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Compiled from the Greek, Latin, and other languages,

with special reference to biological terms and scientific names

Donald J . Borror
The Ohio State University


First Edition, 1960

Copyright © 1960 by Donald J. Borror

Copyright © 1988. Renewed by Arthur C. Borror
Manufactured in the United States of America
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 60-15564

Mayfield Publishing Company

1280 Villa Street
Mountain View, California 94041
One of the outstanding problems of the biologist, whether he be
beginning student or specialist, is that of understanding technical
terms. The best way to understand and remember technical terms
is to understand first their component parts, or roots. To this end
the various word roots, from the Latin, Greek, and other languages,
that are most frequently encountered in biological terms have been
brought together in this dictionary.
Some of the word roots listed in the following pages are used in
many scientific terms and names, and once their meaning is under-
stood their occurrence in words subsequently encountered will imme-
diately suggest the meanings of the new words. The task of looking
up a new word in a technical or unabridged dictionary is often elimi-
nated by a knowledge of word roots. The study of the roots of words
can become extremely interesting, as well as a very valuable aid in
understanding new terms.
This dictionary has been designed primarily to meet the needs of
the beginning student, the medical student, and the taxonomist, but it
should be of value to all biologists. Both student and teacher are
keenly aware of the difficulties of the beginning student in learning
technical terms; the medical student is often overwhelmed by the
multitude of names of structures, conditions, and processes which
he must understand and remember; and the taxonomist frequently
encounters words the meanings of which are to be found only in a
Latin or Greek dictionary, if at all.
The section on the formulation of scientific names, following the
list of word roots, should be of value to the taxonomist who is inter-
ested in naming new species or groups.

Table of Contents

Preface iii

How To Use This Dictionary 1

Dictionary of Word Roots and Combining Forms.. 7

Formulation of Scientific Names 113

Transliteration of Greek Words • 116

Some Common Combining Forms 118

How To Use This Dictionary
Every scientific term or name is composed of one or more word
roots, between and following which may be one or more vowels or con-
sonants. In the list of roots on the following pages, the connecting
vowels and consonants that are most frequently encountered are in-
dicated as variations in the roots. For example, the entry erythr, -o
(G) red indicates that the root is erythr and the most commonly en-
countered connecting vowel is o, and the root may be found as erythr
or erythro. The source language of each root is indicated by the ab-
breviation in parentheses (the root erythr is from a Greek word).
Roots preceded by a hyphen are suffixes, or roots generally used
at the end of a word; for example, -idae is the suffix that is added to
the roots of generic names to form the names of families of animals,
and -pus is the Greek root meaning foot that is used at the end of a
word (e.g., octopus). Roots preceded by an equals sign may be used
alone or as a terminal root; for example, =buteo, from the Latin and
meaning a kind of hawk, is used as Buteo, a genus of hawks; and in
the name Archibuteo, another genus of hawks. Root variations preceded
by an equals sign are variations usually used at the end of a word; for
example, in the entry cephal, =a, -o, the ^§_ indicates that cephala is
usually used at the end of a word (as in Acanthocephala, the phylum
of spiny-headed worms, parasitic; also a genus of bugs that have a
spine on the head).
Similar English meanings are separated by commas, and dissimi-
lar meanings by semicolons. Different English meanings of the same
root may be due to the fact that the word from which the root comes
has more than one meaning, or the root may be derived from more
than one word in the source language; some roots may be derived
from words in two source languages, and in such cases the source
language is indicated in connection with each English equivalent.
Variations in roots are listed separately in the alphabetical se-
quence only if they are separated by more than two intervening roots;
variations that would be separated by only one or two intervening roots
are not repeated in the sequence.
A few examples will serve to illustrate the use of this dictionary.

2 Word R o o t s and Combining F o r m s

Micromere. In the following pages will be found:

micr, -o (G) small
mer, =e, -i, -o (G) a part; the thigh
In this case the variations are mer, -mere, meri, and
mero; the-e indicates that mere is usually used at the end of
a term or name. The two English equivalents here are the re-
sult of the root coming from two Greek words,
-mere (G) a part
The hyphen before the root indicates that it is usually used
at the end of a term or name.
The first part of the word micromere means small; the last part
means a part; a micromere is thus a small part of something.

Osmoderma eremicola (the scientific name of the hermit flower

beetle). In the following pages will be found:
osm, =a, -i, -o (G) a smell, odor
osmo, -s, -t (G) pushing, thrusting
derm, =a, -ato, -o (G) skin
erem, -i, -o (G) lonely, solitary
col, (L) with, together; (G) colon; limb
col, -a, -i (L) dwell
The osmo part of the genus name might come from either of the
two roots listed but, since this beetle has a rather distinct odor, it
would appear that the first of the two roots (meaning smell or odor)
is the one used; derma means skin. The genus name therefore refers
to the characteristic odor of this insect. The first part of the species
name means lonely or solitary; since cola is indicated as a variation
in the root meaning to dwell, this root is evidently the one used; the
species name thus means living alone (or as a hermit, hence the
common name of the insect).

Pododynia. In the following pages will be found:

pod, -o, =y (G) a foot
odyn, =e, =ia, -o (G) pain
dyn, -am, -amo, -ast (G) be able; power, energy
The first part of the word pododynia obviously comes from a Greek
How To Use T h i s D i c t i o n a r y 3

word meaning foot. Since the first of the other two roots (odyn) in­
dicates ^a as terminating vowels, this is obviously the root involved.
Podo is the form of this root usually used, but since it is followed by
another root beginning with o, the final £ of podo is omitted. Pododynia
thus means pain in the foot.


Af - African LL - Low Latin; Late Latin

Ar - Arabic Mai - Malayan
AS - Anglo-Saxon Mex - Mexican
Br - Brazilian ME - Middle English
Ch - Chilean ML - Middle Latin
Dan - Danish My - Mythology
Ε - English Ν - a proper name
EI - East Indian NL - New Latin
F - French OF - Old French
Far - Faroese OHG - Old High German
G - Greek Pg - Portuguese
Ger - German Pp - Papuan
Go - Gothlandic Ps - Persian
H - Hindustani Pv - Peruvian
Hb - Hebrew Rs - Russian
Ice - Icelandic SAm - South American
It - Italian Sp - Spanish
L - Latin Sw - Swedish
Vowels. All vowels in scientific names are pronounced. Vowels
are generally either long or short, and in the examples which follow
a long vowel sound is indicated by a grave accent (* ) » and short vow­
els by an acute accent (') ; e.g., mate, mât, mète, met, bitte, bit, rope,
rôt, cùte, cut, by, symmetry. A vowel at the end of a word has the
long sound, except when it is a_; a final a has an uh sound, as in idea.
The vowel in the final syllable of a word has the short sound, except
es, which is pronounced ease.
Diphthongs. A diphthong consists of two vowels written together
4 Word R o o t s and Combining F o r m s

and pronounced as a single vowel. The diphthongs are ae (pronounced

e), oe (usually pronounced e, rarely e), oi (pronounced as in oil), eu
(pronounced u), ei (pronounced^ ), ai (pronounced à), and au (pro-
nounced as in August).
Consonants. _Ch has the k sound, except in words derived from a
language other than Greek. When c_is followed by ae, e, oe, j_, or y,
it has the soft (s) sound; when it is followed by a, o, oi, or u, it has
the hard (k) sound. When g is followed by ae, e,i, oe, or y, it has the
soft (j_) sound; when it is followed by a, o, oi, or u, it has the hard
sound (as in go). In words beginning with ps_, pt, et, en, gn, or mn,
the initial letter is not pronounced, but when these letters appear to-
gether in the middle of a word the first letter is_ pronounced. An χ
at the beginning of a word is pronounced as z, but as ks when it ap­
pears elsewhere in a word. When a double _c is followed by i_or y_, it
is pronounced as ks.
Accent. The accented syllable is either the penult or the antepenult
(in very long words there may be a secondary accent on a syllable
near the beginning of the word). The principal rules governing the
syllable accented and the vowel sound (whether long or short) are as
1. The accent is on the penult syllable in the following cases:
a. When the word contains only two syllables. Ex.: Àpis, Ulmus.
b. When the penult contains a diphthong. Ex.: Hemileùca, Lygaèus,
Nymphaèa, Spiraea.
c. When the vowel in the penult is followed by χ or z. Ex.:
Agromyza, Melospiza, Corixa, Lespedèza, Prodàxus.
d. When the vowel in the penult is long. Whether this vowel is
long or short often depends on the derivation of the word and
the vowel sound in the source language. For example, in words
derived from the Greek μηρός, meaning thigh, the £ is long
(ex.: epimèron, Diapheromèra); while in those derived from
μ^ρος, meaning part, the £ is short (ex.: Heteromera). The
penult vowel is usually long in the following cases:
1) Words derived from Latin past participles and ending in
-ata, -atus, or -atum. Ex.: maculàta. (The penult vowel
How To Use T h i s D i c t i o n a r y 5

is short in such Greek plurals as Echinodérmata.)

2) Latin adjectives ending in -alis. Ex.: orientàlis, verticàlis,
3) Words ending in -ina. Ex.: Sparflna, Glossîna, Hetaerfna.
4) Words ending in -ica. Ex.: Formica, Melîca, Myrmfca,
5) Words ending in -ana, -anus, or -anum. Ex.: Tabànus,
Porzàna, mexicànum.
6) Words ending in -ura. Ex.: Thysanùra, Xiphosùra, Cîhaetùra.
7) Words ending in -odes or -otes. Ex.: Sabulôdes, Sphecodes,
Hylodes, Epirôtes.
8) Words ending in -ates. Ex.: Aceràtes, Dryobâtes, Hippel-
9) Words ending in -ales. Ex.: the names of plant orders, e.g.,
10) Words ending in -inae. Ex.: the names of animal subfamilies,
e.g., Papiliomnae.
11) Words ending in -osis. Ex.: pediculosis, trichinosis; there
are a few exceptions in modern usage, e.g., metamorphosis.
12) Words ending in -soma. Ex.: Calosôma, Eriosdma.
13) Words ending in -pogon. Ex.: Andropôgpn, Calopogon.
14) Words ending in -chlora. Ex.: Augochlôra.
15) Words in which the vowel of the penult is u, except when the
u_is followed by h Ex.: Fenùsa, Ctenùcha, Sambùcus. Ex-
ceptions: Libéllula, Bétula, Campanula, Sanfcula.
16) When the vowel is followed by z. Ex.: Agromyza, Triôza,
Lespedèza, Ophiorrhlza.
e. When the vowel of the penult is short and followed by two con-
sonants, except a mute followed by\_ or r. Ex.: Pseudococcus,
Chlorélla, Caulophyllum, Vanessa, Chlorotéttix, Coreopsis,
Latrodectus, Lithospermum, Erianthus, Agrostis, Gryllotalpa,
6 Word R o o t s and Combining F o r m s

Rhododendron, Derméstes, Pyromôrpha, Cordulegâster. When

the vowel of the penult is followed by a mute (b, hard c, d, g,
k, p, q,_t, ch, ph, or^h) and j_or r, the accent is on the ante-
penult; ex.: Geometra, Anabrus, Rânatra, Melânoplus, Rhombo-
lytrum, Stenobothrus.

2. In other cases the accent is on the antepenult.

a. The vowel of the antepenult is long in the following cases:
1) When it is followed by another vowel. Ex.: Epèolus, Sîalis,
Rhodiola, Hepîalus, Keris. This includes the names of ani-
mal families which have a vowel immediately preceding the
-idae; ex.: Danàidae, Trupanèidae, Gavîidae, Melôidae,
Grùidae, Stratiomyidae.
2) When it is a_, e, o, or u, followed by a single consonant and
two vowels, the first of which is e, j_, or £. Ex.: Aràneus,
Geranium, Çastànea, Phacèlia, Tèlea, Orthèzia, Nemôbius,
Numènius, Pogonia, Pîcea, Siàlia, Lànius, Conopôdium. This
is the case in the names of plant families (e g., Malvaceae).
3) When it is u_ and followed by a single consonant. Ex.: Lingua-
tùlida, Redùvius, Cordùlia, pellùcidus.
4) When it is a diphthong. Ex.: Clathroneùria, Linotaènia.
b. The vowel of the antepenult is short in other cases. This includes
all animal family names in which the antepenult is followed by a
consonant (except when the vowel is u); ex.: Anâtidae, Trypeti-
dae, Mimidae, Chrysopidae, Agromyzidae. The following names,
and others with similar endings, have the antepenult vowel short:
Heterôcera, Geôcoris, Conocéphalus, Troglodytes, Empfdonax,
Chauliognathus, Pantographa, Chironomus, Mallophaga, Orthop-
tera, Micropteryx, Chilopoda, Tria'toma, Neurospora, Droso-
phila, Trichomonas, Melanostoma.
Dictionary of Word Roots and
Combining Forms
acalanth,s -i, =is (G). A goldfinch
a (G). Not, without; together acaleph, a (G). A nettle
aapt, -o (G). Unapproachable, acanth, *a, -o (G). A spine, thorn
acanthi, -d, =s (G). A goldfinch
invincible acar, -in (G). A kind of mite; tiny
ab, -s (L). Off, from, away acceler (L). Hasten
abact (L). Driven away accip (L). Seize, accept
abbreviat (L). Shortened
abdicat (L). Disinherit *accipiter (L). A hawk
abdit (L). Secret, hidden accliv (L). Steep, up-hill
abdom, =en, -in (L). The abdomen accresc (L). Increase
aberran (L). Going astray ace, -o (G). Heal; remedy
abie, =s, -t (L). A fir tree -aceae (the ending of plant family
abject (L). Downcast, spiritless names)
ablat (L). Weaned, removed =acer (L). Sharp; a maple tree
ablep, -s (G). Blindness acerb (L). Bitter, sour
ablut (L). Washed, cleansed acerv, =us (L). A heap
abort, -iv (L). Born prematurely acest (G). Healing; remedy
abr, -o (G). Delicate, dainty, acestr, =a (G). A darning needle
pretty acet, -o, =um, =yl (L). Vinegar
=abramis (G). A kind of fish acetabul, =um (L). A vinegar cup
abras (L). Rubbed off, scraped off ach (G). Ache, pain
abrot (G). Not edible; divine; achen (G). Boor, needy; not gaping
achet, =a, -o (L). Singing, sounding;
splendor a cicada
abroton (G). A kind of plant achille (G My). A character who had
abrupt (L). Broken away from,
steep a vulnerable heel
abs (L). Off, from, away achly, -o, -s (G). Gloom, darkness
abscis, -s (L). Cutoff achn, =a (G). Chaff, froth
absinth, =ium (L). Wormwood achr, -oio, -oo, -ost (G). Colorless
absit (L). Distant achth, -o, =us (G). A weight, burden
abstemi (L). Temperate, moderate achyr, -o, =um (G). Chaff, bran
aci, -do, =us (G). A point, barb
abund (L). Overflow acicul, =a (L). A small needle
abyss, -o (G). Deep, bottomless acid (L). Sour, sharp
ac (L). To, toward acin, -i, -o, =us (L). A berry
aca (G). A point; silence; healing acinac, =es (L). A short sword
8 D i c t i o n a r y of Word Roots

-acious (E). Abounding in ade (G). Enough, abundantly; to be

«acipenser (L). The sturgeon sated
«acis (G). A point, barb adelo (G). Unknown, secret
acli, -d, «s (L). A small javelin adelph, «us (G). Brother
acm, «a (G). The highest point; •aden, -o (G). A gland
a point adephag, -o (G). Gluttonous
acmae, -o (G). Flourishing, mature «adeps, adip, -o (L). Fat
«acmon, -o (G). An anvil adminicul, «or (L). A support, prop
aco (G). A cure, remedy, relief
acoet, «es (G). A bedfellow, spouse adnex (L). Bound to, annexed
acoluth, -o (G). Following adol, -o (G). Genuine, pure
aconit, «um (L). The monk's-hood adolesc (L). Growing up
acont, -i, «urn, -o (G). A javelin, adore, «us (L). Grain, spelt
dart adox, -o (G). Insignificant; disrep-
acost, «a (G). Barley utable
acous, -t (G). Hear; heard
acr, «a, -e (G). At the apex adr, -o (G). thick, stout
acr, -i (L). Sharp adran (G). Feeble, listless
acri, -d, «s (G). A locust adras (L). Shaved, scraped away
acrib, -o (G). Exact
acrit, -o (G). Confused adul, -a (L). Flatter
aero (G). Topmost, the tip adulter (L). Corrupt, pollute
acromi, -o, «urn (G). The point of adust (L). Burned, tanned
the shoulder blade
act, «a, -e, -i (G). The beach, sea- ae (see also ai, e, or oe)
shore aechm, «a, -o (G). A spear
acti, -no, «s (G). A ray, beam aeci, «a, -di (G). An injury
actit, «es (G). A shore dweller aed, «es, -i (L). A temple; a dwelling
actuos (L). Lively, active
acu, =s (L). A needle aedeag (NL). The genitals
acu, -st (G). Hear; heard «aedes (G). Disagreeable
acule, «us (L). A sting, thorn aedoe, -o (G). Regard with reverence;
acumin, -a (L). A point; pointed the genitals
«acus (L). A needle «aedon (G). A nightingale
«acus (G). A cure, remedy, relief aeger, -i (LMy). A nymph
acust (G). Hear; heard aegi, -di, «s (L). A shield
acut (L). Sharp aegial, -o, «us (G). The seashore,
ad (L). To, toward beach
adama, -nto (G). Unconquerable; aegith, -o, «us (G). A hedge sparrow
diamond; iron
adapi (NL). A rabbit aegl (G). Shining, splendid
addict (L). Devoted, compelled aego (G). A goat
aegr, -o (L). Sick, diseased
aell, «a,
aem, «us
-o,-o (L).
(G). Egypt
-o A
and Combining Forms 9

aeno (G). Terrible agan, -o (G). Mild, gentle

aeol (G My). Aeolus, god of the agap, =a (G). Brotherly love, charity
winds agaric, «urn (G). A mushroom
aeol, -i, -o (G). Quick-moving, agast, -o (G). Wonderful
aep, -i, -y (G). Tall, high agath, -o (G). Good, brave
aequa, -bil, -li (L). Equal, level agau, agav (G). Illustrious, noble
aer, -ar, -e (L). Of copper, money agel, =a (G). A herd
aer, -i, -o (G). The air, atmos- agen, -e, -i (G). Unborn, young
phere «ager (L). Afield
-aeresis (G). Take
aesal, =um (G). A kind of hawk agera (G). Not growing old
aesch, -o (G). Shame, ugliness agglomérat (L). Collected, heaped up
aesch, -r, -ro, -yn (G). Causing agglutin, -at (L). Glued together
shame; ugly
aescul, =us (L). The Italian oak aggregat (L). Brought together
aesio (G). Fortunate, lucky agili (L). Agile, nimble
aesta, =tis (L). The summer heat agitât (L). Stirred up; quick
aesthem, =a, -ato (G). Sensation, agla, -i, -o, =us (G). Splendor,
perception beauty; splendid, brilliant
aesthes, =is (G). A sensation, agm, =a, -ato, -et (G). A fragment;
perception a fracture
aesthet (G). Sensitive, perceptive
aestival (L). Summer agm, *en, -in (L). A stream
aet, -o, =us (G). An eagle agn, -i, =us (L). A lamb
aeth, -e (G). Unusual agn, -o (G). Pure, chaste
aeth, -o (G). Burn; fiery agnoi, *a (G). Ignorance
aethal, -o, *us (G). Smoke, soot
aethi (G). Burnt ago (L): Drive; (G): Lead; a chief,
aethri, =a, -o (G). Open sky, open leader
air agog, =ue (G). Lead, lead away
aethusa (G). Burning; a vestibule agon, -o (G). An assembly; a con-
aeti, =a, -o (G). A cause test
aeto; =aetus (G). An eagle •agora (G). A marketplace
affini (L). Allied, related agost, -o (G). The bent arm; an
affluen, =s, -t (L). Abundant, rich angle
ag (L). To, toward agr, -a (G). Booty
aga (G). Very, very much agr, -i, -o (L). Afield
agall, -o (G). Adorn
agalli, -d, »s (G). An iris agreiphn, *a (G). A harrow, rake
=agalma (G). A pleasing gift; a agrest, -i (L). In the country, grow-
statue ing wild
agreu, -o (G). Hunt, pursue
agreu, -s, -t (G). A hunter
A fierce
hunter; a person
10 Dictionary of Word Roots

agrost, «is (G). A grass; a hunter alex,-i (G). Ward off

ai (see also ae, e, or oe) aleyr, -o (G). Flour, meal
aichm, «a, -o (Gj. A spear alg, «a, -o (L). Seaweed
aidoi, -o (G). Regard with rever- alg, -e (L). Cold, coldness
ence; the genitals alg, -e, «ia, -o (G). Pain
aiet, -o (G). An eagle all (L). Other, another; a wing
aig (G). A goat; a waterfowl alia (G). An assembly
aigeir, -o, «us (G). The black
poplar alien, -a (L). Foreign
aigial, -o, «us (G). The seashore, aliment (L). Nourish; nourishment
beach -alis (L). Pertaining to
aist, -o (G). Unseen alism, «a (G). Plantain
aithyi (G). A sea gull; a diver alkali (Ar). Soda ash, alkali
«aix (G). A goat; a waterfowl all, -o(G). Other, another
«ajaia; sajaja (S Am). The rose- allact (G). Change, vary
ate spoonbill allagm, «a (G). An exchange
al (L). To, toward allant, -o (G). Sausage
allass, -o (G). Change, vary
al, =a, -i (L). Awing allaxi (G). Crosswise
alac, =er, -r (L). Quick, active allé (Ice). The dovekie
alao (G). Blind allelo (G). One another; parallel
alii, «urn (L). Garlic, onion
alat (L). Winged alio, -io (G). Other, different
alaud, =a (L). A lark alloth (G). Elsewhere
alax, «a (NL). Alaska allotr, -io (G). Strange, foreign
alluv, -i (L). Wash against, over-
alb, -i, -id (L). White flow; a pool
album, =en, -in (L). The white aim (L). Nourishing, refreshing
of an egg aln, -or, «us (L). The alder
ale, -ae (G). Strong; strength «aloe (G). A kind of plant
ale, «es, -i (L). An elk alope, -c, «x (G). A fox
«alca (Ice). An auk alp, -estr, -in (LN). Mountains
alced, -in, =o (L). A kingfisher alphit, -o, «urn (G). Barley meal
alcim, -o (G). Strong, brave als (L). Cold
«alcyon (G). A kingfisher; a als, -o, «us (G). A grove
zoophyte alsin, «a (G). Chickweed
«alector (G). A cock alt, -i (L). High, tall
alectr, -o (G). Unmarried alter (L). Other
altera (L). One after another
aleiph (G). Unguent oil althae (G). Heal, cure
aleo (G). Hot, warm aid (L). Higfr, tall
-ales (the ending of plant order aim (L). Nourished, fattened
names) altr (L). Other
alet, -o(G).
aleth, -o
(G). Flour,
honest meal
and C o m b i n i n g F o r m s 11

altri, -c, =x (L). A nurse amby, -co, *x (G). A cup

aluc, -o (L). An owl ameb, «a, -o (G). Change
alucin, -a (L). Wander in mind, amel (OF). Enamel
dream ament, *um (L). A thong, strap
alucit, «a (L). A gnat «amia (G). A kind of fish
alut, »a (L). Leather amie (L). Friendly, kind
alv, -i, »us (L). The belly, womb amict (L). Wrapped up
alve, -ol, =us (L). A cavity, pit, amid, -o; amin, =e, -o (N: ammonia),
socket ammonia
alysc (G). Shun, avoid amm, -o, =us (G). Sand
alyss, -o (G). Uneasy, restless =amma, -to (G). A knot
am, -a, -an, -at (L). Love; lov- ammon (GMy). African
ing; loved amn, -o, =us (G). A lamb
ama (G). Together amni, *s (L). A river
amabil, -i (L). Lovely amnio, -n, -t (G). A lamb; a foetal
amaen (L). Charming, pleasant membrane
amal, -o (G). Soft, tender amoeb, *a, -o (G). Change
amalg (ML). A soft mass amoen (L). Pleasant, charming
aman, =s, -t (L). Loving ampel, -o, «us (G). A grape vine
amanit (G). A kind of fungus amph, -i, -o (G). Around, on both
amar (L). Bitter sides; double
amar, =a (G). A trench amphiblestr, «urn (G). A net; a gar-
amaranth (G). Unfading ment
amarygm, =a, -ato (G). A sparkle, amphibol, -o (G). Uncertain; attacked
twinkle on both sides
amat (L). Loved; a loved one amphor, =a (L). A bottle, flask
amath, -i (G). Stupid, ignorant ample, -et, -x (L). Embrace
amath, -o, =us (G). Sand; sandy ampli (L). Increase; spacious
amaur, -o (G). Dark, obscure «ampulla (L). A flask
amax, -i, -o (G). A wagon, car- amput, -a (L). Cutaway, cutoff
riage ampy, -c, =x (G). A head band
ambi (L). Around, surrounding amydr, -o (G). Dark, dim, faint
ambig, -u (L). Doubt; doubtful amygdal, =a, -o (G). An almond
ambit (L). A going around, a cir- amyl, -o, =um (G). Starch; a cake
cuit of fine meal
ambl, -y (G). Blunt an (G). Without, not
amblo, - s , -t (G). Abortion ana (G). Up, throughout, again
ambo (L). Both ana (L). The anus
ambros, =ia (G). Food of the anact, -o (G). A king, chief
gods; divine, immortal anagall, =is (G). A kind of plant
ambul, -acr, -at (L). Walk analog, =ia, =y (G). Proportion
ambust (L). Burned up, consumed, anant, -o (G). Uphill, steep
scorched anapno (G). Breathe again, rest
12 D i c t i o n a r y of Word Roots

anapt, -o (G). Fasten, hang anil, -i (L): Of an old woman;

anarrhich (G). Climb up (G): Cruel
•anas (L). A duck anim, -a (L). Life, breath
«anassa (G). À queen animal, -i (L). An animal
anastomos (G). Coming together anir (G). A man
anat (L). A duck anis, -o (G). Unequal
•anax (G). A king, chief
anc, «eps, -ipiti (L). Two-headed ankyl, -o (G). Crooked, bent
anch, -o (G). Strangle ankyr, «a (G). An anchor
anchi (G). Near anlag (Ger). Lie on; a foundation
anchyl, -o (G). Crooked, bent annal (L). Annual
ancill, «a (L). A maid annect (L). Bound together
annel, «us (L). A ring, a little
ancipiti (L). Two-headed ring
ancistr, «um (G). A fish hook annu, -a, »s (L). A year
anco, -n (G). The elbow; a bend; annuen (L). Nodding
a valley
ancor, «a (L). An anchor annul (L). A ring
ancyl, -o (G). Crooked, bent ano (G). Up
ancyr, =a (G). An anchor anomal, -o (G). Uneven, irregular
ander, -o, «urn (G). A flower bed anomo (G). Without law, lawless
andin (NL). Of the Andes anophel, «es (G). Troublesome
andr, -o (G). A man anopl, -o (G). Unarmed
ans, «a (L). A handle
andren, «a (NL). A bee •anser (L). A goose
anem, -o (G). The wind ante (L). Before
aneu (G). Without «antenna (L). A sailyard
aneurysm (G). A widening anter, -o (NL). Former; before,
ang, «ea, -i, -io, -o (G). A vessel, in front of
box, case anth, -e, -o, =us (G). A flower;
angel, -o, «us (G). A messenger; brilliancy
an angel anthem, «is (G). A flower
angin, =a (L). Something choked; anthra, -c, =x (G). Coal, charcoal;
quinzy a carbuncle
•angor (L). A strangling; anguish anthren, =a (G). A bee
angui, »s (L). A snake anthrop, -o, =us (G). A man
anguill, «a (L). An eel «anthus (G): A flower; (L): A bunt-
ing, titlark
angul (L). An angle, corner
anti (G). Against, opposite
angust, -i (L). Narrow antia, -do, «s (G). A tonsil
anhel, -a, -it (L). Puff, pant; •antiae (L). The forelock
asthma antillar (NL). Of the Antilles
«anhinga (S Am). The darter or antiqu (L). Old
snake bird «antlia (L). A pump
ania (G). Trouble
and Combining F o r m s 13

antr, -o, «urn (G). A cave, cavity appet, -it (L). Desire
anu, -la (L). A ring applanat (NL). Flattened
«anus (L). The anus; a ring apri (L). A wild boar
aort, «a (G). The great artery apric (L). Exposed to the sun
ap, =ex, -ic (L). The tip, extremity apsi, «s (G). A juncture
ap, -o (G). From, off, away apsinth, =us (G). Wormwood
apate, -1 (G). Trick', fallacious
=aper (L). A wild boar apt (L). Fasten, adjust, fix
aper, -i, -t (L). Open, uncovered aqua, -ri, -tic (L). Water; of water
aquil, «a (L). An eagle
aper, -o (G). Not mutilated »
«aquilo, -ni (L). The north wind;
«apex (L). The tip, extremity
aphan, =es (G). Unseen, invisible arab, -o, =us (G). A rattling
aphe (G). Touch arabi (L). Arabia, Arabian
aphel, -o (G). Smooth arach, «is (G). A leguminous plant
aphod, -o, «us (G). Departure arachn, «a, -i, -o (G). A spider;
aphr, -o, «us (G). Foam a spider web
arad, -o, =us (G). A rumbling,
aphrodisi (GMy). Sexual desire rattling
aphrodit (G My). Venus, goddess of arai, -o (G). Thin, weak
love and beauty, born from sea foam arane, «a, -i (L). A spider; a
aphron, -o (G). Silly, foolish spider web
«aphtha (G). An eruption, ulcer arat, -i, -or, -r (L). Plow
aphthit, -o (G). Imperishable «arbor (L). A tree
aphthon, -o (G). Plentiful arbut, «us (L). The strawberry
aphy, -o (G). Suck tree
api, -a (L). A bee arc, -i, -o, «us (L). A bow; an arch;
a box
apic (L). The apex, summit, tip arcan (L). Secret, hidden
apic (G). A pear tree arch, -aeo, -eo (G). Ancient
=apium (L). Celery, parsley arch, -e, -eg, -i (G). First, begin-
api, -o (G). Simple, single ning
aplat, -o (G). Terrible arch, -i, -o, «us, «y (G). Chief,
aplys, =ia, -io (G). A sponge; filthi- principal; a ruler; superior
ness arch, -o, «us (G). The rectum, anus
apo (G). From, off, away archae, -o (G). Ancient
apoceno (G). Drain archeg (G). First, beginning
apocyn (G). Dogbane archeo (G). Ancient
archi (G). First, beginning; chief;
apono (G). Painless, easy superior; ruler
apophys, «is (G). An offshoot, out- archo (G). Chief, principal; a ruler;
growth the rectum, anus
«apotheca (G). A storehouse
apparat (L). Prepared; a preparation
age -ic (L). Hang to; an append-
14 Dictionary of Word Roots

«archus (G). Chief, principal; a arist, -a, -i, -o (L). An awn,

ruler; superior; the rectum, bristle
anus arist, -o (G). Best, noblest
-archy (G). Rule arithm, -o (G). A number
arci, arco (L). A bow, an arc; a box arithm, -et, -o (G). Easily num-
arct, -o, -us (G). A bear bered, few
arctic (GMy). Northern, arctic -arium (L). A place where some-
-arctium (L). Burdock thing is kept
-arcus (L). A bow; an arch; a box arma, -t (L). Arms; armed
armill, =a (L). A bracelet
arcy, -us (G). A net arn, -o, -us (G). A lamb
ard, -i, -is (G). A point, arrow- aro (G). Plow, cultivate
head, sting aroli, =um (NL). A roll of cloth
ard, -e, -o (G). Water, irrigate •aroma, -t (G). Spice, seasoning
arde, -a (L). A heron arot, -o, -r, -ro (G). Plowing; a
arden (L). Burning crop
arpact, -es (G). A robber
ardi, -s (G). A point, arrowhead, arqua, -t (L). A bow, rainbow;
sting curved
ardm, -o, -us (G). A watering arrect (L). Steep, upright
place arrhen, -o (G). Male
ardo (G). Water, irrigate arrog (L). Assume, appropriate
ardu (L). Steep, difficult ars, -is (G). A raising, lifting
are, -a (L). A space, ground arsen (G): Male; (L): Arsenic
artam, -o, *us (G). A butcher
aren, =a, -i (L). Sand artem, »ia (G). Something sus-
arent (L). Dry, thirsty pended; safety
areo (L): Dry, thirsty; (G): War- -artemis (GMy). Diana, goddess of
like, martial the hunt
areol, -a (L). A little open space arteri, -a, -o (G). The windpipe;
aresc (L). Dry, thirsty an artery
-arethusa (LN). A water fountain arthr, -o, -urn (G). A joint; speech
artic, -ul (L). A joint; speech
arg, -o(G). Shining, bright artio (G). Even in number
argem, -a, -at (G). An ulcer in arto, -arms (G). A loaf of bread
the eye arunc, -us (L). The goat's-beard
argemon (G). An herb arundi, -n (L). A reed
argent, -at, -e (L). Silver; silvery arv, -al, -ens, -urn (L). Afield
argi, -a (G). Idleness, leisure -ary (L). A place where something
is kept
argill, -o, -us (G). White clay ary ten, -a (G). A ladle; a pitcher
argo (G). Shining, bright asbol, -o, -us (G). Soot
argyr, -o, =us (G). Silver
ari (G). Much; very; warlike
arill (NL).
=s, -tDry
A wrapper
A ram
and Combining Forms 15

asc, -i, -o, =us (G). A bag, blad- astrap, =a, -e (G). Lightning
der astring (L). Bind together, fasten
ascalaph, *us (G). An owl
ascari, *s (G). An intestinal worm astro (G). A star
asce, -t (G). Practice; curiously «astur (L). A hawk
wrought astut (L). Skilled, cunning
ascend (L). Climb, mount up atalant, -o (G). Equal to
asci (G). A bag, bladder atav (L). An ancestor
asci, «a (L). A hatchet «ater (L). Black
ascid, -i, =ium (G). A little bag •ather, -o (G). The beard of an
ascio (G). Without shade ear of corn
asclepi, *us (GMy). Aesculapius, athet, -o (G). Useless, set aside
god of medicine athl, -o, =um (G). A prize; a con-
asco (G). A bag, bladder test for a prize
asell, *us (L). A little ass athlet (G). A combatant, prize
asem, -i, -o (G). Obscure, in- fighter
distinct atla, -nt, -nto, =s (G My). A giant
asil, =us (L). A gadfly, horsefly bearing up the pillars of heaven;
asin, =us (L). An ass, simpleton the atlas bone
asine (G). Harmless, unharmed atloid, -o (G My). A giant bearing
«asio (L). An owl up the pillars of heaven; the atlas
aspala (G). A mole bone
aspalath, =us (G). A sweet- atm, -i, -ido, -o, =us (G). Smoke,
scented shrub vapor
asparag, =us (G). Asparagus
asper (L). Rough atop, -o (G). Out of place
asperg (L). Scatter, sprinkle atr, -i (L). Black
aspers (L). Scattered, sprinkled atrament, =um (L). Ink; inky
aspi, -d, *s (G): A shield; (L): An atrat (L). Clothed in black
adder, viper atri, =um (L). A vestibule; black
aspr (L). Rough
aspre, -d, -t (L). Roughness; atro, -c, *x (L). Hideous, terrible,
a rough place cruel
assul, »a (L). A splinter attac, =us (G). A kind of locust
astac, -o, =us (G). A lobster attagen, =is (L). A snipe; a grouse
=aster, -o (G). A star attelab, »us (G). A wingless locust
«astes (G). A singer
asthen (G). Weak, feeble atténuât (L). Thin, weak
»asthma, -t (G). Panting, gasping au (G). Besides
astr, -o, =um (G). A star auant (G). Wasted, atrophied
astragal, -o «us (G). The ankle auchen, -o, =us (G). The neck,
bone; dice throat
auchm, -o (G). Drought
auctumn, -i, *us (L).author;
16 D i c t i o n a r y of Word Roots

aucup, -al, -i (L). Bird-catching azot (F). Nitrogen

aud, -ac, -en (L). Daring azyg, -o (G). Unpaired, unmarried
audi, -en, -t (L). Hear
aug (G). Bright 6
augm, -en, -in (L). Increase, bacc, »a, -i (L). A berry; a pearl
growth bacch, -an, -e (GMy). Wine; frenzy
augur (L). A soothsayer, prophet bacill, «urn (L). A little stick
aul, »a, -i (G). A courtyard, hall bact, -er, -r (G). A rod, staff
aul, -o, =us (G). A pipe; a wind bacteri, -o (G). Bacteria
instrument bacul, »um (L). A rod, staff
aula, -c, -co, *x (G). A furrow badis, -i, -t (G). Walk, step
=aulon (G). A pipe; a meadow baen, -o (G). Walk, step
aur, =a, -o (L). Air baeo (G). Little
aur, -ar, -at, -e, -i (L). Gold, bagn (It). A bath
golden baio (G). Little
aur, -i, -icul, «is, -it (L). An balaen, »a, -i, -o (L). A whale
ear balan, -o, =us (G). An acorn; the
auranti (NL). Orange colored glans of the penis
auricul, -o (L). The auricle of balane, -i, -u (G). A bath
the ear or heart balanti, =um (G). A bag, pouch
aurit (L). Eared balb (L). Stammering
auro (L). Air baleen (L). A whale
auror, *a (L). Dawn bali, -o (G). Spotted; nimble
auscult, -a (L). Listen to balist, «a (L). A catapult
austr, -ali (L). Southern ball, -o (G). Throw, strike
aut, -o(G). Self ballism (G). Jumping about
autumn, -ali (L). Autumn ballot, =a (G). Hoarhound
aux, -e, -o (G). Grow, enlarge balne, -ari, -o (L). A bath
auxili, -ari (L). Aid; aiding balsam, -o, «urn (G). A balsam
avar, -i (L). Eager, greedy tree; balsam
=avena (L). Oats balteat (L). Girdled
avers (L). Turned away, with- bam (G). Go, walk
drawn bap, -h, -t, -tis (G). Dye; dip;
avi, -a, =s (L). A bird baptize
avid (L). Eager, greedy bar, -o, «us (G). Pressure; a
avit (L). A grandfather; ances- burden
tral bar, -o, -y (G). Heavy
axi, =s (L). An axis, axle barb, =a (L). A beard
=axilla (L). The armpit barbat (L). Bearded
axio (G). Worthy, good barbar, -o (G). Foreign
axo, =n (G). An axle, axis bari, -do, =s (G). A boat
az, -ale, -o (G). Dry, parched barnac (F). A goose
and Combining F o r m s 17

baro; *barus; bary (G). Pressure; bell (L). Beautiful

a burden; heavy bell, -ac, -at, -i, -ic (L). War
bas, -a, -eo, -i, -o (L). A base, belli, -d, =s (L). A daisy
foundation; a step bellerophon (GMy). A hero
basan, -i, -ism, -ist, -o (G). Test bellu, =a (L). A beast, monster
to prove genuine; torture belon, -a (G). A dart, arrowhead,
basi (L). Base, foundation; kiss needle
basidi, *um (L). A small pedestal belu, »a, -i (L). A beast, monster
basil, -e, -ic (G). Royal *belus (G). A dart, sting
basi, baso (L). A base, founda- bembe, -c, «x (G). A top; a buzzing
tion; a step insect
bembi, -c, =x (G). A top; a buzzing
basm, -o, «us (G). A step, degree insect
bass (LL). Low, deep benac, =us (L N). A deep lake
bassan (L). Bass Rock bene (L). Well
bassar, *a, =is (G). A fox benign (L). Good, friendly, kind
bat, «es (G). One that walks or benth, -o, *us (G). The depths of
haunts the sea
bat, -o, =us (G). A bramble; berberi (NL). Barberry
passable bernicl, =a (ME). A goose
bath, -o, -y (G). Deep; hi#i bero, -e (G). An ocean nymph
bathm, -o, =us (G). A step, de- beryll, -o, «us (G). A sea-green
gree jewel
bathr, -o, *um (G). A base, besicl (F). Spectacles
pedestal besti, »a (L). A beast
bâti, «s (G). The ray fish bet, =a (L). The beet
bato; =batus (G). A bramble; «betonica (L). Woodbetony
passable betul, »a (L). Birch
batrach, -o, *us (G). A frog bex, -i (G). Cough
batt, -o (G). Stammer bi (L). Two, twice, double
biaio (G). Forcible, violent
bdell, *a, -o (G). A leech biast, =es (G). One who uses force
=bdelygma, -to (G). Disgust, bib, »e, -ul (L). Drink, drinking
abomination «bibio, -n (LL). An insect
bdelyr, -o (G). Disgusting, bibli, -o, =um (G). A book, paper
abominable biblo (G). Paper
bdesm, =a (G). A stench bibul (L). Drinking
bdol, -o, =us (G). A stench bienn (L). Every two years
bebel, -o (G). Profane bili, =s (L). Bile; anger
beber (L). A beaver bin (L). Two, two at a time
bebr, -o (G). Stupid bio, «β, -t (G). Life
bittac, -o, -us (G). A parrot
bech, -ic, -o (G). Cough
bel, -emn, -i, -o, »us (G). A
dart, sting
18 Dictionary of Word Roots

