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2010

Y11,K 339 66K65 K47

HaY'IHbIH PYKOBOLUHCJlb npOCKT3: JI.A. MGl(uX KOOPllHH3TOP npoexra: CB. Ea6KuHo

TP31lHUHOHHblH nepeson DI16JlHI1:

CtmooWlbHblU nepeeoo 1876 e., CBCPCHHblH C CBPCHCKI1M TeKCTOM

COBPCMCHHblH nepenon D116J11111 POCCI1HCKOro Dl16JleHcKoro 06111ccTBa 11 Kp3TKHC HCTOPI1KOqHIJIOJlOfI1'1CCKl1e npHMe'laHI1H K HCMY ny6mlKYIOTcH C paJpCWCHI151 npaIl006.~allaTCJIH, no H3n3Hl11O «Bemxuu Saeem. Ilepeeoo C dpeeneeepeuckoeo. KHUi!O Eumun» [lepeeoo, ecmynumenuta» cmamsn

1/ KOM,l1eHlnapuu M. F. Cenesneea. Peoasmop A.3. [pO(/JOB. M., 1999.

© Poccujicxoe D1I6J1eHCKOe 06wecT1l0, 1999.

Ilepenon Tapryua OHKeJlOC C apavencxoro: A.K. Jlneoancxui:

Hay-nras PC1l3KTyp3: T. H. Homapuyc

Ilepeuozt KOMMeHT3pHeB co cpentreaexonoro HBpI1Ta: 0.11. Jleunepm, A. B. Iliuenuutcuii,

Cr. flOPU:JtCCKUU, JI.M. Ilpeuep, M.A. MlImJIUHO, A.A. KpYI1H08a, HB. Kopntcuna, E8. Manaxoea, M.B. BOi!MOIl

HaY'IHaH penaxrypa: JI.B. 'Iepnuna, CB. Eo6KlIHO

BBeneHI1C: M.r. Cenesseea

Jhrreparypnsni penaxrop, xoppexrop: AI. [Op6YWUH

K47 Knacca-recxae 6H6JIei1cKl1e KOMMeHTapI111. Kaara 6blTlHI - M.: OJIl1Mn, 20 I O. -

000 [3] c.

ISBN 978-5-7390-2468-8 (000 «AreHTCTBO «KPnA OJlHMn»)

B HaCTOHWCM H311aHlIH nepen 'HnaTCJlCM npencrauer cBpcikKHH TeKCT D116J1HH C llBYMH PYCCKI1MH nepCB01l3MH (Tpa,lHUHOHHbIM. caenauasr« B XIX B., H COIlPCMCHHbIM). KP3TKHMH I1CTOPHKO-<pHJ10JlOrH'ICCKHMH npHMC'I3HI1HMlI, 3 T3K)I(C KJlaCCl1'leCKHMH CBpd1cKI1MH KOMMCHTapHHMH K D1I6Jlllll (MIIKp30T rCllOJlOT). MHKpaOT rCllOJlOT - I1CTOPWICCKH CJ10)l(HBllJHHCH KOMnCHllHYM, B KOTOPOM npCllCTaBJ1CHbI CY)I(1!CHHH BbIllalOlllHXCH CBpci1cKHX JKJCreTOB pasusrx BeKOB. B nOJlHOM 06bCMC OH IHlKorn3 He nCpCBOlll1JICH Hd eBponCHCKHC HJbIKH.

Ipynna MOJlO)lbIX Y'ICHhlX 113 paausrx roponos CHr Jf D3JlTlm non PYKOBOllCTBOM Jl.A. MaUI1- xa BIICPBblC nepesenu KOMMeHTapHH, axonautue B MHKpaoT rCllOJI0T HC KaK TBOpeHI1H ornensuax anropos, 110 K3K ezianoe uenoe. Bnaronaps 3TOMY, Y PYCCKOH3bl'IHoro -nrrarens CCTb B03MO)l(HOCTb anepeue ouiyrurs BCC BCJlHKOJlCnHOC cBoco6p3JHC 3TOro YHI1KaJlbHoro TCKCT3, OUCIIHTb ero HIIrennexryan bHYIO KpaCOTY.

YLI.K 339 DDK65

ISBN 978-5-7390-2468-8 (000 «AreHTcTBo «KPnA OJII1MI1»)

© M. r. Cenesuee, 20 I 0

© 1131laHHe - B.M. UYllC'IKflC. 2010 © nCpCBOJ1- Jl.A. MaUHx. 2010

© OWOpMJICllllC. "AreHTCTRO "KPnA O;IIIMn», 2010

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J],aHuUJI 12:3

Crtoucopsr npoexra

BJI3)J,l1MHP UY,llel.JKl1C \O.,VI~1'~ :1ill7:j 1:1 :1NT\ Vladimirs Cudeckis Ayrycr BI1J1u;aHC \ OJ'~~~1 D1U01":J1-\ \ Augusts Vilcans

BaJlLl.I1c Ilaoepac \ DTi:J::1 O~17' \ Valdis Paberzs

CeMeH MOJILIaBCKlu1 \o'jI:n?m lm'tV\ Semjons Moldavskis

EOPHC K03eHIOK \mpmp 0",:1\ Boriss Kozenuks

Ilerepnc HOBHuaHC \ OD"1:l o"t?~\ Peteris Novicans

IV Ilv

BbIPA)KEHIIE IIPH3HATEJIbHOCTlI

llpcBHHC rOBOpHJlH, 'ITO Y KHHr - CBO}! cynsfia. MHC aaauo XOTCJlOCb n03- HaKOMHTb pyccxonau-nroro 4HTaTeJlSl C HHTeJlJleKTyaJlbHblMH COKpOBHw,aMH MHKpaOT IenoriorJlonroe BPCMSI aro Ka3aJlOCb Idcc6bITOlfHOH MC4TOH: .LlJlSl peaJlH3aUHH raxoro 3aMblCJla He 6blJlO HH JlIO.LlCKHX, !HH cPHHaHCOBblX pCCypCOB. Ho Me4Tbi HMCIOT CBOHCTBO cfisreart.ca, H BOT KHHra nepen BaMH. Pa3YMeCTCH, 3TO nnon 'rpyna MHO)l(CCTBa moneti, H 51 nOJlb3YIOCb C.llY4aeM OT BCCH llYWH nofinaronapirn, HX scex.

Hc06xOllHMbiM YCJlOBHeM OCYLUCCTBJICHHSI Jl1060ro npOCKTa S1BJlSlIOTCSI cpencraa 1lJlSl ero BOnJlOWCHH5I. B HaweM CJlY4ae 3TO Mecenatam caritas - MHJlOCTb noxpoBHTeJIeH. KHHra HHKorlla HC YBH.LlCJIa 6bl CBCT, eCJlH 6bI He 6blJlO monea, B3S1BWHX na cc6S1 cPHHaHCHpOBaHHe scex aranos CC nO.LlrOTOBKH. K csacrsio, TaKHe JllOllH HaWJIHCb. 3TO puxaae: 3KOHOMHCT BJlMHMHP UYlle4KHC, apxurexrop Ayrycr BHJIuaac, npennpanuaarem, BaJI.LlHC Flafiepsc, HH)I(eHe'p CCMCH MOJI.LlaBCKHH, 3KOHOMHCT OOPHC K03CHIOK, MY3blKaHT OCTCPHC HOBHuaHc. 51 rosopio: «CnacH60!» HM BceM H lllJlIO HH3KHH rrOKJIOH npexpacaosry ropony Pure, BOHCTHHY, 3TO 0 HeM CKa- 3aHO B Tanuyne: «Bnaro ropoay, rne 4TYT MYllPOCTb 11 YMHO)l(alOT 3HaHI151».

Ocofiue CJIOBa 6JIarO.LlapHOCTH 51 anpecyio BJla.LlHMHpy MOHCeeBl1'-1Y UY.LlClfKHcy. OH HC TOJIbKO npeaocranan npoexry LUC.LlPYJO cPHHaHCOBYJO noaours, HO H 6bIJl rrOllJIHHHblM ero none-nrteneu B caMOM WHPOKOM CMbICJIe aroro CJlOBa. Ero MY.Llpue COBeTbI H OCTPOYMHbIe rrpHT4H He pas BbJ3bIBaJIH B naMSlTH CJIOBa nHcaHHSI: «CJIOBa yCT 4eJIOBelfeCKHX - rJly60KHe BOllbl; HCTOlfHHK MY.LlPOCTH - CTPYSlWI1HCSI nOTOK» (npHT4. 18,4). BJIallHMHp MOHcceBH4 rsepno Bepl1JI B ycnex aauiero npezmpasrrna naxe B cauue TSI)l(eJIbIC MOMeHTbl. Ero YBepeHHOCTb HarrOJIHSlJla 3HTY3Ha3MOM scex Hac.

51 HCKpeHHe 6JlarO.LlapeH rpyrrrre MOJlO.LlbIX ysensrx, B3S1BWHX aa ce651 HeJICrKHH TPY.Ll no rtepesoay H HHTepnpeTaUHH KJIaCCH4eCKI1X KOMMeHTapHeB. CBoeH pa60TOH OHH rrpatcrnvecxa C03.LlaJlH HOBblH cynep-xosoaeurapaii H TeM caMblM npO.LlOJl)l(HJIH BeJlHKYJO Tpa.LlHUHJO! MbI cneuaansuo CTpeMI1JIHCb npuane-ts K paoore MOJlO.LlbIX moneii, 4T06bI nars HM B03MO)l(HOCTb CKa3aTb: « ... caenaeu ce6e I1MSI» (Esrr, 11,4). lloJl)l(eH CKa3aTb, 4TO MbI HC paaoxaposaau CBOHM BbI60pOM. Hecuorps aa orrpeneneuusre 113.Llep)l(KI1, Hel136e)l(Hbie B CTOJlb 60JlbillOM 11 K TOMY xce HOBOM nene,

KOMaHna rtepeaonsuxoa pafiorana XopOWO H CJIa)l(eHHO. Orposuraa aacnyra B 3TOM

npauannexnr KOOp.LlHHaTopy npoexra CBeTJlaHC Oa6KI1HoH. Ee KOMrreTeHTHOCTb, YMcHHe CnJIOTI1Tb pasuux Jl,JOllet\: B elll1HbIH KOJIJIeKTI1B, ec asrnepxxa 11 TaKT noMOraJlH eH CnpaBJl5lTbC5I C caMbIMH CJ10)l(HbIMI1 3ana4aMI1. He 0 HeH J1H rOBopHTCSI B Flpnrxax COJlOMOHOBbIX: «KTo HaH.LleT n06pOlleTCJ1bHYIO )[{CHY? lleua ce ssuue )KeM4yrOB» (npI1T4. 31,10).

Pa60Ta C TeKCTaMI1 KJlaCCH4eCKHX KOMMeHTapl1eB rpetiyer OC06blX HaBbIKOB. 3necb He06xo)lHMbl He TOJ1bKO BCJ1H'-laHwaH cKpyrrYJlC3HOCTb H axxyparuocrs, HO

M }l3bIKOBOe 4:YTbe, 6e3ynpe4:HbIH q>HJIOllOrH4:eCKMH BKyC. Bee 3TM Ka4:eCTBa Mbl aaurnu B HaWeM JIl1TepaTypHOM penaxrope l1 xoppexrope Anexcaanpe FopoyuraHe. OH suec 04:eHb 6011bWOH sxnan B npouecc no.nrOTOBKM PYKOTIl1CI1 K ne4:aTI1. KaK TYT He BCnOMHl1Tb 6H611eHCKoe nape-reuae: « ••• KaK XOPOWO CJIOBO nospeva!» (npMT4:. 15:23)

B 3aKJII04:eHHe X04:Y CKa3aTb, I.JTO ace .nOCTOHHCTBa KHHrH - aaure otiuiee .nOCTl1- xeane, a ace BbUIBJIeHHble He.nOCTaTKH - na MOeli OTBeTCTBeHHOCTI1.

