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IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ECHO SOUNDER

IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ECHO-SOUNDING EQUIPMENT

The purpose of echo sounding equipment is to provide reliable information on the depth of water under
a ship to aid navigation in particular in shallow water. Echo sounding equipment should comply with
the following performance requirements. These Performance Standards are applicable for ship speeds
from 0 up to 30 knots. Sound speed in water for the purpose of this standard is set at 1500 m/s

1. Under normal propagation and sea bed reflectibility conditions the equipment should be capable of
measuring any clearance under the transducer between 2 m and 200 m.
2. The equipment should provide a minimum of two range scales one of which, the shallow range,
should cover a range of 20 m, and the other, the deep range, should cover a range of 200 m.
3. The primary presentation should be a suitable graphical display which provides the immediate depth
and a visible record of soundings. The displayed record should, show at least 15 min of soundings.
Other forms of display may be added but these should not affect the normal operation of the main
display.
4. The pulse repetition rate should not be slower than 12 pulses per minute on the deep range and 36
pulses per minute on the shallow range.
5. The performance of the equipment should be such that it will meet the requirements of these
performance standards when the ship is rolling + 10° and/or pitching + 5°.
6. More than one transducer and associated transmitter-receiver may be fitted. If more than one
transducer is used:
- Means should be available to display the depths from the different transducers
separately.
- A clear indication of the transducer(s) in use should be provided.
7. It should be possible to record on paper recording or other means the information about:
- the depth(s), and - the associated time for 12 h.
There should be means to retrieve the recorded information.
8. Based on a sound speed in water of 1,500 m/s, the tolerance of the indicated depth should be either:
- + 0.5 m on the 20 m range scale, respectively + 5 m on the 200 m range scale; or
- + 2.5% of the indicated depth, whichever is greater.
9. The scale of display should not be smaller than 5.0 mm per meter depth on the shallow range scale
and 0.5 mm per meter depth on the deep range scale.
10. An alarm signal - both visual and audible with mute function - should be provided when the water
depth is below a preset value.
11. Alarm signals, both visual and audible (with mute function) to the navigator on the watch should be
provided to indicate failure or a reduction in the power supply to the echo sounder which would affect
the safe operation of the equipment.
12. The function of range scale selection should be directly accessible. The settings for the following
functions should be recognizable in all light conditions:
- range scale; and
- preset depth alarm.
13. The graphical display should be capable of showing:
- depth marks at intervals not larger than one-tenth of the range/scale in use; and
- time marks at intervals not exceeding 5 min.
14. If paper is used for recording either by marks on the recording paper, or by other means, there
should be a clear indication when the paper remaining is less than 1 m.
15. Output(s) should be available from which depth information may be supplied to other equipment
such as remote digital displays, voyage data recorder and a track control system. These outputs should
be digital, serial communication, facilities which should comply with the relevant international
standards.
Saturday, June 5, 2010
IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR GPS
IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR MARINE GLOBAL POSITIONING
SYSTEM (GPS) RECEIVER EQUIPMENT

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based positioning,


velocity and time system that has three major segments: space,
control and user. The GPS space segment will normally be
composed of 24 satellites in six orbits. The satellites operate in
circular 20,200 km orbits at an inclination angle of 55° with a 12-
hour period. The spacing of satellites in orbit will be arranged so
that a minimum of four satellites will be in view to users world-wide,
with a position dilution of precision (PDOP) of = 6. Each satellite
transmits on two "L" band frequencies, L1 (1575, 42 MHz) and L2
(1227, 60 MHz). L1 carries a precise (P) code and coarse/acquisition
(C/A) code. L2 carries the P code. A navigation data message is
superimposed on these codes. The same navigation data message
is carried on both frequencies. Receiver equipment for the GPS
intended for navigational purposes on ships with maximum speeds
not exceeding 70 knots should comply with the following minimum
performance requirements.

The words "GPS receiver equipment" as used in these performance


standards includes all the components and units necessary for the
system properly to perform its intended functions. The equipment
should include the following minimum facilities:
• antennas capable of receiving GPS signals
• GPS receiver and processor
• means of accessing the computed latitude/longitude position
• data control and interface
• and position display and, if required, other forms of output
• The antenna design should be suitable for fitting at a position on
the ship which ensures a clear view of the satellite constellation.

PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR GPS RECEIVER EQUIPMENT

The GPS receiver equipment should:

1. be capable of receiving and processing the Standard Positioning


Service (SPS) signals as modified by Selective Availability (SA) and
provide position information in latitude and longitude World
Geodetic System (WGS)-84 co-ordinates in degrees, minutes and
thousandths of minutes and time of solution referenced to UTC.
Means may be provided for transforming the computed position
based upon WGS-84 into data compatible with the datum of the
navigational chart in use. Where this facility exists, the display
should indicate that co-ordinate conversion is being performed, and
should identify the co-ordinate system in which the position is
expressed.
2. operate on the L1 signal and C/A code.
3. be provided with at least one output from which position
information can be supplied to other equipment. The output of
position information based upon WGS-84 should be in accordance
with international standards.
4. have static accuracy such that the position of the antenna is
determined to within 100 m (95%) with horizontal dilution of
precision(HDOP) = 4 (or PDOP = 6).
5. have dynamic accuracy such that the position of the ship is
determined to within 100m (95%) with HDOP = 4 (or PDOP = 6)
under the conditions of sea states and ship's motion likely to be
experienced in ships.
6. be capable of selecting automatically the appropriate satellite-
transmitted signals for determining the ship's position with the
required accuracy and update rate.
7. be capable of acquiring satellite signals with input signals having
carrier levels in the range of -130 dBm to -120 dBm. Once the
satellite signals have been acquired, the equipment should continue
to operate satisfactorily with satellite signals having carrier levels
down to -133 dBm.
8. be capable of acquiring position to the required accuracy, within
30 min, when there is no valid almanac data.
9. be capable of acquiring position to the required accuracy, within
5 min, when there is valid almanac data.
10. be capable of re-acquiring position to the required accuracy,
within 5 min, when the GPS signals are interrupted for a period of at
least 24 h but there is no loss of power.
11. be capable of re-acquiring position to the required accuracy,
within 2 min, when subjected to a power interruption of 60 s.
12. generate and output to a display and digital interface a new
position solution at least once every 1 s.
13. have a minimum resolution of position, i.e. latitude and
longitude, of 0.001 minutes.
14. generate and output to the digital interface course over the
ground (COG), speed over the ground (SOG) and universal time co-
ordinated (UTC). The accuracy requirement for COG and SOG should
not be inferior to the relevant Performance Standards for Heading
and SDME;
15. have the facilities to process differential GPS (DGPS) data fed to
it. When a GPS receiver is equipped with a differential receiver,
static and dynamic accuracies should be 10 m (95%).
16. Precautions should be taken to ensure that no permanent
damage can result from an accidental short circuit or grounding of
the antenna or any of its input or output connections or any of the
GPS receiver equipment inputs or outputs for duration of 5 min.
17. The equipment should provide an indication of whether the
position calculated is likely to be outside the requirements of these
performance standards.
18. The GPS receiver equipment should provide as a minimum:
• an indication within 5 s if the specified HDOP has been exceeded.
• a new position has not been calculated for more than 1 s. Under
such conditions the last known position and the time of the last valid
fix, with explicit indication of this state, so that no ambiguity can
exist, should be output until normal operation is resumed.
• a warning of loss of position.
• differential GPS status indication of.
• the receipt of DGPS signals; and
• whether DGPS corrections are being applied to the indicated ship’s
position.
• DGPS integrity status and alarm; and
• DGPS text message display.

IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR S - VDR


IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SHIPBORNE SIMPLIFIED
VOYAGE DATA RECORDERS (S-VDRs)

The purpose of a simplified voyage data recorder (S-VDR) is to


maintain a store, in a secure and retrievable form, of information
concerning the position, movement, physical status, command and
control of a vessel over the period leading up to and following an
incident having an impact thereon. Information contained in an S-
VDR should be made available to both the Administration and the
ship-owner. This information is for use during any subsequent
investigation to identify the cause(s) of the incident.

An S-VDR with capabilities not inferior to those defined in these


performance standards is required to be fitted to ships of classes
defined in SOLAS chapter V, as amended.

DEFINITIONS

Simplified Voyage data recorder (S-VDR) means a complete system,


including any items required to interface with the sources of input
data, for processing and encoding the data, the final recording
medium, the power supply and dedicated reserve power source.
Sensor means any unit external to the S-VDR, to which the S-VDR is
connected and from which it obtains data to be recorded.
Final recording medium means the item of hardware on which the
data is recorded such that access to it would enable the data to be
recovered and played back by use of suitable equipment.
Playback equipment means the equipment, compatible with the
recording medium and the format used during recording, employed
for recovering the data. It includes also the display or presentation
hardware and software that is appropriate to the original data
source equipment.
Dedicated reserve power source means a secondary battery, with
suitable automatic charging arrangements, dedicated solely to the
S-VDR, of sufficient capacity to operate it.
OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

1. The S-VDR should continuously maintain sequential records of


preselected data items relating to the status and output of the
ship’s equipment, and command and control of the ship.
2. To permit subsequent analysis of factors surrounding an incident,
the method of recording should ensure that the various data items
can be co-related in date and time during playback on suitable
equipment.
3. The final recording medium should be installed in a protective
capsule of either a fixed or float-free type, which should meet all of
the following requirements:
• Be capable of being accessed following an incident but secure
against tampering;
• Playback equipment is not normally installed on a ship and is not
regarded as part of a S-VDR for the purposes of these performance
standards.
• Maintain the recorded data for a period of at least 2 years
following termination of recording;
• Be of a highly visible color and marked with retro-reflective
materials; and
• Be fitted with an appropriate device to aid location.
• The fixed type protective capsule should comply with the
requirements set out in resolution A.861 (20) with the exception of
the resulting requirements for withstanding penetration.
4. The float-free type protective capsule should:
• be fitted with means to facilitate grappling and recovery;
• be so constructed as to minimize risk of damage during recovery
operations; and
• the device should be capable of transmitting an initial locating
signal and further locating homing signal for at least 48 hours over a
period of not less than 7 days/168 hours.

