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- Solutions to Concepts of Physics by HC Verma Chapter 6
- Solutions to Concepts of Physics by HC Verma Chapter 5
- Solutions to Concepts of Physics by HC Verma Chapter 10
- Solutions to Concepts of Physics by HC Verma Chapter 8
- Concepts of Physics by HC Verma Volume1-
- Hc Verma Solution
- RECTILINER MOTION – JEE (MAIN+ADVANCED)
- CENTRE OF MASS-JEE(MAIN)
- Simple Harmonic Motion-278
- Solutions to HC Verma
- Concepts of Physics Hc Verma Vol 2 PDF link
- Electrostatics Exercise
- Capacitor Qbank
- classnote-50aa1b02923bf
- Kinematics Physics Problems
- resonance
- Newton's Laws of Motion - From asif
- CLS Aipmt 14 15 XI Phy Study Package 4 SET 2 Chapter 14
- Capacitance
- Constrained Motion Question Bank-02

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amplitude of 10 cm and time period of 6 s. At time t = 0 it is at

position 𝓍 = 5 𝑐𝑚 going towards positive 𝓍 direction. Write

the equation for the displacement 𝓍 at time t. Find the

magnitude of the acceleration of the particle at time 𝑡 = 4 𝑠.

i) Given that amplitude A = 10 cm and time period T = 6

sec.

2π 2π π

⇒ ω = T = 6 =3

and 𝑥 = 5 cm when 𝑡 = 0

∴ 5 𝑐𝑚 = 10 𝑐𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (𝜔𝑡 + 𝜙)

⇒ 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜑 = ½

⇒ 𝜑 = 𝜋/6

∴ equation of displacement is

πt π

𝓍 = 10cm 𝑠𝑖𝑛 3 + 6

ii) When t = 4

4π π

𝓍 = 10 cm 𝑠𝑖𝑛 +6

3

9𝜋 3𝜋

= (10 𝑐𝑚) 𝑠𝑖𝑛 6

= (10 𝑐𝑚) 𝑠𝑖𝑛 2

= −10 𝑐𝑚

⇒ 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝑎 = −𝜔2 𝑥

𝜋 2

=− −10

3

10𝜋 2

= = 10.96 𝑐𝑚 ≈ 11 𝑐𝑚/𝑠 2

9

simple harmonic motion are found to have magnitudes 2 cm, 1

ms-1 and 10 ms-2at a certain instant. Find the amplitude and

the time period of the motion.

We have

𝓍 = 𝐴 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡 = 2 𝑐𝑚 = 0.02 𝑚

𝑣 = 𝜔𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 (𝜔𝑡) = 1 𝑚𝑠 −1

𝑎 = – 𝜔2𝐴 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (𝜔𝑡) = – 10 𝑚𝑠 −2

.. 1 ..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

𝒶 10

⇒ ω2 = 𝓍 = 0.02 = 500

⇒ ω = 500 = 10 5

𝓋2

⇒ 𝐴= 𝓍2 + ω2

= 0.0004 + 0.002

= 0.049 m = 4.9 cm

2π 2π

And T = ω = 10 5 = 0.628 s = 0.28 cm

amplitude of 10 cm. At what distance from the mean position

are the kinetic and potential energies equal?

Given that amplitude A = 10 cm

Let 𝓍 be the distance from the mean position where kinetic

and potential energies are equal. Let K and U be the kinetic

and potential energies at this displacement.

But 𝐾 = ½ 𝑚𝑣 2 = ½ 𝑚𝜔2 𝐴2 cos 2 𝜔𝑡

and 𝑈 = ½ 𝑘𝓍 2 = ½ 𝑚𝜔2 𝐴2 sin2 𝜔𝑡

∴ 𝐾 = 𝑈

⇒ ½ 𝑚𝜔2 𝐴2 cos 2 𝜔𝑡 = ½ 𝑚𝜔2 𝐴2 sin2 𝜔𝑡

⇒ cos 2 𝜔𝑡 = sin2 𝜔𝑡

⇒ 𝜔𝑡 = ± 𝜋/4

⇒ 𝓍 = A sin ωt

π

= 10 cm 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ± 4

10

= ± = ± 5 2cm

2

simple harmonic motion are 10 cm s-1 and 50 cm s-2. Find the

position(s) of the particle when the speed is 8 cm s -1.

Let 𝑣𝑚 and 𝑎𝑚 be the maximum speed and acceleration of the

particle and A its amplitude. Then

𝑣𝑚 = ωA = 10 cm s-1

𝑎𝑚 = 𝜔2 𝐴 = 50 𝑐𝑚 𝑠 −2

.. 2 ..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

𝑎𝑚

⇒ 𝜔= = 5 𝑠 −1

𝑣𝑚

𝑣𝑚

And 𝐴 = 𝜔 = 10/5 = 2 𝑐𝑚

Again 𝑣 = 𝜔𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜔𝑡 = (10 𝑐𝑚 𝑠 −1 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜔𝑡 = 8 𝑐𝑚 𝑠 −1

⇒ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜔𝑡 = 8/10 = 4/5

⇒ 𝓍 = 𝐴 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡

= ± 𝐴 (1 – cos 2 𝜔𝑡)

16 3A 6

= ± A 1 − 25 = ± = ± 5 = ± 1.2 cm

5

equation 𝓍 = 2.0 𝑐𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑛 {(100 𝑠 −1 )𝑡 + 𝜋/6}. Find (a) the

amplitude, the time period and the spring constant (b) the

position, the velocity and the acceleration at t = 0.

(a) Clearly (from the equation) the amplitude A = 2.0 cm

Angular frequency

𝜔 = 100 𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝑠 −1

2𝜋

∴ 𝑇 = 𝜔 = 2𝜋/100 = 0.0628 𝑠

10

Also 𝑘 = 𝑚𝜔2 = 1002 = 100 𝑁𝑚−1

1000

𝜋 2.0 𝑐𝑚

𝓍 = 2.0 𝑐𝑚 𝑠𝑖𝑛 6 = 2 = 1.0 𝑐𝑚

𝜋

𝑣 = 100 𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝑠 −1 2.0 𝑐𝑚 𝑐𝑜𝑠 6

= 100 3/2 = 173 𝑐𝑚 = 1.73 𝑚𝑠 −1

𝒶 = (100 rad s-1)2 2.0 cm sin π/6

= (100 rad s-1)2 (2/100 m) /2 = 100 ms-2

6. The equation of motion of a particle started at 𝑡 = 0 is given

𝜋

by 𝓍 = 5 𝑠𝑖𝑛 20𝑡 + 3 , where 𝓍 is in centimeter and t in

second. When does the particle (a) first come to rest (b)first

have zero acceleration (c) first have maximum speed?

(a) Putting 𝑣 = 0 gives

.. 3 ..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

𝜋

𝑐𝑜𝑠 20𝑡 + 3 = 0

𝜋 𝜋

i.e. 20𝑡 + 3 = 2

𝜋

i.e. 𝑡 = 120 𝑠

𝜋

𝑠𝑖𝑛 20𝑡 + 3 = 0

𝜋

i.e. 20𝑡 + 3 = 𝜋

𝜋

i.e. 𝑡 = 30 𝑠

(c) 𝜋

𝑣 = 100 𝑐𝑜𝑠 20𝑡 + 3

𝜋

⇒ speed is maximum when 𝑐𝑜𝑠 20𝑡 + 3 = 1

𝜋

i.e. when 20𝑡 + = 𝜋

3

𝜋

⇒ 𝑡 = 30 𝑠

according to the equation 𝓍 = 2.0cm cos 50π t + tan–1 0.75)

where 𝓍 is in centimeter and t in second. The motion is started

at t = 0. (a) when does the particle come to rest for the first

time? (b) when does the acceleration have its maximum

magnitude for the first time? (c) when does the particle come

to rest for the second time?