Jleouui) Mauux AfocK8a, 5769/2008

VI II VII

rrpE~HCAOBHEPEnAKUHH

Ilepen BaMH nepnua TOM nepesona ua PYCCKHH 513b1K «MHKpaOT rell0J10T» (bOJ1bworo H3llaHI151 CB5IWeHHoro nHCaHI151), H3llaHH5I Topu, BKJ1IO'laJOwero, nOMI1MO eBperickoro TeKCTa, ero apaMeHCKI1H nepeson 11 KOMMeHTapl1l1. BbIHll51 B CBeT B 1517 rony, :nOT TeKCT CTM caoeofipaauu« KOMneHlll1YMOM Tpall.l1Ul10HHOH n+rrepnperaUI1I1 CB5IWeHHOro nI1CaHH51, Heo6xOlll1MbIM J1J060MY lJeJ10BeKY, CTapaJOweMYC5I nocTl1rHYTb CYTb espejicxoj! peJ1l1rl103HOH rpazutunu Bee HCTOpHLJeCKOH nepcnexrune. Ha npOT5I)KeHHl1 HeCKOJ1bKHX BeKOB 3TOT TeKCT npHBJ1eKM caMblH WHPOKHH xpyr LJHTaTeJ1eH, nOCKOJ1bKY B HeM, KaK B aepxanc, HaWJ1H OTpa)KeHHe paCCY)K1l.eHH5I xpynHeHWHX eBpeHCKI1X cpeznresexoasrx MbICJ1HTeJ1eH, CTapaBWI1XC51 06b5lCHHTb cpenHeBeKOBOMY LJI1TaTeJ1JO HenpOCTOH TeKCT espericxori KHl1rH 3aKOHa. KOMMeHTapHI1, sourenunre B 3TO H3naHHe, YHHKMbHbl, H Ka)K1lblH H3 HI1X CTM BKJ1a1l.0M B COKPOBHWHHUY eBpeHCKOH mrrcparypu.

CerOll.H5I K paoore C TeKCTOM MHKpaOT rell0J10T 06pawalOTC51 B TOH 11J111 HHOH Mepe He TOJ1bKO C06J1JOllaJOIilHe TpanHUI1JO HYll.eH, HO H HCTOPI1KH, nOCKOJIbKY cpenuenexoaue KOMMeHTapHH n03B0J151IOT ysancrs, KaK MeWIJ10Cb BOCnpH51Tl1e TeKCTa co CMeHOH snox H HCTOpl1LJeCKoro KOHTeKCTa; <pHJ10J10rH, KOTOPblM KOMMeHTapl111 naior B03MO)KHOCTb npocneznrn, pa3Bl1THe HBpHTa 11 apauencxoro aa npOT5I)KeHI1H HeCKOJ1bKI1X BeKoB; pennraosenu. KOTOPblM cpenuesexosue KOMMeHTaTopbl n03BOJ15IJOT YBHneTb acnexru 11 3HaLJeHH51 TeKCTa B peJ1HrH03HOH rpaanuu«, He3aMeTHble COBpeMeHHoMY LJeJ10BeKY; <p0J1bKJ10PI1CTbl, nOCKOJ1bKY I1HOrLl,a KOMMeHTapHI1 BKJ1IOLJalOT B ce651 ynl1BHTeJ1bHble 3aMellaHI151, KacaJOWHeC5I «uaponaoa peJ1l1rH03HOCTI1». 3TOT TeKCT npenCTaBJ151eT C060H I1HTepeC 11 1lJl51 HCCJ1enOBaTeJ1eH l1yneo-XpI1CTI1- aHCKI1X oTHOWeHI1H B cpezume sexa, nOCKOJ1bKY ace KOMMeHTapHH COCTaBJ151J1I1Cb B crpanax cpeaueaexoaoa Esponu, npeLl,CTaBJ151BWdi 113 ce651 «nJ1aBHJ1bHbIH KOTeJ1», B KOTOPOM eapelicxoe 11 XpHCTl1aHCKOe npOLJTeHI151 6116J1ei1cKOro TeKCTa CI1J1bHO BJ111- 51J1H npyr aa npyra,

B naHHOM H3naHHH KHHrH bbITH51, nepsoti KHHrH n5lTHKHH)K11H, npeLl,CTaBJ1eHbI TPH KaTerOpHI1 TeKCTOB:

1. bI16JIei1cKHH TeKCT na HBpHTe; naa PYCCKI1X nepesona HBpl1TCKOrO TeKCTa - KJ1aCCHLJeCKHH CHHOll.aJ1bHbll1 nepeson, CTaBWI1H OCHOBOH MHOrOLJI1CJ1eHHbIX HCCJ1eLl,OBaHI1H, KOMMeHTapHeB H xYLI,O)KeCTBeHHbIX nponaaeneuaa ua PYCCKOM 513bIKe, 11 HOBblH nepenon BbInOJ1HeHflbll1 POCCHHCKI1M 6116J1el1cKI1M ofiuiecrnov, YLJI1TbIBaIOIilI1I1 cospeaeuuue ll.OCTI1)KeHI151 6116J1eHCTI1KH H HOPMbl coapeuenuoro pyccxoro 513bIKa; ocyutecrnnaeuua snepauc PYCCKHH nepenon apaveiicxoro Tapryua OHKeJ10C, npell.CTaBJl51IOWI1H MacOpeTCKI1H TeKCT B HOBOM, Hel13BeCTHOM PYCCK0513bILJHOMY LJ I1Ta TeJ1 JO pa xypce.

2. Pyccxue nepesonu cpenneaexoaux KOMMeHTapl1es.

Hanfionee H3BeCTHblH 113 BOwell.WI1X B C06paHl1e - KOMMeHTapHH PaWH, Ha3BaHHblH TaK no I1MeHH ero C031l.aTeJ1H - Pa6611 WJ10MO );1uxaKI1, )l(I1BWerO BO <DpaHUI1I1 B XI sexe. Ero KOMMeHTapl1H C'IHTaeTC5I CTOJ1b rJ1y6oKHM 11 CTOJ1b

rapMOHH4HbIM, 4TO 06bl4HO COnpOBO)l(l1aeT H3Y4eHHe Topu aa JIl060M yponue:

Ha4aJlbHOM, Cpe11HeM H HaH60Jlee rJly60KOM. C 011HOH CTOPOHbl, I1CnOJlb3Y5I arra- 11114eCKl1e, CKa304Hble CIO)I(eTbl, Paunr n,06I1BaeTC5I roro, 4TO TeKCT n5lTI1KHl1)1(l151 CTaHOBl1TC5I nOH5ITeH naxce pe6eHKY, C npyroa - ero MbICJll1 4aCTO OKa3bIBaIOTC5I OCHOBOH 11Jl51 CJlO)l(HeHWHX raJlaXl14eCKI1X l1 MI1CTHLJeCKI1X paCCY)I(D,eHI1H B nocne- 11YlOweH Tpa11HUI1H.

Ewe 011l1H KOMMeHTapl1H 6blJl aanacan Aapaawou H6H 33POH, )l(HBUlHM B XII Bexe B OCHOBHOM BO <l>paHUHH. 116H 33pa nOCB5ITHJl MHoro CHJl H3Y4eHHIO eapencxoa rpaMMaTHKH, a rakxe MaTeMaTHKH, CPHJlOCOCPHH H aCTpOHOMHI1. He yn,HBHTeJlbHO, lJTO ero l1CCJlen,OBaHH5I 3Ha4HTeJlbHO nOBJII151JlH aa C031IaHHblH HM KOMMeHTapHH K n5lTHKHI1)1(I1IO. fpaMMaTHlJeCKHe H CPI1JlOcocpcKHe paCCY)l(D,eHI151, MeCTaMI1 06Jle4eHHble B n03THLJeCKYlO CPOPMY, caenanu ero C04HHeHI1e On,HHM H3 HaH60Jlee CJlO)f(HbIX 11 BMeCTe C TeM YTOH4eHHO xpacnaux.

TpeTI1H KOMMeHTapHH nanucaa On,HI1M H3 BeJlH4aHUlHX eBpeHCKI1X CPI1JlOCOCPOBPaM6aHoM - Pa66H MOUle EeH Haxuanou, I1JlI1 HaxMaHH11oM, )l(HBUlHM B XIII sese B HcnaHHH. KOMMeHTapHH ua n5lTI1KHI1)1(He CTaJI nOC11en.HI1M rpynov ero )l(H3HH, cnoeoopaauua KOMneHn,I1YMoM eapeticxoa cpenneaexoaoa CPHJlOCOCPHI1. Ero KOMMeHTapl1H nantionee npocrpannuji H C110)l(HbIH 113 scex, HO yn,I1BHTeJlbHO 51PKI1H 11 CMe11bIH, nOCKOJlbKY 3a4aCTYlO ocnapasaer MHeHI151 Y4HTeJleH, )l(I1BUlI1X no Hero 11 n011b30BaBUlI1XC5I HeOCnOpl1MblM aBTopHTeTOM.

CaMblH n03n,HI1H 113 BbI6paHHblX D.J151 nepesona KOMMeHTapHeB 6bI11 COCTaB11eH Osaaneti CCPOPHO, HTaJIb5lHCKHM paBBHHOM XVI sexa, 113 ceMbH CCPOPHO SbIW11H HeCKOJlbKO 3HaMeHHTblX 3aKOHOY'1HTeJleH 11 CPI1110COCPOS, HO nanfionee 3HaMeHI1TblH 113 HI1X - I1MeHHO OSa11H5I. Ero KOMMeHTapHH na n5lTHKHI1)1(I1e OTJII1'IaeTC5I JlaKOHI1'lHOCTblO, HO SMeCTe C TeM rJIy611HOH CPI1JlOCOCPCKOH MblCJl11.

Pasuue 113n,aHI1H MHKpaOT fe110110T BKJII04alOT pasaoe 'lI1CJlO KOMMeHTapHeB, HO npencraaneanue anecs BXOn,51T npaKTI14eCKI1 B xaxnoe 113 HI1X. Kpoue roro, zraauas Bbl60pKa n03B0115leT YBHn,eTb, KaK MeH5I11CH noaxon K npO'lTeHI1IO TeKCTa KHl1f11 EbITI151 B paaasre 3nOXH 11 HaCK011bKO OTl1l1'laJIaCb npyr OT zipyra paansre KOMMeHTaTOpCKl1e Tpa11HUHI1.

3. Cospeuenaue KOMMeHTapl111 K 611611eHcKoMY TeKCTY 11 cpenaeaesoauv KOMMeHTapI1HM, n05lCH5IIOWl1e aexoropue MeCTa, xoropue MOryT nOKa3aTbC5I HenOHHTHblMH COBpeMeHHOMY PYCCK05l3bl4HOMY 4HTaTe111O 11 yxaausaiouure HCTO'lHHKH, na xoropsre Onl1paJIHCb cpennesexoaue asropu.

Ilpa H3n,aHI1H TeKCTa COXpaH5IeTC5I Tpan.I1UI10HHbIH cnocoo BepCTKI1, npn KOTOPOM 611611eHCKI1H TeKCT H COOTBeTCTBYlOwl1e eMY KOMMeHTapl1H npencraanenu na OLIHOM JlI1CTe.

Ilepeson ocyuiecraneu KSaJIl1ct)l1Ul1pOBaHHOH rpynnoii cneUHa;lI1CTOB 113 MOCKOBCKI1X, Kl1eBCKI1X. canxr-nerepoyprcxnx BY30B, a TaK)I(e BI111bHIOCCKOro 11 uepycaJlI1MCKOrO YHI1BepCJ1TeTOB: nepeB0116H611eHcKoroTeKcTa PEO, a TaK)I(e KOMMeHTapl111 K HeMy, nonroroaneau M. Ce11e3HeSb1M (K.cpH11011or.H., MOCKBa), nepeson Tapryxra OHKeJlOCa - A. Jl5lsn,aHCKHM (MOCKsa), nepenon KOMMeHTapl1H Pauru - H. KOPHKMHOH (MOCKsa), M. BorMaHOM (MOCKBa) 11 E. ManaXOBOH (Kaes), KOMMeHTapl1H 116H 33Pbl - C. napH)I(CKHM (Canxr-Flerepfiypr), KOMMeHTapH5I PaM6aHa - O. Jleunepr

VIII//IX

(BHJIbHIOC) 11 A. nWeHHUKI1M (BHJIbHIOC), KOMMeHTapHH C¢OPHO - Jl. )..I,peHepoM (Mocxsa), M. MI1TJIJ1HOH (MOCKBa) J1 A. Kpynaonoti (Caaxr-Tlerepfiypr). Pe)]aKTYpa nepesona KOMMeHTapHeB 6bIJIa C)]eJIaHa Jl. LiepHI1HOH (l1epYCaJII1M) 11 C. ba6KI1- HOH (K.I1.H. MOCKBa), Tapryva OHKeJIOC - T. HOTapl1Yc (PhD, Hepycanav). 06w.aH penaxrypa H npe)]HCJIOBHe nO)]rOTOBJIeHbI Jl. MaUHxoM (K.¢.H., Mocxsa J1 PhD, HblO-HopK).