bitum, «en, -in (L). Asphalt, pitch «bolus (G): A throw, stroke, a clod;
blab, -o (G). Hurt, damage (L): a morsel
blaber, -o (G). Harmful, noxious bom, -o, «us (G). A raised place,
blac, -o (G). Lazy, sluggish stand
blacic, -o (G). Stupid, indolent bomb, «us (G). A buzzing
blaes, -o (G). Crooked bomba, -c, «x (LL). Cotton
blan, -o (G). Blind bombol (It). A bottle
bland, -i (L). Smooth-tongued, bomby, -c, «x (G). The silkworm;
flattering silk
blap, - s , -t (G). Hurt, damage bombyli, «us (G). A buzzing insect;
Wast, -em, -o, «us (G). A bud, a bumble bee
sprout bomo (G). A raised place, stand
blatt, «a (L). A cockroach bon (L). Good
blatte (L). Purple bonas (L): Bison; (NL): a kind of
blechn, -o, «urn (G). A kind of bird
fern boo (G). An ox, cow
blechr, -o (G). Weak, feeble bor, «a, -i (G). Food, meat
«blemma, -to (G). A glance, look borag (LL). A kind of plant
blenn, -o, «us (G): Slime; a kind borass, -o, «us (G). Palm fruit
offish; (L): a simpleton borbor, -o, «us (G). Mud, filth
blep, -o, «sis (G). A look, glance bore, -al (GMy). North, northern
blephar, -id, «is, -o (G). An eye- bori (G). Food, meat
lash boro (G). Greedy, gluttonous
blit, -o, «urn (L). A tasteless «bos (L). An ox, cow
vegetable bosc (G). Feed
blite (L). Insipid; stupid bosc, «as (G). A kind of duck
blosyr, -o (G). Grim, stern bosi, «s (G). Food, fodder
blothr, -o(G). Tall, higi-growing bostrich, -o (G). Curl; a kind of
bly, -s, -sm (G). Bubble up insect
bo, «a, -i (L). A water serpent bostrych, -o (G). Curl; a kind of
bo, -ar, -o, «s, -v (L). An ox, insect
cow botan, «a (G). Pasture, grass, fodder
boe, -o (G). Little; an ox botaur, «us (NL). A bittern
bol, =a, -o, »us (G). A throw, bothr, -i, -o, «us (G). A pit, trench
stroke botr, -io, -y, -yo, =ys (G). A bunch
bol, -ac, «ax, -o, «us (G). A clod, of grapes
lump botul, «us (L). Sausage
bolb, -o, «us (G). A bulb bou (G). A cow, ox
bolet, «us (L). A kind of mush- boub, «on (G). The groin
room boubal, -o, «us (G). The buffalo
bolit, -o, «um, «us (G). Cow dung bov, -i (L). A cow, ox
bolo (G). Throw; a clod, lump bracat (L). Wearing trousers
and Combining F o r m s 19

brachi, -o, «urn (G). The arm brygm, -o (G). Gnashing teeth
brachist, -o (G). Shortest bryo (G). Swell; moss
brachy (G). Short bu (G). An ox
bracte, «a (L). A thin metal plate bubal, «us (G). A buffalo
«bubo (L). An owl
brad, -o, -y (G). Slow
bubon (G). The groin
branch, -i, «ium, -o «urn (G). A
gill; a fin; hoarse bubul (L). Of oxen or cattle
«branta (Ice). A brant, goose bucc, «a (L). The cheek
brassic, «a (L). Cabbage buccin (L). A trumpet; a shellfish
brecc (It). Break «bufo, -ni (L). A toad
brechm, -o, «us (G). The top of the bul, «es, -i (G). Will, determination
•bregma, -t (G). The top of the head bulb, «us (L). A bulb
brem (G). Roar bulim (G): Hunger; (L): a mollusc
brenth, -a, «us (G). A stately water bull, «a (L). A bubble
bird; arrogance bun, -o, «us (G). A hill, mound
breph, -o, «us (G). An unborn or buprest, «is (G). A beetle poisonous
newly born child to cattle
brev, -i (L). Short
brith, -o, -y (G). Heavy; a weigit burr (L). Red
briz, -o (G). Nod, sleep; a grain burs, «a (L). A hide; a purse
broch, -o (G): A loop; (L): with bust, «urn (L). A funeral pile
projecting teeth «buteo, -ni (L). A kind of hawk
brom, «a, -ato (G). Food butom, «us (G). A kind of water plant
brom, -o, «us (G). Oats; a stench
bromeli (NL N). The pineapple butorid (NL). A bittern
bromi, -o (G). Noisy, buzzing butyr, «urn (L). Butter
bromo (G). Oats; a stench bux, «us (L). The box tree
«bromus (G). Oats; a stench byo (G). Stuff full
bronch, -i, -o, «us (G). The wind-
pipe byrrh (L). Red, flame-colored
bront, «a, -o (G). Thunder byrs, =a, -o (G). A skin, hide
•brosis (G). Eating; food byss, -o, «us (G). Fine thread; fine
brot, -o, «us (G). Blood, gore; linen; the depths of the sea
mortal byth, -o (G). The depths of the sea
brote, -o (G). Edible
bruch, «us (L). A wingless locust
brum, -al (L). Winter
caball, ms (L). A pack horse
brunne, -i (LL). Brown cac, -a, -h, -o (G). Bad
brut (L). Heavy; stupid cacali, «a (G). The colt's-foot
bryc, -h, -ho, -o (G). Devour; roar cacatu (Mai). The cockatoo
caco, «a (G). Excrement
barley-i, Bad
-y, =ysLaugfr
(G). Parched
20 Dictionary of Word Roots

caco (G). Bad, decayed, diseased call, -c, «x (L). A cup

cact, =us (G). A prickly plant calid (L). Warm, hot
cad (L). Fall calidri, «s (G). A shore bird
cad, -o, «us (G). An urn, cask calig, «a (L). A boot
cadaver, -i (L). A dead body caligin (L). Dark, obscure
caduc, -1 (L). Falling early calio (G). A nest; a hut
cae (see also ce and coe) «calix (L). A cup
caec (L). Blind call, -e, -i, -o (L). Hardened
caecili, «a (L). A kind of lizard call, -i, -o, «us (G). A beauty;
caela, -t (L). Engrave, emboss «callaea (G). A cock's comb
caen, -o (G). New, fresh, recent callid (L). Shrewd, clever
caerule (L). Blue callio (G). More beautiful
caesari (L). Hair, longhair callo (L). Hardened, thick-skinned;
caesi (L). Bluish gray (G): beautiful
caesp, «es, -it (L). Turf, sod callun (G). Adorn, beautify
cal, -o (G). Beautiful calo (G). Beautiful
cala (L). Insert; summon calor, -i (L). Heat
calpi, -d, «s (G). An urn, pitcher
calam, -o, «us (L). A reed «caltha (L). A marigold
calamistr, *um (L). A curling iron calumn (L). Deceive, trick
calamit (L). Misfortune calv (L). Bald
calandr, «us, (G): A kind of lark; «calx (L). The heel; lime, lime-
(NL): a weevil stone
calapp (Mal). A cocoanut caly, -c, =x (G). The calyx
calath, -isc, -o, «us (G). A «calymma, -to (G). A veil
wicker basket calyps, «o (G). A beautiful nymph
cale, -i (L). The heel; lime, calypt, -o (G). Covered; a cover
calcan, -e (L). The heel calyptr, «a (G). A veil
calcar, -e, -i (L). A spur; lime, «calyx (G). The calyx
limestone cambi (L). Exchange
calce (L). Chalk-white; a shoe cambr, -i (L). Wales
calceat (L). Wearing shoes camel, -o, «us (G). A camel
calci (L). The heel; lime, lime- earner, -a, -o (L). An arch; a
stone chamber
calcitr (L). Kicking camp, «a, «e, -o (G). A bending; a
calcul, =us (L). A small stone caterpillar
cald (L). Hot, warm
cale (L). Heat camp, -o, -s, -to (G). Bending, flexible
calen (L). Warming, heating camp, «us (L): A field; (G): a sea
call, «a,(L).
month; -o FirstAday
a month
(G). of the
nest; a hut monster
campan (G).
A bell
and Combining F o r m s 21

campestr (L). Of fields capit, -i, -o (L). The head

campo (G). A caterpillar; bending, capn, -o, =us (G). Smoke
flexible; a sea animal cappari, =s (G). A kind of plant
camps, campto (G). Bending, flex- capr, -e, -i (L). A goat; the smell
ible under the armpits
«campus (L): A field; (G): a sea capreol, =us (L). A support, prop,
monster tendril
can (L). Gray, ash-colored caprific, =us (L). The wild fig
can, -o, »um (G). A straight rod caps, =a (G). A box, chest
canach (G). Noisy caps (G). Eat quickly
capsul, =a (L). A little box
canadens (NL). Of Canada capt (G). Eat quickly
canal, «is (L). A canal, duct capul (L). A handle; a tomb
cane, =er, -r, -ro (L). A crab; car (L). Dear, loved
an ulcer; cancer car, =a (G). The head, top
cancell, -i (L). Latticework car, =ex, -ic (L). A sedge
cand, -e, -id, -or (L). White, carab, =us (G). A kind of beetle
brilliant caran, -g, -x (Sp). A flatfish
candidat (L). Clothed in white carapac (F). A covering, shield
canescen (L). Becoming gray carb, -o, -on (L). Coal
carbas (L). Flax, linen
cani, -n, =s (L). A dog career, -a (L). A prison
cann, =a, -ul (G). A reed carchar, -o (G). Jagged
cannabi, =s (G). Hemp carcin, -o, =us (G). A crab; an ulcer
cano (G). A straight rod carcinoma, -t (G). Cancer; an ulcer
cano, -r (L). A song, melody card, -i, =ia, -io (G). The heart
card, -in, =o (L). A hinge, pivot
canon (L). A rule, model cardam, =um (G). A kind of cress
cant (L). Song; sing cardinal (L). Chief, principal; red
canteri, =us (L). Ahorse cardu (L). A thistle
canth (G). The corner of the eye caren, -o, *um (G). The head; a
canthar, -i, -o, =us (G). A kind peak or crest
of beetle; a drinking cup caret, -to (F). A kind of turtle
cantheli, =a (G). A pack saddle =carex (L). A sedge
=canum (G). A straight rod cari, =es, -o (L). Rottenness
canut (L). White, gray-haired cari, -d, =s (L). A shrimp
capac, -i (L). Amount contained carie (L). A sedge
capell, =a (L). A goat carin, =a (L). A keel
=caper (L). A goat; the smell under cario (L). Rottenness
the armpits earn, -eo, -i (L). Flesh
caperat (L). Wrinkled carnif, =ex, -ic (L). An executioner
carot (G): Stupor; (L): a carrot
capet, -o, =us (G). A ditch, trench
capill, -a (L). Hair
capistr, =um (L). A halter, nose-
piece, muzzle
22 Dictionary of Word Roots

carp, -o, =us (G). The wrist; a cato (G). Down, downward, against
fruit catopt, -o (G). Conspicuous, visible
carph, -o, s us (G). Straw, dry catoptr, -o, =um (G). A mirror
twigs catul, =us (L). A puppy
carpin, =us (L). The hornbeam eau, -m, -s, -st, -t (G). Burn, burn-
carsio (G). Crooked, oblique ing
cartilag, -in, =o (L). Gristle caud, »a (L). The tail
caruncul (L). A bit of flesh caud, »ex, -ic (L). The trunk of a
cary, -o, =um (G). A nut; the nu- tree
cleus caude (L). Wooden
case (L). Old caul, -i, =is (L): -o, *us (G): A
case, -i, =us (L). Cheese stem, stalk
cassi, -di, «s (L). A helmet caum (G). Burn, burning
cast (L). Pure caus -t (G). Burn, burning
castane, =a (L). The chestnut caut (G). Burn, burning
castig (L). Chastise cav, -a, -e, -i (L). Hollow, a cave
«castor (G). The beaver caval (F). A horse
castr (L). Deprive of generative cavern, =a (L). A cave, chamber
power cavill, =a (L). Jest, jeer
casu (L). Fall; chance ceanoth, =us (G). A kind of thistle
casuar (Mal). A cassowary ceasm (G). A chip, splinter
cat, -a, -o (G). Down, downward ceb, -o, =us (G). A monkey
catabasi (G). Descent cebl, =a, =e (G). The head
«catagma, -to (G). A fracture; a cec (L). Blind
piece of wool ceci, -do, =s (G). A gallnut; juice;
catalysi, =s (G). A dissolving ink
catant (G). Downward, downhill ceco (G). A sea bird
catari (LL). Of a cat cecrop, -i (My). A king of Attica
cataract (G). Falling down =cedemon (G). A mourner; a guardian
eaten, =a, -ari (L). A chain cedr, -o =us (G). Cedar
«cathamma, -to (G). A knot celad, -o, =us (G). The noise of
cathar, -o (G). Clean, pure moving wind or water
cathart, -i (G). Cleansing celastr, =us (G). An evergreen tree
cathedr, =a (G). A seat celât (L). Concealed
cathet, -o (G). Hanging down, celé (G). A rupture, hernia; a
perpendicular tumor
cathism (G). A seat celebr (L). Famous
cathod (G). A going down, descent celeo (G). A woodpecker; charm,
catholic, -o (G). Universal bewitch
catill, -o (G). Roll up, fold up celer, -i (L). Swift
catin, =us (L). A bowl, dish celest, -i (L). Heavenly
and Combining F o r m s 23
celet (L). Hidden cere, -o, «us (G). The tail
celi, -a (G). Hollow; the abdominal cerchne (G). A kind of hawk
cavity cercop, -i, «s (G). A long-tailed
celi, -do, =s (G). A spot, stain, monkey
blemish cerd, -al (G). Gain; cunning; a fox
celib (L). Unmarried cere (L): wax; (My): the goddess of
cell, -a, -i (L). A granary, store- agriculture
house; a small room, cell cereal (NL). Grain
celo (G). A tumor; hollow; dry, cereb, -ell, -r, -ro (L). The brain
parched ceres (L My). The goddess of agri-
•celtis (L). A kind of lotus culture
celyph, -o, «us (G). A husk, rind, ceri (L). Wax
shell cerin (L). Wax-colored, yellowish
cemet (G). A burial place cerith (NL). A shellfish
cen, -o (G). Empty; recent; common 'cerma, -to (G). A slice; a small
cenchr, -o, «us (G). A kind of millet coin
ceno, -s, -t (G). Evacuation cernu (L). Nodding, drooping
cent, -e (G). Pierce, spear cerom, «a (G). Ointment
cent, -en, -i (L). A hundred cert, -a (L). Struggle, contend;
centau, =r (G). A piercer, spear- determined, certain
man certh, -i (G). A tree creeper
centes, -is (G). A puncture cerule (L). Blue
centesim (L). The hundredth ceruss, «a (L). White lead
centi (L). A hundred cerv, «us (L). A deer
centr, -i, -o, =um (G). The center; cervi, -c, =x (L). The neck
a point, spur ceryl, «us (G). A kingfisher
cep, =a, -ol (L). An onion cesi (L). Bluish gray
cephal, «a, -o (G). The head cespi (L). Turf, sod
cepph, «us (G). A petrel-like sea cess, -a (L). Stop
bird; a simpleton cest, -o (G). A girdle; embroidered
«ceps (NL). The head cestr, «a (G). A pickaxe; a kind of
cer, «a, -e, -i (L). Wax fish
cera, -t, -to (G). Horn cet, -a, «us (G). A whale
ceram, -o, «us (G). Clay; an cetr, «a (L). A shield
earthen pot ceuth, «o (G). Concealed, hidden
cerambyc (G). A kind of beetle chaem, -e (G). On the ground, low
ceras, «us (L). A cherry chaen, -o (G). Yawn, gape; open
cerast (G). Horny; horned chaer, -i, -o (G). Delight, rejoice;
cerat, -o (G). Horn a young pig
ceraun, -o, «us (G). A thunderbolt chaet, «a, -o (G). Longflowinghair,
cere, -i, «is (G). A rod; a kind of mane; a bristle
poplar chain, -o (G). Yawn, gape; open
24 D i c t i o n a r y of Word Roots

chalar, -o (G). Loose, slack chem (G). Juice; pour; a yawning

chalast, -o (G). Loose, relaxed chemo (G). Gaping; chemistry
chalaz, =a, -o (G). A hailstorm; a «chen, -o (G). A goose; yawn, open
tubercle cheo (G). Pour
chalc, -eo (G). Coppery chern, =e (G). A day laborer
chers, -o (G). Dry; dry land
chalc, -o (G). Copper cheum, =a (G). That which is poured
chalci, -d, - s (G). A fish; a liz- chias, -m, -t (G). Cross, mark cross
ard; a bird of prey wise; diagonally arranged
chalin, -o, *us (G). A strap, chicor (F). Chicory
chil, -o, «us (G). A lip; fodder
chalyb, -i, « s (L). Steel chili, -o (G). A thousand
cham, -ae, -e (G). On the ground, «chima, -to (G). Winter, frost
low chimer, «a (G). A goat; a monster
cham, -o, «us (G)· A rein, bridle «chion, -o (G). Snow
chama (G). Gape «chir, -o (G). A hand
chan, -e, -o (G). Yawn, gape; chironom, «us (G). One who moves
open the hands
chancr (F). Cancer chit, «on (G). A tunic
chao, =8 (G). An abyss, empty chitra (H). Speckled; a deer
space chlaen, «a (G). A cloak
char (G). Graceful chlamy, -d, =s (G). A cloak
«chara (L). Cabbage chlan, =a (G). A cloak
chara, -c, =x (G). A pointed chlani, -do, « s (G). A woolen garment
stake; a sea fish chlo, «a (G). A blade of grass
charact, »er (G). Something en- chloanth (G). Budding
graved chlor, -o (G). Green
charadri, «us (G). A curlew •chlorion (G). A yellow bird
charadro (G). Full of gulleys choan, =a, -o (G). A funnel
choem, -e (G). On the ground, low
chari, =s, -t (G). Favor, grace choer, -o (G). A young pig
chari, -to (G). Graceful, favorable chol, «a, -e, -o (G). Bile; anger
chart, «a (L). A paper chol, -o (G). Lame, maimed
•chasma, -to (G). A gaping chola, -d, =s (G). The intestines,
chauliod (G). With projecting teeth bowels
cheil, -o, =us (G). A lip choler, «a (G). The cholera
cheim, -o (G). Winter choli, -c, =x (G). The entrails
«cheir, -o (G). A hand cholo (G). Bile; anger; lame, maimed
chel, -a, -i (G). A claw, hoof chondr, -o, =us (G). A grain, corn;
chel, -on, =ona, -y, =ys (G). A cartilage
chondrill, «a (G). A lump
tortoise, turtle
«chelidon (G). A swallow
chelydr, -o, *us (G). A water
and Combining F o r m s 25

chor, -o (L): A chorus; (G): cichori, =um (G). Chicory

dance; a place cicindel, «a (L). A glowworm
chord, =a (G). A string; the cicinn, -o, =us (G). A curl of hair
string of a musical instrument ciconi, =a (L). A stork
•chordeiles (G). A stringed instru- cicut, =a (L). The poison hemlock
ment cidar, -i, =is (G). A turban
=chordeuma (G). A sausage »cide (L). Kill
chore, -o (G). Dancing; go, with- cili, -a, -o, *um (L). An eyelid,
draw eyelash, small hair
choret, =es (G). An inhabitant of cill, =a, -o (L). The tail
the country cim, =ex, -ic (L). A bug
chori, -o, =on, =um (G). A skin, cimbia (L). A girdle
membrane cimeli, =um (G). A treasure
chori, -st (G). Asunder; separate cimoli, =a (G). A white clay
choro (L): A chorus; (G): dance; cincinn (L). A curl, curl of hair
a place cincl, -o, »us (G). The wagtail
choroid (G). Like a membrane cinct (L). Girdled
chort, -o, =us (G). A feeding cine, -ma, -mato, - s , -t (G). Move;
place motion, movement
«chrema, -to (G). Money, wealth ciner, -ar, -e, -i (L). Ashes
chres, -to (G). Useful cingul, =um (L). A girdle, belt
=chrisma, -to (G). Anointment cini, =s (L). Ashes
christ, -o (G). Anointed cinnabar (G). Red, vermilion
»chroa (G). The skin cinnyr, »is (G). A small bird
chrom, =a, -ato, -o (G). Color cinygm, a a, -ato (G). A floating
chron, -i, -o, =us (G). Time; a body, phantom
long time =cion, -o (G). A pillar; the uvula
chrot, -o (G). The skin cipit (L). The head
chrys, -o, =us (G). Gold circ, -a, -e (My). Circe, the en-
=chthon, -o (G). The earth, chantress
ground circ, -i, -in, -ul (L). A ring, circle
chy, -1, -lo, -m, -mo (G). Juice; circ, =us (G). A hawk that wheels or
flavor; chyle circles
chyt, -lo, -o (G). Fluid; shed circum (L). Around
chytr, =a, -o (G). An earthen ciris (GMy). A bunting
pot cirr, =us (L). A curJ of hair
cib, -ar (L). Food; edible cirrh, -o (G). Tawny, orange-
cibori, =um (G). A drinking cup colored
cicad, =a (L). A cicada, tree cirs, -o, =us (G). A dilated vein
cricket cirsi, =um (G). A kind of thistle
cicatr, -ic, »ix (L). A scar cis (L). On this side
cichl, =a (G). A thrush ciss, -o, =us (G). Ivy
26 Dictionary of Word Roots

cist, «a (G). A box, chest; •clethra (G). The alder

a shrub clid, -o, «us (G). A key
cit, -i (L). Swift clima, -c, «x (G). A ladder
cithar, «a (G). A lyre; a kind of «clima, -to (G). A region; the cli-
fish mate; a slope
citr, -in, -o (G). A lemon clin, »a, -i, -o (G). A bed
«citta (G). A chattering bird; a jay
clad, -i, -o, «us (G). A branch, clin, -o (G). Bend, slope
sprout clio, -to (G). Glory; news
cladar, -o (G). Fragile, brittle clipe, -o, «us (L). A shield
clam, -a, -or (L). Cry out clis, -eo, -i (G). A bedroom; an in-
clamb, -o (G). Mutilated, deficient clination
clandestin (L). Secretly
clangul, -a (NL). A clang, sound clist, -o (G). Closed
clar, -a, -i (L). Clear clitell (L). A pack saddle
clas, -i, -m, -t (G). Break; broken; clithr, «um (G). A key, bar, bolt
a fragment clito, -r (G). Close
claster, -i, «ium (G). A knife ; cliv, «us (L). A slope
clathr (L). A lattice
claud, -i (L). limp, lame; shut cloac, «a (L). A sewer
claus, «us (L). An enclosed place clon (G). A branch, twig
claustr (L). A lock, bar, door clon, =us (G). A violent motion, a
clav, «a, -i (L). A club tumult
clavicul, «a (L). A key elope (G). Robbery, fraud
«clavus (L). A band on a tunic; a
clost, -er, -ri (G). Thread, yarn
swelling, wart
cleid, -o, «us (G). A key; the clost, -o (G). Spun, coiled
clavicle clu, -d, -s (L). Close
cleis, -is, -to (G). Close; closing; clupe, «us (L). A shield; a river fish
closed clur, -in (L). An ape
cleithr, »um (G). A bar, key, bolt •clydon, -o (G). A wave
clem, «a, -t, «tis (G). A vine cut-
ting, twig, brushwood clype, -o, «us (L). A shield
clemen, =s, -t (L). Tranquil clys, -is, -m (G). Wash, drench
«clemma, -to (G). A theft, trick clyst, «er, -ero (G). A syringe
clemmy, «s (G). A turtle
cleo, -to (G). Glory; news clyt, -o (G). Famous
clep, -s, -t (G). Steal; a thief cnec, -o, «us (G). Pale yellow; a
clepsydr, «a (G). A water clock thistle
cler, -i, -o, «us (G). A lot, por- cnem, -i, -a, «is (G). The part of
tion; a kind of insect the leg between the knee and the
clethr, «urn (G). A key, bar, bolt ankle; legging, leg armor
cneo (G). Scrape, scratch
cnepha, -to (G). Dark, darkness
cneth, -i
-o -o
cnic, «us
enid, «a, (G).
(G). A rasp,
A A scraper
nettle plant
and Combining F o r m s 27
cnip, -o, «8 (G). An insect living colli, - s (L). A hill
under bark collicul (L). A little hill
cnism, «a, -ato (G). An itching collig, -at (L). Bound together
co, - 1 , -m, -n (L). With, together collin (L). Found on a hill
coagul (L). Drive together; collinit (L). Besmeared
curdle collod (G). Glue-like
coarct (L). Pressed together •collum (L). The neck
collyr, «a (L): Macaroni; (G): a
cobit, -i (G). A gudgeon-like fish small cake
cocc, -i, -o, «us (G). A berry colo (G). The colon; a limb; maimed,
coccin (L). Scarlet curtailed
coccy, -g, «χ, -z (G). A cuckoo colob, -o (G). Shortened, mutilated
cochl, *ea (L). A snail, snail colocynth, -a (G). A pumpkin
shell; spiral; a spoon colon, -o (G). Shorten; the colon
cod, «a (L). The tail colophon (G). The summit, end
cod, «ex, -ic (L). Writing, a man­ color, -i (L). Color
uscript coloss, -o (G). Gigantic
codia (G). The head -colous (L). Inhabiting
colp, -o, «us (G). The bosom; the
codon (G). A bell
womb; the vagina
coec (L). Blind colub, «er, - r (L). A serpent, snake
coel, -i, -o (G). Hollow columb, «a (L). A dove, pigeon
coeles, -t (L). The sky, heavens column, «a (L). A pillar
«coelia (G). The abdominal cavity -colus (L). Inhabiting
coelo (G). Hollow colymb, -i, -o (G). A diver, a diving
coemema (G). Sleep bird
coen, -o (G): Common; (L): dirt com (L). With, together
«coma, -to (L): Hair; (G): a deep
coereb (Br). A kind of bird sleep
coerule (L). Blue comi, -d (G). Care, attention
coet, -o (G). Bed, sleep comm, -o, «us (G). Ornamentation;
coit, «us (L). A coming together lamentation
col (L): with, together; (G): the comma (G). A short clause; a stamp,
colon; a limb coin
col, -a, -i (L). Dwell commis (L). United
colapt, -o (G). Chisel, peck, cut commun (L). Common; in common
«commus (G). Ornamentation; lamen-
cole, -o (G). A sheath tation
colic, -o (G). Affecting the bowels comos (L). With long hair
•colinus (Mex). The bobwhite comp, -o (G). Make a noise, clash;
coli, -o, «us (G). A woodpecker a noise
coll, -a (G). Glue comps, -o (G). Neat, elegant
coll, -i (L). The neck; a hill
collari (L). Of the collar
collât (G).
(L). Brought
Glued together
28 D i c t i o n a r y of Word Roots

compt (L). An ornament copr, -o, «us (G). Dung, excrement

con (L). With, together copt, -o (G). Cut; strike
con, -i, -o, =us (G). A cone; a copul, «a (L). A link, bond
pine cone cora, -c, -co, *x (G). A crow, raven
conario (G). The pineal gland corail, -i, «ium (G). Coral
conch, «a, -o (G). A shell
corb, -i, «is (L). A basket
conchyli, -o, »um (G). A shellfish
condit (L). Hidden; polished corchor, «us (G). Chickweed
condyl, -o, «us (G). A knuckle, cord, -i (L). The heart
knob cordul, -e, -i (G). A club; a swelling
cong, =er, -r (L). An eel cordyl, -e, -i (G). A club; a swelling
coni, -co, -o, «urn (G). A cone; a core (G). The pupil of the eye; a
pine cone; pine, hemlock
coni, -di, -o, »s (G). E)ust maiden
coniat, -o (G). Plastered, white- core, -i, -o (G). A bug; sweep
washed corem, «a (G). A broom; refuse
con jug (L). Joined together corethr, »um (G). A broom
connar, «us (G). An evergreen cori, -a, «urn (L). Leather, skin
tree cori, «s (G). A bug; a kind of fish
conniv (L). Wink corm, -o, «us (G). A log, tree trunk
cono (G). A cone; a pine cone corn, -e (L). Horn; horny
conop, « s (G). A gnat corni, -c, «x (L). A crow
conspers (L). Spotted, speckled cornut (L). Horned
cont, -o, «us (G). A pole; short coro (G). The pupil of the eye
contabesc (L). Waste away coroll, «a (L). A little crown or
contigu (L). Adjoining wreath
contra (L). Against, opposite coron, «a (L): A crown; (G): a raven
contumac (L). Stubborn, haughty corp, -or, -u (L). A body
conul (L). A little cone corpusc (L). A little body
«conus (G). A cone, a pine cone corrugat (L). Wrinkled
convall, «is (L). A valley corrupt (L). Marred, spoiled
convolv (L). Roll together; a bind- cort, «ex, -ic, -ico (L). The bark,
weed shell
cop, -a, -e, -i (G). An oar, han- corthyl, «us (G). A crested bird
dle cortin, «a (L). A kettle; a curtain
cop, -o (G). Pain, suffering corv, «us (L). A crow, raven
copal (Mex). Blunt cory, -d, « s (G). A helmet
coph, -o (G). Deaf; dumb; blunt coryc, -o, «us (G). A sack
copi (G). An oar, handle coryd, -o, «us (G). The crested lark
copid (G). A cleaver corydal, «is, «us (G). A lark; larkspur
copios (L). Abundant coryl, «us (L). The hazel tree
copo (G). Pain, suffering corymb, «us (G). The top, summit
a cluster of flowers
coryn, «a, -et (G). A club
and Combining Forms 29

coryph, =a (G). The head, top ere, =as, -at, -o (G). Flesh, meat
=corys (G). A helmet crebr (L). Frequent, close
coryst, =es (G). A warrior crecisc (L). A rail-like bird
coryz, =a (G). A running at the nose crem, -a (L). Burn
coscin, -i, =um (G). A sieve crem, -a, -o (G). Hang
cosm, -o (G). Order; the world, «cremaster (G). A suspender
universe cren, =a, -o (G). A spring
cosmet (G). Well ordered, adorned cren, -a, -ul (L). A notch
cost, =a (L). A rib creo (G). Flesh, meat
cost, =um (L). An aromatic plant crepi, -do, =s (G). A boot, sandal
cothurn, *us (G). A high shoe, boot crépit (L). Creak, rattle
cotin, =us (G). Oleaster, wild olive crepuscul (L). Twilight
cotone (NL). Quince cresc (L). Grow, increase
cott, =us (G). A kind of fish; a cret, =a,(L): Chalk; separated;
cock;a horse (G): Crete
coturni, -c, =x (L). A quail «crex (G). A rail
cotyl, -ed, -o (G). A cup, socket, crib, -ell, -r (L). A sieve
cavity cric, -o, *us (G). A ring, circle
counter (L). Opposite, against crin, -o, *um (G). A lily; separate
cox, =a, -o (L). The hip crini, »s (L). The hair
=crabro, -n (L). A hornet crinit (L). Bearded
cracc, -a (L). A vetch crio (G). A ram
cracen, -t (L). Slender cri si, =s (G). A judgment, a choosing
-cracy (G). Rule; strength crisp (L). Curled
cramb, -o (L): Cabbage; (G): crissa, -1 (L). The under tail coverts
parched crist, =a (L). A crest
cran, -o, =us (G). A helmet crith, =a (G). Barley
crang, -o, =on (G). A shrimp criti, -c (G). Chosen, select
crani, -a, -o, =um (G). The skull croc, -e (G). A pebble; a thread
cranter (G). A performer croc, -o (G). The crocus; saffron,
crapul, =a (L). Intoxication orange-colored
eras, -i (G). Mix, blend crocid (G). The nap on cloth
crasped, -o (G). A border crocodil, =us (G). A lizard, crocodile
crass (L). Thick crocut, =a (L). A hyena
crastin (L). Tomorrow cromy, -o, =um (G). An onion
crat, -ero, -i, -o, =us (G). cross, -o (G). A tassel, fringe
Strength, power crotal, =um (G). A rattle, Castanet
crataeg, =us (G). A kind of thorn crotaph, =us (G). The temples
crater, =a (L). A bowl croto (G). Rattle; a tick
crati (L): Wickerwork; (G): croton (G). A tick; the castor oil
strength, power plant
crato (G). Strength, power cruel (L). A cross; torture
30 Dictionary of Word Roots

crudesc (L). Becoming raw cune, -i, *us (L). A wedge

cruent (L). Bleeding, bloody cunicul, «us (L). A rabbit; an un-
derground passage
cruor (L). Blood cunil, -a (L). A kind of plant
crur, -a (L). The leg, shank cunn, =us (L). The vulva
«crus (L). The leg, shank cup, *a (L). A tub
crusi, =s (G). A stroke on a cupedi (L). Dainty
stringed instrument cupid (L). Desire; eager
crust, =a (L). A crust, rind cupr, -i, -o, «urn (L). Copper
=crux (L). A cross cupul, *a (L). A cup, cask
cry, -mo, -o (G). Cold, frost curcu (Ar). Orange-colored
crybel, -o (G). Hidden •curculio, -n (L). A weevil
cryph (G). Hidden curr, -en (L). Run; running
curso, -r (L). Run; a runner
cryps (G). Secret curt, -i (L). Short
crypt, -o (G). Hidden, concealed curt, -o (G). Curved
cryst, -alio (G). Ice, crystal curv, -i (L). Curved
•cuscuta (Ar). Dodder
cten, -idi, -iz, -o (G). Comb cuspi, -d, *s (L). A point
cton, -o (G). Kill custod (L). Guard
cub (L): Lie down; (NL): Cuba; cut, -ane, -i, -ic (L). Skin
(G): a cube cyam, -o, *us (G). A bean
cubit, =um (L). The elbow cyan, -e, -i, -o (G). Dark blue
cyath, »us (G). A cup
cubo (G). A cube cybe (G). The head of a mushroom
cucuj (Br). A kind of beetle cybern (G). Steer, guide
cucul, -i, =us (L). A cuckoo «cybister (G). A diver
cucull, =us (L). A hood cybo (G). A cube
cyca, -d (G). A kind of palm
cucum, -er, «is (L). A cucumber cycl, -o, =us (G). A circle, wheel
cucurbit, =a (L). A gourd cycn, -o (G). A swan
-cul, =a, *um, =us (L). Little cydn, -o (G). Splendid, noble, famous
cule, =us (L). A sack cydon, -i (G). The quince
«culex, culic (L). A gnat cyem, -a, -ato, -i (G). An embryo
culin, =a (L). A kitchen cyesi, -o, =s (G). Pregnancy
culm, =us (L). A stalk cygn, =us (G). A swan
cylichn, »a (G). A small cup
culm, =en, -in (L). A ridge, summit cylind, -ro (G). A roll, cylinder
culp, =a (L). Crime, fault, blame cyll, -o (G). Lame, crippled
cult (L). Cultivate, plow, till cym, =a, -o (G). A wave; an embryo
cymb, »a, -i, -o (G). A hollow vessel
cultr (L). A knife cyn, -o (G). A dog
culu, =s, =m (L). Little
cum, -a, -ato (G). A wave
mass; form
and Combining F o r m s 31

cynip, «s (G). A kind of insect daul, -o (G). Shaggy

cyo (G). The foetus de (L). From, down, out
«cyon (G). A dog
cypar, «is (G). The cypress dealbat (L). Whitewashed
cyper, «us (G). A rush, sedge debil, -i (L). Disabled, weak
cyph, -o (G). Bent deca (G). Ten
cyphell, «a (G). The hollow of
the ear decern (L). Ten
cypr, -ae, -i, -o (L). Venus; love decen -t (L). Decent, proper
cyprid (G). Lovely decid, -u (L). Falling off
cyprin, -ο, «us (G). A carp decim (L). One-tenth; ten
cypsel (G). A hollow structure;
a swift; a beehive decis (L). Cut off ; settled
cyri, -o (G). Master of; critical; declivi (L). Sloping, bent down
authentic decor (L). Elegant
cyrt, -o (G). Curved, convex
cyst, «is, -o (G). The bladder; dect, -o (G). Received; bite, sting
a bag decuss, -i (L). The number "ten"
cyt, «e, -o, «us (G). A hollow (X); a crossing
dedal (L). Adorn; adorned
place; a cell «degma, -to (G). A bite, sting
D dehisc (L). Split
dacn (G). Bite, sting dei (L). A god
dacry, -m, -o (G). Tears, weeping deil, -e (G). Evening
dactyl, -o, «us (G). A finger or dein, -o (G). Terrible
toe deipn, -o (G). A meal, dinner
daedal (L). Adorn; adorned del, -e, -o (G). Visible
daict (G). Butcher dele, -t (L). Destroy
«dama (L). A deer
daped, «um (G). A level surface; delect (L). Charming; a selection
plains delic, -at, -io (L). Pleasing, allur­
daphn, «a, -i (G). The laurel or ing
bay tree deliquesc (L). Liquify
dapi, -do, «s (G). A carpet delir (L). Crazy
dapsil (G). Plentiful delo (G). Visible
dapt, «es (G). Devour; an eater
dart, -o (G). Flayed, skinned delph, -i, -y (G). The womb, uterus
das, -i, -y (G). Hairy, shaggy delpha, -c, »x (G). A little pig
dasci, -o (G). Much shaded delphi, -n, «s (G). A dolphin
dascyll (G). A kind of fish
dato (G). Divide, distribute delphini, «um (G). Larkspur
«daucus (G). The carrot delphy, «s (G). The womb, uterus
delt (G). The letter "delta"; tri­
32 D i c t i o n a r y of Word Roots

dens (L). Thick; a tooth •diastema, -to (G). A space, interval

dent, -i, -o (L). A tooth diastol (G). Standing apart
dentat (L)^ Toothed diastroph, -o (G). Distorted
deo (L). A god diathesi, - s (G). A condition, ar­
deon, -to (G). Necessity, duty rangement
«depas, -tr (G). A cup, goblet, beaker «diazoma, -to (G). A girdle; the waist
deph, -o (G). Knead dibam, -o (G). On two legs
deplanat (L). Flattened die (G). Right; a wood worm
der, -o (G). The neck; the hide; dicell, «a (G). A two-pronged hoe
old; flay dich, -o (G). Two, in two
derm, «a, -ato, -o (G). Skin dichas, «is (G). A division
dertr, «um (G). The membrane dichel, -o, «us (G). Cloven-hoofed;
containing the bowels forceps
desert (L). Solitary, lonely dicho (G). In two; split
désignât (L). Marked dicr, -o (G). Forked
desis (G). A binding dicran, -o (G). Two-headed, two-
desm, -a, -i, -io, -o (G). A band, pointed
bond, ligament dicrot, -o (G). Double-oared
desud (L). Sweat greatly diet (L). Say, pronounce, tell
detrit (L). Wear off dicty, -o, «urn (G). A net
deuma, -to (G). Wet, soaked dicyrt, -o (G). Two-humped
deutero (G). The second didi (L). Distribute
dex (G). An insect; a worm didym, -o (G). Double, twin; the
dexi, -o (G). The right-hand side; testes
clever ι «dieresis (G). A division
dext, -er, -r, -ro (L). The rigit- diet (G). A mode of living
hand side; clever difflu (L). Flow apart
di, -a (G). Across, through; sep­ digest (L). Dissolved; digest
arate, apart digit, -al, -i (L). A finger or toe
di, -s (G). Separate, apart; double, dign (L). Worthy, fit
two dilat (L). Expanded
diabol, -o (G). Slanderous dimidi (L). Half; to halve
diadem, «a (G). A crown, turban dimin (L). Lessen
diadoch, -o, «us (G). A successor din, -o (G). Terrible; whirling
diadrom, -o (G). Wandering dio (G). Divine, noble
«diaeresis (G). A division diphy (C). Of a double nature, two­
diago (G). Transmission fold
dialy, - s , -t (G). Separate, break dipl, -o (G). Double, two
up, dissolve dipn, -o, «urn (G). A meal, food
diapedes (G). Leaping through or dips, -a, -i (G). Thirsty, dry
across dipther, -a (G). Leather, skin,
diaphor, -o (G). Different membrane
and Combining Forms 33