(a) It will come rest when 𝓋 = 0

∴ 𝑣 = – 100𝜋 𝑠𝑖𝑛 (50𝜋 𝑡 + 𝑡𝑎𝑛– 1 0.75) = 0

⇒ 50𝜋 𝑡 + tan–1 0.75 = 𝜋

𝜋 –tan –1 0.75

⇒ 𝑡 = = 1.6 𝑥 10–2 𝑠

50𝜋

frequency, A the amplitude and 𝓍 the displacement. Thus

𝑎 is maximum when 𝓍 is maximum i.e. when

𝑐𝑜𝑠 (50𝜋 𝑡 + tan–1 0.75 ) = 1

.. 4 ..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

⇒ 50𝜋 𝑡 + tan–1 0.75 = 𝜋

𝜋 –tan –1 0.75

⇒ 𝑡 = = 1.6 𝑥 10–2 𝑠

50𝜋

(c) The particle will come rest for second time when 𝑣 = 0

and

50𝜋 𝑡 + tan–1 0.75 = 2𝜋

2𝜋 –tan –1 0.75

⇒ 𝑡 = = 3.6 𝑥 10–2 𝑠

50𝜋

the time taken for the displacement to change value from half

the amplitude to the amplitude.

Let the 𝓍1 =A/2 and 𝓍2 =A be the values of displacement at

time t1 and t2. Then

A

= A 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ωt1

2

and A = A 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ωt 2

⇒ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ωt1 = ½ and 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ωt 2 = 1

π π

⇒ ωt1 = and ωt 2 =

6 2

π π π

⇒ ωt 2 – ωt1 = 2 – 6 = 3

π T

⇒ t 2 – t1 = 3ω = 6 [∵ T = 2π/ω]

having spring constant equal to 0.1 Nm –1. What mass should

be attached to the spring?

𝑘 = 0.1 𝑁𝑚 −1

𝑚

𝑇 = 2𝜋 𝑠

𝑘

But the time period of pendulum of a clock = 2 second

𝑚

⇒ 2𝜋 = 2

𝑘

𝑘

⇒ 𝑚 = 𝜋 2 = 0.1/𝜋 2 = 0.01 𝑘𝑔 = 10 𝑔

.. 5 ..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

10. A block suspended from a vertical spring is in equilibrium.

Show that the extension of the spring equals the length of an

equivalent simple pendulum i.e., a pendulum having frequency

same as that of the block.

Let m be the mass of the block, 𝓍 the extension of the spring, 𝑙

the length of the pendulum and ω be the angular frequency of

the spring and the pendulum then

𝑘 𝑙

𝜔 = =

𝑚 𝑔

At the equilibrium position

𝑚𝑎 + 𝑚𝑔 = 0

⇒ 𝑚𝑔 = – 𝑚𝑎 = – 𝐹 = 𝑘𝓍

⇒ 𝑘𝓍 = 𝑚𝑔

⇒ 𝓍 = 𝑚𝑔/𝑘 = 𝑙 [Q.E.D.]

11. A block of mass 0.5 kg hanging from a vertical spring executes

simple harmonic motion of amplitude 0.1 m and time period

0.314 s. Find maximum force exerted by the spring on the

block.

Maximum force 𝐹 exerted by the spring on the block is

𝐹 = 𝑚𝑔 + 𝑚𝑎𝑚

= 𝑚𝑔 + 𝑚 𝜔2 𝐴

2𝜋 2

= 0.5(9.8) + 0.5 (0.1)

𝑇

2𝜋 2

= 0.5(9.8) + 0.5 (0.1) = 25 𝑁𝑚−1

0.314

executes simple harmonic motion of period 4 s. If the

oscillations are stopped and the body hangs in equilibrium,

find the potential energy stored in the spring.

Let the potential energy at mean position of the spring be

zero.

Also 𝑚 = 2 𝑘𝑔 and 𝑇 = 4 𝑠.

.. 6 ..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

Let the extension of the spring in equilibrium position be 𝓍.

Now

m

T = 2π = 4s

k

π2 2π 2

⇒ k = m 4 = 4 = 5 Nm−1

But at equilibrium position

𝑚𝑔 = 𝑘𝓍

⇒ 𝓍 = 𝑚𝑔/𝑘 = 2𝑥10/5 = 4 𝑚

∴ 𝑈 = ½ 𝑘𝓍 2 = 40 𝑁𝑚−1

13. A spring stores 5 J of energy when stretched by 25 cm. It is

kept vertical with the lower end fixed. A block fastened to its

other end is made to undergo small oscillations. If the block

makes 5 oscillations each second, what is the mass of the

block?

The energy stored in the spring when stretched by 25 cm is

the potential energy U where

1 𝑘

𝑈 = ½ 𝑘𝓍 2 = ½ 𝑘 . = = 5𝐽

16 32

⇒ 𝑘 = 32(5) = 160 𝑁 𝑚−1

𝑚 1

also 𝑇 = 2𝜋 =5

𝑘

𝑘 160

⇒ 𝑚 = = = 0.16 𝑘𝑔

100 𝜋 2 100 𝜋 2

of mass M which is attached to a vertical spring of M

spring constant k as shown in the figure. The

system oscillates vertically. (a) Find the resultant k

force on the smaller block when it is displaced

through a distance 𝓍 above its equilibrium

position. (b) Find the normal force on the smaller

block at this position. When is this force smallest in

magnitude? (c) What can be the maximum amplitude with

which the two blocks may oscillate together?

.. 7 ..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

(a) Since the mass attached to the spring is m+M, at the

equilibrium position the angular frequency

𝑘

𝜔 = 𝑚 +𝑀

∴ acceleration of smaller block at position 𝓍 is

𝑘𝓍

– 𝜔2 𝓍 = 𝑚 +𝑀

∴ The resultant force 𝐹 on block of mass m when it

is displaced through a distance 𝓍 above equilibrium

position is

𝑚𝑘 𝓍

𝐹 = – 𝑚𝜔2 𝓍 = 𝑚 +𝑀

of mass M when it is displaced through a distance 𝓍

above its equilibrium position is

𝑚𝑘 𝓍

𝑁 = 𝑚𝑔 – 𝑘𝓍 = 𝑚𝑔 – 𝑚 +𝑀

Clearly this force will be smallest at the highest point.

(c) The two blocks will oscillate together as long as N is

greater than zero i.e. till

𝑚𝑘 𝓍

𝑚𝑔 = 𝑚 +𝑀

𝑔

⇒ 𝓍 = 𝑚+𝑀 𝑘

spring and the block of mass m2 is placed against it. (a) Find

the compression of the spring in the equilibrium position. (b)

The blocks are pushed a farther distance (2/k)(m 1+m2)gsin𝜃

against the spring and released. Find the position where the

two blocks separate. (c) What is the common speed of blocks

at the time of separation?

.. 8 ..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

(a) m2

m1 k

m2g

m1g

θ

blocks oscillate together, is m1+m2 the angular

frequency of the SHM shall be

𝑘

𝜔 = 𝑚 1 +𝑚 2

Let 𝓍 be the compression in the equilibrium position.

Then

𝑚1 + 𝑚2 𝑔 sin 𝜃 = 𝑘𝓍

𝑚 +𝑚 𝑔 sin 𝜃

⇒ 𝓍 = 1 𝑘2

𝑘

the equilibrium position and the release, the spring

𝑘

blocks system will start SHM with ω =

𝑚 1 +𝑚 2

Now the two blocks will separate when 𝑁 =

𝑚2 𝑔 sin 𝜃 – 𝑚2 𝜔2 𝑥2 the normal force on the upper

block is zero

⇒ 𝑚2 𝑔 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = 𝑚2 𝜔2 𝓍2

𝑘

𝑔 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 = 𝑚 +𝑚 𝓍2

1 2

𝑚 1+𝑚 2 𝑔 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃

𝓍2 = 𝑘

Thus the blocks will separate at the equilibrium position

of the spring blocks system.

