil and grease away from oxygen equipment.

with leather frogs for safe carriage. • All gas bottles must be stamped and approved.

• Use the right tools and Compressed gas cylinders shall be handled carefully.

never use hand tools for Avoid jarring, bumping or dropping them. Always

the purpose other than secure in an upright position.

that for which they were • Cylinder shall be moved by cart, never rolled. Use a
intended. Never use cradle or holder when lifting cylinders with crane,
makeshift device. never use a magnet.

• All wrench, spanner • Protective caps shall be kept on cylinders when not in
required to have sockets. use and when being transported.
For fixing and • Oxygen cylinders in storage shall be separated from
pre-tension purpose, it's fuel gas cylinders by a minimum of 6m or a fire wall
recommended to use the 1.5 m high.
sash socket spanners. • Flash - back protection shall be provided by an
• Damaged tools, frayed or defective electric cords and approved device that will prevent flame from passing
unguarded machinery must never be used. into the fuel-gas system.
• Tools, equipment, or materials shall be checked to • Torches will not be used as a hammer to remove slag
ensure the gear, belts, or other moving parts of the or scale.
machinery will not endanger anybody and all guards are • Before burning, welding or heating, the worker shall
secured in place. be responsible for checking conditions on opposite
• Shut down and isolate the power source of machinery side or underside to see that all danger of fire or injury
and use extreme caution when cleaning or making is eliminated. A proper fire extinguisher shall be made
adjustments. available.

28
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

• Never heat an object lying flat on a concrete floor. Be • Straight wheels shall be used on the circumference
sure there is an air space between the material and only, never on the sides.
floor as concrete will explode under extreme heat. • Banging a grinding wheel against the work will not
• Never leave a torch inside a vessel or closed clean the wheel and may cause the wheel to break.
container. A leak could be the start of a disastrous explosion. • Never force a wheel by using excessive pressure.
• When leaving the area, turn gas off at the • Handle grinders with care to prevent damage from
inlet to the hose first and then at the torch. Make dropping. If you drop a grinder, have it checked
certain that there are no leaks. before using. Do not handle grinder by electrical cord
• Inspect all torches, hoses, gauges and other burning or air hose.
equipment regularly. ALL GAUGES MUST BE Always stop the wheel on the work piece before setting the
MARKED FOR INTENDED SERVICE. grinder down. When you set a grinder down do not rest it on the
• Keep hoses clear of spark and hot slag area. wheel.
• All hose connections shall be screw/thread clamps.
No tie wire for connection shall be allowed.

Portable Grinders
• Only qualified, properly trained, and instructed personnel
are permitted to use a portable grinder. The Project Safety
Supervisor must perform an initial check and record the
document prior to permitting use.
• Grinders shall be equipped with guard at all times.
Guards shall not be removed or altered. Only use a
grinding disk for grinding and cutting disk for cutting.

PPE and Erection Tools& Equipments


• Must not attempt to change a wheel without first
getting authorised and adequate instructions. Always
be sure to check the speed on the label against
speed for conformity.
• Check to be sure that the wheel is properly mounted
before starting a grinder. Straight wheels will be
mounted between matching safety flanges at least
1/3 the wheel diameter. The nut will be tightened
securely but not excess, which could crack the wheel.
• When first starting a grinder it shall be held under a bench
inside the job or shielding and run for about a minute to
prevent being struck by a piece of broken steel with a defect
or excess speed causes it to fly apart.
• Cup wheels shall be used on the face only.

29
5
Understanding
the Engineering Documents
Prior to commencement of erection work, it is essential to have III. Cross-Section
a clear understanding of the engineering documents. In the case
The cross-section is one of the most important drawings as it
of erection, we specifically refer to Erection drawings and
contains a lot of vital information. Columns and rafter references,
Shippers list.
purlins, girts, vertical and roof bracings, connection details, bolt
Erection drawings to be used at site should be 'ISSUED FOR schedules, flange brace schedules and other details as
CONSTRUCTION' and be the latest revision. 'FOR APPROVAL' applicable, such as strut tubes, flashing etc.
drawings should never be used for the works. The revision
In conjunction with the Erection drawing it is possible to find out
boxes at the bottom right corner of each sheet indicate the latest
the number of members required. This being essential during the
status, i.e. “For Approval,” “Issued for construction”, “Revised as
pre-planning stage of erection, and cross-checking to be done
Noted,” etc.
with the shipper list before receipt of material at site. The
cross-section drawing may be typical throughout in standard
I. Anchor Bolt Setting Plan
buildings or in more complex jobs, there may be several
This drawing shows the layout of all anchor bolts, normally on
cross-sections, identified by grid numbers.
one sheet, but for very large buildings, could be on two or more
sheets. Erection drawings are not to scale, so do not attempt to IV. Roof Sheeting Layout
scale any dimensions. The drawings are proportioned although
All roof panels are shown with length and part number. Panel lap
sometimes this can be misleading, and care is needed in
details are shown, also skylight and downspout positions.
reading drawings. All dimensions are in millimetres.
Standard details of fasteners, trims and insulation are included.
The anchor bolt layout contains an anchor bolt schedule, which It is very important to check the starting dimension of the
is in the form of a table showing quantities and sizes of anchor sheeting, from the steel line.
bolts.
The key plan shows center to center dimensions, bay spacing V. Sidewall Sheeting and Framing
dimensions, bolt setting details and critical dimensions for the Depending on the job, sidewall framing and sheeting may be on
span. The details show if grout is required under columns along one drawing or more. The framing elevation shows the position
with grout thickness and anchor bolt projection. Adherence to and part numbers of girts, eaves struts, bracing and sag rods.
anchor bolt setting tolerance is important and shall not exceed The sheeting elevation shows the panel positions with length
the deviation laid down in the standards. and part numbers. Eave trims, gutters and downspouts are
shown with part numbers. Standard details are included which
II. Roof Framing Plan
indicate the number, size and position of fasteners and other
The roof framing plan shows the purlins, bracing and trimming details. End-walls are detailed similarly.
miscellaneous details. Part numbers for purlins and bracing are
shown, also sag rods (where applicable), and strut tubes etc. VI. Other Drawings
The drawings should be studied very carefully otherwise it is Other drawings may include crane beam layouts and details;
quite possible to overlook critical details such as nested purlins, Mezzanine layouts and details; Accessories such as Sliding
strut purlins and strut clips. Doors, Roll-up doors, personnel doors, windows, louvers and
ventilators.

30
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Understanding Engineering Documents


VII. Shipper List
The shipper list supplied with the erection drawings is the
customers Bill of Material. The BOM comprises a cover sheet
which includes job number, building number and phase,
customer name, Location, and Building size. The cover sheet
also shows the number of phases in the building, any revisions,
plus any special notes.
The Shipper List has 7 columns indicating
1. Serial number
2. Part number
3. Quantity
4. Revision number
5. Description of part
6. Colour
7. Length of item
The last page indicates the total BOM quantity of items. The
Shipper List is a comprehensive list of total parts/items in a
particular building and it is a reference to the items shown on the
Erection Drawings and should be used to double check items
against the packing list.

31
6
Foundation and Anchor Bolt
If the foundation has been poured, check to see that it is square After setting the angle between two lines, measure distances
and level. If the floor slab has not been poured, check all and establish reference pillars as per grid lines given in the
elevations for column and post locations. Concrete should be drawing and close the transverse to confirm the correctness.
chipped or grouted where necessary to provide a level surface Same above procedure is to be followed at other corners of bldg
at the required elevations and establish reference pillars and mark centre lines of
remaining pedestals as per sketch given below. After marking
Guidelines for Setting of Anchor Bolts centrelines of all pedestals check diagonal between individual
• Anchor bolts shall be set in accordance with Tata BlueScope pedestals and anchor bolts.
Steel issued 'FOR CONSTRUCTION ANCHOR BOLT PLAN'.
• Finalise the FFL with the client or Consultant. Normally FFL is
X Y Z
bottom level of column base plate, in some cases it changes
as per customer requirement. 3 4 5
• Concreting has to be done finally 25 mm below the FFL level
6 8 10
(or as specified in civil drawing). This margin is for levelling
and grouting purpose. 9 16 25
• Establish the reference pillars at 3m away from intersections
of axis and grid lines at all four sides. Top level of reference
pillars should be kept 150 mm above the FFL. (Please refer
sketch)
• Mark the grid lines as indicated in AB setting plan on the
reference pillars and check whether foundation is square.
Squaring can be done by following methods. C. Theodolite Method
Buildings larger than 30m wide and 50m long should be squared
A. Diagonal Method
with the help of theodolite. Be sure to check condition and
The method is used when building width and length is less then
calibration of theodolite. Set the theodolite over corner
25 m or when diagonal of total building can be checked by
intersecting reference pillars. Sight along the building line mark
single measuring tape. In this, centre lines of four corner
on the reference pillar; swing theodolite through 90 degree to
pedestals can be marked by calculating diagonal length as per
establish adjacent building line and mark on reference pillars.
drawing. Diagonal 'A' and 'B' should be equal to calculated
Similarly shift theodolite and mark other lines on reference
length as per drawing. Tie the piano wire or thread on the
pillars.
reference pillars at all four side and mark the internal pedestal
1. Ensure rigidity of shuttering and reinforcement and make
centre line as per bay spacing given in the drawings.
sure cover blocks are in place.
B. Right Angle (3 - 4 - 5) Method
2. Place the anchor bolts in respective templates. Mark
The method is used when building width is less than 30m and
centrelines on template
length is less than 50m. In this case angle between two lines can
3. Check the level and projection of threaded portion of anchor
be set by chart given below. Mark a distance “x” along width and
bolts; it can adjusted by adjusting nut below and above the
distance “y” along length of building. Adjust two lines such that
template.
diagonal distance between points equal 'z' .Refer table.

32
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

4. All anchor bolts should be located in concerned templates,


check distances and diagonal. Nail template to outer
formwork.
5. Verticality of anchor bolts can be maintained by tying it to
reinforcement; if required it can be also tack welded with
reinforcement.
6. Before pouring concrete re-check the elevations of anchor
bolts using the level instrument and ensure that the nuts are
tight.

Foundation and Anchor Bolts


7. During concreting ensure that concrete surface under
template is rough and level.
8. Remove the template after setting of concrete and clean the
protruded portion of anchor bolts and apply the grease to
threads and cover it with hessian cloth to protect it from
dust.
9. The gap below the base plates should be grouted by civil
contractor after completing the plumbing, alignment and bolt
tightening of building.
10. The anchor bolts shall be restrained in position in vertical,
horizontal direction and level during all setting in operation.
The allowed tolerances are as followed:
a. ± 3mm center-to-center of any 2 bolts within an anchor
bolt group.
b. ± 6mm center-to-center of adjacent anchor bolt groups.
c. Maximum accumulation of ±6mm per 30,000mm along
an established column line of multiple anchor bolt
groups, but not to exceed a total of 25mm.
d. ± 6mm center-to-center of any anchor bolt group to
establish column line through that group.
11. Anchor bolts shall be set perpendicular to the theoretical
bearing surface; threads shall be protected from falling of
free concrete and nuts shall run freely on the threads.
12. The projection of anchor bolts from the theoretical bearing
surface shall strictly follow the drawing or shall not be more
than 10mm longer nor 10mm shorter than 100 mm.

33
7
Material Management at Site

All materials are carefully inspected and crated before leaving materials to clarify name of project, location, building
Tata BlueScope Steel plant and accepted by the transportation number, type of materials, quantity, date of delivery, etc.
company as being complete and in first class conditions. It is the 3. Upon arrival of materials at the storage yard, the Builder's
carrier responsibility to deliver the shipment intact. material controller will match delivery notes and shall verify
It is the consignee responsibility to inspect the shipment for loss, the consignment. The material controller, then, reports to the
damage and shortage when it is delivered. Instructions for mate- site supervisor the received material list and quality
rial inspection and handling any resultant claims for damages or condition.
losses are thoroughly covered in a check sheet located in the 4. There should be an Appointed Person by Builder who will be
same packet containing the shipping manifest. having overall control of all lifting operations on site and the
Appointed Person must ensure that everyone in the crane
Handling and placement of material will vary according to size,
team has studied this manual and is aware of the correct
site conditions and equipment available. Whenever practical,
procedures to adopt in the cases not covered by this
located and stored in and around the building site where it is to
manual.
be used.
5. Planning the Lift
For example:
Planning the lifting operation is essential to ensure that the
- Rigid frame columns can be laid in position for raising;
lift is carried out safely and efficiently. The following points
- Roof beams / Rafters can be stacked for subassembly at
must always be considered:-
locations accessible for setting;
• Where the load is to be picked up from
- Secondary structural and braces can be divided and
• Where the load is to be placed
located according to requirement of each bay.
• What areas are to be passed over
Access area is plan such that crane / equipment can be fully
• Proximity of the other contractors workers
utilised and down time kept to a minimum. Most builders find it
• Any obstructions in the way
advantages to leave an access area at one end of the
• How the load is to be slung
building and running the full length of the building for
• How the slings are to be removed
maneuvering erection equipment.
• How the crane driver will be directed
Material that will not be used during the erection of the framing
• The weight of the load
should be stored in area that offer protection from physical dam-
• The weather
age and covered to provide protection from the weather.
6. The Lift
The Procedure
a) Before Lifting
1. Shipping department shall give the Product Consultant /
Only authorised slingers / signallers should sling the loads.
Builder sufficient advance notice for all site deliveries to
After slinging, but before lifting, the following must be
ensure there is a plan for unloading, so that Product
considered:
Consultant / Builder can mobilise suitable crane and
• Are the slings undamaged and properly attached to the
manpower for unloading of material.
load?
2. A delivery note is always enclosed with the supplied

34
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

b) Taking the weight


Be sure to hook the slings to components with the right no.
of points and position so that the load does not get
damaged. A spreader should be used for lifting long
components. Nylon belts or cloth slings with suitable SWL
shall be used for unloading the materials to minimise the
damage. Then, and only then, should the load be lifted. As
the load comes onto the crane, the jib may start to deflect
(especially telescopic jibs). The crane operator must correct
this so that the hoist rope remains vertical. The signaller
should also be aware that the load may swing.
Now slowly lift the load a short distance above the ground.
Then check that:-
• The load is balanced and stable
• The legs of the sling are at the correct angles
• Any packing pieces are in place and sound
• The load itself is not over-stressed, especially when lifting

Material Management at Site


Do not work during rainy condition or
walk on wet surface

• Is the crane hoist rope vertical?