Data selection and security

The equipment should be so designed that, as far as is practical, it is


not possible to tamper with the selection of data being input to the
equipment, the data itself nor that which has already been
recorded. Any attempt to interfere with the integrity of the data or
the recording should be recorded.
The recording method should be such that each item of the
recorded data is checked for integrity and an alarm given if a non-
correctable error is detected.

Continuity of operation

To ensure that the S-VDR continues to record events during an


incident, it should be capable of operating from the ship’s
emergency source of electrical power.
If the ship’s emergency source of electrical power supply fails, the
S-VDR should continue to record Bridge Audio from a dedicated
reserve source of power for a period of 2 h. At the end of this 2 h
period all recording should cease automatically.
The time for which all stored data items are retained should be at
least 12 h. Data items which are older than this may be overwritten
with new data.

OPERATION
The unit should be entirely automatic in normal operation. Means
should be provided whereby recorded data may be saved by an
appropriate method following an incident, with minimal interruption
to the recording process.

INTERFACING
Interfacing to the various sensors required should be in accordance
with the relevant international interface standards, where possible.
Any connection to any item of the ship’s equipment should be such
that the operation of that equipment suffers no deterioration, even
if the S-VDR system develops fault

Data items to be recorded

Date and time


Date and time, referenced to UTC, should be obtained from a source
external to the ship or from an internal clock. The recording should
indicate which source is in use. The recording method should be
such that the timing of all other recorded data items can be derived
on playback with a resolution sufficient to reconstruct the history of
the incident in detail.
Ship’s position
Latitude and longitude, and the datum used, should be derived from
an electronic position-fixing system (EPFS). The recording should
ensure that the identity and status of the EPFS can always be
determined on playback.
Speed
Speed through the water or speed over the ground, including an
indication of which it is, derived from the ship’s speed and distance
measuring equipment.
Heading
As indicated by the ship’s compass.
Bridge Audio
One or more microphones positioned on the bridge should be placed
so that conversation at or near the conning stations, radar displays,
chart tables, etc., are adequately recorded. As far as practicable,
the positioning of microphones should also capture intercom, public
address systems and audible alarms on the bridge.
Communications Audio
VHF communications relating to ship operations should be recorded.
Radar data, post-display selection
This should include electronic signal information from within one of
the ship’s radar installations which records all the information which
was actually being presented on the master display of that radar at
the time of recording. This should include any range rings or
markers, bearing markers, electronic plotting symbols, radar maps,
whatever parts of the SENC or other electronic chart or map that
were selected, the voyage plan, navigational data, navigational
alarms and the radar status data that were visible on the display.
The recording method should be such that, on playback, it is
possible to present a faithful replica of the entire radar display that
was on view at the time of recording, albeit within the limitations of
any bandwidth compression techniques that are essential to the
working of the S-VDR.
AIS Data
If it is impossible to obtain radar data3 then AIS target data should
be recorded as a source of information regarding other ships. If
radar data is recorded, AIS information may be recorded additionally
as a beneficial secondary source of information on both other and
own ship.

IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR VDR


IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SHIPBORNEVOYAGE DATA
RECORDERS (VDRs)

The purpose of a voyage data recorder (VDR) is to maintain a store,


in a secure and retrievable form, of information concerning the
position, movement, physical status, command and control of a
vessel over the period leading up to and following an incident
having an impact thereon. Information contained in a VDR should be
made available to both the Administration and the ship-owner. This
information is for use during any subsequent investigation to
identify the cause(s) of the incident.

A VDR with capabilities not inferior to those defined in these


performance standards is required to be fitted to ships of classes
defined in SOLAS chapter V, as amended.

DEFINITIONS
Voyage data recorder (VDR) means a complete system, including
any items required to interface with the sources of input data, for
processing and encoding the data, the final recording medium in its
capsule, the power supply and dedicated reserve power source.
Sensor means any unit external to the VDR, to which the VDR is
connected and from which it obtains data to be recorded.
Final recording medium means the item of hardware on which the
data is recorded such that access to it would enable the data to be
recovered and played back by use of suitable equipment.
Playback equipment means the equipment, compatible with the
recording medium and the format used during recording, employed
for recovering the data. It includes also the display or presentation
hardware and software that is appropriate to the original data
source equipment.
Dedicated reserve power source means a secondary battery, with
suitable automatic charging arrangements, dedicated solely to the
VDR, of sufficient capacity to operate it.

OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

The VDR should continuously maintain sequential records of


preselected data items relating to the status and output of the
ship's equipment, and command and control of the ship.
To permit subsequent analysis of factors surrounding an incident,
the method of recording should ensure that the various data items
can be co-related in date and time during playback on suitable
equipment.
The final recording medium should be installed in a protective
capsule which should meet all of the following requirements:
• Be capable of being accessed following an incident but secure
against tampering.
• Maximize the probability of survival and recovery of the final
recorded data after any incident.
• Be of a highly visible color and marked with retro-reflective
materials; and
• Be fitted with an appropriate device to aid location.
• Playback equipment is not normally installed on a ship and is not
regarded as part of a VDR for the purposes of these performance
standards.

Data selection and security

The equipment should be so designed that, as far as is practical, it is


not possible to tamper with the selection of data being input to the
equipment, the data itself nor that which has already been
recorded. Any attempt to interfere with the integrity of the data or
the recording should be recorded.
The recording method should be such that each item of the
recorded data is checked for integrity and an alarm given if a non-
correctable error is detected.

Continuity of operation

1. To ensure that the VDR continues to record events during an


incident, it should be capable of operating from the ship's
emergency source of electrical power.
2. If the ship's emergency source of electrical power supply fails, the
VDR should continue to record Bridge Audio from a dedicated
reserve source of power for a period of 2 h. At the end of this 2 h
period all recording should cease automatically.
3. The time for which all stored data items are retained should be at
least 12 h. Data items which are older than this may be overwritten
with new data.

OPERATION

The unit should be entirely automatic in normal operation. Means


should be provided whereby recorded data may be saved by an
appropriate method following an incident, with minimal interruption
to the recording process.

INTERFACING

Interfacing to the various sensors required should be in accordance


with the relevant international interface standard, where possible.
Any connection to any item of the ship's equipment should be such
that the operation of that equipment suffers no deterioration, even
if the VDR system develops faults

Following Data items to be recorded:

Date and time


Date and time, referenced to UTC, should be obtained from a source
external to the ship or from an internal clock. The recording should
indicate which source is in use. The recording method should be
such that the timing of all other recorded data items can be derived
on playback with a resolution sufficient to reconstruct the history of
the incident in detail.
Ship's position
Latitude and longitude, and the datum used, should be derived from
an electronic position-fixing system (EPFS). The recording should
ensure that the identity and status of the EPFS can always be
determined on playback.
Speed
Speed through the water or speed over the ground, including an
indication of which it is, derived from the ship's speed and distance
measuring equipment.
Heading
As indicated by the ship's compass.
Bridge Audio
One or more microphones positioned on the bridge should be placed
so that conversation at or near the conning stations, radar displays,
chart tables, etc., are adequately recorded. As far as practicable,
the positioning of microphones should also capture intercom, public
address systems and audible alarms on the bridge.
Communications Audio
VHF communications relating to ship operations should be recorded.
Radar data, post-display selection
This should include electronic signal information from within one of
the ship's radar installations which records all the information which
was actually being presented on the master display of that radar at
the time of recording. This should include any range rings or
markers, bearing markers, electronic plotting symbols, radar maps,
whatever parts of the SENC or other electronic chart or map that
were selected, the voyage plan, navigational data, navigational
alarms and the radar status data that were visible on the display.
The recording method should be such that, on playback, it is
possible to present a faithful replica of the entire radar display that
was on view at the time of recording, albeit within the limitations of
any bandwidth compression techniques that are essential to the
working of the VDR.
Echo sounder
This should include depth under keel, the depth scale currently
being displayed and other status information where available.
Main alarms
This should include the status of all mandatory alarms on the
bridge.
Rudder order and response
This should include status and settings of auto-pilot if fitted.
Engine order and response
This should include the positions of any engine telegraphs or direct
engine/propeller controls and feedback indications, if fitted,
including ahead/astern indicators. This should also include status of
bow thrusters if fitted.
Hull openings status
This should include all mandatory status information required to be
displayed on the bridge.
Watertight and fire door status
This should include all mandatory status information required to be
displayed on the bridge.
Accelerations and hull stresses
Where a ship is fitted with hull stress and response monitoring
equipment, all the data items that have been pre-selected within
that equipment should be recorded.
Wind speed and direction
This should be applicable where a ship is fitted with a suitable
sensor. Either relative wind speed or true wind speed; and direction
may be recorded, but an indication of which it is should be recorded.

