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Camping as Communication for the Development of Children and Teenagers:


A Case of the Project Communication for Health (C4H)

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Abstract

This research Camping as Communication for the Development of Children


and Teenagers: A Case of the Project Communication for Health (C4H) - had purposes
to study 1) Description of Camp Activity for Children and Teenagers Development of
Communication for Health Project, 2) Operation processes in such Camp Activity and
3) Efficiency of Camp Activity of Communication for Health Project. The research was
studied by observing of the lessons of operation of the Set of Communication for Health
Project in issues of
The results of the study show that the uniqueness of Camp , Activity for
Children and Teenagers Development of Communication for Health Project is the
participation and the use of camp activities for the development of communication and
health in children and teenagers. Each project has different development objectives.
The Alternative Media for Health Project (AMH) aims to develop children and Teenagers
in two levels. The first level is about decision-making. By developing their thinking
process and by opening up to media, they are equipped with what is called the
intellectual weapon . The process of preparation has more priority over the process of
defense which refers to the development of children and teenagers in term of their
ability to analyze the media rather than turning themselves away from the media. The
second level focuses on media usage, by children and Teenagers who are able to
achieve the objective of the first level, for the purpose of being the leaders in using
media to develop the well-being of people in their communities with self-awareness and
media usage expertise , an important strategy in this operation.
The Traditional Media for Health project (TMH) has operational principle was to
use and develop traditional media in order to encourage health of community since
there were problems of mutation of traditional media or lost of traditional media. The
important target of this project was to inherit to conserve the traditional media. So, target
of children and teenagers development of this project was children and teenagers
development to be the traditional media heir by using operation strategy via the
Traditional Media for Healthy Communication Club club of children and teenagers who

( )
interested in traditional media both of the indirect group such as teenagers in
educational institute and direct group who were children of the traditional media actors
in communities by support from adults. The operation under this strategy came from
concept of Rights of the cultural owner understood that the local media were the
community property so everyone in community should participate to conserve and
inherit to keep their traditional media forever.
Operation processes of Media Usage in Camp Activities for Children and
Teenagers Development: Case Study of the Set of Communication for Health Project
found that operation processes were emphasized on the participated operation in all
steps of activity management such as before activity, there were the participated
planning of the working committee of each sub-project with the network participated
activities by using meeting as tool to make understanding. In addition, before activity,
the working committee had analyzed the target group participated in activities before
designed content and planed activity schedules.
During the activity operation, activities give a chance for children and teenagers
to fully participate by created the friendly atmosphere and facilitated to exchange and to
learn by edutainment strategy. The activities had two patterns of knowledge inheritance
between children and teenagers such as elder teach younger in case that they had
different experience or level of knowledge and friend teach friend in case that the
target groups had knowledge in different issue and exchange between groups.
However, between activities, teachers, parents, monks and members of the sub-
district administrational organization had joined and participated in activities to
exchange their knowledge and to observe activities of children and teenagers in order
to understand importance and to support in the future to make the endurance of
activities of children and teenagers. In addition, after activities, there were participated
system of follow up and evaluation of operation.
Efficiency of Children and Teenagers Camp of the Set of Communication for
Health Project found that there were efficiency or usefulness of Children and Teenagers
Camp Activities affecting three target as follows; The first group were children and
Teenagers, the main target group, camp activities affecting their health in 4 dimension of

(!)
body, mind, social and soul. The second group were the organizing committee, camp
activities affecting their knowledge aspect and operation process aspect those they
could apply to use and develop camp management to have more efficiency. The third
group were the stakeholders, teachers and parents had occasion to learn and use
concept of project to make activity in their area.
In addition, There were two dimensions of evaluation of the Children and
Teenagers Camp of the Set of Communication for Health Project such as output and
outcome dimension. Output -the immediately evaluation after activities were finished
and found that participated children and teenagers could analyze usefulness of media.
Outcome dimension found that camp activities created outcome such as concept leader
creation, camp heritance, camp lovers, elder teach younger activity pattern and
outcome of the stake holders.
However, the endurance of the output is a personal achievement, and people
with such achievement will play an important role in passing on the concepts and the
operations of the Set of Communication for Health Project. At the same time, that is a
way toward its sustainability. Moreover, strategies used in operating the Alternative
Media for Health Project (AMH) reflects that the endurance is also a result of community
participation. The importance of camp activities can be realized through the
participation, which leads to more support for children and teenagers activities in the
future. Undoubtedly, this will reinforce the whole process mentioned above. The work
of the Traditional Media for Health project (TMH) through Traditional Media for Healthy
Communication Club is another way that helps promoting the endurance of the output
because club will acts as a place where children can work together with the support
from the communities. Activities they do together year after year will sustain the output
that can be passed on the new members to use and to preserve traditional media in the
communities over time.
The related factors of Children and Teenagers Camp of the Set of
Communication for Health Project could define into two aspects, the first aspect factors
were the factors related to the children and Teenagers participated in activities. In this
aspect, the important variables affecting camp efficiency were their interesting,

(")
combinational character of the children and teenagers participated in activities and
participation of people in community. The second aspect factors were related to the
organizational committee found that the important variables affecting camp efficiency
were their knowledge, importance of management, importance of evaluation and follow
up, continuing of activity, and connection of camp and real world .

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45!'7&(;)3 (9I)!'<*62>'9O2"O52PF)

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- 19 -
%R!6FG"O.2 )*934#!3)5#3302%!(5-C:9KG7!"#45"#3&678/52 4)Z5 (stakeholder) P35#5!%*6FG"4)I /
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D'!'6FG" 3 L"5#'402
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#&OTBF)*/ 4N D2+D5!'D2 (!)9R!6"$" !" (!);+5 /!' !" +F)*3!= 6"0J2L! ;<*($%())3,"
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^`!'L)02,";O5<*($%())3,"45!'7&(;)3 C9';Q"F)*6EH">J%*,L.)!'<*62>'9;<*D&J"O2"(!)
9R!6"$" !"

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D&J"O2" 402

- 20 -
• D&J"(52"(!)Q<$O (Pre- production stage)
• D&"J (!)Q<$O (Production stage)
• D&"J L<& (!)Q<$O (Post- production stage)

/R!L)&+D.24$9H>16(>1'#(&+D&J"O2"H&J 3 ">J(:402 ,"D&J"O2";)(402 D&J"(52"(!)Q<$OL)02D&J"


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- 21 -
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62(/!) /T!"H>1 +B4<!() #&/ 9B2BF ()=N ($ % ())3 +F)*3!= 7!L"* ;<*(!))&( A!4#!3
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)*'*/&J" ((52"%+(!)?@(A!) ;<*(!)O$9O!3Q<)*'*'!# (L<& %+(!)?@(A!)
(4) 5A. &%50AP2S%050A12)':03P25$A9 F)*(2+9.#' (!)%&96(:+D.23I<
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2.6 50A=A.49(%K-?@#85(15AA9':03
3>D.2H>1"5!/& 6(O#5! 45!'/5#",LS53&( %*3>(!)HB536H4#!37'!'!3,"D&J" O2"D2 (!)
6O)>'3(!)2'5! 6O:3H>1 )#3H&J HB536H2'5! /B9O&#,"D&J"O2"9R!6"$" !" ;O5;<.#3&(%*P35425 ',L.4#!3
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45!'X@1 3>4#!3/R!4&SP35;7.V!(201"W (9I)!'<*62>'9," #$7 AN-&', 2549)

- 22 -
4#!3/R!4&S/F)*C'-"N
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6FG" ()*+#"(!)4I5D"!" PF(&+(!) 9R!6"$" !" C9'2!%%*%&9HR!,")IF;++ 5!'W P356FG"

- 23 -
H! (!) L)02%&9HR!2'5! 6FG")*++6FG"H! (!)X@1 D@J"2'I5(&+6 201 "PDH>1620J22R!"#' ;O5H#5! 2'5! ".2'
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4#!36FG"PFP9. L)02)IF;++H>14#)%*6FG"D2 45!' 6FG"O."
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- 24 -
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- 25 -
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- 27 -
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- 28 -
3. =A.&2E('&094=>%9068/':03

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9.!" (">16FG"6LOBQ<#5!HR!P369:( W%@ -2+(!)6D.!45!')