• Is the load free to be lifted, i.e. not fixed to anything else?
• Is the safety latch on the lifting hook closed?
• Are all personnel clear of the load?
• Is the landing site prepared to take the load?
• Are the legs of a multi-legged sling equally loaded?
• Is there a slinger / signaller in position to receive the load?
• Are the weather conditions acceptable?
• Are there any obstructions above the load preventing a packing cases like that of gutter and flashing boxes, sheet
straight load? bundles etc., which can fail under the loads applied due to
lifting.

35
c) During the Lift e) After the Lift
The load can now be lifted and moved to its landing area.
Take care with bundles of tubes and similar items as they
While in the air avoid:
can collapse when landed, and pipes can roll, so make sure
• Passing over personnel working on the site suitable blocks are used to prevent this from happening.
• The public
• Power lines
• Projecting scaffolding

Make sure that all personnel are clear of the load moving path.

Never jump down from the moving trailer

Never drag chains from beneath the load and jump down
from the moving trailer.
Do not stand where
a moving load could trap or crash you 7. Webbing slings, or any sling made from synthetic fibres,
should be examined before and after every lift as they are

d) Landing the Load vulnerable to being cut by sharp edges. If there is any sign
of a cut or fraying in the fabric, they should be taken out of
The load should be landed gently to ensure that it is not
use and examined by a competent person.
damaged, and that the crane does not receive any shock
loading. 8. All materials received onsite shall be visually inspected by
Before landing the load, check that; the site supervisor for any damage. Material Inspection
• The landing area will take the weight of the load
• There is sufficient space for the load
• There are strips of timber or similar supports on which to
land the load such that the slings can be easily removed by
hand.
The signaller must ensure that he is in a place of safety
when receiving the load, ensuring that he cannot be crushed
Report should
between the load and a fixed object or pushed over an open
be sent to HO / Factory on the same day.
edge.
Remedial works to the damage shall be undertaken
immediately, if possible, to avoid any delay to erection.

36
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Material Storage

1. Choose a firm and dry area for storage. distortion. Incorrect handling may break crates and
materials particularly sheeting may become beyond use..
2. The material shall be stored above ground level with timber
packing.

Timber packing provided for bottom member and in between members

3. The materials shall be stacked in locations according to the


building/areas, and should be at a lifting position adjacent to
the area to be erected. This is to facilitate the sorting and
delivery during the erection.

Material Management at Site


4. The materials shall be stored separately, above ground
level on timber packing. They shall not be stacked directly
on top of each other but must be separated by 50mm thick Wrong Practice. Trip hazard possible and also material may get damaged.
timber, and shall not be stacked in contact with other steel
components and must be separated by a minimum 250 mm
gap.

Never keep members on ground. Always provide Timber packing.

5. Particular care shall be taken to stiffen free ends at a


distance of 200mm from the ends to prevent permanent

37
8
Frame Erection Procedure
Generally, most structures follow a basic sequence of erection shall be left in place as long as may be required for safety.
that enable you to utilise personnel and equipment as effective-
Where ever piles of material erection equipment or other loads
ly and efficiently as possible. For example, after several bays
are carried during erection, proper provision shall be made to
have been erected and plumbed and squared, work crew can
take care of stresses resulting from such loads.
start on other phases of the erection simultaneously as the fram-
The structural frames and other parts of the building can be
ing progresses; overhead and sliding door may be installed; side
erected in various ways which will depend on the following key
wall and end wall panels can be applied after several bays are
factors:
completed; overhang canopies and fascia can be installed after
• The type of structures such as: small clear span, large
the wall panel are up; roofing crews cab follow.
clear span, low rise building, high building, o p e n - w e b
Pre-lift checklist and Meeting structure, etc.
The required material, accessories, crane, tools, tackles and • The availability of equipment such as cranes, winch,
safety equipments shall be checked for availability at site and manually lift, etc.
ready to be used prior to starting of lift.
• In case of long rafters / members spreader bars multiple
A pre-lift meeting shall be held before lifting any structure to cranes should be used
ensure everybody at site understands the lifting method or step • The site conditions.
for the erection of the entire building. The Project Manager / • The experience level of the erectors
Product consultant of BSBS shall check details of the specifics
given in the check list attached in the annexure. Step 1 - Anchor bolt checking
Check the anchor bolt casted for compliance with details
Framing Sequence - provided in Anchor bolt setting plan. Check whether
The general sequence of framing is as follows: concerned template goes freely into bolts. If not, make the

1. The brace bay closest to the endwall, standard location for bolts vertical with the help of pipe without damaging the

brace rods is usually the first interior bay. Be sure to refer to treads of anchor bolts. This pre check is required to avoid

your erection drawings for specific bracing requirements. time lost during the actual correction.

2. Plumb and square the braced bay

3. Install roof and wall braces

4. The end wall adjacent to the braced bay including secondary


structurals.

5. The intermediate bay adjacent to the braced bay

6. Continuous erection sequence, making sure each


intermediate bay is aligned before erecting succeeding bays, Check the foundation levels. In buildings that require grout,

until the structure is completed. shim packs are placed in the centre of bolt pattern. Buildings
without crane system generally do not require grout, but
Note: temporary bracing shall be introduced wherever necessary
variances in concrete levels may necessitate the use of
to take care of all loads to which the structure may be subjected,
shims. Level the base of RCC pedestal by keeping required
including equipment and the operation of same. Such bracing
shims, check the level with Dumpy level. Top level of all

38
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Tie temporary bracings on two sides of column. Temporary


bracing should be either PP rope of 20 mm dia or wire rope
of 12 mm dia minimum.
• Check the plumb of column on either side
• Slightly release the load on slings and
Check the stability of column
• Remove the slings

Step 3 - Install column 'A3' as per [step 2]

Step 4 - Fixing of Girts


• Fix all the side girts and tie them between each column
• Rope with safety-lock hook to lift girts
• Tighten the bolts with normal torque
• Install temporary bracings on 2 sides of each column
• V shape cleats used to fix the other cable end on to 2
anchor bolt heads

Step 5 - Install other side wall columns


• Install other sidewall columns E1 and E2 and girts by

shims should be at same level. Shim plates should be repeating Step [2], Step [3] and Step [4].

provided by Builders. In any case, nuts should not be used


Step 6 - Install the 1st Rafter.
as shim plates.
• Shift all material for the first braced bay erection.
The sequence / method of erection shall be studied and
• Identify the rafter part mark.
Frame Erection Procedure
planned so that execution can be carried out in a safe,
economical and efficient manner. There are certain erection
practices that are in general use and have proven sound
over the years. Below are typical instructions applied for a
LRF and MRF structure.

Step 2 - Install Columns at Braced Bay


Always erection should start from braced bay. Here bays
2-3 and 4-5 are braced bays.
• Check position and part mark of column
• Install column A2
• Assemble RF-2 on the ground with correct size of bolts
• Tighten anchor nuts
near as possible to the lifting position.
• Set up scaffold or ladder at columns

39
• 50 mm thick wooden block to be used to support
members for assembling.
• Torque wrench to tighten hi-strength bolts with minimum
recommended torque (lookup in the torque table for
Hi-strength bolts.)

• Abrasive paper and cloths are to be used to clean. Touch


up paint by roller.
• Attach the slings to the member at 2 points about 1/4 from
ends ( 3.5 m ) and next-to the purlin cleats toward the
ends.
However, the overhang must be calculated properly to
• Attach temporary bracing at every 6m and fly bracing to prevent the distortion of the member caused by the weight
rafters. Attach support pipes D 50 x 2 mm x 2 M and itself. The belt pickup angle also needs to be calculated to
safety static lines to rafters. Two pipes fixed to in-flange avoid the distortion of material caused by force along the
and out-flange of rafters, one at 1m distance from eave member. For safety, it is recommended to use more than two
and the other right at the top ridge of rafter end, the pipe points on member for belts.
on top is used for both roof slopes. Static lines are fixed • Install assembled rafter with the help of crane to columns.
from pipe to pipe by brackets at 800 mm high from outside • Workers on scaffolds at columns to tighten bolts to a snug
flange. tight condition at rafter-column connection plates.

40
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Frame Erection Procedure

41
• Temporary bracing at every 6m to hold the first rafter on Step 8 - Finish 100% the first braced bay
2 sides to anchor bolts groups by V shape cleats or any
1. Fully install struts, purlins, fly bracing - 100%
other immovable object
• Crane to pick up struts to roof.
• Release the crane slightly to check the stability of rafter
• Rope with safety-lock hook to pull up purlins
before fully releasing the crane.
manually.
• Sash socket spanner for M12 with normal torque.

Step 7 - Install the 2nd Rafter


Repeat the same [step 5] for the second rafter
• Install the static line D8mm to anchor pipes at ridge
and eave of rafter at every 02 bays.
• Install another movable static line (D8mm) from static
lines at eave and ridge moving at the middle of each
bay for installing the purlin bracing safely.

2. Install permanent cross bracing for roofs and sides fully at


this bay
• Leave the bracing in loose condition.

• But do not release the crane.


• Install purlins and Fly bracings from ridge to eave to hold
rafter in place.
• Fix temporary bracings at 6m each on both the sides of
rafter.
• Rope with safety-lock hook to pull up purlins manually.
• Sash socket spanner for M12 with normal torque.
The Alignment (Plumbing and Squaring) is one of most important
• Erect roof and wall bracings.
activity in the erection Sequence. It is very important to align first
• Release the crane.
braced bay before proceeding with further erection to avoid
problems when continuing the Erection Sequence.

42
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Step 9 - Alignment and Tightening of Braced Bay


• Check the level of Columns
• Check plumb of column on both sides. Plumb of Columns
in the direction of length of building can be made by
tightening and loosening the braced rods. Ensure that
one braced rod is tightened, other rod must be loosened.
The plumb of column along the frame can be made by
temporary bracings.

load-transmitting plies are in effective contact when the


connection is tightened. All shims shall be painted to the
same colour as the main material.
4. Tightening and final tensioning of the bolts in a
connection shall proceed from the stiffest part on the
connection towards the free edges.
5. Re-tensioning of the bolts, which have been previously
• Check the rafter alignment by dropping of plumb from tensioned shall be avoided, except that if re-tensioning
rafter at ridge and at every 6m. is carried out, it shall only be permitted once and where

• Rafter can be aligned by loosening and Tightening cross the bolt remains in the same hole in which it was

Bracings. originally tensioned and with the same grip.


Re-tensioning of GALVANISED bolts shall not be
• Use temporary bracings to get Rafter in alignment if
permitted. Under no circumstances shall the bolts, which
required.
have been fully tensioned, be reused in another hole.
• Check to be Sure that Ridge point of rigid rafter is over
Touching up or re-tensioning of previously tensioned
the centre line of building.
bolts which may have been loosened by the tensioning
• Make sure that fly bracings are fixed in the correct
of adjacent bolts shall not be considered as
location.
re-tensioning. Frame Erection Procedure
• Fully tighten the permanent bracing and all the hi-
6. Final tension of bolts shall only be performed after
strength bolts with correct torque setting.
alignment and level checks have been performed and
Key Note:
found to be satisfactory.
a) Bolts Tensioning Torque Check
(For Hi-strength Bolts) b) Bolt Tightening Sequence
1. All hi-strength bolts shall be 100% checked by the team
leader.
2. The site supervisor will do the 10% check and report to
the site manager.
3. Packing/shims, made from material of the same grade,
shall be provided wherever necessary to ensure that the

43
1. The following figures show the allowable sequence for 2. Each part of the structure shall be aligned as soon as
bolt tightening at any joint. practicable after it's erection. Permanent connections
2. The tightening work shall be implemented in two rounds, shall not be made between members until a sufficient
the second being done to ensure all bolts are equally part of the structures have been aligned, leveled, plumb
stressed. and temporarily connected in such a manner that the
members will not be displaced during erection and
3. Allowable torque for bolt tightening and inspection
alignment of the remainder of the structure.
4. In the completed connection, all bolts shall have at least
the minimum torque applied on specified below when all
bolts in the bolt group are tightened.