TeKCTbl ncex KOMMeHTapl1eB, KpOMe KOMMeHTapl1H Mowe 6eH Haxsraua, npnBelleHbl nOJIHOCTblO. KOMMeHTapl1H HaXMaHI1)]a HeCKOJIbKO coxpaiueu. Mecra COKpaw.eHI1H YKa3bIBalOTCH 3HaYKOM < ... >. nOCKOJIbKY aa OCHOBY nepesonoa KOMMeHTapl1eB 6blJI B3HT CI1HO)]aJIbHbIH nepeson (aa I1CKJIlOyeHHeM nepesona TapryMa, OpJ1eHTl1pOBaHHoro na nepeson 6J16JIeHcKoro TeKCTa, C)]eJIaHHbIH POCCI1HCKI1M 6116JIeHCKI1M 06w.ecTBoM), HMeHa c06CTBeHHble npnaenenst B COOTBeTCTBI1H C CI1HOllaJIbHblM nepeaonou. B rex CJIyyaHX, xorna 6blJIO BmKHO YKa3aTb I1Bpl1TCKOe 3BYlJaHJ1e CJIOBa, OHO npI1BO)]I1JIOCb B Kl1pHJIJIl1yeCKOH TpaHCKpHnUl111 H, B cnyxae He06xollHMOCTI1, nOHCHHJIOCb. B xaanparnsre CK06KI1 [ ] 6paJIHCb CJIOBa, OTCYTCTBYiounie B TeKCTe, HO BBOllJ1BWHeCH B Hero nepenonanxon llJIH npOHCHeHI1H CMbICJIa. Bee YKa3aHI1H UHTJ1pyeMblx aBTOpaMI1 MeCT l13 TaJIMYlla, Ml1llpaWeH H npOYI1X COlJl1HeHI1H npHBOllHTCH B CHOCKax, nOCKOJIbKY 06bIl.!HO CaMI1 KOMMeHTaTopbl npOCTO npI1BO)]HT Ha3BaHHe TeKCTa, nonpaayveeas, 'ITO lJl1TaTeJIb nOHI1MaeT, 0 lJeM HMeHHO uner pe-n, B CJIYlJae, xorna CI1HOllaJIbHbIH nepeson He OTpa)[(aJI KOMMeHTl1pyeMoro CMbICJIa, KOMMeHTI1PyeMblH cpparMeHT npI1BO)]I1JIC5I B CI1HOllaJIbHOM nepesone, a 3aTeM B cK06Kax llaBaJIC5I 6YKBaJIbHbIH rtepeson, OTpa)[(alOw.I1H CMbICJI, K KOTOPOMy 06paw.aeTC5I KOMMeHTaTop. B rex cJIYlJa5Ix, xoraa 6YKBaJIbHOrO nepesona 6bIJIO He)]OCTaTOlJHO, xorna pexs urna, uanpuaep, 06 urpe CJlOB, KOMMeHTapl1H conpoBO)[(ll,aJICH CHOCKOH C n05ICHeHl1eM. Ha3BaHl1H scex Ul1Tl1pyeMblx KOMMeHTaTOpaMl1 l1CTOYHl1KOB npnsenenu 6e3 coxpauieaux. B rex CJIyyaHX, xorna pe-n, WJIa 0 BaBl1JIOHCKOM TaJIMYll,e, npl1BO)]l1JIOCb npOCTO Ha3BaHl1e rpaxrara, xorna )[(e l1MeJICH B BHllY l1epycaJ1HMCKHH TaJIMYll" nepen Ha3BaHI1eM 'rpaxrara CJIell,OBaJIO YKa3aHl1e: «TaJIMYll l1epYWaJIMI1».

Ha3BaHI1H 6l16JIeHCKI1X KHl1r COKpaw.aJII1Cb B COOTBeTCTBl111 C 06w.enpl1H5ITbIMI1 HOpMaMl1 (CM. Ta6JIl1uy).

HA3BAHIUI KHlIf DIIEJIlIlI

coxpamennoe Bur, Hex.

Jles. Lil1c. BTOp. HaB.

Cyn.

Pyct>b

... Bsrrne Hcxon

BTop03aKOH l1e

Kaura l1l1cyca HaBI1Ha Knnra Cyneti 113pal1JIeBblX Kaura pY¢I1.

cospameuuoe I Llap.

2 Llap.

3 Llap. 4l::lap. I nap. 2 nap. E3,U. Heev. Ec<p. HOB nco flPHPL EKKJI. Ileca. Hc. Hep. Ilnas, He3. ,lJ,aH. oe. HOH11. AM. AB,U.

HOHa MHX. HaYM ABB. Co<p. Arr.

3ax.

MaJI.

nOJlHOe Ilepsan KHHra UapCTB Bropas KH H ra UapCTB

T persa KH H ra UapCTB

Heraepraa KHHra UapCTB OepBaH KHHra napaJIHnOMeHOH BTOpaH KHHra napaJlHnOMeHOH KH H ra E3,UPbl

KHHra HeeMHH _!~I:Il1rClJ::c<lJHPH

Kaura HOBa

OPHT'-IH C011oMoHa

KHYlra_ flP()pOKa He3eKHH11H KHHr?:_flPopo~Cl LlaHHH11a

Kunra npopoKa Auoca KHHraflP()pOKa ABllHH

KHHra np()p()Ka Arres KHHra npopoK?: 3axapHH Kaura npopOKa M3JlaXHH

Flepeson ocyuiecraneu aa OCHOl3aHIHI cnenyiouiux H311aHHH: Genesis: Mikra 'ot Gedolot Haketer: A revised and augmented scientific edition of « Mikra 'ot Gedolot» based on the Aleppo Codex and Early Medieval MSS (Bar-Ilan University Press, 1999); Bereshit:

Humash Mikra'ot Gedolot ha-Menukad (Jerusalem, Horev Publishing House, 1999); Sperber, A. The Bible in Aramaic, Vol. I: The Pentateuch According to Targum Onqelos (Leidin: 1959); a TaK:>Ke DBS Torah CD-ROM Library, version 13 (Digital Books System LTD 1992-2007).

X//XI

HEKOTOPbIE TEPMHHbI

EBpeHCKaH bHfiJlHH (TaHaX) - 'IaCTb DH6JHH1, H3HaYaJlbHO HanHCaHHa51 Ha npenueeupericxo« H apaMdicKOM - 5l3b1KaX, B XpHCTHaHCKOH TpaJIl'IUHI1 nOJIYYI1BWa51 Ha3BaHI1e «BeTXHH 3aBen. Ha3BaHI1e «EBpeHCKa51 DI16JII151» 06blYHO npHMeH5IeTC5I B HaY4HbrX I1CCJIell0BaHH5IX, rorna KaK Ha3BaHHe «Taaax. - aKpOHHM, COCT05lWHH H3 nepsux 6YKB Ha3BaHHH rpex pa311eJIOB KHHrH: Topa (3aKOH), HeBI1HM (npOpOKH), KeTYBHM (nHCaHI1H) - 60JIee ynorpetiavo B eBpeHCKOH PCJIHrH03HOH H 60rOCJIOBCKOH JIHTepaType.

Ipesecxaa EHfiJlHSl (Cenryaraura) - nepenon aa rpelJeCKI1H 513bIK EBpeHCKOH DI16J1I1H, cnenauasta B AJIeKcaHnpHI1 B III ano H.3., B KOTOPbIH, nOMHMO KaHOHH3HpOBaHHblX B eBpeHCKOH Tpanl1UHH KHHr, soru.iu ewe HeCKOJlbKO COlJHHeHHH, narnrcaHHbIX npeaxyurecrsenno no-rpClJCCKH, nOJIYlJl1BWHX B Xpl1CTHaHCKOH Tpa1l11U1111 Ha3BaHl1e BTopOKaHOHHyeCKHe KHHrH.

HOBbI" 3aBeT- tlaCTb DH6JIHI1, npH3HaHHa51 xpHCTHaHaMH KaHOHHyeCKOH, BKJlJOlJaJOwa51 B ce651 EBaHrCJIH5I, ne51HH5I anOCTOJIOB, nOCJIaHI151 anOCTOJlOB H OTKpOBeHl1e Hoanna DOrOCJIOBa.

TaJIMY.ll, HJIH YCTHaH Topa - cotipanne KOMMeHTapHeB K Tope nHCbMeHHoH, 3aKOHo.llaTeJIbHOH yaCTH EBpeHcKoH EH6JIHH, npCllCTaBJI5IJOwee C060H CBO.ll 3aKOHOnarensaux H MOPaJIbHO-3TwlecKHx HOPM, perYJIl1pYJOWHX cavue pasaue CTOPOHbl )J(H3HH aynees. neJIHTC5I ua urecrs pa311eJIOB, COCT05lWHX H3 TeMaTHlJeCKHX rpaxTaTOB. H3BeCTHbI naa Tanvyna: BaBHJIOHCKHH, 60JIee 06beMHblH H aBTOpI1TeTHbIH, COCTaBJIeHHblH B BaBI1JIOHHH K VI B. H.3., H HepYCaJlHMCKHH, HJIH naJIeCTHHCKHH, COCTaBJIeHHbIH B 3CMJIe 113paHJI5I B V B.H.3.

Manpaum - rOMHJIeTHlJCCKHH cnocof HCTOJIKOBaHH5I 6H6J1eHCKOro TeKCTa, rtpnMeH5IeMbIH B Tanuyne H paBBHHHCTHlJeCKOH nnreparype. H3BeCTHbi raJIaXHyeCKHe Ml1npaWH, pacCY)J(1laJOUJ.He 0 pasuoro pona 3aKOHax H pHTYaJIaX, 11 arramrsecxae MI111paWI1, HanOMHHaJOWHe npHTlJH HJIH HCTOpl1lJeCKHe aaexnoru, I1JIJIJOCTPHPYIOWHe HeKI1H MOPaJIbHO-3TI1YeCKHH npuuuan. Munpautavu TaK>Ke npHH5ITO Ha3bIBaTb C06paHI151 nonoonoro poaa TOJIKOBaHHH.

PaBBHHHCTHlJeCKaH nareparypa - COlJI1HeHI151, nanacanuue eBpeHcKHMH paBBHHaMH-3aKoHoYlJHTeJI5IMH. Ofisrsuo 3TI1M TepMHHoM 0603HayalO1' np0l13BelleHH5I, co- 311aHHble B TaJlMYllwlecKYJO anoxy, 1'aKHe KaK Tanuya, Mnapaui pa66a, MeXI1JIbTa, Ceziep OJIaM pa66a, nJ.1pKeH ne-pafifin 3JIl133ep J.1 np.

IIPE,11;MCJIOBME

KaK npaanno, Ka)l(Jla$l KHHra CSfl3aHalIJHI HaC C KOHKPCTHOH anoxon. fOMCP - apxaH4CCKa$l Ipeuna, Ilarrre - HTMHfl SPCMCH npC)lS03pO)l(JlCHHfl, WCKcnHp - CJlH- 3aBCTHHCKafl Airrnus.