- 29 -
,"-5# L"@1 ?O#))AH>1Q5!"3! (402?O#))AH>1 20) H.S. Dimock (1950, 2.! ,"/B7))=>,
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- 30 -
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- 31 -
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4B'. 6D>1'L!($"62!62 X@1 (!)< 3026)>'")I.9#. '(!)< 302HR!($%())3O5! W 9.#'O"62 ">J Corey and

- 38 -
Micheal ( 1973 ,2.! ,"")$"H)N, 2527) HR!#$%&'7+#5!%*3>Q<(!)6)>'")I.H>14 H"'!#"!"(#5!(!)
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- 39 -
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- 40 -
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- 41 -
(5) ':03P25$A9$ 4)(%!0/ (Trip camps) <&(A=*H>1/R!4&SD2 45!'7&(;)3
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- 42 -
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QI./5 /QI.)&+3>+H+!HH>1 S 6FG"(!)/012/!)H! 69>'#


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M 6F\!L3!'67012(!)
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C
QI./5 3>2R!"!%
6L"02(#5!QI.)&+ 6FG"()*+#"(!)T5!'H29
R D.23I<D5!#/!)

!"#$% 12: Transmission Model

- 51 -
QI./5 /QI.)&+/<&+
+H+!H(&"PF3! S1 R1 6FG"(!)/012/!)/2 H!
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6F\!L3!'67012(!)/).! 4#!3
R2 S2
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6/32(&" S3 R3 6FG"()*+#"(!)/).!
4#!3/&37&"MN)*L#5! 4I5
/012/!)

!"#$% 13: Ritualistic Model

%!(E!7H>1;/9 %*6L:"P9.C9' !5 '#5! ;++%R!<2 6-$ (!)T5!'H29D5!#/!)"&J"%*


6FG" (!)/012/!)H! 69>'#2'I5;<.# 402 (!)/5 /!)%!(QI./5 /!)3!'& QI.)&+/!)H! 69>' # ;<*(!)
(R!L"9+H+!HD2 QI./5 /!) / QI.)&+/!)(:%*O!'O&# 6-5" 7>16<>J' 45!'%*6FG"QI.7I9^`!'69>'# 69:( W
(:%*6FG"67>' QI.ZY
,"D=*H>1;++%R!<2 6-$ 7$M>())3"&J" %*6FG"(!)/012/!)/2 H! ;<*(!)6FG"QI./5
/!) / QI.)&+/!)%*3>(!)/<&++H+!H (Role thifting) (&"2'I5O<296#<! )IF;++H>16)!4B."64'(:402
(!)7I94B'/"H"!H>1QI./"H"!O5! Q<&9(&"6FG"QI.7I9;<*QI.ZY
(1) (!)/012/!);++P353>/5#")5#3%*6"."50A?@#8?0A$%&)(#/ (Vertical) ;O5(!)
/012/!);++3>/5#")5#3%*6F]9C2(!/,L.3>(!)/012/!);"#)*"!+ O&#2'5! D2 (!)/012/!);"#9$1 (:
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7I94B'(&"
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%!(H>3QI.%&9L)02QI."R!(<B53PF'& /3!-$(45!' ;O5,"6#<!69>'#(&" ,"($%())345!'L)026(3(!)<*6<5"
L<!'2'5! (:%*(R!L"9,"E!',"L3I/5 3!-$(45!'O.2 3>(!)/012/!)(&"9.#'

- 52 -
(\) A.)2 68/50A9"?: & %A: & 9 ,";Q"E!7H>1 ; /9 "&J " 6FG " O." ;++D2
()*+#"(!)/012/!)H>1QI.H>16D.!)5#3(!)/012/!)%*3>)*9&+(!)6D.!)5#3%!(".2'PFL!3!( X@1 6)!2!%%*
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,")*9&+D2 (!)3>/5#")5#3H>1".2'H>1/B9402 50A4=>%KG7A2 ?0A X@1 O!3F(O$,"(!)
6D.!)5#3($%())3O5! W D2 45!' %*6F]9C2(!/,L./3!-$(45!'P9.3>/5#")5#3,")*9&+">J2'I5;<.# 6-5"
(!))&+ZY C2#!H (!))&+ZY 4R!+))'!'%!(#$H'!() (!))&+)I.(e(O$(!D2 45!' 6FG"O."
,")*9&+H>1/I D@J"3!402(!)3>/5#")5#3,"K!"*KG7K-(E / KG7$?)/,"()*+#"(!)
/012/!)X@1 C9'/5#",LS5 ,"/012($%())345!'(:3&(%*6F]9C2(!/,L./3!-$(P9.3/> 5#")5#3,")*9&+">J 6-5"
(!);/9 (!)<*6<5")2+(2 PZ (!)/5 Q< !"D2 (<B536D.!F)*(#9 (!)"R!62!6)>' 4#!3/Q<(!)
/R!)#%F`!D2 /3!-$(3!O$9;/9 P#.H>1+2)N9 6FG"O."
/5#"(!)3>/5#")5#3H>13>)*9&+/I D@J"3!2>( 402 50A9"?:&%A:&9;%50A885A.4 "3
5,45LMN X@1 %*6(>1' #D.2 (&+/012($%())345!'C9'O) 6"012 %!(45!'6FG" ($% ())3H>13>4 "3!2'I5
)5#3(&"6FG"%R!"#"3!( 9& "&J"%@ O.2 3>(!)HR!D.2O(< )5#3(&"H>16)>'(#5! (e)*6+>'+D2 45!' 6-5"
L.!322("2(45!'O&J ;O56#<!6H5!,9 L!(6)!,-.(!)/012/!);++P353>/5#")5#3 (!)22((e)*6+>'+
O5! W (:%*HR!%!(H>3QI.%&945!' / 7>16<>J' 67>' ^`!'69>'# ;O5L!(,-.(!)/012/!);++3>/5#")5#3 (:
2!%%*%&9,L.3>O&#;H"D2 /3!-$(45!'6D.!3!3>/5#")5#3,"(!)22((e)*6+>'+ ;<*)5#36FG"(<P(
4#+4B39.#'
/R!L)&+(!)3>/5#")5#3,")IF;++/I /B9(:402 (!)3>/5#")5#3,")*9&+"C'+!'L)02
(!);(.PDFYS L!H>16 ($9D@J" X@1 2!%%*,-.)IF ;++(!)3>/5#")5#3;++69>' #(&+ )*9&+ D2 (!)#!
)*6+>'+(e6(=bN

7.3 KG7!"#4670909"?:&%A:&9;%?@#85(15AA9':03
O!3F(O$ , "(!)%& 9 45 ! ',L. ; (5 ( <B5 3 69: ( ;<*6'!#-""&J " ^` ! 'QI. %& 9 3& ( %*4$ 9 T@ ;O5
(<B536F\!L3!'H>16FG"69:(;<*6'!#-"6H5!"&J" ;O52&"H>1%)$ ;<.# L!(6)!L#& H>1%*,L.Q<H>16($9%!((!)
6F<>1'";F< D2 69:(/6'!#-"3>4#!3O526"012 '$1 D@J"O52PF 69:( / 6'!#-"(:%R!6FG"O.2 P9.)&+(!)L"B"
-5#'%!( QI.3/> 5#"6(>1'#D.2 4"201"W (stakeholder) H>12'I5;#9<.23->#$O69:( / 6'!#-" 9& "&J" ,"(!)
O2+4R ! T!3#5 ! (!)%& 9 45 ! '"&J " 4#)%*)*93(!)3> /5 # ")5 #3%!(,4)+.! "&J " 6)!2!%%*;'(
(<B536F\!L3!'22(P9.6FG" 2 (<B53 402