dir (G): The neck; (L): dreadful dominie, -ens (L). Of St. Domingo
dirig, -o (L). Direct «dominus (L). A lord
dis (G). Separate, apart; double, dona (L). Give; a gift
two dona, -c, *x (G). A reed
disc, -i, -o, «us (G). A round donesi (G). Trembling, shaking
plate dor, «a, -o (G). A hide, skin
discors (L). Discordant, disagree- dorat, «ium (G). A small spear
ing dorca, -do, «s (G). A gazelle
dori, -d, «s (G). A sacrificial knife
disso (G). Double dorm, -it (L). Sleep
dist, -a (L). Stand apart, be distant doro (G). A spear; a hide, skin; a
ditto (G). Double gift
diure, -s, -t (G). Urinate dors, -o, «um (L). The back
dory, -t (G). A spear; a beam,
diurn (L). Daily, in the daytime shaft
divaric, -a (L). Spread apart dosi (G). A gift
diversi (L). Various; separated dox, «a (G). An opinion; glory
«draba (G). A mustard-like plant
divert (L). Turn aside drac, -aen, -o, -on (L). A serpent,
doc, -o, «us (G). A beam; a spar dragon
doce (G). Seem; think drachm, «a (G). A weight
dram (G). Run
doch, -i (G). Receive; receptacle drama, -t (G). Perform; drama
dochm, -i, -o (G). Slanting, side- drapet, «es (G). A fugitive
ways dras, -t (G). Act; an agent
doci, -1 (L). Teach; teachable drasteri (G). Active
docim (G). Examine, test, prove drepan, -i, «urn (G). A sickle
drimy (G). Piercing, stinging
doco (G). A beam; a spar drom, -a, -ae, -aeo, -i, -o, «us (G).
doct (L). Learned, skilled Run; running; a race
«doctor (L). A teacher dros, -o (G). Dew
«docus (G). A beam; a spar droser, -o (G). Dewy
dodeca (G). Twelve drup, «a (G). An over-ripe olive; a
dodo (Pg). Foolish stone fruit
«dogma, -t (G). An opinion, decree dry, -o, «s (G). A tree; oak
dolabr, «a (L). An axe, mattock drym, -o, «us (G). Forest, woodland
doler, -o (G). Deceptive drypt, -o (G). Tear, scratch
du, -o (L). Two, double
doli, -o, «urn (L). A jar dubi (L). Doubtful
dolich, -o (G). Long duc, -t (L). Lead
dolio (L): A jar; (G): crafty dul, -io, -o (G). A slave, servant
dulc, -i (L). Sweet
dolo, -m, -p (G). Fraud, deceit,
•dolor (L). Sorrow
«doma, -o,
dominie =us
(L).Of A house
Aa gift;
lord the
a house
34 Dictionary of Word Roots

dulich, -o (L). Long echene, -i (G). Holding ships fast;

dum, «us (L). A bramble a kind of fish
duo (L). Two, double
duodec, «im (L). Twelve echi, -dn, «s (G). A viper, adder
duoden, -i (L). Twelve each echin, -o, «us (G). A hedgehog; a
dupl, «ex, -ic, -ici (L). Double sea urchin
dur, -a, -o (L). Hard echm, -at (G). An obstacle, prop
dya, -d, «s (G). Two echo (L). Reverberation of sound
dyn, -am, -amo, -ast (G). Be echth, -ist, -o, -r (G). Hated; hatred
able; power, energy -ecious (G). A house
dyo (G). Enter, dive; two, in twos eclamp (G). Shine
dys (G). Bad, malicious, hard;
enter, dive eclip, -s (G). Deficient; leave out
dysis (G). Sinking; put on, clothe eclog (G). Pick out, select
dysporo (G). Hard to pass eco (G). A house, abode
dyt, «es (G). Dive, enter
ecphyad (G). An outgrowth, appendage
ecphyl (G). Alien, strange
e (see also ae, jai, o, or oe) ecphym, «a (G). An eruption of
e (L). Out, without, from pimples
-eae (the ending of plant tribe ecphys (G). Blowout
names) ecro (G). Escape; keep safe
ear, -in, -o (G). Spring, spring-
time ect, -o (G). Outside, out, outer
eb, -en, -o (G). The ebony tree ecta, «sis (G). An extension, dilation
ebri (L). Drunk ectemn, -o (G). Cut out, weaken
eburae (L). Ivory ecthym, -o (G). Spirited, eager, frantic
ec (G). Out, out of, from ecto (G). Outside, out, outer
-ectomy (G). Cutout
ecaton (G). A hundred ectop, -i, -o (G). Displaced, foreign
eccli (G). Bend down, turn aside ectopist, «es (G). A foreigner,
eccri, -s, -t (G). Separation; wanderer
chosen -ectopy (G). Displacement
eccroust (G). Beaten out, driven ectro, -m, -s (G). Abortion, mis-
away carriage
eccye (G). Give birth to, bring forth ecze, -m (G). Boil over
ecdem, -i, -io (G).Travel, go abroad edaph, -o (G). The base, bottom; soil
ecdys, «is (G). An escape, slipping ede, -o (G). The genitals
out •edema, -t (G). A swelling, tumor
ece, «sis, «tes (G). Dwell; a dweller edest, «es (G). An eater
ecgpn (G). Bom, descended from edibil (L). Edible
ech, -o (L). Reverberation of sound edr, «a, -i (G). A seat
echel (F). A ladder ef
and Combining F o r m s 35

egeri, «a (L). A nymph eleo (G). A marsh; oil; distracted

egt, « s (L). A shield, armor eleph, «as, -ant (G). An elephant;
ego (L). Myself, self ivory
egregor (G). Watch elephant, - 1 , -o (G). An elephant
egresso (G). Watchful eleuther, -o (G). Free
«egretta (F). A kind of heron elig (L). A choice; choose
eido (G). A form, image; like eligm, -o (G). Winding, twisting
eidol, -o (G). An idol, image élis (L). Eradicated
eir, -o (G). Wool •ell, «a, «urn, «us (L). Small
eis (G). In, into, toward ellip, - s , -t (G). Wanting, falling
ejacul (L). Throw out short; elliptical
eka, -st, -sto (G). One, each ellop, -s (G). A sea fish; mute
ekaton (G). A hundred elo, -d (G). A marsh
elacat, «a (G). A staff elop, - s (G). A sea fish; mute
elach, -ist, -y (G). Small élu, -d, -s (L). Get away from
eleagn, «us (G). A marsh plant élut (L). Washed out
elaeo, elaio (G). An olive; olive elym, -o (G). A case, sheath; a
oil kind of grass
elan, -o, «us (G). A kite; drive elysi, « s (G). A step
elap, - s (L). A sea fish; a serpent elytr, -o, «urn (G). A sheath, cover
elaph, -o, «us (G). A stag, deer em (L). In, into
elaphr, -o (G). Light in weight embal, -lo, -m (G). Throw in, put in
elaps (L). A sea fish; a serpent; emberiz, «a (NL). A bunting
slipped away embi, -a, -o (G). lively, long-lived
elasm, -o, «us (G). A plate, metal embol, -im, -o (G). Inserted; a
plate wedge
elasso (G). Make less embrith, -o (G). Heavy, important
elat (L). Higi, lofty embryo (G). An embryo
elater (G). A driver emer, -a (G). A day
elatin, -o (G). Fir-like; a toadflax emer, -o (G). Domestic, tamed
elatr (L). Bark, cry out émet, -i, -o (G). Vomit
elatri (G). Drive; driving emetic (G). Producing vomiting
elc, -e (G). Draw, pull •emia (G). Blood
elc, -o, «oma, -os (G). A wound, emmel, «eia (G). A harmony, dance
sore emmen, -a, -o (G). Monthly; the
elcysm (G). Dragging menses; faithful
elect (L). Choose emolli (L). Soften
electr, -i, -o (G). Amber; elec- emphrax, -i, «is (G). An obstruction
tricity emphys (G). Inflate
eleg (G): Mourning; (L): choice emphyt, -o (G). Implanted, innate
elegan, -t (L). Elegant, fine empi, -d, « s (G). A gnat
elench (G). Disgrace; test empir, -o (G). Experienced
36 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

empres, -i, -m (G). Burning; set entom, *a, -o (G). An insect

on fire enton, -i, -o (G). Tension; strained
•empusa (G). A hobgoblin, ghost entrop (G). Turn in, turn toward
empy, -ema (G). Form pus enydr, «is (G). An otter; aquatic
emulsi (L). Milk out, exhaust enygr, -o (G). Watery, in water
emy, -d, « s (G). A tortoise, turtle eo, «s (G). Dawn; early
en (G). In, into eol, -i, -o (G). Quick-moving;
enali, -o (G). Of the sea, marine the winds
enall, -a, -agm (G). Differ from ep, -h, -i (G). Upon, over, beside
enallax (G). Crosswise epacr, -o (G). Pointed
enant, -i (G). Opposite epagog, -o (G). Enticing, bringing in
encarsi (G). Oblique epan, -et, -i (G). Relaxing
encephal, -o, »us (G). The brain epeir, -o, =us (G). The mainland, a
ench, -o, «us (G). A spear continent
enchely, »s (G). An eel ependy, -ma, -tes (G). A tunic
enchym, =a (G). An infusion epenthes, s i s (G). An insertion
end, -o (G). Within, inner eph (G). Upon, over, beside
endym, =a, -ato (G). A garment epheb, -o (G). Youth
endysi, « s (G). Entering; a putting ephemer, -i, -o (G). For a day,
on temporary
enem, -a (G). Send in ephesti (G). Domestic
engraul, =is (G). A small fish ephippi, =us (G). A saddle
engy (G). Near; narrow ephydr, -o (G). Rainy, watery;
enhydr, "is (G). An otter; a water living on the water
snake ephyr, =a (G). A sea nymph; Corinth
enhydr, -o (G). Living in water epi (G). Upon, over, beside
enic, -o (G). Single epial, -o, =us (G). A nightmare; ague
enne, -a (G). Nine epiblem, =a, -ato (G). A cover, cloak
eno (G). Wine epidemi, -o (G). An epidemic; among
enod (L). Without knots, smooth the people
-ens, «e, =is (L). Of, belonging to epidos, =is (G). An enlargement; in-
ensi, *s (L). A sword crease
ent, -o (G). Within, interior épier, -a (G). Pleasing
entas, «is (G). A stretching; a epilep, - s , -t (G). A laying hold of
spasm epilept, -o (G). Epilepsy
entelech (G). Perfect epimach, -o (G). Assailable
enter (L). Between, among epipast, -o (G). Sprinkled
enter, -o, «urn (G). The intestine, epiped, -o (G). On the ground, level
gut epiphor, -a (G). An addition
enthet, -ic, -o (G). Putin, im- epiphor, -o (G). Inclined, sloping
planted epiplo (G). A thin membrane, caul
ento (G). Within, interior epir, -o, »us (G). The mainland, a
and Combining Forms 37

episio (G). Region of pubes; vulva eric, «a (G). A heath

epistasi, «s (G). A stopping; atten- erici, -n, «us (L). A hedgehog
tion «erigeron (G). A kind of plant
epistroph (G). Turn about; attention erin (G). A hedgehog; woolen
epithalam, -i (G). Nuptial erio (G). Wool
epithe, -ca, -m, -s, -t (G). Added, eris, -m, -t (G). Quarrel
laid on; covered «erisma, -t (G). A prop, support
epithym, -i (G). Longing, desire «eristalis (L). An unknown precious
epitrop (G). Reference; a guardian stone
epomidi, -o (G). On the shoulder ern, -o (G). A sprout; a child
«epops (G). The hoopoe erod, -i (G). A heron
ept, -a (NL). Seven eros (G): Love; (L): gnawed away
epul, «urn (L). A feast erot, -e, -em (G). Question, ask
epulot (G). Healing; a scar erot, -o (G). Love
epy (G). Tall erotyl (G). A darling
equ, -a, -i (L). Equal erpe, «s, -t (G). Creep; a creeper
equestr (L). A horseman err, -an, -at (L). Wander; wandering
equi (L). Equal; a horse ers, -ae, -e (G). Dew; dewy, fresh;
equin (L). Pertaining to horses young
equitan (L). Riding a horse eruc, «a, -i (L). A caterpillar
equu, «s (L). A horse erupt (L). Burst forth
er (G). Spring; the earth erycin, «a (L). Venus, goddess of
eran, -o (G). A contribution; a love and beauty
society eryng, «us (G). A kind of thistle
erann, -o (G). Pleasing eryo (G). Draw, drag
erasmi, -o (G). Lovely erysi (G). Red
erast, «es, -o (G). A lover; be- erythr, -o (G). Red
loved es (G). Into, to
erat, -o (G). Lovely -es (G). (a suffix meaning an agent
ereb, -o, «us (GMy). Darkness or doer)
erect (L). Upright -esc, -en, -ens (L). Becoming; slightly
erem, -i, -o (G). A lonely place eschar (G). A fireplace; a scab; a
erema (G). Gently, calmly kind of fish
eresis (G). Take eschat, -o (G). Extreme, last
eret, -mo (G). An oar; a rower eschyn (G). Shame
ereth, -ist (G). Irritate, rouse to escul, «us (L). Italian oak
anger esculen, -t (L). Edible
ereun (G). Probe, search eso (G). Within, inward
erg, «asia, -o (G). Work esophag, -o, «us (G). The esophagus
ergat, «es, -o (G). A worker esoter (G). Inner, interior
ergot (F): Spur; (L): a fungus est, «es (NL). An eater
eri (G). Early, spring; wool; very esth (G). Feel, perceive; clothe; eat
much; a hedgehog esthem, -ato (G). Perception
38 Dictionary of Word Roots

esthes (G). A garment euro, -t (G). Mold

esthesi, -o (G). Sensation, percep- eury (G). Broad, wide
esthet (G). Sensible; a garment eustachi (N). Eustachio, an Italian
esthi, -o (G). Eat anatomist
estival (L). Summer eutact (G). Orderly
-estr (L). Belonging to, living in eutel (G). Worthless
estr, -o, «us (G). A gadfly; frenzy euthem (G). Orderly
estu, -a (L). Boil euthy (G). Straight
estuar (L). The sea euthym, -o (G). Generous
-êtes (G). Dwell; a dweller; one ev (G). Good, well
who evacu, -a (L). Empty
eth, -er (G). The upper air evani, -d (L). Disappearing
eth, -o (G). Custom, habit; abode evani, -o (G). Making trouble easily
etheo (G). Strain, sift; a bachelor evect (L). Carried out, led away
ether, -i (G). The upper air evectic (L). Good health
ethic (G). Moral; national evira (L). Castrate
ethiop (G). Ethiopian, African; evolut (L). An unrolling
dark evuls (L). Pull away, pull out
ethm, -o, «us (G). A sieve ex (L). Out, off, from, beyond
ethn, -o (G). A nation exacerb (L). Violent, bitter
etho (G). Custom, habit; abode exagger (L). Heap up
etio (G). A cause «exanthema, -to (G). An eruption
etiol (NL). Pale, whitish exarat (L). Plowed up
etr, -a, -o (G). The belly, pelvis excert (L). Projecting
-ett, «a, «urn, «us (NL). Small excit, -o (L). Call forth, arouse
etym, -o (G). True; truth excresc (L). Growing up
eu (G). Good, well excret (L). Separate, throw out
euch (G). Pray exeden (L). Eating out
eudi, -o (G). Calm, clear exhib (L). Give, present
eulab (G). Wary, cautious exhil, -ar (L). Cheer, gladden
-eum (NL). A place where exi (L): Go out; (G): habit
eunuch (G). Guardian of the couch exigu (L). Short, small
euonym (G). Having a good name exil, -i (L). Small, thin, slender
eupatori, «urn (G). Agrimony exo (G). Out, outside, without
euphorbi, «urn (G). An African exod, -o, «us (G). A going out
exorm, -i (G). Go forth
plant exoter, -o (G). Outside
•euphrasia (G). Delist exotic (G). Foreign
euphy (G). Shapely expir (L). Breathe out
eur, -o (G). East; the east wind; expuls (L). Driven out
southeast; broad exsula (L). A stranger; an exile
eurin (G): Keen-scented; (L): the extern, -o (L). Outside, outer
east wind extim (L). Farthest away
and Combining F o r m s 39

extra (L). Outside, more, beyond, febr, -i (L). Fever; boil

besides fee, -i (L). Dregs
extrins (L). From the outside
extrors (L). On the outside fecul (L). Foul; sediment
exuber (L). Abundant fecund (L). Fruitful
exud (L). Sweat fell, -n, «s (L). A cat
exust (L). Burned up, consumed felic (L). Favorable, lucky
exuv, -i (L). That which is taken of)
exygr, -o (G). Wet fell (L). The gall bladder; bile
felo (L). A cat; a robber
Γ fern, -or, -oro, *ur (L). The thigh
fab, «a, -ell (L). A bean femin (L). Female, of a woman
fabul, «a (L). A fable fenestr, «a (L). A window
faci, -a, «es (L). The face; appear­ feng, -o (G). light
facil (L). Easy fenisec, «a (L). A mower, harvester
«facula (L). A little torch fer (L). Bear, carry
facult (L). Capability, skill fer, -a (L). Wild; a wild beast
faec, -i (L). Dregs ferment (L). Yeast, leaven
fag, -a, «us (L). The beech fero, -c, «x (L). Fierce, wild
falc, -i (L). A sickle -ferous (L). Bearing
«falco, -n (L). A falcon ferr, -o (L). Iron
fallac (L). Deceptive ferrugln (L). Rust-colored
fais, -i (L). False ferrul (F). A ring, bracelet
«faix (L). A sickle
fam, -eli, -in (L). Hungry fertil (L). Fruitful
famil (L). Friendly; a family ferul, «a (L). A walking stick; fennel
fantas (L). Fancy ferv, -en, -id, -or (L). Heat, burning
fare (L). Stuff; stuffing fess (L). Weary, feeble
farin, «a (L). Flour, coarse meal festin (L). Quick
fasci, «a (L). A bundle; a band festuc, «a (L). A stem, stalk
fet, -i, «us (L). The young in the
fasciat (L). Banded womb
fascin (L). Charm, bewitch feti, -d (L). ΠΙ-smelling, putrid
fasciol, «a (L). A little bandage -fex (NL). A maker
fastigl, «urn (L). Pointed; the point, «fiber (L). A beaver
top, summit; depth fibr, -in, -o (L). A fiber; a beaver
fatu (L). Foolish, silly fibul, «a (L). A clasp, buckle
fauc, «es, -i (L). The throat fie, «ation (L). Make, making
faun (My). Faunus, god of agri­ fie, -o, «us (L). The fig
A honeycomb fide,
40 Dictionary of Word Roots

fill, -a (L). A son or daughter foed (L). Filthy, ugly; an agree-

fili, -c, -x (L). A fern ment
foenisec, «a (L). A mower, har-
fim, «us (L). Dung vester
fimbri, «a (L). A fringe, fibers foeten (L). Fetid, evil smelling
fin, -a, -i (L). An end, limit «foetus (L). The young in the womb
firm (L). Firm, strong foli, -a, «urn (L). A leaf
fisc, =us (L). The state treasury; folli (L). A bag, bellows
a woven basket follicul (L). A little bag
fiss, -i, -ur (L). A cleft foment, «urn (L). A warm lotion
fistul, «a, -i (L). A pipe, tube fon (G). Kill
fivor (L). Bluish
flabell, «a (L). A fan fon, «s, -t, -tan (L). A fountain
flabr (L). The breeze, winds foram, «en, -in (L). An opening
flacc, -id (L). Flabby forcip, -i (L). Forceps
flagell, =um (L). A whip
flagr, -an (L). Bum, burning forf, «ex, -ic (L). Scissors
flamm (L). Flame, burn forficat (L). Forked
flamme (L). Flame-colored fori, -s (L). A door; out of doors
flat (L). Blow, blown
flav (L). Yellow form, «a (L). Form, shape
fleet (L). Bend formic, «a (L). An ant
fleur (F). Flower formid (L). Fear
flex, -i (L). Bend; pliant
flexu (L). Winding formos (L). Graceful, beautiful
flig (L). Dash; strike down forn, -ic, »ix (L). An arch; a
flo (L). Blow brothel
flocc (L). A lock of wool, flake fort, -i (L). Strong
flor, «a, -i (L). A flower fortuit (L). At random; fluctuating
floresc (L). Blooming foss, «a (L). A ditch, trench
florid (L). Flowery
floscul, «us (L). A little flower fossil (L). Dug up
flu (L). Flow «fossor, -i (L). A digger
fluctu (L). Wave, move to and fro fossul (L). Burrow
fluen, -t (L). Flowing fove, «a (L). A pit
flum, «en, -in, -ini (L). A river fracid (L). Mellow, soft
fluo (L). Flow
fluster (NL). Plait, weave fract (L). Break; broken
fluvi, «a, -atil (L). A river frag, «a (L). Break; a strawberry
flux (L). Flowing fragm, «en, -in (L). Apiece
foc, -i, «us (L). A point, focus;
a fireplace fragr (L). Emit a scent
fodien, -t (L). Digging framb, -es, -oes (L). A raspberry
frang (L). Break
and Combining F o r m s 41

frem, -it (L). Roar, murmur furc, «a, -i (L). A fork

fren, -a, -at, «urn (L). A bridle furfur (L). Bran, scurf, dandruff
frict (L). Rub furi, -os (L). Rage, madness
frig, -er, -id, -or (L). Cold furn, -ari, «us (L). An oven
fringill, «a (L). A finch furor (L). Madness, fury
fritill, =us (L). A dice box furtiv (L). Secret; stolen
frivol (L). Silly furunc (L). A boil; a petty thief
frond, -e, -i (L). A leaf, foliage fus, -i (L). A spindle; pour out
«irons (L). The forehead, brow; a fuse (L). Dusky, brown
leaf, foliage fust, -i, «is (L). A club, cudgel
front, -o (L). The forehead, brow
fruct, -i, «us (L). A fruit G
frugal (L). Economical, thrifty gad, -o, «us (G). A kind of fish
frugi (L). Useful, fit gaea (G). The earth
frument, «urn (L). Corn, grain gagat (G). Jet black
frustr (L). In vain; deception «gala, -et, -cto (G). Milk
frustul, «urn (L). A little piece galag (Af). A lemur-like animal
frut, =ex, -ic (L). A shrub galat, «ea, -hei (G). A sea nymph
fuc, -i, «us (L). A seaweed; red galax, -i (G). Milky
fug, -i (L). Flee, dispel galb (L). Yellow; a small worm
fuga, -ci, »x (L). Swift galban (L). Greenish yellow
-fui (E). Full of galbul (L). An oriole; a cypress nut
fulcr, «urn (L). A support, prop gale, «a (L). A helmet
fulg, -en, -i (L). Flash, gleam gale, «a, -i (G). A weasel, cat
fulg, -or, -ur (L). Lightning galen, -a (G). Calm, rest; lead ore
fulic, «a (L). A coot galeo, -d (G). A shark
fulig, -in (L). Soot; sooty galer, (L): A cap; (G): cheerful
fulm, =en, -in (L). Lightning; a galgul, «us (L). A woodpecker
thunderbolt galid (G). A little weasel
fulv (L). Reddish yellow, tawny «galium (G). The bedstraw
fum (L). Smoke gall, «a (L). A gall nut
fun, -al, -i, «is (L). A rope gall, -in, -o, «us (L). A chicken,
funct (L). Perform cock
fund (L). Pour galvan, -i, -o (N: Galvani). Pertain-
fund, -a, -i (L). A sling; the ing to the electric current
bottom gam, -o, «us (G). Marriage
fune, -bri, -re (L). A funeral; gammar, «us (L). A kind of lobster
death garnet (G). A wife or husband
fung, -i, «us (L). A mushroom, gamps, -o (G). Curved, bent
fungus -gamy (G). Marriage, reproduction
funi, -cul, «s (L). A rope, cord gan, -eo, -o (G). Beauty, luster
fur, -en (L). Rage gangli, «on (G). A knot on a string;
42 Dictionary of Word Roots

gangren (G). A sore; gangrene «genus (L). Birth, a race; a sort,

gargal, -o (G). Tickle; tickling class, kind
garrul (L). Chattering -geny (G). Production
gast, =er, -ero, -r, -ro (G). The geny, -o, =s (G). The jaw, chin
stomach, belly geo (G). The earth
gaud, -e, -i (L). Joy; joyous gephyr, *a, -o (G). A bridge
gaur, -o (G). Proud, majestic ger, -o (L). Bear, carry
gaus, -o (G). Crooked géra, -s, -t (G). Old age
gavi, =a (L). A sea bird, a loon gerb (Ar). A kangaroo mouse
gavial, =is (NL). A crocodile •gerfalco, -n (LL). A sacred falcon
gero (L); Bear, carry; (G): an old
ge, -o (G). The earth man
gecc, =o (NL). A chirping lizard geron, -t (G). An old man
geiss, -o (G). A cornice, eaves -gerous (L). Bearing
*geiton, -o (G). A neighbor gerr, -ho, -i, -o (G). A wicker
gelast (G). Laugh shield
gelât (L). Frozen, jelly-like gery, -o (G). Shout; speech
gelid (L). Cold gest (L). Carried
gelo (G): Laugh, laughter; (L); geus, -i, -t (G). Taste
cold;freeze gibb (L). Humped
gemin (L). Twin, double giga, -n, -nto (G). Giant, very large
gemm, *a, -ul (L). A bud gigno (G). Know
gen (G): Bear, produce; (L): gilv (L). Pale yellow
a nation, race gingiv, -a (L). The gums
«gena (L). The cheek, chin
gene, *a, -o (G). Birth, descent, ginglym, -o, »us (G). A hinge
race glab, «er, -r (L). Smooth
gene, =sis (G). Origin, birth glaci, -a (L). Ice
genei (G). A beard gladi, -a, =us (L). A sword
gêner (L). Beget; a race; produce gland, -i (L). An acorn; a gland
genet (G). Birth, ancestor glani, =s (G). A kind of fish
genethli (G). A birthday «glans, (L). An acorn; a gland
glaphyr, -o (G). Hollow; neat,
geni, -o (G). The chin, jaw polished
-genie (G). Producing
glare, «a, -o (L). Gravel
genicul (L). The elbow, knee, glauc, -o (G). Gray, bluish gray; a
joint kind of fish
«genista (L). A broom plant glaucidi, =um (G). An owl
genit, -i, -o (L). Beget «glaux (G). Milk vetch; an owl
geno (G). Race, offspring; sex gle, -a, -o (G). Glue
genu (L).(G).
(G). Producing
A clan, tribe glecom
gleb, *a=
glecho, (G).
n (G).
A Pennyroyal
and Combining F o r m s 43

glen, -o (G). A pit, socket; wonders gon, -i, «ia, -io (G). An angle
gleo (G). Glue gon, -y (G). The knee
gonato (G). The knee
gli, -a, -o (G). Glue gone (G). Seed, generation, off-
gliri, «s (L). A dormouse spring
glischr, -o (G). Sticky; greedy gongyl, -o (G). Round
goni, «a, -o (G). Seed; an angle,
glob, -o, »us (L). A ball, globe corner
gloch, -i, «is (G). A point gonidi (G). Seed; reproductive
gloe, -a, -o (G). Glue organ
iloi, -o (G). Glue gonim, -o (G). Productive
glom, -er, «us (L). A ball of yarn; gono (G). Generation, offspring;
a ball seed; reproductive organ; the
glori, «a (L). Glory knee
-gony (G). Seed; reproduction
gloss, «a, -o (G). The tongue gony, -o (G). The knee
glott, -i, -o (G). The tongue gordi (G My). A kind of knot
glue, -o (G). Sweet gorg (F). The throat
gorg, -o (G). Grim, fierce
glum, «a (L). A husk, hull gpssypi, «urn (L). Cotton
glut, -i (L). To swallow; glue gour, «a (NL). A kind of pigeon
glut, -e, -eo (G). The rump gracil, -i (L). Slender
gracul, «us (L). A jackdaw; a
glutin (L). Glue cormorant
glyc, -er, -o (G). Sweet grad, -a, -i (L). Step, walk; slope,
«glymma, -to (G). A carved figure grade
glyp, -h, -ho, -t, -to (G). Carve; grail, -a, -ato, -in (L). Stilts
carved, engraved gram, «en, -in (L). Grass
gnamp, -to (G). Bent, curved gramm, -a, -at (G). A letter,
gnath, -o, «us (G). The jaw writing
gran, -i, -o, «um (L). Grain
gnesi (G). Genuine grand, -i (L). Large, great
gnom, «a, -o (G). A mark; judgment grand, -in, «o (L). Hail, a hailstone
gnomon (G). Judge; rule; a carpen- granul (L). A little grain
ter's square graph, -o, «y (G). Write, writing
gnoph, -o (G). Darkness graps, -i (G). A crab
gnorim, -o (G). Well known, fam- grapt, -o (G). Inscribed, written
iliar grat, -i (L). Pleasing; favor
gnos, «is, -t, -tic (G). Know; known; grav, -e, -i (L). Heavy
knowledge gravid (L). Filled; pregnant
gobi, «us (L). A kind of fish greg, -ar, -i (L). A flock, herd;
gomph, -o, «us (G). A wedge-shaped collect
bolt or nail gremi, «um (L). The bosom
gomphi, -o (G). A tooth
-e, (G).
bolt to-
44 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

gress, -or (L). Walk, walking hadr, -o (G). Thick, stout

«grex (L). A flock, herd hadryn (G). Ripen
griph, -o (G). A woven basket; a haed, *us (L). A young goat
grise (ML). Gray haem, «a, -ato, -o (G). Blood
griso (F). Gray-haired haer, -esi (G). Take
grom, *a (L). A measuring rod hagi, -o (G). Sacred
gross (L). Thick; an unripe fig hal, -a, -e, -it (L). Breathe,
grossul, «a, -ar (LL). A goose­ breathing
berry •halcyon (G). A kingfisher
gru, -i, « s (L). A crane halec, -o (L). A herring
grum, «a (L). A little heap hali, -o (G). The sea
gryll, *us (L). A cricket halin, -o (G). Made of salt
grylle (Go). The black guillemot halia (G). An assembly
gryp, -o (G). Curved, hooked, haliaet, -e, *us (G). A sea eagle,
hook-nosed osprey
guan, *o (Pv). Dung halio (G). The sea
guara (Br). An ibis halit (L). Breathing
gubern, -a (L). A rudder; govern hallo (G). Other; leaping
gubernator (L). A pilot, gover­ hallu, -c, «x (NL). The great toe
nor hallucinat (L). To wander in mind
gui, «a (L). The throat, gullet halma, -to (G). Leap, spring
gulos (L). Gluttonous halo (G): The sea; salt; (L): breathe
gumm, -i (L). Gum halter (G). A leaping weight
gurg, -it (L). A whirlpool; en­ haltic (G). Good at leaping, nimble
gulf halys, -i, *is (G). A chain, bond
gust, -a (L). Taste ham, -at, -i (L). A hook; hooked
gutt, *a (L). A drop hama (G). All together, at the same
•guttur, -i (L). The throat time
gyg, =es (G). A water bird hamamel, «is (G). A tree with pear­
gymn, -o (G). Naked, bare like fruit
gyn, -a, -e, -eco, -o (G). A hamarti, «a (G). A fault, sin, error
woman, female hamat (L). Hooked
gyp, «s (G). A vulture hami (L). A hook
gyps, -o (G). Chalk hamm, -o (G). Sand
gyr, -a, -o (L). Round; turning; •hamma, -to (G). A knot, noose
a circle hamul (L). A little hook
gyrin, -o, «us (G). A tadpole hapal, -o (G). Gentle, soft
haph, -o (G). Touch, grasp
Ή hapl, -o (G). Simple, single
haplom, «a (G). A coverlet
haben, «a (L). A thong, rein
hapt, -o (G). Fastened
habit (L). Live, dwell; fleshy «harelda (Ice). A sea duck
•habitus (L). The external aspect harmo (G). A joint; harmony
habr, -o (G). Dainty, delicate, harmon, -i (G). Music
and Combining Forms 45

harp, «e, -i (G). A sickle; a bird helmin, *s, -th (G). A worm
of prey helo (G). A nail, wart; a marsh
harpa (LL). A harp
harpac, -t (G). Rob, seize helo, -d (G). A marsh
harpag, -i (G). A hook helv (L). Tawny, yellowish
«harpe, harpi (G). A sickle; a bird hem, -a, -ato, «ia, -o (G). Blood
of prey hemer, «a, -o (G). A day; tamed
•hasta, -t (L). A spear; spear-
shaped hemi (G). One-half
hathr, -o (G). Heaped, assembled hen, -o (G). A year; a year old
haust, -or, -r (L). Draw up, suck hendeca (G). Eleven
hebdom, -at (G). The seventh
hebe, -t (L): Blunt; (G): youth, henic, -o (G). Single
t puberty henicm, -o (G). Humid
heca (G). Far off heno (G). A year; a year old
I hecat, -o, -on (G). A hundred hepa, «r, -t, -to (G). The liver
1 hecist, -o (G). Least hepial, -o, «us (G). A nightmare
hect, -o (G). A hundred; the sixth hept, -a (G). Seven
hed, -i, -o (G). A seat, dwelling heracle (GMy). Hercules, a mytho-
* place logical hero
hede (G). Sweet herb, »a, -i, -o (L). Grass
f hedeom, *a (G). Sweet-smelling here, -o, *us (G). A wall, fence
heder, *a (L). Ivy hered (L). An heir; inherit; hereditary
hedi, hedo (G). A seat, dwelling herm, -a, -et (ML). Male; secret
| place •herma, -to (G). A prop, support
| hedon (G). Pleasure, delight hermaphrodit (G My). With both male
hedr, «a, -io (G). A seat; the anus and female organs
hedy, -1 (G). Sweet hermin, -o, =s (G). A prop, support
hel, -a, -eo, -o (G). A bog, marsh
helco (G). A sore; suck hermos (Sp). Beautiful
heleni, «urn (G). A kind of plant herni, =a (L). A rupture
heleo (G). A marsh, bog; pity hero (G). A hero
heli, -a, -o (G). The sun
helic, -o (G). A spiral, coil herodi (G). A heron
helict (G). Wreathed, twisted herpes, -t (G). Creep, creeping;
«heligma, -to (G). A winding, wrap- herpes
per; a curl of hair herpet, -o (G). A reptile
helio (G). The sun hesit, -a (L). Stick fast
heliot, -h, -us (G). The moon
•helix (G). A spiral, coil hesper, -i (G). Evening; western
hell, -a, -ado, -en (G). Greece hestho (G). Clothing, dress
hellu, -o (L). A glutton hesych, -o (G). Still, quiet
hesychast (G). A hermit
hex, -a-er,
(G). -ir
(G). (G).
46 Dictionary of Word Roots

hiat, «us (L). An opening, gap holothur, -i, «um (G). A kind of
hibern, «us (L). Winter zoophyte
hibisc, «us (G). The marsh mal­ horn, -eo, -o, -oeo, -oio (G). Like,
low same, alike
hicori, «a (NL). Hickory horn, -in, «o (L). Man
hidro (G). Sweat homalo (G). Even, level
hidry, -s, -t (G). Seated, fixed homar (OF). A lobster
hiem, -al (L). Winter homeo (G). Like, resembling, alike
hier, -o (G). Sacred homin, -i (L). Man
hiera, -c, «x (G). A hawk «homo (L). Man
nil, «urn (L). A trifle, a little homo, -eo, -io (G). Like, resembling,
thing alike
hilar (L). Gay, cheerful hopl, -i, -o, «um (G). Armor, weapons
himant, -o (G). A strap hople (G). A hoof
himati, «urn (G). A cloak hoplist (G). Armed
himer, -o (G). Lovely; yearning hoplit (G). Heavily armed
hipp, -e, -o, «us (G). A horse hoplo, hoplum (G). Armor, weapons
hippari, «um (G). A pony horde, «um (L). Barley
«hippocampus (G). A fabulous sea horiz (G). Horizon; bound
monster hormi (G). Start, onset
hire, -in, «us (L). A goat hormo (G). A chain
hirne, «a (L). A jug hormon (G). Excite
hirp, «ex, -ic (L). A harrow horo (G). A limit, boundary; season,
hirsut (L). Hairy, rough hour, time
hirt (L). Hairy, rough horre, -n, -s (L). Dreadful; bristle,
hirud, -in, «o (L). A leech stand on end, tremble
hirund, -in, =o (L). A swallow horre, «um (L). A storehouse
hisc (L). Open horri (L). Terror; to bristle
hispan, -i (L). Spain; Spanish horrib (L). Terrible, fearful
hispid (L). Hairy, bristly horrid (L). Rough, prickly
hist, -o (G). A web; tissue hort (L). Urge
«hister (L). An actor hort, -i, «us (L). A garden
histero (G). Behind hosp, -it (L). A guest
histi, -o, «urn (G). A little web; hosti (L). An enemy
a sheet hum, -at, -i (L). Earth, ground;
histo (G). A web; tissue bury
histor, -i (L). History human (L). Of a man
«histrio, -ni (L). An actor humer, -ο, «us (L). The shoulder
hod, -o, «us (G). A way, path humesc (L). Grow moist
hoi, -o (G). Whole humi (L). Ground, earth
hole, -o (G). A furrow, trail; humid, -i (L). Moist; moisture
attractive; a grain humil, -i (L). Low
and Combining F o r m s 47

humor (L). Moist; a fluid hypn, -o (G). Sleep; a moss

humul, «us (L). The hop plant hypo (G). Under, beneath
hy (G). U-shaped, Y-shaped hyponom (G). Underground; mine
hy, -aen, -en, -o (G). A pig, hog hyps, -i, -o (G). Higi, on high
hyal, -i, -in, -o (G). Glass; hyra, -c, «x (G). A shrewmouse
transparent hyssop (G). An aromatic herb
hybo (G). A hump; hump-backed hyster, -o (G). Latter, lower; the
hybrid, «a (L). A mongrel, hybrid uterus, womb
hydat, -in (G). Water; watery hystri, -c, «x (G). A porcupine
hydn, «urn (G). A fungus
hydr, «a, -i, -o (G). Water
•hydra (G). Water; a sea serpent
iachr, -o (G). Softened
hydrargyr, -o, «us (G). Mercury •iama, -to (G). A medicine, remedy
«hydras (G). A water snake
hyem, -al (L). Winter ianth, -in (G). Violet-colored
hyen, «a (G). A pig, hog; a hyena iapy» -g» *x (G). The west-northwest
hyet, -o (G). Rain wind
hyg, -ei, -ie, -io (G). Health -iasis (G). Treatment, cure; forma-
hygr, -o (G). Moist, wet tion of, presence of
hyl, «a, -o (G). Matter, stuff; iati (G). Healing
wood, woods iatr, -a, -ic, -o, «us (G). A physician
hylact (G). Bark, yelp
hylurg, -o, «us (G). A carpenter iatreus, «is (G). A treatment
•hymen, -o (G). A membrane iber, -i, «ia, -o (G). Spain
hymn, -o (G). A hymn, song iberi, -d, «s (G). A kind of cress
hyo (G). A pig, hog; U-shaped, •ibex (L). A kind of goat
Y-shaped; hyoid ibi, -d, « s (L). An ibis
hyp, -o (G). Under, beneath ibidem (L). The same
hypen, «a (G). A moustache
hypenanti (G). Opposite icel, -o (G). Resembling
hyper (G). Over, above; excessive ichn, -i, -o (G). Track, trace
hyper, -o (G). The palate; a ichneum, -on (G). A tracker; a
pestle kind of wasp
hyperbore (G). Of the extreme north ichor (G). Juice, lymph, serum
hyperic, «urn (G). St. John's-wort ichthy, -o, «s (G). A fish
hyph, -a, -o (G). A web; weaving -icle (L). Little
hyphaem, -o (G). Bloodshot icma, -le (G). Fluid, moist
hyphaen (G). Weave
hyphant, -r (G). Woven; a weaver ico (G). Likely
hypho (G). A web; weaving «icon, -i, -o (L). An image
hyphydr (G). Found in water, un- icos, -i (G). Twenty
der water icter, -i, -o, «us (G). Jaundice; an
icti, -d, «s (G). A marten, weasel
-icul, «us«um
A (L).
kite Small
48 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