(c) At the time of separation the speed is given by

𝑣 = 𝜔𝐴 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜔𝑡

= ωA 1–sin2ωt

k 𝓍2 2

= A 1–

m 1 +m 2 A

.. 9 ..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

k m 1 +m 2 gsin θ 2 k 2

= 1–

m 1 +m 2 k 2 m 1 +m 2 gsin θ

2 k 1

= m1 + m2 g sinθ 1 –4

k m 1 +m 2

3

= gsinθ

k m 1 +m 2

k

M=1 kg and F = 10N. (a)

F

Find the compression of the M

spring in the equilibrium

position. (b) A sharp blow by some external agent imparts a

speed of 2 ms-1 to the block towards left. Find the sum of the

potential energy of the spring and the kinetic energy of the

block at this instant. (c) Find the time period of the resultant

simple harmonic motion. (d) Find the amplitude. (e) Write the

potential energy of the spring when the block is at the left

extreme. (f) Write the potential energy of the spring when the

block is at the right extreme.

(a) Let 𝓍 be the compression at equilibrium position. Then

𝐹 – 𝑀𝑘𝓍 = 0

⇒ 10𝑁 = 1𝑘𝑔 100𝑁𝑚 − 1 𝑥

10

⇒ 𝓍 = 100 = 0.1 𝑚 = 10 𝑐𝑚

(b) Due to sharp blow the block gets speed of 2 ms-1. Let K

and U be the kinetic and potential energies at this

instant. Then

𝐾 + 𝑈 = ½ 𝑀𝑣 2 + ½ 𝑘𝓍 2

= ½ 1 2 2 + ½ 100 0.1 2 = 2.5 𝐽

(c) k

ω = = 100 = 10

m

2π 2π π

⇒ T = = 10 = 5 s

ω

.. 10

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

(d) The amplitude

𝑣2

A = 𝓍2 + ω2

4

= 0 + 100 = 0.04 m = 20cm

∴ 𝑈 = ½ 𝑘𝓍 2 = ½ (100𝑁𝑚−1 )(.09) = 4.5 𝐽

(f) At the right extreme 𝓍 = A–10cm = 1cm

∴ 𝑈 = ½ 𝑘𝓍2 = ½ (100𝑁𝑚−1 )(.01) = 0.5 𝐽

17. Find the time period of the oscillation of mass m in figures a, b,

c. What is the equivalent spring constant of the pair of springs

in each case?

(a) When the block is

displaced by distance 𝓍 k1

the force on the block

M

will be –(k1+k2)𝓍 k2

∴ k = k1+k2

m

⇒ T = 2π k

m

= 2π k 1 +k 2

block is displaced by k1 k2

distance 𝓍 the force on M

the block will be

𝐹 = − k1 – k 2 𝓍

∴ 𝑘 = 𝑘1 – 𝑘2

m m

⇒ T = 2π = 2π

k k 1 –k 2

.. 11

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

(c) Let’s suppose that the

springs are extended by k1 k2

𝓍1 and 𝓍2. Thus total M

elongation of the two

springs is 𝓍 = 𝓍1 + 𝓍2.

The force exerted on the mass is –k2𝓍2 because first

spring doesn’t exert any force on the block. If k is the

spring constant of the combined spring then.

𝑘(𝓍1 + 𝓍2 ) = 𝑘2 𝓍2

Also by Newton’s third law on the two springs

𝑘1 𝓍1 = 𝑘2 𝓍2

⇒ 𝑘(𝓍1 + 𝓍2 ) = 𝑘1 𝓍1 = 𝑘2 𝓍2

𝓍

1 1+ 2

𝓍1

=

k k1

𝓍

1 1+ 1

𝓍2

and =

k k2

𝓍1 k2

⇒ = –1

𝓍2 k

𝓍2 k1

and = –1

𝓍1 k

k2 k1

⇒ 1 = –1 –1

k k

k 1 +k 2 k1k2

1 = 1– +

k k2

k1k2

k =k

1 +k 2

𝑚 𝑚 𝑘 1 +𝑘 2

𝑇 = 2𝜋 = 2𝜋

𝑘 𝑘1 𝑘2

is unstretched when a man k

F

M

starts pulling on the chord.

The mass of the block is M. If

the man exerts a constant force F, find (a) the amplitude and

the time period of the motion of the block, (b) the energy

stored in the spring when the block passes through the

equilibrium position and (c) the kinetic energy of the block at

.. 12

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

this position.

(a) The total force on the block is F–k𝓍 when the

displacement is 𝓍 from the equilibrium position. At

equilibrium position

𝐹 = 𝑘𝓍0

∴ Force on the block = 𝐹 − 𝑘𝓍 = 𝑘(𝓍0 − 𝓍)

Clearly the block will oscillate. The amplitude A is the

value of 𝓍 where force on the block is zero i.e.

𝐹

𝐴 =𝑘

The time period

M

T = 2π k

equilibrium position = 𝐹/𝑘. Thus the energy stored in

the spring at equilibrium position is

1 1 kF 2 F2

U = 2 k𝓍02 = 2 =

k2 2k

value of 𝑣 is Aω.

∴ K = ½ M𝓋^2 = ½ MA2 ω2

F2 k F2

= ½M =

k2 M 2k

springs A, B and C of equal force B

A

the particle is pushed slightly against

45°

the spring C and released, find the

time period of the oscillation. C

with the positive x-axis direction be 𝓍. The particle is pushed

against spring C and therefore it exerts a force k𝓍 at 450 with

.. 13

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

x-axis. The net force FAB of the springs A and B has the

following components viz.,

Fx = k𝓍 cos 450

Fy = k𝓍 sin 450

FAB = k𝓍 cos2 450 + sin2 450) = k𝓍

Therefore the total net force that force of all three springs is

2k𝓍

m

T = 2π 2k

springs is 1200.

Let length of each spring be 𝑥 and the

displacement along the direction of B

spring C be ∆𝓍. The spring C therefore

compresses by ∆𝓍. Let spring B stretch 120° 120°

𝑥 2 +∆𝑥 2 − 𝑥+∆𝑦 2 A

cos 120° = = C

2𝑥 ∆𝑥

∆𝑥 2 −∆𝑦 2 −2𝑥∆𝑦

2𝑥∆𝑥 x+∆y x

But ∆𝑥, ∆y are both small and therefore

their squares are negligible quantities. 120°

∆x

⇒ ∆𝑦 = −∆𝑥 cos 120° = ∆𝑥 cos 60°

Thus the springs A and B each stretch

by ∆𝓍 cos 60° . Therefore the force contributions of the springs

A, B and C on the block along the direction of spring C are

𝑘 ∆𝓍

𝐹𝐴 = – 𝑘 ∆𝓍 cos 60° cos 60° = –

4

𝑘∆𝓍

𝐹𝐵 = – 𝑘 ∆𝓍 cos 60° cos 60° = –

4

𝐹𝐶 = – 𝑘∆𝓍

Therefore the net force that is the force of all three springs is

1 1 3

𝐹 = – 𝑘∆𝓍 1 + 4 + 4 = − 2 𝑘∆𝓍

2m

T = 2π 3k

.. 14

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

21. The springs shown in the k1

figure are all unstretched F

in the beginning when a k2 k3 M

block. The man exerts a

constant force F on the block. Find the amplitude and the

frequency of the motion of the block.

The spring constant of the springs (of spring constant) k 2 and

k3 is given by k2k3/(k2 + k3) (see question 17(c) for proof).

Therefore the spring constant of the three springs taken

together is

k k k k +k k +k k

k = k1 + k 2+ k3 = 1 2 k 2+ k3 3 1

2 3 2 3

M k2+ k3

T = 2π

k 1k 2+ k 2 k 3 + k 3k 1

1 k 1k 2 + k 2k 3 + k 3k 1

f = 2π M k2 + k3

The amplitude

F F k2 + k3

A=k=k

1k2 + k 2 k 3 + k 3k 1

22. Find the elastic potential energy stored in each spring shown

in the figure, when the block is in equilibrium. Also find the

time period of the vertical oscillation of the block.

.. 15

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

The forces acting on the block are the

spring force k3𝓍3 and the gravitational

force Mg. k1

⇒ 𝑀𝑔 = 𝑘3 𝓍3

Also by Newton’s third law, the forces of k2

the contiguous springs on each other are

equal i.e.