LRIT
LRIT:

Long Range Identification and Tracking of Ships (LRIT) is a maritime security initiative that allows
SOLAS Contracting Governments to request and receive position reports from vessels operating under
their flag, vessels indicating intentions to enter a port under their jurisdiction, or vessels operating
within 1000 nautical miles of their coast. In addition to enhancing maritime security, the regulations
allow LRIT for search and rescue. LRIT information will be automatically transmitted from ship borne
equipment to Liberia’s LRIT Data Center where it will be stored until it is requested.
The LRIT equipment on board ships must interface directly to the ship borne Global Navigation
Satellite System (GNSS) equipment, or have an internal positioning capability.
LRIT requires that the frequency of transmission can be controlled remotely, without intervention on
board; allowing for an increase in LRIT transmission frequency as security levels change, in order to
perhaps observe a particular vessel or vessels more closely.
At security Level 1 (the lowest level), every vessel* must transmit the required LRIT data every six (6)
hours. If security levels change to 2 or 3, or if a particular vessel or vessels is/are of more interest,
LRIT transmissions and monitoring may be increased remotely as required, up one LRIT report every
15 minutes.
The Inmarsat technology to make this work efficiently already exists. Indeed, LRIT data can be
provided now, using Inmarsat C, mini-C or D+. The Inmarsat terminal on the vessel has a built-in
global positioning system (GPS) receiver, which provides the vessel's position. The Inmarsat terminal
also has a built-in unique identity, or ID.
Remote control is already possible today with Inmarsat C, mini-C and D+

The equipment must be capable of being configured to transmit the following minimum information
automatically, at reporting intervals from 15 minutes to 6 hours, to the LRIT Data Center designated by
the Flag Administration:
♣ The identity of the ship;
♣ The position of the ship;
♣ The date and time of the position.

The new regulation on LRIT is included in SOLAS chapter V on Safety of Navigation, through which
LRIT has been introduced as a mandatory requirement for the following ships on international
voyages: passenger ships, including high-speed craft; cargo ships, including high-speed craft, of 300
gross tonnage and upwards; and mobile offshore drilling units.
The SOLAS regulation on LRIT establishes a multilateral agreement for sharing LRIT information for
security and search and rescue purposes, amongst SOLAS Contracting Governments, in order to meet
the maritime security needs and other concerns of such Governments.
It maintains the right of flag States to protect information about the ships entitled to fly their flag,
where appropriate, while allowing coastal States access to information about ships navigating off their
coasts.
The SOLAS regulation on LRIT does not create or affirm any new rights of States over ships beyond
those existing in international law, particularly, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
(UNCLOS), nor does it alter or affect the rights, jurisdiction, duties and obligations of States in
connection with UNCLOS.
The regulation has entered into force on 1 January 2008 and applies to ships constructed on or after 31
December 2008 with a phased-in implementation schedule for ships constructed before 31 December
2008. LRIT has become operational with respect to the transmission of LRIT information by ships as
from 31 December 2008.
There is an exemption for ships operating exclusively in sea area A1 from the requirement to transmit
LRIT information, since such ships are already fitted with AIS. It also identifies which authorities may
have access to LRIT information.

LRIT and AIS:

The LRIT information ships will be required to transmit include the ship's identity, location and date
and time of the position. There will be no interface between LRIT and AIS. One of the more important
distinctions between LRIT and AIS, apart from the obvious one of range, is that, whereas AIS is a
broadcast system, data derived through LRIT will be available only to the recipients who are entitled to
receive such information and safeguards concerning the confidentiality of those data have been built
into the regulatory provisions. SOLAS Contracting Governments will be entitled to receive information
about ships navigating within a distance not exceeding 1000 nautical miles off their coast.
LRIT SYSTEM:

The LRIT system consists of:


• The ship borne LRIT information transmitting equipment
• The Communication Service Provider(s)
• The Application Service Provider(s)
• The LRIT Data Centre(s), including any related Vessel Monitoring System(s)
• The LRIT Data Distribution Plan
• And the International LRIT Data Exchange.
• Certain aspects of the performance of the LRIT system are reviewed or audited by an LRIT Co-
coordinator acting on behalf of all Contracting Governments.

LRIT information is provided to Contracting Governments and Search and rescue services entitled to
receive the information, upon request, through a system of National, Regional, Co operative and
International LRIT Data Centers, using where necessary, the LRIT International Data Exchange.
Each Administration should provide to the LRIT Data Centre it has selected, a list of the ships entitled
to fly its flag, which are required to transmit LRIT information, together with other salient details and
should update, without undue delay, such lists as and when changes occur. Ships should only transmit
the LRIT information to the LRIT Data Centre selected by their Administration.

The obligations of ships to transmit LRIT information and the rights and obligations of Contracting
Governments and of Search and rescue services to receive LRIT information are established in
regulation V/19-1 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention.

LRIT CERTIFICATE:

A LRIT Certificate is a document issued by the flag state to evidence LRIT ship borne equipment is of
a type approved by the Administration and passed a Conformance Test conducted by an authorized
testing Application Service Provider (ASP).
On satisfactory completion of a conformance test, the Authorized Testing ASP conducting the test will
issue a report to the Administration to support and serve as the basis for the Certificate that will be
issued by the Administration to the ship owner for placing on board their vessel. No additional action is
required from the ship owner once the test has been successfully completed and passed since the test
report data is automatically forwarded to the Administration by the authorized testing ASP.

IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR SPEED AND DISTANCE


MEASURING EQUIPMENT (SDME)
IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR DEVICES TO INDICATE SPEED
AND DISTANCE (SDME)

Devices to indicate speed and distance are intended for general


navigational and ship maneuvering use. Although the minimum
requirement is to provide information on the distance run and the
forward speed of the ship through the water or over the ground,
additional information on ship's motions other than in the forward
axis may be provided. The equipment should comply fully with its
performance standard at forward speeds up to the maximum speed
of the ship and in water of depth greater than 3 m beneath the keel.

Devices to indicate speed and distance should comply with the


following minimum performance requirements.

1. Speed information may be presented in either analogue or digital


form. Where a digital display is used, its incremental steps should
not exceed 0.1 knots. Analogue displays should be graduated at
least every 0.5 knots and be marked with figures at least every 5
knots. If the display can present the speed of the ship in other than
the forward direction, the direction of movement should be
indicated unambiguously.
2. Distance run information should be presented in digital form. The
display should cover the range from 0 to not less than 9999.9
nautical miles and the incremental steps should not exceed 0.1
nautical miles. Where practicable, means should be provided for
resetting readout to zero. The display should be easily readable by
day and by night.
3. Means should be provided for feeding distance run information to
other equipment fitted on board.
4. If equipment is capable of being operated in either the "speed
through the water" or "speed over the ground" mode, mode
selection and mode indication should be provided.
5. If the equipment has provision for indicating speeds other than on
a single fore and aft axis, then the forward and athwart speed
through the water must be provided, and the forward and athwart
speed over the ground may be provided as an additional option.
Resultant speed and course information may be provided as a
switchable option. All such information should clearly indicate the
direction, mode and validity status of the displayed information.
6. Errors in the indicated speed, when the ship is operating free
from shallow water effect and from the effects of wind, current and
tide, should not exceed 2% of the speed of the ship, or 0.2 knots,
whichever is greater.
7. Errors in the indicated distance run, when the ship is operating
free from shallow water effect and from the effects of wind, current
and tide, should not exceed 2% of the distance run by the ship in 1
h or 0.2 nautical miles in each hour, whichever is greater.
8. If the accuracy of devices to indicate speed and distance run can
be affected by certain conditions (e.g. sea state and its effects,
water temperature, salinity, sound velocity in water, depth of water
under the keel, heel and trim of ship), details of possible effects
should be included in the equipment handbook.
9. The performance of the equipment should be such that it will
meet the requirements of these standards when the ship is rolling
up to + 10° and pitching up to + 5°.
10. The system should be so designed that neither the method of
attachment of parts of the equipment to the ship nor damage
occurring to any part of the equipment which penetrates the hull
could result in the ingress of water to the ship.
11. Where any part of the system is designed to extend from and
retract into the hull of the ship, the design should ensure that it can
be extended, operated normally and retracted at all speeds up to
the maximum speed of the ship. Its extended and retracted
positions should be clearly indicated at the display position.
IMO Performance Standards for ECDIS
IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC CHART DISPLAY AND
INFORMATION SYSTEMS (ECDIS)

INTRODUCTION
• The primary function of the ECDIS is to contribute to safe navigation.
• ECDIS, with adequate back-up arrangements, may be accepted as complying with the up-to-date
charts required by regulation V/20 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention.
• In addition to the general requirements for ship borne radio equipment forming part of the global
maritime distress and safety system (GMDSS) and the requirements for electronic navigational aids,
ECDIS should meet the requirements of this performance standard.
• ECDIS should be capable of displaying all chart information necessary for safe and efficient
navigation originated by, and distributed on the authority of, government-authorized hydrographic
offices.
• ECDIS should facilitate simple and reliable updating of the electronic navigational chart.
• Use of ECDIS should reduce the navigational workload as compared to use of a paper chart. It should
enable the mariner to execute in a convenient and timely manner all route planning, route monitoring
and positioning currently performed on paper charts. It should be capable of continuously plotting the
ship's position.
• ECDIS should have at least the same reliability and availability of presentation as the paper chart
published by government-authorized hydrographic offices.
• ECDIS should provide appropriate alarms or indications with respect to the information displayed or
malfunction of the equipment.