C 6H6JlHCH HC TaK. Ha npOTfl)KCm1H nsyx C Jl(,1WHHM Tb[Cfl4 JlCT 6116JlCHCKHH TCKCT nCpCXO.lIHT H3 O)lHOH KyJlbTYPb[ B npyryio, 113 O.lIHOH 3nOXH B npyryio: .lIPCBHflfl VI ynes , MHp 3JlJlHHHCTH4CCKOro l1Y)laH3Ma, KYMpaH, MHp CPC.lIHCBCKOBoro CBPCHCTBa, paHHCC Xpl1CTHaHCTSO, BH3aHTl1fl, CPC)lHCBCKOBb[H KaTOJlHUl13M, Perpopuauna, COBPCMCHHOC PYCCKOC npaBOCJlaBHC, COBpCMCHHa51 Eepona, COSPCMCHHb[H Hspaans. B Ka)l(.llOM H3 3Tl1X MHpOB 6H6JlH5I CTaHOBl1TCH OCHOBOH llYXOBHOH H peJll1rH03HOH )f(l13Hl1. B Ka)l(.llOM H3 3THX MHpOB OHa nOHHMaCTC5I nO-CBOCMY H o6pacTaCT MHOro4HCJlCHHb[MH KOMMCHTapH5IMH, KOTOPb[C HCCyT aa cefie nevars 3nOXH C cc PCJlHrH03Hb[MH nO(,1CKaMH H aanpocau«. Ilpu 3TOM KmKllb[H MHp C4HTaCT 6H6- mIlO KaK 6bI CBOCH C06CTBCHHOCTblO, a nOTOMY HC BH)lHT l1 HC X04CT Bl111CTb, lITO OHa CYlllCCTBOSMa H CYlllCCTSYCT aa ero npenenasm, S l1HbIX KYJlbTYPHbIX H pCJlHrH03- HblX TpallHUHHX.

n01l4ac Ka)f(CTCH, 4TO 6H6JlH5I, KaKOH CC BH1l5lT, CKa)f(CM, paHHCCpC)lHCSCKOBb[C CBPCHCKHC MH.lIpaWH, H 6H6JlHH, KaKOH OHa npC.lICTaCT B COBPCMCHHbIX HCTOPHKOKPHTWICCKHX HCCJlC.lIOSaHl1HX, - 3TO .lISC COSCPWCHHO pasaue KHHrH. Ho HCT, TeKCT npaKTH4CCKH Olll1H 11 TOT xce. TOJlbKO npCJlOMI1SWI1HCfl CKB03b npl13MY CTOJlb nertoXO)f(I1X npyr na npyra KYJlbTYP ...

B aacromueu H3.lIaHI1H nepen 4HTaTCJlCM npC.lICTaHyT C06CTSCHHO CSPCHCKHH TCKCT DH6Jl1111 (c .lIBYM$I PYCCKHMH ncpCSO)laMI1 11 KpaTKHMI1 HCTOPHKO-¢HJlOJlOrH- 4CCKHMH npI1MC4aHHflMH), a TaK)f(C nepeson apaaeacxoro Tapryva H Tpa.lII1UHOHHb[X CSPCHCKHX KOMMCHTapHCB. «3a xanpos« OCTaCTCH 04CHb MHOroC: KYMPaHCKHC HHTcpnpCTaUHI1 6H6JlCHCKHX TCKCTOB, orpOMHblH MHp Xpl1CTHaHCKOH 3K3crC3bl BCTxoro 3aBCTa, MYCYJlbMaHCKHC TOJlKOSaHHfl ... Ho cotipars non OllHOH 06J10)f(KOH 6H6- JlCHCKI1C KOMMCHTapHH pa3HbIX anox, ronoca H3 paausix Ml1pOB 6blJlO 6b[ ¢H3114CCKH HCB03MO)f(HO. J11060c H311aHHC raxoro pona )lOJl)f(HO KaK-TO CY3HTb H zntanaaou aBTOpOB 11 WHPOTY oxsara.

MHOrHC 113 coopanuux 311CCb .. TCKCTOB, uanpuvep, nepesonu Tapryva OHKCJlOCa, KOMMCHTapHCB H6H-33Pbl 11 C¢OPHO nOHBJlHIOTCH na PYCCKOM H3b[KC SnCpBb[C.

EBPEHCKA.H liI1EJIHJI: PYKOlll1CI1 11 H3l1,AHI1H

TCKCT BCCX COBPCMCHHb[X nC4aTHblX H311aHHH enpeucxoa DH6Jl11H OCHosaH Ha CPCllHCBCKOBb[X CBPCtiCKl1X MaHycKpl1nTax. 3TH MaHycKpl1nTbl nopa311TCJlbHO YHI1- ¢I1Ul1pOBaHbl. PaHHccpCllHCBCKOBblC CBPCi1CKHC Y4CHbIC, H3BeCTHbIC KaK MacopeTb[, pa3pa60TMl1 CneUI1MbHblC npuewu .lIJlfl roro 4T06bl HC lIonYCHUb CJlY4ai1Hoti Onl1CKI1 npu C03.lIaHl111 HOBOH PYKOnI1CI1. n03TOMY pa3JH14Hfl MC)I(JlY MaHYCKpl1nTaMI1 HC3Ha411TCJlbHbl (CCJlI1 HC oripauiari, SHI1MaHI1C aa OrJlaCOBKI1 - 6YKBMbHO ennHWIHbl). 3TO YHI1KaJlbHblti CJIY4aii )lJlfl CPC)lHCBCKOBbH; .lIOCTaT04HO CKa3aTb, 4TO rpC4CCKHC pYKonHCI1 Hosoro 3ascra )lCI\IOHCTPHPYIOT HCCKOJlbKO TbICH'1 paCXO)f(.lIC-

XII / / X III

HHH Me)l(llY C060H; raxaa xe BapHaTHBHOCTb Ha6JIIO)1,aeTC5I B PYKOnHCHOH nepenase KJIaCCH4eCKHX aBTOpOB (TOJIbKO PYKOflHCeH KJIaCCH'-IeCKHX aBTopOB no Hac nouino HecpaBHeHHO MeHbwe, '1eM 6116JIeHCKHX PYKonHceH).

TeKCT cpeziaenexonux eBpeHCKHX MaHYCKpHflTOB HOCI1T Ha3BaHHe MacopeTcKoro. B cepenuae XX aexa 6b1JlH 06HapY)J(eHbI 11 ony6J1HKOBaHbI KYMpaHCKl1e PYKOnHCI1, 3Ha'lI1TenbHO 60JIee pannue (II BeK no H.3. - I B. H.3.), 4eM ace 113BeCTHble no rex rtop eapejicxae CnHCKI1 bH6JIHH. KYMpaHCKHe cnHCKH, B p5I)1,e MeCT pacxonnWHeC5I C MacopeTCKHM TeKCTOM, a TaK)J(e npyr C zipyrov, nOKa3bIBaIOT, 4TO B caMOM naxane espeacxon pyxorurcuofi TpaaHUHI1, no BBe.neHI151 MacopeTaMH )I(eCTKOro KOHTpOJI5I aa nepenucxoa 6H6JIeticKHx KHlH, TeKCT eBpeticKoti bl16JII111 nonsepranC5I HCnpaBJIeHI151M H HCKa)J(eHI151M CTOJIb)J(e 'laCTO, KaK H zipyrue PYKonHCHble TeKCTbl )1,peBHOCTH H cpenaeaexoasa, 6Y)1,b TO naTHHCKl1e noaru HJIH npeunepyccxne JIeTOnHCH.

CTOJIeTH5I npOWJII1 Me)J()1,Y BpeMeHeM C03.naHH5I 6H6JIeticKHx KHHr H BpeMeHeM CTaHOBJIeHH5I MacopeTcKoro TeKCTa. 3a 3TH CTOneTH5I B TeKCTe HaKOnHJIHCb ornrcKI1, OWH6KH, CJIe)1,bI noanneaureri peaaxrypu. nOMHMO KYMpaHCKHX CBHTKOB, BOCCTaHOBJIeHHIO npeauejiurero (noxtacopercxoro) BHna 6H6JIeticKI1x KHHr nOMoraIOT )1,peBHY!e nepesonu; npexne scero, caMblti paHHl1ti H3 HHX, rpe-tecxnti (III-II BB. no H.3.). Cornacuo n03nHeHweMY npenaamo, nepenon Dl16mm na rpe-recxnti 5I3b1K 6blJI ocyiuecrunen no rtpnxasy ernnercxoro uaps ceMblOneC5ITbIO eBpeticKI1MI1 MY)1,peuanu , 3HaKOMbIMl1 C rpe'-leCKI1M 5I3bIKOM. OTCIO)1,a npOI1Cxo.nI1T 06WenpHH5ITOe Ha3BaHl1e 3TOro nepeaona «Cerrryannrra. ('ITO nO-JIaTbIHI1 3Ha'lHT «ceMb)1,eC5IT»). Ha npOT5I)J(eHHl1 HeCKOJIbKHX CTOJIeTHH Cerrryannrra ¢aKTI1'1eCKI1 3aMeH5Ina c060i1 eBpei1:CKI1H Opl1rMHaJI bl16JII1l1 )1,JI5I rpeKOrOBOp5IWl1X espeea Ernrrra. B uenov psne MeCT OHa paCXO)1,I1TC5I C MaCOpeTCKI1M TeKCTOM, n03TOMY, xorna B Ha4aJIe uaureii apsr MaCOpeTCKl1ti TeKCT Dl16nl1H YTBep)1,I1JIC5I B enpencxoa rpamunru B Ka4eCTBe e)1,I1HCTBeHHO npanum.noro, Cenryarnnra 6blJIa OTBeprHYTa rpeK05l3bl4HbIMl1 enpei1:cKHMI1 06WI1HaMI1. 3aTO OHa CTaJIa BeTXI1M 3aBeTOM rpexecxon xpncnrancxoti uepKBI1 11 OpHrl1HaJIOM )1,1151 MHOrl1X Xpl1CTHaHCKI1X nepeBO)1,OB D116nl1l1, BKJ1IO'Ia5I llepKOBHOCJIaB5IHCKl1H nepeaon.

TeKCTOJIOrM nbITaIOTC5I BOCCTaHOBHTh rrpororparp eapeiicxoa DH6JIHI1, I1CnOJIh3y5I nauaue KYMpaHCKI1X CBI1TKOB, Cerrryaratrru, HO B pane CJIY'laeB BOCCTaHOBJIeHHe HeB03MO)J(HO: c60ti B TeKCTe nponaouren CJII1WKOM naBHO.

KpHTl14eCKI1e 113.naHI151 eapelicxoti DH6J11111, nesaras MaCOpeTCKl1ti TeKCT, conpoBO)l(llaIOT ero 06Wl1PHblM TeKCTOJIOrM'leCKI1M KOMMeHTapHeM. CaMblM pacnpocrpaHeHHblM H3.naHl1eM raxoro pOna5IBJI5IeTC5I ua ceronaa TaK Ha3blBaeMa51 WTYTTrapTCKa5I bH6JIH5I (Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia; nepsoe H3)1,aHl1e 1967 r.), KOTOpa51 113.naeTC5I 06be)1,I1HeHHbIMH bl16neticKI1MI1 06weCTBaMI1. Haufionee aM6I1UH03HbIM npoexroxr 51BJI5ICTC5I CepH5I ny6J1I1KauHH V1CPYCaJII1MCKOro YHI1BCpOneTa (The Hebrew University Bible Project; K HaCT05lweMY BpeMeHI1 BhlWnl1 B CBeT KHl1rM HcaHH, HepeMl111 11 HeseKI1HJ1H, Ka)l(ll~51, 6JIaro)1,ap51 06Wl1PHOMY TeKCTOnOrM4eCKOMY KOMMeHTapl1lO, sauuMaeT ueJlblH YBCCI1CThlH TOM).

B HaCT05lWCM H3.naHI1I1 BOCnp0I13BOnI1TC5I craaaapruun MacopeTcKHti TCKCT CBpeticxoii bI16J11111. X0T51 Mbl HC naeM CnCUl1aJIbHOro TCKCTOJIOrH'ICCKOrO KOMMCHTaPI151, OTnCJ1bHhIC np06J1CMbl TCKCTa 06CY)I(llaIOTC5I B npI1MeyaHI151X.