𝑘1 𝓍1 = 𝑘2 𝓍2 = 𝑘3 𝓍3 = 𝑀𝑔 k3

[∵ 𝑘3 𝓍3 = 𝑀𝑔]

𝑀𝑔

⇒ 𝓍1 = 𝑘 M

1

𝓍2 = 𝑀𝑔/𝑘2

𝓍3 = 𝑀𝑔/𝑘3

If k be the effective spring constant of the three springs then

𝑘 𝓍1 + 𝓍2 + 𝓍3 = 𝑀𝑔

Substituting for 𝓍1, 𝓍2 and 𝓍3 we get

1 1 1 1

= 𝑘 +𝑘 +𝑘

𝑘 1 2 3

If U1, U2, U3 be the elastic potential energies of the three

springs then

2

𝑀 2𝑔

𝑈1 = ½ 𝑘1 𝓍12 = 2𝑘 1

2

𝑀 2𝑔

𝑈2 = ½ 𝑘2 𝓍22 = 2𝑘 2

2

𝑀 2𝑔

𝑈3 = ½ 𝑘3 𝓍32 = 2𝑘 3

M 1 1 1

The time period T = 2π = 2π M +k +k

k k1 2 3

23. The string, the spring and the pulley shown in the figure are

light. Find the time period of mass m.

.. 16

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

Let the elongation of the spring be 𝓍. Then for

equilibrium we have

𝑚𝑔 = 𝑘𝓍 = 𝑚𝜔2 𝓍

𝑘

⇒ 𝜔 = k m

𝑚

2π m

⇒ T= = 2π

ω k

inertia I about its axis and the string doesn’t slip over the it.

In this case let 𝑙, 𝑣, 𝜔1 , 𝑎 be the elongation,

velocity and angular velocity and acceleration I

of the spring. Let E be the total energy with K

and U as the kinetic and potential energies of

the earth, block, pulley, spring system. Let the k

position when elongation of the spring is 𝑙 be m

the final postion be when elongation of the

spring is 𝑙 + 𝑥. Let the angular frequency and

time period of the motion of the block be ω and T respectively.

Then we have

Δ𝐾 = ½ 𝑚𝑣 2 + ½ 𝐼𝜔12

Δ𝑈 = ½ 𝑘 𝑙 + 𝓍 2 – ½ 𝑘 𝑙 2 – 𝑚𝑔𝓍

⇒ Δ𝐸 = Δ𝐾 + Δ𝑈

= ½ 𝑚𝑣 2 + ½ 𝐼𝜔12 + ½𝑘 𝑙 + 𝓍 2 – ½𝑘 𝑙 2 – 𝑚𝑔𝓍

𝐼

= ½ 𝑚 + 𝑟2 𝑣 2 + ½ 𝑘𝓍 2 + 𝑘𝑙𝓍 – 𝑚𝑔𝓍

But force at equilibrium position is zero

∴ 𝑘𝑙 – 𝑚𝑔 = 0

𝐼

⇒ Δ𝐸 = ½ 𝑚 + 𝑟 2 𝑣 2 + ½ 𝑘𝓍 2

Differentiating w.r.t. t and noting that ΔE is zero, we have

𝐼 𝑑𝓍

𝑚 + 𝑟 2 𝑣𝑎 + 𝑘𝓍 𝑑𝑡 = 0

𝐼

∴ 𝑚 + 𝑟 2 𝑣 – 𝜔2 𝓍 = – 𝑘𝓍𝑣

.. 17

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

k

⇒ ω = I

m+2

r

I

2π m+ 2

r

⇒ T = = 2π

ω k

25. Consider the situation shown in the figure. Show that if the

blocks are displaced slightly in opposite directions and

released, they will execute simple harmonic motion. Calculate

the time period.

As the blocks are displaced by k

say 𝓍 in opposite directions the m m

center of mass remains

unchanged. Both blocks will

move towards this center with zero initial velocity and equal

acceleration as the force is same which is proportional to the

displacement from the equilibrium position of each block.

Thus the blocks will execute simple harmonic motion.

the center of mass and the either block. And since these two

springs are joined serially the spring constant k of the joint

spring is given by

1 1 1 2

= 𝑘 +𝑘 =𝑘

𝑘 1 1 1

⇒ 𝑘1 = 2𝑘

m m

∴ T = 2π = 2π

k1 2k

ceiling by two parallel strings of length 𝑙 each. The separation

between the strings is d. The plate is displaced slightly in its

plane keeping the strings tight. Show that it will execute

simple harmonic motion. Calculate the time period.

.. 18

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

The motion of the plate, it being a

rigid body, will be the motion of L d L

its center of mass. As the

disturbance imparted to the plate 𝒶 𝒷

is in its plane with strings kept

tight each string’s lower end with move as a pendulum does

and the plate will move as if acting as a pendulum suspended

from a string tied at center of mass and parallel to either

string. Let θ be the angle either string makes with the vertical.

Then the force on the center of mass of the plate is

𝐹 = 𝑚𝑔 sin 𝜃

For small θ, sinθ = θ. Therefore acceleration

𝐹 𝓍 𝑔

𝑎 = 𝑚 = 𝑔 sin 𝜃 = 𝑔𝜃 = 𝑔 𝐿 = 𝐿 𝓍

Since g/L is constant the motion is simple harmonic motion

and from 𝑎 = 𝜔2 𝑥 we get

2𝜋 𝐿

𝑇 = = 2𝜋

𝜔 𝑔

amplitude 0.1 m on a smooth horizontal surface under the

restoring force of a spring of spring constant 100 Nm -1. A

block of mass 3 kg is gently placed on it at the instant it is

passing through the mean position. Assuming the two blocks

move together, find the frequency and amplitude of motion.

For motion of 1 kg block if A is

amplitude we have 3 kg

100 N/m

𝐴 = 0.1 𝑚 1 kg

also 𝑘 = 100 𝑁𝑚−1

and 𝑚 = 1 𝑘𝑔

Now acceleration is

𝑑2 𝓍 𝑘

= – 𝑚 𝑥 = – 100𝓍

𝑑𝑡2

𝑑2 𝑥 𝑑𝑣 𝑣 𝑑𝑣 𝑑𝑣

= = 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑣 𝑑𝑥 = −100𝑥

𝑑𝑡2 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑡

.. 19

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

By integration we have

𝑣 2 = – 100𝓍 2 + 𝑐

But 𝑣 = 0 when 𝓍 = 0.1 𝑚. Therefore c = 1

⇒ 𝑣 2 = – 100𝓍 2 + 1

⇒ 𝑣 = 1 𝑚𝑠 −1 when 𝓍 = 0

After 3 kg block is placed on the 1 kg block the new mass m +

M is 4 kg. Let 𝑣1 be the speed at this position of the two blocks.

At this position the linear momentum is conserved.

∴ 𝑚𝑣 = 𝑚 + 𝑀 𝑣1

𝑚𝑣

⇒ 𝑣1 = = ¼ = 0.25 𝑚𝑠1

𝑚 +𝑀

2𝜋 2𝜋 2𝜋

𝑇 = = = 𝑠

𝑘 100 5

𝑚 +𝑀 4

5

⇒ 𝑓 = 2𝜋 𝐻𝑧

2

𝑣′

A = 𝓍2 + 𝜔

𝑣

= 𝜔1 [∵ 𝑤𝑒𝑛 𝓍 = 0, 𝑣′ = 𝑣1 =

0.25 𝑚𝑠 −1 ]

= 0.25/5 = 5 𝑐𝑚

Aliter

have

1 1 1 1

𝑚𝑣 2 = 2 𝑘𝑥 2 = 2 100 0.1 2 = 2

2

⇒ 𝑣 = 1 𝑚𝑠 −1

By conservation of linear momentum before the placement of

the 3 kg block on the 1 kg block and after that we have

𝑚𝑣 = 𝑚 + 𝑀 𝑣1

1

⇒ 𝑣1 = 𝑚𝑠 −1

4

Thus we have

2𝜋 2𝜋 2𝜋

𝑇 = = = 𝑠

𝑘 100 5

𝑚 +𝑀 4

.. 20

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

5

⇒ 𝑓 = 2𝜋 𝐻𝑧

Thus by conservation of energy principle we have

1 1

𝑚 + 𝑀 𝑣12 = 2 𝑘𝐴′2

2

𝑚 +𝑀 2 1

⇒ 𝐴′ = 𝑣1 = 10 . 4 = 5 𝑐𝑚

𝑘

figure moves at a speed k

𝓋 towards the right m m

block placed in

equilibrium. All L

collisions to take place are elastic and the surfaces are

frictionless. Show that the motions of the two blocks are

periodic. Find the time period of these periodic motions.