-id (L). A condition of imbut (L). Stained

-idae (the ending of animal family imita (L). Imitate, copy
names) immun, -i, -o (L). Safe, free; im-
ident, -i (L). Repeatedly munity
ideo (G). Form, appearance impar, -i (L). Unequal
-idi, «a, «um, «us (G). Small impet, »us (L). An attack
idio (G). One's own, peculiar
implex (L). Twisted
ido (G). Sweat in (L). In, into; not, without; on
idol, -o (G). An image, phantom -inae (the ending of animal subfamily
idr, -o (G). Sweat; gum, resin and plant subtribe names)
idri (G). Skilled inaequal, -i (L). Unequal
ign, -e, -i (L). Fire inan, -i (L). Empty
il (L). Not, without; in, into inca (IV). Of Peru
ile, -o (L): The intestine; (G): incan (L). Hoary, gray
twist, roll; twisted incert (L). uncertain
«ilema, -t (G). A covering, wrapper;; incest (L). Impure, sinful, polluted
a coil; a vault incho (L). Begin
•ilex (L). The holm oak incil, -i (L). A ditch; cut in
ilia, -co (L). The flank, loin incis (L). Cut in, cut into
ilic (L). The holm oak incol, «a (L). An inhabitant
ilio (L): Intestine; (G): twist, incrass (L). Thickened
roll incu, -d, *s (L). An anvil
-ill, *a, «um, «us (L). Small
incub (L). Lie upon
illaen (G). Squint •index (L). That which points out
illat (L). Inferred indi (L). In; indigo
illici (L). Allure, entice indie (L). That which points out;
illigat (L). Fastened Indian; indigo
illo (G). Squinting indi g (Sp). Deep violet blue
illot (L). Dirty, unwashed indi gen (L). Native; need, want
-ilium (L). Small indo (L). Of India; indigo
illumina (L). Light up indu, -t (L). Clothe; clothed
-illus (L). Small
industri (L). Diligent
illusi (L). Mocking -ineae (the ending of plant suborder
illustr, -a, -i (L). Bright, made names)
clear; distinguished inebri, -at (L). Drunk
ily, -o, *s (G). Mud
inept (L). Absurd, foolish
im (L). Not; in, into infan, « s , -ti (L). A child, infant;
imag, -in, «o (L). An image, like- speechless
ness infarct (L). Filled in, stuffed
imb, *er, - r (L). Rain
infelic (L). Unhappy, unfortunate
imbecill (L). Weak, feeble
infer, -o (L). Low, underneath
imbric, -a, -i (L). A roof tile, infra (L). Below, beneath
and Combining Forms 49

infract (L). Broken, bent inust (L). Burned

inful, «a (L). A band, bandage involucr, «urn (L). A wrapper
infumat (L). Smoked, smoky involut (L). Wrapped up; intricate
infundibul, »um (L). A funnel iod, -i, -o (G). Violet
infus (L). Pour in -iol, «a, «urn, «us (L). Little
infuscat (L). Darkened -ion (G). A going or entering; small
ingen, *s, -ti (L). Large, remark- ion, -o (G). Violet
able ionth, -o (G). The down on the face
ingluv, -i (L). The crop, stomach ios (G). Poison; an arrow
inguin, -o (L). The groin ip, -o, «s (G). A worm
-ini (the ending of animal tribe iphi (G). Mightily, strongly
names) iphthim, -o (G). Spirited, stalwart
ini, »a (S Am). A kind of porpoise ipn, -o (G). An oven, furnace
ini, -a, -o, -urn (G). The occiput, ipo, «ips (G). A worm
nape ips, -o (G). Ivy
innoc, -en, -u (L). Harmless ipsi (NL). Same
ino (G). A fiber; muscle; the ir (L). Not, without; in, into
occiput ira, -se (L). Anger; angry
inocul, -a (L). Implant iren (G). Peace
inquilin, «us (L). A tenant iri, -d, -do, «s, -t (G). A rainbow;
insect (L). Cut into the iris of the eye; a kind of lily
insecti (L). An insect irrig, -a, -u (L). Lead water to
insidi (L). Ambush; sitting upon irris, -i, -or (L). Mock, deride; a
insipid (L). Tasteless mocker
instar (L). A form, likeness irrit (L). Excite; useless
instig, -a (L). Stimulate irror, -a (L). Sprinkle with dew
insul, «a (L). An island is, -o (G). Equal
integ, -r (L). Whole, complete; isabell (N: Queen Isabella). Buff
repair brown
inter (L). Between, among isati, «s (G). A milky-juiced herb
intercal, -a (L). Insert isch, -o (G). Hold, suppress
intestin, «urn (L). The intestine ischi, -a, -o, «urn (G). The hip, hip
inti (L). Within, into joint
intim, -a (L). Innermost ischn, -o (G). Thin, lean
intort (L). Twisted, distorted ischy, -r, -ro (G). Strong, powerful;
intr, -a (L). Within, inside hard
intric (L). Perplexing «isis (G My). An Egyptian goddess
intrins (L). Contained within islandic (NL). Of Iceland
intro (L). Within; in, into -ism (E). Belief; the process of; an
inul, «a (L). A kind of plant interrelation of organs,
inuncan, -t (L). Hooked iso (G). Equal
inunct (L). Smeared isola (F). An island; alone
inundat (L). Overflowed, flooded
50 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

-issim, «a, «urn, e us (L). (the juglan, *s, -d (L). The walnut
superlative ending) jugul, »um (L). A little yoke; the
1st, -o (G). A web; tissue throat; the collarbone
-ist, -o (G). (the superlative Jul, -i, «us (L). A catkin
ending) junc, «us (L). A rush, reed
isthm, -o, «us (G). A narrow juven, -il (L). Youth; young
passage juxta (L). Near to
-ite (E). A stone; a fossil
«itea (G). A willow Κ
-ites (G). Belonging to, having to k (see also c and ch)
do with kairo (G). The rigit time
«iter (L). A passage, journey kako (G). Bad
ithagin (G). Genuine kal, -o (G). Beautiful
ithy (G). Straight kaleido (G). With a beautiful form
itin, -o (G). Made of willow kali (G). A hut, nest
kapn, -o (G). Smoke
itiner (L). A journey kary, -o (G). A nut; the nucleus
-itis (G). Inflammation kel (G). A claw
ity, -o, =s (G). An edge, rim kelaen, -o (G). Black, murky
iul, =us (G). A centipede keli, -d, « s (G). A stain
-ium (G). Small kelo (G). A hernia, rupture
ixi, -a, -o (G). Birdlime; mistle­ kelyph, -o (G). A shell, husk
toe ken, -o (G). New; empty
ixal, -o (G). Jumping kentr, -o (G). A point; a spur
ixod (G). Like birdlime «kera, -to (G). Horn
ixy, =s (G). The loins, waist keraun, -o (G). A thunderbolt
iyn, -g, »x (G). The wryneck kerm, -es (Ps). Crimson
kero (G). Wax
J kilo (G). A thousand
kine, -ma, -mato, - s , -si, -t, -to
jacamar (Br). A kind of bird (G). Move, moving, movement
jacan (Br). A kind of bird kio, -no (G). A pillar; the uvula
jact (L). Throw, toss klept, -o (G). Steal; a thief
jacul (L). Throw koni, -o (G). Dust
«janus (My). Two-faced; a door korethr (G). A broom
japonic (NL). Of Japan koro (G). The pupil of the eye
JaPy» ~g> =x (G). The west-north­ kotyl, -o (G). A cup, socket, cavity
west wind kraur, -o (G). Dry, brittle
jec, -in, -or, =ur (L). The liver kurt, -i, -o (G). Curved
ject (L). Throw kyan, -o (G). Dark blue
jejun (L). Hunger; dry kyll, -o (G). Lame, crippled
jub, =a (L). A mane; a crest kym, -a, -o (G). A wave
jucund (L). Pleasant
jug, -o, «urn (L). A yoke
and Combining Forms 51

kypho, -s (G). Bent laemarg, -o (G). Greedy

kyrio (G). Master of; critical laen, «a (L). A cloak
kyst, -ho, -o (G). A hollow place; laeo (G). The left-hand side
a cell laet (L). Gay, pleasing
laetam, «en, -in (L). Dung
L •laetma, -to (G). The depths of the
la, -o (G). A stone; the people sea
labe (L): A downfall; a defect; (G): laev, -i, -o (L). Smooth; nimble,
a handle light; to the left
labell, «urn (L). A little lip laevigat (L). Smooth, slippery
labi, -a, -o (L). A Up lag, -o, «us (G). A hare
labi, -d, -s (G). Forceps lagar, -o (G). Lax, loose
labor (L). Work lagen, «a (G). A flask
labr, -i, -o (L). A lip; a kind of lagn, -o (G). Lustful, lewd
fish lago (G). A hare
labra, -c, «x (G). A sea fish laguncul, «a (L). A little flask
labro (G). Fierce, furious «lagus (G). A hare
labyrinth, -o, «us (G). Amaze, lailaps (G). A hurricane
labyrinth laim, -o, =us (G). The throat,
lac (L). Milk; a basin; a pit gullet
lace, -o, «us (G). A cistern, pit lai, -i, -o (G). Talk, speak
lacca (It). Varnish, wax lall (L). Babble
lacer, -at (L). Mangled, torn lamb, -a, -en (L). Lick, licking
lacert (L). A lizard; the upper arm lambd (G). Like the letter "lambda"
lacertos (L). Strong, powerful lamell, «a, -i (L). A small plate
laches, -i (L). Destiny, fate lament (L). Wailing
lachn, -o (G). Woolly «lamia (G). A vampire-like monster
Iachr, -im, -ym (L). Tears, lamin, «a, -i (L). A thin plate, sheet,
weeping layer
laci, -d, -st (G). Rent, torn lamn, «a (G). A predaceous fish
lacin, -i, =ia (L). A flap lamp, -ad, «as, -s (G). Shine; torch
lacm, -u (Dan). Dark violet blue lampr, -o (G). Brilliant, clear
lacr, -im, -um (L). Tears, weep- lampyri, -d, «s (G). A glow worm
ing Ian, «a, -i, -o (L). Wool
lact, -e, -i, -o (L). Milk lance, «a, -i (L). A lance
lactis, -m (G). Kick, trample lancin (L). Tear, lacerate
lactuc, «a (L). Lettuce langu, -i (L). Weak, faint
lacun, «a (L). A basin, lake; a languri, «a (L). A lizard
space, cavity lani (L). Wool
lacustr (NL). Of a lake lani, -a, -o (L). A butcher; rend
laelaps (G). A hurricane lanici (L). Woolly
laem, -o, «us (G). The throat, lano (L). Wool
52 Dictionary of Word Roots

lanth, -an, -o (G). Conceal, lie latra, -n, -t (L). Bark; barking
hid, unseen latri (G): A servant; (L): wash
lanu, -g (L). Wool, down
lao (G). A stone; the people latro (G): Pay, hire; a hireling; (L):
lapact (G). Empty a robber
lapar, -o (G). The loins; loose -latry (G). Worship, serve
lapath, -i, «urn (L). Sorrel, dock •latus (L). The side; broad, wide
laphyr, «a, -o (G). Booty, spoils lauda (L). Praise
lapi, -d, « s (L). A stone laur, -eat, -i, «us (L). The laurel
lapp, «a (L). A bur; burdock «laura (G). An alley
lapponic (L). Of Lapland laut (L). Washed, elegant, noble
laps (L). Slip, glide; a mistake lava, -t (L). Wash, bathe
-lapsana (G). A kind of cress
laque, «us (L). A noose lax, -a, -i (L). Loose, loosen
lar, -i, «us (L). A gull lazul (LL). Azure, blue
larc, -o, «us (G). A basket leberi, -d, «s (G). A snakeskin
lari, -c, «x (L). The larch
larin, -o (L). Fat lecan, «a (G). A dish, pan
«larus (L). A gull lech, -o (G). A lying-in woman; a
larv, «a, -i (L). A ghost, spectre bed
larvi (NL). A larva lechri, -o (G). Slanting, oblique
laryn, -g, -go, »x (G). The gullet, leci, -d, «s (G). A little plate
lascivi (L). Lewd, wanton; playful, lecith, -o (G). The yolk of an egg
sporty lect (G): Chosen, picked; (L): a
lasi, -o (G). Shaggy, hairy bed; a gathering
lass, -it (L). Faint lect, -icul, -ul (L). A couch, bed
lat, -i (L). Broad, wide lecyth, -o (G). An oil flask
lata, -g, «x (G). A beaver; a drop leg, -a, -i (L). Law
of wine leg, -o, «us (G): Lie down; choose;
latebr, «a, -i (L). A hiding place (L): collect
laten, -t (L). Hidden, hiding
later, -al, -o (L). The side legib (LL). Read
lateri (L). The side; a brick legitim (L). Lawful
lateri, -ci, -ti (L). Made of brick lego (G). Lie down; choose
latesc (L). Becoming hidden legum, «en, -in (L). A legume
•latex (L). A liquid, fluid •legus (G): Lie down; choose; (L):
lathri, -di, -o (G). Hidden, secret collect
lathyr, «us (G). A kind of vetch
lati (L). Broad, wide lei, -o (G). Smooth
latic, -i (L). A liquid, fluid leich, -o (G). Lick, lap
latr, «y (G). Worship, serve leima, -c, «x (G). A slug; a garden
leio (G). Smooth; the left-hand side
leip, -o (G). Leave; lack
leir, -o
lem, -i, (G).
(G). Paie
AA pestilence,
husk, peel, plague
and Combining Forms 53

«lemna (G). A water plant liban, -o, «us (G). Incense

lemnisc, =us (L). A ribbon libat (L). Pour
lemo (G). The throat; a plague libell, «a (L). A level
«lemon, -i (L). A meadow
libell, «us (L). A book, pamphlet
lemur (L). A ghost, spirit liber (L). Free; the inner bark; a
len, »s, -t (L). A lentil, bean book; a child
leni, -en (L). Soft, mild libera, -1, -t (L). Free
leno (G). Wool liberi (L). A child
lent (L). Thick, sticky, slow libid (L). Desire, passion
lenti (L). A lentil, bean libo (G). Tears
lentig, -inos (L). Freckled •libra (L). A balance, scales
leo, -ni, -nt (L G). A lion librar, -i (L). Of books
lepa, -d, -s (G). A shellfish, libri (L). A book; the inner bark
limpet licha (G). The space between the
lepi, -do, »s, -sma (G). A scale thumb and first finger; a steep
lepist, »a (L). A goblet lichan (G). Licking; the forefinger
lepo (G). A husk, scale «lichen, -i, -o (G). A lichen
lepor, -i (L). A hare lichn, -o (G). Dainty; greedy
«lien, -i, -o (L). The spleen
lepr, -a, -o (G). Scaly; leprosy liga, -m, -t (L). Bound, tied; a
leps, «is (G). A seizure band
lept, -ale, -ino, -o (G). Fine, lign, -e, -i, «urn (L). Wood
slender lignyot (L). Smoky, sooty
«leptes (G). A receiver ligul, «a (L). A shoe tongue, strap
«lepus (L). A hare
lepyr, -o, «um (G). A shell, husk ligustr, «urn (L). Privet
1ère, -m, -si (G). Idle talk ligy, -r, -ro (G). Clear, loud
lesi (L). Hurt lili, «urn (L). A lily
lest, «es, -ic, -r (G). A robber, lim (L). Mud, slime; looking side-
pirate ways
leth, -arh, -i, -o (G). Forgetful- lim, «a, -o (L). A file
ness, oblivion lima, -c, »x (L). A snail, slug
leuc, -o (G). White liman (NL). Mud, slime
leucani (G). The throat limât (L). Polished
leucom, «a (G). Whiteness limb, «us (L). An edge; a head band
leuk, -o (G). White «limen (L). A threshold
leur, -o (G). Smooth, even limer, -o (G). Hungry
leva (L). Raise, lift up limi (L). Mud, slime
levator (L). A lifter limin (L). A threshold
lexi (L).
a word,
side speech limit
limn, (L).
«limma, A(G).
«a,-to-i, boundary
-o (G).
A remnant
A marsh; a lake
54 Dictionary of Word Roots

limo (G): Hunger; a meadow; (L): littor, -a, -e, -i (L). The seashore
a file litu, «us (L). A crook, augur's staff
«limon (G). A meadow litur (L). Erase
-limonium (G). Sea lavender liv, -e, -id (L). Ashen, bluish
limos (L). Muddy lixivi (L). Ash-colored; lye
limpid (L). Clear lob, -i, -o, «us (G). A lobe
«limus (L). Mud lobat (NL). Lobed
loc, -a, -o, «us (L). A place
lin, -a, -ar, -o, »um (L). Flax loch, -o, =us (G). An ambush
lin, -ea, -eo, -o (L). A line lochi, «a, -o (G). Childbirth, con-
lin, -o, *um (G). A net, cloth finement
lochm, «a (G). A thicket
linct (L). Licked locul, «us (L). A little place, cell
lingu, =a (L). The tongue locust, «a, -i (L). A locust, grass-
lini, -m, -t (L). Smear hopper
lino (L): A line; flax; (G): a net, lodi, -c, =x (L). A blanket
cloth loem, -o, =us (G). A plague
linol (L). Flax oil log, -o, =us, «y (G). A word, dis-
«linum (L): Flax; (G): a net, cloth course, study of
loga, -do, =s (G). The conjunctivae;
linyph (G). Weaving linen the whites of the eyes; picked,
lio, -t (G). Smooth; smoothness chosen
lip, -o (G). Fat; lack; leave loim, -o, «us (G). A plague
lipar (G). Oily, fatty; persever- lolig, -in, «o (L). A squid, cuttlefish
ance «lolium (L). Thedarnell
liphem (G). Lacking blood «loma, -to (G). A hem, fringe
loment, «um (L). A cosmetic, wash;
lipp, -i (L). Bleary-eyed, dim-
sighted bean meal
lomvia (Far). The murre
lips (G). Leaving lonch, «a, -o (G). A spear, lance
lipsan, -o, «urn (G). A relic, rem- long, -i (L). Long
nant lop, -ism, -o, «us (G). A scale;
lipsi, *a (G). An omission husk
liqu, -e, -i (L). Fluid, liquid loph, -i, -o, «us (G). A crest, tuft
lir, =a (L). A ridge loquac (L). Talkative
lor, =um (L). A thong, lash
liri, -o, «urn (G). A lily lord, -o (G). Bent backward
liro (G). Pale; bold lori (Mal). A kind of parrot
liss, -a, -o (G). Smooth «lorica (L). Clothed in metal; armor,
listr, -io, -o, =um (G). A spade breastplate
-lite (G). A stone =lorum (L). A thong, lash
lot, -io, «us (L). A washing
litera (L). A letter
lith, -io, -o, »us (G). A stone
litig, -i (L). A dispute
lito (G).
litr, -a-a,(G).
-e, A
-i pound
(L). The seashore
and Combining F o r m s 55

lot, -o, «us (G). The lotus lye, -o, «us (G). A wolf
lox, -o (G). Slanting, oblique lychn, «is (G). A kind of plant
lubric (L). Smooth, slippery lychn, -o, «us (G). A lamp
lue, -i (L). Light; a grove lycos (G). A kind of spider
lucan (LL). A kind of beetle lygae (G). Gloomy
lucern, «a (L). A lamp lygi (G). Twilight; bend
luci, -d (L). Light; clear, shining lygi, -sm (G). Bend; bending
luci, -o, «us (L). The pike lygm (G). Hiccough
luco (G). A wolf lygo (G). A twig, a pliant rod
lucr (L). Gain, profit lygr, -o (G). Cowardly; mournful
luct (L). Struggle, wrestle «lyma (G). Destruction; filth
luctuos (L). Mournful, sorrowful lymph, «a, -o (L). Water; a water
«lucus (L). A grove; a light nymph
lud, -i, -icr (L). Hay lymphat, -i, -o (L). Frantic; lymph
ludovician (NL). Of Louisiana lyn, -c, «x (G). A lynx; hiccough
lue, «s (L). A plague lyo (G). Loose
lugubr (L). Sad, gloomy lyp, -e, -ero, -o (G). Pain, dis-
lumac (It). A snail tress; painful
lumb, -a, -o, «us (L). The loin lypr, -o (G). Wretched
lumbric, -i, «us (L). An earth- lyr, «a, -i (G). A harp, lyre
worm lys, -i, «is, -io (G). Loose; a
•lumen, lumin (L). Light loosening
lun, «a, -i (L). The moon lyss, «a, -o (G). Madness, rage
lunul, «a (L). A crescent lyt, -o (G). That which may be
lup, -i, -o, «us (L). A wolf loosed
lupin, -o (L). A lupine; of a wolf lythr, -o, «urn (G). Blood, gore
lupul, «us (L). The hop plant lytt, «a (G). Madness, rage; a
«lura (L). The mouth of a bag worm thought to cause madness in
lurid (L). Bale, ghastly, wan dogs
lusc (L). One-eyed
luscini, «a (L). The nightingale M
lusitanic (L). Of Portugal macar, -i, -o (G). Blessed, happy
lustr (L). Shining, pure, washed macell, «a (G). A pick axe
lut, -e, -i (L). Mud; mud-colored, macer, -a (L). Soften
yellowish mach, -a, -i, -o (G). Fight
lutr, -o (G). A bath, bathing mâcha, -er, -ir (G). A sword,
lutr, «a (L). An otter dagger, razor
«lux (L). Ligit machin, «a (L). An engine, machine
luxa, -t (L). Displace, dislocate maci, -a (L). Leanness
luxur, -i (L). Extravagance, splen-- macr, -o (G). Large, long
dor mactr, «a, -i (G). A kneading trouai
ly, -o (G). Loose «macula, -t (L). Spot; spotted
56 D i c t i o n a r y of Word Roots

mad, -e, -id (L). Wet mamill, «a (L). A teat

mad, -o (G). Barley bread mamm, «a, -i, -il (L). A teat
madar, -o (G). Bald; flaccid mammal, -i (L). A mammal
madre (Sp). Mother
meandr (G). Winding, zigzag man, -o (G). Wide, roomy
maeeu, -si, -sio (G). Childbirth man, -u (L). A hand
maen, -a, -ad, «as (G). Rave; manat (Sp). The manatee
excited mane (L). Maimed
maen, «a, -i (G). A herring mancip (L). A purchaser
magi st, *er, - r (L). A teacher, -mancy (G). Divination
master mand (L). Order; chew
«magma (G). Amass manda (L). Order
magn, -i (L). Great, large mandibul (L). A jaw
magne, -to (G). A magnet •mandra (G). A stable
mai, «a, -o (G). A kind of crab
maieu, -si, -sio (G). Childbirth mandragor (G). The mandrake
maior (L). Larger manduc (L). Chew
maira (G). Shine, sparkle •manes (G). A cup; a slave
major (L). Larger mang, -i (Pg). The mango
makr, -o (G). Large, long mani, «a (G). Rage, madness
mal, «a (L). The jaw, cheek manicat (L). With long sleeves
mal, -e, -i, -ign (L). Bad, evil, manipul (L). A handful
wrong; imperfect; not mann, -o, «us (G). A collar, necklace
mal, -i, «us (L). An apple
mano (G). Rare, thin, roomy
mal, -o (G). Woolly, soft
malac, -h, -i, -o (G). Soft mant (Sp). A mantle, cloak
malari (It). Bad air mantell, «urn (L). A cloak
male (L). Bad, evil, wrong manti, -d, «s (G). A soothsayer; a
malell, «a (L). A little jaw kind of grasshopper
mali (L). Bad, evil, wrong; an mantill (Sp). A light cloak
apple mantisp (L). Mantid-like
maliasm, «us (G). A skin disease mantiss, «a (L). A small addition
malign (L). Bad, evil, wrong
manu, « s (L). A hand
mall, -o, «us (G). Wool
malle, «us (L). A hammer manubri, -um (L). A handle
malo (G). Woolly, soft mar, -i (L). The sea
malt, -o (G). Malt marant (G). Wither, waste
malth, -a, -aco, -e, -o (G). A soft marasm (G). Waste, decay
wax; pliant marc, «us (L). A hammer
•malus (L). An apple; bad, evil,
marc, -esc, -id (L). Withering
malv, «a (L). The mallow marg, -in, «o (L). A border, edge
margarit, «es (G). A pearl
mari (L). The sea; male
marian (NL). Of Mary
marin (L).
-o (G).
Of the
and Combining Forms 57

marit, -a (L). A husband meandr (L). Winding, twisting

maritim (L). Of the sea, marine meat, «us (L). A passage
marma, -r (G). Marble; sparkle, mechan, -i, -o (G). An instrument,
glisten machine
•marmor, -i (L). Marble mecist, -o (G). Longest
marpt, -o (G). Seize meco (G). Long; length
marrubi, «urn (L). Hoarhound mecon, -i, -o (G). The poppy;
mars, -ipo, -upi (G). A bag, pouch opium; the ink bag of a cuttlefish;
marti (L). Mars, god of war the fecal matter discharged by a
«mas (L). Male
masar (NL). Stick out the lip newborn child
maschal (G). The armpits mecyn, -o (G). Extend, prolong
mascul, -in (L). Male, masculine mede, «a (G). The genitals
masesi (G). Chewing medeol (L My). Medea, a sorceress
mass, -a, -o (G). Knead; larger medi, -a, -o (L). The middle
«masseter (G). A chewer medic, -a, -o (L). Heal; healing
massul, =a (L). A little mass medo (G). A bladder; a guardian
mast, -o, «us (G). A breast, medull, «a (L). Marrow, pith
medus, «a, -i (LMy). A jellyfish
nipple meg, -a, -alo (G). Large, great
masta, -c, «x (G). The mouth, jaws megar, -on, «um (G). A large room
mastic (L). Chew megist, -o (G). Largest, greatest
mastig, -o, «mastix (G). A whip mei, -o (G). Less
masto (G). A breast, nipple meiz, -o (G). Larger, greater
masturba (L). Pollute one*s-self mel, «a, -o (G). The cheeks
«mastus (G). A breast, nipple mel, -i, -it, -ito (G). Honey
mat, -aeo, -eo (G). Foolish, idle mel, -o (G). A song; a limb; an
«mater, -n (L). A mother apple
math (G). Learn melaen (G). Black; blacken
matr, -i, -o (L). A mother melan, -o (G). Black
matri, -c, »x (L). A place where •mêlas (G). Black, dark
something is generated; the meldo (G). Melt
womb, uterus meleagri, «s (G). A guinea fowl
matron, =a (L). A wife «mêles (L). A badger
matt (L). A mat; dull-colored meli, -d, -n (L). A badger
matur (L). Ripe; ripen meli, -t, -to (G). Honey
matutin (L). The morning «melia (G). An ash tree
maur, -o (G). Dark, obscure melichr, -o (G). Honey-colored
maxill, «a, -i (L). The jaw, jawbone melid (L). A badger
maxim (L). Largest, greatest melin (G): The quince; ashen;
maz, -ia, -o (L). The breast; a cake (L): a badger
me (G). Not melior (L). Better
58 Dictionary of Word Roots

melism (G). A song; a dismem- ment, -i, «urn (L). The chin
bering menth, «a (L). Mint
meliss, «a (G). A honey bee; honey
melit, -o (G). Honey mentul, -a (L). The penis
melizo (G). Sing meny (G). Inform, reveal
mell, -i, -it (L). Honey mephit, -i, «is (L). A foul odor
melo (G). A limb; the cheeks; a
probe; a song; an apple, fruit; a mer (L). Pure; alone; bare
sheep mer, *e, -i, -o (G). A part; the
melod, -i (G). Song, a singing thigh
meloe, meloi (G). A probe mercur (LMy). Mercury, a Grecian
melolonth, «a (G). A cockchafer god
melon (G). An apple, fruit; a merd, «a, -i (L). Dung, excrement
sheep mere, -t (L). Earn
melos (G). Probing merg (L). Dive, dip
melotri, -di (G). Probe, sound «mergus (L). A diver
melyr, «is (G). A song-maker; a meri, -d, «s (G). A part
kind of insect
memat, -o (G). Desired meriae (G). Of the thigh
membra, -c, *x (G). A kind of meridi (L). Noon
insect meridional (L). Southern
membran, «a (L). A membrane
memnoni (L). Brownish black merism, -o, *us (G). A division
•men, -o (G). A month merist, -o (G). Divided
mena, -do (G). The moon merit (L). Earn
menda, -c, «x (L). Lying, false
mendie (L). Poor; a beggar merluci, «us (NL). A kind of fish
mené (G). The menses; the moon mermi, «s, -th (G). A cord
men! (G). Anger; the moon; a mero (G). A part; the thigh
month merop, -o, «s (G). The bee-eater
menin, -g, -gp, «x (G). A mem-
brane -merous (G). Parted
menisc, -o (G). A crescent mers (L). Dip
meno (G). Remain, standfast; a merul, «a (L). A blackbird
month; the menses «merus (G). The thigh
mens (L). The mind; measure meryc, -o (G). Ruminate, chew the
mens, «a (L). A table cud
mens, -e, -i (L). A month mes, -o (G). The middle
menstru (L). Monthly
mensur (L). Measure mesa (Sp). Tableland
ment, -a, -i (L). The mind mesar, -a, -i, «urn (G). A mesen-
mesat (G). Middle, median
mesembri, «a (G). Noon
mest, «es(G).
meso -o (G).
The A mediator
-o Full
A dividing wall
and Combining F o r m s 59

met, -a, -h (G). Between, with, mill, -e, -i, -o (L). One thousand
after, back again; change milph, -o (G). Bald; losing hair
«meta (L). A boundary; a turning milt, -o (G). Ochre; red, vermilion
metab, -as, -ol (G). Change milv, -in, «us (L). A kite
metall, -i, -o (G). Mine; metal mim, -e, -i, -o, «us (G). An imita-
metallurg (G). Metal-working tion; an actor, mimic
metax, -i, -y (G). Between mina, -c, «x (L). A threat; project
meteor, -o (G). Higi in the air; minera (ML). Mine
heavenly bodies; natural phe-
nomena, the weather mineral, -o (ML). Mineral
«meter (G). Measure mini, -a, «um (L). Red lead
meth (G). Between, with, after, minim (L). Least, smallest
back again; change minor (L). Less, smaller; hangover,
meth, -e, -o, -y (G). Drink, drunk- threaten
enness; wine
method, -o (G). A system minus (L). Less, smaller
methys (G). Intoxicated, drunk minut (L). Small
metop, -i, -o (G). The forehead miny, -th, «s (G). Small
metr, -a, -i, -o (G). Measure; the
uterus, womb; a mother minyr, -o (G). Complaining
metrio (G). Moderately minyth (G). Small; decrease
-metry (G). Measurement mio (G). Less
•meum (L). A kind of plant mir, -a, -ab, -ac, -i (L). Wonderful
mezzo (It). The middle; half
miar, -o (G). Defiled, stained mis (E): Wrong; (G): hate
with blood mise (L). Mix; mixed
miasm, «a, -o (G). Pollution mise, -o (G). A stalk
-mica, -r (L). A crumb
micacé (L). Granular misch, -o, «us (G). A stalk
micell, «a (L). A little crumb mise, -11, -r (L). Wretched
micr, -o (G). Small miso (G). Hate, hatred
mict, -o (G). Mixed miss, -i (L). Send
mictur (L). Urinate
mid (ME). The middle mist, «us (L). A mixing
mida, «s (G). A kind of insect mist, -o (G). Most
migr, -a (L). Wander, migrate -mit (L). Send
migrator! (L). Wandering, mi- mit, -ο, «us (G). A thread
gratory mitell, «a (L). A head band
mill, -ar, -ol, «urn (L). Millet
milit, -ar, -i (L). A soldier miter (L). A cap
mitl (L). Mild, harmless; ripe
mitig (L). Make mild
mito (G). A thread
-o-i A
A cap,
60 Dictionary of Word Roots

mni, -o, «urn (G). Moss mon, -a, -er, -o (G). One, single
mobil (L). Movable monet (L). Money; mint
mochl, -o, «us (G). A lever monil, -i (L). A necklace, string
mochth, -o, «us (G). Hard work of beads
monimo (G). Fixed, steadfast
mod, -u (L). Measure
monit (L). Warn; warning
modena (N). Deep purple
mono (G). One, single
modic (L). Moderate monstr, -a (L). Show, warn; a
modiol, «us (L). A small measure; monster
a bucket on a water wheel
mont, -an, -i (L). A mountain
modul (L). Measure; a tune
mor, -i, «us (L). A mulberry
moell (F). Pith, marrow
mor, -o (G). Stupid, foolish
moen, -i (L). Walls, fortifications
moer, ȉ, -o (G). Lot, fate; a part, mora, -tor (L). Delay
division morb, -i, -os (L). A disease; dis-
moest (L). Sorrowful, sad eased
mog, -i, -o (G). Hardly, with dif- morbill (ML). The measles
ficulty; trouble morchel (Ger). A morel
moir, -a, -o (G). Lot, fate; a part, mord, -ac, -ax, -el, -en, -ic (L).
division Bite, biting
mol, -i (G). Hardly, with difficulty mori (L): A mulberry; (G) folly
mola, -r (L). Grind, mill moribund (L). Dying
molecul (L). A little mass morill (F). A fungus, morel
molest (L). Disturb morind, «a (L). A mulberry
molen (L). Grinding morinell (G). Foolish
molg, -o (G). Hide, skin morio (G). A part; a fool; a nar-
molge (Ger). A salamander cotic plant
«mormo (G). A monster, bugbear
moli (G). Hardly, with difficulty mormyr, -o, «us (G). A sea fish
molin, «a (L). A mill moro (G). Stupid, foolish
moll, -i (L). Soft moros (L). Fretful
mollusc (L). Soft; a shellfish morph, «a, -o (G). Form
molop, -o, «s (G). A ridge, weal, morph, -e, -o (LMy). Sleep
•molothrus (L). An intruder morrhu, =a (L). The cod fish
molp (G). A song mors (L). Bite, biting, eat
molpast, «es (G). A dancer mort,al, -i, -u (L). Death, dead, deadly
molybd, -i, -o (G). Lead morul, =a (L). A little mulberry
=morus (L). A mulberry
molyn, -a (G). Stain, defile mosch, -o, =us (G). Musk; a young
momot -o«us
(from (G).
(L). Pollution
The motmot
disgraa animal
and Combining F o r m s 61

mue, -e, -i, -o, «us (L). Mold, muta (L). Change
moldy; mucus muti, -c, -1 (L). Cutoff
«mucro, -n (L). A sharp point mutu (L). Reciprocal; borrowed
«mugil, -i (L). The mullet my, -i, «ia (G). A fly
mule (L). Stroke, caress my, -o, « s (G). A muscle; a mouse
mulg (L). To milk mya, -c, =x (G). A sea mussel
myagr, «urn (G). A mouse trap
mulin (L). Of a mule •myaria (G). Muscle
mull, «us (L). The red mullet myc, -e, -et, -eto, -o (G). A fungus
mulo (L). A mule «mycetes (G). The bellflower
muls, -i (L). Mixed with honey, mych, -o (G). Inward
sweet myct, *er, -ir (G). The nose
mult, -i (L). Many myd, -a, -ale, -o (G). Wet, damp;
mund, -an (L). The world; moldy
adorned; clear mydr, -o, «us (G). A red-hot mass
mur (L). A mouse; a wall mydriasi, «s (G). A dilation of the
mura (L). A wall pupil
muraen, =a (L). A lamprey, eel myel, -o, «us (G). Marrow; the
«murex (L). The purple-fish; purple spinal cord
mûri (L). A mouse; a wall mygal, «e (L). A field mouse
«muria (L). Brine myi, «a, -o (G). A fly
mûrie (L). The purple-fish; purple myl, -io, -o (G). A mill, millstone;
a molar
muricat (L). Pointed
mylabr, «is (G). An insect in flour
muricul (L). Slightly pointed mills
murin (L). Of a mouse mylacr, «is (G). A millstone
•mus (L). A mouse myll, -o, «us (G). A lip; crooked; a
mus, -a, -o (Ar). The banana salted sea fish
musc, -a, -i, -o (L). A fly; moss; mymar (G). Ridicule; blame
musk myo (G). A muscle; a mouse
muscari (L). Of a fly; a clothes myop, «s (G). Short-sighted; a
brush horse fly
muscid (L). Mossy myosot (G). Mouse-eared
muscul, -o, «us (L). Muscle; a little myox, «us (G). A dormouse
mouse; a kind of fish myr, -o, «urn (G). Ointment, perfume
«muscus (L). Moss; musk myrc (NL). The myrtle
museo (L). A museum myri, -a, -o (G). Numberless;
musi (G). Music; a muse 10,000
myri, -st (G). Anoint
music, -o (G). Music myric, «a (G). The tamarask
muso (Ar). A banana myrin, -g, -go, «x (NL). The ear-
muss (L). Mutter, buzz drum
must (L). Fresh; new wine
mustel, «a, -in (L). A weasel
mut (L). Dumb
62 Dictionary of Word Roots

myrio (G). Numberless; 10,000 nard, -o, «us (G). The spikenard
myrist (G). Anoint; ointment nari, «s (L). A nostril
myrme, -co, «x (G). An ant narra (L). Tell
myro (G). Ointment, perfume narthe, -c, =x (G). A kind of plant
myrsin, «a (G). The myrtle nas, -i, -o, «us (L). The nose
myrt, «us (G). The myrtle nasc (L). Birth; be born
«myrum (G). Ointment, perfume nasm, -o, «us (G). A stream
«mys (G). A muscle; a mouse nass, «a (L). A wicker basket
mysi, «s (G). A closing of the nast, -o (G). Pressed close, solid
lips or eyes «nastes (G). An occupant
myso (G). Filth, abomination nasut (L). Large-nosed
myst, -ac, «ax, -ic (G). The nat, -i, «is (L). The rump, buttocks
upper lip; a moustache nata (L). Birth; be born
myst, -eri, -i, -o (G). A mystery, natan, -t (L). Swimming
secret rite nato (L). Swimming
mystr, -i, -io, «ium, -o (G). A natri, -c, »x (L). A water snake
spoon nau, «s, -t (G). A ship; sail
myth, -o, «us (G). A legend nauc, =um (L). Trivial; a trifle
mytil, -o, «us (G). A mussel naupli, «us (G). A kind of mollusc
myx, «a, -o (G). Slime, mucus, naus, -e, -i (G). Seasickness
nasal discharge naut, -i (G). A ship; sail
myxin, =us (G). A slime fish nautil, «us (G). A sailor; a shell­
myz, -o (G). Suck; mutter fish
nav, -a, -i (L). A ship; sail
Ν navicul, «a (L). A little ship, boat
nabi, -d, «s (L). A giraffe navig, -a (L). Sail, go by ship
«nabla (G). A kind of harp ne (G). Not
nacr (F). Mother-of-pearl ne, -o (G). New; swim;, go
naev, =us (L). A birthmark, mole, neal, «es (G). Young, fresh
spot nebr, -i, -o, «us (G). A fawn
naia, -d, «s (G). A water nymph nebul, »a, -o (L). A cloud, mist
naid; «nais (G). A water nymph necan, -t (L). Killing
naj, «a, -i (H). A snake «necator (L). A killer
•nama, -to (G). A stream necr, -o, «us (G). The dead; a dead
nan, -i, -no, -o, «us (G). A body
dwarf necros, =is (G). Death, deadness
nao (G). A temple nect (L). Bound, joined
nap, «aea, -o (G). A glen, wooded nect, -er, -o (G). Swimming
dell «nectar (G). The drink of the gods
nap, -i, «us (L). A turnip nectri (G). A swimmer
naphth (G). Asphalt necy, «s (G). A corpse
narc, «a, -o (G). Numbness, stupor necydal, «us (G). The silkworm
and Combining Forms 63

nedym, -o (G). Sweet, delightful nett, «a, «ion (G). A duck

neel, -y, «yx (G). A newcomer neur, «a, -o (G). A nerve, sinew,
nega (L). Deny cord
negr, -i (Sp). Black neurode (G). Nerve-like; the retina
neil, -o (G). Of the Nile neust, -o (G). Swim
nel, -eo, -i (G). Merciless neutr (L). Neither
nelip, -o (G). Barefooted nex, «us (L). A tie, bond
nem, «a, -ato, -o (G). A thread nexi (G). Swimming
nemerte (G). Unerring nexil (L). Tied together
nemor, -al (L). A grove, wood- nie, -o (G). Victory; strife
land nictitat (L). Winking
neo (G). New, recent; a temple; nid, -i, «us (L). A nest
swim; go nig, -el, «er, -ra, -resc, -ri, -ro (L).
neo, -ss, -ssi, -tt, -tti, -tto (G). Black, dark
A bird's nest; a young bird nik, -o (G). Victory; strife
neochm, -o (G). Make new nilo, -tic (L). The Nile; a canal,
nep, «a (L). A scorpion aqueduct
nepenth, «es (G). Free from nimb, «us (L). A rain cloud
sorrow nimr (Hb). A hunter
nepet, «a (L). A kind of mint niph, «a, -o (G). Snow
neph, -el, -eli, -elo, -o (G). A nipt, -o (G). Wash
cloud, clouds «nipter (G). A wash basin
nephali (G). Sober, without wine nitid (L). Shining, handsome
nephr, -i, -o, «us (G). The kidney nitr, -a, -i, -o (G). Soda; nitrogen
nephthy, «s (G). An Egyptian niv, -al, -e, -os (L). Snowy
goddess niv, -i, -o (L). Snow
nepot (L). A descendant; extrava- nobil (L). Well known
gant noc, -en, -i, -u (L). Harm; harmful
nepti, «s (L). A granddaughter noct, -i (L). Nigfrt
neptun, «us (L). A sea god noctu, «a (L). A night owl
nere, -i, «is, -o (G). A sea nymph nod, -i, -o, «us (L). A knot, swelling
nerein, -e, -i (L). A sea god nod, -o (G). Toothless
nerit, «es (G). A sea mussel nodul, «us (L). A little knot
neri, «urn (G). The oleander noe, -a (G). Think
nero (G). Wet, liquid «noema, -to (G). A thought
nerv, «us (L). A nerve, tendon noetic, -o (G). Intelligent
nes, -o, «us (G). An island noia (G). The mind
nesc (L). Ignorant nol, «a, -i (LL). A small bell
«nessa (G). A duck nom, -o (G). A pasture; custom, law
nest, -i, -o (G). Fasting, hungry nom, «en, -in (L). A name
«nestor (LMy). Wise noma, -d (G). Roving, spreading
netr, -o, «um (G). A spindle nome (G). A shepherd; a feeding
64 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

nomi, -co, -si, -o (G). Law, nuch, -a (ML). The nape

custom nucle, -a, -i, -o (L). A little nut;
nomo (G). A pasture; custom, the nucleus
law nucleol, *us (L). A little nucleus
-nomy (G). The science of nud, -i (L). Nude, naked
non (L). Not; the ninth nuga, -t (L). Joke, jest
nonagen (L). Ninety null! (L). No, none
noo, - s (G). The mind numeni (G). A curlew; the new moon
nop, -o (G). Blind numer (L). Number
norm, »a (L). A rule, measure numid (L). Roving, wandering
nosazonto (G). Fall ill =numisma, -t (L). A coin
nose, -m; noso (G). Disease, nummul, =us (L). Money
sickness nun, -ci, -ti (L). A messenger
nost, -a, -o (G). Return home nuphar (G). A water lily
nostoc (Ger). A kind of alga nupt, -ial (L). Marry; a wedding
not, -a, -ae, -al, -o, «um (G). nut, -a, -an (L). Nod, nodding, sway
The back nutri (L). Feed, nourish
not, -o (G). The south wind; the nutri, -c, =x (L). A nurse
south =nux (L). A nut
notât (L). Marked nyc, -t, -ti, -to (G). Night
note, -o (G). South, southwest nycter, -i (G). A bat
noter, -o (G). Damp, moist •nygma, -to (G). A puncture wound
noth, -o (C). Spurious, illegiti- -nym (G). A name
mate nymph, *a (G). A nymph; a bride
nothr, -o (G). Sluggish nymphae, =a (G). A water lily
noti, -o (G). Wet, moistj southern nyroc, *a (NL). A merganser
notidan, -o (G). Having a pointed nyss, =a (L My). A water nymph; a
dorsal fin starting post
noto (G). The back; south, south- nyss, -o (G). Prick, stab
west nysta, -gm (G). Nodding the head,
notor (L). Known, making known
«notum (G). The back drowsy
«nyx (G). Night
nous (G). The mind
nyx, -eo, 3 i s (G). A puncture
nov, -i, -o (L). New
novaboracens (L). Of New York
novem (L). Nine
noverc, «a (L). A stepmother o, -o (G). An egg
novi, novo (L). New oari, -o· (G). A small egg; a mate,
noxi, -os (L). Harmful «oasis (G). A fertile spot
nub, -a (L). Marry ob (L). Reversed, against
nub, -e, -i (L). A cloud obdur (L). Harden
nuc, -ell, -i (L). A nut obel, -isccake
a round (G). A spit, pointed pillar;
and Combining F o r m s 65