DEFINITIONS

For the purpose of these performance standards:

Electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) means a navigation information system
which, with adequate back-up arrangements, can be accepted as complying with the up-to-date chart
required by regulation V/20 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention, by displaying selected information from
a system electronic navigational chart (SENC) with positional information from navigation sensors to
assist the mariner in route planning and route monitoring, and by displaying additional navigation-
related information if required.

Electronic navigational chart (ENC) means the database, standardized as to content, structure and
format, issued for use with ECDIS on the authority of government-authorized hydrographic offices.
The ENC contains all the chart information necessary for safe navigation, and may contain
supplementary information in addition to that contained in the paper chart (e.g. sailing directions)
which may be considered necessary for safe navigation.

System electronic navigational chart (SENC) means a database resulting from the transformation of the
ENC by ECDIS for appropriate use, updates to the ENC by appropriate means, and other data added by
the mariner. It is this database that is actually accessed by ECDIS for the display generation and other
navigational functions, and is the equivalent to an up-to-date paper chart. The SENC may also contain
information from other sources.

Standard display means the SENC information that should be shown when a chart is first displayed on
ECDIS. The level of the information it provides for route planning or route monitoring may be
modified by the mariner according to the mariner's needs.
Display base means the level of SENC information which cannot be removed from the display,
consisting of information which is required at all times in all geographical areas and all circumstances.
It is not intended to be sufficient for safe navigation.

DISPLAY OF SENC INFORMATION

• ECDIS should be capable of displaying all SENC information. SENC information available for
display during route planning and route monitoring should be subdivided into three categories, display
base, standard display, and all other information. ECDIS should present the standard display at any
time by a single operator action. The ENC and all updates to it should be displayed without any
degradation of their information content.
• When a chart is first displayed on ECDIS, it should provide the standard display at the largest scale
available in the SENC for the displayed area.
• It should be easy to add or remove information from the ECDIS display. It should not be possible to
remove information contained in the display base.
• It should be possible for the mariner to select a safety contour from the depth contours provided by
the SENC. ECDIS should give the safety contour more emphasis than other contours on the display.
• It should be possible for the mariner to select a safety depth. ECDIS should emphasize soundings
equal to or less than the safety depth whenever spot soundings are selected for display.
• ECDIS should provide a means of ensuring that the ENC and all updates to it have been correctly
loaded into the SENC.
• The ENC data and updates to it should be clearly distinguishable from other displayed information,
such as, for example that listed in Appendix 3.

PROVISION AND UPDATING* OF CHART INFORMATION

• The chart information to be used in ECDIS should be the latest edition of information originated by a
government-authorized hydrographic office, and conform to IHO standards.
• The contents of the SENC should be adequate and up-to-date for the intended voyage, as required by
regulation V/20 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention.
• It should not be possible to alter the contents of the ENC.
• Updates should be stored separately from the ENC.
• ECDIS should be capable of accepting official updates to the ENC data provided in conformity with
IHO standards. These updates should be automatically applied to the SENC. By whatever means
updates are received, the implementation procedure should not interfere with the display in use.
• ECDIS should also be capable of accepting updates to the ENC data entered manually with simple
means for verification prior to the final acceptance of the data. They should be distinguishable on the
display from ENC information and its official updates, and not affect display legibility.
• ECDIS should keep a record of updates, including time of application to the SENC.
• ECDIS should allow the mariner to display updates so that the mariner may review their contents and
ascertain that they have been included in the SENC.
SCALE

ECDIS should provide an indication of whether the information is displayed at a larger scale than that
contained in the ENC; or own ship's position is covered by an ENC at a larger scale than that provided
by the display.

DISPLAY OF OTHER NAVIGATIONAL INFORMATION

• Radar information or other navigational information may be added to the ECDIS display. However, it
should not degrade the SENC information, and should be clearly distinguishable from the SENC
information. Transferred radar information may contain both the radar image and ARPA information.
• ECDIS and added navigational information should use a common reference system. If this is not the
case, an indication should be provided.
• If the radar image is added to the ECDIS display, the chart and the radar image should match in scale
and in orientation.
• The radar image and the position from the position sensor should both be adjusted automatically for
antenna offset from the conning position.
• It should be possible to adjust the displayed position of the ship manually so that the radar image
matches the SENC display.
• It should be possible to remove the radar information by single operator action.

DISPLAY MODE AND GENERATION OF THE NEIGHBOURING AREA

• It should always be possible to display the SENC in a "north-up" orientation. Other orientations are
permitted.
• ECDIS should provide for true motion mode. Other modes are permitted.
• When true motion mode is in use, reset and generation of the neighboring area should take place
automatically at a distance from the border of the display determined by the mariner.
• It should be possible manually to change the chart area and the position of own ship relative to the
edge of the display.

DISPLAY REQUIREMENTS

• The effective size of the chart presentation for route monitoring should be at least 270 mm by 270
mm.
• The display should be capable of complying with the color and resolution recommendations of IHO.
• The method of presentation should ensure that the displayed information is clearly visible to more
than one observer in the conditions of light normally experienced on the bridge of the ship by day and
by night.

ROUTE PLANNING, MONITORING AND VOYAGE RECORDING

• It should be possible to carry out route planning and route monitoring in a simple and reliable
manner.
• ECDIS should be designed following ergonomic principles for user-friendly operation.
• The largest scale data available in the SENC for the area given should always be used by the ECDIS
for all alarms or indications of crossing the ship's safety contour and of entering a prohibited area, and
for alarms and indications.

Route planning

• It should be possible to carry out route planning including both straight and curved segments.
• It should be possible to adjust a planned route by, for example: adding waypoints to a route; deleting
waypoints from a route; changing the position of a waypoint; changing the order of the waypoints in
the route.
• It should be possible to plan an alternative route in addition to the selected route. The selected route
should be clearly distinguishable from the other routes.
• An indication is required if the mariner plans a route across an own ship's safety contour.
• An indication is required if the mariner plans a route across the boundary of a prohibited area or of a
geographical area for which special conditions exist.
• It should be possible for the mariner to specify a limit of deviation from the planned route at which
activation of an automatic off-track alarm should occur.

Route monitoring

• For route monitoring the selected route and own ship's position should appear whenever the display
covers that area.
• It should be possible to display a sea area that does not have the ship on the display (e.g., for look
ahead, route planning), while route monitoring. If this is done on the display used for route monitoring,
the automatic route monitoring functions (e.g., updating ship's position, and providing alarms and
indications) should be continuous. It should be possible to return to the route monitoring display
covering own ship's position immediately by single operator action.
• ECDIS should give an alarm if the ship, within a specified time set by the mariner, is going to cross
the safety contour.
• ECDIS should give an alarm or indication, as selected by the mariner, if the ship, within a specified
time set by the mariner, is going to cross the boundary of a prohibited area or of a geographical area for
which special conditions exist.
• An alarm should be given when the specified limit for deviation from the planned route is exceeded.
• The ship's position should be derived from a continuous positioning system of accuracy consistent
with the requirements of safe navigation. Whenever possible, a second independent positioning method
of a different type should be provided; ECDIS should be capable of identifying discrepancies between
the two systems.
• ECDIS should provide an indication when the input from the position-fixing system is lost. ECDIS
should also repeat, but only as an indication, any alarm or indication passed to it from a position-fixing
system.
• An alarm should be given by ECDIS if the ship, within a specified time or distance set by the
mariner, is going to reach a critical point on the planned route.
• The positioning system and the SENC should be on the same geodetic datum. ECDIS should give an
alarm if this is not the case.
• It should be possible to display an alternative route in addition to the selected route. The selected
route should be clearly distinguishable from the other routes. During the voyage, it should be possible
for the mariner to modify the selected sailing route or change to an alternative route.
• It should be possible to display time-labels along ship's track, manually on demand and automatically
at intervals selected between 1 and 120 m; and an adequate number of points, free movable electronic
bearing lines, variable and fixed-range markers and other symbols required for navigation purposes.
• It should be possible to enter the geographical co-ordinates of any position and then display that
position on demand. It should also be possible to select any point (features, symbol or position) on the
display and to read its geographical co-ordinates on demand.
• It should be possible to adjust the ship's geographical position manually. This manual adjustment
should be noted alpha-numerically on the screen, maintained until altered by the mariner, and
automatically recorded.

Voyage recording

• ECDIS should store and be able to reproduce certain minimum elements required to reconstruct the
navigation and verify the official database used during the previous 12 hours. The following data
should be recorded at one-minute intervals:
 To ensure a record of own ship's past track: time, position, heading, and speed; and
 To ensure a record of official data used: ENC source, edition, date, cell and update history.
• In addition, ECDIS should record the complete track for the entire voyage, with time marks at
intervals not exceeding 4 hours. It should not be possible to manipulate or change the recorded
information. ECDIS should have the capability to preserve the record of the previous 12 hours and of
the voyage track.