- 53 -
(() (<B5369:( / 6'!#-"
(D) (<B53QI.3/> 5#"6(>1'#D.2 (&+69:(/6'!#-" 6)$13O&J ;O5)*9&+,(<.O&# 6-5" QI.F(4)2
4)I 7)*E$(AB QI.,LS5+.!" 2+O. 4=*())3(!)7&8"!-B3-" 2/3. 6%.!L".!H>1
/T!">2"!3&' U<U
,"F)*#&O$(!)HR! !"45!'D2 C4) (!)(!)/012/!)/BDE!7(:P9.64'3>+H6)>'"6(>1'#(&+(!)
32 D.!3(!))*93(!)3>/5#")5#3D2 (<B53QI.H>13/> 5#"6(>1'#D.2 (&+69:( / 6'!#-"3!;<.# 6-5" (!)%&9
45!'<*4),L.(<B53"&(6)>'" 4=*QI.%&945!'%*HR! !"(&+69:("&(6)>'"6H5!"&J" C9'P35P9.6-$S-#"4)I,L.
6D.!3!)5#3($%())39.#' Q<<&7MNH>16($9D@J"(:402 6301269:(6)>'"%+PF ($%())3<*4)(:L'B9PF ,"-&J"
O523! C4) (!)45!' /7/. P9.6)$136-$S4)I6D.!3!)5#3,"(!)%&945!' ;O5(:6-$S3! "&1 9I69:( W HR!
($%())36H5!"&J" C9'4)IP353+> H+!H2*P) %","H.!'H>1/B9 63021 3>(!)/)BF+H6)>'" ,"(!)%&945!'4)&J
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)5#32'5! 6O:3H>1,"($%())345!' F)*/+(!)=N">J,L.+H6)>'";(5C4) (!)U#5! ,"D=*H>169:("&(6)>'","
;O5<*)B5""&J"6FG"6)012 B2#&'A0& (67)!*69:(6)>'"%+;<.#(:%*22(%!(C) 6)>'") ;O5H#5! 4)I "&J"6FG"
5-R5$<:/'&0932#/3@%H>1P354#)%*32 D.!3PF

7.4 AG=$ 68/50A9"?:&%A:&9


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6(>1'#D.2 (&+69:(;<*6'!#-"3!9.#'67012L#& Q<;L5 4#!3'&1 '0" 4R!T!3O52PF(:402 ;<.#)IF;++
(!))5#3302"&J"%*3>2*P)P9.+.! ,"H>1">J %*D2;+5 F)*6EHD2 H)&7'!()H>14"(<B53O5! W %*"R!62!
3!3>/5#")5#3 9& ">J
(5) !A2P305A!"#4=>%AG=DAA9 6FG")IF;++(!)3>/5#")5#3H>16)!3&(%*4B."64' 6-5"
(!),L.6 $"HB"/"&+/"B" (!)+)$%!4#&/9B2BF()=N 2!L!) /$1 D2 64)012 ,-.O5! W
(6) !A2P305A!"#4=>%%09DAA9 6-5" (!),L.(R!<& ,% (!)6L:"4#!3/R!4&S (!)
,L.4#!3)5#3302 (!)2R!"#'4#!3/*9#( U<U
(') !A2P305A!"#4=>%5H#/AG=5H#/%09DAA9 6-5" 4#!3)I. D5!#/!) D.23I<
O&#2'5! 6-5" (!))*934#!3)5#3302%!(^`!'O5! WD2 C4) (!)45!'D2 (!)/012/!)/BDE!7
1. 2+O. → 3!/& 6(O(!)=N ;<*9IQ< !"69:(
2. 4)I,"C) 6)>'" → 3!/& 6(O(!)=N ;<*)5#3($%())3
3. QI.2R!"#'(!)C) 6)>'" → 2"BS!O,L.69:()5#3($%())3

- 54 -
4. F)!-SN-!#+.!" → 3!,L.4#!3)I.6)012 /3B"P7)
5. 6%.!2!#!/ → 3!^_(69:(,L.6($9/3!M$ 3!)5#3 !"6FG"6(>')O$
6. 7)* → 3!^_(69:(,L.6($9/3!M$ 3!)5#3 !"6FG"6(>')O$
7. QI.,LS5+.!" → 3!,L.6(>')O$)5#36F]9($%())3
8. 6%.!L".!H>1/T!">#$H'B-B3-" → 9I ; <4#+4B 3 2B F ()=N #$ H 'B -B 3 -" ,L. 6 #<!
22(2!(!?
9. 69:( → )5#3HR!($%())3 67012,L.($%())3+))<BPFO!3
#&OTBF)*/ 4NH>1O&J P#.

7.5 =A.?(!D(K-68/50A?@#8?0A$ ?8/!0/$-.$ 9"?:&%A:&9


," !"#$%&'9.!""$6H??!/O)N%R!"#"3!(P9.,L.D.2'0"'&"#5! (!)/012/!);++/2 H! ;<*3>
/5#")5#3"&J"6FG")IF;++(!)/012/!)H>13>F)*/$HM$E!79>(#5!(!)/012/!);++H! 69>'#;<*P353>/5#"
)5#3 D.24."7+9& (<5!#/!3!)T"R!3!,-.,"6)012 D2 /012($%())345!'P9.6-5"(&" 9& O&#2'5! !"#$%&'
6)012 (!)/012/!)H>1,-.,"45!'O52PF">J
=&K'? Q!%# (2542) HR!(!)?@(A!6F)>'+6H>'+(!)6D.!45!'%)$'M))3D2 "&(6)>'"-&J"
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(!)/012/!);++H! 69>'# / P353>/5#")5#3 v.s. (!)/012/!);++/2 H! / 3>/5#")5#3 (:%*6L:"E!7
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':031A(3DAA9$ PC!DQ0?%0 ':031A(3DAA9E09!*+,"50A;<7'W0=AH5+0$ 5-C:9


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3. 7)*/ kN^_(69$"% ()3 3. 6D.!/I5(<B53'52'HR!($%())3;<*/"H"!X&(T!3

- 55 -
':031A(3DAA9$ PC!DQ0?%0 ':031A(3DAA9E09!*+,"50A;<7'W0=AH5+0$ 5-C:9
4. )5#3F)*63$"Q<F)*%R!#&" 4. ($%#&O)F)*%R!#&"
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Q<(!)#$%&'7+#5! ;3.#5!C9'E!7)#3 E!'L<& %!(6D.!45!';<.# 69:( "&(6)>'"H>16D.!45!'


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9.!"O5! W ,L.;(569:(P9.2'5! %)$ %& )#3H&J Q<D2 (!)6F<>1'";F< ">J(:'& 3>4#!34 H"T!#),"
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(!)%&9($%())3,L.69:(P9.)*+!'4#!3)I./@( P9.;/9 4#!34$96L:" P9.X&(T!3CO.O2+3!((#5! X@1 L!(
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($%())3D2 45!'%)$'M))3;++7BHM?!/"!6FG"(!)/012/!);++H! 69>'# ;<*P353>/5#")5#36FG"
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/012/!);++/2 H! ;<*3>/5#")5#3;H+HB(($%())3 X@1 6FG"D.27$/I%"N#5! (!),-.(!)/012/!);++/2
H! ;<*3>/5#")5#3%*-5#',L.F)*/$HM$Q<D2 (!)HR!($%())345!'+))<B6F\!L3!'P9.9(> #5!(!),-.(!)
/012/!);++H! 69>'#;<*P353/> 5#")5#3

8. =A.?(!D(K-68/?@#85(15AA9':03

,";++%R!<2 (!)/012/!)"&J" ,"/5#"H>16(>1'#(&+QI.)&+/!)"&J" 6)!%*6L:"O&#;F)D.! 64>' 2>(


O&#L"@1 402 Q<H>16($9%!((!)/012/!) (Effect) X@1 6FG"6F\!L3!'H>1QI./5 /!)P9.O&J ,%62!P#.#5!%*,L.

- 56 -
6($92*P)D@J"(&+QI.)&+/!)+.! 6-5" /012/!)67012,L.6($94#!3)I.4#!36D.!,% 670126F<>1'"H&?"4O$ 67012
6F<>1'"(!)()*HR! 67021 /).! 4#!36D.!,%)5#3(&" U<U ,"K!"*H>1 45!' (:6FG"/012($%())3F)*6EH
L"@1 9& "&J"%@ 3> !"#$%&'%R!"#"3!(H>1HR!(!)#&9 Q<H>16($9D@J"L)02F)*/$HM$Q<D2 /012($%())3
45!'
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,"E!7

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O52,4)
6F\!L3!'