•obex (L). A barrier ochr, -o (G). Pale; paie yellow

obfuscat (L). Darkened ochth, «a, -o (G). A hill
obic (L). A barrier =ochus (G). Anything that holds or
obit, «us (L). Death; an approach supports
oblat (L). Spread out ochyr, -o (G). Stout, firm
oblig (L). Bound, obliged; bind -ocl (L). An eye
obliqu (L). Oblique ocn, -o (G). Inactive; hesitating
oblitéra (L). Erase ocr, -i (G). Pale; a ridge, summit
oblivi (L). Forget
obnoxi (L). Hazardous; liable ocre, =a (L). A legging
obnubil (L). Clouded, covered oct, -i, -o (L). Eight
obol, -o (G). A coin ocul, -i, -o, «us (L). An eye
obri, =a, -o (G). The young of ocy (G). Swift
animals -od (NL). Form
obscur (L). Covered, dark od, -e, -o, =us (G). A way
obsole, -se, -t (L). Decayed, -oda (G). Like; a resemblance
worn out oda, -c, »x (G). Biting
obstetri, -c, «x (L). A midwife ode (G). A song; a way; like
obstru (L). Close up, block odeon (G). A song
obtect (L). Concealed, covered -odes (G). Like
obtur (L). Close, stop up odi (G): A song; (L): hate
obtus (L). Dull, blunt odin, -o (G). Labor pain
oc (L). Reversed, against
occiden, -tal (L). Western odo (G). A way; swollen
occip, -it, »ut (L). The back of odon, -t, -to (G). A tooth
the head, occiput «odor, -i (L). An odor, smell
occlu, -d, -s (L). Shut up «odus (G). A way
occult (L). Hidden odyn, «e, «ia, -o (G). Pain
ocean, -o (G). The ocean oe (see also ae, jai, or e)
oceanit, «es (G). An ocean oec, -i, -o, «us (G). A house,
dweller dwelling
ocell, «us (L). A little eye «oecetes (G). An inhabitant
ocelo (Mex). An ocelot oed, -e, «ema, -o (G). A swelling,
och, -o, «us (G). Anything that tumor
holds or supports oeg, -o (G). Open
«ochema, -to (G). A support; a car- oem, -a, -o (G). A way, path
riage; a vessel
ocher (G). Pale oen, -a (G). A wild pigeon
ochet, -o, «us (G). A drain oen, -o, «us (G). Wine
ochl, -o, =us (G). A crowd, mob oenanth (G). The first shoot of the
ochn, «a (G). A pear tree vine; the windflower; a small bird
ocho (G). Anything that holds or oesophag, -i, -o (G). The gullet,
supports esophagus
oestr, -o, «us (G). A gadfly; sting;
ogdoa (G). Eight
66 Dictionary of Word Roots

ogm, -o, «us (G). A furrow «olla (L). A pot or jar

°gyg (G My). A king of Athens ollym (G). Destroy
oico (G). A house, dwelling olo (G). Whole; destroy
-oid (G). Like; form -ology (G). The science of
oide, «ma (G). A swelling, tumor =olor, -i (L). A swan
-oidea (the ending of animal super- olpi, -d, «s (G). A flask
family names) olynth, «us (G). A fig
-oideae (the ending of plant sub- om, -o (G). The shoulder; raw,
family names) unripe
oidi (G). A small egg -orna (G). A tumor, morbid growth
oido (G). A swelling, tumor omal, -o (G). Even
oig, -o (G). Open omas, «urn (L). A paunch
oik, -o, «us (G). A house, dwell- ombr, -o, «us (G). A rain storm
ing ornent, =um (L). Fat skin
ol, -o (G). Whole, entire omich, -m (G). Urine
olbi, -o (G). Blessed, happy «omma, -t, -to (G). The eye
oie, «a, -astr (L). An olive; an omni (L). All
olive tree omo (G). The shoulder; unripe,
ole, -i, -o, «urn (L). Olive oil, raw
oil ompha, -c, «x (g). An unripe grape;
oie, -nt, -o (L). Emit a smell, a young girl
smell omphal, -i, -o, «us (G). The navel,
oleagin (L). Olive-shaped umbilicus; the center; a small
olear (L). Oily, of oil central projection
olecran, -o, «urn (G). The elbow onagr, «us (G). A wild ass; a kind
olei (L). Oil, olive oil of plant
olen, «a, -e, -i (G). The elbow one, -o, «us (G). A mass; a tubercle;
olen, -t (L). Emit a smell, smell a hook, barb
oleo (L). Oil, olive oil; emit a oncethm, -o (G). Braying
smell, smell onch, -o (G). A barb, hook; bulk,
oler, -i (L). Greens, vegetables mass; a tubercle
oies, -i (G). Destroy onci, -o (G). A barb, hook
«oleter (G). A destroyer onco; «oncus (G). A barb, hook; a
olethr, -io, -o, «us (G). Death, mass; a swelling, tumor
destruction; deadly oneir, -o, «us (G). A dream
olfact (L). Smell oner (L). A burden
olid (L). Emitting a smell onir, -o (G). A dream
olig, -o (G). Few; scant; small onisc, «us (G). A wood louse
olisth, -em, -mo (G). Slip, slip- ono (G). An ass; a beaker
pery onom, «a, -at, -ato (G). A name
olitor (L). A gardener onon, «is (G). A leguminous plant
oliv, =a, -ace (L). An olive; olive- «onosma (G). An ass smell
green onto (G). Being, existing
and C o m b i n i n g F o r m s 67

«onus, -t (L). A burden; burdened opt, -i, -o (G). The eye; vision
onych, -o (G). A claw, nail opt, -a, -i (L). Choose
-onym (G). A name opter (G). An observer, scout
•onyx, -i (G). A claw, nail
oo (G). An egg optes (G). Roast
oodeo (G). Egg-shaped opti (L): Choose; (G): the eye;
oophor (G). An ovary vision
op (L). Reversed, against optim (L). Best
op, *s (G). The face, appearance; opto (G). The eye; vision; roasted
the voice opul (L). Rich
opac (L). Shaded, dull ora (L). Mouth
opal, -in, -o, «us (G). An opal «orama (G). A view
ope, -o (G). An opening orari (L). Coastal; a napkin
opera (L). Work oras, -i (G). Sigit
opercul, «urn (L). A cover, lid
orbi, -t, -to (L). A circle, track,
ophel, -o, «us (G). Use, service
ophi, -d, -o, « s (G). A snake,
ore, «a (L). A whale
ophiur (G). Serpent-tailed orches, -t (G). Dancing
ophry, -o, «s (G). The eyebrow, orchi, -d, -do, « s (G). The testicle;
brow a plant named from the shape of
ophthalm, -i, -o, «us (G). The its roots
eye orcho (G). A testicle
opi, -a, -o, «urn (G). PDppy juice, orcul, «a, -i (L). A cask
opium ore, -o (G). A mountain
-opia (G). Vision «oreades (G). Mountain nymphs
opiso (G). Backward orect, -o (G). Stretched out
opisth, -i, -o (G). Behind, the oreg (G). Desire
hind part oress, -i (G). Mountains
opi, -o (G). Armor; a tool
oplit, «es (G). Heavily armed; orex, -i (G). Desire, appetite
an armed soldier organ, -o (G). An organ, instrument
opo (G). The face; juice orgi (G). Secret rites
opor (G). Autumn orgyi, «a (G). The length of the out-
opoter, -o (G). Either stretched arms
oppil (L). Stop up, block ori (L): The mouth; (G): a mountain
opposit (L). Opposite oribat (G). Mountain-roaming
«ops (G). Appearance; the face;
orient, -al (L). Rising; east
the voice
opsi, -o (G). Appearance; sight; origin (L). Arise, begin
late orism, «a (G). A limitation,
opso (G). Meat, dainty food boundary
orm, -o (G). A cord, chain
ornât (L). Adorned
orni, s , -th,A -tho
a plume
A bird
68 Dictionary of Word Roots

oro (G): A mountain; (L): the osmo, -s, -t (G). Pushing, thrust-
mouth ing
oront, «es (G). A river in Syria osmund, -a (NL). A kind of fern
oroph, =a, -o (G). A roof osphr, -a, -e, -o (G). A smell,
orphan (G). Without parents; scent
bereft osphy, -o, «s (G). The loin, hip
orphe (My). Melodious oss, -e, -i (L). A bone
orphn, -o (G). Dark, dusky ossic (L). A little bone
orrh, -o, *us (G). Serum; the ost, -e, -eo, *eum (G). A bone
end of the sacrum oster, -o (G). Nimble
ortali, -d, *s (G). A fowl; a young osti, «urn (L). A small opening,
bird door
orth, -o (G). Straight, upright ostr, -e, «ea, -i, -in (L). An
orthagorisc, «us (G). A suckling oyster; purple
Pig ostrac, -o, -urn (G). A shell;
orthrio (G). Early, at daybreak earthenware
orty, -g, *x (G). A quail ostry, «a (G). A hardwood tree
oruss (G). Dig through, burrow -osu, «m, «s (L). Full of
orych, -o (G). Dig ot, -i, -o (G). The ear
oryct, -er, -o (G). Dugout; a othe, -o (G). Push, thrust
digger; a fossil othni, -o (G). Strange, foreign
oryg (G). An antelope; a digging otid, -o (G). An ear; a bustard
tool otio, -n (G). A kind of shellfish
oryss (G). Dig through, burrow otios (L). Idle, at leisure
«oryx (G). An antelope; a digging •Otis (G). A bustard
tool oto; «otus (G). An ear
oryz, «a, -i, -o (G). Rice ouden (G). None
•os (L). A bone; a mouth oulo (G). Woolly, with thick hair;
-os, *a, «urn, «us (L). Full of the gums; a scar; whole
osche, -o (G). The scrotum our, «a (G). The tail
oscho (G). A young branch ouran, -i, -o (G). Heaven
oscill, -a, -o (L). Swing back and ouro (G). Urine; a guard; a wild
forth bull
oscin, -i (L). A singing bird -ous (E). Full of
oscit (L). Yawning, drowsiness ov, -i, *um (L). An egg
oscul (L). Kiss; a little mouth ovari, -o, »um (L). An ovary
-ose (L). Full of ovat (L). Egg-shaped
-osis (L). A condition of ovi (L). An egg; a sheep
-osis (G). A disease ovin (L). Of sheep
-osity (L). Fullness ovipar (L). Egg-laying
osm, *a, -i, -o (G). A smell, •ovis (L). A sheep
odor ovul, «um (L). A little egg
and Combining Forms 69

•ovum (L). An egg pale, «a, -i (L). Chaff, straw

ox, -a, -i, -y, «ys (G). Sharp, pale, -o (G). Ancient
acute; acid
oxal, «is (G). Sorrel palest (G). Wrestling, fighting
oxe, -o (G). Sharp; vinegar palett, «a (L). A little spade
oxid (G): Sharp; (F): containing pâli (L). A stake
oxy, «s (G). Sharp; acid pali, -n (G). Again, back
«oxyechus (G). A sharp sound palinur, «us (My). The pilot of
oxysm (G). Sharpen Aeneas
oz, -o (G). Smell; a branch pall, -ens, -esc, -id, -or (L). Pale
ozot, -o (G). Branched palla, -c, «x (G). A concubine; a
Ρ palii, ~atf -o, «urn (L). A mantle;
pabul, =um (L). Food; fodder
pach, -y (G). Thick pallo (G). Sway, quiver
pachn, =a, -o (G). White frost palm, «a, -i (L). A palm tree; the
paci (L). Peace palm of the hand
pact (L). Made fast, solid palm, -o (G). Vibrating, throbbing
paed, -a, -o (G). A child palmat, -i (L). Webbed, palmate
=paedia (G). Education palp (L). Touch, feel
paedid (L). Stinking «palpator (L). A feeler
=paegma, -to (G). Sport palpebr, «a (L). An eyelid; wink,
pag, -o, =us (G). A rock; ice, frost blink
pagan, -us (L). A rustic, peasant
pagi, -o (G). Fixed, fastened, firm palpi (L). A feeler, palp
pagin, =a (L). A leaf or page palpit (L). Throb
pago; «pagus (G). A rock; ice, palt, -o, «urn (G). A dart
frost palu, -di, -str (L). A marsh, swamp
pagur, -o, «us (G). A crab «palus (L). A stake; a marsh, swamp
paid, -o (G). A child pam, -m (G). All
pal, «a (L). A shovel, spade
pal, -ae, -aeo (G). Ancient pampin, «us (L). A tendril
pal, -i, «us (L). A stake pan (G). All; a torch
palam, «a (G). The palm of the pan, -i, «is (L). Bread
palamed, «es (G My). Cunning, panace (G). All-healing
art pand (L). Spread out; bend
palass, -o (G). Spot, defile panic, «um (L). Panic grass
palat, -i, -o, «urn (L). The roof of
the mouth, palate pandion (G My). A king of Athens
pale (G). Wrestle, figit pani, «s (L). Bread
panicul, «a (L). A tuft
«panicum (L). Panic grass
pann, «us(L).
pano (L).
pans (G). (L).
A ACloth,
torch rags a rag
thin sheet,
70 Dictionary of Word Roots

pant, -a, -e, -i, -o (G). All parot, -i (G). Beside the ear
panurg (G). Ready to do anything parotid, -o (G). The parotid gland
pany (G). Altogether, exceedingly -parous (L). Giving birth to, bearing
«papaver, -i (L). The poppy •pars (L). Apart
«papilio, -n (L). A butterfly parsi (L). Few, sparing
papill, «a, -i (L). A nipple parthen, -o (G). A virgin; without
papp, -o, «us (G). A grandfather; fertilization
down, fuzz
papul, «a (L). A pimple parti (L). Apart
papyr, -i, «us (L). Paper, papyrus partim (L). Partly
par (L). Bear, give birth to partit (L). Divided
par, -a (G). Beside, beyond, near partur, -i (L). Bring forth young,
par, -i (L). Equal; a titmouse give birth to
paradis (G). A park, pleasure parul (L). A little titmouse
ground «parus (L). A titmouse
paradox, -o (G). Incredible, parv, -i (L). Small
parallel, -i, -o (G). Parallel paryph, «a, -o (G). A border
paramec (G). Oblong, oval pas, -i (G). All
paraphron (G). Mad, insane, dis- pasc, -u, «uus (L). Feed; a pasture
traught paspal (G). A kind of millet; fine
parapod (G). At the feet of,
close by meal
parasit, -i, -o (G). Near food; eat •passer, -i (L). A sparrow
passi (L). Passion; suffer; pace;
at another's table; a parasite spread out
parât (L). Ready, prepared
parci (L). Few, sparing passul, «a (L). A small raisin
pard, -o, »us (G). A leopard past (G): Sprinkle; (L): food
pardal (G). Spotted; a starling pastill, «us (L). A small loaf
parei, «a (G). The cheek
paren, -t (L). A parent pasteur, -i (N). Louis Pasteur
paresi, «s (G). A letting go; paraly- pastin (L). Dig; a parsnip
sis, impairment of strength «pastio, -n (L). Keeping, feeding
pari (L). Equal; a titmouse «pastor, -i (L). A shepherd, keeper
pari, «a (G). The cheek pat, -i (G). A path, walk
parie, «s, -t (L). A wall pataec (My). A dwarfish deity of
«parilla (L). A little vine Phoenicia
parm, «a (L). A small shield patag, -o, «us (G). A clatter
parod, -o, «us (G). An entrance,
patagi, «urn (L). A border
paronym (G). Of the same deriva- patell, «a, -i, -o (L). A little dish
tion paten, -t (L). Spreading, open
«pater (L). A father; a flat dish
patera (L). Of a father
pati (G).«y
-o, AWalk
path disease
and C o m b i n i n g F o r m s 71

patibul, -urn (L). A yoke for •pediaecetes (G). A plains dweller

criminals pedic, -1, -ul (L). A little foot
patien, -t (L). Suffering pedicul, -ari, -os, »us (L). A louse
patin, «a (L). A bowl pedil, -o, «us (G). A sandal
patr, -i, -o (L). A father pedin, -o (G). Found on the plains
patri, -a, -o (G). Fatherland; pedio (G). Plains; the instep; a fetter
habitat pedo (G): A child; the earth; an oar;
patul (L). Open, spreading (L): a foot
«patus (G). A walk, path peduncul, «us (NL). A little foot
pauc, -i (L). Few peg, -o (G). A fountain; solid
paul, -i, -o (L). Little, small pegas, «us (G My). A winged horse
paur, -o (G). Little, small •pegma, -t (G). Congealed, fixed; a
paus (G). Cessation framework
pav, -e, -i, -o (L). Quake, tremble pein, «a, -o (G). Hunger
pavid (L). Trembling, timid peir, «a (G). A trial
=pavo, -n (L). A peacock peith, -i (G). Persuade
«pax (L). Peace pejor (L). Bad; deterioration
paxill, «us (L). A peg pel, -o (G). Clay, mud; brown,
pec, -o (G). Comb dusky
pecc (L). Sin, transgress pelad (F). Bald
pechy, *s (G). TTie forearm pelag, -i, -o, «us (G). The sea
pecor, -i (L). A herd pelarg, -o, «us (G). A stork
pect, «en, -in, -o (L). A comb pelec, -an, «anus, -in (G). A pelican
pect, -o (G). Fixed, congealed pelec, -y (G). A hatchet, axe
pect, -or, =us (L). The breast peli, -o (G). Livid, black and blue
pecu, -d, «s (L). Cattle «pelia (G). A dove
peculiar (L). One's own pelichn, «a (G). A bowl
ped, -a, -e, -i, -o (L): A foot; pelico (G). A basin; the pelvis
(G): a child; the earth; a fetter; pelidn, -o (G). Livid, black and blue
an oar pelio (G). Livid, black and blue
pedal (L). Of afoot pell, «a, -i (G). Skin; the pelvis; a
pedali, =um (G). A rudder; a kind bowl, basin
of plant pell, -o (G). Dusky
pedan, -o (G). Short pellen (L). Driving
pedat, -i (L). Having feet pelluc, -en, -id (L). Transparent
pede, -m, -si, -t (G). Leap, leaping •pelma, -to (G). The sole of the foot;
pedetent (G). Step by step a stalk
pedetic (G). Leaping pelo (G). Clay, mud; brown, dusky
pedi (G): A child; (L): a foot pelor, -o (G). A monster; monstrous
pedi, -o (G). Plains; the instep; a «pelorus (My). Hannibars pilot
fetter pelt, «a (G). A shield
«pedia (G). Education; a child pelv, -eo, -i, -io (L). A basin; the
72 Dictionary of Word Roots

pely, -co, *x (G). A basin; the per (L). Through, by means of

pelvis per, *a, -o (G). A pouch
pempheri, «s (G). A kind of fish per, -o (G). Maimed, mutilated
pemphi, -g, »x (G). A blister, perc, *a, -i (G). The perch
pimple percn, -o (G). Dusky
«pemphredon (G). A kind of wasp percol, -a (L). Filter through
pen, -e (L). Almost, nearly perd (L). Lose
pench (F). Incline perd, -ic, *ix (G). A partridge
pend, -an, -en, -ul (L). Hang, perdit (L). Lost, destroyed
hanging peregrin (L). Wander, travel
pêne, - s , -st, -t (G). A laborer abroad
penelope (My). The wife of pereio (G). On the other side
Ulysses perenni (L). Through the year
penetr (L). Enter, pierce perfora (L). Bore through
peni, =s (L). The penis perfunct (L). Performed
penichr, -o (G). Poor, needy pergamen, *a (L). Parchment
penicill, =um (L). A pencil, peri (G). Around
brush perideri, *s (G). A necklace
penit (L). Inner, from the inside peridi, «urn (G). A little pouch
penn, «a, -ati, -i <L). A feather; peridin (G). Whirled about
a wing; feathered perine (G). Near the anus
pens, -a (L). Weigh perio (G). On the other side
pensil (L). Hang, hanging peripat, -etic (G). Walking about
pent, -a (G). Five peripher, =ia (G). The circum-
pentecost (G). The fiftieth ference, outer surface or border
penteteri (G). Every five years periphor, «a (G). A circuit
penth, -est, -o (G). Sorrow; a periss, -o (G). Superfluous; odd
mourner in number
penult (L). Next to the last perister, -a (G). A dove, pigeon
penuri (L). Want; in want peristole (G). A contraction
peo, «s (G). The penis peritone, *um (L). The membrane
pep, -s, -t (G). Digest; cook around the intestines
pepast (G). Ripen perjur (L). Lying, false
peper, -i, -o (G). Pepper perl, *a (NL). A kind of insect
pepino (Sp). Cucumber perman, -en (L). Remain, remain-
pepita (Sp). A gold nugget; a ing
melon seed permea (L). Pass through
pepl, -a, -o, «urn (G). A gown, pern, «a (G). A shellfish; a ham
coat perni, »s (NL). The honey-buzzard
pepo, -n (G). Ripe; a melon pernic, -i (L). Destructive; quick,
peps, -i (G). Digest; cook agile
pept, -i, -o (G). Digested; cooked pero (G). Maimed; a pouch
and Combining F o r m s 73

•pero, -n (L). A rawhide boot phabo (G). A dove, pigeon

peron, -e, -eo, -i, -o (G). A phac, -a, -o, =us (G). A lentil;
brooch; the fibula a lens; the lens of the eye
«persea (G). A sacred tree in phacel, -o, «us (G). A bundle,
Egypt and Persia cluster
persic, »a (L). A peach phae, -o (G). Dusky
«persona, -t (L). A mask; masked phaedr, -o (G). Brigit, radiant
perspic, -at, -i (L). See through; phaen, -o (G). Show
sharp-sighted phaetho, -nt (G). Shining
perspicillat (L). Conspicuous phag, *e, -o (G). Eat
perth, -a, -o (G). Get by plunder phak, -o (G). A lentil; a lens
«perula (G). A little pouch, wallet phal, -o (G). Shining, white
-pes (L). Afoot phalacr, -o (G). Bald
pess, -o (G). An oval pebble; a phalaen, «a (G). A moth; a whale
checkerboard phalan, -g, -ge, -go, »x (g). A
pessim (L). The worst bone of the finger or toe; a battle
pessul, «us (L). A bolt line
pesti, «s (L). A pest, plague phalar, -i, «is, -o (G). A coot
pet, -it (L). Seek phalar, -o (G). White-crested
peta, -ci, «χ (L). Greedy phaler, -a, -o (L): A metallic orna­
petal, -ο, -urn (G). A leaf; spread ment; (G): white-crested
out, flat phall, -o, «us (G). The penis
petas, -m, «ma (G). Anything phan (G). Show, appear
spread out, a curtain phane, -r, -ro (G). Visible
petaur, -o, «urn (G). A perch, phantas, -mo (G). Fantasy, fancy;
springboard showing
petechi (L). With red spots on phanto (G). Visible
the skin phao, «s (G). Light
petig, -in, -o (L). A scab •phaps (G). A dove, pigeon
petil (L). Slender, thin phar, -o (G). A piece of cloth; a
petin, -o (G). Winged, flying lighthouse; a plow
petiol, -a, «us (L). A stalk, pharan, -g, «x (G). A cleft, gulley
petiole pharci, -d, «s (G). A wrinkle
petit (L). Seek pharm, -ac, -aceu, -aco (G). A
petr, «a, -o (G). A rock, stone drug; a poison
petun (F). Tobacco pharo (G). A lighthouse; a piece of
peuc, «a, -e, -o (G). Pine, fir cloth; a plow
peucedan, «urn (G). Hog fennel pharyn, -g, -ge, -go, »x (G). The
pex, -i, =is, -y (G). A fixation, throat, pharynx
fastening phas, «ia, «is, «y (G). Speech
pexi (L). Woolly phase, «um (G). A tree moss
pez, =a, -i, -o (G). The foot, phascol, -o (G). A leather bag
bottom; on foot phase (G). Appearance, show; shine
74 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

phaseol (G). A kidney bean philypn, -o (G). Sleep-loving

phasgan, -o, «urn (G). A sword philyr, «a (G). The linden tree
-phasia (G). Speech phimo (G). Muzzle, shut up
phasian, «us (G). A pheasant phlao (G). Eat greedily
-phasis (G). Speech phlasm (G). Bruise
phasm, a, -ato, -i (G). An ap- phlaur, -o (G). Trivial, useless
parition, phantom phleb, -o (G). A vein
phassa (G). The ring dove phleg, -eth, -ethon, -o (G). Burn
-phasy (G). Speech phlegm, «a, -asi, -ato (G). Inflam-
phatn, -i, -o (G). A tooth socket mation, mucus
phausi (G). Shining bri#it phleo (G). A marsh reed
pheg, -o, «us (G). An oak «phleps (G). A vein
pheid, -o, -ol (G). Thrifty «phleum (G). A water plant, a
phell, -o (G). Cork rush
phelli, -o (G). Stony ground phlib, -o (G). Squeeze
phem, =y (G). Speak, report phlips, -i (G). Squeeze
phena, -c, =x (G). Purple-red; phloe, -o (G). The bark of a tree
a cheat phlog, -i, -mo, -o (G). Aflame,
phenacist, -o (G). Deceitful burning
phene (G). A kind of vulture phlogist, -o (G). Burnt
pheng, -o (G). Light phlogo, «sis (G). Flame; inflamma-
pheni, -c, -g (G). Deep red tion
pheno (G). Show, seem, appear; phlor, -o (G). The bark of a tree
purple-red «phlox (G). Aflame
pheny (G). Deep red phlycten, «a, -o (G). A blister
pheo (G). Dusky, gray phlysi, s s (G). An eruption
pher (G). Carry, bear phlyz (G). Inflame; a blister
pherb (G). To feed phlyzaci (G). A small blister
phet (G). Speak phob, =ia, -o (G). Fear, dread
pheug, -o (G). Flee phober, -o (G). Formidable, fearful
phial, «a (G). A saucer phobetic, -o (G). Timid
phiar, -o (G). Bright, shining; phobetr, -o (G). A soothsayer
«phobia; phobo (G). Fear, dread
phibal, -i, -o (G). A kind of phoc, *a, -i (G). A seal
fig; a kind of myrtle phocaen, «a (G). A porpoise
phil, -a, -i, -o (G). Love, loving phoeb, -o (G). Shine; bright
philatel (F). A stamp collection phoebe (from its call). The phoebe
philedon, -o (G). Fond of pleasure phoeni, -c, -co, *x (G). Purple, red-
phillyr (G). A shrub dish purple; the date palm
philo (G). Love, loving phola, -d, « s (G). Lurking in a hole;
philomel (G). A nightengale a mollusc
philydr, -o (G). Water-loving pholc, -o (G). Squint-eyed; bandy-
and C o m b i n i n g F o r m s 75

phole, -o (G). A lurking place, phronim, -i, -o (G). Understand-

den ing, wise, discrete
pholi, -do, »s (G). A scale; phrur, -o (G). A guard
scaly phryct (G). A burning torch; a kind
phon (G). Sound, voice; kill of gum
phon, »a, -e, -et, -i, -o (G). phryg (G). Dry; roast
Sound, voice phrygan, -o (G). A dry stick
phont, «es (G). A murderer phryn, «a, -o (G). A toad
phor (G). A thief; a kind of bee phthalm, -o (G). The eye
phor, -a, -e, -i. -o (G). Carry,
bear; movement phthan (G). Arrive first
phorb, *a (G). Feed, pasture, phthar, - s , -to (G). Corruptible,
fodder mortal, transitory
phtheir (G). Destroy, waste; lice;
phorbei, =a (G). A halter
a kind of pine cone
phorc, -o (G). Gray phthi, -no, -si, -so (G). Waste away;
phore; phori (G). Carry, bear consumption
phorm, -i, -o (G). Wickerwork; phthir (G). Lice
a mat; a basket phthon, -o (G). Malice
phoro (G). Bear, carry; move-
ment phthong (G). A sound, voice
phortic, -o (G). Vulgar, common phthor, «a (G). Destruction, de-
•phos; phot, -a, -i, -o (G). light composition
phox, -o (G). Pointed phy, -a, -o (G). Grow, produce
phoyx (G). A kind of heron phyc, -o, *us (G). Seaweed; painted
phrac, -t (G). Fence in phye (G). Growth, stature
phragm, «a, -it, -o (G). A fence, phyg, -o (G). Shun, flee
partition phyl, -et, -o, *um (G). A tribe
phras, -a, -e, -eo, -i (G). Speech phyla, -et, -cto, -xi (G). Watch,
phraster (G). A guide guard, preserve
phyll, -o, =um (G). A leaf
phrater, -o (G). Brothers
•phyma, -t, -to (G). A tumor, swell-
phrax, -i (G). An obstruction ing
phreat, -i (G). A well, tank phymos (G). Swollen
phren, -i, -ico, -o (G). A dia- phyo (G). Grow, produce
phragm; the heart, mind phys, -a, -i (G). Blow; nature; a
phreoryct, «es, -i (G). A well bladder
digger phy sal, -i, «is (G). A bladder,
phric, -o (G). Shiver, shudder, bubble; a wind instrument
bristle up physal, -o, «us (G). A toad; a kind
phris, -o, -so (G). Ruffle up of whale
«phrix, -o (G). Bristling physc, «a, -o, -on (G). The large
phron, -ema (G). The mind, intestine; a sausage; a blister
spirit physem (G). Breathe; snorting, raging;
inflate, blow
76 D i c t i o n a r y of Word Roots
physi (G). Blow; nature; a bladder pina, -c, «x (G). A board, plank
physic, -o (G). Physical, natural pinar, -o (G). Dirty
physio (G). Nature pine (L). Shaped like a pine cone
physo (G). Bellows; a bladder, air pinet (L). Pine wood
sac, bubble pingu, -i, -o (L). Fat, stout
phyt, -o, «urn (G). A plant pini (L). Pine
phyzel, -o (G). Shy pinn, «a (G). A kind of mussel
pi (L). Pious; tender pinn, «a, -i (L). A feather; a wing
piacul (L). Atone, expiate pinnat (L). Feathered, pinnate
piar, -o (G). Fat, tallow pino (G). Drink; dirt, filth; hungry
pic, «a (L). A magpie «pinus (L). Pine
pic, -i (L). A woodpecker; varie- pio, -n (G). Fat, rich
gated pipatio, -n (L). Chirping
picar (L). Of pitch «piper, -at, -i (L). Pepper; peppery
pice (L). Pitch black pipi, -en (L). Peeping, chirping
pice, «a (L). Pitch pine, spruce pipil, -o (L). Chirp, peep
pici (L). A woodpecker; varie- pipistrell (It). A bat
gated, speckled pipr (G). A woodpecker
plein (L). Pitch black pipt, -o (G). Fall
pico (L). Smear with pitch pir, -i, «urn (L). A pear
pier, -i, -o (G). Bitter, pungent pirang, «a (Br). A tanager
pict (L). Painted, variegated pirat, «a, -ic (L). A pirate; piratical
pida, -c, *x (G). A fountain or pis, -i, -o, «us (G). A pea; meadows
•pieris (GMy). One of the Muses pise, -i, «is (L). A fish
pies, -m, -t (G). Squeeze piscin, «a (L). A fish pond
piezo (G). Squeeze piscinari, «us (L). One fond of fish
pigment, «um (L). Paint piss, «a (G). Pitch
pign, -er, «us (L). A pledge pissod (G). Pitch-like
pigO (G). The rump pist, -i, -o (G). Liquid; genuine,
pigr (L). Slow, sluggish trusted
pil, «a (L). A ball; a mortar pistaci (G). A kind of tree
pil, -i, «us (L). Hair pistill, -i, «urn (L). A pestle
pile, -i, -o, »us (L). A cap •pisus (G). A pea; meadows
pileat (L). Capped pitang, «us (Br). A flycatcher
pilidi, -o, «um (G). A small felt pith, -o, «us (G). A wine jar
cap pithan, -o (G). Plausible
pilo (G). A cap; felt pithec, -o, «us (G). An ape
pilos (L). Hairy pitt, «a (G): Pitch; (NL): a kind of
«pilus (L). Hair bird
hungry-e, -o (G). Fat, lard pituit,-o,
pityr, -ar«s
-o, (L).
«urn APine,
(G).(G). of mucus
fir refuse
and Combining Forms 77

«pix (L). Pitch plec, -o, -t, -to (G). Twine, twist,
plac, -o (G). A tablet, plate; flat braid; strike; twisted
plaçât (L). Please, appease plect, -r, -ro, «rum (G). A strike;
placent, «a, -i (L). A round flat a spur
cake; the placenta pleg, -a, -e, -i, *ia, -o (G). A blow,
placid (L). Smooth, pleasing strike; a sickle
placin, -o (G). Made of boards plegm, «a, -ato, -o (G). Wickerwork
placo (G). A tablet, plate; flat plei, -o (G). More; full
pladar, -o (G). Wet, damp
plag, «a (L). A blow, stripe; a pleist, -o (G). Most
region, zone; a snare plen, -i (L). Full
plagat (L). Streaked, striped pleo (G). Full; more; sail, swim
plagi, -o (G). Oblique, sideways;
the sides pleon (G). More, full
plagia, -r, -t (L). A kidnapper pier, -o, -om, -os (G). Full, fullness,
plan, -i (L). Flat, level filling
plan, -o (G). Wandering plesi, -o (G). Near, recent
plane, -s, -t, «tes (G). A wanderer, pletho, -r (G). Full, fullness; in
rover excess
plankt, -o (G). Wandering plethy, -sm, -smo (G). Fullness;
plant, «a, -i (L). The sole of the increase, enlargement
foot; a plant pleur, -a, -i, -o, «um (G). The side;
plantag, -in, »o (L). Plantain a rib
plas, -i, -o (G). Form, mold, shape pleuroth, -en, -o (G). From the side
plasm, «a, -ato, -o (G). Something pleust (G). A sailor; sailing
molded or modeled; plasm plex, -i, «us (L). Interwoven; a net-
plasso (G). Form, mold, shape work
plast, -o (G). Formed, molded; plexi, -o, «s (G). A stroke, percus-
counterfeit sion
plastr, -on (F). A breastplate
-plasty (G). Growth, molding plie, -o (L). Fold, braid
plat, -e, -i, -y (G). Broad, flat plinth, -o, «us (G). A brick
plata, -c, *x (G). A kind of fish plio (G). More
platale, «a (L). The spoonbill ploc, -io, -o, «us (G). Weave, braid,
platan, «us (G). The sycamore twist; a curl of hair
plate (G). Broad, flat
platess, -a, -i (L). The plaice plocam, -o (G). A lock of hair
plati; platy (G). Broad, flat plocar (G). Something woven
plaus (L). Applaud ploce, -i, «us (G). A weaver, braider
plaut (L). Flat-footed plocio, ploco; «plocus (G). A braid, a
plèbe, -i (L). Of common people; curl of hair; weave, twist
common ploiari, «um (G). A small boat
ploim (G). Sailing, fit for sailing
plor, -an (L). Wail, wailing
-i, -o
(G). Floating, drift-
78 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

plum, «a, -e, -i (L). A feather pol, -i (G). Sell; an axis

plumb, -e, «eus (L). Lead polar, -i (L). Of the pole, polarity
plumbag, -in, »o (L). Leadwort polem, -i, -o (G). War; hostile
plur, -i (L). More, several poli (G). Sell; a city
•plus (L). More, in addition poli, -a, -o (G). Gray
plusi, -a, -o (G). Rich, wealthy -polis (G). A city; a citizen
plut, -o (G). Riches, wealth polist, «es (G). The founder of a
plute, «us (L). A shed, parapet city
plutoni (NL). Dusky polit (G): A citizen; (L): polished,
pluvi, «us (L). Rain refined
plynteri, -o (G). Washing poll (L). Be strong
plysi, « s (G). A washing poll, «en, -in (L). Fine flour
pne, -o, -u, -um, -us (G). poll, «ex, -ic (L). The thumb; the
Breath; breathe big toe
•pneuma, -ti, -to (G). Wind, air, pollac, -i (G). Many, often
breath pollut (L). Defiled
pneumo, -n, -no (G). The lungs polo (G). An axis; a young animal
pneus, -i, «is, -o (G). Blowing, poly (G). Many, much
breathing polybor, -o (G). Greedy
pnig, -o (G). Choke, suffocate polyp, -i, -o (G). Many-footed; a
pno, -i (G). Air; breathing polyp
«pnyx (G N). A crowd polyphem, «us (GMy). A one-eyed
po, «a, -e, -o (G). Grass, a giant
grassy place polypodi (G). Many-footed; a kind
poc, -o, «us (G). Fleece of fern
poca, -do, « s (G). Hair, wool pom, -o, «um (L). An apple, fruit
poclll, «um (L). A little cup poma, -to (G). A lid, cover; a
pocul, «um (L). A cup; a draught drink
pod, -o, «y (G). Afoot pomp, «a (G). A guide
podabr, -o (G). Tender-footed pomph, -o, «us (G). A blister
podarg, -o (G). Swift-footed pompholy, -g, -go, «x (G). A bubble
•podex (L). The rump; the anus pompil, «us (L). A kind of fish
podi, «um (G). Afoot •pomum (L). An apple, fruit
podic, -i (L). The rump; the anus pon, -o, «us (G). Toil; pain
podo; «pody (G). Afoot •pons (L). Abridge
poe (G). Grass, a grassy place ponder (L). Weighty
poecil, -i, -o (G). Variegated, poner, -i, -o (G). Pain; bad, painful
many-colored; varied pono (G). Toil; pain
pogo, «n, -ni, -no (G). A beard pont, -i (L). Abridge
poie, «sis, -t (G). Make, produce pont, -o (G). The sea
poikil, -o (G). Varied; variegated •ponus (G). Toil; pain
•poimen, -o (G). A shepherd; a poo (G). Grass, a grassy place
and Combining F o r m s 79