EBPEMCKAH EMBJIIUI B PYCCKMX nEPEBO~

CTaH)lapTHbIM nCpCBO)lOM DH6JBH1 na PYCCKHH 513b1K 51BJl5ICTC5I TCKCT, H3)laHHbIH no 6J1arOCJlOBCHHJO CB5ITCHWCro CHHO)la npaBOCJlaBHOH POCCHHCKOH IJ,CPKBH B 1876 rony (sante BCCro, rOBOp5I 06 3TOM nepesone, ero Ha3bIBaJOT npOCTO «CHHO)laJIbHbIM»). Y HCTOKOB ero CTOHT Y'1PC)I(JlCHHOe B 1814 rony POCCHHCKOC DH6J1eHcKoc 06WCCTBO. 3a LtCC5ITHJlCTHC C Hc60JlbWHM, '1TO npotuno MC)f(Jly C03LtaHHCM POCCHHCxoro DH6J1cHcKoro Ofiutecrsa H npuocraaonxoa ero LtC5ITCJlbHOCTH (¢aKTH'1CCKH 3aKPbITHCM) B 1826 rony, 06WCCTBO H3)laJIO HC TOJlbKO nepnun nCpCBO)l HOBOro 3aBcTa Ha PYCCKHH 513bIK (c rpexeckoro), HO TaK)I(C rrepasrti nCpCBO)l OCaJlMOB (c CBPCHCKOro) 11 nepusni nepeson 05lTHKHH)[(H5I (c eapeiicxoro). B COCTaB Otiurecraa BXO)lHiIH H, COOTBCTCTBCHHO, BJlH5IJlH na xapaxrep nepesona npCLtCTaBHTCJlH OpaBOCJlaBHOH IJ,cPKBH, Karonuuecxoa IJ,CPKBH, a TaK)I(C pana npOTCCTaHTCKHX )lCHOMHHaLl,HH (nopa3HTCJlbHbIH)lJI5I Ha4aJ1a XIX sexa npnuep roro, 4TO noannee nOJlY4HT HM5I 3KYMCHH3Ma!); HY)leHCKHC 06WHHbI HC 6bIJlH npencraanenu.

LI.C5ITeJlbHOCTb DH6Jlci1cKoro Otiurecrsa BbI3BaJla npOTCCT Y 3Ha4HTCJlbHOH '1aCTH KOHccpBaTHBHO HaCTpOCHHoro npaBOCJlaBHOrO LtYXOBCHCTBa. CPC)lH aLtpCCOBaHHbIX DH6J1cHCKoMY 06wCCTBY ynpexos 6blJl H TOT, '1TO nCpCBO)l Berxoro 3aBCTa )lCJlaJIC5I HcnOCpc)lCTBeHHo C eapejicxoro, a HC C L1,epKOBHOCJlaB5IHCKOrO HJlH rpexecxoro. B 1826 roay )lC5ITeJlbHOCTb Ofiutecrsa 6blJla npHOCTaHOBJleHa. HC3aLtOJlrO no 3TOro Y)l(C BbIWe)lWHH H3 ne-iaru nepeson 05lTHKHH)I(H5I, nO)lroTOBJleHHbIH B OCHOBHOM MHTpOnOJlHTOM <DHJlapeTOM (LI.P03)lOBbIM) H nporonepeeu Iepacuuou OaBcKHM, 6bIJI CO)[()I(CH Ha KHpnH4HOM sasone AJrcKCaH)lpO- HCBCKOH Jlaspsr. Ilpu HHKOJlae I rtepeson DH6mm aa PYCCKHH 513bIK CTaJI ¢aKTH'1CCKH nOLtnOJ1bHbIM LteJ10M HeCKOJ1bKHX CB5IweHHHKOB-3HTY3HaCTOB (nporouepeji Iepacn« OaBcKHH, apXHMaHLtpHT MaKapHH Inyxapes). 3aBcpweHHc nepsoro nepesoaa DH6J1HH na PYCCKHH 513bIK CTaJlO B03MO)[(HO J1HWb B KOHTeKCTC TCX pe¢opM, KOTOPblC CB5I3aHbI C HMCHCM Anexcannpa II. OKOH4aTCJlbHa51 pC)laKLI,H5I BCTX03aBCTHOH 'laCTH nCpCBOLta 6bIJla nO)lrOTOBJleHa B 1860-1876 ronax LI..A. XBOJlbCOHOM npu Y'1aCTHH M.A. Ionytiesa, E. VI. JIoB5IrHHa H Il.H, CaBBaHToBa.

KaK Y)[(C 6bIJlO CKa3aHO, CHHO)laJIbHbIH rrepeson KaHOHH'1CCKHX KHHr BCTXoro 3aBcTa LtCJlaJIC5I HCnOCpCLtCTBCHHO C enpencxoa DH6JlHH (c MacopCTCKoro TCKcTa); OLtHaKO L1,epKOBHOCJlaB5IHCKa51 TpaLtHUH5I LtO HCKOTOPOi1 CTcnCHH Y'-IHTblBaJlaCb nepeBO)l4HKaMH H BJlH5IJla na CO)laBaCMbIH HMH TCKCT. B '1aCTHOCTH, HMCHa c06CTBeHHbiC 11 reorparpaxecxue Ha3BaH 1151 COXpaH5IJOT, KaK npaBI1J10, npl1Bbl4HOC )lJI5I pyccxoro yxa «rpe KO-CJlaB5I HCKoe» 3BY'IaHl1e (MOI1CCi1, a He Mowe). B C)lHHWlHbIX CJlY4a5lX, llOCTaTO'lHO fieccncrevno, Y nepeBOLt411KOB npopuaarcrcs 4TeHI151 rpe-recxoii (TO'1- nee, uepKOBHOCJlaB5IHCKoH) 0116JlI1I1.

B H3LtaHI111 1876 rona 11 ero npaBOCJlaBHbIX nepeH3llaHI151X HaJlI14eCTBYJOT BCTaB-

"KI1 113 Cerrryanurru: B pane MeCT, rne COOTHOWeHl1e uepKOBHOCJlaB5IHCKoi1 DI16J1HI1 H MacopeTCKoro TCKCTa MO)[(eT 6blTb onucauo npOCTOH ¢OPMY110i1 «B uepKOBHOC11aB5IHCKOi1 DH6J1HH ecri, O)lHO HJlH HeCK011bKO C110B, HC HMelOWHX auanora B MacopeTCKOM TCKCTCi>, 3TI1 C110Ba nepeBO)l5lTC5I C rpe'1CCKOrO (I111H C UCPKOBHOCJlaB5IHCKoro) H BCTaBJl5IIOTC5I (B cK06Kax) BHYTPb TCKCTa, ncpCBC)lCHHOrO C enpeacxoro. B npOTCCTaHTCKHx 113llaHI151X CHHO)laJIbHOrO nepesona 3TI1 «BCTaBKH 113 Cerrryanurru. y6paHbl. Mu TaK)I(C BOCnp0l13BOllHM TCKCT CHHO)laJIbHOrO nepenona 6C3 3THX BCTaBOK.

XIV //XV

XOHI CI1HOllaJIbHbIH nepeson n0J1Y'U1J1 B PYCCKOH KYJ1bType CTaTYC «crairnaprHOH» PYCCKOH 0116J1I1H, na npOHDKeHl111 nOCJ1ellHI1X nonyropa CTOJ1eTI1H nOHBJ1HJ1HCb 11 npOllOJ1)J(aJOT nOHBJ1HTbCH ansrepnatuanae nepesonu 6116J1eHCKI1X KHHr.

ITepBbIH nepesoa ITHTI1KHI1)J(HH aa PYCCKHH H3bIK, npellHa3Hay.eHHbIH cneUHaJ1bHO PYCCKOH3blY.HbIM enpeau, BblWeJ1 B OepJ1HHe B 1862 rony (nepeuon-nuc J1. MaHlleJ1bWTaM). ITonYJ1HpHbIM B enpeticxax oounraax CTaJI rtepenon ITHTI1KHH)J(HH 11. Illreautiepra (nnepuue ony6J1HKOBaH B BHJ1bHe B 1899 rony H C 'rex nop MHorOKpaTHO uepeuaaanancs). B KOHue XX sexa nOHBHJ1HCb HOBbIH nepesoa ITHTl1KHl1)J(HSI non pellaKUl1eH r. Bpauosepa (nsnarenscrno «Illavnp») H nepeson nceti eepeticxott OH6J111I1, BbInOJ1HeHHblH 11. 110cl1<poHoM (113llaTeJ1bCTBO «Mccan Apan KYK»). Henaauo 0 nOllrOTOBKe HOBOro nepesona eapeticxoji D116J11111 ua PYCCKHH H3blK 06b5lBHJ10 I13llaTeJ1bCTBO «Ieurapuu»; B 2007 rony BbIWeJ1 TOM, nOCBHweHHblH (,PaHHl1M rrpopoxau».

B TO )J(e BpeM51 B npOTl1BOBeC CHHOllaJIbHOMY nepesony, 0pHeHTI1pOBaHHOMY na MacopeTCKHH TeKCT, co BTOPOH n0J10Bl1Hbl XIX sexa B POCCHl1 npellnpl1HHMalOTCH 11 nepesonu ornem.ustx KHHr Berxoro 3aBeTa C rpe-recxoro ua PYCCKHH 6e3 ofipaweHH5I K espeacxouy n01lJ1HHHHKY. HaH60J1ee H3BeCTHbI nepesonu IT.A. Knrrepoaa (ITPOPOKH, ITPHTY.H, 3KKJ1e3HaCT, Ilecas ITecHeH, ITCaJlMbl). Cyuiecreyer HeCKOJ1bKO nepeaonon ITCaJlTHPH na PYCCKl1M 5l3blK C rpe-recxoro HJ1l1 uepKOBHOCJ1aBHHCKoro.

C 90-x ronos npournoro sexa CTaJll1 nOHBJ1HTbCH HOBble nepeaonu DH6J1Hl1 na PYCCKHH H3bIK, BbInOJ1HeHHble 3apy6e)J(HblMH npOTeCTaHTCKHMH MHCCHOHepaMH. 11HJ1eMMa «eBpeHCKaH HJ1H rpeKO-CJ1aBHHCKaH TeKCT0J10rHy.eCKaH TPMHUHH» 6bIJ1a ycneurao CHHTa B 3THX nepesonax rryrev 06paweHHH K aHrJ1HHCKOMY «OPHrHHaJlY».

Ornem.nue KHHrH eapeackon OH6J1Hl1 nOHBJ1HJ1HCb na PYCCKOM H3blKC B axallCMl1y.eCKl1X H3llaHHHX B nepesone <pHJ10J10roB H BOCTOKOBellOB c.c. Aaepnuuesa, I1.M.11bHKoHoBa, J1.E. Koraua H npyrux.

ITOMHMO ynpexa B 3KJ1CKTHy.eCKOM K0J1e6aHHH Me)J(JlY llBYMH TeKCT0J10rH'leCKHMH TpanHUHHMH (eepejicxoa H rpCKO-CJ1aBHHcKoi1), CI1HOllaJIbHbIH nepeson neonuoxparuo H CnpaBC1lJ1HBO ynpCKaJ1H B T5I)J(eJ10BeCHOCTH H3b1Ka. (,513bIK sroro nepesona T5I)J(CJ1bIH, YCTapeJ1bIH, HCKyccTBeHHO C6J1H)J(eHHbIH CO CJ1aB5IHCKHM ... 3TO coaepuieuuo HCllonYCTI1MblH B J1HTCpaType 513b1K euie nonyunoracxoro BpCMeHH, He CKpaWCHHblH npHTOM HH nOJ1eTOM BlloxHOBeHHH, HH xY1l0)J(eCTBeHHOCTblO TCKCTa». TaKOH BCPllHKT CHHOllaJ1bHOMY nCpCBOllY np03BylJaJI euie B ua-rane XX sexa H3 YCT oanoro H3 ero KPHTHKOB, I1.E. Esceesa.