F)*/$HM$Q<D2 /012
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4#!3'&1 '0"D2 Q<
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(!)#&9)*9&+F)*/$HM$Q<O!3-5# 6#<!

output outcome

!"#$% 14: ;.,/@#I@E:516/0%1-@A-..8&'!(

8.1 =A.?(!D(K- / 'CL=A.Y3B%N68/':03!"#45()6H%F E:85-C:9'%


/R!L)&+ (<B534"H>16 D.!3!6(>1' #D.2 (&+ 45!'"&J" /!3!)T%*;'(;'*P9.6 FG" 3 (<B53O!3
;"#4$9H>1P9.(<5!#3!,"D.! O." 402
(() (<B5369:( / 6'!#-"H>16FG"(<B536F\!L3!'
(D) (<B53H>3 / 4=*QI.%&9
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2+H. 6%.!L".!H>1L"5#' !")&KH.2 T$1" U<U

- 57 -
(5) K-!"#45() E:85-C:94)Z5 / 430&B%-5-C:9 4=U0 <903 3> !"#$%&' %R!"#"
3!(3!'H>1?(@ A!,"6)012 ">J ;<*3&(P9.D.2/)BF#5!/012($%())345!'/!3!)T%*,L.Q<<&7MNH>16($9D@J"O52O&#
69:(,"L<!' W 9.!"
1. 50A&2 ) K-E09 9( E( 68/%2 % !%050AQH5 +0 O!3L<& ( (!)/!D!#$ - !9. ! "
"&"H"!(!) 3&(%*;+5 3$OQ$ <H>16($9D@J"O5269:(," 5 9.!" 9& ">J (9I)!'<*62>'9," #$7 AN-&', 2549)

!"#$%&'#()*(++,-./0
12',23#. 456(/40/789

!"#$% 15: 8@F@#3J6 5 516E:516/0%1-@A-..8&'!(

(1) )7 0 %A: 0 /503 9& H>1 P 9. ( <5 ! #3!;<. # #5 ! ($ % ())3/5 # ",LS5 , "45 ! '"&J " %*
F)*(2+9.#'(!)64<012"PL#)5! (!'HB(/5#" ;<*/3!-$(45!'%*P9.)&+4#!3/"B(/"!"3!%!((!)
64<012"PL#)5! (!'">J62 "2(%!("&J" ,"45!''& 3>(!)%&9O!)! 6#<!O!3L<&(/BD"$/&'F)*%R!#&"
6-5" (!))&+F)*H!"2!L!)H>1O ) O526#<! (!)O01" "2";<*(!)6D.!"2"O) O526#<! X@1 6FG"(!)
/5 6/)$3/BD"$/&'H>19>;<*-5#',L.3)> 5! (!'H>1;D: ;)

9& "&J" %@ 3>)!' !"(!)#$%&'%R!"#"3!(H>17/$ I%"NP9.#5! 45!'7&(;)3/!3!)T7&8"!


9.!")5! (!'P9. 6-5" Coren (1971, 2.! ,"#$7 AN-&', 2549) 7+#5! L<& %!(6D.!45!'D2 69:(LS$
-!'2!'B 9-12 Fd ,"45 ! ')& K 67"X$ < #!6"> ' 69: ( 3> )5 ! (!'H>1 / 3+I ) =N 3 !(D@J " "2(%!("&J "
Rohrbacher (1971, 2.! ,"#$7 AN-&', 2549) '& 7+#5! 69:(H>13"> JR!L"&(3!(6($"PF L<& %!(6D.!45!'
7&(;)3;<.# %*3>"JR!L"&(O&#<9<

(2) )70%80A9LN 6"012 %!(6FG"L<&((!)#5! (!)%&9+))'!(!?,"45!'"&J"%*O.2


F)*(2+PF9.#'4#!36FG"(&"62 4#!3)&( 4#!32+2B5" 4#!3L5# ,' (!),L.2E&' 3$O)P3O)> 4#!3

- 58 -
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+12213#0181!H/- P(IC1G*2GC3C/13=#$%C#$ ,26=/(1!213!01>2CI,!#!1213C1>RW!ID)!P!5%8AB8
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I13=",!>#*8 F<=213C$ID)!3D)C
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6,AL=M%@4+,!"# 2 >RW!213 P(9)1C3'( 4 3'( !F"">G*8<52 P(>/E2./(3'(+,29*/)*>931=PN
IJ%B AB8M, )>B8 >GD ! 9: ; <, 2 6;NA B8IJ%B +:/ >3*% C M(! AB8IJ% B 213R3, " R3=-:2 MN G(IJ% B P(> A(1 2, "
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>3$-!3'(7582133,"3'(I13AB8>/E2 )D1>/E2FMD<=9!!,O!C$2133,"3'(./( .CD>#D12,! "189!B1++=./(C12 "18
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6,AL=M%@4+,!"# 3 >RW! 213#"#)!GC3C X5%8>RW! 213X,2 71CF""GD)-2,! MB"
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+=./( +:/BDB!+:/FAE8 AB8GC3C F<="#"1#P!(1#$%#$%GC3C+=M(B8Rf*",M* >RW!M(! +12>!JOBP1ID)!!$O
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><E2F<=3:D! PTD 3)C.R758C$213R3=G1I,C@,!QN>&-F@3DIJ%B@JO!"(1!C12A5O!
6,AL=M%@4+,!"# 4 >RW!213/58>B1>B2<,26;N P3JB<,26;=>/D! c AB8FMD<=GC3C
>@J%B>R3$-">#$-"2,"GC3CBJ%! c >@J%B!01C1R3,"R3=-:2MN G( P(>A(12,"G:CG!AB8M!>B8 X5%8FMD<=
GC3C+=C$A(BFM2MD182,!.CD)D1+=>RW!+:/>/D!P3JB+://(B- #$%C$9)1CP<12P<1-FMD"#"1#AB8IJ%B

- 150 -
FMD<=GC3CB1++=FM2MD182,!.R !2*+233CIJ%B@JO!"(1!I,T+393,O8#$% 2 +=>RW!213/58A(BC'<+12
GC3CM!>B8<8F&D!G13NM F<= P(#:22<:DCGD)-2,!9*/)*>931=PNA(BC'<FMD<=GC3C3D)C2,! >RW!213
F<2>R<$%-!>3$-!3'(3D)C2,!>RW!F""213C$ID)!3D)C
6,AL=M%@4+,!"# 5 >RW!213)18F&!F!)#18213/01>!*!81! !3=-=MDB.R X5%893,O8
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MDBC9)1C9*/H/-213><D19)1C>RW!C1F<=@,U!1213#0181!AB82132DBM,O8GC3CAB8I@I.>B8 P(
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6,AL=M%@4+,!"# 6 >RW!213R3=>C*!&<213R3=G:CF""C$ID)!3D)C IJ%B@J!O "(1!93,O8#$%
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#$% P(>PCJB!2,!9JB 213 P(>/E2./(3'(+,29*/F<=)*>931=PNGC3C )*>931=PNIJ%B F<=)*>931=PN2*+233C X5%8
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2,"GC3CM,)>B89JB 2139(!P14,2-K1@AB8IJ%B@JO!"(1!M!>B8 F<=./(F!)#18 !213#0181!.RR3,"
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- 151 -
M*/M1CR3=>C*!&<213#0181!AB8FMD<=GC3C#,%)R3=>#4 X5%8 #01 P(213M*/M1CR3=>C*!&<213
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- 153 -
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P3!'H@ (!)6D.!3! )5#3/).! 9.#' 9& "&L"69:(;<*6'!#-"%@ 4#)3>/$IV$I>1%*6D.!3!,"(!))&(A!
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- 204 -
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/).! (<B53WM./0+I29I>16FG"4")B5",P35,P.P&"(<&+ 3!/",%6)012 /01270L"+.!",P.3!('$1 D@L" C9'3>N&#
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)#3H@ 69:(;<*6'!#-"(J!<& HM(I.!I!'%!(/012/3&',P35
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7&"V($%/J!4&Q,"(!)IJ! !"67021 /).! 6/)$3/BDE!79.#'(<#$V>N5! T 9& "&L"%@ %*7+#5!4B=<&(A=*
67)!*D2 ($%())345!'69:(;<*6'!#-"D2 -B9C4) (!)(!)/012/!)67012/BDE!76FG"($%())345!'I>13>
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32 #5! 45!' 6FG" /012($%())3 I>1%*,-.6FG"64)012 302,"(!)7&8"!69:(;<*6'!#-"
I&L ">L36> FU!P3!'/J!4&Q402(!)7&8"!/BDE!7D2 69:(;<*6'!#-" C9'6R7!*2'5! '$1 (!)
7&8"!P)02(!)/).! 6/)$3/BDE!7,")*9&+ %$N#$QQ!= O@1 6FG"3$N$/BDE!7I>13>4#!36(>1'#7&"(&+
3$N/$ BDE!7201"T C9'#! 6FU!P3!',"(!)7&8"!69:(;<*6'!#-","/2 ;"#I! 402 (48!.6(%5
6FG" (!)/). ! 6/)$3/B DE!7%$N#$Q Q!=,")*9&+ D2 FYQ Q! N!3;"#I! (!)IJ! !"D2
C4) (!) ////. I>13B5 6"."(!)/).! ()*+#"(!))M.I&"/012,P.(&+(<B5369:(;<*6'!#-","/2 )*9&+402
%. 0/ $%& ()*+#"(!)N$9N&L 2!#BVI! FYQQ! ,P.69:(;<*6'!#-")M.%&(4$9#$64)!*PK(52"6F[9)&+
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3$N$D2 WM.)&+/!) (active audience) D=*I>1," %. /0'()*+, 6FG")*9&+D2 (!)7&8"!(<B5369:(
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6'!#-","3$ND$ 2 WM./5 /!) (sender)