Neglect the widths of the blocks.

When the block A moves with velocity 𝑣 and collides

elastically with the block B, it transfers all energy to the block

B. The block B will then move a distance 𝓍 against the spring

and return to its original position under the restoring force of

the spring to complete half of the oscillation.

m

2π

k m

The time period of motion of block B is = π

2 k

The block B then collides with the block A and since the

collision is elastic, comes to rest at that point. The block A then

moves back a distance L to elastically collide against wall and

then travel another distance L before colliding with block B

and halting there. The velocity of block B when it collides

elastically with block A is same as its initial velocity and

therefore it delivers same energy to A that A delivered to it in

the first place. Thus now A travels in opposite direction with

constant velocity 𝑣. Time taken by block A to move this 2L

.. 21

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

distance is 2𝐿/𝑣

Hence the total time period of the periodic motion is

2𝐿 𝑚

+ 𝜋

𝑣 𝑘

29. Find the time period of the motion of the particle shown in

figure. Neglect the small effect of the bend near the bottom.

Let the time taken to travel AB and BC be t 1 and t2 respectively

and A

For part AB, C

𝑎1 = 𝑔 𝑠𝑖𝑛 45° =

10 cm

𝑔/ 2 and 60°

45° B

𝑠1 = 0.1/𝑠𝑖𝑛45° =

2/10

𝑣12 = 2𝑎1 𝑠1 = 𝑔/5

𝑣_1 = 𝑔/5

𝑡_1 = 𝑣_1/𝑎_1 = (𝑔/5) /(𝑔/ 2) = (2/5𝑔) =

0.20 𝑠

For part BC

3

𝑎2 = 𝑔 sin 60 ° = 𝑔 𝑚𝑠 −2 and

2

𝑠2 = 0.1/𝑠𝑖𝑛 60° = 0.2/ 3 𝑚

𝑣22 = 2 𝑎2 𝑠2 = 𝑔/5

𝓋2 = g/5

𝑔

𝓋2 5 3

𝑡2 = = 𝑔 3

= = 0.17 𝑠

𝑎2 10𝑔

2

So, time period

T = 2 (t1 + t2) = 2(0.2 + 0.17) = 0.74 sec

30. All the surfaces shown in the k

figure are frictionless. The mass m

of the car is M, that of the block M

is m and the spring has a spring

constant k. Initially, the car and

.. 22

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

the block are at rest and the spring is stretched through a

length 𝓍0 when the system is released. (a) Find the amplitudes

of the simple harmonic motion of the block and the car as seen

from road. (b) Find the time period(s) of the two simple

harmonic motions.

(a) Let A1 and A2 be the amplitudes of SHM motion of the

block and the car. Then at the initial position total

extension of the spring 𝓍0 = 𝐴1 + 𝐴2 . By conservation of

momentum we have

𝑚𝑣𝐵𝐶 = 𝑀𝑣𝐶

Where 𝑣𝐵𝐶 is the velocity of the block relative to car and

𝑣𝐶 is the velocity of car. By differentiating w.r.t. t

𝑚𝑎𝐵𝐶 = 𝑀𝑎𝐶

where 𝑎𝐵𝐶 is the acceleration of the block relative to car

and 𝑎𝐶 is the acceleration of car. The spring exerts equal

and opposite force block and car at all the time.

Consequently the time period as well angular

frequencies of the SHM's are same. Thus at the extreme

positions which occur at the same time instant

𝑎𝐵𝐶 = −𝜔2 𝐴1 and 𝑎𝐶 = −𝜔2 𝐴2 . Putting these values in

the above equation we have

⇒ – 𝑚𝜔2 𝐴1 = – 𝑀𝜔2 𝐴2

⇒ 𝑚𝐴1 = 𝑀𝐴2

⇒ 𝑚𝐴1 = 𝑀(𝓍0 − 𝐴1 )

M𝓍

⇒ A1 = m + 0M

m𝓍

and A2 = m + 0M

the velocity of the block relative to road and 𝓋C is the

velocity of car. By conservation of momentum we have

m𝓋BC = M𝓋C. By integrating w.r.t. t we get

m𝓍BC = M𝓍C + C

where 𝓍BC is the displacement of the block relative to car

and 𝓍C is the displacement of car. But 𝑥𝐵𝐶 = 𝑥𝐶 = 0 at

.. 23

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

the initial position. Therefore C is zero

⇒ m𝓍BC = M𝓍C

½ 𝑀𝑣𝐶2 + ½ 𝑚𝑣𝐵𝐶2

+ ½ 𝑘 𝓍𝐵𝐶 + 𝓍𝐶 2 =

𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡

M2

⇒ ½ M𝓋C2 + ½ m 𝓋C2 + ½ k 𝓍BC + 𝓍C 2

=

m2

constant

M M 2

⇒ ½M 1 + m 𝓋C2 + ½ k +1 𝓍C2 = constant

m

M

⇒ ½ M𝓋C2 + ½ k + 1 𝓍C2 = constant

m

d𝓋C

By differentiating w.r.t. t and substituting 𝒶C for we

dt

get

M

M𝓋C 𝒶C + k m + 1 𝓍C 𝓋C = 0

M

⇒ M𝒶C + k + 1 𝓍C = 0

m

M

𝒶C k +1 k M+m

m

⇒ =– =–

𝓍C M 𝑚𝑀

Time period T = 2π Displacement/Acceleration

𝓍C

T = 2π 𝒶C

mM

T = 2π k M+m

mass M stays

horizontally and L

symmetrically on two

wheels rotating in opposite directions. The separation

between the wheels is ℓ. The friction coefficient between each

wheel and the plate is μ. Find the time period of the oscillation

of the plate if it is slightly displaced along its length and

released.

.. 24

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

Let 𝓍 be the displacement of the plate towards left and

therefore the centre of gravity is also displaced through 𝓍

towards left. After displacement the sum of the normal forces

N1 + N2 = mg. Since the plate does not rotate about the center

of gravity the net torque τnet applied on its center of gravity is

zero. Therefore

⇒ N1 ℓ – 2𝓍)/2 = (mg – N1 ℓ + 2𝓍)/2

⇒ N1ℓ = mg ℓ + 2𝓍)/2

⇒ N1 = mg ℓ + 2𝓍 /2ℓ

Similarly we can show

N2 = mg ℓ – 2𝓍 /2ℓ

and F2 = μN2 = μmg ℓ – 2𝓍 /2ℓ

where F1 and F2 are the forces acting on the plate horizontally

due to rotation of the wheels. If F be the net horizontal force

acting on the plate then

F = F1 – F2

μmg ℓ + 2𝓍 μmg ℓ – 2𝓍

= –

2ℓ 2ℓ

= 2μmg𝓍/ℓ

⇒ m𝒶 = 2μmg𝓍/ℓ

⇒ 𝒶/𝓍 = 2μg/ℓ

ℓ

⇒ T = 2π 𝓍/𝒶) = 2π 2μg

a seconds pendulum. Those used in pendulum clocks are this

type. Find the length of a seconds pendulum where g = π2 ms-

2.

T = 2π ℓ/g)

.. 25

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

⇒ ℓ = g T/2π 2

⇒ ℓ = π2 2/2π 2 = 1 m

33. The angle made by the string of a simple pendulum with the

vertical depends on time as θ = π/90 sin[ π s-1)t]. Find the

length of the pendulum if g = π2 ms-2.

By inspection of the equation of SHM of the pendulum we have

angular frequency

ω = π s-1

∴ T = 2π/ω = 2

2𝜋

also T = ℓ

𝑔

34. The pendulum of a certain clock has time period 2.04 s. How

fast or slow does the clock run during 24 hours?

Given that T = 2.04 s. But we know the time period of a

normal clock is 2 seconds.