TH)J(CJ10BeCHOCTb 5l3bIKa BbI3BaHa B nepBYIO OlJCPCllb 605l3HbIO OTOi1TH OT OPHrHHaJ1a, CTpCMJ1eHHCM pa6CKI1 KaJ1bKHpOBaTb ero. 3Ta 60~I3Hb, CO BCCMI1 BbITeKalOlUHMH nOCJ1CllCTBHHMH, CBOHCTBeHHa HC TOJ1bK~ CI1HOllaJ1bHOMY rtepesony; CC pa3lleJ1HIOT H npaBOCJ1aBHblH TpallHUHOHaJll1CT IOHrepoB, H OPTOllOKCaJlbHblH CBPCH 110CH<poH. ITonbITKa nepCBCCTH OH6J1111O TaK, KaK nepesonar npeaane 11 coepeveuaue J1HTeparypnue TeKCTbI, npcnrrpuanra POCCHHCKHM DH6J1CHCKHM 06WCCTBOM (CCpHH «BCTXI1H 3aBCT B nepenone C 1lPCBHCCBPCtiCKOro», 113llaCTC5I C 1999 rona), 3TO BTOPOH 113 nsyx PYCCKI1X nepeeonou, noucurenuux B HaCT051WCM C60PHI1KC. OH BOCnp0I13- BOllI1TC51, C pa3pCWCHH5I H3LtaTCJ1bCTBa H nCpCBOlllJI1Ka, no H3naHI11O «BCTXH~t 3aBC1:

Ilepeson C npesaeeepeacxoro. Kuura DbITI1H» (ITCPCBOll, BCTYIlI1TCJ1bHa51 CTaTbH 11 KOMMCHTapHI1 M.r. CCJ1e3Hcsa. PCllaKTOp A.3. Ipadioa. M.: 1999).

MCTOPHKO-<I>HJIOJIOfWqECKHE IIPHMEqAHIUI K EHEJIEMCKOMY TEKCTY

YT06bl nOHHTb eBpeHCKYIO EH6JlHIO, He06xonHMO 3HaTh 6blT H MHpOBOCnpl151THe JlIOneH TOH :mOXH. Hepeaxo OC06CHHOCTH TCKCTa, aaxnsre MH nepaux '1HTaTCJlci1, MOryr npOCKOJlb3HYTb MHMO BHHMaHHH naurero COBpeMCHHI1Ka. OPH nepenone HCJlb351 nepenars nrpy CJlOB, OTTeHKH cvucna MHOr03Ha'lHbIX CJlOI3. 80 BCCX 3THX CJlY'Ia51X ortpenene-myio nOMOLUb COBpCMeHHOMY '1HTaTeJ1IO MorYT OKa3aTb HCTOPI1- KO-cPHJlOJlOrWleCKHc npHMC'IaHHH.

8 HaCT051WCM C60PHHKC BocnpOH3BOLlHTCH, C HCKOTOPblMH COKpaWCHH5IMI1, npnMe'laHHH 113 Y)J(C ynOMI1HaBWerOC5I 113LlaHHH POCCHi1CKOro EI16JlCHCKOro 06WCCTBa (<<8CTXI1H 3aI3CT. nCpCBOLl C LlPCSHCCBPCtiCKOro. KHHra ObITHH»).

HCTOPI1KO-cPHJlOJlOfJ1'1eCKHe KOMMCHTapl111 HCXOLl51T H3 nOHI1MaHH5I 6H6J1eHCKOrO TeKCTa H 6116Jlci1CKI1X PCaJIl1H COBPCMCHHblMH YLfCHbIMH. 3TO nOHI1MaHHC 130 MHOrOM OTJlHLfaCTC51 OT asrnana TpaLlHlI,I10HHbiX CBPCtiCKI1X KOMMCHTaTOpOB, LfbH pafioru npHBCLlCHbl ua TOti )J(C CTpaHl1l1,C. TaKaH LlBOi1CTBCHHOCTb OCBeweHHH 6H6- JlCi1CKOro TCKCTa n03BOJl5lCT '1I1TaTCJlIO n03HaKOMHTbC5I HC npOCTO C ero uurepnpeTall, I1Cti, HO C ucmopueii uumepnpemauuu: KaK 3BYLfaJl H nOHI1MaJICH 6H6J1CHCKl1ti OTPblBOK B ero LlPCBHCBOCTOLfHOM KOHTCKCTe, KaK - B CPCLlHCBCKOBOH CBPCHCKOH TpaLlHUHH, KaK BblrJlHLlHT OH B CBCTC COBPCMCHHblX I1CTOPI1KO-cPHJlOJlOrI1LfCCKHX 113blcKaHMti.

M. t: Ceaesnee

TAPrYM

00 MCpC roro KaK B 06HXOLlC naJICCTI1HCKI1X 11 BaBI1JlOHCKI1X CBPCCB npCBHCCBpeHCKI1H 513b1K BbITCCH5IJlC5I apaMci1cKMM, I303HI1KaJIa Hc06xOLlMMOCTb B ncpCBOLlC 011- CaHI151 ua apaMCHCKI1i1 513bIK. TaKI1C nepeaonu B espeacxoa rpaznruna Ha3blBaIOTC51 «TaprYMaMI1» (LfTO 3HaLfl1T npocro «nepenon- I1JlI1 «11 CTOJlKO BaH 11 e» ). H3BeCTHbi TapryMbl KO BceM KHl1raM eBpeHCKOH 0116Jl11 H, xpoue llaHHI1Jla 11 E3Llpbl-HeeMI1I1 (3TI1 nne KHl1r1111 TaK conepxar B ce6e 3HaLfHTCJlbHble no 06beMY apaMci1CKI1C TCKCTbl).

H3 'II1CJla rapryxoa K n5lTHKHI1)J(HIO HaM60JlbWI1M aBTOpl1TeTOM nOJlb3YCTCH TaK Ha3bIBaCMblH Tapryxi OHKeJlOca. 06 3TOM, B 4aCTHOCTI1, rOBOpl1T BKJl104CHHC l1MCHHO 3TOro nepenona B nepsoe 113LlaHI1e 8iblia Rabbinica, no 06pa3UY KOTOPOi1 6blJll1 CLlCJlaHbl H3LlaHI151, nOJlYLfl1BWl1e Ha3BaHl1e Ml1KpaOT reLlOJlOT. TpaLll1UI10HHOe Ha3BaHMC aroro nepesona BOCX01Jl1T K TeKCTaM TaJIMYLla, B KOTOPbIX <<nP03CJlI1T OHKCJlOC»I , 13 npyron Bapl1aHTC «np03eJJ!1T AK!1Jlac»2, ynoM5IHYT KaK asrop «rapryva», l1JJ!1 nepeBOlla TOPbl. H 11 B O.llHOM 113 3TI1X naccaxen HeT YKa3aH HH na H3blK nepesona, ocyWCCTBJleHHoro OHKCJlOCOM. Mexcny TeM, Xpl1CTl1aHCKaH rpannun» COXpaHI1JJa I1M5I AKBI1J1bl, ozuioro 113 eBpei1cKI1X rtepeson-uocoa EI16Jll111 ua rpe'lCCKI1H 5l3b1K, pa60TaBurero 130 Il B. H.3. Ha OCHOBaHI1M conOCTaBJlCHI151 3TI1X nanusrx B HaYLIHOM Ml1pe noJlYlJl1JlO pacnpOCTpaHCHI1C MHeHI1C, 'fTO l1M51 OHKCJlOC (Axnnac) 51BJl5lCTCH HeTOLIHOH nepenasen pl1MCKOrO I1MeHI1 AKBI1Jla 11 LITO TCKCT TaJIMY.lla rOBOpl1T 0 nCpCBOnlJl1KC Ha rpeLfCCKI1H 513bIK, a HC na apaMCHCKI1H. TCM HC MCHCC, B CBpci"1cKOH Tpa.lll1WH1 111'.151 OHKeJlOC npO'IHO CB5I3aHO I1MCHHO C OnHI1M 113 apaMdicKl1X nepC130.ll0B TOPbI.

I MCmJL~a 3a.

, Tanavn Hepyuransr», Mernnna 71c.

XVI//XVII

B HaYKe HeT rsepnoro MHeHHH HH 0 lIaTHpOBKe Tapryva OHKeJIOCa, HH 0 MeCTe ero C031l,aHHH. npHHHTO C'lHTaTb, 'ITO 3TOT TeKCT C031l,aH B nepuon Me)K.1I.Y II H V BB. H.3. B naJIeCTHHe HJIH B BaBHJIOHHH. ComaCHO OLlHOHI13 nonynapuux T04eK 3peHI1H, Tapryv OHKeJIOCa 6blJI nepBOHa4aJIbHO aanncau B naJIeCTI1He, HO OTpeLlaKTHpOBaH B BaBHJIOHHH.

XOTH B ueJIOM .1I.JIH TaprYMI14eCKOH TPartl1Ul111 xapaxrepao, Y.TO HaM npezinaraeTCH He nepeson, a MI1.1I.paw, OHKeJIOC (KaK 11 Tapryv HOHaTaHa) OTJII14aeTCH TeM, 4TO 3JIeMeHT MI11l,paWa B HeM csenen K MI1HI1MYMY. 4TO KaCaeTC5I n03nFleCKI1X TeKCTOB 6116JII1I1, anecs Tapryu OHKeJIOCa npenCTaBJIHeT c060i1 rOMI1JIeTI14eCKI1H TeKCT, CMblCJIOBYIO CBH3b xoroporo C eBpei1cKI1M Opl1rl1HaJIOM nopoti rpyzmo YJIOBHTb. Ha- 1160JIee HPKHM npaaepov raxoro pona 51BJI5IeTCH «nepeaon, Esrr 49.

Ha PYCCKHH 513b1K Tapryv OHKeJIOCa nepeB01l,HTC5I snepnue. rJIaBHaH sanasa, KOTOpylO nepeson-nnc CTaBI111 nepen C060H, 3aKll104aJIaCb B TOM, y.To6bl KaK MO)[(HO narnaanee rtponeuoacrpaposari, HeMHor04HClleHHble, HO Ba)[(Hble 11 mrrepccuue OTKllOHeHHH OT nOCJIOBHOro nepesona, xoropsre I1MelOTCH B Tapryve OHKeJIOca. D.JIH 3T0i1 uenn see OTKllOHeHI1H OHKeJIOCa OT 6YKBaJIbHOro csrucna OpHrl1HaJIa OTMey.eHbl KypCI1BOM.

4T06bI 51CHee nokaaars, HaCKOllbKO TOY.HO OHKeJIOC B 6011bWI1HCTBe cnysaen cnenyer eBpeHCKOMY TeKCTY, PYCCKHH nepeson OHKeJIOCa B COOTBeTCTBYlOlUl1X MeCTax MaKCJ!lMaJIbHO npl1611I1)[(eH K nepeBO.1I.Y nHTHKHJ!I)((HH POCCHHCKHM 6J!1611eHCKHM 06- lUeCTBOM (onnaxo TaM, me nepesoa POCCJ!lHCKOrO DJ!l6JIeticKoro 06lUecTBa rtpnfieraeT K nepndipaaas, J!I <PYHKUHOHaJIbHbIM 3aMeHaM, Haw nepeson OHKeJIOCa Llep)[(l1TCH 6Jrl1)[(e K «6YKBe» Opl1rHHaJIa).