CONNECTIONS WITH OTHER EQUIPMENT*

ECDIS should not degrade the performance of any equipment providing sensor inputs. Nor should the
connection of optional equipment degrade the performance of ECDIS below this standard. ECDIS
should be connected to systems providing continuous position-fixing, heading and speed information.

PERFORMANCE TESTS, MALFUNCTION ALARMS AND INDICATIONS

ECDIS should be provided with means for carrying out on-board tests of major functions either
automatically or manually. In case of a failure, the test should display information to indicate which
module is at fault. ECDIS should provide a suitable alarm or indication of system malfunction.

BACK-UP ARRANGEMENTS

• Adequate back-up arrangements should be provided to ensure safe navigation in case of an ECDIS
failure. Facilities enabling a safe take-over of the ECDIS functions should be provided in order to
ensure that an ECDIS failure does not result in a critical situation.
• A back-up arrangement should be provided facilitating means for safe navigation of the remaining
part of the voyage in case of an ECDIS failure.

POWER SUPPLY

• It should be possible to operate ECDIS and all equipment necessary for its normal functioning when
supplied by an emergency source of electrical power in accordance with the appropriate requirements
of chapter II-1 of the 1974 SOLAS Convention.
• Changing from one source of power supply to another or any interruption of the supply for a period of
up to 45 s should not require the equipment to be re-initialized manually.

AREAS FOR WHICH SPECIAL CONDITIONS EXIST


The following are the areas which ECDIS should detect and for which it should provide an alarm or
indication: Traffic separation zone, Traffic routeing scheme crossing or roundabout, Traffic routeing
scheme precautionary area, Two-way traffic route, Deepwater route, Recommended traffic lane,
Inshore traffic zone, Fairway, Restricted area, Caution area, Offshore production area, Areas to be
avoided, Military practice area, Seaplane landing area, Submarine transit lane, Ice area, Channel,
Fishing ground, Fishing prohibited, Pipeline area, Cable area, Anchorage area, Anchorage prohibited,
Dumping ground, Spoil ground, Dredged area, Cargo transshipment area.

ALARMS AND INDICATORS

Alarm or Indication Largest scale for alarm, Alarm for Exceeding off-track limits, Alarm for Crossing
safety contour, Alarm or Indication for Area with special conditions, Alarm for Deviation from route,
Alarm for approach to critical point, Alarm for Different geodetic datum, Alarm or Indication for
Malfunction of ECDIS, Indication for Information overscale, Indication for Larger scale ENC
available, Indication for Different reference system, Indication for Route planning across safety
contour, Indication for Route planning across specified area, Indication for Positioning system failure,
Indication for System test failure

Alarm: An alarm or alarm system which announces by audible means, or audible and visual means,
a condition requiring attention.

Indicator: Visual indication giving information about the condition of a system or equipment.
IMO Performance Standards for Heading Control Systems (Auto
Pilots)
IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR HEADING CONTROL SYSTEMS
(AUTOPILOTS)

OBJECTIVES

1. Within limits related to the ship’s maneuverability the heading


control system, in conjunction with its source of heading
information, should enable a ship to keep a preset heading with
minimum operation of the ship's steering gear.
2. A heading control system may work together with a track control
system adjusting its heading for drift.
3. A turn rate control for performing turns may be provided.

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

1. The heading control system should be capable of adapting


manually or automatically to different steering characteristics of the
ship under various speeds, weather and loading conditions, and
provide reliable operation under prevailing environment and normal
operational conditions.
2. The heading control system should be able to perform turns,
within the turning capability of the ship, based either on a preset
turning radius or a preset rate of turn.
3. Means should be incorporated in the equipment to enable rudder
angle limitation in the automatic mode. Means should also be
available to indicate when the angle of limitation has been
commanded or reached.
4. Means should be incorporated to prevent unnecessary activation
of the rudder due to normal yaw motion.
5. Any alteration of the preset heading should not be possible
without intended action of the ship's personnel.
6. The heading control system should change to a preset heading
without significant overshoot.

CHANGE-OVER FROM AUTOMATIC TO MANUAL STEERING AND VICE


VERSA
1. Change-over from automatic to manual steering and vice-versa
should be possible at any position of the rudder and should be
effected by one manual control within 3 seconds.
2. Change-over from automatic to manual steering should be
possible under any conditions including any failure in the automatic
control system.
3. When changing over from manual to automatic steering the
heading control system shall take over the actual heading as the
preset heading.
4. There should be a single change-over control which should be
located in such a position that it is easily accessible to the officer of
the watch.
5. Adequate indication should be provided to show which method of
steering is in operation.

CHANGE-OVER FROM TRACK CONTROL TO HEADING CONTROL

1. If the heading control system works as part of a track control


system, then when switching from track control to heading control,
the actual heading should be taken as the preset heading.
2. Any switching back to track control shall not be possible without
intended action of the ship's personnel.

ALARMS AND SIGNALLING FACILITIES

1. An alarm both audible with mute function and visual should be


provided in order to indicate failure or a reduction in the power
supply to the heading control system or heading monitor, which
would affect the safe operation of the equipment.
2. An off-heading alarm, both audible with mute function and visual
should be provided when the actual heading deviates from the
preset heading beyond a preset limit.
3. If the ship is required to carry two independent compasses, a
heading monitor should be provided to monitor the actual heading
information by independent heading sources. The heading monitor
is not required to be an integrated part of the heading control
system.
4. An alarm both audible with mute function and visual should be
provided when the heading information in use deviates from the
second heading source beyond a preset limit.
5. A clear indication of the actual heading source should be
provided.

CONTROLS
1. The number of operational controls should be such that easy and
safe operation can be achieved. The controls should be designed to
preclude inadvertent operation.
2. Unless features for automatic adjustment are incorporated in the
installation, the heading control system should be provided with
adequate controls to adjust to effects due to weather and the ship's
steering performance.
3. The heading control system should be designed in such a way as
to ensure altering the pre-set heading to starboard by turning the
heading setting control clockwise or tilting it to the right-hand side.
Normal alterations of heading should be possible by one adjustment
only of the preset heading control.
4. Where remote control stations are provided, facilities for the
delegation of control to the remote station and unconditional return
of control should be incorporated in the master station.
5. Except for the preset heading setting control, the actuation of any
other control should not significantly affect the heading of the ship.
INTERFACING
1. The heading control system should be connected to a suitable
source of heading information.
2. The heading control system should be connected to a suitable
source of speed information when it is used in a turning radius mode
or when any control parameters are automatically adapted to
speed.
3. If a heading control system is capable of digital serial
communication with the ship's navigation system then the interface
facilities should comply with the relevant international marine
interface standards.*

IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ROTI


IMO PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ROTI
1. The Rate-of-Turn Indicator (ROTI) shall be capable of indicating rates of turn to starboard and to
port of the ship to which it is fitted.
2. The ROTI may be self-contained; alternatively it may form part of, or derive information from, any
other appropriate equipment.
3. The indication required shall be provided by a centre-zero analogue type indicator (preferably
circular). Where a circular scale indicator is used, the zero shall be uppermost.
4. A turn of ship to port shall be indicated on the left of the zero point and a starboard turn to the right
of the zero point. If the actual rate of turn exceeds full scale deflection, this shall be clearly indicated
on the display.
5. In addition, an alphanumeric display may be provided. Positive indication of port and starboard shall
be provided on such displays.
6. The length of scale in either direction from zero shall not be less than 120 mm. The sensitivity of the
system shall ensure that a change in the rate of turn of one degree per minute is represented by a
distance of not less than 4 mm on its scale.
7. A linear range scale of not less than ± 30 degrees per minute shall be provided. This scale shall be
marked in intervals of one degree per minute on both sides of zero. The scale shall be marked with
figures every 10 degrees per minute. Every 10 degree mark shall be significantly longer than the 5
degree mark which in turn shall be significantly longer than the one degree mark. The marks and
figures shall preferably be red or a light color on a dark background.
8. Additional linear range scales may be provided.
9. Damping of the ROTI shall be provided with a time constant which may be varied during operation
in the range zero to at least 10 seconds.
10. The indicated rate of turn shall not deviate from the actual rate of turn of the ship by more than 0.5
degrees per minute plus 5 per cent of the indicated rate of turn of the ship. These values include the
influence of earth rate.
11. Periodic rolling motion of the ship with an amplitude of ± 5 degrees and period of up to 25 seconds
and periodic pitching motion with an amplitude of ± 1 degree and period of up to 20 seconds shall not
change the mean value of the indicated rate of turn by more than 0.5 degrees per minute.
12. The ROTI shall meet these accuracy requirements at all ship speeds up to 10 knots.
13. The ROTI shall be ready for operation and comply with these standards within 4 minutes of being
switched on.
14. The design shall be such that whether operating or not, the ROTI will not degrade the performance
of any other equipment to which it is connected.
15. The ROTI shall include a means of enabling the operator to verify that it is operating.