- 205 -
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4B=45!D2 /01270"L +.!" ;<*)5#36FG"/5#"P"@1 D2 WM./0+I29/01270L"+.!" ,P.'& 4 2'M5N52SF C9'
6FG"WM./0+I29I>13>4#!36D.!,%;<*E!4EM3$,%,"4B=45!D2 /01270L"+.!" 67012/).! %$N/J!"@(,P.69:(
6'!#-"6P:"4B=45!D2 ?$<F#&8"V))32&"6FG"2&N<&(A=K6R7!*D2 I.2 H$1"N"62 ;<*6D.!3!3>
/5#")5#3,"(!))&(A!;<*/0+I29,P.4 2'M5N25 SF
"2(%!(4B = <& ( A=*6R7!D2 ($ % ())345 ! '69: ( ;<*6'!#-"9& (<5 ! #D. ! N. " ;<. #
4B=<&(A=*I>1/J!4&Q2>( 2 F)*(!) 402 4B=<&(A=*,"; 5D2 ;"#4$9(!)IJ! !";<*4B=<&(A=*
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E!',N.(!),-.;"#4$9F<*(<'BIVK(!)IJ! !"I>13>4B=<&(A=*6R7!*D2 -B9C4) (!) I>13>7"0L Z!"3!
%!(N.2 IB"4#!3)M.6)012 (!)/012/!)I>13!%!("&(#$-!(!)/!'"$6I??!/N)K 2@64@I4E2/$%&'():8
>&?)@5=?*!"#$J.>@K A+65-B5%%9>7. /1235()*1/.8D4A+6D&2E>%65.%5.%$F#+$.%1GF#+
$&A,.G B<61'L45-B5%%9>7./!"#+/MN7 .4>-21%F#+65.%$F#+$.% !"#B*CD:5%* 845.%$F#+$.%1GF#+
$%:.61$%-9$&A,.GCO:1235()*1/.8D4

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6R7!*I>1/J!4&Q 402 6FG"($%())3I>1N.2 < IB"/M I&L ,"; 5D2 6 $"IB";<*IB"I>16FG"I)&7'!()+B44<
9& "&L"(!)%*IJ!,P.($%())345!'69:(;<*6'!#-"F)*/+W</J!6):%I&L ,"6-$ F)*/$IV$W< 402 +))<B
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(!)?@(A!7+#5! ,"D&L"(52"($%())3">L()*+#"(!)IJ! !" %*F)*(2+SF9.#' 2 /5#"/J!4&Q402
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$78 4(%5 6FG " /5 # "D2 (!)1P%" / 9>8.9%M: (knowledge) %!(?@ ( A!7+#5 !
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IJ! !"I>1#5! D&+64<012"C4) (!)+"Z!"4#!3)M. C9',"(!)6N)>'34#!37).23,"/5#"D2 4#!3)M.

- 206 -
"&L" %*F)*(2+SF9.#'<J!9&+;)( 402 5.%%M:5)&791'Q.O9./ 402 (!)#$64)!*PK#5!(<B536FU!P3!'I>1
%*6D.!)5#3($%())3"&L"6FG",4)3!%!(SP";<*3>4#!3/!3!)H,")*9&+,9 O@1 N!3P<&((!)I!
"$6I??!/N)K(!))M.(<B536FU!P3!'"&L"%*3>4#!3/J!4&Q2'5! '$1 ,"(!)#$64)!*PK(<B536FU!P3!' ;<*
"J!SF/M5(!)#! ;W"(!)/012/!)67021 ,P.(!)/012/!)(&+(<B536FU!P3!'"&L"F)*/+4#!3/J!6):% /J!P)&+
,"()=>D2 /012($%())345!'(:6-5"(!)#$64)!*PK(<B536FU!P3!'I>1%*6D.!)5#3($%())3#5!6FG",4)"&L"(:
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<J!9&+H&93! 402 5.%%M:1'Q.O9./ O@1 P<&(%!((!)#$64)!*PK(<B536FU!P3!'I>1%*6D.!
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(<B536FU!P3!';N5<*(<B53SF,";"#I! ,9 6-5" ,"()=>D2 C4) (!) ////. H.!(<B536FU!P3!''&
6FG"(<B53I>1'& S353>F)*/+(!)=K6)012 (!))M.6I5!I&"/0123!("&( (passive audience) (!)(J!P"9
6FU!P3!',"(!)7&8"!(:%*#! 6FU!P3!'2'M5,")*9&+D2 (!)7&8"!,")*9&+FY%6%( 402 (!)N$9N&L
2!#BVI! FYQ Q!,P.( <B536FU!P3!'/!3!)HI>1% *4$9 #$6 4)!*PK(52"I>1% *6<02()&+ /012 D=*I>1P !(
(<B536FU!P3!'3>)*9&+ (!))M.6 I5!I&" /0122'M5;<.#,")*9&+ P"@1 (active audience) (!)(J!P"9
6FU!P3!'(:%*#! 2'M5,")*9&+-B3-" I>16"."(!)7&8"!,P.6FG";(""J!I>1/!3!)H6<02(,-./012,"-B3-"
67021 (!)/).! 6/)$3/BDE!7-B3-" 6FG"N." I&L ">L(!))M.6FU!P3!'"&L"H026FG"/5#"/J!4&Q2'5! '$1 D2 /012
($% ())345!' 6"012 %!(/012($% ())345!'3$S9.6($9D@L" N!3'H!())3P)02N!3V))3-!N$ (!)%&9
($%())345!';N5<*4)&L %@ %*N.2 3>6FU!P3!'I>1;"5-&9 O@1 P!(6F)>'+(&+(!)69$"I! (:6/302"(!)
69$"I! I>1)M.%B9P3!'F<!'I! 9& "&L"4#!3-&96%"D2 6FU!P3!'%@ 6FG"P&#,%/J!4&QI>1/B9,"(!)IJ!
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N!36FU!P3!'I>1#! S#.P)02S352'5! S) I&L ">L67)!*6"0L2P!I>1%*,-.(!)2+)3"&L"%*N.2 /294<.2 (&+
6FU!P3!'I>1#! S#. 2'5! S)(:9>(!)22(;++6"0L2P!%*F)*(2+SF9.#'D&L"N2"/J!4&Q 402 D&L"D2
6<02(6"0L2P!;<*D&L"D2 (!)6<02(#$I'!() I>1%*N.2 3>4#!36P3!*/3(&+(<B536FU!P3!'I>16FG"69:(
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,9+.! ,"<J!9&+(52"P<& O@1 /294<.2 (&+(<B536FU!P3!';<*6"0L2P!I>1HM(22(;++S#.67012I>1%*,P.
(!)IJ!($%())345!'"&L"+))<BW<N!36FU!P3!'I>1#! S#.