Bolt Diameter Minimum Recommended Torque


Dia (mm) Clause 8.8 (Nm) Clause 10.9 (Nm)
12 87 128
16 214 315
STEP 10 - Install the first end frame
20 431 615
1. Install all side and internal columns at line 1 and girts.
24 745 1060
2. Adjust alignment, position and level
32 2013 2865
36 2586 3680 • Scaffolds setup at each column
42 4135 5880 • Tighten anchor bolt nuts
• Plumb-line and tape measure
5. There is another method of inspecting the bolt tightening
called part-turn method. All nuts in a connection shall be
first tightened (the effort of one person using a 300 mm
long spud wrench). Mark the relative position of each nut
and bolt before tighten a further 1/3 turn.

c) Alignment Check
1. It is the responsibility of the team leader to do the
alignment inspection for 100% of the structure members
while the site supervisor needs to do the re-inspection
3. Tighten all anchor bolts
and officially report for one main frame and two end
frames. 4. Install the first rafter member to columns
• Attach fly bracing to rafters.
• Attach pipes D50 x 2 mm x 2 M and safety static
lines to rafters. Two pipes fixed to in-flange and
out-flange of rafters, one at 1m distance from eave
and the other right at top ridge of rafter end, this pipe
on top is used for both roof slopes. Static lines are
fixed from pipe to pipe by brackets at 800mm height
level from out flange.
44
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Frame Erection Procedure

45
• Use abrasive paper and cloths to clean and touch • Scaffolds setup at each column.
up. • Tighten anchor bolt nuts.
• Lift the first rafter member into position at the top of • Plumb-line and take measurement.
column, hold rafters in place with crane. 3. Tighten all anchor bolts
4. Install the first rafter member to columns
• Attach fly bracing to rafters.
• Attach pipes D 50 x 2 mm x 2 M and safety static
lines to rafters. Two pipes fixed to in-flange and
out-flange of rafters, one at 1m distance from eave
and the other right at top ridge of rafter end, this pipe
on top is used for both roof slopes. Static lines are
fixed from pipe to pipe by brackets at 800 mm height
• Workers on scaffolds at columns to tighten bolts at
level from out flange.
rafter-column connection plates.
• Use abrasive paper and cloths to clean and touch
• Install 50% purlins lines from ridge to eave to hold up.
rafter in place.
• Lift the first rafter member into position at the top of
• Rope with safety-lock hook to pull up purlins column, hold rafters in place with crane.
manually. • Workers on scaffolds at columns to tighten bolts at
• Sash socket spanner for M12 with normal torque. rafter-column connection plates.
• Release the crane slightly to check the stability of • Install 50% purlins lines from ridge to eave to hold
the rafter before fully releasing the crane. rafter in place.
• Rope with safety-lock hook to pull up purlins
STEP 11 - Install all remaining columns, rafters
and roof purlins manually.
• Sash socket spanner for M12 with normal torque.
1. Install all side and internal columns and Girts at line 4, 5
and 6. • Release the crane slightly to check the stability of
the rafter before fully releasing the crane.
2. Adjust alignment, position and level
• Scaffolds setup at each column.
• Put shims under the base plates as required and
tighten the anchor bolt nuts.
• Plumb-line and take measurement.
3. Repeat the same [step 6] and [step 7] for all rafters and
roof purlins

STEP 12 - Install the second end frame


1. Install all side and internal columns along with Girts at
line 6. STEP 13 - Finish 100% Frame & Roof Purlins
2. Adjust alignment, position and level 1. Install struts, purlins, fly bracing 100% for 2 end bays

46
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

• Crane to pick up struts to roof.


• Rope with safety-lock hook to pull up purlins
manually.
• Sash socket spanner for M12 with normal torque.

2. Install permanent cross bracings for columns fully at


these bays
• Leave the bracing in loose condition.

Step 14 - Alignment and Tightening


Follow Step [9] for alignment and Tightening
Release some temporary bracings of the building if
required.

Final Inspection
1. The draft final inspection shall be done between the
Product consultant and Builder to ensure the quality
compliance and planning for repair, clean and touchup.
The record must be signed-off and documented as a part
of contract.
2. The official final inspection shall be completed with a
witness of client's representative. The record must be
signed-off and documented as a part of the contract.

Frame Erection Procedure

47
MRF Buildings
4. Install temporary bracing. And then release the crane.
For MRF buildings repeat Step - 1, Step - 2,
Step - 3, Step - 4 and Step - 5 given in Step - 8 Erect the rafter 2C
the LRF structure. Attach temporary bracing at every 6m on both the sides and then
Step - 6 Install central columns C2, C3 and release the crane.
central rafter
Step 9 - Erect the rafter 3C
1. Install columns C2 and C3 and tie column with temporary
1. Install all the purlins and fly braces.
bracing.
2. Install rod bracing
2. If possible, assemble central rafter piece and column on 3. Release the crane.
ground and then erect.
3. Erect central rafter piece 2B on column C2. Tighten the Step - 10 Erect the rafter 2A and attach
anchor bolt. temporary bracings

4. Tie the rafter with at least 6 temporary bracings on both Step - 11 Erect the rafter 3A and install purlins
the sides.
5. Release the crane slowly to check the stability of rafter. Step - 12 Finish 100 % of the braced bay

6. Release the crane fully. Step - 13 Check alignment of braced bay


Step - 7 Install rafter 3B
1. Repeat step [6] for installing the central rafter on column Step - 14 Erect First end Frame
C3.
Step - 15 Erect Remaining columns, Rafters,
2. Do not release the crane. Purlins and other members
3. Install all purlins and fly brace.

48
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Step - 16 Erect other End Frame


Step - 17 Erect 100% other Bays
Step - 18 Check final Alignment and tightening
Step - 19 Check final Inspection

Frame Erection Procedure

49
50
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Frame Erection Procedure

51
52
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Secondary Structural Connections


Secondary structural consist of the purlins, Eave strut, and girts. Eave strut
These structural are installed in the bays as the rigid frames are Standard eave struts ar installed using a basic simple span con-
erected. Widespan buildings may use either simple span or con- nection and bolt directly to the roof beams.
tinuous structurals or both.

Purlin
Simple span purlin connection - when simple span purlin are
used, purlin clips are used at purlin - to - roof beam connections.
Clips may be preassembled to the purlins before installation

Girts
Simple span girts terminate at the centreline of the columns and
attach directly to the columns. Continuous girts are assembled to
the columns in the same manner as continuous purlins to the
roof beam. Adjacent ends of girts must be lapped and bolted to
the columns at the same line.

Frame Erection Procedure


Continuous span Purlin connection: when continuous purlins
and used, install the bolts finer - tight as it will be necessary to
remove the bolts later in order to lap adjacent structurals. After
the splice is made, the bolts are drawn up tight.

53
End Wall Erection Field notch end-wall girt at corner post location and connect
Beam and post endwalls can be erected in sections preassem- between corner post and end wall post girt clip. Intermediate
bled on the ground including posts, roof beams sections, and Girts do not require cutting.
girts. Because of common connections between sections, Attach roof beam sections between posts. A clip is used to attach
reassembly is usually limited to alternating sections. the roof beam to the corner post and a splice plate at inside post
Layout the structurals in the relative position in which they will be connections. If double end-wall posts are used, the splice plate
assembled. is not required.

CORNER POST TO ENDWALL ROOF BEAM

Raise the corner endwall section into position and hold in place
with crane until secured to the foundation and sufficient second-
End wall posts may be either single sections or double sections ary structurals are installed to stabilise the sections.
(two post bolted back to back). If double post construction is
Install sidewall girts, eave struts and purlin.
required, bolt these sections together first.
Finish the endwall by raising alternate sections and filling in
Attach girts clips to endwall posts.
secondary structurals and roof beam sections.

54
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Intermediate frame endwall


The intermediate frame endwall uses a standard rigid frame wall posts to the intermediate frame roof beam. One clip is
located 2' in from the end of the building. The purlin extend past required for single endwall posts and two for double endwall
the frame to the end wall structural line. Endwall post locations posts.
are the same as beam and post endwalls except that corner Erect end wall posts and install girts to complete the endwall
posts are not used at intermediate frame endwalls. framing.

Frame Erection Procedure

Erect the intermediate rigid frame at the endwall location and fill
in secondary structurals.

Preassembled base clips, girt clips and clips for attaching end

55
Purlin clips to purlins bracing connections are shown below and it will be necessary to
Purlin clips are used to attach the purlins to the endwall roof refer to the erection drawing for specific location and application
beam. The clips can be pre-assembled to the roof beam before of these components.
raising the end wall sections.

If the building has a flat roof beam section the purlin clips loca-
tions on the endwall roof beam is varied to maintain the proper
roof slope. Clip locations are determined from the erection
drawings. ALTERNATE ATTACHMENT TO COLUMN

Complete bracing Brace rod are required in the sidewall and roof at braced bay
Proper use of bracing is extremely important in the structure to locations. Endwall bracing in used only at beam and post end-
provide strength and rigidity and for frame alignment. Typical wall locations. They are not required with intermediate frame
endwall.
Alternative attachment at column

Flange brace installation


Flange brace are used to provide lateral support to the roof
beam or column and their installation at specified locations is
important in obtaining a sound structure. Flange brace bolt to the
web of the purlin or girts and to the roof beam or column flange.
An exception may occur on some frames near the knee where
the flange are inaccessible. In these instances, threaded studs
are factory welded to the frame braces are usually attached to
the roof beam of the ground, leaving the connections to the
purlin to be made in the air.
Flange brace locations and part numbers are determined from
the erection drawings which also indicate visually the proper
hole in the flange brace to use.

56
Part 2 - Metal Building Erection

Flange brace assembly Gable angle may require filed cutting at the ridge in which case
the cutting dimensions will be indicated on the gable angle erec-
tion drawing.

Base angle installation


Base angle is installed around the perimeter of the foundation for
supporting the bottom of the wall panels. The base angle instal-
lation used with a particular wide span building will depend on
the type of wall system specified as indicated in the illustration.

Any of several methods amy be used to attach the angle to the


foundation; preset anchor bolts must be set when the foundation Frame Erection Procedure
is poured ; drilled in anchors may be used; or drive pins may be
used. Regardless of the method of attachment, anchor spacing
and minimum shear strength conditions must be met as speci-
Gable angle never used on structurals which extend [past the
fied in the erection drawings. This is particularly important when
building structural line. If the endwall has an overhang or fascia,
panel diaphragm action is dependant upon for wind bracing.
the gable angle is notched to fit around the purlin and eave strut
and is installed at the structural line location
Gable angle installation
The gable angle fastens to the top edge of the purlins and eave Sag angle installation
struts at the end wall and is used for supporting the endwall pan-
Sag angle serve two purposes; they provide lateral support to
els. Gable angle is furnished in 20' lengths and the installation
the purlin flange and may also be used to keep roof secondary
sequence is from eave to ridge.
structural in alignment for easier roof installation. Except where

57
necessary because of design requirements or to satisfy local The adjacent sag angle is used between the eave strut and first
building code, sag angles are optional and furnished with the purlin. This angle bolt to the web of the eave strut and threaded
building as ordered. rod on the opposite end passes through the purlin web. Two
nuts, one located on each side of the purlin web, are adjusted to
As a general rule sag angle is installed at the top location on the
pull the eave member into alignment with the purlin.
Purlin when ordered for erection alignment of roof structurals
and in the bottom location when required for bracing. Start the On building with a width extension or canopy, a sag rod is used
sag angle installation at the ridge and work towards the eave. instead of a sag angle between the eave strut and the adjacent
canopy or width extension purlin. The two nuts at each end of the
sag rod are adjusted to align the purlin with the eave strut.

Sag rod is not required in 4' sidewall overhangs, however an


adjustable sag angle can be used between the building and
overhang eave struts for alignment purpose.

Sag strap installation


Sag strap are used only for bracing the wall structural and not
intended to be used for alignment purposes. Sag strap are usu-
ally installed after the wall panel are in place ot permit easier
alignment of panels and girts.

The ridge sag angle bolts between the ridge purlins and must be
installed so the short leg of the angle is always at the bottom.
Intermediate sag angle are installed by inserting the tab on the
end of the angle into the slot in the web of the purlin and bend-
ing the tab to lock the angle into position. Tab may be bent down
with a hammer. If the sag angles are installed in the top of the
purlin, the leg of the angle and the tab should face downward. If
the sag angle are located in the bottom of the purlin, the leg of
the angle and bent tab should face upward.

58
9
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

Roof and Wall cladding

Roof and Wall Cladding Panel Installation


panel installation

Installation of Wall Panels 2. Electrical system preparation


• Electrical wires and ELCB boxes must be taken to the roof
The roof of any type of structure is the area most subjected to
in a safe condition. They must be supported above ground level.
problem… the wall most subject to critical inspection. These
areas should receive careful attention during installation. • The electrical wires should be attached to the anchor pipe
positions to avoid direct contact to roof sheets and purlins.
All our panels are designed to withstand the severest of weath-
er conditions and incorporate design features. • ELCB box must be taken to the roof for protection against
electrical short-circuit. Two other electrical cables with 3
General Procedures plug connections shall be connected to ELCB box and
Prior to commencement of fixing, the installer should ensure that taken to the installing positions ready for using.
the purlins, girts or battens are truly in place and that the slope Base condition
requirements are met. Any adjustments found necessary should
Three different types of wall base conditions are used with wall
be made prior to proceeding with fixing, as they will be difficult or
panels. Before starting paneling, be sure to determine which
impossible to rectify later.
condition is furnished with your building.
Initial Preparation Metal closure: This metal clo-
1. Scaffolding Preparation sure is intended as a vermin

• Erect scaffolds with handrails, midrails and platforms. They closure only and is not effec-

shall be supported from falling by pipe D50 x 2mm x 6M to tive where a light - tight condi-

ground. The scaffolds shall be tightened on the top to the tion is required or where con-

roof anchor pipes. trol of air movement is


required.
• Scaffolding system will be setup at 300mm away from the
out flange of the Girts. All material shall be moved up This closure can also serve as

through this 300mm gap. an effective insulation retainer.