Ilepenon OCYlUeCTBlleH no H3LlaHI1IO: Sperber, A., The Bible in Aramaic, Vol. 1: The Pentateuch According to Targum Onqelos (Leiden: 1959). TeKCT B 3TOM 113naHI1J!1 He- 3Ha411TeJIbHO OTlll14aeTCH OT TeKCTa OHKeJIOCa B Tpartl1Ul10HHbIX 113naHJ!lHX Mnxpaor Ienonor, B uexoropux CllY4aHX npenno-rreane OTnaHO 4TeHHHM, COnep)[(alUl1MCH B ornensaux PYKOnI1C51X, He aouienuntx B OCHOBHOH TeKCT Wnep6epa, HO c06paHHblM B KpI1TJ!l4eCKOM annapare ero 113naHI151 OHKeJIOca. B OTneJIbHblX CJIY4aHX 3TI1 -rreHI1H conrraaaior C TeKCTOM Onxenoca B MI1KpaoT Ienonor, Ilpa nepesone I1CnOllb30- BaJICH raxxe KOMMeHTapJ!lH K Ouxenocy Moure A6ep6axa 11 Eepnapna Ipoccrpensna (Aberbach, M., Grossfeld, B. Targum Onkelos to Genesis. Denver 1982).

f A.K. J1fl8dalicKuu

PAIIIM

PawJ!I - a66peBI1aTypa H3 nepsux 6YKB I1MeHI1 pa6611 WJlOMO 6ap Huxaxa, BeJlHxaaurero eapettcxoro axserera 11 KOMMeHTaTopa nl1CaHI1H 11 TaJIMYLla. OH POLlI1JlC51 B 1040 rony BO <ppaHuY3cKOM ropoae Tpya, rornaumeji CTOJll1ue WaMnaHI1, 11 YMep TaM )[(e B 1105 rOLlY. )l(113Hb ero oxpyxeua MHO)[(eCTBOM .nerenn, nexoropsre 113 HI1X Mbl nepecxaxev. 00 OLlHOH 113 HI1X, Pauru POLlI1JIC5I B Bopvce (repMaHI1H). Ero oreu 6bIJl Oy.eHb 60raTblM 11 04eHb Ha6o)[(HbIM 4eJlOBeKOM. Y Hero 6blJl nparouenusui KaMeHb peLlKOH «pacoru. Mecruue Xpl1CTl1aHe XOTeJlJ!l 3anOJIYLJJ!lTb 3TOT KaMeHb, 4T06bl yxpacirn, 11M 11 KOHY CBHToro. OH~1 npennarana p. Huxaxy orpouuue CYMMbl, HO TOT, 3HaH 0 ucnn nOKynKI1, HeJ!l3MeHHO OTKaJbIBaJICH. Torna OHI1 peWI1JII1 aannaners KaM-

HeM HaCHJlbHO. nOHHMa5l, 'lTO CHJlbl trepasuu, p. Huxax fiPOCHJl KaMeHb B BO.ll,Y. TYT pa3.ll,3JlC5I Ear KOJIb (rOJlOC C Hefiec), B03BeCTHBWHH eMY, '-ITO narpanoa aa MY)I(eCTBO H xpertocrs B sepe fiyner CbIH, '-Ib51 cnasa BOCCH5IeT uaa H3paHJleM. l.{epe3 ron MaTb PaWH urna no Y3KHM YJlO'-lKaM Bopvca H nO'-lYBCTBOB3Jla npHfiJlH)I(eHHe P0.ll,OB. HaBCTpe'-l.Y eH exana rpY)I(eHa51 renera. He B CHJlaX .ll,BHHYTbC5I, )l(eHLUHHa npHCJlOHHJ1aCb K CTeHe. H TYT CJlY'-IHJlOCb '-IY.ll,O: CTeHa paaaeuuynacs, 4TOfibl npHH5ITb pO)l(eHHUY. B .ll,OMe, me P0.ll,HJlCH fiY.ll,YLUHH MY.ll,peU, ero p0.ll,CTBeHHHK nepxan MHCHYIO JlaBKY, H ryna HHKOma He nepsana 33J1eTaTb HH onua Myxa. ComaCHO npyruv aereunav, PaWH MHOro nYTeweCTBOB3Jl, Ofibe3.ll,HJI nO'-lTH sees CBeT. OH )l(eHHJ1C5I B Ilpare aa nepsoa xpacaeaue, no-tepa cauoro H3BeCTHoro paBBHHa, e3.ll,HJ1 B oapCeJ10HY BCTpeTHTbC5I C '-IeJlOBeKOM, KOTOPOro yannen BO CHe H KOTOPblH aonxen fiblJl CTaTb ero napruepoa no xespyre (B3aHMHOMY ofiY'-IeHHIO) B paio. OH fieceziosan B Erurrre C MaHMOHH.ll,OM (PaMfiaMOM), H3Y'l3Jl see 3eMHbie HaYKH B I1cnaHHH, nOCpaMJ151J1 B zutcrtyrax neespeHCKHx MY.ll,peUOB, a esponeticxue ananuxa uanepetioti cnpaWHB3JlH Y Hero COBeTa, H OH HeH3MeHHO OKa3blB3JlCH npas. Ocofieauo mooonsrraa nereuna npo TO, KaK rOT<PPH.ll, 0YJlbOHCKHH, orrrpaanaacs B KpeCTOBblH noxon CnpOCHJI Y PaWH of ycnexe csoero npennpuarua. Pauru CKa33Jl, '-ITO nOHa'-l3JlY eMY fiY.ll,eT COnYTCTBOBaTb ycnex, HO 3aTeM OH noreprurr nopaxeuae H BepHeTC5I ,llOMOH scero JIHWb C TpeMH nouraasMH. Kpaiiue pa3,llOC3.ll,OBaHHbIH TaKHMH CJlOBaMH, rOT<PPH,ll nOKJl5lJlC5I, '-ITO, CCJIH OH BCPHCTCH XOT5I fibl C '-IeTblpbM5I J10W3.ll,bMH, OH pa3PYWHT eBpeHCKYIO ofiLUHHY Tpya. npC,llCKa3aHHC PaWH 0 nOpa)l(CHHH rOT<PPH,lla cfisrnocs, O,llHaKO OH B03BpaTHJlCH BO <DpaHUHIO C TpCMH BC3.ll,HHKaMH, TO ecrs nouiaaea fibIJlO xerupe. Bo sees onop M'-IaJlHCb puuapn K BopOTaM Tpya, HO, xoraa OHH Y)I(e BbeX3JIH B ropon, C xpenocruon CTCHbl COPB3J1C5I KaMeHb H yfiHJI O,llHY H3 JIOWa,lleH. CMYLUeHHbIH, nonsexan rOT<PPH,ll K ,llOMY Paunr, '-ITofibl rrpuntars caoe nopaxeaae, H, BH,llHMO, cnpocirrs, '-ITO eMY ne.nars aansure, HO TYT y3H3Jl, tITO MY,llPbIH paBBHH Y)I(e yMCp.

<DpaHUY3CKHH MH<pOJlOr )KoP)l( lI,IOMC3HJlb nHC3Jl, '-ITO, XOT5I nereunu 3a'-laCTYIO fisraaro'r uero-uur B ,llCT3J1HX H HCHCTOPH'-IHbl B UCJlOM, OHH XopOWO xapaKTepH3YIOT JllOllci1 H anoxy nOCMOTpHM aa nereuau jlonpHCT3JlbHCC. PaCCKa3b! npo ztparoueuHblH KaMeHb, nO,llBHHYBWYIOCH CTeHY H ,llHCUHnJIHHHpOBaHHbIX MYX BCTpe'-l.aIOTCH B Arane. OHH COCTaBJI5IIOT KaK 6b! MH<pH'-IeCKHC arpnfiyrst BbI,llaIOLUeHC5I J1H'-IHOCTH H C pe3JlbHOCTblO, KaK npaBHJ10, HC KOPPCJlHPYIOT. Ho BOT noxeay BopMC, a He Tpya KaK MeCTO pO)l(JleHHH? lI,CJlO, B03MO)l(HO, B TOM OCOfiOM nHCTCTe, KOTOPbIH aWKCHa3CKHC espea Cpe,llHeBCKOBbH nHT3J1H K 3TOMY ropony. B XI-XII sexax OfiLUHHbl Illneepa, Bopuca H Maauua C'-IHT3JlHCb HaHfioJlee BJlH5ITCJIbHbIMH B repMaHHH (B enpeacxux HCTO'-lHHKaX OHH naxe OfibcllHHeHbI aKpOHHMOM WYM). Cpenu HHX HMeHHO Bopvc CJlaBHJlCH caoeii Y'-ICHOCTblO, H fiblJlO HCHO, '-ITO BeJlHKHH My,llpeu nonxen fiblJl po,llHTbC5I HMCHHO TaM, cpena fiJlarO'-lCCTHBbIX repMaHCKHX espeen, a He cpenn HX .nerKOMblCJleHHblX <ppaHUY3CKHX cofiparses.

HaM He CJlHWKOM MHoro H3BeCTHO 0 paHHeM rtepuone )I(H3HH PaWH. Oreu ero fib!Jl '-ICJlOBeKOM Hefic,llHblM H, BH,llHMO, HCnJlOXO otipaaoaanau«, HO HH B <pHHaHCOBYIO (MCHHJIH H POCTOBLUHKH), HH B Y'-lCHYIO 3JlHTY (paBBHHbl H TOJIKOBaTeJlH T3JlMY,lla) OH HC BXO,llHJl. KaKHc Y)I( TaM HCCJlbIXaHHb!e ,llparOUCHHOCTH ... CaM PaWH nHC3Jl, '-ITO 3apafiarsrsan na )l(H3Hb BHHOrpa,llapCTBOM H npOH3BO.ll,CTBOM BHHa. ECTb BCC OCHOBaHH5I npennonarars. '-ITO oro 6blJIO ceMeHHb!M 3aH5ITHCM. B OTUOBCKOM ,llOMe 6b!JlH 33JlO)l(e-

XVIII //XIX

HbI H OCHOBHble xept'u xapaxrepa C0J10MOHa VlUXaKH. 3TO HCKPCHHHH sepa, HO 6C3 nOKa3HOH Ha60)KHOCTH, OTBCTCTBeHHOCTb H BHlfMaHHe K MeJ10llaM, 3JlpaBbIH CMbICJ1 H Tpe3BaH paCCYllHTeJlbHOCTb H, HaKOHeu, HCTHHHO KpeCTbSlHCKOe TPYJloJllo6He.

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I1M5I Paum Y MHomx accouuupyercs C TepMI1HOM «ntuam»- rtpavoii, 6YKRaJlbHblH CMbICJ1 nI1CaHH5I. Hexoropue naxe C4:HTaIOT, -rro OH M306peJl 3TOT MeTOll TOJ1KOBa-

HlUI. 3TO He TaK; 0 nuiare nHCaJI Caanus Iaou (892-942), a ewe paasuie - My.upeUbl Tanvyna y4HJ1H, 4TO «CTHX nHCaHH5I penxo paCCTaeTCSI co CBOHM np5lMblM CMbICJ10M». AeJ10 He B MeTo.ue KaK TaKOBOM, a B TOM, 3a4eM PaWH ero npHMeH5IJ1. OH .ueJ1aJI sro ,UJ151 nOCHDKeHH5I CBoeH maBHOH ueJ1H: ClIeJ1aTb OH6J1HIO H TaJIMyn nOH5ITHbIMH H 06- urenocrynuuvn KHHraMH. 3TO 6blJ1a nOHCTHHe rpaunuoaaaa sanasa. 31Iecb npexne scero B03HHKaJ1 sonpoc 0 TOM, BC51KHH J1H «eJ10BeK MO)f(eT nOH51Tb CB5IWeHHOe nl1- canne H aaao J1H, 4T06bl Ka)[([[bIH nOH51J1'? no 3TOMY nosony cywecTBOBaJIH pasuue T04KH spea H5I. Pauni nOJ1araJI, 4TO y kaxnoro )f(eJ1alOwero nOHSITb Il ncauae ecrs raxoe npaso H 4TO 06bSICHSITb HY)f(HO HMeHHO TaK, 4T06bI 6blJ10 nOHSITHO scev. Apyme, He MeHee eaxaue sonpocu COCT0fiT B TOM, cyweCTBYIOT J1H KaKHe-TO MeTOlIbl H npasana HHTepnpeTaUHH 6H6J1eHCKOro TeKCTa H KaKHe H3 HHX npenno-rnrrensuee ,UJ1SI KOMMeHTaTopa'? KaKHe BbIBOlIbI Moryr C4HTaTbCSI BepHbIMH H KaKOBbI KpHTepHH oueuxn? KaKHe H3 3THX BbIBonOB 1I0J1)f(Hbl CTaTb 06wenpHHSITblMH HopMaMH, a KaKHe - OCTaTbCSI J1H4HbIM MHeHHeM TOJ1KOBaTeJ1SI? nOCJ1elIHHH sonpoc oc06eHHO Ba)f(eH B CBSI3H C TeM, 'ITO na OCHOBe KOMMeHTapHeB CPOPMYJ1HPOBaJIHCb n0J10)f(eHHSI espeacxoro 3aKOHa - raJIaXH. PaWH OTJ1H4HO 3HaJI see npHeMbl eBpeHCKOH sxsereau 11 B CBoeM MeTone HCn0J1b30BaJI 're H3 HHX, xoropue C«HTaJI HaHJ1Y4WHMH.