- 207 -
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3>/5#"6(>1'#D.2 C9'6R7!*I>3 !"WM.%&9($%())3S9.3>4#!36D.!,%)5#3(&" (shared understanding)
,"/5#"N5! T D2 (!)6N)>'34#!3)M. 9& "&L"(!)I>1%*,P.IB(4"3>4#!36D.!,%)5#3(&"S9."&L"%BN.2 ,-.
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F)*69:"(!)\](2+)3;N5<*4)&L ;<*()*+#"(!)W<$N/012F)*6EIN5! T )#3H@ (!)#$64)!*PK+)$+I
-B3-"D2 (<B536FU!P3!'I>16 D.!)5#3($% ())39.#' C9',-.( !)#$6 4)!*PK4B= <&( A=* (attribute
analysis) 6FG"64)012 302/J!4&Q,"(!)#$64)!*PK "2(%!(">L'& 3>(!)N$9N&L 4#!3)M.6(>1'#(&+6)012 /012
;<*6)012 /BDE!7 O@1 /294<.2 (!);"#I! (!)IJ! !"N!3(<'BI VK )M.I&" N"62 )M.6(5 ,-./012

- 208 -
,"9.!";)(I>13B5 6".",P. WM.)&+/!) 3> 2!#BVI! FYQQ! ,"(!)N52/M.N25 )2 (&+WM./5 /!) O@1 6FG"/5#"
P"@1 D2 (!)6/)$3/).! ?&('E!7,P.(&+(<B536FU!P3!'69:(;<*6'!#-","Z!"*D2 WM.)&+/!) ,"; 5
4#!3)M.;<*I&(A*(!)4$9#$64)!*PKO@1 %*IJ!,P.6($9(!)#$64)!*PKF)*63$"W<;<*N&(/$",%S9.2'5! 3>
6PNBW< P)02 )M.I&"N"62
/J!P)&+ ,"/5 #"D2 %M:1 576 CD:$F# + "&L" 6FG" ($ % ())3(!)I9<2 W<$ N /01 2 N!3
;"#I! (!)IJ! !"I>1/2 D2 (<'BIVK )M.I&"N"62 )M.6(5 ,-./012 I>16"."(!)6F<>1'"+I+!ID2 WM.)&+
/!) ,P. 6 FG" WM./5 /!) 9.#'(!)22(;++($% ())3,P.WM.)& + /!)S9. 3>C2(!//<&+ +I+!I (role
shifting) (<!'6FG"WM./5 /!) P)02 WM.W<$N4#!3P3!' 67021 ,P.6($94#!36D.!,%,"+I+!IP".!I>1;<*
2J!"!%,"(!)/012/!)D2 WM./5 /!) O@1 %*"J!SF/M54#!36D.!,% )M.%&(6D! )M.%&(6)! 402 S9.6)>'")M.#5!
6#<!6FG"WM.9M WM._Y 2'!(6P:"2'!(_Y 2*S) 63012N.2 3!6FG"WM.W<$N%*S9.4!J "@ H@ WM.)&+/!)#5!3>4#!3
N.2 (!)2'5! S)+.!
2'5! S)(:9P> !(7$%!)=!%!(;"#4$9(!)IJ! !"D2 C4) (!) ////. I>13>3B332
N5269:(;<*6'!#-"#5!3>4 #!3P<!(P<!',"; 5D2 )*9&+ (!))M.6I5!I&"/012 9& "&L" (!)#$64)!*PK
(<B536FU!P3!'(52"IJ!($% ())345!'D2 C4) (!) ////. %@ 3>4#!3/&37&"VKN526FU!P3!',"(!)
7&8"!69:(;<*6'!#-"I>1;N(N5! (&";3.%*,-.)MF;++($%())3I>16P302"(&" (<5!#402 ($%())3,"
/5#"D2 )M.I&"N"62 /J!P)&+(<B536FU!P3!'I>13>)*9&+(!))M.6I5!I&",")*9&+I>1S353!("&( (passive
audience) 6FU!P3!'%!(($%())3,"/5#"">L(:67>' 67021 N$9N&L 2!#BVI! FYQQ! ,P.(<B536FU!P3!'
"J!SF,-.,"()*+#"(!)(!)#$64)!*PK(52"6<02()&+/012 D=*I>1(<B536FU!P3!'I>13>)*9&+(!))M.6I5!I&"
/012/M D@L" (active audience) 6FU!P3!'%!(($%())3,"/5#"">L%*S35S9.3B5 6R7!*(!)N$9N&L 2!#BVI!
FYQQ!6I5!"&L" ;N5S9.D'!'SF/M.(!)#$64)!*PK+)$+I-B3-"67012,P.I)!+FYQP!/BDE!7D2 -B3-"
(52"I>1%*6<02(,-./012,"-B3-"3!6FG"64)012 302,"(!)/).! 6/)$3/BDE!7
/J! P)& + ,"/5 # "D2 )M. 6 (5 ,-. /01 2 ,"()=>D 2 (<B5 3 6FU !P3!'I>1 6 FG " passive
audience (!),P.I9<2 W<$N/012(:670126FU!P3!',P.)&+)M.;<*6D.!,%H@ ()*+#"(!)W<$N 670126FG"
F)*C'-"K,"(!)#$64)!*PK(52"6F[9)&+/012 /5#","()=>(<B536FU!P3!'I>16FG" active audience (!)
6)>'")M.()*+#"(!)W<$N/012 %@ 3B5 6".",P.3>4#!36D.!,%;<*/!3!)HW<$N/0122'5! /).! /))4K,"(!)
/).! 6/)$3/BDE!7-B3-"S9.
/5#","()=>D2 E>%65.%$F#+GFI4 :. 4$F#+$.%$&A ($G$.) 7+#5!3>( !);+5
($%())322(6FG" 2 /5#"6-5"69>'#(&" 402 /5#";)(6FG"(!),P.4#!3)M.6)012 /01270L"+.!" C9'%*3>(!)
,P.4#!3)M.,"(!)#$64)!*PK4B=<&(A=*D2 /01270"L +.!" N!3P<&( 4 )M. ()M.%&( )M.,% )M.,-. )M.)&(A!);<*(!)
#$64)!*PK4B=45!D2 /01270L"+.!"N!3P<&( N."S3.4B= 45! /J!P)&+/5#"I>1/2 %*6FG"($%())3E!4