• The scaffold system shall be used to install all the items on Foam closure: a foam closure

the wall cladding completely such as girts, wall sheets, can be used in lieu of or in addi-

gutters, down-pipes, louvers, doors, windows, etc. which tion to the metal base flashing to

are above 2 m from the ground. They can only be moved effect better light or air closure.

after finishing the installation for above items at the area. The closure is not opaque so
complete light closure should not
• Another scaffolding system should be setup ready for the
be expected.
next walling area so that the installation will not be
interrupted due to the movement of the scaffolding system.
• Workers shall directly attach the safety harness to the
scaffolds or handrails.

59
Notched foundation: a Installation of Roof Panels
notched foundation edge may
Pull Up the Roof Sheets to Roof
be used in lieu of or in addition
1. Fix the anchor pipe to ground
to either closure method to pro-
vide a base of wall closure. • Anchor pipe D 50 x 2 mm, 500 mm long fixed at a 300 mm
depth into the ground at parallel 6m distance from each
Before installing insulation / other, and at 45 degree angle opposite to the building
wall panels, level the girts with
• Turn buckle attached to the top end of the anchor pipe
the wooden blocks. Keep the blocks until the panels to structure
fasteners are installed. The general practice is to install the wall
panel in sequence with the insulation. Align the first panel with
building structural as shown below. Apply the panel over the
insulation and drill required holes in the structural members for
the self-tapping screws. Install the wall panel fasteners and
remove clamps. Trim excess insulation and raise the next pre-
cut run of insulation.
It is extremely important that the first wall panel be installed
plumb. Use a spirit level or transit on each panel.
Adjoining panels are installed with overlapping rib toward the last
erected panel. Position panel to structural making sure that it is
kept plumb. Drill structural members if required and install fas- 2. Install the anchor pipe and static line on the rafter
teners at lapped rib. Use a chalk line to mark the girt location and
• Pipes D 50 x 2 mm x 5 M fixed to the out-flanges and
maintain a straight line of screws, thus avoiding mis-drilling and
in-flanges of the end rafter at a spacing of 6m from each
possible leakage. The preferred procedure is to complete all wall
other and aligned with the anchor pipes on the ground
sheeting before starting the roof sheeting, for smoother fixing of
• Static line to be fixed from pipe to pipe by brackets at
eaves flashing, closures and eaves gutter.
800 mm height level above the out-flange of rafters

3. Install the supporting cables / ropes from roof to ground


• Put a pipe D 50 x 2 x 600 mm into each supporting cable.
Attach ropes to each pipe for lifting to roof
• One cable end is to be fixed to anchor pipe on the rafter,
while the other end is to be fixed to the turn buckle that was
attached to anchor pipe on the ground
• Turn buckle used to maintain cable tension

4. Lift the roof sheets to roof


• Put each piece of sheet into the sliding pipe, sheet will be
held by steel rods

60
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

Roof and Wall Cladding Panel Installation


• Each worker at the anchor pipe position on the rafter will pull locations indicated on the building drawings. Panel to structurals
the sliding pipe by rope carrying the sheet connections are usually located by eye. It is easy to misjudge the
• After sheets reach the rafter, they shall be manually moved location of the purlin, resulting in a fasteners off the purlin or
onto roof purlins below the sealant at the end lap. The installer should stand 90
degree to the panel, facing the purlin. Drive the fastener in until
After enough sheets are picked up for the first bay, another team
it is tight and the washer is firmly seated. Do not overdrive fas-
will start the roof installation.
teners. A slight extrusion of neoprene around the washer is a
Roof Sheeting Sequence
It is advised that both sides of the ridge of a building be sheeted
simultaneously. This will keep the insulation covered for the max-
imum amount of time and the panel ribs can be kept in proper
Underdriven Correctly Overdriven
driven

alignment for the ridge panel. Check for the proper coverage as
the sheeting progresses. One can follow the panel-sheeting as
good visual tightness check. Always use the proper tool to install
shown below.
fasteners. A fastener driver (screw gun) should be used for self-
drilling screws. Discard worn sockets, these can cause the fas-
tener to wobble during installation.

Applying Mastic Sealant


Proper mastic application is critical to the weather tightness of a
building. Mastic should not be stretched when installed. Apply
only to clean, dry surfaces. Keep only enough mastic on the roof
that can be installed in a day. During warm weather, store mas-
tic in a cool dry place. During cold weather (below 60 degrees)
mastic must be kept warm (60 degrees - 90 degrees) until appli-
cation. After mastic has been applied, keep protective paper in
place until panel is ready to be installed.

When lifting sheets onto the roof frame ready for laying and fas- Preparing the Eave
tening, care should be taken to make sure all sheets are the cor- Prepare the eave for the first panel by applying tape mastic
rect way up with the overlapping side towards the edge of the along the eave (outside of the insulation, if any) and leaving
roof from which installation will commence. Otherwise, sheets release paper in place. Mastic must be applied in a straight line
will have to be turned over and/or turned end for end. Sheet bun- and with out voids.
dles should be placed over or near purlin supports, not at mid
Do not stretch the mastic. Use a knife to cut if necessary. Cut an
span of the purlins.
inside closure strip as shown above and place starter piece on
Fastener Installation top of the mastic. Align the major rib of the closure with the edge
Correct fastener installation is one of the most critical steps of the endwall roof line. Splice a full closure to the starting clo-
when installing roof panels. Be sure the fasteners are installed at sure and apply along the top of the eave mastic.

61
purlin location and maintain straight line of screws, thus avoiding
mis-drilling and possible leakage. Secure the panel to the struc-
ture with appropriate fasteners. If the building requires more than
the one panel per run, do not install fasteners at the purlin locat-
ed at the upslope end of the panel. These fasteners will be
installed after the overlapping is installed.

Sealing the Sidelaps


Apply the sidelap tape mastic to the weather side edge of the
lower major rib as shown in the figure. The mastic should only be
applied to clean, dry surfaces. With the release paper in place,
Along the top of the closures that have been placed along the
eave, apply a second run of tape mastic. Prior to removing paper
backing, check and mark for proper alignment of the first roof
panel. Remove paper and fix the mastic.

Installation of the First Roof Panel


Once the eave is prepared, the first roof panel may be installed.
Check the erection drawings to determine the roof overhang at
the eave. Set the roof panel in place over the inside closure
insuring the major ribs of the panel nest properly with the inside
closure. Align the panel edge with the edge of the endwall roof
line.

press firmly along the length of the mastic to insure proper adhe-
sion. In removing the protective paper from the mastic, care
should be taken not to pull the mastic away from the panel.
Install the adjoining panel positioning the overlapping rib with
care. Drill, at the center of the clearance holes in the overlapping
panel, required size pilot holes for the lap fasteners. Stitch the
lap with the self-fastening fasteners supplied with the screw line.
Never allow the mastic to be placed to the inside of the screw
line.

Installation of Remaining Roof Panels


With the panel properly placed, adjust the line of panel for
With the first panel run installed and secured and sidelap mastic
squareness to avoid “Saw toothing” at the eave line. Use a nylon
applied, the second panel run may be started. Prepare the eave
line projected from the eave strut by a certain distance to give
with an inside closure and mastic. Position the panel so that the
correct distance and line. Make sure that the panel ribs are kept
overlapping ribs will nest properly. Be sure to check for proper
in straight line from Eaves to Ridge. Use a chalk line to mark the

62
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

Roof and Wall Cladding Panel Installation


150 mm minimum overlap located over a purlin as shown or as
per respective erection drawings. Locate the fasteners on the
center of the flange of purlins.

Skylight Installation
One of the simplest methods of getting natural light through a
steel roof is the inclusion of translucent sheets which match the
steel profiles.
It is preferable to use profiled translucent cladding in single
widths so that they can overlap, and be supported by, the steel
overhang and panel coverage. Stitch the major ribs of the two
cladding on both sides. It is also preferable to position the
panels together and attach panels to the purlins.
lengths of translucent cladding at the top of a roof run so the high
Sealing the Eave end can lap under the capping or flashing and the low end can

Mastic location at the eave is critical. To insure a weather tight overlap a steel sheet. This is because the translucent cladding

seal, the sidelap mastic must extend down from the top of the rib will readily overlap a steel sheet but the reverse is difficult.

to the mastic on the eave closure. The mastic extension must Skylight panels are also installed using the same procedures as
splice into the eave mastic. a steel panel (Subjected to skylight manufacturers
recommendations). Care should be taken when installing
fasteners in the skylights to avoid cracking the material.

Ridge Installation
Ridge panels are to be installed as each side of the roof is sheet-
ed. This will aid in keeping both sides of the roof aligned. After
having installed a run of panels on each side of the roof, apply
mastic to the panels. Set ridge panel in place and install lap and
purlin fasteners. Apply mastic along the top of the leading rib to
prepare for the next sidelap.
Sealing the endlaps
At the panel endlaps, place a run of mastic across the full panel
width 25 mm below the fastener line. The panel endlaps have a

63
Tape Sealant Application at
Ridge Flashing
Apply panel sidelap tape sealant as shown for building with ridge
flashing and outside closures. The mastic is placed along the
inside edge of the major rib from the ridge purlin web line to the
upper end of the panel.

Cleaning of Roof Panels


As work proceeds, it is important to keep the roof area clean. A
soft brush or broom should always be readily available to sweep
off drill swarf, metal fillings or grinding dust, which will cause light
surface corrosion if not removed. With a little practice in applica-
tion, squeeze out removal will generally be unnecessary.
However, for practical or aesthetic reasons, uncured sealant can
be removed with a clean, dry rag and any excess then removed
with material turpentine or white spirits.

Excess cured sealant is to be removed with a plastic stapula to


avoid damage to the surface finish. Avoid any unnecessary
smearing of sealant on surfaces intended for painting as silicone
can affect over-paint adhesion. If contamination has occurred,
this may be treated by lightly abrading the area with a non-metal-
lic scouring medium.

64
10
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

Installing pierce-fixed cladding


Pierce-fixing is the method of fixing sheets using fasteners are the correct way up and the overlapping side is towards the
which pass through the sheet. This is different from the edge of the roof from which installation will start.
alternative method called concealed-fixing. The method of fixing
you use is determined by the cladding profile you are using.

You can place screws through the crests or in the valleys,


Sheet 3 Sheet 2
Sheet 1

however, to maximised watertightness, always place roof screws Prevailing weather Direction of laying

through the crests. For walling, you may fix through either the Lay sheets towards prevailing weather
crest or valley.
Place bundles of sheets over or near firm supports, not at mid
Always drive the screws perpendicular to the cladding, and in the

Installing Pierce-fixed Cladding


span of roof members.
centre of the corrugation or rib.

The following procedures are described for roofs, but the same Position first sheet
general principles apply to walls. With particular care, position the first sheet before fixing
to ensure that it is correctly located in relation to other parts
General installation procedure of the building. Check that the sheet:

Crest fixing Valley fixing • Is aligned with the end-wall (or its barge or fascia),
bearing in mind the type of flashing or capping treatment to
(roofs & walls) (walls only)

be used; and
• Aligns correctly at its ends in relation to the gutter
Crest and valley fixing
and ridge (or parapet or transverse wall). Roof sheets should
overhang at least 50 mm into gutters
Fix the sheet as described later in this chapter

Check flatness, slope and overhang


Position other sheets
Before starting work ensure that: After fixing the first sheet in position, align the following
• The supports for your cladding are truly in the same plane sheets using:
• The minimum roof slopes
• The long edge of the previous sheet; and
• The overhangs of sheets from the top and bottom supports
• A measurement from the end of the sheet to the fascia or
do not exceed the limit, whilst also overhanging at least
purlin at the gutter. It is important that you keep the
50 mm into gutters
gutter-end of all sheets in a straight line
Make any necessary adjustments before you start laying sheets,
Fix the sheet by either:
because they will be difficult or impossible to rectify later.
• fixing each sheet completely, before laying the next; or
Orient sheets before lifting • fix the sheet sufficiently to ensure it can’t move, complete
For maximum weather-tightness, start laying sheets from the laying all sheets, then return to place all the intermediate
end of the building that will be in the lee of the worst-anticipated fasteners later
or prevailing weather.
It is much easier and safer to turn sheets on the ground than up
on the roof. Before lifting sheets on to the roof, check that they

65
Check alignment occasionally • clamp theORB
CUSTOM laptowith
steela support
pair of vice grips;
Occasionally check that the sheets are still parallel with the first • at the top of the sheet: nestle the side lap snugly,
sheet, by taking two measurements across the width of the fixed check alignment, and fix the sheet with a fastener.
cladding.