∴ Time lag per oscillation = 2.0 – 2.04 = –0.04 s

Number of oscillations per 24 hours = (24x60x60)(0.5) =

43200

∴ Total time lag = 43200x0.04

= 1728 s = 28.8 m

35 A pendulum clock giving correct time at a place where g =

9.800 ms-2 is taken to another place where it loses 24 seconds

during 24 hours. Find the value of g at this new place.

T=2

⇒ ℓ = g T/2π 2 = g’ T’/2π 2

⇒ g’ = gT2/T’2 = 9.8 x 4/[(86400+24)/43200]2

= 9.795 ms-2

36. A simple pendulum is constructed by hanging a heavy ball

with a 5.0 m string. It undergoes small oscillations. (a) How

many oscillations does it make per second? (b) What will be

.. 26

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

the frequency if the system is taken on the moon where

acceleration due to gravitation of moon is 1.67 ms-2?

(a) Here ℓ = 5.0 m.

∴ T = 2π ℓ/g = 2π 5.0/9.8 = 8.976

and f = 1/T = 0.70/π Hz

(b) 𝑔 1.67 ½

1 ℓ 5 1

𝑓𝑚𝑜𝑜𝑛 = 𝑇 = 2𝜋 = = 2π Hz

2𝜋 3

is double the minimum tension. Find the angular amplitude.

Let the angular amplitude be θm and the velocity at the mean

position be 𝓋m. The tension in the pendulum is the vertical

component of the net force acting on the string and is

maximum at the mean position and minimum on the extreme

position. By conservation of energy theorem we have

⇒ 𝑣𝑚2 = 2𝑔𝑙(1 – 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃𝑚)

Now 𝑇𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑚𝑔 + (𝑚𝑣𝑚2 /𝑙)

= 𝑚𝑔 + 2𝑚𝑔(1 – 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃𝑚 )

= 3𝑚𝑔 – 2𝑚𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃𝑚

At the extreme position velocity is zero and therefore the

contribution of centripetal acceleration to tension is also zero.

This gives

𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑚 = 𝑚𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃𝑚

But 𝑇𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 2𝑇𝑚𝑖𝑛

⇒ 3𝑚𝑔 – 2𝑚𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃𝑚 = 2𝑚𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃𝑚

⇒ 3𝑚𝑔 = 4𝑚𝑔 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃𝑚

⇒ 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃𝑚 = ¾

⇒ 𝜃𝑚 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠– 1 ¾

38. A small block oscillates back and forth on a smooth concave

surface of radius R. Find the time period of small oscillation.

.. 27

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

Let R be the radius of the concave

surface and m the mass of the block.

Then the force driving the oscillations is

the normal force N = mg sinθ where θ is R

the angle the line from center of the

surface to the block makes with the x

vertical. Free Body diagram

∴ N = mg sinθ ≈ mgθ

∴ 𝒶 = N/m ≈ gθ

⇒ 𝓍 = R sinθ = Rθ

⇒ ω = acceleration/displacement

= gθ/Rθ = g/R

g

T = 2π R

on a smooth concave surface of large radius R. It makes small

oscillations about the lowest point. Find the time period.

Let the

θ

angular

R–r R velocity of

the

system

(R–r)(1-cos θ

about

the point of suspension at any time be ω1 and 𝜔2 , 𝑣 the

rotational velocity and the translational velocity of the ball.

Then

𝓋 = (R–r ω1

𝓋 = rω2

⇒ ω2 = ω1(R-r)/r

The fact that total energy in SHM is constant gives us

½m𝓋2+ ½Iω22 +mg(R–r)(1 – cosθ)=constant

⇒ ½ m(R–r)2ω12 + ½(2/5)mr2(R–r)2ω12/r2

+ mg(R – r)(1 – cosθ) = constant

.. 28

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

⇒ ½ m(R–r ω12 + (1/5)m(R–r ω12

+ mg(1 – cosθ) = constant

Differentiating w.r.t. t we have

½ m(R–r) 2ω1α + (1/5)m(R–r)2ω1α

+ mg(sin θ)ω1 = 0

⇒ (R–r α 1+ 2/5) + g(sin θ) = 0

⇒ α = –(5/7) g(sin θ)/(R–r)

But θ is small

5g

⇒ α ≈ – 7 R−r θ

So the motion is S.H.M. with

7 R–r 𝑚

T = 2π 5g

mine. Assume for the time being that the mine is 1600 km

deep. Calculate the time period there. Radius of Earth = 6400

km.

Given that ℓ = 40 cm = 0.4 m

If g’ be the gravitational force of the earth 1600 km inside the

earth surface then

g' = GM’/r2

where M’ is the mass of the sphere with radius r = 6400-1600

km = 4800 km.

⇒ M’ = 4/3 πr3ρ

M = 4/3 πR3ρ

⇒ M’ = r/R 3M

⇒ g’ = GM’/r2

= GM(r/R)3/r2

= gR2(r/R)3/r2

= gr/R

= 9.8x4800km/6400km

= ¾ 9.8 = 7.35 ms–2

ℓ 0.4

⇒ T = 2π = 2π = 1.47 s

g 7.35

.. 29

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

41. Assume that a tunnel is dug across the earth (radius = R)

passing through its center. Find the time a particle takes to

cover the length of the tunnel if (a) if it is projected into the

tunnel with a speed of 𝑔𝑅 (b) it is released above the height

R above the tunnel (c) it is thrown vertically upward along

length of the tunnel with a speed of 𝑔𝑅.

(a) Let T be the time period of the oscillatory motion of the

particle, 𝓍t, 𝓋t and 𝒶t the displacement from the center,

velocity and acceleration at time t. Then

𝒶t = F/m = GM(𝓍t3/R3)/𝓍t2 = GM𝓍t/R3

T = 2π 𝓍t/𝒶t = 2π R3/GM = 2π R/g

ω = g/R

If A be the amplitude of the motion then

𝓋t2 = ω2(A2 – R2) = g(A2 – R2)/R

But at the surface of the earth we have 𝓋𝑡 = 𝑔𝑅

∴ gR = g(A2 – R2)/R

⇒ R2 = A2 – R2

⇒ A2 = 2R2

⇒ A= 2R

value of 𝓍t changes from +R to –R and therefore t2 – t1 is

the time taken to cover the length of the tunnel. But

R = 2R sin ωt1

⇒ sin ωt1 = 1/ 2

⇒ ωt1 = 3π/4

And –R = 2R sin ωt2

⇒ sin ωt2 = –1/ 2

⇒ ωt2 = 5π/4

⇒ ωt2 – ωt1 = π/2

𝜋 π R

⇒ 𝑡2 – 𝑡1 = 𝜔 = 2 g

.. 30

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

the tunnel and this being a case of free fall motion till the

particle reaches surface of the earth. The velocity of the

particle when it reaches the surface of the earth is gR .

Therefore it covers the length of the tunnel in the same

time as in case (a) above.

(c) In this case again as the particle is thrown up with initial

velocity gR it comes back to the surface of the earth

with same velocity gR and then covers the length of

the tunnel in the same time as in case (a) above.

42. Assume that a tunnel is dug along a chord

𝓍

of the earth, at a perpendicular distance

R/2

R/2 from earth’s center where R is the θ

ℓ

frictionless. (a) Find the gravitational force

exerted by the earth on a particle of mass

m placed in tunnel at a distance 𝓍 from the

center of the tunnel. (b) Find the component of the force along

the tunnel and perpendicular to the tunnel. (c) the normal

force exerted by the wall on the particle. (d) Find the resultant

force on the particle. (e) show that the motion of the particle

in the tunnel is simple harmonic and find the time period.

(a) From the figure we have ℓ = 𝓍2+R2/4)½

The mass of the sphere of radius ℓ centered at the center

of the earth is

4

4 πℓ3 M ℓ 3

M’ = πℓ3ρ = 3

4 = M

3 πR 3 R

3

If F be the gravitational force of the earth on the particle

then

ℓ 3 ½

m GM m GMm R2

F = GM’ = R

= 𝓍2 +

ℓ2 ℓ2 R3 4

the force along the tunnel

.. 31

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

Ft = F𝓍/ℓ = GMm𝓍/R3

And the component of the force perpendicular to the

tunnel

FR GMm

F⊥ = 2ℓ = 2R 2

the component perpendicular to tunnel, i.e.