- 209 -
+&"6I$ I>16 F[9C2(!/,P.3>(!);/9 ?$<F#&8"V))3D2 ;N5<*-3)3I>13!6D.!)5#3($% ())3 E!',N.
(<'BIVK/!)*+&"6I$ (edutainment) I>1S356".";N567>' (!);/9 6I5!"&L"P!(;N56"."(!),P.4#!3)M.
)*P#5! (!);/9 9.#' O@1 /294<.2 (&+;"#4$9(!)/0+I29/01270L"+.!","; 5D2 (!)/).! WM.-3I>13>
4#!3)M. 9M?<$ F*6FG" C9'6"."(!)/).! (<B53WM.-3;++ I! <&9 (shortcut) I>1/01270L"+.!"IB(-"$9%*
62!;N5 (!);/9 2'5 ! 69>' #S35S9. ;N5% *N. 2 3> (!)2V$+ !',P.4#!3)M.9.#' O@1 6FG" SFN!3
P<&((!);++/!)*+&"6I$
2'5! S)(:9>P!(7$%!)=!%!(($%())3I&L /2 /5#"9& (<5!#D.! N."D2 C4) (!)
/7/. %*7+#5! (!)22(;++($% ())33>4#!3/294<.2 (&+ 6FU!P3!',"(!)7&8"!69:( ;<*
6'!#-",P.6FG"WM./0+I29/01270L"+.!"I>13>I&L 4#!3)M.4#!36D.!,%;<*,"D=*69>'#(&"(:3>4#!3)M./@(
E!4EM3$,%,"?$<F#&8"V))3I.2 H$1"D2 N" (<5!#402 ($%())3,"/5#";)( %*6FG"(!)7&8"!,P.
(<B536FU!P3!'3>4#!3)M.4#!36D.!,%/01270L"+.!" D=*I>1($%())3,"/5#"I>1/2 "&L"%*6FG"(!)/).!
4#!3E!4EM3,$ %,P.(&+69:(;<*6'!#-" I>1S9.3>C2(!/;/9 ?$<F#&8"V))370L"+.!"D2 N"62 O@1
6FG"6/302"(!)6/)$3/).! 2&N<&(A=K?&(9$`?)>,P.(<B5369:(;<*6'!#-"3>4#!3E!4EM3,$ %,"#&8"V))3
D2 N"62 C9'I>1($%())3I&L /2 /5#"%*3>4#!3/J!4&Q,"(!)7&8"!69:(;<*6'!#-",P.6FG"WM./0+
I29/01270L"+.!"I>13I> &L 4#!36D.!,%;<*E!4EM3$,%,"/01270"L +.!"D2 N"62
F)*69:"P"@1 I>14#),"(!)?@(A!()*+#"(!)IJ! !")*P#5! ($%())345!'D2 -B9
C4) (!)(!)/012/!)67021 /BDE!7 402 )MF;++(!);<(6F<>1'"6)>'")M.I>16($9D@L","($%())345!';N5<*
4)&L D2 ;N5<*C4) (!)'52' O@1 %!((!)?@(A!7+#5! )MF;++(!);<*6F<>1'"6)>'")M.(&+)*P#5!
(<B536FU!P3!'I>16 D.!)5#3($% ())33>2'M5 2 )MF ;++ 402 ;++ G"#$ +44:+6 %*6FG" )MF ;++(!)
;<(6F<>1'"6)>'")M.I>1(<B536FU!P3!'3>164'3>F)*/+(!)=K6D.!)5#3($%())345!'(&+I! -B9C4) (!)
(!)/012/!)67012/BDE!73!;<.# ,"($%())34)&L N523!(:%*6D.!3!-5#'6FG"7>16<>L' ,"(!),P.4#!3)M.(&+
(<B536FU!P3!'(<B53,P35I>167$1 3>C2(!/S9.6 D.!)5#3($%())345!',"4)&L ;)( O@1 6FG"+))'!(!?(!)
;<(6F<>1'"6)>'")M.I>16FG"(&"62 )MF;++(!);<(6F<>1'"6)>'")M.;++ 7>1/2"".2 ">L% *6P:"S9., "
($%())345!'D2 C4) (!) /7/. I>1%*3>)B5"7>1-3)36D.!3!6FG"7>16<>L' ,"(!)($%())345!'I>1)B5"".2
-3)367$1 6D.!)5#3($%())36FG"4)&L ;)(
2>()MF;++P"@1 402 ;++ 1GF#+4$+41GF#+4 6FG")MF;++(!);<(6F<>1'"6)>'")M.
D2 (<B536FU!P3!'I>13!%!(64)02D5!'N5! (&" ;<*N5! 3>4#!3)M.,"F)*69:"D2 N"62 (:%*3>(!)
;<(6F<>1'"6)>'")M.;++ 67021 "-5#'67012" %*6P:"S9.%!(($%())345!'FYa"%&()'!"/))4K/).! D26<5"
70"L +.!"I>1 %.<J!7M" ,"($%())34)&L "&L"(<B5364)02D5!'%&()'!"O@1 6FG"E!4>D2 C4) (!) ////. 3>
4#!3H"&9,"6)012 D2 (!)FYa"%&()'!"(:/2"(<B5364)02D5!'D2 6<5"70"L +.!"O@1 6FG"E!4>D2 C4) (!)

- 210 -
/7/. D=*I>1(<B5364)02D5!'D2 6<5"70"L +.!"I>13>4#!3H"&","(!)F)*9$AZKD2 6<5"70"L +.!"(:%*/2"
(<B5364)02D5!'%&()'!",P.F)*9$AZKD2 6<5" 6FG"N." P)022>(($%())3I>16P:"S9.2'5! -&9I>1/B9D2 (!)
,P.)MF;++(!);<(6F<>1'"6)>'")M.;++ 67012"-5#'67012" 402($%())345!'6'!#-" )M.I&"N"62 )M.6(5
,-./012 O@1 6FG"($%())3I>1)5#364)02D5!'69:(D2 I&L /2 C4) (!)'52'3>13>4#!3H"&","F)*69:"/012I>1
N5! (&" 63021 3!)5#3($%())3(&"(:3>(!);<(6F<>1'"6)>'")M.)*P5! (&",")MF;++ 67012"-5#'67012"
%!((!)?@( A!()*+#"(!)IJ! !",")*P#5 ! ($ % ())3%*7+F)*69: " I>1 "5!/",% 40 2
()*+#"(!)IJ! !")*P#5! ($%())3D2 I&L /2 C4) (!)'52' N5! 9J!6"$"SFE!',N.;"#4$9;<*
(<'BIVK(!)IJ! !"I>1S9.?(@ A!S#.,"+II>1 4 O@1 P!(7$%!)=!;<.#%*6P:"#5!(<'BIVKI>1/J!4&QF)*(!)
P"@1 I>16 P: " S9.-&9 ,"D&L" N2")*P#5! (!)IJ!($% ())3 40 2 (<'B I VK( !)/01 2/!);++3>/5# ")5#3O@1
($%())345!'D2 IB5 /2 C4) (!)'52' N5! ,P.4#!3/J!4&Q(&+(!)3>/5#")5#3D2 WM.I>16(>1'#D.2 6-5"
,"()=>D2 C4) (!) ////. (!)%&9($%())345!',"-5# P<& (:6"."(!)%&9($%())345!',"70L"I>1D2
(<B536FU!P3!'9.#'9!)9@ 4","-B3-"6D.!3!3> /5#")5#3 S35#5!%*6FG" F)!-QK- !#+. !" 2+N.
C) 6)>'" 6FG"N." /5#"()=>D2 C4) (!) /7/. (:6-5"69>'#(&"I>13(> !)22(;++($%())3I>1,P.(<B534)M
2!%!)'KO@1 /5#",PQ56FG"I>1F)@(A!-3)3/01270L"+.!"/012/!)/BD"&L" S9.6D.!3!3>/5#")5#3,"($%())3
45!'D2 C4) (!) /7/. I&L ">L4#!3/J!4&QD2 (<'BIVK(!)/012/!);++3>/5#")5#3I>1I! -B9C4) (!)
(!)/012/!)67021 /BDE!7"J!3!6FG"(<'BIVKP<&( 3>4#!3/J!4&Q,"; 5I>16FG"(<'BIVK/J!4&QI>1%*/).!
4#!3'&1 '0",P.(&+F)*/$IV$W<I>16($9D@L"%!(($%())345!'69:(;<*6'!#-"
"2(%!(">L( !)?@(A!'& 7+#5!($% ())345!'D2 -B9C4) (!)(!)/012/!)67012/BDE!7S9.
9J!6"$"SFE!',N.(<'BIVKI>1/J!4&Q2>((<'BIVKP"@1 "&L" 402 (<'BIVK/!)*+&"6I$ (edutainment) O@1
6FG"(<'BIVK/J!4&Q,"(!)IJ! !"(&+69:(;<*6'!#-" 67)!*C9'V))3-!N$D2 69:(%*2'M5+"70L"Z!"
D2 4#!3/"B( 9& "&L"(!)IJ!($%())3(&+69:(;<*6'!#-"%@ 4#),/56"0L2P!4#!3)M.I>1#! 2'M5+"67012
Z!"D2 4#!3/"B( 67021 ,P.6($9+))'!(!?(!)6)>'")M.I>1/294<.2 ;<*6P3!*/3(&+(<B536FU!P3!'I>1
6FG"69:(;<*6'!#-" C9'I>1I&L /2 C4) (!)'52'N5! "J!62!(<'BIVK">L3!,-.,"($%())345!'69:(;<*
6'!#-"IB(($%())3
A@4I O)@65-B5%%9 %!((!)?@(A!7+#5!()*+#"(!)IJ! !"P<& ($%())345!';N5<*4)&L
D2 -B9C4) (!)(!)/012/!)67012/BDE!7 %*3>(!)F)*63$"W<,"/5#"N5! T9& ">CL 9'3>(!)#! ()2+,"
(!)F)*63$"W<(!)($%())345!';N5<*4)&L S#. 3 9.!" 9& ">L

5.%'%*19-4'%*$-!S-0) C9'#&9%!(W<D2 ($%())36FG" SF6FU!P3!';<*


#&NHBF)*/ 4KD2 ($%())3;N5<*4)&L P)02S35 O@1 %!((!)?@(A!7+#5!($%())345!'69:(;<*6'!#-"
D2 I&L /2 C4) (!)N5 ! +))<B W <N!36FU ! P3!'I>1 I&L /2 C4) (!)#! S#. C9'%*(<5 ! #H@