«pooecetes (G). A grass dweller •poms (L). A pore, small opening

popl, «es, -it (L). The back of porzan, «a (It). A rail
the knee pos, «is (G). Drink; a husband
popul, «us (L). People; the poplar pos, -o (G). How much; indefinitely;
por, -i, «us (L). A pore, small quantity
opening poseidon (G My). A god of the sea
por, -o (G). A soft stone; blind; posit (L). Placed
a callus post (L). Behind, after
pore, -i, «us (L). A hog, swine post, -er, -ero, -ic (L). Hinder,
porcat (NL). Ridged posterior
porcell, -i, «us (L). A little posth, -i, -o (G). The foreskin; the
pig; a sowbug penis
porcellan (It). Porcelain postul (L). Demand
porci (L). A hog, swine pot, -a, -i, -o (G). Drink
porcin (L). Of a hog; pork potam, -o, «us (G). A river
«porcus (L). A hog, swine potass, -i (NL). Potash, potassium
pore, -U -ut (G). A passage; poten, -t (L). Powerful
convey, traverse poter, -i, -io, «ium (G). A drinking
pori (L). A pore, small opening cup
porist, -o (G). Provided potero (G). Either
porn, -o (G). A prostitute potes (G). A drinker
poro (G). A hardening, callus; a poth, -o, «us (G): Longing, desire;
soft stone; blind (NL): a kind of plant
porp, «a (G). A buckle, brooch poti, poto (G). Drink
porpa, -c, «x (G). A ring, loop; «pous (G). Afoot
a handle pra, -o (G). Mild, gentle
porphyr, -io, -o (G). Purple pract (L). Do, act, work
porr, -i, «urn, «s (L). A leek prae (L). Before
porrect (L). Stretched out, ex- praeco, -c, «x (L). Early, premature
tended forward praesep (L). An enclosure
port (L). Carry praeter (L). Beyond, past, more than
port, «a, -i (L). A gate, door praeust (L). Scorched
port, -i, -un, «us (L). A harbor, praevar (L). Irregular
port «pragma, -to (G). An object, thing,
porth, -e, -o (G). Destroy fact, matter
porthmi, -d, «s (G). A narrow pragmon (G). Work
passage praniz (G). Thrown headlong
porti (L). A gate, door; a harbor, prao (G). Mild, gentle
port pras, -eo, -in, «um (G). A leek
portulac, «a (L). Purslane prat, -i, «um (L). A meadow
portun (L My). A harbor, port pratens (L). Found in meadows
porulos (L). Full of small pores prav (L). Deformed
80 Dictionary of Word Roots

prax, «is (G). An exercise, proble, -s, -t (G). Projecting

action probol, -o, «us (G). A weapon, bul-
pre (L). Before wark
preca (L). Pray, request probosc, -i (G). That which exam-
preco, -ci, *x (L). Early, pre- ines; a proboscis
mature procell, «a (L). A storm
preda (L). Prey, booty procer (L). Tall, high
predi, «urn (L). A farm, estate process (L). Project from; advance
pregnan, -t (L). With child, prochyn (G). Kneeling
pregnant proct, -o, «us (G). The anus; the
premn, -o, «urn (G). A tree trunk, rectum
stem procumben (L). Prostrate
pren, «es, -o (G). Drooping, bent prod, -i (L). Disclose, reveal
forward prodig (L). Wasteful, lavish
preniz (G). Thrown headlong prodigios (L). Marvel, marvelous
prep, -o (G). Visible, conspicu- prodot, -o (G). Betrayed
ous; resemble prodrom, «us (L). A kind of fig
prept, -o (G). Distinguished proeo (G). Early
presby, «s, -t (G). Old; an old profund (L). Deep
person progn, «e (L My). A swallow
prêter (L). Beyond, past, more proi, -o (G). Early
than prol, -i (L). Offspring
priap, «us (G My). The god of prolep, «sis, -t (G). Anticipation
procreation; the penis promach, -o, «us (G). A challenger
prim, -a, -i (L). First prometh, «ea (G). Foresigit
primul, «us (L). The primrose prominen, -t (L). Projecting
prin, -o, «us (G). A kind of oak pron (L): Bent forward; (G): a
princip, -all (L). First place, promontory
chief; principal propaga (L). Generate
«prion, -o (G). A saw propinqu (L). Near
pris (G). Sawing; a saw propior, -i (L). Nearer
prise (L). Primitive, ancient propri (L). One's own, peculiar
prisma, -t, -to (G). Something pror, «a (G). The prow of a ship
sawed; a prism prors (L). Forward; absolutely
prist, -i, -io, -o (G). Sawed pros, -o (G). To; before
pristin (L). Primitive; old- prosop, -o, «um (G). The counte-
fashioned nance, face
priv, -a, -i (L). An individual, one prosopi, «s (G). A kind of plant
each prosphor, -o (G). Convenient,
pro (G). Before, in front of, for- fitting
ward; instead of, for prostat, -o (ML). The prostate
prob (L). Test, examine; good gland
and Combining Forms 81

prosth, -en, -o (G). Before; forwai psen, -o (G). Bald

prosthe, -c, -m (G). An append- pseph, -i, -o (G). A small stone;
age, addition darkness
prot, -e, -o (G). First, original psephen, -o (G). Dark, obscure
protero (G). Fore, former psett, «a (G). A flatfish
•proteus (G My). A god that could pseud, -o (G). False
assume various forms psil, -o (G). Bare, naked
protist, -o (G). The very first psithyr, -o (G). Whispering
proto (G). First, original psitt, -ac, «acus (G). A parrot
•psoa (G). The loin; a muscle of the
provid (L). Cautious loin
proxim (L). Nearest psoc (G). Rub small
pruin, «a, -o (L). Hoarfrost psol, -o (G). Smoke, soot; one
prun, »us (L). The plum circumcised
•prunella (Ger). A throat dis- psom, -o, «us (G). A morsel
ease psoph, -o, «us (G). A sound, noise
psor, «a, -i, -o (G). Itch; scabies
pruri, -t (L). Itch psorale, -o (G). Scurfy
prymn, -o, «us (G). The hind- psych, «e, -i, -o (G). The soul,
most; the stern of a ship mind; cold; a butterfly
psaca, -d, «s (G). A small psychr, -o (G). Cold
broken-off piece psydra, -c, «x (G). A pimple,
psaer, -o (G). Flutter, touch blister
ligitly psygm, «a, -ato, -o (G). Anything
psal, -i, -id,,-o (G). Scissors that cools; chilliness
psalist, -o (G). Clipped psyll, «a, -i, -o (G). A flea
psyxi, «s (G). A cooling
psallo (G). Twang, pluck ptaer, -o (G). Sneeze
psalm, «a, -i, -o (G). A tune ptarm, -ic, -o (G). Sneezing, caus-
played on a stringed instrument; ing to sneeze
a psalm; a twitching ptele, «a, -o (G). The elm
psalo (G). Scissors pten, -o (G). Feathered, winged
psalter (G). A harp player; a book pter, -o, «urn (G). A wing; a
of many leaves feather; a fin
psamm, -o, «us (G). Sand pteri, -do, -s (G). A fern
psar, -o (G). Speckled; the star- ptery, -g, -go, -x (G). A wing; a
ling feather; a fin
pteryl, -o (NL). A wing, feather
psathy, -o (G). Crumbling ptes, -i, -io (G). Flying
psectr, »a, -o (G). A scraper ptiL -o, «um (G). Down; a feather,
psedn, -o (G). Scanty, bald wing
•psegma, -to (G). Shavings ptilin, «um (NL). A wing-like membrane
pselaph (G). Grope about, touch
pselli, -o, «urn (G). A bracelet
•psen (G).(G). Stammering
A fig insect
82 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

ptin (NL). Feathered pul, «ex, -ic (L). A flea

ptis (G). Péel pulch, -ell, «er, - r (L). Beautiful
pto, - s , -t (G). Fall pull, «us (L). Dusky, dark-colored;
ptoch, -o (G). A beggar; crouch
a young fowl
•ptoma, -to (G). A fall; a corpse
pullari, «us (L). A chicken keeper
ptorth, -o, «us (G). A sapling
pullul, -a (L). Produce young,
ptos, «is (G). A fall, falling
ptot (G). Fall
•pulmo, -n, -no (L). A lung
pty, -ch, -et, -g, -gm (G). Fold pulp, «a, -i (L). Flesh, pulp
ptya, - 1 , -11, -lo (G). Spit, spittle, puis, -a, -i, -ilo, -o (L). Beat, push,
saliva pulse
ptych, -o (G). A fold pult (L). Hurl, beat, knock
ptyct, -o (G). Folded pult, -i (L). Pottage
ptyg, -m, «ma, -mat, -o (G). pulv, -er, «is (L). Powder, dust
Folded; a fold pulvi, -11, -n (L). A cushion
ptyn, -g, «x (G). The eagle owl pum, «ex, -ic (L). A soft stone
ptyon, -o (G). A fan pumil, -io, -o (L). A dwarf
•ptysma, -to (G). Spittle punct, -i (L). A sting, prick
ptyss, -o (G). Fold punctat (L). Marked with pricks
ptyx, -i (G). Fold, folding or punctures
puber (L). A ripe age, adult; pung, -en (L). Prick; penetrating
downy puni, -t (L). Punish
•pubes (L). The hair appearing punie (L). Purple; reddish
at puberty; the pubes punie, «a (L). The pomegranate
pubesc (L). Downy pup, «a, -i (L). A doll; a pupa
pubi, -o; pubo (L). The region pupill, «a, -i (L). The pupil of the
of the pubes eye; a little girl
pud, -en, -i, -ic (L). Be pur, -i (L). Pure; pus
ashamed; bashful purg, -a (L). Cleanse
pudend, «urn (L). The external puro (L). Pure; pus, inflammation
female genitals; shameful purpur, -e (L). Purple
puell, «a (L). A girl puru (L). Pus, inflammation
•puer, -i (L). A boy -pus (G). Afoot
puéril (L). Childish •pus (L). Pus, inflammation
puerper, -i (L). Childbearing pusill (L). Very small
puffin, «us (NL). The puffin pusillanim (L). Faint-hearted
•pugll, -i (L). A boxer pustul, «a (L). A pimple, blister
puglll, »us (L). A handful put, -a (L). Prune, trim
•puglo, -n (L). A dagger putam, «en, -in (L). A husk, pod
pugn, -a, -ac, «ax (L). Fight; putill, «us (L). A little boy
fighting •putor, -i (L). A stench
pugn, -o, «us (L). The fist putr, -e, -i (L). Rotten, putrid
and Combining F o r m s 83

py, -e, -o (G). Pus •pyx (G). The rump

pycn, -o (G). Thick, dense pyxi, -d, «s (G). A box
pyct, «es (G). A boxer
pyel, -o, «us (G), A trougjh; the Q
pelvis quadr, -a, -i (L). Four
pyg, "a, -o (G). The rump quadragesim (L). The fortieth
pygarg, «us (L). A kind of eagle; quadrat, -o (L). Square
a kind of antelope quali (L). What kind
pygm (G). A fist; boxing; the quant (L). How much
distance from the elbow to the quart, -i, -o (L). A fourth
quasi (L). Nearly, almost, as
knuckles (about 13^inches); though
a dwarf quass, -at (L). Shaking, shaken
pyl, «a, «e, -o (G). A gate, ori- quatern (L). By fours
fice quatr, -1 (L). Four
pylor, -o, «us (G). Agate-keeper; quer, -e, -i (L). Complain
the pylorus querc, -i, «us (L). The oak
pyo (G). Pus, inflammation quern (L). Of oak, oaken
«pyosis (G;. PUs formation querquedul, «a (L). A kind of duck
pyr, -i, «urn, «us (NL). A pear questu, «s (L). A complaint
•pyr, -i, -o (G). Fire quie, -se, -t (L). Quiet, resting
pyr, «urn (G). Wheat quin, -a, -1, -qu (L). Five
pyrali, -d, «s (G). An insect quin, «a, -i, -o (Sp). Quina bark
fabled to live in fire quincun, -c, »x (L). Five twelfths
pyramid, -a (G). A pyramid; quinqu, -e (L). Five
shaped like a pyramid quint, -i, -o (L). Fifth
•pyren, -o (G). A fruit stone quis (L). What
pyret, -i, -o (G). Fever; fire quisc, -al, -ul (LL). A quail
pyrexi (G). Fever; fire quondam (L). Formerly
pyrg, -o, «us (G). A tower quot (L). How many
pyri (G): Fire; (NL): a pear
pyrin, -o (G). Of fire; of wheat
pyro (G). Fire; wheat
pyrrh, -o (G). Red, reddish; r (see also rh)
orange-colored rab, -i, -o (E). Dark-colored
pyrrhic (G). A war dance rabi, -d, «les, -os (L). Mad, raving;
pyrrhul, «a (L). A bullfinch rage, madness
pyrul, «a (NL). A pear racem, -i, -o, «us (L). A cluster
•pyrum (G): Wheat; (NL): a pear rachi, «a (G). A rocky shore; surf
•pyrus (NL). A pear rachi, -a, -o, «s (G). A spine; the
pyth, -o (G). Rot, decay backbone
•python, -i, -o (GMy). A serpent, radi, -a, -at, -o (L). A spoke, ray,
python radius
84 Dictionary of Word Roots

radian (L). Shining recipi (L). Receive

radie, -a, -1, -1, -ul (L). A root reciproc (L). Move back and forth
•radio (L). Ray; wireless; the
radius of the arm récit (L). Readout
•radix (L). A root reclinat (L). Bent back
radul, «a (L). A scraper reclus (L). Shut up
rai, -a (L). A skate, flatfish
rail, -i, «us (NL). A rail; thin recondit (L). Concealed
ram, -ex, -ic (L). A rupture rect, -i, -o (L). Straight; the rectum
ram, -i, -o, *us (L). A branch recumben (L). Lying down
rament (L). Shreds, chips
rampan (F). Creeping, climbing redact (L). Restored
ran, *a, -i (L). A frog redol (L). Emit a scent
ranc, -en, -id (L). Sour, putrid redund (L). Overflow; abundant
«rangifer (NL). A reindeer reduvi, «a (L). A hangnail
ranuncul, «us (L). A medicinal
plant; a tadpole reg, -al, -i (L). A king; royal
rap, «a, -i (L). A turnip regim, «en, -in (L). Guidance
rapa, -c, «x (L). Grasping, •regma, -to (G). A break, tear
greedy regin, «a (L). A queen
raph, «a (G). A seam, suture regn (L). Rule, reign
raphan, -o, »us (G). A radish; régula, -ri, -t (L). Regular
a cabbage «regulus (L). A little king, a prince
raphi, -d, -o (G). A needle
rapi (L). A turnip relict (L). Left behind
rapid (L). Tearing away; swift rem, «ex, -ig (L). A rower
rapt, -i, -o (G). Sewed rem, -i, -us (L). An oar
rapt, »or, -u (L). Seize, plunder; remedi (L). A cure
a plunderer
rar, -e, -i (L). Rare reminisc (L). Remember
rascet (L). The palm of the hand remor, «a (L). Delay; a kind of fish
rasi, -1 (L). Scraped remulc, «urn (L). Drooping; a tow
rastr, -at, -i (L). Rake; with rope
longitudinal scratches «remus (L). An oar
rati, «o, -on (L). Rate, proportion «ren, -a, -cul, -i, -o (L). A kidney
rati, «s, -t (L). A raft, flat- reniten (L). Resisting
bottomed boat répand (L). Turned up, bent back-
rauc (L). Hoarse ward
rav, -i, -id (L). Tawny
re (L). Back, again repen, -t (L). Creeping
recept (L). Receive; a receiver repeti (L). Repeat
recidiv (L). Falling back, back- repl, «urn (L). A door frame, bolt
sliding replet (L). Full
replie (L). Fold back
and Combining F o r m s 85

resed, «a (L). Heal, calm; a kind rhagi, -o, «um (G). A kind of spider
of plant «rhagia (G). A breaking out
resid, -en (L). Live; remain rhamn, -o, «us (G). Buckthorn
behind rhamph, -id, =is, -o (G). A curved
resid, -i (L). Remaining; inactive beak;a hook
résidu (L). What is left behind rhani, -d, =s (G). Drop, sprinkle
resin, =a, -i (L). Resin rhaph, »a, -o (G). A seam, suture
respir (L). Breathe rhaphan, -o, «us (G). A radish; a
resplenden (L). Glittering cabbage
restan (L). Standing still rhaphi, -d, -o, «s (G). A needle
resti, =s (L). A rope, cord rhapi, -do, «s (G). A rod, stick
restor (L). Put back again «rhax (G). A grape, berry
resupin (L). Bent back rhe, «a (NL). A kind of bird
resuscita (L). Revive rhe, «a, -o (G). A flow, current
ret, »e, -i, -in (L). A net, rhe, «urn (ML). Rhubarb
network rheb, -o (G). Crooked
retiari, =us (L). A net-fighter rhect, -i (G). Rupture
reticen (L). Silent rheg, «ma, -n (G). A break
reticul, -ari (L). A network rheithr, -o, «urn (G). A stream
retin, -a, -i, -o (L). A net; the •rhema, -to (G). A word
retina of the eye rheo (G). A flow, current
retin, *a, -i, -o (G). Pine resin rhest, -o (G). Destroyed
retinacul, «urn (L). A holdfast rhet, -i, -or (G). Speak
retr, -o (L). Back, behind, back- rhetin, «a, -i, -o (G). Pine resin
ward •rheum (NL). Rhubarb
retus (L). Blunt rheum, «a, -ato, -i, -o (G). A
révéla (L). Reveal watery flow, flux
revolut (L). Rolled back rhexi, -a, =s (G). A break, rupture
«rex (L). A king rhig, -o (G). Frost; shiver
rh (see also r) rhin, »a (G). A shark; a file, rasp
rhabd, -o, =us (G). A rod rhin, -o (G). A nose
rhac, -o, «us (G). Rags rhipi, -do, =s (G). A fan
rhachi, «a (G). A rocky shore; rhips (G). Wickerwork
surf rhipt, -o (G). Thrown out
rhachi, -a, -o, =s (G). The spine, «rhis (G). A nose
backbone rhiz, «a, -o (G). A root
rhachist, -o (G). Cut up rhod, -o, «um (G). A rose
rhadin, -o (G). Slender, delicate rhoea, -d, =s (G). A kind of poppy
rhaeb, -o (G). Crooked rhoec, -o (G). Crooked; failing,
rhag, -a, =e, -i, -o (G). Break, weak
break out, broken; a grape, berry rhoga, -d, «s (G). Rent, ragged
86 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

rhomb, -o, «us (G). Aparallelo- rim, «a, -o (L). A fissure, split
piped with equal sides; a top ring, -en (L). Gape
rhonch, -o (G). Snore rino (G). A nose
rhop, -i, -o, =s (G). Bushes, rip, «a, -ar, -i (L). The bank of
brush a stream
rhop, -o (G). A turning point,
a turn of the scales ripi, -do, «s (G). A fan
rhopal, -o, «us (G). A club ris, -or (L). Laugh, laughter
rhoph (G). To swallow «rissa (Ice). The kittiwake
rhopo (G). Small, weak; bushes, ritu, « s (L). A rite, ceremony
brush; a turning point riv, -os, -ul (L). A brook, furrow
»rhops (G). Bushes, brush rival, -i (L). Of a brook; a rival
rhopt, -o (G). Absorption rob, -or, -ust (L). Strong; an oak
rhoptr, -o, «um (G). A club rod, -en (L). Gnaw, gnawing
«rhus (L). Sumac
rhya, -co, =x (G). A stream rodo (G). A rose
«rhyma, -to (G). Deliverance; roga (L). Ask
defense romale, -o (G). Strong-bodied
rhymb, -o, «us (G). Whirling; a ror, -id, -ul (L). Dew, dewy
top ros, «a (L). A rose
rhynch, -o, «us (G). A snout, beak roscid (L). Dewy, wet
rhyo (G). A stream
rhyp, -ar, -i, -o (G). Dirt, filth; rose, -a, -o (L). Rose-colored,
rosi (L). Gnaw
rhyph, -o (G). Crooked; gulp
«rosmar (Dan). A walrus
down «rosor (L). A gnawer
rhypt (G). Cleanse
rhysi, =s (G). A stream; defend- rostell, «urn (L). A little beak
ing rostr, «um (L). A beak, snout;
rhyss, -o (G). Wrinkled the prow of a ship
rhythm, -o (G). Rhythm «rota, -li, -t (L). Awheel; revolve
rhyti, -do, « s (G). A wrinkle rotund (L). Round
rhytism, =a (G). A patch, darn rub, -e, -i, «us (L). A bramble; a
rhyz, -o (G). A root; growl blackberry
«ribes (Ar). A plant with sour sap rube, -d, -din, -o, «r, -seen (L).
ricin, «us (L). Castor oil; the Red, reddish
castor oil plant; a kind of tick rubi, -d, -g (L). Red, reddish
rict (L). Open-mouthed rubicund (L). Very red
rid, -e, -en (L). Laugh rubicundul (L). Somewhat ruddy
ridicul (L). Laughable, funny
rig, -esc, -id, -or (L). Stiff, rubigin (L). Rusty
stiffening, harsh rubr, -i (L). Red, reddish
«rubus (L). A bramble; a black-
ruct (L). Belch
rud, -eri, «us (L). Rubbish
and Combining Forms 87

ruden (L). Crying out, bellowing sacr, -a, -i (L). Sacred

rudi (L). Wild, rough sacr, -o, «um (NL). The sacrum
ruf, -esc, -i (L). Red, reddish
rug, «a, -os, -ul (L). A wrinkle, sact, -o (G). Stuffed
fold; wrinkled •sacus (G). A shield
rum, «a, -i (L). A dart saenur, -id (G). Wag the tail
rum, «en, -in (L). The throat saep, «es, -i (L). A fence
rum, «ex, -ic (L). Sorrel saffr (ME). Yellow
rumina (L). Chew the cud sag, -o (G). A covering, armor
rumor (L). Talk, hearsay saga, -c, »x (L). Keen, shrewd
rump (L). Burst sagapen (L). A gum
runcin, «a, -i (L). A carpenter's sagar, -i (G). A sword
plane sage (G). Armor, harness
rup, «es, -estr, -i (L). A rock sagen, «a (G). A seine
rup, -i, *ia, -o (G). Filth sagi, -do, «s (G). A pouch
rupinsulens (L). Of Rock Island sagitt, «a (L). An arrow
rupt (L). Broken, bursted «sagma, -to (G). A pack saddle
rur, -a, -i (L). The country; in sago (G). A covering, armor
the country «sal, -i (L). Salt
«rusa (Mal). A deer sal, -o (G). A roadside, restless-
ruse, «urn (L). A butcher's ness
broom sala, -ci, *x (L). Lustful
russ (L). Reddish salamandr, «a (G). A salamander
rustic (L). Of the country salari (L). Of salt
rut, «a (L). A rue; disagree- salebr, -a. -os (L). Rougjh, un-
ableness even
ruthen (N). A province in Russia sali (L). Salt; leap
ruti (G). A wrinkle sali, -ci, *x (L). A willow
rutil (L). Red salien, -t (L). Leaping
rutr, «um (L). A spade, shovel salin (L). A salt pit; of salt,
rynch, -o, «us (G). A beak, salty
salit, -an (L). Dancing, leaping
snout saliv, «a (L). Spittle
S «salix (L). A willow
•salmo, -n (L). The salmon
sa, o (G). Healthy, safe salo (G). A roadside; restlessness
sab, -ell, -ul, -urr (L). Sand salp, «a, -i (L). A kind of sea fish
sac, -o, «us (G). A shield salpin, -et, -g, -go, «x (G). A
sacc, -i, -o, «us (L). A sack trumpet
sacchar, -o (G). Sugar sals (L). Salted
•sacer (L). Sacred salt, -a, -i (L). Leap, dance
sacerdo, -t (L). A priest saltator (L). A leaper, dancer
saco (G). A shield saltu, «s (L). A forest
88 Dictionary of Word Roots

salu, -bri, -ti (L). Health; health- «saron, -to (G). A broom
ful sarp, -t (L). Prune, trim
salv, -a (L). Save, preserve sarri (L). Hoe, cultivate
salvl, »a (L). The sage sarsa (Sp). A bramble
samar. «a, -i (L). An elm seed sartori, *us (L). A tailor
sambuc, «a (L). A stringed in- •sarum (G). A broom
strument •sarx (G). Flesh
sambuc, *us (L). The elder tree satan (G). The Devil, Satan
samyd, «a (G). A birch-like plant satell, »es, -it (L). An attendant
sana, -b, -t (L). Heal, cure sathr, -o (G). Decayed, weakened
sanct, -1 (L). Saintly, holy satur, -a (L). Full, filled
sandal, -o, «urn (G). A sandal; a satyr (G My). A woodland deity, a
flatfish satyr
sangui, -ni, «s (L). Blood sauci (L). Hurt, injured, ill
sanit, -a (L). Health, soundness saucr, -o (G). Beautiful, graceful
sanicul, «a (NL). A kind of plant saur, -o, «us (G). A lizard
sani, -do, *s (G). A board, plank savanna (Sp). A meadow
santal, «urn (NL). Sandalwood sax, -i, -o, -urn (L). A rock
sao (G). Healthy, safe saxatil (L). Living among rocks
saperd, «es (G). A salted fish scab (L). Scratch, scrape
saph, -en, -o (G). Clear, ap- scab, *er, -r (L). Rough
parent; the truth scabell, «um (L). A footstool
sapid (L). Tasty, savory scabi, «es (L). Itch, mange
sapien, «s, -t (L). Wise, knowing scabios (L). Scaly, rough
sapinda (L). Soapberry scabr, -i (L). Rough
•sapo, -ni (L). Soap scae, -o (G). Clumsy; unlucky; on
•sapor, -1 (L). Flavor, taste the left
sapot, »a (NL). A kind of tree scaer, -o (G). Dance
sapphir, -o (G). The sapphire; seal, *a, -ari, -i (L). A ladder
blue scalen, -e, -o (G). Uneven; limping
sapr, -o (G). Rotten, putrid scali, -d, «s (G). A hoe; a bowl
sarc, -i, -o (G). Flesh scalm, -o, «us (G). An oar pin
sarcas, -m (LL). Sneer scalma (OHG). Pestilence
sarcin, «a, -i (L). A bundle scalop, -o, «s (G). A mole
sarcolip, *es (G). Lean, with scalp (L). Carve, scrape
little flesh scalpr, -i, «urn (L). A chisel, knife
sarcopt (G). Flesh-cutting scalpt (L). Carved, scraped
sard, *a (G). A kind of fish scamb, -o (G). Curved, bent
sarg, -o, aus (G). A kind of fish scamill, «us (L). A little bench
sargass (Sp). Seaweed scamn, -o, =um (L). A bench, stool
sarment, «urn (L). Twigs, scan, -d, -s, -sor (L). Climb
branches scan, -i, -o, -us (G). A corpse
and Combining Forms 89

scap, «us (L): A stem; (G): a schoen, -i, -o (G). A reed; a rope
staff «schola (L): School; (G): leisure
scapan, -e, -i, -o (G). A spade sci, -a, -o (G). A shadow
scaph, -i, -o (G). A bowl, boat, sciad, -i (G). A canopy, umbel
trough; anything hollowed out sciaen, «a (L). A sea fish
scapt, «es, -o (G). Dig; a digger; sciar, -o (G). Dark-colored, shady
dug out •sciasma, -to (G). A shadow
scapul, «a (L). The shoulder blade sciatic (ML). Of the hip
ecien, «s, -t (L). Knowledge
scar, «us (G). A kind of fish scier, -o (G). Dark-colored, shady
scarabae, -i, «us (L). A scarab scill," «a (L). A sea onion
beetle seine, -i, «us (L). A kind of lizard
scari, -d, «s (G). A little worm scintill (L). Emit sparks, sparkle
scarlatin (It). Scarlet scio (G). A shadow
écart (G). Nimble; dance scirp, «us (L). A bulrush
«scarus (G). A kind of fish scirrh, -o, «us (G). A tumor; a
hard covering
scat, -o (G). Dung scirt, -et, -o (G). Leap;aleaper
seel, -i, -id, «is, -o, «us (G). sciss, -i (L). Cut, split
A leg scissur, «a (L). A fissure, cleft
sceler (L). Wicked, villainous sciur, -o, «us (L). A squirrel
sceli, -do, «s (G). A leg; a rib scier, -o (G). Hard
•scelio, -n (L). A scoundrel scobi, «s (L). Sawdust, filings
scelo; «scelus (G). A leg scobin, «a (L). A rasp
seen, -a, -o (G). A tent; a stage scol, -o, «us (G). A thorn
scole, -c, «x (G). A worm
sceptic, -o (G). Reflective, ob- scoli, -o (G). Curved, crooked
servant scolop, -o, «s (G). Anything
sceptr, «urn (L). A sceptre pointed; a stake
sceu, -o, «us (G). An implement, scolopa, -c, «x (G). A snipe
vessel, equipment scolopendr, «a (G). A centipede
schadon, -o (G). A bee larva; •scolus (G). A thorn
the honeycomb scolyt, -i (G). Clip, shorten
sched, -o (G). A tablet scomb, *er, -r (L). A mackerel
schedon (G). Near scop, «a (L). A broom; twigs
sches, «is (G). A condition or scop, «e, -o (G). See, watch, look
scopae, -o, «us (G). A dwarf
state scopel, -o, «us (G). A cliff, high
«schema, -t, -to (G). Form, shape rock
scher, -o (G). One after another scopi, scopo (G). A lookout, watch;
schid, -i, «ium, -o (G). A a watch tower
splinter •scops (G). An owl
schism, «a, -at, -o (G). A split-
ting, division
schist, -o (G). Split, divided
schiz, -o (G). Split, cleave
90 Dictionary of Word Roots

scopt (G). Mock, jest, jeer ecythi (GN). To scalp

scopul, «a (L). A small broom scythr, -o (G). Sullen, gloomy
scopul, «us (L). A rock, crag scyti, scyto (G). Leather; the neck
-scopy (G). Observation seb, -i, «um (L). Grease, tallow
-scor, -a, -ia (G). Dung sebas, -m, -t (G). Venerable;
scorbut, «us (ML). Scurvy reverent
scord, -o, «um (G). Garlic, onion sec, -o (G). A pen, enclusure; a
scorod, «urn (G). Garlic, onion shrine
scorpaen, «a (G). A fish with a seclu, -d, -s (L). Shut off, hidden
poisonous sting secret (L). Set apart, secret
scorpi, -o, *us (G). A scorpion sect (L). Cut
•scorpio, -n (L). A scorpion secund (L). The second, next
scorzo (It). The adder secur, -i, «is (L). An axe
scot, -ia, -o, «us (G). Darkness «secutor (L). A follower, pursuer
screa, -t (L). To hawk; split sed, -ent, -i (L). Sit, sitting
scri, -b, -pt (L). Write sedat (L). Soothed, calm
scrob, -i, «is (L). A trench sedit (L). A going aside
scrophul, -ari (L). A tumor, seduc (L). Lead aside, lead astray
glandular swelling sedul (L). Busy, diligent
scrot, «um (L). A pouch «sedum (L). Stonecrop
scrup, -e, -os, -ul, «us (L). sege, «s, -t (L). A corn field
A rough or sharp stone segestr, «e, -i (L). A covering,
scrut, -at (L). Examine wrapping
sculpt (L). Carved segm, -ent (L). A piece cut off
scut, -i, «um (L). A shield segn, -i (L). Slow, sluggish
scutell, «a (L). A dish segreg (L). Separate, set apart
scutell, «um (L). A little shield sei, -o (G). Move to and fro, shake
scybal, -o, «um (G). Dirt, filth, seir, -o (G). A band, chain; hot
dung seism, -o, «us (G) A shaking, an
scydmaen (G). Angry earthquake
scyla, -co, «x (G). A dog, puppy seiur (G). Wag the tail
scyll (G). A sea monster; mangle; sejug, -i (L). A six-horse team
vex, annoy; a dog, puppy sejunct (L). Separated
scyllar, «us (G). A kind of crab seko (G). A pen, enclosure; a
scylo (G). Booty; an animal skin shrine
scymn, -o, «us (G). A young sela, -sm, -t (G). Bri#it, shining
animal, a whelp selach, -o, «us (G). A shark
scyph, -o, «us (G). A cup selag, -in, «o (L). A kind of club
scyr, -o (G). Rough moss
scyt, -i, -o (G). Leather; the neck selen, -e, -i (G). The moon
scytal, «a, -i, -o (G). A staff; a seleni (NL). Selenium
message seli, -d, «s (G). A plank, sheet
and C o m b i n i n g F o r m s 91

selin, «urn (G). Parsley sept, -em, -en (L). Seven

sell, «a, -i (L). A saddle, stool sept, -i, -o (G). Rotten, putrid;
sema, -t, -to (G). A mark, sign, rot
signal, seal sept, -i, -o, «urn (L). A fence
semae, -o (G). A standard, s septen, -ari (L). Seven each
streamer septendecim (L). Seventeen
semant, -o (G). Marked, sig- septentrion, -al (L). Northern
nificant septi (L): A fence; (G): rotten
semasi (G). A marking eeptim (L). The seventh
semât, -i, -o (G). A mark, sign, septo (L): A fence; (G): rot, rotten
signal, seal septuagesi (L). The seventieth
semeio, -t (G). Marked; a stand- septuagint (L). Seventy
ard •septum (L). A fence
•semen (L). Seed, sperm sequa, -c, «x (L). Following
semi (L). Half sequest, «er, -r (L). An agent,
semicincti, «urn (L). An apron go-between
semin, -i (L). Seed, sperm, ser (L). Late
semen ser, -i, -o, «urn (L). Whey, serum
semn, -o (G). Holy, sacred seran, -g, «x (G). A cave
semo (G). A sign, mark, signal; serapi, -ado, «as (G). An orchid
a standard, streamer; a seal seren (L). Clear, calm, bright
semper (L). Always seri (L). A series, row; late;
sen, «ex, -i (L). An old person Chinese; silk; serum
sen, -i (L). Six seri, -do, « s (G). Chicory, succory
senari (L). Six each série, -a, -ar, -e, -o (G). Silk,
senect (L). Very old, aged silken
senesc (L). Grow old •sermo, -n (L). A speech
seni (L). An old person; six sero (L). Serum; late
senicul, «us (L). An old man serotin (L). Late
senil, -i (L). Of old people serp (L). Creep
sens, -i (L). Feeling serpent, -ar, -i (L). A serpent
sensor (L). A sense organ serph, -o, «us (G). A gnat
sent, -i (L). Feeling serpul, «a, -o (L). A little snake
senti, -s (L). A thorn serr, «a, -at, -i (L). A saw
sep, - s , -t (G). Rotten, putrid sert (L). Entwined, joined
sepedo, -n (G). Rottenness, sert, «a (L). Garlands
decay «serum (L). Whey; the watery part
sepi (L). Fence in of fluids
sepi, «a (G). A cuttlefish serv, «a, -i, «us (L). A slave;
seps (G). Rotten, putrid; a lizard serve
sepsi, =s (G). Putrid; putrefac- •ses, -i (G). A moth
tion sesam, «e (G). Sesame
92 Dictionary of Word Roots
sesel, -i (G). A shrub silen, «us (L): Foam; (My): drunken-
sesqui (L). One and one-half ness
sessil (L). Sitting on, sedentary, «silex (L). Flint
without a stem silic, -i (L). Flint
sestr, -o, =um (G). A sieve siliqu, «a (L). A pod, husk
set, «a, -i (L). A bristle sillo (G). Satire
set, -o (G). A moth silph, «a (G). A kind of beetle
seth, -o, «us (G). A sieve silphi, «urn (G). A plant with
sever (L). Serious, harsh medicinal properties
sex, -a (L). Six silub, -o, «urn (G). A kind of thistle
sexagesim (L). The sixtieth silur (L). A kind of fish; a region in
sexagint (L). Sixty South Wales
sext (L). The sixth silv, «a, -at, -estr, -i (L). Woods,
sexu (L). Sex trees
si, -o (G). Move to and fro, silyb, -o, «urn (G). A kind of thistle
shake sim, -o (G). Flat-nosed
siag, -on (G). The jaw bone simbl, -o, «us (G). A beehive
sial, -i, -o (G). Spittle, saliva; simi, «a, «us (L). An ape
fat, grease simil (L). Alike, similar
siali, «s (G). A kind of bird simpl, «ex, -ic, -ici (L). Simple
«sialum (G). Spittle, saliva simul (L). Together; imitate
«sialus (G). Fat, grease Simula (L). A likeness; imitate
sibil (L). Hissing sin, -a, -o (G). Chinese; damage
sibyn, -e, -o (G). A spear sinapi, «s (L). Mustard
sicari, «us (G). An assassin sincip, -it, «ut (L). The forehead
sice (L). Dry sinens (NL). Of China
sicy, -o, «us (G). A gourd, cu- singul, -ar (L). Separate, solitary
cumber sini, -o, «urn (G). A sieve
sid, «a (G). A pomegranate tree; sinist, «er, -r (L). The left hand;
a kind of water plant awkward; evil
sid, -eri, «us (L). A star sino (G). Chinese; damage
sider, -a, -o, «us (G). Iron sinu, -a, -o, «s (L). A fold; a hollow;
sidere (L). Starry bend, wind
sig, «a, -o (G). Silence sio (G). Move to and fro, shake
sigill, «a, -o (L). A seal; the sipal, -o (G). Deformed
little figures on a seal siphl, -o (G). Crippled, maimed
sigm, «a, -ato, -o (G). The siphn, -e, -o (G). A mole; crippled,
letter "S"; S-shaped blind
sign, -i, «urn (L). A sign, mark sipho, -n, -no (G). A tube, pipe
sigp (G). Silence sir, «ex, -ic (G). A kind of wasp
sil, -o (G). Snub-nosed siren, -i, -o (LMy). A mermaid-
sila, «us (L). A kind of parsley like creature with an enticing
silen, -t (L). Still, silent voice
and Combining Forms 93
-sis (G). The act of solan, -a, «urn (L). A nightshade
sistr, =um (L). A rattle solar, -i (L). Of the sun
sisymbr, -i, «ium, -o (G). A
sweet-smelling plant sole, «a (L). A sandal; a kind of
sisyr, «a, -o (G). A garment of fish
skin solen, -i, -o (G). A pipe, channel
sisyrinchi, »um (G). An iris-like soli (L). The sun; alone
plant solic (L). Care, concern
sit, -i, -io, -o, «us (G). Food solid (L). Dense, firm
sit, -u, «us (L). A place solidag, -in, «o (L). Goldenrod
sitt, «a, -i (G). A nuthatch solitari (L). Solitary
•sium (G). A marsh plant solo (L). Alone
sk (see also sc) solpug (L). A venomous ant or
skat, -o (G). Dung spider
skelet, -o (G). A dried body, solu (L). Alone; dissolve
skeleton «solum (L). The floor, bottom,
skelo (G). A leg earth
skeptic, -o (G). Reflective, solut, solv (L). Dissolved, loose
observant •soma, -t,-to (G). A body
skia (G). A shadow somn, -i, »us (L). Sleep
skiro (G). A white parasol somph, -o (G). Spongy, porous
skier, -o (G). Hard son, -a, -it, -o (L). Sound
smaragd, -o (G). An emerald sonch, «us (G). A sow thistle
smari, =s (G). A small sea fish sonor, -o (L). Noisy
=smegma, -to (G). A soapy secre- soph, -o (G). Wise, skillful
tion; a cleansing substance sophistic (G). Artful, shrewd
smerinth, -o, «us (G). A cord, sophora (Ar). A kind of tree
string sophron, -o (G). Temperate, sen-
smil, «a, -o (G). A carving knife sible
smila, -c, =x (G). Yew; bindweed -sophy (G). Wisdom, skill, art
sminth, «us (G). A field mouse •sopor, -i (L). Sleep
smodi, -c, -ng, «x (G). A swollen sor, -i, -o, «us (G). Aheap
bruise sorb (L). Suck in, absorb
sobar, -o (G). Arrogant; violent sorb, -a, «us (L). A kind of tree
sobol, «es, -i (L). A sprout, shoot sord, -id (L). Filthy
sobrin, «us (L). A cousin •sorex (L). A shrew
soci, «a, -o, «us (L). A com- sori (G). Aheap
panion, fellow being, ally soric (L). A shrew
sodal, -i, «is (L). A companion soro (G). A heap; a coffin
•sol, «a (L). The sun •soror, -i (L). A sister
sol, -i, -o (L). Alone sort, -i (L). Lot, fate
sol, «urn (L). The floor, bottom, •sorus (G). Aheap
earth sostr, -o (G). A reward for saving
another's life
94 Dictionary of Word Roots

sot, -er, -eri (G). Preserve, save, spect (L). See, look at
deliver spectabil (L). Visible, remarkable
soz, -o (G). Preserve, save, de­ spectr, -o (L). A sight; the spec­
liver trum
spad (G). Draw, draw off specu, «s (L). A cave or hole
spadi, -c, «x (G). A palm branch; specul, «a (L). A watch tower
brown specul, «urn (L). A mirror
spadice (NL). Brown specula, -t (L). Search, examine
spado, -n (G). A castrated individ­ speir, -o (G). Coil; scatter
ual speis (G). Food
spala, -ci, -co, «x (G). A mole spel, -ae, -ea, -eo, -o (G). A cave
span, -o (G). Lacking, scarce speo (G). A cave
spar, -i, «us (L). The gilt-bream sperg (NL). Scatter
spara, -et, -gm, -ss, -xi (G). sperm, «a, -at, -ato, -i, -o (G).
Tear, mangle; torn, mangled Seed, semen, male reproductive
sparg (G): Swell, teem; (L): cells
strew, scatter sphacel, -o, «us (G). Gangrene
spargan (G). A swath, bank; sphadasm, -o, «us (G). A convulsion
a kind of plant sphaer, «a, -i, -o (G). A ball, sphere
epari (L). The gilt-bream sphag, »e, -i (G). The throat; slaugh­
spars (L). Thin, scattered ter, sacrifice
spart, -e, -i, -o (G). A rope; a sphagn, «um (G). A kind of moss
kind of plant sphaler, -o (G). Slippery, treacher­
spart, -o (G). Scattered ous
•spams (L). The gilt-bream spharag, -o (G). Noisy, sputtering
sparveri, «us (L). A sparrow sphe, -ci, «χ (G). A wasp
spasm, «a, -at, -o, «us (G). An sphedan, -o (G). Violent, vehement
involuntary muscular act, a con­ sphen, «a, -o (G). A wedge
vulsion spher, «a , -o (G). A ball, sphere
spastic (G). Relating to con­ «sphex (G). A wasp
vulsions sphigm, -o (G). The pulse
spatang, «es (G). A sea urchin sphin, -et, -g, «x (G). Bind tight,
spath, «a, -i, -o (G). A broad squeeze, strangle; a mythological
sword monster, the sphinx
spati, «urn (L). A space sphodr, -o (G). Active, violent
spatil, «a, -o (G). Excrement sphrag, -i, «is (G). A seal, signet
spatul, «a (L). A little blade; ring
a spoon sphrig, -o (G). Vigorous
spe, -o (G). A cave sphygm, -o (G). The pulse
speci (L). A kind or sort, spe­ sphyr, -o (G). A hammer, mallet;
cies; special; look at, see the ankle
specios (L). Showy, beautiful spic, «a, -ul (L). A spike, point; an
ear of grain
and Combining F o r m s 95