At about half way through the job, perform a similar check but TRIMDEK HI-TEN to timber support

take the measurements from the finishing line to aim for the final
CUSTOM ORB to
Typical also of steel support
INTEGRITY (see detail)

sheet to be parallel with the end of the roof. If the measurements


are not close enough, lay subsequent sheets very slightly out of
parallel to gradually correct the error by: SPANDEK HI-TEN to steel support

• properly align and fix a lap, then


TRIMDEK HI-TEN to timber support Non-conductive
Crest fixing
Typical also of INTEGRITY (see detail) EPDM washer

• fix the other edge of the sheet, placing the fasteners slightly Sealing

closer or further from where they would normally be if there


plate

Pierce-fixing onRoofing
valleys
Detail of INTEGRITY
was no error.
connection Adhesive layer on

(for walling only)


underside of sealing
to steelsheet
SPANDEK HI-TEN support plate, bonds washer
to roof sheeting
Fixed sheets Purlin
Non-conductive

Wall fasteners may be placed on the crests, but they are


EPDM washer
Early checks = Later checks =

usually placed in the valley of wall cladding


platebecause:
Sealing
Finish
Start

• they are less conspicuous and don’t break


Adhesivethe aesthetic
Detail of INTEGRITY
Early checks = Later checks = connection layer on

lines of the steel cladding;


Roofing
sheet underside of sealing
plate, bonds washer

• there is no risk of the profile being deformed,


to roof sheeting
Check alignment occasionally

because the fastener is placed through the cladding


where it rests flat against its support; and

Side-lapping & positioning • water penetration is not a problem.

pierce-fixed sheets Don't fix


this valey
To prevent moisture being drawn into laps by capillary action,
the edges of sheets are slightly modified. CUSTOM ORB® and
custom blue orb have the edges of the sheet over-curved, CUSTOM ORB to steel support

other products like SPANDEK®, TRIMDEK® all have flutes


formed into the underlapping rib. It is important that sheets be
lapped correctly. TRIMDEK HI-TEN to steel support

After fixing the first sheet, place the next (and subsequent) Typical valley fixing (for walls only)
sheet with its side lap snugly over the previous sheet. Secure the
sheet firmly in place until each end of the sheet has been fixed.
You can do this easily by: However, when valley-fixed, the cladding needs a side-lap

• align the bottom edge accurately by a measurement from the fastener in all laps, at each support. You will find it more

end of the sheet to the fascia or purlin at the gutter; economical in labour, time and cost of fasteners to use a crest

66
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

fastener at each side lap in place of the lap fastener and adja-
cent valley fastener.

CUSTOM ORB to steel support

Alternative valley fixing with crest fixing at side laps (for walls only)

Pierce-fixing on side-laps

Installing Pierce-fixed Cladding


to timber support
TRIMDEK HI-TEN

Where roofing and walling are installed according to the support


spacing, side-lap fasteners are generally not required.

You may need to use side-lap fasteners where the cladding is


laid a little out of alignment and the weather resistance of a joint
is questionable. Decide on the number of side-lap fasteners by
what looks effective in each individual case.

Where valley fasteners are used, you need side-lap fasteners


along each lap at each support. Alternatively a crest fastener
may be used at each side-lap, in place of the side-lap fastener
and adjacent valley fastener.

Side-lap fasteners are located in the centre of the crest of the


overlapping corrugation.

67
11
Installing concealed-fixed cladding
Concealed-fixing is the method of fixing sheets using fasteners Preparation
which do not pass through the sheet. Instead, the cladding is As described in General installation procedure:
held in place with clips. This is different from the alternative • check flatness, slope and overhang;
method called pierce-fixing. The method of fixing you use is
• orient the sheets before lifting. Note the overlapping rib
determined by the cladding profile you are using.
is towards the end of the building where you start;
Concealed-fixing is used for: • Check that the overhang of the sheets from the clips,
• KLIP-LOK™ 700 at both eaves and ridge, is not less than the minimum
• KLIP-LOK™ 770
Position the first sheet
Very steep pitches With particular care, position the first sheet before fixing,
to ensure that it will correctly locate in relation to other parts
To prevent concealed-fixed cladding from sliding downward in
of the building. Check that the sheet:
the fixing clips, on very steep pitches, you should pierce-fix
through each sheet under the flashing or capping, along the top • is aligned with the end-wall (or its barge or fascia),
of the sheets. bearing in mind the type of flashing or capping treatment
to be used; and

Installing KLIP-LOK™ roofs • aligns correctly at its ends in relation to the gutter and
ridge (or parapet or transverse wall). Roof sheets should
Use the same general procedure described in general
overhang at least 50 mm into gutters.
installation procedure. However, at the start of installing
KLIP-LOK™ 700 and KLIP-LOK™ 770, a row of clips is fixed to Fix the first clips
the supports before the first sheet is located over them and KLIP-LOK™
locked in position.
Starting method 1. Cut the 1st clip 25 mm from the centre of the
Clips second tower (as shown). The first tower on the cut clip locates

For KLIP-LOK™ 700 use KL70 clips in the 1st rib of the first sheet. This method is preferred because

For KLIP-LOK™ 770 use KL77 clips you don’t have to reach so far to fix the remote end of the clip.
Starting method 2. The first tower on the first clip locates in the
first rib of the first sheet. The clip fixes the edge of the first sheet,
Fixing screw but you must fix two clips at the start, and thus reach out further
for the first and all subsequent sheets.
through each tower
Dir
The following description is for Method 1.
ect
iono
f la
yin

all KLIP-LOK™ profiles


g
700 HS fixing clip for

Fix the first clip on the purlin nearest the gutter, with the clip
KLIP-LOK 700

pointing correctly in the direction of laying. Be sure the clip is 90


KLIP-LOK™ additional
clips degrees to the edge of the sheet.
Fixing hole Dimples for
screws

KL65 Using a string line (or the first sheet as a straight edge) to align
Dire
ctio the clips as you fix a clip to each purlin working towards the high
end of the roof.
n of
layin
g
KL65 fixing clip
for KLIP-LOK 406

68
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

Overlapping
rib
cut here

Discard

25 mm Underlapping rib

KLIP-LOK 700
Standard flashing

Placing the first sheet


Overlapping
Second clip rib
KLIP-LOK 700HS: Starting method 1

Standard flashing

Fix the next (and subsequent) clips and sheets


KL65

Underlapping rib

First clip Second clip

1. FixKLIP-LOK
the next row
406 of clips, one to each support. Be sure the
KLIP-LOK 700HS: Starting method 2
& 700

clip is 90 degrees to the edge of the sheet, and the


(KLIP-LOK 406 shown)

embossed arrow on the clip points in the correct direction

KLIP-LOK™: Engage the slots and tabs on the clips.

KLIP-LOK™: Engage the clips over the rib of the installed

Installing Concealed-fixed Cladding


sheet. If a spur on the edge of the sheet fouls a clip, flatten

KLIP-LOK 700

Fix the first row of clips


KL65

Place the first sheet


KL65

1. (KL65
Locateclips
the shown)
first sheet over the fixed clips
KLIP-LOK 406 & 700

2. Using a measurement from the gutter-end of the sheet to the


Don't step in this pan
until ribs are engaged

fascia or purlin, position the sheet so that it overhangs the KLIP-LOK 700

desired amount into the gutter (usually about 50 mm). It is


Engaging edges ofSpurs
sheets
important that you keep the gutter-end of all sheets in a on edge of bottom

straight line.
sheet must be fully engaged

the spur with a rubber mallet to allow the clip to sit down over
in shoulder of top sheet.

all KLIP-LOK™ profiles: Fully engage the sheet with the the rib
clips, using vertical foot pressure on all the ribs over each
2. As before, place the next sheet over its clips also engaging
clip.
the edge of the preceding sheet

3. Accurately
KLIP-LOKposition
406 the sheet so that it overhangs the
desired amount into the gutter. It is important that you keep

69
the gutter-end of all sheets in a straight line Place the last sheet
KLIP-LOK™ 700: If the final space is less than the full width
4. Fully engage the two sheets along the overlapping rib.
of a sheet, you can cut a sheet along its length and shorten
You can do this by walking along the full length of the sheet
the clips as appropriate.
with one foot in the centre pan of the previous sheet and the
other foot applying vertical pressure to the top of the
interlocking ribs at regular intervals. It is important that you Installing KLIP-LOK™ walls
don’t walk in the unsupported pan beside the overlap. A The installation procedure for walls is similar to that described
rubber mallet may help engagement of laps on long spans for roofs. To engage clips, use a rubber mallet (instead of foot

5. Similarly, engage all the clips by applying vertical foot pressure).

pressure to the top of the other ribs over each clip. To prevent KLIP-LOK™ from sliding downward in the fixing clips,
It is essential that the sheets interlock completely. It is important you should pierce-fix through each sheet under the flashing or
that your weight is fully on the sheet you are installing. capping, along the top of the sheets.

KLIP-LOK™ 700: The spurs on the free edge of the underlap-


ping rib must be fully engaged in the shoulder of the overlapping
rib. You will hear a distinct click as the spurs snap in.

Check alignment occasionally


Occasionally check that the sheets are still parallel with the first
sheet, by taking two measurements across the width of the fixed
cladding.
Fixed sheets Purlin

Early checks = Later checks =


Finish
Start

Early checks = Later checks =

Check alignment occasionally

At about half way through the job, perform a similar check but
take the measurements from the finishing line to aim for the final
sheet to be parallel with the end of the roof. If the measurements
are not close enough, lay subsequent sheets very slightly out of
parallel to gradually correct the error. To allow this to happen,
flatten the tabs on the base of subsequent clips - the slot in the
clip will allow the clips to be fixed out of standard pitch.

70
12
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

End of Sheets
This chapter describes how you can treat the ends of sheets to Turning-up KLIP-LOK™
maximised waterproofing, or to stop vermin entering. You get the best results by first cutting off the corner of the
down-pointing leg of each female rib. Do this before you place
Turn-ups the sheets on the roof.
At the high end of roofing, wind can drive water uphill, under the
• With the hinged turn-up tool open: position the tool on the
flashing or capping, into a building. To minimise this problem,
sheet with the locating pins hard against the end of the
you turn up the valleys (or pans) at the high end of roofing. The
sheet.
process is called turning-up (or stop-ending).
• Hold the handles together to clamp the tool onto the tray, and
All roofing on slopes below 1 in 2 (25°) should be turned-up.
pull them to turn-up the tray 90°.
You can turn-up sheets before or after they are fixed on the roof.
If you do the latter, you must have sufficient clearance for the
turn-up tool at the top end of the sheets (about 50 mm).

Turning-up CUSTOM ORB®


With pliers, multi-grips or a shifting spanner closed down
to approximately 2 mm, grip the valley corrugations 20 mm
in from the end of the sheet and turn up as far as possible. Be ted turn
-ups

careful not to tear the sheet.


Comple

KLIP-LOK™ tool ready for turn-up

CUSTOM ORB Flush turning-up KLIP-LOK™


In normal turning-up of KLIP-LOK™, the tops of the ribs protrude
past the turned up tray. Consequently the turn-ups cannot be
positioned hard against a fascia or wall, or the ends of the sheets
on either side of the ridge cannot be butted together. This is

Turning-up CUSTOM ORB®


mm
40

Turning-up TRIMDEK® and SPANDEK®


End of Sheets

Slide the turn-up tool onto the end of the sheet as far as it will go.
Holding the tool against the end of the sheet, pull the handle to
turn up the tray about 80°.

'Ear' flattened
'Ear' awaiting
flattening

Turning-up (TRIMDEK® shown) KLIP-LOK™ tool ready for turn-up

71
usually of no consequence because the turn-up is completely SPANDEK® overlaps
covered by a flashing or capping. However, if you want the ribs When SPANDEK® is laid on slopes of 5 degrees or less, cut back
not to protrude past the turn-up, you can make a flush turn-up. the corner of the under-sheet, at the downhill end of the sheet,
You need an extra 40 mm in sheet length for flush turn-ups. to block capillary action.

1. Cut the top of each rib before turning-up the pans. Turn-up
the pans as described before.

2. Position the backing tool in the tray and hold it hard against
the turn-up with a foot. Approx. Approx.
5 mm 5 mm
3. With a rubber mallet, fold the protruding ‘ears’ flush against Cut back corner

the backing tool. Cut SPANDEK® on low slopes.

Blocking off rib cavities


Turning-down
Dust, insects, birds, rodents and wind-driven rain can enter
At the low end of roofing, wind or capillary action can cause
a building through the cavities under ribs. To minimise these
water to run back up the underside of the cladding. To minimise
problems the cavities can be blocked off. Rib end-stops are
this problem, you turn down the valleys (or pans) at the low end
available for KLIP-LOK™; strips of plastic foam can be used for
of roofing. The process is called turning-down (or lipping).
other profiles.

Infill strips
Closed-cell, foam-plastic infill strips are available to match the
top or bottom profile of our roof cladding.

et At the lower end of cladding, the strip is sandwiched under the


roof cladding. Similarly, at the upper end, the strip is sandwiched
she
dg e of -down
E ned

between topside of the roofing and the underside of the flashing


tur

or capping.

Turning-down the gutter end (TRIMDEK® shown)

All roofing on slopes below 1 in 5 (10°) must be turned-down.

Turning-down is usually done after the cladding is fixed on the


roof, provided there is no obstruction to the operation of the
turn-down tool.
Profiled closed-cell infill at eaves
• Push the turn-down tool over the end of the tray, as far as it will
go. Don’t use infill strips that can absorb water because retained
moisture can lead to deterioration of the sheet coating. Avoid
• Hold the tool hard against the end of the tray and push the
using infill strips made from, or treated with, flammable materi-
handle to form a turn-down about 20°.
als, particularly in areas prone to bushfire.

72
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

Where roof pitches are below 1 in 5 (10°), you should incorpo-


See Table 10.4.1

rate infill strips to maximised waterproofness.

End-lapping See text for (a)

Because our roofing and walling is manufactured by continuous


spacing of fasteners Pierce-fixed
through crest

processes, sheet lengths can be supplied up to the limits of See Table 10.4
transport regulations which are frequently long enough to cover
.1

roofs without end-lapping the sheets.