- 211 -
)!'<*62>'9H@ F)*/$IV$W<,"P&#D.2(!)?@(A!F)*/$IV$W<D2 ($%())345!'69:(;<*6'!#-"D2 -B9
C4) (!)(!)/012/!)67021 /BDE!7 O@1 %*S9.(<5!#H@ N52SFD.! P".!
5.%'%*19-4'%*$-!S-,.G 6FG" (!)F)*63$"W<4#!34B.345!%!( +F)*3!=
I>1NL& S#. %*6P: " #5 ! 3> ( !),-. +F)*3!=E!',N.D. 2 %J ! (& 9 ;N5 /!3!)HIJ ! ($ % ())3S9. N ) N!3
#&NHBF)*/ 4K ;<*(<B536FU!P3!'I>1N&L S#. 630126F)>'+6I>'+(&+($%())3O@1 3>P<!'($%())3 ;<*,-.
6#<!"!";<.# %*6P:"#5!/!3!)H,-.S9.2'5! 6($9F)*C'-"KS9./M /B96($"(#5!I>1N&L S#. ;N53+> ! ($%())3
I>1,-. +F)*3!=3!(63021 6I>'+(&+N&# !" 6"012 %!(D!94#!37).23,"(!)6N)>'3 !"
5.%'%*19-45%* 845.% 6FG"(!)F)*63$"W3(!)IJ! !"C9'%*6P:"#5!,"(!)
%&9($%())3;N5<*4)&L %*3>(!)H29+I6)>'" O@1 (:%*"J!3!F)&+,-.(&+($%())3,"4)&L N52T SF C9'9M
%!((<B536FU!P3!'6FG"P<&( ;<.#%@ 452'#! ()*+#"(!) 6-5" 6"0L2P!($% ())3,"-5# ;)(%*3>
P<!(P<!';<*3>F)$3!=452"D.! 3!(630126I>'+(&+)*'*6#<! W<I>1S9.402(<B536FU!P3!'/!3!)H
)&+S9.;N567>' W$#6W$";<*S35I&L P39 %@ S9.F)&+6F<>1'"(!),P.6"0L2P!I>1/294<.2 (&+(<B536FU!P3!'
3!(D@L" I&L ,"; F5 )$3!=;<*F)*6EI6"0L2P! ;<*7'!'!3P!-52 I! 201" T 6/)$3SF%!((!);%(
62(/!);<*+))'!'
2'5! S)(:9>%!((!)?@(A!,"/5#"D2 ()*+#"(!)IJ! !"P<& ($%())3 7+#5!,"
()=>D2 C4) (!) ////. "&L"S35S9.N$9N&L (<S((!)F)*63$"W<S#.2'5! 6FG")*++ %@ IJ!,P.3>(!)
F)*63$"W<P<& %+($%())345!';N5<*4)&L 6I5!"&L",")MF;++D2 (!);%(;++F)*63$"W<;<*(!)
/2+H!3%!(<B53WM.6D.!)5#3($%())3 ;N5S353>)*++(!)N$9N!3F)*63$"W<(!)IJ! !",")*'*'!#
E!'P<& %!(6/):%($%())345!'SF)*'*6#<!P"@1 ;<.#
,"/5#"">L2!%%*6FG"D.2+(7)52 ,"()*+#"(!)IJ! !"D2 C4) (!) ////. ,"; 5
D2 (!)N$9N!3F)*63$"W< ;N5P!('.2'(<&+SF7$%!)=!(!)IJ!($%())345!'D2 C4) (!) ////.
;<*%*7+#5! ;3.C4) (!)X %*S35S9.N9$ N&L (<S((!)F)*63$"W<,"/5#"D2 C4) (!)62 ;N5(!)I>1
(!)%&9 ($%())345!'D2 C4) (!) ////. 6"."%&9($% ())3,"70L"I>1-B3-"D2 (<B536FU!P3!';<*
)*93(!)3> /5# ")5 #3D2 4","-B 3-",P.6 D.! 3!3>/5 #")#3 (: 6 FG " 6/30 2"(!)N$ 9 N&L (<S((!)
F)*63$"W<S#.,")*9&+-B3-"D2 (<B536FU!P3!' I>1%*6D.!3!3>/5#")5#3,"(!)F)*63$"W<(<B536FU!
P3!"I>16FG"<M(P<!"D2 4","-B3-"62 ;<*D&+64<012",P.3(> $%())32'5! N526"012 ,"-B3-"
,"D=*I>1,"/5#"D2 C4) (!) /7/. "&L"S9.3>(<S(,"(!)N$9N!3F)*63$"W<W5!"
P<!'-52 I! (<5! #40 2 ,"($% ())345 ! '-3)3/01 2 70L " +. ! "/012 /!)/B D %*3> ( <S((!)N$ 9 N!3
F)*63$"W<W5!"I! -3)3 D=*I>1($%())345!'7&8"!;(""J!6'!#-"%*3>(<S((!)F)*63$"W<
W5!"E!4> I&L ">L6FG"67)!*C4) /).! (!)IJ! !"D2 C4) (!) /7/. HM(22(;++3!N&L ;N5N2"(52N&L

- 212 -
C4) (!),P.3>()*+#"(!)N$9N!3F)*63$"W<(!)IJ! !" 6"012 %!(7&"V($%P"@1 D2 C4) (!) /7/.
402(!),P. IB" /"&+ /"B" (!)IJ !($% ())3(&+ /01270L " +.!","-B3-" 9& "&L" %@ N.2 3>( <S(N$9N!3
F)*63$"W<2'5! 6FG")*++
C9'/)BF;<.#%!((!)?@(A!()*+#"(!)IJ! !","($%())345!'D2 -B9C4) (!)(!)/012/!)
67021 /BDE!7 7+#5!(<'BIVKI>13>4#!3/J!4&Q2'5! 3!(402(<'BIVK(!)/012/!);++3>/5#")5#3E!',N.
)MF;++(!)/012/!)/2 I! O@1 6FG")MF;++(!)/012/!)I>1%*/).! +))'!(!?,"(!);<(6F<>1'"6)>'")M.
(&"E!',"($%())345!' O@1 /294<.2 (&+<&(A=*6R7!*D2 ($%())345!' I>16"."()*+#"(!)6)>'")M.
I>16($9%!((!)4."P!62 %!((!);<(6F<>1'"6)>'")M. 2@64@I45)/&!SR5.%$F#+$.%( 9"$784%789B<6
9">8.9$J.>@KP7+5%* 845.%!J.6.4C45-B5%%9>7./!@I6C4A@I4P+457+4 %*O87.6()*O)@6
5-B5%%9 E2/5)/&!SR5.%$F#+$.%( 9"$784%7894@I4B*D78/CO:'%*$-!S-0)A+65-B5%%9>7./
%%)&1'Q.O9./T2:2"587.5.%$F#+$.%( T979"$784%789 ()*!"#$J.>@K!"#$&2>F+B.55.%;<5=.
G 87. 5)/&! SR5 .%$F#+$.%( 9"$784%7894"IB*9"$7 84$J. >@K!"#B *!J. CO:' %*$-!S-0)A+6
5-B5%%9>7./9">8.9/@#6/F4

3. 5.%;<5=.'%*$-!S-0)A+65-B5%%9>7./C4D&2E>%65.%5.%$F#+$.%1GF#+$&A,.G
%!((!)?@(A!(!)#&9F)*/$IV$W<D2 ($%())345!',"-B9C4) (!)(!)/012/!)67012/BDE!7
C9'#! ()2+(!)?@(A!S#. 4 3$N"$ &L"S9.W<(!)?@(A!I>1"5!/",%9& ">L
2:. 4'%*$- ! S- 0 )/>&? '%*E/D4R A +65- B5%%9>7 . /!"# 1 5- 2 A<I4 5@ 5)&7 9 >4 7+#5 !
F)*/$IV$W<D2 ($%())345!'69:(;<*6'!#-"D2 -B9C4) (!)(!)/012/!)67021 /BDE!76($9D@L"(&+(<B53
4"/!3(<B53S9.;(5 (<B5369:(;<*6'!#-"I>16FG"(<B536FU!P3!' (<B534=*WM.%&9($%())3;<*(<B53
+B44<201"T I>13/> 5#"6(>1'#D.2 (stakeholder)
I&L ">LF)*/$IV$W<N52(<B531235()*1/.8D4!"#1'L45)&791'Q.O9./7+#5! 6"012 %!(
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- 216 -
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