IMO Performance Standards for AIS


PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL
SHIPBORNE AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS)

These performance standards specify the requirements for the universal AIS.The AIS should improve
the safety of navigation by assisting in the efficient navigation of ships, protection of the environment,
and operation of Vessel Traffic Services (VTS), by satisfying the following functional requirements:
• in a ship-to-ship mode for collision avoidance;
• as a means for littoral States to obtain information about a ship and its cargo;
• and as a VTS tool, i.e. ship-to-shore (traffic management).

1. Transmission of the data should be with the minimum involvement of ship's personnel and with a
high level of availability.
2. The installation, in addition to meeting the requirements of the Radio Regulations, applicable ITU-R
Recommendations and the general requirements as set out in resolution A.694 (17), should comply
with
the following performance standards.
3. The system should be able to handle a minimum of 2000 reports per min to adequately provide for
all operational scenarios envisioned.
4. A security mechanism should be provided to detect disabling and to prevent unauthorized alteration
of input or transmitted data. To protect the unauthorized dissemination of data, the IMO guidelines
(Guidelines and Criteria for Ship Reporting Systems) should be followed.
5. The installation should be operational within 2 min of switching on.
6. The AIS and associated sensors should be powered from the ship's main source of electrical energy.
In addition, it should be possible to operate the AIS and associated sensors from an alternative source
of electrical energy.
7. The technical characteristics of the AIS such as variable transmitter output power, operating
frequencies (dedicated internationally and selected regionally), modulation, and antenna system should
comply with the appropriate ITU-R Recommendations.
Functionality
8. The system should be capable of operating in a number of modes:

• an "autonomous and continuous" mode for operation in all areas. This mode should be capable of
being switched to/from one of the following alternate modes by a competent authority;
• an "assigned" mode for operation in an area subject to a competent authority responsible for traffic
monitoring such that the data transmission interval and/or time slots may be set remotely by that
authority; and
• "polling" or controlled mode where the data transfer occurs in response to interrogation from a ship or
competent authority.

Capability

9. The AIS should comprise:


• a communication processor, capable of operating over a range of maritime frequencies, with an
appropriate channel selecting and switching method, in support of both short and long range
applications;
• a means of processing data from an electronic position-fixing system which provides a resolution of
one ten thousandth of a minute of arc and uses the WGS-84 datum.;
• a means to automatically input data from other sensors meeting the provisions as specified
• a means to input and retrieve data manually;
• a means of error checking the transmitted and received data; and a built in test equipment (BITE).
10. The AIS should be capable of:
• providing information automatically and continuously to a competent authority and other ships,
without involvement of ship's personnel;
• receiving and processing information from other sources, including that from a competent authority
and from other ships;
• responding to high priority and safety related calls with a minimum of delay; and providing positional
and maneuvering information at a data rate adequate to facilitate accurate tracking by a competent
authority and other ships.
11. To enable a user to access, select and display the information on a separate system, the AIS should
be provided with an interface conforming to an appropriate international marine interface standard.
12. For the purpose of ship and message identification, the appropriate Maritime Mobile Service
Identity (MMSI) number should be used.

Information
The information provided by the AIS should include:
Static: every 6 minutes or when requested.
• IMO number (where available)
• Call sign & name
• Length and beam
• Type of ship
• Location of position-fixing antenna on the ship (aft of bow and port or starboard of centerline)

Dynamic: depends on navigational status and speed and whether course changing or steady,
• Ship's position with accuracy indication and integrity status
• Time in UTC
• Course over ground
• Speed over ground
• Heading
• Navigational status (e.g. NUC, at anchor, etc. - manual input)
• Rate of turn (where available)
• Optional - Angle of heel (where available)
• Optional - Pitch and roll (where available)
Reporting interval for dynamic information will be as follows:
i. Ship at anchor 3 min
ii. Ship 0-14 knots 12 sec
iii. Ship 0-14 knots and changing course 4 sec
iv. Ship 14-23 knots 6 sec
v. Ship 14-23 knots and changing course 2 sec
vi. Ship > 23 knots 3 sec
vii. Ship > 23 knots and changing course 2 sec

Voyage related: every 6 minutes, when data amended or when requested,


• Ship's draught
• Hazardous cargo (type)
• Destination and ETA (at masters discretion)
• Optional - Route plan (waypoints)

Short safety-related messages: as and when required.

IMO Performance Standards for Auto Pilots


PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR AUTOMATIC PILOTS

1. Within limits related to a vessel's maneuverability, the automatic pilot, in conjunction with its source
of heading information, shall enable a vessel to keep a preset course with minimum operation of the
vessel's steering gear.
2. The automatic pilot equipment shall be capable of adapting to different steering characteristics of the
vessel under various weather and loading conditions, and provide reliable operation under prevailing
environmental and normal operational conditions.
3. Changing over from automatic to manual steering and vice versa shall be possible at any rudder
position and be effected by one, or at the most two manual controls, within a time lag of 3 seconds.
4. Changing over from automatic to manual steering shall be possible under any conditions, including
any failure in the automatic control system.
5. When changing over from manual to automatic steering, the automatic pilot shall be capable of
bringing the vessel to the preset course.
6. Change-over controls shall be located close to each other in the immediate vicinity of the main
steering position.
7. Adequate indication shall be provided to show which method of steering is in operation at a
particular moment.
8. A course monitor shall be provided which actuates an adequate "off course” audible alarm signal
after a course deviation of a preset amount.
9. The information required to actuate the course monitor shall be provided from an independent
source.
10. Alarm signals, both audible and visual, shall be provided in order to indicate failure or a reduction
in the power supply to the automatic pilot or course monitor, which would affect the safe operation of
the equipment. The alarm signaling facilities shall be fitted near the steering position.
11. The number of operational controls shall be minimized as far as possible and they shall be designed
to preclude inadvertent operation.
12. Unless features for automatic adjustments are incorporated in the installation, the automatic pilot
shall be provided with adequate controls for operational use to adjust effects due to weather and the
ship's steering performance.
13. The automatic pilot shall be designed in such a way as to ensure altering course to starboard by
turning the course setting control clockwise. Normal alterations of course shall be possible by one
adjustment only of the course setting control.
14. Except for the course setting control, the actuation of any other control shall not significantly affect
the course of the vessel.
15. Additional controls at remote positions shall comply with the provisions of these standards.
16. Means shall be incorporated in the equipment to enable rudder angle limitation in the automatic
mode of operation. Means shall also be available to indicate when the angle of limitation has been
reached.
17. Means shall be incorporated to prevent unnecessary activation of the rudder due to normal yaw
motion.

IMO Performance Standards for IBS


PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR INTEGRATED BRIDGE SYSTEMS (IBS)

IBS: An integrated bridge system (IBS) is defined as a combination of systems which are
interconnected in order to allow centralized access to sensor information or command/control from
workstations, with the aim or increasing safe and efficient ship's management by suitably qualified
personnel.
IBS, in addition to meeting the functional requirements contained in applicable IMO instruments,
should comply with the following
performance standards.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENT:

The IBS should support systems performing two or more of the following operations:
.1 passage execution
.2 communications
.3 machinery control
.4 loading, discharging and cargo control
.5 and safety and security

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1 The IBS should comply with all applicable IMO requirements and recommendations. Parts executing
multiple operations should meet the requirements specified for each individual function they control,
monitor or perform.
2 Each "part" of an IBS should meet the relevant requirements and
their associated technical testing standards. In consequence, the IBS is in compliance with these
requirements without further environmental testing.
Note: "part" is meant to be - for example - an individual module, equipment or subsystem.
3 A failure of one part should not affect the functionality of other parts except for those functions
directly dependent upon the information from the defective part.

INTEGRATION:
The IBS should provide functional integration meeting the following requirements:
1 The functionality of the IBS should ensure that its operation is at least as effective as for stand-alone
equipment.
2 The continuously displayed information should be reduced to the minimum necessary for safe
operation of the ship. Supplementary information should be readily accessible.
3 Where multifunction displays and controls are used to perform functions necessary for safe operation
of the ship they should be duplicated and interchangeable.
4 It should be possible to display the complete system configuration, the available configuration and
the configuration in use.
5 Each part to be integrated should provide details of its operational status and validity of essential
information. Means should be provided with the IBS to make use of this information.
6 An alternative means of operation should be provided for essential functions.
7 An alternative source of essential information should be provided. The IBS should identify loss of
either source.
8 The source of information (sensor, result of calculation or manual input) should be displayed
continuously or upon request.

DATA EXCHANGE:
1. Interfacing to an IBS should comply with the relevant international marine interface standards.
2. The integrity of data flowing on the network should be ensured.
3/ A failure in the connectivity should not affect independent functionality

OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

1/The IBS should be capable of being operated by personnel holding appropriate certificates.
2. The Man Machine Interface (MMI) should be designed to be easily understood.