If you contemplate using sheets that are shorter than the full 2 fasteners per tray

span, and overlap them, you need to consider:


self-drilling screws (b)
with EPDM sealing washer Pierce-fixed

• the roof slope, because it affects the amount of overlap


through valley

• the method of fixing of the cladding to its supports,


See Table 10.4.1

because it affects the maximum length of sheet


Fastened clip
on purlin

Table- End laps

2 fasteners per tray (c)


End-lap End-lap self-drilling screws
minimum (mm) maximum (mm) Concealed-fixed
with EPDM
Roof slope 200 300 sealing washer with
Less than 1 in 4 (15° ) pierce-fixing
See 'End-laps in pitches less than 15 degrees' (later in this section) through valley
Greater than 1 in 4 (15° ) 150 250
Fixing at end laps
Walls 100 200

KLIP-LOK™ sheets deform at the clips so that sheets won’t nest


Fixing methods for end laps together. If you use clips, the lap is placed just clear of and on
There are three methods of fixing cladding at end laps. the high side of the clip (in Figure c). The lap is secured with
• Pierce-fixed through crests pierce-fixing through the valleys. The clips allow the sheets to
Position the lap centrally over the support; and the fastening slip when they expand with heat.
secures both the lap and the cladding. Space the fasteners as To make the end-lapping of KLIP-LOK™ easier: remove, for the
for an end span (layout in Figure a, terminology and recom- length of the lap, the down-turn of the underlapping ribs of the
mended spacing). The thermal expansion is away from the fas- top and bottom sheets in each sheet run. The cut-back ribs are
tener and towards the outer ends of the sheet run. covered by the sheets of the next sheet run.
• Pierce-fixed through valleys longline 305, can be fixed using any of the three methods.
Position the lap centrally on the support, and the fastening The underlapping ribs have to be slightly squashed at the lap to
secures both the lap and the cladding. (in Figure b). The thermal allow them to nest. An end-lap tool is available.
expansion is away from the fastener and towards the outer ends
of the sheet run.
End of Sheets

• Concealed-fixed sheets
You can either pierce-fix through the crests or the valleys (in
Figure a and b), or use clips near the lap (in Figure c).

73
13
Flashings
Flashings and cappings are strips of metal formed to weather- Longitudinal flashings
proof the edges of roofing and walling. For the purposes of this Longitudinal flashings run parallel to the pans or valleys, and are
chapter, only the term flashing is used. made to suit the sheet profile. They should have an edge turned-
Similar methods of flashing are used for different cladding-pro- down to dip into the pan or valley.
files. You can adapt the principles to suit your application.
In all cases it is important to have ample cover provided by the
flashing and proper turn-up of the cladding underneath.
Be careful when moving between supports. Do not walk in the
pan immediately adjacent to flashings or translucent sheeting. Fix at 600 mm centres
Walk at least one pan away.
(See Chapter 3
for fasteners)

bluescope lysaght has a range of standard flashings. We can


also supply custom flashings to your requirements - ask your
local service centre for details.

Materials
It is very important that flashings be made from materials that are
compatible with the cladding.
Typical longitudinal flashings
Lead flashing is not recommended, however it will usually be
retained when re-roofing, because it is usually cemented into the
Transverse
Soft aluminium orflashings
structure. In these cases:
Approx
zinc . 600 mm

Transverse flashings
to followrun across the pans or valleys. They
for all profi
over-flashing, stepped les

• the top surface of the lead flashing must be painted with


and tapered

usually have a stiffening bend, along the Ridge


lowercapping
edge, which is
fall of roof

a good quality exterior paint system (to limit contamina-


turned-down to dip into the pan or valley. To maximised weather
tion with lead compounds in water running off the flash-
proofing, the bent edge is fashioned to fit the profile.
ing); and
• there must be a barrier between the lead flashing and
the cladding: either a plastic strip (such as polythene
dampcourse), or paint.
Fasten at 600 mm centres
(See Chapter 3 for fasteners) Fascia capping

Flashings should conform to AS/NZS 2179.1:1994, and be com-


patible with the cladding.
Materials for non-standard flashings and other accessories are
available in ZINCALUME® steel or COLORBOND® steel finishes.

Typical transverse flashings


Parapet flashing

74
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

Flashings
The turn-down for transverse flashings for CUSTOM ORB® and
custom blue orb can be either notched, scribed to match the
corrugations, or lightly dressed into the valleys. Scribing or
Horizontal notching tool
(KLIP-LOK 406 shown)

notching is preferred for low-slope roofs.


The turn-down for transverse flashings for ribbed cladding is
always notched to fit over the ribs, except in the case of
CUSTOM ORB® and custom blue orb where the flashing is
dressed into the valleys.
Vertical notching tool

Notching tools
(KLIP-LOK 406 shown)

Hand-operated notching tools cut one notch at a time. Each tool


matches only one cladding profile. There are two types of tool;
their use depends on whether or not the edge of the flashing has
first been bent down.
Using notching tool
Using notching tools
between the notches over a suitable straight edge (such as
Table - Notching tools
a piece of timber).
Edge turned down

Notching with tinsnips


Type of tool Available for
before notching

If notching tools are not available, flashings can be notched to


Horizontal notching tools No KLIP-LOK, SPANDEK, TRIMDEK

the rib profile with tinsnips. The procedure is sometimes known


Vertical notching tools KLIP-LOK, KLIP-LOK , SPANDEK,
(also called speed Yes TRIMDEK, CUSTOM ORB,
notchers)

as scribing. After the cladding is fixed and the turn-ups finished,


After the cladding is fixed and the turn-ups finished, proceed proceed as follows.
as follows.
• Place the flashing with the turned-down edge resting
• Place a flashing with the notch-edge resting on the ribs. on the ribs.
• Locate your notching tool over a rib with the notching head • Mark out the notching using a template positioned over
against the flashing. each rib.
vertical tool: The body locates along the rib.
• Cut the notches with tinsnips.
horizontal tool: the lugs on the underside locates on top
This procedure is also used for hip cappings.
of the rib.
• Raise the handle to open the tool and: Joining flashings
vertical tool: lift the flashing into the mouth of the tool; The overlaps of transverse flashings should be sealed with a
horizontal tool: slide the mouth of the tool over the edge recommended sealant and fastened. Before finally positioning
of the flashing as far as it will go. and fixing the lap, turn over the top piece and apply a 3 mm
• Push down on the handle to perform the notching. bead of sealant across the flashing, about 12 mm from the end.

• Repeat for all ribs, checking in each case that the flashing is
correctly positioned.

• If you are using a horizontal tool, bend down the tongues

75
14
Insulation
There are many types of insulation installed in the steel build- It is recommended that both sides of the ridge of a building be
ings. However, fibreglass, rockwool blanket insulation is com- insulated and sheeted simultaneously.This will keep the insula-
mon type used, and these instructions pertaining to this type tion covered for the maximum amount of time and panel ribs can
only. One side of the blanket insulation should have proper bar- be kept in proper alignment for ridge cap.
rier that must face the inside of the building regardless of
whether the insulation is for heating or cooling.

Choose correct length, density and thickness of insulation as per


the erection drawing. If require pre cut roof insulation to reach
from eave to eave or eave to purlin allowing approximately 2
feet of additional length to facilitate handling. Hold insulation at
one sidewall and roll out insulation across the purlins, vapour
barrier to the inside of the building. Stretch the insulation to pro-
vide a tight, smooth and wrinkle free side surface. Weight clamp
can be used at each end to hold tight. Double adhesive tape can
be used on eave strut and purlins below the insulation to prevent
insulation from flying off due to wind. Trim excess insulation at At the sky light portion insulation is cut keeping 150 mm projec-
the edge of eave and cut fibreglass approximately 100 mm from tion on all side as shown in figure. Cut fibre glass leaving only
end leaving only facing. Fold facing over end of blanket insula- facing. Facing to be properly folded and on all sides. If insulation
tion to seal the ends. termination angle is provided the insulation is properly folded
and screwed to the angle.
After installing the first roll of insulation, fix the closure on to the
eave strut with the help of double adhesive tape. Install the first The insulation blankets 6 inch and thicker require longer screws
roof panel, before installing the fasteners check the alignment of (1_ or 1_ in) than commonly used for roofing attachment, to
roof panel and projection of roof panels beyond eave strut and at avoid squeezing the insulation so tight that the panel gets dim-
pled.

Insulation cutting at the FRP Sheet


gable end. After installing the first run of roof cladding, lay the
second run of insulation in same manner given above and sta-
ple the side lap by folding as shown in the figure The general
sequence is to install the roof cladding in conjunction with the
insulation.

76
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

Wall Insulation Sealing Insulation laps


The first run of insulation is temporally attach to the eave strut or Double tab insulation is sealed together at the sidelaps by fold-
support angle with the help of vice grips or other clamping ing and stapling as shown below. The stapling is done from the
arrangements as shown in figure. Install double face tape at the outside as the insulation is applied. Pull the adjoining tabs out-
eave strut to hold the insulation. Obtain smooth wrinkle free ward at the joint and align the edges. Staple, fold and staple as
inside surface by pulling the insulation tight from top to bottom. shown.
Use double face tape to hold the insulation to the base angle or

Insulation
bottom girt. Cut the fibreglass from vapour barrier on excess
1.
length and fold up to seal the ends.

The general practice is to install the wall panel in sequence with


the insulation. It is extremely important to check plumb and level
of wall panel before installing. Similarly second run of insulation
2.
is installed side laps are to be properly folded and stapled. There
must not be any holes in the facing.

3.

4.

5.

Perfect sealing of side lap of insulation

Storage of Insulation Roll


When the rolls of insulation are received they should be careful-
ly stored, protected from the weather. Handle the rolls with care
to avoid damaging or punctur-
ing the insulation facing. Do
not store the rolls which are
multiples of the wall height and
are to be filed cut to required
length.

77
15
General care, safety and
handling
Safety Handling cladding on site
It is commonsense to work safely, protecting yourself and work- On large building projects you can reduce handling time by lift-
mates from accidents on the site. Safety includes the practices ing bundles with a crane direct from the delivery truck onto the
you use; as well as personal protection of eyes and skin from roof frame. Use a spreader bar for long sheets. For small to
sunburn, and hearing from noise. medium size projects, without mechanical handling facilities, you
Occupational health and safety laws enforce safe working con- can unload sheets by hand and pass them up to the roof one
ditions in most locations. Laws in every state require you to have at a time.
fall protection which includes safety mesh, personal harnesses For personal safety, and to protect the surface finish, wear clean
and perimeter guardrails. We recommend that you aquatint your- dry gloves. Don’t slide sheets over rough surfaces or over each
self with all local codes of safe practice and you adhere strictly other. Always carry tools, don’t drag them.
to all laws that apply to your site.

Care and storage before installation Walking on roofs


Rain or condensation is easily drawn between the surfaces of It is important that you walk on roofing carefully, to avoid
stacked sheets by capillary action, or they can be driven in by damage to either the roofing or yourself.
wind. This trapped moisture cannot evaporate easily, so it can Generally, keep your weight evenly distributed over
cause deterioration of the coating which may lead to reduced the soles of both feet to avoid concentrating your weight on
life-expectancy or poor appearance. either heels or toes. Always wear smooth soft-soled shoes; avoid
If materials are not required for immediate use, stack them neat- ribbed soles that pick up and hold small stones, swarf and other
ly and clear of the ground. If left in the open, protect them with objects.
waterproof covers.
If stacked or bundled product becomes wet, separate it without
delay, wipe it with a clean cloth and stack it to dry thoroughly.
The sheeting material shoud be placed with a minimum 50 slope
to avoid a water pond.

Where possible do not leave If stacks cannot be kept under cover, When you walk parallel to the ribs:
uncovered stacks of sheets lying barricade the stack and cover it with
in the open. a waterproof tarpaulin, but leave
space between the cover and the
• for ribbed roofing walk on at least two ribs or
sheets to allow air to circulate.
corrugations (CUSTOM ORB®, and SPANDEK®);
• for pan-type roofing walk in the pans (KLIP-LOK™,
TRIMDEK®).

Store off the ground and on a slope Inspect the storage site regularly When you walk across the ribs, walk over or close to the roofing
so that if rain should to ensure that moisture has not
penetrate the covering, penetrated the stock. supports.
water will drain away.

78
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

Be careful when moving between supports. Do not walk in the Reciprocating nibblers are also widely used in the roofing trade,
pan immediately adjacent to flashings or translucent sheeting. and they produce an excellent cut. The resulting small, sharp
Walk at least one pan away. scraps can rust and damage finishes; and they can cause per-
sonal injury. Take special care to collect these scraps.
Always take particular care when walking on wet or newly laid
sheets - particularly on steeply pitched roofs. Making holes
If there will be heavy foot traffic on a roof, provide a temporary Holes are often made by drilling or cutting by hole saw or jig saw.
walkway or working platform to minimise damage. Mask the area around the hole to protect paint from damage by
swarf.
Never step on the Skylight panel or translucent panel.

Marking out, cutting and drilling Clean up


Swarf (metal scraps or or abrasive particles resulting from cut-
Marking out
ting and drilling) left on the surfaces of materials will cause rust

General Care, Safety and Handling


A pencil of any colour may be used except black or so-called
stains which can lead to reduced life of the material.
lead pencils. Don’t use black pencils to mark roofing or walling
because the graphite content can create an electric cell when
wet and thus cause deterioration of the finish. You can also use
a string line with chalk dust, or a fine, felt-tipped marker.

Cutting
Where possible, you should minimise site-work by using sheets
cut to length in the factory. Swarf Cleaning

For cutting thin metal on • Sweep or hose all metallic swarf and other debris from roof
site, we recommend that areas and gutters at the end of each day and at the comple-
you use a power saw with tion of the installation.
a metal-cutting blade • If swarf has become stuck on a finish, it can be removed.
because it produces Take great care not to remove the paint or the metal coat-
fewer damaging hot ings.
metal particles and leaves less resultant burr than does a car- • For critical applications inspect the job two weeks after com-
borundum disc. pletion, when rain or condensation will have caused any
Cut materials over the ground and not over other materials remaining swarf to rust, and thus highlight affected areas.
where hot particles can fall and cause damage to finishes -
Warn other contractors
especially COLORBOND® steel prepainted finishes. It is best to
Many stains arising from swarf do so, not from the work of roof-
have the exterior colour finish of a COLORBOND® prepainted
ing-installers, but from other contractors working on the job.
sheet facing down, however you must then protect the paint fin-
Similarly, problems can arise from contact with incompatible
ish from scratching by your work supports.
materials, like copper piping or chemically treated timber. Acid
If you have to cut materials near sheets already installed, mask cleaning of bricks can also be a problem. Architects and builders
them or direct the stream of hot particles away. need to be aware of this, and warn contractors accordingly.