Spiegel (G). A mirror squalor (L). Dirt, filth

spil, -o, «us (G). A spot, stain; squam, «a, -at, -i, -o (L). A scale
a cliff squarros (L). Scaly, rough
spin, «a, -i (L). A spine, thorn •squatarola (It). The black-bellied
spinthar, -i, «is (G). A spark plover
•spinther, -o (G). A spark squatin, «a (L). A skate
«spinus (L). A linnet-like bird squill, «a, -i (L). A sea onion; a
«spio (L My). A sea nymph shrimp
spir, «a, -o (L). Breathe; a stabil, -i (L). Firm
spiral, coil
spirac, -1, -ul, «ulum (L). An air stach, «ys (G). A spike, ear of corn
hole stact, -o (G). Trickling
•spiraea (L). The meadowsweet stag, -eto, «ma, -mat, -mo (G). A
-spire (L). Breathe drop
spirem, «a, -at (G). A coil, stagn, -a, -i, «urn (L). Motionless;
twisted thread a pool
spiro (L). A spiral, coil; breathe stala, -ct, -gm (G). Dripping, drop-
spiss, -a, -at, -i (L). Compact, ping
thickened -stalsis (G). A constriction, com-
spiz, -a (G). A finch pression
splanchn, -i, -o, «urn (G). The stalt (G). Constriction, compression
viscera starn, »en, -in (L). Anything standing
•splen, -i, -ico, -o (G). The spleen; upright; a thread; a stamen
a bandage, patch
spod, -i, -o (G). Ashes, slag; gray stamn, -o (G). A wine jar
«spolia, -t (L). Booty, spoils stann, -i, «urn (L). Tin
spondyl, -o (G). A vertebra stape, -di, »s (LL). A stirrup; the
spong, -i, -ia, -io, -o (G). A stapes, a bone in the ear
sponge staphi, «s (G). A raisin
•sponsa (L). A bride staphyl, «a, -o (G). A bunch of grapes,
spor, «a, -i, -o (G). A seed a cluster; the uvula
sporad, -o (G). Scattered
spuda, -st (G). Haste, zeal; staphylin, «us (G). A kind of insect
active starn (ME). A kind of bird
spui (L). Spit stas, -i, «is (G). Standing, posture
spurn, =a (L). Foam
spurc (L). Dirty, filthy stat, -i, -o (G). Standing, placed
spuri (L). False static, «e, -o (G). An astringent
sput, «urn (L). Spittle herb
spyr, -id, -o (G). A basket staur, -o, «us (G). A cross
squal, >us (L). A dogfish staxi, «s (G). A dropping
squalid (L). Foul, filthy stea, «r, -t, -to (G). Fat, suet,
stechi, -o (G). An element
-no, -o (G). A
96 Dictionary of Word Roots

steir, -o (G). Sterile; a keel stig, -a (L). Goad, prick

stel, «a, -id, -o (G). A pillar stigm, «a, -at, -ato, -o (G). A spot;
stele, -o (G). A handle a brand; a pricking
stil, «a (G). A drop
stelgi, -do, «s (G). A scraper
stil, «us (L). A style; a stake
stell, «a, -i, -o (L). A star
stilb (G). Glitter, glisten
stelm, -a (G). A crown
still, «a, -ic (L). A drop
stelo (G). A pillar stilpn, -o (G). Glistening
stem, -a, -o (G). A thread; a •stilus (L). A style; a stake
stamen stimul, -a, «us (L). Goad
•stemma, -to (G). A crown, garland stinct (L). Prick
sten, -o (G). Narrow «stipatio, -ni (L). A crowd
•stenosis (G). A narrowing, con- stipendi, «um (L). Tribute, payment
traction «stipes (L). A stalk, stem
stentor (GMy). A powerful voice;
a trumpet stiphr, -o (G). Stout, sturdy
step (AS). Orphaned stipi, -ti (L). A stalk, stem
steph, -ano, «anus, -o (G). A stipt, -o (G). Trodden down
crown stiri, «a (L). An icicle
stère, -o (G). Solid stirp, -i, «s (L). A stock, stem
sterc, -o, -or, «us (L). Excrement, stixi, «s (G). A puncture
dung, manure
stères, «is (G). Deprivation, loss stiz, -o (G). Prick, puncture
•sterigma, -to (G). A support •stoa (G). A porch
steril, -i (L). Barren, sterile stoichi, -o (G). An element
steriph, -o (G). Firm, solid stol, «a, -o (L). A long robe
stern, -o, «um (G). The breast, stolid (L): Dull, stupid; (G): a
breastbone robe
stern, »a (NL). A tern •stolo, -ni (L). A twig, shoot
sternu, -t (L). Sneeze stom, «a, -ato, -o (G). A mouth
stomach, -i, -o, «us (G). The gullet;
sterr, -ho, -o (G). Solid, stiff the stomach
stert (L). Snore stomb, -o (G). Noisy
steth, -o, «us (G). The breast, stomph, -ac, -o (G). Loud-talking
sthen, -ar, -o, «us (G). Strength, stomyl, -o (G). Talkative
might stony, -cho, «x (G). A sharp point
stib, «a, -i (G). Hoarfrost; an- storth, «a, -o, -yng (G). A point;
timony the point of an antler
stib, -o, »us (G). A track, tread strab, -i, -ism, -o (G). Squint;
stich, -o, «us (G). A row, line squint-eyed, cross-eyed
stichari, «um (G). A vestment, strado (It). Street
tunic-o (G). Punctured, dappled
stict, stragul,-g,
stran, «en,
A drop
(L). Straw
and Combining F o r m s 97

Strang, -o (G). Crooked; squeeze stromb, -i, -uli, «us (L). A spiral;
strangal (G). Choke a snail; a top
strangulat (L). Choked strongyl, -o (G). Round
strat, -age, -eg (G). Generalship stroph, -i, -io, -o (G). A cord or
strat, -i, «um (L). A bed cover- twisted band; turn, twist
ing; a layer struct (L). Build
strat, -io, -o (G). An army; a strum, «a, -o (L). A tumor
soldier •struthio, -n (L). An ostrich
strebl, -o (G). Twisted strychn, -o, «us (G). A nightshade
•stremma, -to (G). A sprain, a stryphn, -o (G). Sour, harsh
twisting stud, -en, -i (L). Be diligent; zeal
stren, -o (G). Strong, harsh; stult, -i (L). Foolish, silly
haughty stup, «a, -o (L). The coarse part of
strenu (L). Active flax
streper (LL). Noisy stup, -e, -id (L). Benumb, stun
streph, -o (G). Turn, twist stupr (L). Defile, corrupt
strepit, -an (L). Noisy «sturio, -n (LL). The sturgeon
strepsi, «s (G). A turning or sturn, -i, «us (L). A starling
twisting styg, -ano, -er, -et, -no, -o (G).
strept, -o (G). Bent, twisted; Hatred; hated; hating
pliable styl, -o, «us (G). A pillar, stake,
«stria, -t (L). A furrow, streak; column; a pointed instrument
furrowed, streaked stym, -a (G). Stiff, erect
strict (L). Drawn together, tight styp, -h, -t (G). Astringent
strid, -en, -or, -ul (L). Creak, styp, -o, «us (G). A stump, stem
make a harsh sound styphel, -o (G). Sour; tough
strig, «a (L). A furrow, streak styphl, -o (G). Harsh; sour, a s -
strig, -i (L). An owl; a furrow tringent
strigat (L). Streaked, striped styr, -ac, «ax, -o (G). A kind of
strigil, «is (L). A scraper shrub
strigos (L). Thin, meager suas (L). Persuade
stringen (L). Compressing sub (L). Under, below
string (NL). An owl sub, «ex, -ic (L). An under layer,
striol, «a (L). A small furrow support
«strix (L). An owl; a furrow «suber, -i (L). The cork oak
strob, -o (G). Twist, turn, whirl sublim (L). Uplifted, exalted
strobil, -o, «us (G). Anything that subruf, -i (L). Buff
whirls; a top; a pine cone subul, «a (L). An awl
«stroma, -t, -to (G). Anything succ, «us (L). Juice, sap
spread out; a coverlet, mattress, succin, -e, «um (L). Amber
bed succis (L). Cut, bitten off,
98 Dictionary of Word Roots

such, -i, -o, «us (G). A crocodile syc, -a, -i, -o, «urn (G). A fig
suer, -o (F). Sugar sycamin, -o, «us (G). The mulberry
suet, -or (L). Suck; a sucker
sud, -a, «or, -ori (L). Sweat sychn, -o (G). Many
sudi, «s (L). A stake; the pike syg, syl (G). With, together
suecic (L). Swedish syllab (G). That which holds or is
suf (L). Under, below held together; a syllable
sufflat (L). Puffed up, bloated sylleg, -o (G). Gather
suffrag (L). Support; voting
right sylleps, «is (G). A putting together
suffrag, -in, «o (L). The hock, sylli (NL). A necklace
pastern bone syllog, -i, -o (G). A gathering to-
sug (L). Suck gether, reckoning
sui (L). Self; a pig sylv, «a, -at, -estr, -i (L). Woods,
sul, «a, -i (Ice). A gannet forest
suie, -a, -i, «us (L). A furrow, sym (G). With, together
groove, trench symbio (G). Living together
suif, -o (L). Sulphur
sulph, -o (L). Sulphur symmetr (G). Suitable; symmetry
summ, «a (L). The sum, total symp, -y (G). Squeeze together
super (L). Above, over sympher, -o (G). Useful
supin (L). Lying on the back
supplie (L). Beg symphy, -o, -so (G). Growing together
suppra (L). Form pus symploc, -o (G). Connected, inter-
supra (L). Above, over, beyond woven
sur (F): Above; (L): calf of leg symptom, -a, -ato, -o (G). A symp-
surcul, «us (L). A twig, sprout tom
surd, -it (L). Deaf; deafness symptosi, =s (G). A meeting
surg (L). Rise, raise syn (G). With, together
•surnia (NL). The hawk owl synap, -s, «sis, -t (G). A falling to-
sursum (L). Above, upward gether, a union
•sus (L). A pig
suscept (L). undertake syncop (G). Cut short, cut up
susurr (L). Buzzing, whispering syndesm, -o, «us (G). A bond, liga-
sutil (L). Sewed together ment
sutur, «a (L). A seam synech, -i, -o (G). Hold together
sy, -g, -1, -m, -n, -s (G). With, synerg (G). Cooperate, work together
together synesi, «s (G). A joining; under-
syba, -co, *x (G). Hog-like standing
sybari (G My). Lascivious; volup- synoch, -o (G). Meeting, joining
tuary synost, -eo (G). A bone articula1·
sybot (G N). A swineherd tion
synul, -o (G). Healing, scar-form-
•syphar, -o -o
syphil (G).
syphil, -i, (G). Wrinkled
(L). skin
and Combining F o r m s 99

syrig, -m (G). Piping, whistling tala, -n (G). Wretched

syrin, -g, -gp, «x (G). A pipe talaepor, -i (G). Toil; miserable
syrm, «a, -ato, -o (G). Sweep­
ings, refuse; something dragged talant, -o, «urn (G). A balance,
along scales
syrph, -a, -ac, «ax, -et (G). Any­ talar, -o, «us (G). A basket
thing swept together, refuse; talari, tali (L). The ankle, heel
vulgar talitr (L). Strike with the finger
syrph, -o, «us (G). A gnat
syrti, -do, «s (G). A sand bank talo (L). The ankle, heel
sys (G). With, together talp, «a (L). A mole
sysci, -o (G). Shaded •talus (L). The ankle, heel
systatic (G). Introductory tamia, «s (G). A distributor
•systema, -t, -to (G). A system tana, -o (G). Stretched
systol, -o (G). A contraction
systom, -o (G). With a narrow tanacet, «urn (OF). The tansy
mouth tanagr (Br). A tanager
systroph (G). Twist together, tang, -i (L). Touch
roll up tann, «urn (ML). Tanning
syzyg, -o (G). Yoked, paired
tany, -o (G). Stretch, stretched
Τ tao, -n, «s (G). A peacock
tab, -e, -id (L). Wasting away tape, *s, -to (G). A carpet
tab, -1, -ul, «ula (L). A board, tapein, -o (G). Low
table taph, -o, -r (G). A burial; as­
tabac, «urn (NL). Tobacco tonishment
taban, «us (L). A horse fly
tabern (L). A shed, tent taphr, -o, «us (G). A trench
tabe, «s, -t (L). Wasting away tapin, -o (G). Low
tabid (L). Wasting away tapir, -o (Sp). A tapir
tabul, «a (L). A board, table tarac, -h, -t (G). Disorder; disturb
tach, -eo (G). Quickly «taragma, -to (G). Trouble, uneasi­
tach, -in, -y (G). Swift, fast ness
tach, -o (G). Speed
tacit (L). Without words, silent tarand, «us (G). The reindeer
tact, -i (L). Touch tarant (It). A town in Italy
tadorn, «a (NL). A kind of duck taraxi, «s (G): Confusion, trouble;
taedios (L). Disgusting (Ar): a kind of succory
taeni, «a, -o (G). A band, ribbon tarb, -o (G). Terror
«tagma, -to (G). A division, a
body of soldiers tarbale (G). Fearful
tal, -ari, -i, -o, «us (L). The tard, -i (L). Slow
ankle, heel tarph, -i, -o (G). A thicket
tarphy (G). Thick, close
the -eo,
Aflat surface;
100 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

taut, -o (G). The same ten, - s , -t (L). Stretched

tax, -eo, -i, «is, -o (G). Arrange; tena, -ci, *x (L). Holding fast, tough
arrangement tenag, -o, «us (G). A pool, shoal
tax, -o, «us (G). Yew tenan (L). Holding
tax, -o, «us (NL). A badger
tend, -in, -o (L): Stretch; a tendon;
tebenn, «a (G). A robe
tec, -o (G). Melt away (G): gnaw
techn, -i, -o (G). Art, skill «tenebrio, -n (L). A lover of dark-
teen, -o, «urn (G). A child ness
tect, -i, -o (L). A roof, covering tenebros (L). Dark, gloomy
tect, -o (G): A carpenter, builder; tenen (L). Holding
soluble; (G): a roof, cover; tener, (L). Tender, soft
covered tenesm, «us (G). A straining
tector, -i (L). Plaster, stucco teni, «a, -o (G). A band, ribbon
tedi (L). Weary tenon, -t, -to (G). A tendon
teg, -o, «us (G). A roof tens, tent (L). Stretched
tegm, «en, -in (L). A cover tenta (L). Handle, touch, feel
tegul, «a (L). A roof tile tentacul, -i, «um (LL). A feeler
teich, -o, «us (G). A wall tenthred, -in, «o (G). A kind of
tein, -o (G). Extend, stretch wasp
tekn, -o, «urn (G). A child tentig, -in, «o (L). A stretching
tel, «a, -i (L). A web tentori, «um (L). A tent
tel, -e (G). Far tenu, -i (L). Thin, slender
tel, -eo, -o (G). An end; com- tep, -id, -or (L). Warm
plete tephr, -o (G). Ashes; ash-colored,
teleut (G). Completion, fulfill- gray
ment ter (L). Three; three times
teli (L). A web tera, «s, -to (G). A wonder; a
tellin, «a (G). A kind of shellfish monster
tellu, -r, -ri, « s (L). The earth teram, -no, -o (G). Soft
«telma, -to (G). A pond, pool teramn, -o, «us (G). A closed room
telo (G). An end; complete terasti (G). Monstrous; portentious
•telson (G). A boundary tere, -no (G). Smooth, delicate
terrien, «us (G). A piece of land tere, -o (G). Bore, perforate;
temer (L). Rash, reckless watch, guard
temn, -o (G). Cut tere, «s, -t (L). Round, smooth
temper (L). Moderate terebr, «a (L). Bore; a boring tool
tempi, «um (L). An open space; terebinth, «us (G). The turpentine
a temple tered, -o (G). A wood worm
tempor, -a, -o (L). Time; the tereno (G). Smooth, delicate
temples tereo (G). Bore, perforate; watch,
ten, -a (L). Hold guard
and Combining F o r m s 101

«teres, teret (L). Round, smooth teuch, -o, «us (G). An implement;
teretr, -o (G). A gimlet a vessel
terg, -i, «um (L). The back teuthi, «s (G). A squid
teri (G). Pierce teutl, -o, «urn (G). A beet
-terium (G). A place for texi (G). Birth
«terma, -t (G). An end, limit text, -i (L). Weave
term, «es, -it (L). A wood worm thair, -o, «us (G). A door hinge
term, -in (L). An end; a name thai, -o, «us (G). A twig; a young
termin, -a, «us (L). An end, person
limit thalam, -i, -o, «us (G). A chamber,
termin, -o, -us (ML). A term, inner room
name thalass, «a, -i, -o (G). The sea
termit (L). A wood worm thaler, -o (G). Fresh, blooming
tern, -ari (L). Three; in threes «thalia (GMy). Bloom; joy
terph, -o, «us (G). A shell, cov- thall, -o, «us (G). A young shoot,
ering twig
terpn, -o (G). Delightful thalo (G). A twig; a young person
terps, -i (G). Delight, gladness thalp, -o (G). Heat
terr, «a, -i (L). The earth, land thalyer, -o (G). Hot, glowing
terr, -i (L). Terror thamb, -o, «us (G). Astonishment
terrestr (L). On land thamn, -o, «us (G). A shrub
ter s (L). Clean, neat thana, - s , -to, «tus (G). Death
terti (L). The third «thapsia (G). A poisonous plant
tessar (G). Four; square thapsin, -o (G). Yellow
tesselat (L). Checkered thapt, -o (G). Bury
test, «a (L). A tile, shell «thauma, -si, -st, -to (G). A wonder;
testae, -e (L). With a shell; of wonderful
brick the, «a, (G): A view, spectacle; (L):
testi, =s (L). A witness; a tea
testicle the, -i,(G): A god; (L): tea
testicul (L). Of the testes the, -o (G). Run; a god
testud, -in, «o (L). A turtle theat, -r (G). An audience; a
tetan, -o, «us (G). Rigid, tense; theatre
tetanus thee, «a, -o (G). A case, box, chest,
tetart, -o (G). The fourth cup
teth, -o, =us (G). An oyster thect, -o (G). Sharpened
tethe (G). A grandmother theg, -o (G). Sharpen
tetr, -a (G). Four thei (G): Run; a god; (L): tea
tetra, -c, »x (G). A pheasant thei, -o (G). Sulphur
tetric (L). Harsh, stern thel, «a, -i (G). A nipple
tetrig; «tetrix (G). A grouse thei, -y (G). Female; tender
tetti, -g, «x (G). A grasshopper, thelasm, -o (G). Suck, suckle
cicada thelic, -o (G). Feminine
102 Dicationary of Word Roots

thelx, -i (G). Bewitching tholer, -o (G). Muddy

thely (G). Female; tender thomi, -ng, »nx, -s (G), A whip,
-them (NL). Put string
thema, -t (G). A thing laid down; thoo (G). Quick; a jackal
a theme thor, -o (G). Rushing; the semen
themeli, *a (G). A foundation «thora (LL). Abed
«themis (G). Law, justice thora, -co, *x (G). A breastplate;
•thenar, -o (G). The palm of the the thorax
hand thorect, -o (G). Armed with a breast-
theo (G). Run; a god plate
•theorema, -to (G). A spectacle; thorict, -o (G). Armed with a breast-
a theory plate
ther, -i, -io, »ium (G). A wild thoro (G). Rushing; the semen
beast •thorus (LL). Abed
ther, -o (G). Summer; hunt for thoryb, -o, =us (G). Anoice, uproar
thera, -to (G). Hunting, pursuit thran, -i, -o (G). A bench; a sword-
therap, -eu, -o, »y (G). Serve; fish
treatment thras, -y (G). Bold
theri, -a, -d, -o (G). A wild thrass, -o (G). Disturb
beast thraupi, «s (G). A small bird
therm, -o (G). Heat; a lupine thraust, -o (G). Brittle
thero (G). A wild beast; summer; •thremma, -to (G). A nursling
hunt for thren, -o (G). Wail, lament
thesaur, -i, -o (G). A treasure threps, -i, -o (G). Nourishment
•thesis (G). An arranging thrept (G). Feeding; nourished
thesm, -o, »us (G). A law, rule thrida, -c, *x (G). Lettuce
thet (G). Place, arrange; a serv- thrina, -c, »x (G). A three-pronged
ant fork
theurg (G). Supernatural thrinc, -o, «us (G). A cornice, eaves
thias, -o, *us (G). A band, com- thrip, -i, -o, «s (G). A wood worm
pany «thrix (G). Hair
thigm, «a, -ato, -o (G). A touch thromb, -o, -us (G). A clot, blood
thin, -o (G). The shore; a sand clot
heap throsc, -o (G). Spring, leap
thio, -n (G). Sulphur thry, -o, -on (G). A rush, reed
thias, -t (G). Crush, flatten thryp, -si, -t (G). Break in pieces;
thlasp, «i (L). A kind of cress crushing
thlib, -o (G). Press, squeeze •thuja (ML). Arbor vitae
thlips, -i (G). Press, squeeze; •thula (Ch). The snowy egret
pressure thunn, »us (L). The tunny fish
tho, -o (G). Quick; a jackal thur, «a (G). A door
thol, -o, «us (G). A dome; mud thur, -i (L). Incense
and Combining F o r m s 103

thurid (G). Rushing, impetuous tinn, -it, -ul (L). Ringing, tinkling
thuy, «a (G). Arbor vitae tino (G). Stretch, extend; punish
thyell, «a, -o (G). A hurricane
thylac, -o (G). A sack, pouch tintinn (L). Ring, jingle
thym, -ο, «us (G). The mind, tintinnabul, «urn (L). A bell
spirit, courage; rage; thyme; the tinto (It). Tint
thymus gland tiph, «a, -i (G). A kind of insect
thymall, -us (G). A kind of fish
thymel (G). An altar, a place of tipul, «a (L). A water spider
sacrifice; scenic tir, -a, -e (L). Draw
thymiama (G). Incense; burn titan, -o (GMy). Gigantic; chalk
thymo; -thymus (G). The mind, tithen (G). A nurse; nursing
spirit; rage; thyme; the thymus
gland tithymal, «us (G). A spurge
thynn, «us (G). The tunny fish titill, -a (L). Tickle
thyo (G). A sacrifice; incense titth, -o, «us (G). A nipple
thyr, «a, -i, -o (G). A door titub, -a (L). Stagger
thyr, -eo (G). A shield
thyri, -do, «s (G). A window titul, «us (L). A title
thyrs, -o (G). A wand or staff tityr, «us (G). A pheasant
thysan, -o, -us (G). A fringe tla, -s (G). Suffering
tiar, -a, -o (G). A headdress «tmema, -to (G). A section, portion
tibi, «a, -o (L). The shin bone tmesi, «s (G). Separation, division
tibic, -en, -in (L). A flute player
-tic (G): Relation; (L): belonging to toc, -o, «us (G). Birth
tich, -o (G). A wall tod, -i, «us (L). A small bird, a
tigill, -um (L). A piece of wood tody
tign, «urn (L). A beam, timber •toga (L). A cloak
tigri, -n (L). A tiger; striped like toich, -o (G). A wall
a tiger
•tilia (L). The linden tree tok, -o, «us (G). Birth
till, -o (G). Tear, pull out toler, -a (L). Bear
tilt, -o (G). Plucked tolm, -a, -ero (G). Daring, bold
tim, -id, -or (L). Fear tolyp, «a (G). Wind up; something
tim, -a, -o (G). Honor, esteem wound up; a ball
timi, -o (G). Valued, precious
timor (G): Avenge; (L): fear torn, «e, -i, -o, «y (G). Cut
tin, -o (G). Stretch, extend; toment, -os, «urn (L). Dense hair,
punish stuffing
«tinagma, -to (G). An agitation ton, -o (G)· A tone; tension; some­
tinct (L). Dyed, tinged thing stretched
tine, «a, -i (L). A moth tons, -or, -ur (L). Shear, cut, shave
tonsill, «a (L). A tonsil
top, -o, «us, «y (G). A place
wine press
a swelling;
104 Dictionary of Word Roots

•toreuma, -to (G). Embossed or trach, -i, -y (G). Rough

carved work trache, «a, -i, -o (L). The windpipe
toreus, -i (G). Bored throu#i;
a borer trachel, -o (G). The neck, throat
torfa (LL). Turf trachyte (G). Roughness
torm, -o, «us (G). A hole, socket tract (L). Drawn
torment (L). A twisted rope; a trag, -ed, -i (G). Tragedy
missile; torture
torn, -eu, -o (G). Work with a trag, -i, -o, «us (G). A goat
lathe; turn around •tragopan (L My) A fabulous bird
toro (L): Muscle; a swelling; (G): tram, «a, -o (L). Cross-woven
a borer fabric, woof
torp, -e, -ed, -es, -id, -or (L). tram, «es, -it (L). A cross way, path
Numb; numbness; benumb tran, «es, -i (G). Clear, distinct
torqu, -e, -i (L). Twist tran, -s (L). Across, through
torquat (L). Collared transvers, -o (L). Transverse
torqui, «s (L). A necklace, trapel, -o (G). Easily turned
collar trapez, «a, -i, -o (G). A table
torr, -e, -i (L). Parch, roast traphe, -c, *x (G). A spear
torren (L). Inflamed, hot; a trapher, -o (G). Well fed
torrent traul, -o (G). Lisping, twittering
torrid (L). Dried up, parched «trauma, -to (G). A wound, shock
tors, -i, -o (L). Twist travi (L). Penetrate
tort, -i (L). Twisted trech, -o (G). Run, hasten
tortri, -c, *x (L). A tormentor; trechn, -o, «us (G). A branch
twisted «trema, -to (G). A hole
tortu (L). Winding, twisting trem, -e, -o, -or, -ul (L).
torul, -i, «us (L). A hair tuft Shake, tremble
«torus (L). Muscle; a swelling trep, -o (G). Turn
torv, -i (L). Savage, fierce-eyed trepan, -i, -o (G). Bore, bore
toryn, «a, -i, -o (G). A spoon through
tosa (G). Very treph, -i, -o (G). Feed; thicken
tot, -a, -i (L). All trepid (L). Restless, confused
totan, «us (LL). A moor hen trepo (G). Turn
tox, -o, «um (G). A bow trept, -o (G). Turned about, changed
toxic, «um (L). A poison, arrow trero, -no (G). Shy
poison tresi, «s (G). A puncture, hole
•toxeuma, -to (G). An arrow tret, -o (G). Perforated
trab, -i, «s (L). A beam, timber tri (L). Three
trabe, «a (L). A robe of state tria, -do, «s (G). Three
trabeculat (NL). Marked with triaconta (G). Thirty
triaen, «a (G). A trident
cross bars trib, -o (G). Rub; a highway
tribel, -o (G). Three-pointed
and Combining F o r m s 105

tribol, -o (G). Three-pronged -trix (L). An agent, or doer of an

tribul, «us (L). Three-pointed; a action
kind of thorn trix (G). Hair; three-fold
trica (L). A trifle troch, -o, «us (G). Awheel
tricesim (L). The thirtieth •trochanter (G). A runner; the ball
on which the hip bone turns
trich, -o (G). Hair trochil (G). A pulley; a very small
tricha, -do, «s (G). A thrush bird
trichin, -o (G). Hairy; of hair trochle, «a (G). A pulley
trocho (G). Awheel
trichod, -o (G). Hairy troct, «es, -o (G). A gnawer; gnawed
trico (G). Hair trogl, «e, -o (G). A hole, cave
trien, -t (L). One-third trogo (G). Nibble, gnaw
trom, -o, «us (G). A tremor, trem-
trigesim (L). The thirtieth bling
triginta (L). Thirty troma, -t (G). Wound
trigl, «a (G). A mullet trombid (NL). A little timid one
trigpn, -o (G). A triangle; tri- trop, -ae, -e, -o (G). Turn, change
angular troph, -i, -o (G). Nourish; food,
trime, -no (G). Three months nourishment
tropi, -d, -do, -o, «s (G). A keel;
trime, -str (L). Three months turn
•trimma, -to (G). That which is tropic, -a, -o (G). Tropical
rubbed «tropism (G). A turning
tring, «a (G). A sandpiper tropo (G). Turn, change
•trio, -no (L). A plow ox •trosis (G). A wounding, an injury
trion, »ura (NL). Amalvaceous •trox (G). A weevil; a gnawer
plant truc, -i (L). Fierce
tripan (G). Bore through truch, -ero, -o (G). Ragged, worn
tripl, -i, -o (L). Three-fold, truculent (L). Very fierce
triple trud (L). Thrust, push
trips, -i (G). Friction trud, -i, «is (L). A pointed pole
tript, -o (G). Rubbed, polished trus (L). Thrust, push
«trux (L). Fierce
triquetr (L). Triangular trunc, -a, -at, »us (L). Cut off,
trism, -o, «us (G). A squeak maimed; that which is cut off, the
triss, -o (G). Triple trunk
trist, -i (L). Sad trutt, «a (LL). A trout
trit (L): Rubbed; practiced; (G): try (L). Three, three times
the third trybli, -o, «urn (G). A cup or bowl
trych, -o (G). Consume
tritic, «urn (L). Wheat trychin, -o (G). Ragged
trito (G). The third
triton (G). A sea god
roads -agrind
(L). (L).
ThreeRub together,
ways; pul-
a cross-
106 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

trychn, -o, «us (G). Nightshade; turr, -i, «is (L). A tower
worn out tursi, «o (L). A porpoise
trygo, -n, -no (L). A dove; a sting «turtur, -i (L). A dove
ray tuss, -i (L). Cough
trym, «a, -o (G). A hole tussilag, -in, «o (L). The colts­
tryp, -a, -ano, -o (G). A hole; foot
bore tut, -am, -or (L). Guard, protect
tryp, - s , -t (G). Rub; rubbed tw, -i, -y (AS). Double
trypet (G). Bored; a borer tych, -ae, -e, -ero, -o (G). Chance,
trysi (G). Wearing out fortune
tryss, -o (G). Dainty tycn, -o (G). Dense
•tsuga (Jap). Hemlock tyl, «a, -ar, -o, «us (G). A knob,
tub, «a (L). A trumpet knot, pad
tub, -i, «us (L). A tube, pipe tylot, -o (G). Knobbed, knotted
tuber, -i (L). A knot, knob, tymb, -o, «us (G). A tomb
swelling •tymma, -to (G). A blow
tubercul, -urn (L). A little knob tympan, -i, -o, «um (G). A drum
or swelling typ, -i, -o (G). A blow or strike; a
tubul, -i, «us (L). A little pipe type
«tubus (L). A tube, pipe typh, «a (G). The cattail
tuit (L). Considered; guarded typh, -o, «us (G). Smoke
tulip, -i (F). The tulip typhi, -o (G). Blind
turn, -e, -esc (L). Swell typi, typo (G). A blow or strike; a
tumid (L). Swollen type
•tumor, -i (L). A swelling typot, -o (G). Molded
tumul, «us (L). A hill typt, -o (G). Beat, rap
tund (L). Beat tyr, -eum, -o (G). Cheese
tunic, «a (L). A covering, cloak tyrann, -o, «us (G). A tyrant, master
tupai (Mal). A tree shrew tyrb, «a (G). Disorder
tupi, -d, « s (G). A hammer •tyto, -n (G). An owl
turb, «a (L). A crowd, disturb­
ance U
turbell, -a (L). A little crowd u, -n (L). Not
turbid (L). Disturbed uber, -i (L). A breast; fruitful
turbin (L). Atop; spinning, ubiqu, -it (L). Everywhere
whirling ud, -am, -en (G). No one, none
turbulen, -t (L). Disturbed, con­ ud, -o (L): Wet; (G): a path, way,
fused threshold
ude, -o (G). The ground
turd, -i, «us (L). A thrush
udeter, -o (G). Neither
turg, -id (L). Swell; swollen -ul, «a, «e, «um, «us (L). Little
turni, -c, -ci, «χ (NL). A quail ul, «a, -e, -i (G). A scar
turp, -i (L). Vile, base
and Combining Forms 107

ul, -o (G). The gams; curly, «unto, -n (L). A pearl

woolly; destructive uper (G). Over, above
ulc, -er, «us (L). An ulcer upo (NL). Under, below
-ule (L). Little upti, -o (G). Bent backward, in-
ule (G). Matter; a scar verted
•ulex (L). The rosemary
upup, «a, -i (L). A hoopoe
uli, -o (G). A scar; deadly
ur (L). Burn
ulic (L). The rosemary
ur, «a, -o (G). The tail
ulig, -in, «o (L). Moisture urach, -o, «us (G). The foetal uri-
ulm, «us (L). The elm nary canal
•ulna (L). The elbow; the ulna
urae, -o (G). The hindmost
ulo (G). The gums; a scar;
curly, woolly; whole; destruc- urag, -i (G). The rear
tive urani, -o (G). The heavens; the
-ulous (L). Full of palate
ultim (L). Last, furthermost uranisc, -o, «us (G). The roof of
the mouth, palate
ultr, -a, -o (L). Beyond
urano (G). Heaven
ultrone (L). Voluntary
urb, -an, -i, « s (L). A city
ulul, «a (L). Howl, hoot; a
urce, -ol, «us (L). A pitcher
screech owl
-ulum; -ulus (L). little ure (G). The tail; urine
ulv, -a (L). A sedge ured, -in, «o (L). A blight
umbell, «a, -i (L). An umbrella ureo (G). Urine; urea
umbilic, «us (L). The navel •ureter, -x> (G). The ureter
«umbo, -n (L). A projecting knob; urethr, «a, -o (G). The urethra
a shield urg, «y (G). Work; press
umbr, «a, -i (L). Shade uri (G). The tail; urine
umbros (L). Shady •uria (L): A diving bird; (G): urine
un (L). Not urin, «a, -o (L). Urine; dive
un, -a, -i (L). One urinator (L). A diver
une, -in, «inus, «us (L). A hook uro (G). The tail; urine
uncia (L). A twelfth; a trifle urs, «a (L). A bear
uncinat (L). Hooked, with hooks urtic, «a (L). A nettle
-unci, «e (L). little urubu (Br). The black vulture
unct (L). Anoint; luxurious usne (Ar). Moss
-uncul, «a, «urn, «us (L). little ust, -id, -ul, -ulat (L). Scorched,
und, «a, -i (L). A wave browned
undulat (L). Waved, wavy ustilag, -in, *o (LL). A smut; a
ungu, «en, -in (L). Anointment thistle
uter, -i, -o, «us (L). The womb,
ungui, « s (L). A nail, claw uterus
ungul, «a (L). A hoof util (L). Useful
uni (L). One utri, -c, -cul (L). A leather bag
108 D i c t i o n a r y of Word R o o t s

uv, =a, -i (L). A grape, berry =vas, -a, -o (L). A vessel, duct
uvid (L). Damp vascul, -a, =um (L). A little vessel
uvul, =a, -o (L). The palate vast (L). Laid waste; empty; deso-
late; huge
vati (L). A prophet; bow-legged
=uxor, -i (L). A wife
vaticin (L). Prophetic
V vect (L). Carried
veget (L). Lively, spirited
vac, -a, -u (L). Empty vehemen (L). Vigorous, forceful
vacc, =a, -i (L). A cow vehicul, =um (L) * A conveyance
vaccin, -i, -o (L). Of a cow; vac- vel, -a, -i, =um (L). A veil; a sail
cine vel, =es, -it (L). A skirmisher
vacill, -a (L). Waver veil, -eri, -os, =us (L). Wool, fleece
vacu (L). Empty vellic, -a (L). Twitch
vad, -o, =um (L). A ford, shallow vélo, -ci, =x (L). Swift
vadi (L). Bail, a legal pledge =velum (L). A veil; a sail
vag, -a, -an, =us (L). Wandering =velumen (L). Fleece
vagin, =a, -o (L). A sheath velutin (NL). Velvety
vagit (L). Crying, squalling ven, =a, -o (L). A vein
valen, -t (L). Strength; be worth venat (L). Hunt; hunting
valerian, =a (L). Valerian venen, -i, -o, =um (L). Poison
valetud, -in, =o (L). Health vener, -a (L). Revere, respect
valg (L). Bow-legged vener, -a, -ea, -i (LMy). Pertain-
valid (L). Strong ing to Venus; coitus, sexual inter-
vail (L). A valley; a wall, ram- course
part veni, =a (L). Pardon, favor
vallicul, =a (L). A furrow veno (L). A vein
valv, =a (L). A folding door; a venom (L). Poison
valve vent, -i, -o, =us (L). The wind
vampyr (Rs). A vampire vent, =er, -r, -ro (L). The under
van, -i (L). Empty side, belly
vanescen (L). Vanishing vent, -i, -o, =us (L). The wind
vann, -us (L). A fan ventricul, -o (L). The belly; a
vapid (L). Insipid, tasteless, ventricle
spoiled =ventus (L). The wind
vapor, -i (L). Steam, vapor =venus (LMy). Goddess of love and
var (L). Bent beauty
varan, -i (Ar). A monitor lizard venust (L). Charming
vari, -a, -o (L). Change; varie- ver, -a, -ac, -i (L). True; truth
gated, mottled veratr, =um (L). The hellebore
vari, -c, «x (L). A swollen vein verb, -i, -o, =um (L). A word
variegat (L). Marked variously verbasc, =um (L). Mullein
and Combining Forms 109

verben, =a (L). A sacred herb, «via (L). Away, road

sacred bough vib, =ex, -ic (L). A whip mark
verd, -an, -i, -ur (OF). Green vibr, -a, -i, -o (L). Shake, vibrate
veret, -ill, -r (L). The private ^vibrissa (L). A hair of the nostrils
parts, penis viburn, =um (L). The wayfaring
veri (L). True tree
verm, -i, =is (L). A worm vicari (L). Substitution, change; a
vern, -a (L). The spring; be substitute
gay vicen (L). Twenty
vernacul (L). Native, local =vicia (L). A vetch
verricul, =um (L). A net, seine vicin, -i (L). Neigiboring, near
verrue, =a (L). A wart
vers, -a (L). Turn, change vict (L). Conquer
versi (L). Various; turning; victu (L). Food, nourishment
verse vidu, -i (L). Widowed
versut (L). Shrewd, clever
vert, -a, -e (L). Turn viet (L). Shrunken, withered
vertebr, =a, -o (L). A joint; a vigesim (L). The twentieth
vertebra vigil, -i (L). Awake, on the watch
vert, =ex, -ic (L). The apex; a viglnt, -i (L). Twenty
whirlpool =vigor, -i (L). Activity, force
verticill, -a, =us (L). A whorl
vertig, -in, =o (L). A whirling; vili (L). Vile, base
dizziness vill, -i, =us (L). Shaggy hair
vesan (L). Insane villos (L). Hairy
vesic, =a, -o (L). A bladder vim, =en, -in (L). A twig, flexible
vesicul, =a, -o (L). A little bladder, shoot
a blister vin, -a, -e, -o, =um (L). Wine
vesp, =a, -i (L). A wasp
vesper, -i, -tin (L). Evening vinace (L). Of wine; wine-colored
=vespertilio, -n (L). Abat vine (L). Bind, conquer
vest, -i, =is (L). Clothing, a coat =vinca (NL). The periwinkle
vestibul, =um (L). A porch, vesti- vincul, =um (L). A confining band
bule vind, =ex, -ic (L). A claimant; a
vestig, -i, =ium (L). A footstep, defender
trace vine, vino (L). Wine
Vetera, -n (L). Old, of long stand- vinnul (L). Delightful
veterin (L). Of a beast of burden vinos (L). Full of wine
vetul, =a, -o, =us (L). An old person =vinum (L). Wine
vexan (L). Annoying viol, -a, -en (L). Injure, profane
vexill, =um (L). A standard, banner =viola, -ce (L). Violet; violet-
viper, =a, -i (L). A viper, snake
=vipio, -n (L). A small crane
-ns Aman
(L). Green
110 Dictionary of Word Roots