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS

1. In order to ensure an adequate system functionality the sensors employed should ensure
communication compatibility in accordance with the relevant international marine interface standard.
2. The IBS alarm management, as a minimum, should comply with the requirements of the Code on
Alarms and Indicators,
3. The number of alarm types and their release should be kept as low as possible by providing
indications for information of lower importance.
4 Alarms should be displayed so that the alarm reason and the resulting functional restrictions can be
easily understood. Indications should be self-explanatory.
5. If subjected to an orderly shut-down, the IBS should, upon tum-on, come to an initial default state.
6. After a power interruption full functionality of the IBS should be available after recovery of all
subsystems. The IBS should not increase the recovery time of individual subsystem functions after
power restoration.
7. If subject to a power interruption the IBS should, upon restoration of power, maintain the
configuration in use and continue automated operation, as far as practicable. Safety related automatic
functions should only be restored upon confirmation by the operator.
8. The IBS should be supplied:
i) from the main and emergency sources of electrical power with automated changeover through a local
distribution board with provision to preclude inadvertent shut-down;
.ii) from a transitional source of electrical power for a duration of not less than 1 min; and
iii) where required, parts of the IBS should also be supplied from a reserve source of electrical power.

COMPARISONS:
DOPPLER, (PRESSURE, EM LOG): Doppler effect (Speed
proportional to dynamic hydropressure, Speed proportional to emf
induced) ; SMG & STW (STW, STW); Dual axis speed( speed in F
direction, Speed in F&A direction); Affected by weather to lesser
extent but problem resolved by using thermistor (Yes, Yes to large
extent); Affected by vessel’s motion but problem resolved by Janus
configuration (Yes because of pressure fluctuations, No) ; Affected
by aeration but to lesser extent (Yes, No); Installation is easy & no
special arrangements required ( Needs special arrangements, W/T
box and sluice v/v arrangement; ---do---); Affected by ship’s voltage
as fluctuation will affect transmitted frequency (No effect, Affected
to lesser extent); Interface with other equipment is very easy ( Not
easy, very easy);Calibration is easy; ( Difficult because not linear,
Easy); Can be used as an aid during anchor watch (No, No)

Accuracy of logs is checked by measuring distance technique. Use


stop watch and steam up/down stream to offset errors caused by
currents/tidal streams.

DOPPLER LOG: There is a maximum limit (under normal


circumstances) to the depth of water in which ground lock can be
achieved. T4 in deeper water the log may only be locked to the
watermass, in which case the SOG cannot be obtained. Conversely
in shallower water, there is a minimum depth at which water lock is
possible. This s of considerable importance when the log output is
fed to a TM radar display or ARPA.
Some modern Doppler logs claim to be able to indicate
simultaneously the SOG and STW, thus giving two independent
readouts. This is achieved by ‘locking’ to the watermass in a
‘window’ which can be set so that one is certain the response is
coming from a depth les than the depth of the water at the time.
However it is important to remember that ground lock will be lost
when the water becomes too deep. It is then interesting to compare
the two readings, which are now being referenced to the watermass
at two different levels.
Ground reference logs have some means of calibration, for which
operator’s manual should be consulted as no two logs are alike.

HOW AIS WORKS


AIS is an identification system that uses VHF communication to transmit and receive AIS data.AIS
operates principally on two dedicated frequencies or VHF channels AIS 1- 161.975 MHz-channel 87B
(simplex, for ship to ship) and AIS 2- 162.025 MHz-channel 88B (Duplex for ship to shore).Where
these channels are not available regionally, the AIS can be set to alternate designated channels. In other
words AIS is a shipboard broadcast system that acts like a transponder, operating in the VHF maritime
band. It uses Self-Organizing Time Division Multiple Access (SOTDMA) technology to meet this high
broadcast rate and ensure reliable ship-to-ship operation. For this precise timing data in the GPS
signals is used to synchronize multiple data transmissions from many users on a single narrow band
channel. The area in which AIS messages can be received is called ship’s cell.(Ashore, a repeater can
be used to increase the coverage of a cell).Each ship in this way in this way is at the centre of its own
communication cell. If the AIS messages begin to overload the network, it automatically shrinks its cell
by ignoring weaker stations further away in favour of those nearby. The man behind this revolutionary
concept is Swedish inventor named Hekan Lans.
How Does it Work? Each AIS system consists of one VHF transmitter, two VHF TDMA receivers, one
VHF DSC receiver, and a standard marine electronic communications link to shipboard display and
sensor systems. Position and timing information is normally derived from an integral or external global
navigation satellite system (e.g. GPS) receiver, including a medium frequency differential GNSS
receiver for precise position in coastal and inland waters. Other information broadcast by the AIS, if
available, is electronically obtained from shipboard equipment through standard marine data
connections. Heading information and course and speed over ground would normally be provided by
all AIS-equipped ships. Other information, such as rate of turn, angle of heel, pitch and roll, and
destination and ETA could also be provided. AIS equipment is also has “built in test equipment”
(BITE)
The AIS transponder normally works in an autonomous and continuous mode, regardless of whether it
is operating in the open seas or coastal or inland areas. Although only one radio channel is necessary,
each station transmits and receives over two radio channels to avoid interference problems, and to
allow channels to be shifted without communications loss from other ships. The system provides for
automatic contention resolution between itself and other stations, and communications integrity is
maintained even in overload situations.
Each station determines its own transmission schedule (slot), based upon data link traffic history and
knowledge of future actions by other stations. A position report from one AIS station fits into one of
2250 time slots established every 60 seconds. AIS stations continuously synchronize themselves to
each other, to avoid overlap of slot transmissions. Slot selection by an AIS station is randomized within
a defined interval, and tagged with a random timeout of between 0 and 8 frames. When a station
changes its slot assignment, it pre-announces both the new location and the timeout for that location. In
this way new station, including those stations which suddenly come within radio range close to other
vessels will always be received by those vessels.

.AIS consists of both hardware (mobile station itself, GPS Antenna and VHF Antenna) and software.
Software can be reinstalled or upgraded to the latest version in the field by running a software
installation procedure.

AIS must transmit DTM (datum reference sentence) immediately prior to every positional sentence
which is reflected to a datum other than WGS 84, the datum recommended by IMO.
MKD unit provides a simple user interface to the mobile station and can be used for navigating
between dedicated menus for configuration and display of vessel navigation data. Text messages can
also be entered into MKD and transmitted to other ships and shore based AIS stations providing
warnings or other relevant navigational information. If the AIS has been interfaced to the onboard
ECDIS system or radar the info displayed on MKD can also be displayed on AIS compatible ECDIS or
ECS system.

There are 3 modes of operation of AIS:


Autonomous and continuous mode: In this mode AIS automatically defines its own reporting rate in
accordance with its navigational mode, speed and course. The unit also selects its own time slots. This
is normal mode for operation in all areas but the mode may be switched from/to Assigned or
Polled/Controlled mode by a competent authority via a base station on shore.

Assigned Mode: A competent authority responsible for traffic monitoring may remotely set
transmissions intervals and/or time slots for the vessel mobile stations. When operating in Assigned
mode, the mobile station will transmit position data on a slightly different format, AIS Message Type
2, instead of the transmitted AIS Message Type 1. In Assigned mode the mobile station does not
change its reporting rate when changing course and speed. Assignments are limited in time and will be
reissued by the competent authority when needed. Thus Assigned mode only affects the transmission
and not reception of position reports.

Polled/Controlled Mode: In this mode mobile station will automatically respond to interrogation
messages from a ship or competent authority. The response is transmitted on the channel where the
interrogation message was received. Operation in Polled mode does not conflict with the operation in
other two modes.

REPORTING INTERVALS:
At anchor: 3 min ; 0-14 kts: 12 sec; changing course: 4 sec
14-23 kts: 6 sec; changing course: 2 sec
greater than 23 kts: 3 sec; changing course: 2 sec

ADVANTAGES OF AIS

1. Free up VHF channels.


2. AUTOMATIC AND FAST COMMUNICATION
3. SAFE NAVIGATION: AIS can also be installed on buoys, beacons and navaids.This may also
replace racons.
4. COLLISION AVOIDANCE: It can be used for tracking vessels within areas with bad radar
coverage like narrow channel bends, shadow areas in archipelagoes and solid, continuous clutter
caused by heavy rains. It is also not affected by problems of target swapping as in ARPA.
5. Search and Rescue Operations: It will allow SAR coordinators to monitor the movements of all
surface ships, aircraft and helicopters involved in the rescue effort.
6. POLLUTION PREVENTION
7. INTEGRATION WITH VDR (INVESTIGATION)
8. INTEGRATION WITH RADAR TO ENHANCE CAPABILITIES IN BOTH VTS AND
SHIPBOARD SYSTEM: Combined Radar-AIS track is more accurate and reliable than a radar track
alone. It provides a powerful tool for monitoring and controlling movement of vessels through
restricted waters, harbours and narrow channels.
9. VESSEL UPTIME, AND RELATED BUSINRSS BENEFITS: AIS channels can be used to transmit
port data, pilotage, and berth assignments, shipping agency information, tides, and currents etc reports.
10. Short Message Services: AIS has facility for transmitting a safety related message limited to a
maximum of 121 characters at a time to an individual user, user group or VTS centre. It is also possible
to automatically forward this information as an email via LAN/WAN to ship owner/agent.
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR AIS
AIS SHALL:
PROVIDE AUTOMATICALLY TO APPROPRIATELY EQUIPPED SHORE STATIONS, OTHER
SHIPS AND AIRCRAFT INFORMATION, INCLUDING THE SHIP’S IDENTITY, TYPE,
POSITION, COURSE, SPEED, NAVIGATION STATUS AND OTHER SAFETY RELATED
INFORMATION
RECEIVE AUTOMATICALLY SUCH INFORMATION FROM SIMILARLY FITTED SHIPS
MONITOR AND TRACK SHIPS
EXCHANGE DATA WITH SHORE BASED FACILITIES

THE SYSTEM SHOULD BE ABLE TO HANDLE A MINIMUM OF 2000 REPORTS PER MINUTE
TO ADEQUATELY PROVIDE FOR ALL OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS ENVISIONED.
THE INSTALLATION SHOULD BE OPERATIONAL WITHIN 2 MINUTES OF SWITCHING ON.
THE AIS AND ASSOCIATED SENSORS SHOULD BE POWERED FROM THE SHIP’S MAIN
SOURCE OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY.IN ADDITION; IT SHOULD BE POSSIBLE TO OPERATE
THE AIS AND ASSOCIATED SENSORS FROM AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF POWER.