FR GMm

F⊥ = 2ℓ = 2R 2

the gravitational force parallel to the tunnel, i.e.

F𝓍 GMm 𝓍

Ft = ℓ = R 3

(e) Ft GM

Acceleration = = 𝓍 which varies with

m R3

displacement from the center of the tunnel. Thus the

motion is simple harmonic and time period

T = 2π displacement/acceleration

R3

= 2π GM

ceiling of an elevator. Find the time period of the oscillations if

the elevator (a) is going up with an acceleration 𝒶0 (b) is

going down with an acceleration 𝒶0 and (c) is moving with an

a uniform velocity.

(a) Let m be the mass of the bob of the pendulum. Then the

driving force of motion is

F = mg + m𝒶0 =m(g + 𝒶0)

∴ 𝒶 = F/m = g + 𝒶0

ℓ

⇒ T = 2π + 𝒶0

g

F = mg – m𝒶0 =m(g – 𝒶0)

.. 32

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

∴ 𝒶 = F/m = g – 𝒶0

ℓ

⇒ T = 2π – 𝒶0

g

acceleration is zero and

ℓ

T = 2π g

of an elevator takes 𝜋/3 seconds to complete one oscillation.

Find the acceleration of the elevator.

Let 𝒶0 be the acceleration of the elevator. Then (from the

previous problem)

T = 2π [ℓ/ g+ 𝒶0)] = 𝜋/3

⇒ ℓ/ g + 𝒶0) = 1/36

⇒ g+ 𝒶0 = 36ℓ

⇒ 𝒶0 = 36ℓ – g = 36 – 32 = 4 ft/s2

45. A simple pendulum fixed in a car has a time period of 4

seconds when the car is moving with a uniform velocity on a

horizontal road. When the accelerator is pressed the time

period changes to 3.99 seconds. Making an approximate

analysis find the acceleration of the car.

When the car moving with uniform

velocity we have

ℓ

T = 2π ℓ/g) 𝒶0

⇒ 4 = 2π ℓ/g)

have

T’ = 2π [ℓ/(g2 + 𝒶02)½]

⇒ 3.99 = 2π [ℓ/(g2 + 𝒶02)½]

.. 33

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

⇒ T/T’ = 4/3.99 2 = [ℓ/g / [ℓ/(g2 + 𝒶02)½]

⇒ 16g = 3.992(g2 + 𝒶02)½ = 15.92(g2 + 𝒶02)½

⇒ 256g2 = 15.922 (g2 + 𝒶02)

⇒ (256–253.45)g2 = 253.45 𝒶02

⇒ 𝒶02 = 2.55 g2/253.45 = g2/100

⇒ 𝒶0 ≈ g/10 ms–2

46. A simple pendulum of length ℓ is suspended from the ceiling

of a car moving with a speed 𝓋 on a circular horizontal road of

radius r. (a) Find the tension in the string when it is at rest

with respect to car. (b) Find the time period of small

oscillation.

When the car is moving with uniform

velocity 𝓋, the driving force F of the ℓ

m𝓋2/r

SHM is

2 ½

2 m𝓋 2 mg

F= mg + r

½

𝓋4

= m g2 + r2

½

𝓋4

𝒶 = g2 + r2

ℓ

∴ T = 2π 𝒶

ℓ

⇒ T = 2π ½

𝓋4

g 2+ 2

r

47. The ear-ring of the lady in the figure has a 3 cm long light

suspension wire. (a) Find the time period of small oscillations

if the lady is standing on the ground. (b) The lady now sits in a

merry-go-round of radius 2 m moving at a 4 ms-1. Find the

time period of the oscillations of the ear-ring.

(a) The length ℓ of the pendulum formed by the light

suspension wire and the ring is 3 cm. Therefore

T = 2π ℓ/g = 2π 0.03/9.8 = 0.348 s

.. 34

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

(b) Since the lady now sits in the merry-go-round of radius r

= 2 m, a centripetal force of m𝓋2/r also acts on the ear-

ring.

ℓ

∴ T = 2π ½

𝓋4

g 2+ 2

r

0.03

= 2π 256 ½

9.82 +

4

= 0.306 s

48. Find the time period of the oscillations of the following

systems (a) A meter stick suspended through 20 cm mark. (b)

A ring of mass m and radius r suspended through a point on

its periphery. (c) A uniform square plate of edge 𝒶 suspended

through a corner. (d) A uniform disk of mass m and radius r

suspended through a point r/2 away from the center.

(a) Since the pendulum here is a physical pendulum, the

formula for time period is

T = 2π I/mgℓ

Here I is the moment of inertia of the meter stick about

point of suspension and ℓ the distance between the point

of suspension and the center of mass.

⇒ ℓ = 0.5 – 0.3 = 0.2

And I = m12/12 + 0.22m = 0.08m + 0.04m = 0.12m

⇒ T = 2π I/mgℓ

= 2π 0.12m/0.2m9.8

= 2π 6/98 = 1.55 s

(b) Here I = mr2 + mr2 = 2mr2

And ℓ = r

I 2m r 2 2r

∴ T = 2π = 2π = 2π

mg ℓ mgr g

.. 35

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

(c) Here the axis through the corner of the square (taken as

z-axis) is perpendicular the plane of the square

(containing x-axis and y-axis).

𝑚 𝒶2 𝑚 𝑎2 𝑚 𝑎2 2𝑚 𝑎 2

⇒ 𝐼𝑧 = 𝐼𝑥 + 𝐼𝑦 + 𝑚𝑟 2 = + + =

12 12 2 3

𝒶

And ℓ = 2

I 2m 𝒶2 2 𝒶 8

∴ T = 2π = 2π = 2π

mg ℓ 3mg 𝒶 3g

(d) 𝑚𝑟2 𝑟 2 3𝑚 𝑟 2

Here 𝐼 = + 𝑚 =

2 2 4

And ℓ = r/2

I 3m r 2 3r

∴ T = 2π = 2π 4mgr = 2π

mg ℓ 2g

2

to undergo small oscillations. Find the length of the pendulum

having time period equal to that of the rod.

The time period of the physical pendulum consisting of rod is

given by

T = 2π I/mgℓ’

ℓ 2 𝑚 ℓ2 𝑚 ℓ2 𝑚 ℓ2

Here 𝐼 = 𝐼𝑐 + 𝑚 = + =

2 12 4 3

And ℓ’ = ℓ/2

𝐼

∴ T = 2𝜋 ’

𝑚𝑔 ℓ

2𝑚 ℓ2

= 2𝜋 3𝑚𝑔 ℓ

2ℓ

= 2𝜋 3𝑔

If L is the length of the string of the simple pendulum, then

comparing with the above

2ℓ

𝐿 = 3

.. 36

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

hole made in the disc. Find the minimum possible time period

of the disc for small oscillations. What should be the distance

of the hole from the center for it to have minimum time

period?

Let s be the distance of the hole from the center of the disc.

Then

I = Ic + ms2 = mr2/2 + ms2

I

∴ T = 2π mgs

r2

m + s2

2

= 2π [ mgd s

r2

+ s2

2

= 2π gs

r2 s

= 2π +g

2gs

dT

The condition for minimality of T is ds vanishes.

–½

dT 2π r2 s r2 1

= +g – 2gs 2 + g = 0

ds 2 2gs

⇒ s2 = r2/2

⇒ s = r/ 2

r2 s

And T = 2π +g

2gs

r2 2 r

= 2π +g

2gr 2

r r

= 2π +g

g 2 2

r 2

= 2π g

thread to make a pendulum. Find the time period of the

oscillation of this pendulum. How does it differ from the time

.. 37

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

period calculated using the formula for a simple pendulum?