79
Sealants Seams sealed with sealant should be mechanically fixed for

Recommended sealants strength. Fasteners in joints should generally be no further apart

Neutral-cure silicone sealants have been successfully used with than 50 mm.

the range of steel finishes on our roofing and walling; and on The sealant does not require significant adhesive strength in
flashings, cappings, and gutters made from the same materials itself, but it must bond positively to all the surfaces it is to seal.
as the cladding. To ensure complete sealant cure, the width of sealant in a lap

Neutral-cure silicone sealants: should not exceed 25 mm when compressed.

• have good adhesion to the clean surface of all our roofing Applying sealant
and walling;
Always apply the bead of sealant in a continuous line along the
• are water resistant and non-corrosive;
centreline of the fastener holes. This ensures that, when com-
• are resistant to extreme of heat and cold while retaining pressed, the sealant positively seals the fastener.
good flexibility;
Be careful not to entrap air when applying sealant. Especially,
• provide high resistance to ultra-violet rays (sunlight); and
don’t place a ring of sealant around fastener holes because
• have a long service life.
entrapped air compresses during tightening of fasteners, and
It is important that only neutral-cure silicone be used with sheet
may blow a channel through the sealant, which could prevent the
steel. Other silicone sealants, often have a vinegar or ammonia
fastener from being sealed.
smell, and give off aggressive by-products during curing which
are detrimental to sheet steel. Fasteners
If in doubt, look for a message on the sealant package like: Use solid or sealed fasteners, otherwise you have to apply
Suitable for use with galvanised and ZINCALUME steel products.
® sealant to the hollow centre of open blind rivets.
To preserve the life of your cladding, is very important that
Cleaning surfaces
fastener materials are compatible with the cladding.
For effective bonding, all surfaces must be clean, dry and free
from contaminants such as old sealant or oil. Procedure
The preferred procedure for lap fabrication is:
Mineral turpentine is suitable for cleaning the surfaces but care
must be taken to completely remove all residual solvent with a 1. Assemble, clamp and drill;

clean dry cloth. White spirits is an alternative. 2. Separate components and remove drilling debris;

Sealant must be applied on the same day as the surface is 3. Clean joint surfaces as recommended above;
cleaned. 4. Apply bead(s) of sealant;
Joint strength 5. Relocate components and fix;
Sealant 6. Externally seal each fastener if hollow blind rivets are used.
To prevent premature curing (which causes poor bonding), finish
25 mm max.

the joint as soon as practical after applying the beads of sealant.


The manufacturer’s specified sealant open times should be fol-
Sealant Sealant
25 mm max. 25 mm max.

lowed.

Sealant clean up
Typical joints with sealant

80
Part 3 - Sheet Installation

With practice you will be able to judge the size of beads thus areas where high levels of industrial fallout occur. Avoid
avoiding squeeze-out and the subsequent need to clean up. accumulation of salty deposits or industrial dirt.
Uncured sealant can be removed with a clean, dry rag and any Establish a regular routine for washing COLORBOND ®
excess then removed with a cloth lightly dampened with mineral steel products. Often garage doors can be washed with clean
turpentine or white spirits. Excess cured sealant is best removed water at the same time as your car is being washed. Guttering
with a plastic spatula to avoid damage to the surface finish of and eaves can be hosed down when windows are being
the metal. cleaned. Walls can be hosed down while watering the garden.
Avoid any unnecessary smearing of sealant on
Where regular maintenance doesn’t remove all the dirt, wash the
surfaces intended for painting as silicone can affect adhesion of
surface with a mild solution of pure soap or non-abrasive non-
paint. Smeared sealant may be treated by lightly abrading the
ionic kitchen detergent in warm water. Use a sponge, soft cloth
area with a non-metallic scouring medium.
or soft bristle nylon brush; be gentle to prevent shiny spots.
Thoroughly rinse off the detergent with clean water.
Maintenance

General Care, Safety and Handling


Factors that most affect the long life of a roof (or wall) are Never use abrasive or solvent cleaners (like turps, petrol,
original design, the environment of the installation, and the kerosene and paint thinners) on COLORBOND® steel surfaces.
maintenance of the installation. Maintenance is probably the For advice on grease, oil or deposits not removed by soap or
biggest factor. detergent contact our Information Service

Maintenance includes: A preventive maintenance program is a key factor in maximising


• Regular inspection for problems before they become major the life expectancy and dependability of the roof system. It is
corrosion sites; important to carryout periodic maintenance of your building to
• Regular washing down, especially near coastal or industrial ensure trouble free service and extend the life span of the
influences; building. As a part of on-going maintenance program, periodic
inspections, beginning at the completion of building are of
• Removal of leaves and other debris from gutters;
utmost importance.
• Keep walls free of soil, concrete and debris near
the ground;
• Don’t overspray pesticide.

Maintenance of COLORBOND® steel


The paint system on COLORBOND® steel sheet is very durable.
Simple maintenance of the finish enhances its life and maintains
attractiveness for longer periods.

Where the paint finish is naturally washed by rainwater (roofs, for


example) there is usually no additional maintenance needed.
However areas to be washed include soffits, wall cladding under
eaves, garage doors, and the underside of eave gutters.

Washing should be done at least every six months and more


frequently in coastal areas where sea spray is prevalent, and in

81
16
Claims

Material Shortage Claim


Short materials: Immediately upon delivery of material, quanti- 4. Incorrect length billed in the shipper list.
ties should be verified against those mentioned in the packing
D. Improper Fabrication
list. Also the material controller has to check for any damage of
1. Material wrongly fabricated and not suitable for installa-
material.
tion.
There are different reasons for material shortage at site and
E. Design Error
claims can be raised on the appropriate grounds. Mentioned
1. Any material fabricated, shipped and found unable to pro-
below are common reasons for claims.
vide the function originally specified in the work order.
A. Items Not Received
Claim: In case of material shortage due to category A & B men-
1. Any material mentioned in the packing list but not received
tioned above Builder/ Customer/Product consultant shall make a
at site due to lost during the transportation.
written claim within 7 days for unpacked items such as Rafter,
Columns, purlins and other items which can be counted easily
and within 30 days for packed items such as bolts, screws, rods
etc. from the date of arrival to the job site by giving correct
description and quantities short received.

In case of category C, D & E time period will be any time during


erection.

All claims will be reviewed by BlueScope Steel's Product con-


2. Any material mentioned in packing list but not loaded in sultant before forwarding to plant. Cost of items to be replaced,
the vehicle. lost or damaged during transportation including freight will be
paid eventually by the insurance company or by customer (If
3. Material required on site has been loaded to some other
shipment was not insured) and therefore request for such mate-
site and some other material of other job not appearing in the
shipper list is loaded in the vehicle.

B. Damaged Materials
1. Material damaged in transportation and unloading, which
cannot be rectified at site.

C. Detailing Error
1. Material mentioned in the drawing but not listed in the
shipper list.
rials cannot be defined as claims and will be treated as an order
2. There could be surplus or shortage in any item due to an
or straight sale.
error in preparing the shipper.
Cost of items lost or damaged due to irresponsibility of builder or
3. Missing holes / wrong location of holes on any member to
customer has to be borne by the concerned builder or customer.
connect other member.

82
Part 4 - Building Maintenance and Recommendations

Field Work and Claims

Claims
All erection work will as per procedures mentioned in the Final claim: The final claim in writing shall be forwarded by the
American Institute of Steel construction code of standard prac- builder /customer to the Tata BlueScope Steel office within ten
tices for steel buildings. days of completion of corrective work authorised by Tata
BlueScope Steel office. The final claim shall include:
The correction of minor misfits by the use of drift pins to draw the
component into line, shimming moderate amount of reaming, 1. Actual numbers of man-hours by date of direct labour use
chipping and cutting and the replacement of minor shortages of on corrective work and actual hourly rates of pay.
material are a normal part of erection and are not subject to 2. Authorisation from Tata BlueScope Steel office for correc-
claim. tive work.
3. Taxes and insurance on total actual direct labour.
Claims for Corrective Repair Work
4. Other direct cost on actual direct labour.
In cases where installer believes there are errors in shop fabri-
cation that prevent the proper assembling and fitting of parts by 5. Cost of material purchased from other than Tata
use of drift pins, reaming, chipping or cutting the installer shall BlueScope Steel office including copies of main invoices.
immediately report to the local BSBS office or Product consult- 6. Total actual direct cost of corrective work (sum of 1, 2, 3,
ant for initial claim and 4) the final claim shall be signed by the builder.
Initial claim: In the event of error, the Builder / Customer 7. Cost of equipment (rental or depreciation), small tools,
shall promptly make a written “Initial Claim” to the Tata supervision overhead and profit are not subject to claim.
BlueScope Steel for correction of design, drafting or fabrica-
The Tata BlueScope Steel office is not liable for any claim result-
tion error. The initial claims include:
ing from use of drawings or literature not specifically released for
1. Description of nature and extent of the errors including construction for the project.
quantities, part marks etc.
Tata BlueScope Steel is not liable for any claim resulting from
2. Description of nature and extent of proposed corrective
use by the erector/customer of any improper material or
work including estimated man hours
material containing defects which can be detected by visual
3. Material to be purchased from the other than the Tata inspection. Cost of disassembling such improper or defective
BlueScope Steel office including estimated quantities and material and cost of erecting replacement material are not
cost. subject to claim.
4. Maximum total cost of proposed corrective work and
material to be purchased from other than purchased.

Authorisation for corrective work: If error is the fault of the


Tata BlueScope Steel office an Authorisation for Corrective Work
shall be issued in writing by the Tata BlueScope Steel office to
authorise to corrective work at cost not to exceed the maximum
total cost set forth. Alternative corrective work other than that
proposed in initial claim may be directed by Tata BlueScope
Steel office.

83
17
Tolerances

Fabrication and Erection Tolerances


Cold-Formed Structural Members
The fabrication tolerances indicated in figure for cold-formed
structural members are defined in the following table.

Cold-Formed Structural Members

84
Part 4 - Building Maintenance and Recommendations

Tolerances

Built-up Structural Member

85
Built-up Structural Member

86
Part 4 - Building Maintenance and Recommendations

Item Tolerance Max. Rate of Change

Span A = 9.52 mm 6 mm / 6m

Straightness B = 9.52 mm 6 mm / 6m

Elevation C = 9.52 mm 6 mm / 6m

Beam to
Beam Top D = 9.52 mm 6 mm / 6m
Running

Beam to
Beam E = 9.52 mm 6 mm / 6m
Underhung
Tolerances

Adjacent F = 9.52 mm 6 mm / 6m
Beams

87
Workmanship Accuracy Permitted Deviations of
of Erected Steelork Erected Components
Foundation Inspection Positions of column at base
The steelwork contractor shall inspect the prepared foundations Deviation of section centreline from the specified position
and holding down bolts for position and level not less than seven
days before erection of steelwork starts. He shall then inform the
employer if he finds any discrepancies which are outside the
deviations specified in this specification guide, requesting that
remedial work be carried out before erection commences.

Foundation Level
Deviation from Exact Level

Single Storey Column Plumb


Deviation of top relative to base, excluding portal frame
columns, on main axes

Vertical Wall
Deviation from exact position at steelwork support point

Multi - Storey Columns Plumb


Deviation in each storey and maximum deviation relative to
b`ase

Pre- set wall bolt


Deviation from specified position

88
Part 4 - Building Maintenance and Recommendations

Gap between bearing surfaces Level of adjacent beams within a distance of


Deviation from the specified level 5 meters
Deviation from relative horizontal levels (measured on
centreline of top flange)

Beam Alignment
Horizontal deviation relative to an adjacent beam above or below
Alignment of Adjacent Perimeter Columns
Deviation relative to next column on a line parallel to the grid
line when measured at base or splice level.

Beam Level Crane Gantry Column Plumb


Deviation of cap relative to base
Deviation from specified level at supporting column

Level at Each End of Same Beam


Crane Gantries Gauge of Rail Tracks
Relative deviation in level at ends
Deviation from true gauge
Tolerances

89
Built-up Structural Members
Tolerances
Dimensions
+ -
Geometry a 30 - 6.35 Max 30 - 6.35 Max
b 6.35 6.35
d 4.76 4.76
e 3.18 3.18
c D / 1800 mm
f D / 1800 mm
Hole Location E1 3.18 3.18

E2 3.18 3.18

E3 3.18 3.18
S1 1.59 1.59

S2 1.59 1.59
F 3.18 3.18
Length (L) 3.18 3.18

Sweep (S) Runway Beams 1/8 " x L (ft) / 10


All other members 1/4" x L (ft) /10
Camber C 1/4" x L (ft) /10
Splice Plates N1 3.18 3.18
N2 4.76 4.76
G1 1.59 1.59
G2 1.59 1.59
H Upto 600 mm 3.18 3.18
600 to 1200 mm 4.76 4.76
> 1200 mm 6.35 6.35
J

90
Part 4 - Building Maintenance and Recommendations

Formed Structural Members


Tolerances
Dimensions
+ -
Geometry D 4.76 4.76
B 4.76 4.76
d 9.53 9.53
Hole Location E1 3.18 3.18
E2 3.18 3.18
E3 3.18 3.18
S1 1.59 1.59
S2 1.59 1.59
F 3.18 3.18
P 3.18 3.18
Length (L) 3.18 3.18

Camber C 1/4" x L (ft) /10

Minimum Thickness

Allowable torque for bolt tightening and inspection


In the completed connection, all bolts shall have at least the minimum torque applied as specified below when all bolts
in the bolt group are tightened.