AIS transmits following categories of information :( static and voyage data are transmitted every 6
mins, when amended or on request (e.g. when interrogated by a VTIS operator)
Static Data: IMO number, Call sign and name, length and beam, type of ship, location of position
fixing antenna (transmitted every 6 min and on request)
Dynamic Data: ship’s position, time in UTC, COG, SOG, heading, ROT, navigational status. The
update rates for DD depend on ship’s status and speed. (Transmitted according to reporting rates)
Voyage related Data: This data can be entered manually at the beginning of voyage and can be
amended with time as required. It contains: draft, hazardous cargo (type), destination and ETA (at
Master’s discretion) (transmitted every 6 min, when data amended and on request)
Safety Messages: They are sent as needed.

Caution while using AIS: 1.Certain elements of the dynamic information transmitted by AIS may be
provided from sensors which lack comprehensive integrity monitoring and whose accuracy has not
been tested. Mariners should be aware of this limitation when viewing information on ship borne
navigational display.
2. Over reliance on AIS information for navigational safety should be avoided until steps can be taken
to ensure that all transmitting ships provide the necessary degree of data accuracy and integrity for all
connected sensors.
3. Position(s) of ships received on AIS display may not be referenced to WGS 84 datum.
Requirement to carry AIS: Regulation 19 of SOLAS chapter V requires ships to be fitted with AIS
complying with the P.S. given in resolution MSC.74(69)

MAINTENANCE: 1.Regularly check for firm and fixed mounting of the chassis in order to avoid
vibration and shock.
2. All connectors should be checked for good mechanical and electrical connections.
3. Cables should be bent more than the recommended radius. There should be no sharp bends on co-
axial cables.
4. All cables should be fixed tight and rigid to their supporting structure (bulkhead, mast etc.) and
special care should be taken where cables run through holes with sharp edges.
5. Inspecting LEDs for normal operation gives a good indication of the operating status. Any red LEDs
or alarm LED indicates that further investigation and/or servicing is necessary.
6. Most electronic equipments are not meant for repairs by customers but only by qualified personnel.

VDR
Like black box carried on aircrafts VDRs enable investigators to
review procedures and instructions in the moments before an
accident and help to identify cause of accident. The main purpose of
VDR is to record and store ship’s critical parameters to facilitate
reconstruction of the incident for the purpose of analysis. There is
recording facility in ECDIS where data is recorded minute by minute
for a period of 12 hours. However this records only the ECDIS
picture and does not contain all the critical data.
The recorded data should be capable of being downloaded to a PC
so that it can be played back for analysis and investigation.
Additionally navigator can use this for self analysis, as lessons-
learning tool and thus improvement of procedures in the future.
VDR should have high flexibility so that it can be interfaced with
existing equipment.
VDR consists of 4 modules: (DAFRR)
Data recording module ( Data Management Module): The job of this
unit is to acquire and process all the data, so that it can be stored in
he specific format. Data from various sources is fed to this unit
through various interfaces. It also has an additional hard drive that
can be used for selective retrieval of data.

Audio module: This module consists of an audio mixer for recording


various audio signals/voices from HF and from microphones placed
in w/house, bridge wings, E/R and other critical places. The output of
audio module should be protected by a password to protect the
identity of ship’s staff.

Final recording module: This is a crash survivable, pressure tight,


fire and penetration resistant storage medium to store the required
data. This would be in the form of capsule resistant to shock, fire,
immersion and deep sea pressure. The ideal location for this capsule
is monkey island or bridge wing to provide easy access from
outside.

Remote alarm module: This consists of a small panel connected o


Data management Unit and will generate audible and visible alarm
to indicate any error status of equipment.

Replay station (optional): This is an optional module used to


download and replay the recorded data. The software should be
designed to visualize the information graphically and numerically so
that it can be displayed as required. This data when replayed helps
in investigation, self analysis so that corrective action can be taken
and procedures modified, if required.

VDR can be used to identify cause of an accident and thus make


major contribution to maritime safety.The benefits are: ( PARTR)
Promotion of safe practices
Accident investigation and enquiry
Response assessment and study
Training aid and support
Reduction in insurance costs
Statistics generation
FUNCTION

THE VDR WILL CONTINUOUSLY MAINTAIN:


SEQUENTIAL RECORDS OF PRE-SELECTED DATA ITEMS, RELATED TO
STATUS AND OUTPUT OF THE SHIP’S EQUIPMENT
AND COMMAND AND CONTROL OF THE SHIP.

VDC (VOYAGE DATA CAPSULE):


THE VOYAGE DATA CAPSULE CONTINUOUSLY RECORDS 12 HOURS
OF DATA FROM THE VDR SYSTEM. THE VDC COMPLETELY FULFILS
THE REQUIREMENTS IN THE TEST STANDARDS IEC 61996.
THE VDR WILL BE INSTALLED IN A PROTECTIVE CAPSULE THAT IS
BRIGHTLY COLOURED
AND FITTED WITH AN APPROPRIATE DEVICE TO AID LOCATION
IT WILL BE ENTIRELY AUTOMATIC IN NORMAL OPERATION
ALL VDR WILL UNDERGO AN ANNUAL PERFORMANCE TEST

IMO REQUIREMENTS FOR VDR

A TYPICAL VDR SHOULD BE CAPABLE OF RECORDING THE


FOLLOWING INFORMATION AUTOMATICALLY AND MAINTAIN A
SEQUENTIAL RECORD OF THE DATA FOR AT LEAST PAST 12 HOURS:

¬ CONVERSATIONS ON THE BRIDGE


¬ CONVERSATIONS WITH OTHER SHIPS
¬ RADAR PICTURE
¬ DATE AND TIME
¬ POSITION
¬ SPEED
¬ HEADING FROM THE COMPASS
¬ ECHO SOUNDER (DEPTH)
¬ MAIN ALARMS
¬ RUDDER ORDER AND RESPONSE
¬ ENGINE ORDER AND RESPONSE
¬ HULL OPENING STATUS
¬ WATERTIGHT AND FIRE DOOR STATUS
¬ ACCELERERATIONS AND HULL STRESS
¬ WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION
¬ A MEANS TO MAKE LOCAL COPIES OF INCIDENT DATA
¬ A FIXED OR FLOAT FREE CAPSULE
¬ WITHSTAND SHOCK, PENETRATION BY A 250KG PIN DROPPED 3m
¬ WITHSTAND FIRE AT 260 DEGREE CENTIGRADE FOR 10HRS
¬ WITHSTAND SUBMERGANCE TO 6000m
¬ FITTED WITH ACCOUSTIC BEACON

CARRIAGE REQUIREMENTS
AS PER REGULATION V/20, SOLAS, THE FOLLOWING SHIPS WILL BE
REQUIRED TO CARRY VDR:
¬ PASSENGER SHIPS CONSTRUCTED ON OR AFTER 1 JUL’ 2002
¬ RO-RO PASSENGER SHIPS CONSTRUCTED BEFORE 1 JUL’ 2002,
NOT LATER THAN THE FIRST SURVEY ON OR AFTER 1 JUL’2002
¬ PASSENGER SHIPS OTHER THAN RO-RO PASSENGER SHIPS
CONSTRUCETD BEFORE 1 JUL’2002, NOT LATER THAN 1 JAN’ 2004
¬ SHIPS OTHER THAN PASSENGER SHIPS OF 3000 GT AND UPWARDS
CONSTRUCTED ON OR AFTER 1 JUL 2002
¬ VDR IS REQUIRED TO MEET THE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, NOT
INFERIOR TO THOSE ADOPTED BY THE ORGANISATION
¬ Administration may exempt ships other than Ro-Ro passenger
ships, constructed before 1st July 2002, from being fitted with VDR
where it can be demonstrated that interfacing a VDR with the
existing equipment on the ship is unreasonable and impracticable.

VDR / Simplified VDR


• Cargo ships, when engaged on international voyages, shall be
fitted with a VDR which may be a simplified voyage data recorder
(S-VDR) as follows:
(1) In the case of cargo ships of 20,000 gross tonnage and upwards
constructed before 1 July 2002, at the first scheduled dry-docking
after 1 July 2006 but not later than 1 July 2009.
(2) In the case of cargo ships of 3,000 gross tonnage and upwards
but less than 20,000 gross tonnage constructed before 1 July 2002,
at the first scheduled dry-docking after 1 July 2007 but not later
than 1 July 2010.
• Administrations may exempt cargo ships from the application of
the above requirements when such ships will be taken permanently
out of service within two years after the implementation date.