Let ℓ be the distance between the center of mass of the

sphere and the other end of the thread and T the time period

of its motion. Then

ℓ = 18 cm +2 cm = 20 cm = 0.2 m

∴ T = 2π I/mgℓ

But I = Ic + mℓ2

= 2m0.022/3 + m0.22

= 0.04m(1+0.0067)

= 0.0403m

⇒ T = 2π I/mgℓ

= 2π 0.0403m/mg0.2

= 0.901 s

period of its motion then

T’ = 2π ℓ/g = 2π 0.2/9.8 = 0.8976 s

⇒ T – T’ = 0.9006 – 0.8976 = 0.003 s

Thus T is 0.3% more than T’.

52. A closed circular wire hung on a nail in a wall undergoes small

oscillations of amplitude 2° and time period 2 s. Find (a) the

radius of the circular wire, (b) the speed of the particle

farthest away from the point of suspension as it goes through

its mean position. (c) the acceleration of this particle as it goes

through its mean position and (d) the acceleration of this

particle when it is at an extreme position. Take g = 𝜋2 ms-2.

(a) Given that angular amplitude θm = 2° and time period T

= 2 s. Let r be the radius of the wire. Then from the time

period formula for a physical pendulum we have

T = 2π I/mgr

And I = Ic + md2 = mr2 + mr2 = 2mr2

Thus 2 s = T = 2π I/mgr

mgr = π2I = π22mr2

.. 38

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

⇒ g = π22r

⇒ r = g/2π2 = 0.50 m = 50 cm

(b) Let ω be the angular frequency of the motion. At the

mean position the angular velocity ω’ is maximum

∴ ω’ = ωθm

But ω = 2π/T= 2π/2= π

⇒ ω’ = π 2π/180 = π2/90

If 𝓋 be the velocity of the point farthest away from point

of suspension then

𝓋 = ω’ 2r = π2/90)2x0.5 = 11 cms–1

(c) Acceleration at the mean position will be centripetal. If

ω’2 be the angular acceleration and 𝒶 the acceleration

then

𝒶 = ω’2/(2r) = (0.11)2 /1.00 ms–2 = 1.2 cms–2

The direction 𝒶 of is towards the point of suspension.

(d) At the extreme position the angular acceleration α is

maximum

⇒ α = –ω2θm

But ω = 2π/T = 2π/2 = π

∴ α = –π2 2π/180 = –π3/90

If 𝒶 be the acceleration of the point farthest away from

point of suspension then

𝒶 = α 2r = π3/90)2x0.5 = 0.35 cms–2

53. A uniform disc of mass m and radius r is suspended through a

wire attached to its center. If the time period of the torsional

oscillations be T, what is the torsional constant of the wire?

The moment of inertia of a uniform disc of mass m and radius

r is given by

mr 2

I=

2

⇒ T = 2π I/κ

4π 2 I 4m r 2 π 2

Or κ= =

T2 T2

.. 39

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

54. Two small balls, each of mass m are connected by a light rigid

rod of length L. The system is suspended from its center by a

thin wire of torsional constant κ. The rod is rotated through

and angle 𝜃0 and released. Find the tension in the rod as the

system passes through its mean position.

The mass of the suspended balls is 2m

and ignoring the small radii, the center of

mass is at the mid-point, L/2 away from

both balls. m

L 2 mL 2 κ 𝜃0

∴ I = 2m = m m

2 2 L

I

T = 2π m

κ

mL 2

= 2π

2κ

Noting that there being no translational motion, the entire

energy of the system comes from rotational kinetic energy and

the stored potential energy, the conservation of energy

theorem gives us

KRi + Ui = KRf + Uf

where suffix i refers to mean position and f refers to the

extreme position.

⇒ ½ Iω2 + 0 = 0 + ½ κ𝜃02

where 𝜃0. is angular amplitude.

∴ (mL2/2 ω2 = κ𝜃02

⇒ ω2 = 2κ𝜃02/mL2

Let T' be the tension in the rod. This tension has two sources

viz., the weight mg on the end point of the rod and the

centripetal force mω2L/2 provided by the rotation about the

wire.

2 mω 2 L 2

⇒ T’ = mg + 2

κ 2 θ 04

= m2 g 2 + L2

.. 40

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

55. A particle is subjected to two simple harmonic motions of

same time period in the same direction. The amplitude of the

first motion is 3.0 cm and that of the second is 4.0 cm. Find the

resultant amplitude if the phase difference between the

motions is (a) 0° (b) 60° and (c) 90°.

(a) The amplitudes 𝓍1 and 𝓍2 are given as

𝓍1m = 3.0 cm

𝓍2m = 4.0 cm

Since time periods and consequently angular frequencies

are equal, equations of the SHMs are

𝓍1 = 3.0cm sin ωt

𝓍2 = (4.0cm sin ωt

The equation of the resultant SHM is

𝓍 = 𝓍1 + 𝓍2 = 7.0cm sin ωt

Thus 𝓍m = 7.0 cm

(b) Here the amplitudes 𝓍1 and 𝓍2 are given as

𝓍1m = 3.0 cm

𝓍2m = 4.0 cm

Since time periods and consequently angular frequencies

are equal, equations of the SHMs are

𝓍1 = 3.0cm sin ωt

𝓍2 = 4.0cm sin ωt+π/3

The equation of the resultant SHM is

𝓍 = 𝓍1 + 𝓍2

= 3.0cm sin ωt + 3.0cm sin ωt+π/3

2 2 π

Thus 𝓍m = 𝓍1m + 𝓍2m + 2𝓍1m 𝓍2m 𝑐𝑜𝑠

3

= 6.1 cm

(c) Here the amplitudes 𝓍1 and 𝓍2 are given as

𝓍1m = 3.0 cm

𝓍2m = 4.0 cm

Since time periods and consequently angular frequencies

are equal, equations of the SHMs are

.. 41

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

𝓍1 = 3.0cm sin ωt

𝓍2 = 4.0cm sin ωt+π/2

The equation of the resultant SHM is

𝓍 = 𝓍1 + 𝓍2

π

= 3.0cm 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt + 3.0cm 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt + 2

2 2

Thus 𝓍m = 𝓍1m + 𝓍2m = 5.0 cm

56. Three simple harmonic motions of equal amplitude A and

equal time periods in the same direction combine. The phase

of the second motion is 60° ahead of the first and the phase of

the third motion is 60° ahead of the second. Find the

amplitude of the resultant motion.

Since time periods and consequently angular frequencies are

equal each equal to ω and amplitudes are also equal each

being A, equations of the SHMs are

𝓍1 = A 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt

π

𝓍2 = A 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt + 3

2π

𝓍3 = A 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt + 3

The equation of the resultant SHM is

𝓍 = 𝓍1 + 𝓍2 + 𝓍3

π 2π

= A 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt + + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt +

3 3

π π π

= A 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt + 3 𝑐𝑜𝑠 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt + 3

3

π π

= A 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt + 3 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt + 3

π

= 2A 𝑠𝑖𝑛 ωt + 3

Thus 𝓍m = 2A

57. A particle is subjected to two simple harmonic motions given

by

𝓍1 = 2.0 sin (100𝜋 t) and 𝓍2 = 2.0 sin (120𝜋 t + 𝜋/3)

where 𝓍 is in centimeter and t in second. Find the

displacement of the particle at (a) t = 0.0125, (b) t = 0.025.

.. 42

..

12 Simple Harmonic Motion

𝓍1 = 2.0 sin (100𝜋 t)

π

𝓍2 = 2.0 𝑠𝑖𝑛 120π t +

3

The equation of the resultant SHM is

𝓍 = 𝓍1 + 𝓍2

π

= 2.0 𝑠𝑖𝑛 100π t + 𝑠𝑖𝑛 120π t + 3

𝓍 = –2.41 cm

(b) When t = 0.025 we have

𝓍 = 0.27 cm

58. A particle is subjected to two simple harmonic motions one

along the 𝓍-axis and the other on a line making an angle 45°

with the 𝓍-axis. The two motions are given by

𝓍 = 𝓍0 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡 and 𝑠 = 𝑠0 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜔𝑡

Find the amplitude of the resultant motion.

By vector addition, the amplitude 𝓍m of the resultant

motion

π

𝓍m = 𝓍02 + s02 + 2𝓍0 s0 𝑐𝑜𝑠 4

= 𝓍02 + s02 + 2 𝓍0 s0

.. 43

..

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