Bolt Diameter Minimum Recommended Torque


Dia (mm) Clause 8.8 (Nm) Clause 10.9 (Nm)
12 87 128
16 214 315
20 431 615
24 745 1060
32 2013 2865
36 2586 3680
Tolerances

42 4135 5880

91
18
Building Maintenance and Recommendations

A preventive maintenance program is a key factor in maximizing engineered steel buildings. We suggest that you develop a pre-
the life expectancy and dependability of the roof system. It is ventive maintenance schedule for your buildings based on the
important to carryout periodic maintenance of your building to guidelines given below and considering any special conditions
ensure trouble free service and extend the life span of the that are specific to your project.

A. Maintenance of Building Exterior


building. As a part of on-going maintenance program, periodic
inspections, beginning at the completion of building are of
Periodic maintenance of the exterior will depend on the location
utmost importance.
of your building.
Safety
Building Location Maintenance Period
Whenever you perform maintenance on the roof system, safety
must be a prime concern. Building maintenance personnel 1. Upto 5 miles from the sea - 3 months
should have fall protection and other personnel protection 2. High pollution industrial area - 3 months
equipments. Failure to follow can result in serious personal injury
3. Medium pollution industrial area - 6 months
or even death of the maintenance personnel.
4. Areas of high humidity - 6 months
A completed roof system is a safe working surface except near
5. Low pollution industrial area - 9 months
the edge of the roof and when any moisture (such as dew, frost,
6. Dry desert areas - 12 months
snow etc.) makes the surface of the roof very slippery. Roof
Preventive maintenance should commence immediately after a
installations with steep slopes can also be hazardous without
project is erected, modified or repaired.
proper safety equipment. Appropriate safety measures and extra
caution should be exercised whenever these conditions are 1. Check for any debris that may have been left on top of panel
present. or trim. Example of this are ferrous items such as screws, pop
rivets nails, sheet metal off-cuts, tin cans, etc. large or heavy
Make sure maintenance personnel are adequately instructed in
items should be removed by hand to avoid damaging the paint
safety and that they are provided with appropriate safety equip-
or zinc layer on the panel. The remaining smaller items may be
ment. Working off the ground, even a few feet, can be danger-
swept-off with a soft nylon brush. Please note this check should
ous and fall from any height can be fatal.
be made after any tradesman has worked on the building e.g.
Whenever performing building maintenance, the following pre- electricians, plumbers, air conditioning technicians and steel
cautions must be taken: erectors.
• Always use fall protection, especially near building edges or 2. Check for sand or dirt build up. These retain salt and mois-
eaves. ture and will rapidly break down the paint and zinc layers result-
• Do not walk on FRP sheets or translucent panels. ing in corrosion of the base metal.
• Do not walk on wet roof panels. 3. The most vulnerable areas of building are:
• Do not walk, step or sit on skylights or ridge cap. a. Gutters
• Do not walk in gutters. b. Roof sheets
• Guard all skylights and other roof openings or holes. c. Shelters areas under eaves or canopies
Following are general maintenance recommendations for pre- d. Top portion of walls sheltered by roof overhangs or

92
Part 4 - Building Maintenance and Recommendations

gutters sand and dirt should be washed off with clean water a hose, including high ends of gutters possibly protected by
and a soft nylon brush. Clean from top to bottom and give overhangs, rain heads, water spouts and overflow locations.
a final rinse with water when completed. Ensure no water • If significant fungal growth is found it should be identified and removed.
is trapped anywhere. • Any metallic staining should be investigated to determine
4. If building is in an area of high industrial pollution or close to whether the cause is from a metallic deposit on the surface,
marine environment then water alone may not be enough. Salt or from the breakdown of the coating. Metallic deposits on
and other deposits build up at formed corners of panels and the surface should be completely removed immediately.
quickly breakdown the paint and zinc layers and finally corrode Breakdowns in the coating would generally result from poor
the base metal. As such deposits build up, the hardness of the maintenance techniques and scratching.
layers increases making removal more difficult. In these cases
Downtake Pipe Maintenance
the period between maintenance operations should be short-
The downtake pipes and stormwater disposal pipes are to be
ened and a mild detergent should be added to the initial wash-
inspected for cleanliness and free flow of water. Growth of fun-
ing water.
gus and other matter and collected debris at the inlet and outlet
Gutter Maintenance locations is to be noted. Complete testing of the system for
Twigs, dust, leaves and fungal matter (debris) should be blockage at each downpipe is recommended. Record and docu-
removed using the following recommended procedure, taking ment the observations of the inspections.
care to ensure no damage occurs to the gutter during debris • Downpipes made from BlueScope Steel products should be
removal. We recommend that the following procedure be adopt- cleaned using a pressure water hose directed down each of
ed to remove the dust, debris and fungal matter. the downpipes.
• The hose should then be fed into the pipe from the inlet down
to the outlet, to ensure there are no obstructions.
• Constrictions in the downpipe system may make it necessary

Building Maintenance
to access the pipe from inspection points downstream of the
downpipe inlet location.
A typical gutter clogged with leaf litter Wear correct protection when
prior to cleaning clearing leaves and twigs
• Any noted blockages should be removed immediately, to
avoid water back-up in the gutters.

Penetrations, Flashings, Cappings


All penetrations and cappings are to be inspected for the build-
up of debris or organic material located between the flashings or
cappings and the cladding materials, visually noted to be pro-
When litter is removed, the layer of Spray the gutter & downpipes with truding from, or staining the joint. Care is to be taken in noting
hardened dirt is revealed below water to soften and break up dirt
any staining at the high side of penetrations. All observations are
• Sweep debris into a pile using a stiff, soft bristled brush to be recorded and documented in accordance.
(shovels or hand tools should not be used).
• Build-up of debris or organic matter (debris) should be
• Place debris into a receptacle and lower to the ground.
completely removed using a stiff bristled soft brush. No hard
• The whole roof and gutter should then be washed down with
tools should be used.

93
• The area should then be washed down with a pressure hose. The following is suggested solution
Care should be taken to ensure that debris is not lodged a. 1/3 cup detergent (e.g. tide)
between sheets or the sheeting and flashing and that water
b. 1/3 tri-sodium phosphate(eg soilex)
from the pressure hose is not driven into the building.
c. 1 quart sodium hypochlorite-5% solution (e.g.chlorox)
• Stubborn stains and dirt not removed in the hosing can be
d. 3 quarts water.
removed by application of soaps and detergents which are
Wash down the panel with the above solution and soft nylon
detailed in this document.
brush. A final rinse with clean water should follow.
Roof Sheeting Maintenance
Caulking compounds, oil grease, tar wax or similar substances
All cladding are to be inspected for the deposition of any debris,
can be removed with mineral spirit. Follow this by cleaning with
dust, pollutants or organic growth. In particular, care is to be
detergent solution and clean water rinse.
taken in the inspection of cladding for these points:
AVOID SOLVENT AND ABRASSIVE TYPE CLEANERS AS
• Staining of cladding at possible ponding locations
THEY CAN DO MORE HARM THAN GOOD BY WEARING
• Build up of dust and debris
AWAY BOTH THE PAINT AND ZINC LAYERS
• Metallic staining of the gutter, surface rust
5. Check the base of wall panels to ensure the ground level is at
• Record and document the observations of the inspections.
least 11/2” below the bottom of panels. If wind blown soil has
Maintenance built up at the base of the wall, it should be removed. If
Twigs, dust, leaves and fungal matter (debris) should be plants/shrubs etc. are around the building, make sure they are
removed using the following recommended procedure, taking not touching the wall panels, particularly thorn-type bushes.
care to ensure no damage occurs to the cladding during debris
6. Check all equipment which is located through or adjacent to
removal. We recommend that the following procedure be adopt-
any panel (Roof or Wall). Ensure there is no moisture build up on
ed to remove the dust, debris and fungal matter.
or near the panel; if there is, then corrosion is inevitable. If this
• Sweep debris into a pile using a stiff, soft bristled brush condition exits, then modifications are required to avoid it.
(shovels or hard tools should not be used).
The following situations are examples of conditions to be avoided.
• Place debris into a receptacle and lower to the ground.
a. Water run-off from water services or air conditioners.
• The whole roof and gutter should then be washed down with b. Copper pipes fastened directly to the steel panel.
a hose, including high ends of gutters possibly protected by
c. Open water storage tanks or ponds adjacent to the
overhangs, rain heads, water spouts and overflow locations.
panels.
• If significant fungal growth is found it should be identified and 7. Standard gutter and valley gutters:
removed.
a. Regular checks should be made and all rubbish and
• Investigate metallic staining of the roof or gutter to determine sand should be removed.
if it is caused by a metallic deposit, or by breakdown of the
b. Flush the gutters with water.
coating on the cladding. If it is a metallic deposit, completely
c. Check the downspouts are clear.
remove it immediately.
d. Check the downspouts have adequate drainage away
Breakdowns in coating would generally result from poor mainte-
from the building.
nance techniques and scratching.
8. If minor damage occurs to the sheeting or trims and paint

94
Part 4 - Building Maintenance and Recommendations

touch is required, then the following procedure should be fol- c. Crane rails checking to be done every 3 months for the
lowed: weldments.
a. Abrade the effected area. d. End stoppers to be checked once every 3 months.
b. Clean down with a solvent (e.g. sigma 9053)
C.Safety Precautions
c. If base metal is exposed, apply one coat of zinc chromate
primer. If base metal is not exposed, then primer is not
Roofs
required. Extreme caution should be exercised when working on roofs:

d. Apply one coat touch up paint available from BlueScope a. Only use ladders which are long enough to reach one
steel. meter above the step off.
b. Always secure the ladder to the building and make sure it
B.Maintenance of Accessories is on a firm base.
Personal Doors c. Do not step on a skylight panels.

a. Occasionally lubricate the hinges and locksets. d. When walking on the roof, step on low corrugations,

b. Remove any dirt or grit from the threshold. walking on high corrugation can damage the sheets. Walk
on screw line wherever possible.
c. Make sure the door is not allowed to swing back against
the wall; this can spring the hinges, and damage the Overhead Cranes
panels. a. When maintaining overhead or associated parts, lockout
Sliding Doors the electricals on the crane before commencing work.

Regular cleaning of bottom door guide by removal of stones and b. After the days work, the overload crane should be placed

sand will ensure smooth running. always between the two rafters / truss i.e. never below a
rafter or a truss.
Roll Up Doors

Building Maintenance
c. Whenever the building is close to any road curve / access
a. Occasionally clean and lubricate and chain and reduction curve, “Ballard Foundation” should be provided to avoid
drive gears vehicle striking the building
b. Lightly grease the vertical guides

Power Vents
Periodically clean the blades to avoid build-up of dust and dirt.
Check electrical connections and check tightness of all
fasteners.

Building with Cranes


a. Every three months, check the diagonal rod bracings are
tight.
b. After one month of operation, check the high strength
bolts on crane beams are tight. Also, this check is to be
carried out every 3 months subsequently.

95
19
Annexure

Braced Frame Check


Project:

Building:
Satisfactory
No. Items Type Qty. Position
Yes No
1 Anchor point of temporary bracings
2 Temporary bracings
3 Permanent bracings
4 Struts
5 Girts
6 Purlins
7 Fly Bracings
8 Alignment
9 Rafter & Column
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Remarks / Proposals:
-The authorised person (Project Manager) must follow this braced framed checklist to approve and sign off before allowing the team to continue to install other
frames.

Inspection Satisfactory Yes No


Builder Tata BlueScope Steel Client:
Name: Name: Name:
Sign: Sign: Sign:
Date: Date: Date:

96
Annexure

Bolt Tensioning Torque Check


Project:

Building:
Minimum No. of Bolts Satisfactory
No. Member No.1 Member No.2 Line Bolt Dia. Torque Required Inspected Yes No

Annexure
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Remarks / Proposals:

Inspection Satisfactory Yes No


Builder Tata BlueScope Steel Client:
Name: Name: Name:
Sign: Sign: Sign:
Date: Date: Date:

97
Frame Alignment Check
Project:

Building:
Satisfactory
No. Checked Points Line Deviation X Deviation Y Deviation H
Yes No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Remarks / Proposals:

Inspection Satisfactory Yes No


Builder Tata BlueScope Steel Client:
Name: Name: Name:
Sign: Sign: Sign:
Date: Date: Date:

98
Annexure

Tools and Equipment Check


Project:

Building:
No. Description SWL Date of Testing Validity Test Certificate Calibration Certificate Identity Marks
1 Mobile Crane

Annexure
2 Hydra
3 Slings
4 D-Shackles
5 Double Hook Lanyard
6 Chain Blocks
7 Harness System
8 Torque Wrench
9 Fall Arrestor
10 Spreader bar
11 Temporary Bracings
12 Any Other
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Remarks / Proposals:

Inspection Satisfactory Yes No


Builder Tata BlueScope Steel Client:
Name: Name: Name:
Sign: Sign: Sign:
Date: Date: Date:

99
100
Annexure

Annexure

101
102
Annexure

Annexure

103
104
Annexure

Annexure

105
106
Annexure

Annexure

107