«vireo, -n (L). A kind of bird volit, -a (L). Fly, fly about

virescens (L). Becoming green, voluhil (L). Turning, rolling,
greenish fluent
virg, «a (L). A rod; a twig volucr (L). Flying, winged, swift
virg, -in, «o (L). A virgin volum, =en, -in (L). Something
rolled up; a volume
virid, -esc (L). Green
volunt (L). The will; a choice
viril (L). Manly
volupt (L). Pleasure
viro (L) A poison; a stench
volut, -a (L). Roll, turn
viros (L). Slimy, fetid volv (L). Roll, turn
virtu (L). Virtue «vomer, -i (L). A plowshare
virul (L). Poisonous vomi (L). Discharge, vomit
«virus (L). A poison; a stench
«vis (L). Force vor, -a (L). Eat, devour
vis, -a, -i, -u (L). Look, see vora, -c, =x (L). Greedy
viscer, -a, -o (L). The organs of vort, «ex, -ic (L). Rotating,
the body cavity whirling; a whirlpool
viscos (L). Sticky «vox (L). A voice
«viscum (L). Birdlime; mistletoe vulcan (LMy). Fire
«viscus (L). An organ in the body vulga, -r, -ri, -t (L). Common,
cavity commonplace
visi (L). Look, see vulner (L). Wound
vit, «a, -al (L). life vulp, «es, -i (L). A fox; cunning
vit, -i, «is (L). A vine; a wind-
ing vuls (L). Shorn, smooth
vitell, -i, -o, «us (L). The yolk vultur (L). A vulture
of an egg vulv, «a, -o (L). A covering, wrap-
viti, «urn (L). A fault, crime per; the vulva
vitr, -e, -i, -o (L). Glass, glassy
«vitta, -t (L). A stripe, band;
striped xani, -o, «um (G). A comb for wool
xanth, -o (G). Yellow
vitul, «a, -i (L). A calf «xema (NL). A fish-tailed gull
vitupéra (L). Find fault with xen, -i, -o, «us (G). A stranger,
viv, -a, -i (L). Alive, living guest
viva, -c, =x (L). Lively, ani- «xenia (G). Hospitality
mated xenic, -o (G). Foreign, strange
viverr, «a (L). A ferret xenis, «m (G). Entertainment
xeno; «xenus (G). A stranger,
voc, -a, -i (L). A voice guest
vocifer (L). Loud, noisy xer, -o (G). Dry
vola (L). The palm, sole; fly; xes, -i, -m (G). Polish, scrape;
the will scrapings
voli, -t(L).
Wish xest, -o (G). Polished
and Combining F o r m s 111

xiph, -i, -o, =us (G). A sword zephyr, -o, =us (GMy). The west
xoan, -o (G). A carved image wind
xuth, -o (G). Yellowish, tawny zeren, -o (G). Dried
xyel, «a, -o (G). A wood-cutting zest, -o (G). Boiling; boiled
tool zete (G). Search for
xyl, -o, mm (G). Wood zeuct, -o (G). Joined
xyloch, -o, =us (G). A thicket zeug, -o (G). Things paired, a yoke
xylod (G). Woody zeugl, -o (G). The strap of a yoke
xyn, -o (G). Common «zeugma, -to (G). A band, bond
xyr, -o, =um (G). A razor «zeus (G). A kind of fish; a sea god
xyri, -d, =s (G). An iris zeuxi, =s (G). A joining
«xysma, -to (G). Scrapings, zinc, -o (L). Zinc
shavings zingiber!, =s (G). Ginger
xyst, -er, -o, -r (G). Scraped; ziph, -i, -o, =us (G). A sword
a scraper zirco, -n (Ps). Gold-colored
zizani, =um (G). A weed
Y zizyph, =um (G). The jujube tree
y (see also hy) zo, -a, -i, -o, =on (G). An animal
yl (G). Substance, matter zoarc (G). Maintaining life
ymen, -o (G). A membrane zodi (G). A little animal
yper (G). Over, above zodiac (G). Out of animals
ypn, -o (G). Sleep zoi (G). An animal
ypo (G). Under, below zom, -o, =us (G). Soup, broth; a
yponom (G). Undermine corpulent person
ypsil, -i, -o (G). Y-shaped zon, =a, -i (G). A belt, zone,
yun, -g, *x (NL). The wryneck girdle
zoo, =n (G). An animal
Ζ zoph, -er, -ero, -o (G). Dusky,
za (G). Very, exceedingly gloomy; darkness
zabr, -o (G). Gluttonous zoro (G). Alive, living, pure,
zal, =e, -o (G). Sea spray; a strong
storm zorr, =o (Sp). A fox
zamen (G). Forceful, raging zos, -m, -mer, -ter (G). A girdle
zami, =a, -o (NL). A kind of zyg, -o, =us (G). A yoke
cycad; a decayed fir cone zygaen, =a (G). The hammer-
zancl, -o, =um (G). A sickle headed shark
ze, =a (G). A grain zyl, -o (G). Wood
ze, -i, =us (G). A kind of fish zym, =a, -o (G). Ferment,
zelo (G). Emulate, envy, rival leaven, yeast
zem, =a (G). A drink zyth, =us (G). A kind of beer
zemi, =a (G). Loss, damage zyii, =s (NL). A joining
zeo (G). Boil, seethe
Formulation of Scientific Names
The scientific naming of living organisms follows certain rules
which, for animals, are outlined in the International Rules of Zoologi­
cal Nomenclature, and for plants in the International Rules of Botani­
cal Nomenclature; the basic provisions of these two sets of rules are
essentially the same. Scientific names are Latinized, but may be de­
rived from any language or from the names of people or places; most
names are derived from Latin or Greek words.
Scientific names are usually descriptive, referring to the size,
form, color, habits, or other characteristics of the organism; they
are sometimes derived from the names of people or places. The
rules permit a name to be merely an arbitrary combination of letters,
but such names are not recommended. Names may be Latin or Greek
substantives, compound Latin words, compound Greek words, mytho­
logical, heroic, or proper names used by the ancients, or Greek or
Latin derivatives expressing diminution, comparison, or resemblance.
If a modern surname is used to form a scientific name, an ending is
added to the name to denote dedication.
Names derived from Greek words should be transliterated accord­
ing to the rules given below. In compounding two roots to form a name,
if the attribute expresses a quality it should precede the principal word
(e.g., Erythrocephala); but if it expresses an action, activity, or state
it may precede or follow the principal word (e.g., Hydrophilus, Philydrus).
When two roots are combined they are usually separated by a combining
vowel; the letter i_is generally used with Latin roots (although ο is
sometimes used with second-declension nouns), and ο with Greek roots
(although y_is used with many third-declension nouns). When th.e sec­
ond of two combined roots begins with a vowel, the combining vowel is
usually omitted. The roots combined to form a scientific name should
be from the same source language; exceptions are certain prefixes and
suffixes (e.g., anti-, post-, sub-, -oid), which are commonly used with
either Latin or Greek roots.
Genus names are formed from modern surnames by adding an ending
to denote dedication. Surnames ending in a consonant take the ending
-ius, -ia, or -ium (e.g., Williamsonia from Williamson); surnames
ending in e,^, o, u_, or y_ take the ending -us, -a, or -urn (e.g., Blain-
villea from Blainville); surnames ending in a_ take the ending -ia for

114 Word R o o t s and Combining Forms

names of animal genera (e.g., Danaia from Dana) or ^ea for names
of plant genera (e.g., Jubaea from Juba). If the surname begins with
the particle Mac, Mc, or M' the particle is written Mac and combined
with the rest of the name (e.g., Macneilia from McNeil). If the sur-
name begins with the particle de or von, the particle is either omitted
or coalesced with the name (e.g., Selysius from DeSelys, Delongius
from DeLong). Proper names should not be used with other roots in
the formulation of scientific names.
Species and subspecies names may be adjectives, the present or
past participles of verbs, or nouns; adjectives and participles must
agree in gender with the genus name, and nouns are either in the
nominative or genitive. Names formed from a modern surname take
a Latin genitive ending: -4 if the person is a man, or -ae_if the per-
son is a woman; if the surname is that of more than one person (all
having the same surname), it takes -orum if one of the persons is a
man, or -arum if all are women. Particles are handled in the same
way as for generic names (see preceding paragraph). Species and
subspecies names derived from the names of geographic localities
are formed by adding the genitive ending -ae to the locality name, or
by using the adjectival form of the locality name (i.e., with the suffix
-icus, -ica, -icum, -ensis, or -ense, the ending agreeing in gender
with the generic name). Species and subspecies names of animals
always begin with a small letter; species and subspecies names of
plants that are derived from proper names are often capitalized.
The names of some of the taxonomic categories above genus are
formed by adding the appropriate ending to the root of the name of
the genus that is designated as the type of that group; the endings
that have been standardized are listed below. The names of other
higher categories are Latin plurals in the nominative.
Category Plants Animals
Order -ales
Suborder -ineae
Superfamily ~ -oidea
Family -aceae -idae
Subfamily -oideae -inae
Tribe -eae -ini
Subtribe -inae
F o r m u l a t i o n of S c i e n t i f i c Names 115

Anyone formulating a name for a genus of plants or animals should

make sure that the name he devises has not already been used. The
rules of nomenclature provide that two genera of animals (or plants)
cannot have the same name; if it is found that two or more genera
have the same name, this name is retained for the first genus for
which the name was used, and rejected for the other genera. A genus
of plants and a genus of animals can have the same name, although
this is not recommended.
In naming species or subspecies, one should make sure that the
name he devises is not used for any other species or subspecies in
the same genus; otherwise, as in the case of generic names, it would
be a homonym and be rejected. It is advisable that the name used be
one that is not used in any related genus.
Transliteration of Greek Words
Greek words beginning with a vowel have that vowel marked to in­
dicate the type of breathing used in its pronunciation; a reversed com­
ma above the letter indicates an aspirate (i.e., as though the word be­
gan with an h), and a comma above it indicates no aspirate. Words be­
ginning with rho have this letter marked as an aspirate (i.e., with a
reversed comma). Transliterations of vowels marked as aspirates
have the vowel preceded by h; the transliteration of the letter rho as
an initial letter (aspirate) is as rh.
The Greek alphabet consists of 24 letters, as follows:

A α alpha Ν ν nu
Β β beta S ξ xi
Γ y gamma 0 0 omicron
Δ δ delta Π ν Pi
Ε 6 epsilon Ρ Ρ rho
Ζ ζ zêta Σ σβ sigma
Η V »ta Τ τ tau
θ thêta Τ υ upsilon
\ iota Φ Φ phi
Κ κ kappa Χ Χ chi
Λ λ lambda ψ ψ psi
Μ β mu Ω ω omega

T r a n s l a t i o n of G r e e k W o r d s 117

Greek letters should be transliterated as follows:

α a λ 1
ά ha μ m
ση ae (not a diphthong) ν η
οι ai, ae, or e (preferably ae) ξ χ
ου au δ ο (usually short)
β b δ ho (usually short)
Ύ g οι oe, oi, or e (prefer­
γγ ng ably oe)
final ov urn
ΎΚ ne
γξ ηχ
final 09 us

γχ nch ου uorou (preferably u)

medial ρ r
δ d
initial ρ rh
ê e (usually short)
medial pi rrh
e he (usually short)
σ β
ei ei or i (preferably i)
final β s
ευ eu
τ t
ζ z
never initial ύ y
η e (usually long)
initial ύ hy
final η a
Φ ph
θ th •
î i X ch
î hi ψ ps
κ c or k (preferably c) ω ο (usually long)
Some Common Combining Forms
On the following pages are listed a number of the more common
combining forms, or roots, that a taxonomist might use in the formu-
lation of a new name. These roots are listed under a number of cate-
gories, as follows:

Colors and Markings

Basic Colors
Colors from Metals
Colors from Other Things
Qualifying Terms
Direction and Position
Types of Animals
Animal Structures
Common Substances
Types of Plants
Plant Structures
Animal Activities
Some Common Suffixes

Some Common Combining F o r m s 119

Colors and Markings

Basic Colors
black: (L): atr-, atri-; (G): melan-, melano-; (L): nigr-, nigri
blue: (L): cerule-; (G): cyano-
bluish gray: (L): caesi-
brown: (L): brunne-; (L): castane-; (L): fuse-
gray: (L): glauc-, (L): grise-; (G): polio-
green: (G): chloro-; (L): virid-, viridi-
pale yellow: (L): gllv-; (G): ochro-
purple: (G): phoenico-; (G): porphyro-, (L): purpur-, purpure
red: (G): erythro-; (L): rubi-, rubr-, rufi-
reddish orange: (G): pyrrho-
scarlet: (L): coccin-
tawny: (L): fulv-; (G): cirrho-
violet: (G): ianthin-, iodo-, iono-; (L): violace-
white: (L): alb-, albi-; (L): candid-; (G): leuco-
yellow: (L):flav-; (L): galb-; (L): lute-; (G): thapsino-;
(G): xantho-
Colors from Metals
bronze: (L): aene-; (G): chalco-
copper: (G): chalco-; (L): cupri-
gold: (L): aur-, aurat-, aure-; (G): chryso-
iron: (L): ferr-, ferro-
lead: (G): molybdo-; (L): plumb-, plumbe-
silver: (L): argent-; (G): argyr-, argyro-
steel: (L): chalybd-
Colors from Other Things
ashen: (L): dner-; (L): livid—, (G): tephro-
blood: (G): haemo-, haemato—, (L): sanguin!-
chestnut: (L): castane-
coal: (G): anthraco—, (L): carb-
flame-colored: (L): flamme-; (G): pyrrho-
lemon: (G): citrin-, dtro-
120 Word Roots and Combining F o r m s

orange: (L): auranti-; (G): cirrho-, (G): croco-

rainbow: (G): irido-
rose: (G): rhodo-; (L): ros-, rose-
rusty: (L): ferrugin-; (L): rubigin-
snow: (G): chiono-; (G): nipho-; (L): nival-
sooty: (G): aethalo-; (L): fuligin-; (L): fumi-
wine: (G): oeno-

Qualifying Terms
dark: (G): amauro-; (L): calig-, caligln-; (G): mauro-;
(L): obscur-
dim: (G): amydro-
dusky: (G): pello-; (G): phaeo-; (L): pulli-
pale: (G): ochro-; (G): liro-; (L): pallid-, pallidi-

banded: (L):fasciat-
checkered: (L): tesselat-
speckled: (G): psaro-
spotted: (G): balio-; (L): maculât-, (G): stigmato-
streaked: (L): plagat-
striped: (L): vittat-
beautiful: (L): bell-; (G): calo-; (L): cypri-; (L)· pulchr-
color: (G): chromato-, chromo; (L): colori-
glassy: (G): hyalo-; (L): pellucid-
shining: (G): argo-; (L): lucid-


dwarf: (G): nano-; (L): pumili-

equal: (L): equi-; (G): iso-; (L): pari-
gigantic: (G): colosso-; (G): ^ganto-; (L): ingenti-; (G): peloro-;
(G): titano-
heavy: (G): baro-, bary-; (L): gravi-
large: (L): grandi-; (G): macro-; (L): magni-, (G): mega-,
Some Common Combining F o r m s 121

largest: (L): maxim-; (G): megtsto-

less than: (G): meio-, mio-; (L): sub-
light in weight: (G): elaphro-; (L): levi-
long: (G): dolicho-, (L): longi-; (G): meco-
longest: (G): mecisto-
short: (G): brachy-; (L): brevi-; (L): curti-
small: (G): baeo-; (G): micro-; (L): minut-; (L): parvi-;
(G): pauro-; (L): pusill-
smallest: (G): elachisto-; (L): minim-
tall: (G): aep-, aepy-; (L): alti-; (L): procer-, proceri-
unequal: (G): aniso-


angled: (L): anguli-; (G): gonio-

bent: (G): ancylo-; (G): campto-; (G): campylo-; (G): cypho-
blunt: (G): ambly-; (L): obtus-; (L): retus-
broad: (see wide)
circular: (see round)
clubbed: (L): clavat-; (G): rhopalo-
closed: (G): clisto-
coiled: (see spiral)
crescent-shaped: (L): lunuli-; (G): menisco-
crooked: (G): ancylo-; (G): rhaebo-; (G): scolio-
curled: (L): crispi-: (G): bostrycho-
curved: (G): cyrto-; (G): gampso-; (G): toxo-
cylindrical: (L): cylind-, cylindro-
dense: (see thick)
egg-shaped: (L): ovat-
flat: (L): aplanat-; (L): plani-; (G): platy-
forked: (G): dicho-; (G): dicro-; (L): forficat-; (L): furc-
form: (L): -form; (G): morpho-; (G): schemato-
hollow: (L): alveo-; (L): cavi-; (G): coelo-
hooked: (G): ancistr-; (G): ancylo-; (G): grypho-; (L): hamat-;
(G): onco-
horned: (G):cerato-; (L): cornut-
lobed: (L): lobat-, lobi-
narrow: (L): angusti-; (G): steno-
122 Word R o o t s and Combining F o r m s

oblique: (see slanting)

open: (L): aperi-; (G): chaeno-; (G): oego-
pointed: (L): acuminat-; (L): muricat-
ragged: (G): carcharo-; (L): pannos-; (G): rhago-
round: (L): circuli-; (G): cyclo-; (G): gyro-; (L): rotundi-;
(G): strongylo-
shape: (see form)
sharp: (L): acri-; (L): acuti-; (G): oxy-
slanting: (L): declivi-; (G): dochmo-; (G): epiphoro-;
(G): lechrio-; (G): loxo-; (L): obliqu-; (G): plagio-
slender: (L): gracil-; (G): lepto-; (L): tenui-
sphaerical: (G): sphaero-
spiral: (G): helico-; (L): spirali-; (L): strombi-
split: (G): dicho-, (G): dicrano-; (G): schisto-, schizo-
square: (L): quadrat-
steep: (G): ananto-; (L): ardu-
straigjit: (G): euthy-; (G): ortho-; (L): recti -
thick: (L): crassi-; (G): hadro-; (G): pachy-; (G): pycno-
torn: (G): rhago-
triangular: (G): delt-; (G): trigono-
twisted: (G): ileo-; (G): plecto-; (G): strepto-; (G): strobilo-,
strobo-; (G): stropho-
wavy: (L): undulat-
wide: (G): eury-; (L): lati-; (G): platy-

bare: (G): gymno-, (L): nudi-; (G): psilo-

bearded: (L): barbat-; (L): crinit-; (G): pogono-
downy: (G): pappo-; (L): pubesc-
flexible: (G): campo-
furrowed or grooved: (G): aulaco-, (G): glypho-, glypto-;
(L): striât-; (L): strigat-, (L): sulcat-
hairy: (G): dasy-; (L): hirsut-; (G): lasio-; (G): trichodo-;
(L): villos-
hard: (L): duri-; (G): sclero-
keeled: (L): carinat-
network: (G): arcy-; (L): reti-, retin-
Some Common Combining F o r m s 123

punctured: (L): punctat-; (G): sticto-

rough: (L): asper-, aspr-; (L): scabr-; (G): trach-, trachin-,
tracho-, trachy-
smooth: (G): aphelo-; (L): giabr-; (G): leio-; (G): lisso-;
(G): lito-
soft: (G): malaco-; (L): molli -
spiny: (G): acantho-; (G): echino-; (L): spini-
woolly: (G): lachno-; (L): lani-; (G): mallo-
wrinkled: (L): caperat-, (L): corrugat-; (G): rhysso-;
(L): rugos-
Direction and Position
above: (G): hyper-; (L): super-, supra
across: (G): dia-; (L): trans-
against: (G): anti-; (L): contra-
apart: (G): dia-; (L): dis-
apex: (G): aero-; (L): apic-
around: (L): ambi-; (L): circum-; (G): peri-
away: (G): apo-
backward: (G): opisth-, opistho-; (G): palin-; (L): retr-,
before: (L): ante-, antero-; (L): pre-; (G): pro-
behind: (G): opistho-; (L): post-, postero-
below: (G): hypo-; (L): infra-
beside: (G): para-
between: (L): inter-; (G): meta-
beyond: (L): ultra-
crosswise: (G): chaism-; (L): decussi-
down: (G): cat-, cata-; (L): de-
eastern: (G): euro-; (L): oriental-
far: (G): tele-
first: (G): archi-, archo-; (L): primi-; (G): protero-, proto-
front: (L): antero-; (G): proso-; (G): proto-
inner: (G): endo-, ento-
middle: (L): medi-, medio-; (G): meso-
near: (G): anchi-; (G): engy-; (G):para-, (L): proxim-
northern: (L): aquiloni-; (L): arctic-; (L): boreal-; (L): septen-
124 Word Roots and Combining F o r m s

opposite: (G): anti-; (L): contra-; (G);enanti-

outside: (G): ecto-; (G): exo-; (L): extern-
over: (G): hyper-; (L): super-, supra-
second: (G): deutero-; (L): secund-
separate: (G): crino-; (L): divaricat-
side: (L): lateri-, latero-; (G): pleuro-
slanting: (L): declivi-; (G): dochmo-; (G): loxo-; (G): plagio-
southern: (L): austr-, austral-; (L): notial-; (G): noto-
third: (L): terti-; (G): trito-
top: (G): aero-; (L): apici-
under: (G): hypo-; (L): infra-; (L): sub
western: (My): hesperi-; (L): occidental -
within: (G): endo-, ento-, (L): intra -

one-half: (G): hemi-; (L): semi-
one: (G): mono-; (L): uni-
one and one-half: (L): sesqui-
two: (L): bi-; (G): di-; (L): duo-
double: (G): amphi-, ampho-; (L): duplici-; (G): didymo-;
(G): diplo-
three: (L): tri-; (G): tria-, triado-
four: (L): quadri-; (G): tetra-
five: (G): pento-; (L): quinque-
six: (G): hexa-; (L): sex-, sexi-
seven: (G): hepta-; (L): septem-, septen-
eigfrt: (L, G): octo-
nine: (G): ennea-; (L): novem-
ten: (G): deçà-; (L): decim-
eleven: (G): hendeca-; (L): undecim-
twelve: (G): dodeca-; (L): duodecim-
one hundred: (L): centi-; (G): hecato-
one thousand: (G): kilo-; (L): milli-
Some Common Combining Forme 125

all: (L): omni-; (G): pan-, panto-; (L): toti-
common: (G): coeno-; (L): commun-; (L): vulgar-
equal: (L): equi-; (G): iso-; (L): pari-
empty: (G): ceno-; (L): vacu-; (L): vani-
even-numbered: (G): artio-
few: (G): oligo-; (L): pauci-; (G): pauro-
full: (G): mesto-; (L): pleni-, (G): plero-
many: (L): multi-; (G): myria-; (G): poly-
more: (G): plio-; (L): pluri-
most: (G): pleisto-
odd-numbered: (G): perisso-
part: (G): mero-; (L): parti-
simple: (G): haplo-; (L): simplici-
sin^e: (G): henico-; (G): haplo-
solitary: (G): eremit-, eremo-
unequal: (G): aniso-
very: (G): aga-; (G): ari-; (G): za-
whole: (G): holo-; (L): integri-

Types of Animals
animal: (G): zoo-, -zoon
bird: (L): avi-, -avis; (G): -omis, ornitho-
cat: (G): aeluro-, -aelurus; (L): feli-, -felis
caterpillar: (G): -campa, campo-; (L): -eruca, eruci-
cow: (G): boo-, -bus; (L): -bos, bov-
dog: (L): cani-, -canis; (G): cyno-, -cyon
fish: (G): ichthyo-, -ichthys; (L): pisci-, -piscis
fly: (L): -musca, musci-; (G): myi-, -myia
frog: (G): batracho, -batrachus; (G): -phryna, phryno-;
(L): -rana, rani-
horse: (L): equi-, -equus; (G): hippo-, -hippus
insect: (G): entomo-; (L): insecti-
leech: (G): -bdella, bdello-; (L): hirudini-, -hirudo
lizard: (L): -lacerta, lacerti-; (G): sauro-, -saurus
126 Word R o o t s and Combining F o r m s

man: (G): anthropo-, -anthropus; (L): homini-,-homo

mouse: (L): mûri-, -mus; (G): myo-, -mys
pig: (G,: hyo-, -hys; (L): sui-, -sus
reptile: (G): herpeto-
shellfish: (G): concho-, -concha
snake: (L): aspidi-, -aspis; (L>: -coluber, colubri-; (G): ophio-,
spider: (G): -arachna, arachno-; (L): -aranea, aranei-
turtle: (G): chelono-, -chelys; (G): emydo-, -emys; (L): testudini-,
worm: (G): -helmins, helmintho—, (L): vermi-, -vermis
Animal Structures
ankle: (L): tars-, tarsi-, -tarsus
anus: (L): ano-, -anus; (G): procto-, -proctus
arm: (G): brachi-, -brachium
back: (L): dors-, dorsi-, -dorsum; (G): noto-, -notus; (L): terg-,
bag: (see bladder)
beak: (G): rhyncho-, -rhynchus; (L): rostr-, -rostrum
belly: (L): -venter, ventr-, ventro-
bladder: (G): asco-, -ascus; (G): cysto-, -cystis; (G): -physa,
physo-; (L): -vesica, vesico-
blood: (G): -haema, haemato-, haemo-; (L): sanguini-, -sanguis
body: (L): corporo-, -corpus; (G): -soma, somato-
bone: (L): -os, ossi-; (G): osteo-, -osteum
border: (G): chilo-, -chilus; (G): craspedo-, -craspedum
brain: (L): cereb-, cerebr-, -cerebrum; (G): encephalo-,
breast: (L): pector-, -pectus; (L): stern-, sterni-, -sternum; see
also chest
bristle: (G): -chaeta, chaeto—, (L): -seta, seti-
cartilage: (G): chondro-, -chondrus
cell: (L): -cella, celli-; (G): cyto-, -cytus
cheek: (L): bucc-, -bucca; (L): gen-, -gena, geno-
chest: (G): stetho-, -stethus; see also breast and thorax
claw: (G): chel-, -chela, chelo-; (G): onycho-, -onyx; (L): ungui-,
Some Common Combining F o r m s 127

crest: (L): crist-, -crista; (G): lopho-, -lophus

crown: (L): coron-, -corona; (G): stephano-, -stephanus
digit: (G): dactylo-, -dactylus; (L): digiti-, -digitus
ear: (L): auri-, -auris (L); (G): otido-, oto-, -ous
egg: (G): oo-, -oum; (L): ovi-, -ovum
eye: (L): oculi-, -oculus; (G): -omma, ommato-; (G): ophthalmo-,
-ophthalmus; (G): opo-, -ops, opto-
eyelash: (G): -blepharis, blepharo-
eyelid: (L): cili-, -cilium
face: (L): faci-, -faciès; (G): -ops
feather: (L): -pinna, pinni-; (L): plum-,-pluma, plumi-; (G):
-pteryla, pterylo-; (G): ptilo-, -ptilum
finger: (see digit)
flesh: (L): carni-, -caro; (G): sarco-, -sarx
foot: (L): pedi-, -pes; (G): podo-, -pus
forehead: -frons, front-; (G): metopo-, -metopus, -metopius
gill: (G): branch-, -branchium, brancho-
gland: (G): -aden, adeno-; (L): glandi-, -glans
groin: -inguen, inguini-
hair: (L): capill-, -capillus; (L): crini-, -crinis; (L): pil-, pili-,
-pilus; (G): -thrix, tricho-
hand: (G): -chir, chiro-; (L): mani-, manu-, -manus
head: (L): capit-, capiti-, -caput; (G): -cephala, cephalo-
heart: (G): cardi-, -cardia; (L): -cor, cordi-
heel: (L): calcan-, calcane-,-calcaneum; (L): talari-, tali-, -talus
horn: (G): -cera, cerato-; (L): corn-, -cornus
jaw: (G): genyo-, -genys; (G): gnatho-, -gnathus; (L): maxill-,
joint: (G): arthro-, -arthrum; (L): articuli-, -articulus, -artus
kidney: (G): nephro-, -nephrus; (L): ren-, -ren, reni-
knee: (L): genu-, -genu; (G): gony-, gpnyo-, -gonys; (G): -gonatium,
knuckle: (G): condylo-, -condylus
leg: (G): cnemi-, -cnemis; (L): crur-, -crus; (G): -scelis, scelo-,
lip: (G): chilo-, -chilus; (L): labi-, labio-, -labium, labr-, -labrum
liver: (G): -hepar, hepato-; (L): jecori-, -jecur
lung: (G): -pneuma, pneumo-; (L): pulmo-, -pulmo, pulmono-
128 Word Roots and Combining F o r m s

membrane: (G): chorio-, -chorium; (G): -hymen, hymeno-; (L):

membran-, -membrana; (G): meningo-, -meninx
mouth: (L): ora-, ori-, -os; (G): -stoma, stomato-
mucus: (G): blenno-, -blennus
muscle: (G): myo-, -mys; see also flesh
neck: (G): -auchen, aucheno-; (L): cervic-, -cervix; (L): coll-,
-collum; (G): -dera, dero-; (G): trachelo-, -trachelus
nose: (L): nasi-, -nasus; (G): rhino-, -rhis
rib: (L): cost-, -costa, costi-; (G): scelido-, -scelis
rump: (G): gluteo-, -gluteus; (G): -pyga, pygo-
scale: (G): lepido-, -lepis; (L): squam-, -squama, squami-
shell: (G): -concha, concho-; (G): ostraco-, -ostracum
shoulder: (G): omo-, -omus
skin: -byrsa, byrso—, (G): chorio-, -chorium; (L).: cutan-, cuti-,
-cutis; (G): derm-, -derma, dermo-, dermato-; (G): scyto-,
skull: (G): cranio-, -cranium
snout: (see beak)
sperm: (L): -semen, semin—, (G): -sperma, spermato-
spine: (G): -acantha, acantho-; (G): rhachi-, -rhachis; (L):
-spina, spini-
stomach: (G): -gaster, gastro-; (L): -venter, ventr-
suture: (G): -rhapha, rhapho-
tail: (L): caud-, -cauda; (G): cerco-, -cercus; (G): -ura, uro-
thigh: (L): femor-, -femur; (G): mero-,-merus
thorax: (G): thoraco-, -thorax
throat: (L): gula-, -gula; (L): guttur-, -guttur; (G): laemo-,
-laemus; (G): pharyngo-, -pharynx; (G): trachelo-, -trachelus
tissue: (G): histo-, -histus; (L): tel-, -tela, teli-
toe: (see digit)
tongue: (G): -glossa, glosso-, -glotta, glotto-; (L): -lingu-, -lingua
tooth: (L): -dens, dent-, denti-; (G): odonto-, -odous, -odus
vein: (G): phlebo-, -phleps; (L): ven-, -vena, veni-
windpipe: (G): broncho-, -bronchus; (G): trache-, -trachea
wing: (L): ala-, -ala, ali-; (G): ptero-, -pterum; (G): pterygo-,
wrist: (Lj: carpo-, -carpus
Some Common Combining Forms 129

Common Substances
dust: (G): conio-, -conis; (L): pulveri-, -puMs
fat: (G): -adeps, adipo-, (G): demo-, -demus; (G): lipo-, -llpus;
(G): -piar, piaro-; (G): -pimela, pimelo-; (L): sebo-, -sebum;
(G): -stear, steat-, steato-
flour: (G): aleuro-, -aleurum; (L): farin-, -farina
food: (G): bor-, -bora; (G): -broma, bromato-; (G): sltio-, sito-,
glass: (G): hyalo-, -hyalus; (L): vitri-, -vitrum
glue: (G): -colla, collo-; (G): -glia, glio-; (L): -gluten, glutin-
honey: (G): -melis, melito-; (L): -mel, melli-
milk: (G): -gala, galacto-; (L): -lac, lacti-
rock: (L): lapid-, -lapis; (G): litho-, -lithus; (G): -petra, petro-;
(L): rupi-, -rupis; (L): saxi-, -saxum
salt: (G): halo-, -hais; (L): -sal, sali-, salin-
silk: (L): bombyc-, -bombyx; (L): -ser, seri-, seric-
starch: (G): amylo-, -amylum, -amylus
water: (L): aqua-, -aqua, aquat-; (G): -hydor,--hydra, hydro-
wax: (L): ceri-, -cera; (G): cero-, -cerus
wool: (G): -lachna, lachno-, -lachnus; (G): -mallus, mallo-; (L):
-lana, lani-
Types of Plants
fern: (G): pterido-, -pteris
fungus: (L): fungi-, -fungus; (G): -myces, myceto-, myco-
grain: (G): -chondrium, chondro-
grass: (L): -gramen, gramini-; (L): grani-, -granum; (G): -poa,
moss: (G): bryo-, -bryum; (G): hypno-, -hypnum; (G): mnio-,
plant: (G): phyto-, -phytum
reed: (L): arundi-, -arundo; (G): calamo-, -calamus; (G): donaci-,
shrub: (G): thamno-, -thamnus
tree: (L): arbor-, -arbor, arbore-; (G): dendro-, -dendron, -dendrum
vine: (G): ampelo-, -ampelus; (L): viti-, -vitis
wheat: (G): pyro-, -pyrum; (L): tritici-, -triticum
130 Word Roots and Combining F o r m s

Plant Structures
bark: (L): -cortex, cortici-; (G): phloeo-, -phloeus
berry: (L): acini-, -acinus; (G): cocco-, -coccus; (L): -bacca,
bramble: (G): bato-, -batus
branch: (G): clado-, -cladus; (L): ram-, rami-, ramo-, -ramus
bud: (L): gemm-, -gemma
flower: (G): -anthemum, antho-, -anthus; (L): -flora, flori-
fruit: (G): carp-, carpo-,-carpus; (L): fructi-,-fructus; (L):
porno-, -pomus
leaf: (L): foli-, -folium; (G): phyllo-, -phyllum
nut: (G): caryo-, -caryum; (L): nuci-, -nux
root: (L): radici-, -radix; (G): -rhiza, rhizo-
seed: (G): blasto-, -blastus; (L): -semen, semini-; (G): -sperma,
spermato-; (G): -spora, sporo-
stalkorstem: (L): cauli-,-caulis; (G): caulo-,-caulus; (L):
petiol-, -petiolus; (L): -stipes, stipit-
thorn or spine: (G): -acantha, acantho-; (L): -spina, spini-
Animal Activities
breathe: (G): pneumato-, pneumo-
carry: (L): fer-; (G): phoro-
creep: (G): erpet-; (L): rept-, reptili-
cut: (L): sect-; (G): tom-
dance: (G): choreo-
dwell: (L): col-, coli-; (G): -ecetes, -êtes; (L): -estr
eat: (G): phago-; (G): tropho-; (L): vor-, vora-
fast: (see swift)
feed( (see eat)
habit: (G): etho-, -ethus
jump: (L): salt-; (L): salien-; (G): scirto-
live: (see dwell)
love: (G): philo-
motion: (G): cine-, cinemato-, cinet-; (L): moti-
noisy: (L): garrul-; (G): spharago-, (G): stombo-; (L): vocifer-
quick: (G): aeolo-, aeluro-
run: (L): cursor-; (G): dromo-
Some Common Combining F o r m s 131

sing: (G): acheto-

sleep: (L): dorm-; (G): hypno-; (L): somni-; (L): sopor-
slow: (G): brady-; (L): tardi-
eound: (G): -phona, phono-
swift: (L): céleri-; (L): citi-; (G): tachy-; (L): veloci-
swim: (L): nata-, natant-; (G): necto-; (G): pleo-
turn: (G): trop-, tropi-, tropido-
walk: (L): ambulat-; (G): baeno-; (G): bat-; (L): gressor-
wander: (L): peregrin-; (L): vag-, vagan-

abode: (see house)

cave: (L): antro-; (L): caverni-; (G): spel-, speleo-; (G): troglo-
depths: (G): batho-, bathy-; (G): bentho-, (G): bysso-; (G): bytho-
dry: (L): arid-; (G): azo-; (G): xero-
dung: (G): bolito-; (G): copro-; (G): scat»-; (G): spatilo-; (L):
dwell: (L): col-, coli-; (G): -ecetes, -êtes; (L): -estr
earth: (G): chamae-; (G): chthono-; (G): geo-
fleld: (L):agri-, agro-; (L): arv-, arvens-; (L): camp-,
campestr-; (L): prat-, prati-
forest: (see woods)
ground: (see earth)
house: (G): eco-
island: (L): insul-, insular-; (G): neso-
lake: (L): lacustr-; (G): limno-
li^it: (L):luci-; (G): photo-
live: (see dwell)
marsh: (G): eleo-, elo-; (G): helo-, heleo-, helod-; (G): limno-;
(L): paludi-
meadow: (see field)
mountain: (L): alpestr-, alpin-; (L): mont-, montan-; (G): oreo-
mud: (G): borboro-; (L):limi-; (L): lut-; (G): pelo-
ocean: (see sea)
place: (G): topo-
pond: (L): stagni-; (G): telmato-
river: (L): amni-; (L): flumini-; (L): fluvia-, fluviatil-; (G):
132 Word Roots and Combining F o r m s

sand: (G): ammo-; (L): areni-; (G): psammo-

sea: (G): enalio-; (G): halio-; (L): marin-, maritim-, (G): oceano—,
(G): pelag-, pelago-; (G): thalasso-
shade: (G): scio-; (L): umbri-
shore: (G): aegialo-; (L): litori-
snow: (G): chiono-; (G): nipho-; (L): nival-
swamp: (see marsh)
thicket: (L): dumi-; (G): lochmo-; (G): thamno-; (G): xylocho-
water: (L): aqua-, aquat-; (G): hydro-; (G):hygro-
woods: (G): drymo-, (L): sylvestr-, sylvi-
alike: (G): homo-, homoeo-, (L): identi-; (L): simili-; (G):
ancient: (G): archaeo-, (G): palaeo-, palaeonto-
animal: (G): zoo-
different: ( G ) : hetero- ; (L ) : vari-
false: (L): falsi-; (G): pseudo-, (L): spuri-
hidden: (G): aphano-, (G): ceutho-; (G): crypto-
life: (G): bio-
man: (G): andro-, (G): anthropo-, (L): homi-, homini-
moisture: (L): humidi—, (G): hygro-
moon: (L): luni-; (G): menado-, meni-; (G): seleni-
new: (G): caeno-; (G): neo-; (L): novi-
old: (see ancient)
night: (L): noct-, nocti-; (G): nyct-
sun: (G): helio-, (L): sol-
time: (G): chrono-, (L): tempor-
true: (G): eleuthero-; (G): eu-; (L): veri
visible: (G): delo-; (G): phanero-, phanto-
Some Common Suffixes
-aceae: the ending of names of plant families
-aceus, -acea, -aceum: a Latin suffix meaning "of" or "pertaining to";
usually used with noun roots
-ago: a botanical suffix denoting resemblance
-ales: the ending of names of plant orders
Some Common Combining F o r m s 133

-alis, -ale: a Latin suffix added to noun roots to form adjectives

meaning "pertaining to"
-anus, -ana, -anum: a Latin suffix added to noun roots to form adjec-
tives meaning "belonging to"; often used with names of localities
-atilis, -atile: a Latin adjectival suffix meaning "found in"; usually
used with roots of nouns referring to habitats
-cuius, -cula, -culum: a Latin diminutive suffix
-eae: the ending of names of plant tribes
-ecetes, -êtes: a Greek suffix meaning "one who," or "to dwell"; often
used with roots of nouns referring to habitats
-ellus, -ella, -ellum: a Latin diminutive suffix
-ensis, -ense: a Latin adjectival suffix meaning "belonging to"; usually
used with locality names
-es: a Greek suffix meaning the doer of an action, used with verb roots;
equivalent to the English suffixes ^er and -jar
-escens: a Latin adjectival suffix meaning "becoming," or "beginning
-estris, -estre: a Latin suffix meaning "belonging to," or "living in";
generally used with nouns referring to habitats
-êtes: (see -ecetes)
-icosus, -icosa, -icosum: a Greek suffix added to verb roots meaning
"ability," or "fitness"
-idae: the ending of names of animal families
-idius, -idia, -idium: a Latin and Greek diminutive suffix
-iensis, -iense: (see -ensis)
-illus, -ilia, -ilium: a Latin diminutive suffix
-imus, -ima, -imum: a Latin superlative ending
-inae: the ending of names of animal subfamilies and plant subtribes
-ineae: the ending of names of plant suborders
-inus, -ina, -inum: a Latin suffix denoting "likeness," or "belonging to"
-iscus, -isca, -iscum: a Latin and Greek diminutive suffix
-issimus, -issima, -issimum: a Latin superlative ending
-istus, -ista, -istum: a Greek superlative ending
odea, -odes: a Greek suffix denoting resemblance
-oidea: the ending of names of animal superfamilies
-oideae: the ending of names of plant subfamilies
-olus, -ola, -olum: a Latin diminutive suffix
-osus, -osa, -osum: a Latin suffix meaning "full of," or "prone to"
-rimus, -rima, -rimum: the Latin superlative ending for adjectives
ending in er
134 Word Roots and Combining Forms

-tatos: a Greek superlative ending

-ticus, -tica, -ticum: a Latin suffix meaning "belonging to"; generally
used with roots of nouns referring to habitats
-tus, -ta, -turn: a Latin past participle ending
-ullus, -ulla, -ullum: a Latin diminutive suffix
-ulus, -ula, -ulum: a Latin diminutive suffix
-unculus, -uncula, -unculum: a Latin diminutive suffix

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