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OnnOHeHToM pa66H AKHBbI sucrynan ero COBpeMeHHHK, pa66H HWMa3J1b. Ero CTOPOHHHKH YKa3bIBaJIH na TO, 4TO «Topa (oH6J1HSI) rOBopHT Sl.3bIKOM CblHOB 4eJ10- Be4eCKHX», H, 3Ha411T, ee uaao 411TaTb, cnenys 06bl4HblM npaBI1J1aM 4TeHI1S1. Pa66H HlllMa3J1b y4HJ1, 4TO HY)f(HO nenars TOJ1bKO re BbIBOlIbI, xoropsre BbITeKalOT H3 npsMOro CMbICJ1a, 4TO CJ10Ba He CJ1elIyeT nsrpuaart, H3 KOHTeKCTa H 4TO npn aHaJIH3e OTpusxa HY)f(HO Y4HTbiBaTb concpxanuc uenoro, a He TOJ1bKO 4aCTI1. I1wMa3J1b C4HTaJI nauxynunm KOMMeHTaTopOM roro, KTO KaK 6bI rOBOpl1T nHcaHHIO: «YMOJ1KHH, a 51

6YlIY TOJ1KOBaTb». ..

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XX//XXI

XI1'leCKI1X, 11 B ara,nI1'leCKI1X MM)lpall1aX OTlIeTJlI1BO 3aMeTHO )l(eJlaHl1e He CTOJlbKO npo611TbCSI K HCTHHHOMY CMbICJ1Y DH6J1HH, CKOJ1bKO CTpeMJ1eHHe BO '-ITO 6bl TO HI1 crane nonnepers aBTOpl1TeTOM nHCaHIH! TY I1J1H I1HYIO HOPMY 3aKOHa 11J111 nexoe npencraaneuae asropa, 3TH HHTeHUHH nopoii TaK naJ1eKO 3aBOnHJ111 CO'lI1HI1TeJ1eH, '-ITO I1X He cncpxueana HH J10rI1Ka, HH 3)lpaBblH CMbICJ1. Y MHOrHX ysaura XCSI MH)lpaW sarnyuran BCSlKoe )J(eJ1aHHe caMOCTOSlTeJ1bHO HCCJ1e)lOBaTb Tanax.

B 3TI1X yCJ10Bl1S1X PaWI1 Bbl)lBl1HYJ1 CBOIO TpaKTOBKY rnuara. Ilurar )lJ151 Hero - 3TO npexne acero 3npaBblH CMbICJ1 '-Il1TaTeJ1S1 KaK npezmocstnxa nOHl1MaHI1S1 nO)lJ1I1HHOro CMbICJ1a TeKCTa. OH COrJ1aCeH C p. AKI1BOH, 4TO B 0116J11111 Ba)l(HO xaxaoe CJ10BO, n03TOMY OH He OCTaBJ1S1eT 6e3 BHI1MaHI151 HI1 e)lI1HOrO CJ10Ba nI1CaHl1S1. Ilpn 3TOM c06CTBeHHbIX CJ10B OH TpaTI1T MHHI1MYM, He CTpeM5ICb rtopasurs '-IHTaTeJ1S1 nepnaMI1 KpaCHope4HSI. Huorna eMY XBaTaeT )lJUI KOMMeHTapl1S1 H O)lHOrO CJIOBa, HO OHO OKa3blBaeTC5I ynHBHTeJ1bHO T04HbIM. Ba)J(HbIH MOMeHT: OH KOMMeHTl1pyeT TOJ1bKO 3Ha411Mbie CJ10Ba, OCTaBJ151S1 sa cK06KaMI1 CJJY)J(e6Hble. KpaHHOCTeH MeTO)la WKOJ1bl p. AKI1Bbl OH He pa3)leJ151eT, OH He sepur, 4TO npennor l1J1H 'laCTl1ua B 6H6JJei1cKoM TeKCTe MoryT 6blTb uaneneasr OC06blM CMbICJJOM. Pe-n, HH B KoeM CJIy'-Iae He H)leT 0 )leCaKpaJ1H3aUI1I1 0l16J1l1H, 0 J1HWeHHH ee caaureauoro craryca, 0 ee Hl13Be)leHI1I1113 paara Boxecraennoro OTKpOBeHl1S1 B paspan O)lHOH H3 MHOrl1X PYKOTBOPHblX KHHr. TaKOH nonxon xapaxrepeu )lJ151 n03)lHeHWeH 6H6J1eHCKOH Kpl1THKH, Pauru OH He CBoHCTBeH. )],J151 Hero 0l16J11151 acerna - oO)l(eCTBeHHbIH Inaron, HO OH BHI1MaeT eMY B 3)lpaBOM paccynxe, 6e3 3KcueCCOB BOCnaJ1eHHOrO Bo06pa)l(eHH51. He npHeMJ1eT OH 11 BC5IKOrO pona «HaKpYToK» soxpyr rexcra, <pI1JJOJIOrH4eCKI1X <POKYCOB, xorna npeanaraerca nO)lCTaBHTb O)lHY 6YKBY BMeCTO npyroii, 411TaTb He KaK HanI1CaHO, a BOT TaK ... 11 T.n. OH He npl1MeH5IeT reuarpuu, HayKI1 0 4l1CJIOBOM 3Ha'-leHl1H 6YKB, CO maCHO KOTOPOH eCJIH «cyMMa» 6YKB O)lHOrO CJIOBa panna «cyMMe» zrpyroro, HX MO)J(HO MeH5ITb MeCTaMl111 C411TaTb TO)J()leCTBeHHbIMl1, XOT5I B 513blKe OHI1 03Ha4alOT COBepweHHO pasnue BeWI1. Ero He npl1BJ1eKalOT MaHl1nYJI5IUl1l1 C TeKCTOM, C nOI\-1OW.bJO KOTOPblX MO)J(HO yrsepxnart, see, 4TO yronuo: « ... fienoe nOH5ITb KaK -repnoe , a CJIOBO MY)l(4l1Ha npouecrs KaK )l(eH ura Ha» (M03ec MeH11eJIbCOH). )],JI5I Hero He saxHO 6bITb scerna npaBblM, OH l1CKpeHHe X04eT nOH5ITb. Moxer 6blTb, n03TOMY OH 6e3 rpyna npOH3HOCl1T: «3TOro 51 He 3HaJO» - npH3HaHHe LI,J1S1 I1HblX KOMMeHTaTopOB HeM blCJII1Moe.

Ero OTHOWeHl1e K MI111paWaM - nO)lJ1I1HHOe «Odi et amo» (<<HeHaBI1)1(Y 11 JIJ06- JIIO»). PaWH OXOTHO UHTI1pyeT MI1LI,paW KaK I1CT04HHK, HO xareropuvecxn He npueMJIeT Ml111paW KaK MeTO)l l1CT0J1KOBaHI151. OH He BbIBOLI,l1T H3 TeKCTa nl1CaHI151 raJIaXl14eCKl1X npaBI1JI 11 He rOTOBl1T 113 Hero PHTOpl14eCKI1X <pl1ryp )lJI5I nponosenn. OH npuaunaer H3Y4aTb TeKCT, a He csoe OTHOWeHl1e K HeMY. PaWI1 He npntieraer K MHCTJ1l1eCKI1M I1HTepnpeTaUI151M. OH aoofiuie LI,aJIeK OT MI1CTHKI1 11 B113110HepcTBa, OH - 4eJIOBeK npaKTI14eCKI1H, OH aupauurnaer anuorpan n nenaer BI1HO. PaWI1 HCCJ1e11yeT ruuar, )lJl51 Hero 3TO 3Ha'lHT npoacuenne CMblCJIa llJI51 scex, a He TOJIbKO 11J151 nOCB51WeHHbIX 11 npocneuieunux. Y Hero uer MHor03Ha4l1TeJIbHblX dipas TI1- na «Sapienti - sat» (<< Pa3YMHoMY - 1l0B0J1bHO») HJII1 «Macxun» MeeUH» «<06pa30- BaHHblH noHMeT»). «npOCTOH» llJI5I Hero - He ynpoiuennsni H npI1MI1TI1B!-IbIH, a nepB0311aHHblH CMbICJ1 CJIOBa DO)[(bero, non-rae 3aTeMHeHHbiH nJ1eTeHl1eM CJ10BeC 113JI11 IIIHe pe411CTbiX TOJ1KOBaTeJIei1.

EMY 6m13Ka 6b1JIa n03HUI151 WKOJIbI p. I1wMa3JI5I, OH nOJIaraJI, '-ITO eCJIH DH6JII151 rOBOpHT 513bIKOM CbIHOB '-IeJ10BelJeCKHX, TO, CTaJIO 6bITb, CbIHbI '-IeJ10Be4eCKl1e MOrYT nOCTH4b ee CMblCJ1. KCTaTH, n04eMY TOJ1bKO cuuu? A no-tepa? Paunr aan CBOI1M no'-IepHM npexpacnoe 06pa30BaHl1e. 113BecTHo, 4TO Ml1Pb5lM 11 Hoxesen nOMOraJIl1 eMY B COCTaBJ1eHI1I1 csona, 11J111 KaK rorna rOBOpl1J1H, KOMneH.uHYMa ero KOMMeHTapl1eB. Hano nOMHI1Tb, 4TO 3TO 6blJ10 B anoxy, «orna He ace esponeticxae KOpOJ1eBbl yMeJ111 4HTaTb, na 11 B eBpeHCKOH cpene, npn noroJ10BHOH rpaMOTHOCTI1 MY)l(CKOro uaCeJ1eHI151, 6bITOBaJIl1 caMble .uI1Kl1e npenpaccynxn HaC'-IeT 06Y'-IeHI151.ueByweK. B 3TOM CMbICJ1e He 6y.ueT npeYBeJ1114eHl1eM CKa3aTb, '-ITO Pauia npe.uBOCXHTI1J1 H.uel1 aceofituero 06pa30BaHH5I 11 )l(eHCKOM 3MaHCHnaUHH. OH onepennn csoe BpeMH na HeCKOJ1bKO COTeH J1eT.

BJIH5IHl1e Pauru ua eBpeHCKYIO MbICJ1b orpOMHO. Ero rpynu nOCJ1Y)l(HJ111 OCHOBOH .uJI5I MHO)l(eCTBa cyrtep-xovsrenrapaeu eBpeMCKHX 3K3ereTOB nOCJ1e.uYJOlUI1X nOKOJ1eHI1H. Cavue 113BeCTHble H3 HHX - «DI1YPI1M» p. 113pa11JI5I Hccepnenna (BeHeUH5I, 1519), «Cediep ra-Mnapaxt« p. 3JIH5Iry Ml13paXH (BeHeUI151, 1527), «KJIH 51Kap» p. C0J10MOHa 3<ppaHMa (J1106J1HH, 1602), «CH<pTeH XaXaMI1M» p. Wa6TaH Dacca.

Paunr 3HaJOT see. HeT KOMMeHTaTopa na BOCTOKe HJIH ua 3ana.ue, KOTOPbIH 6bI He CCbIJIaJICH Ha Hero, He CornaWaJIC5I HJ111 He CnOpHJ1 6bJ C HHM. 3.ueCb He06xo.uI1MO cneJ1aTb YT04HeHHe. ECJ111 OH TaK npH3HaH 11 nonYJ151peH, n04eMYC HI1M TaKlJaCTOCnopHT? Bo-rtepsux, .llJl51 xaxaoro Y4I1TeJ151 - a Paum 6blJI BeJIHKHM Y4HTeJIeM - HeT HI1'-1erO npH5ITHee, 4eM BI1.ueTb cepsesno CnOpHlUl1X C HHM Y4eHI1KoB. CbIHOBb51 YMHHu-.uO'-lepeM PaWH, ero BHYKH, Hal160JIee BbJ.ualOlUl1eC5I 113 KOTOPbIX - pa6eHHY TaM (p. Haxoa 6eH Menp) 11 Pauifiav (p. WMY3J1b 6eH Menp), n0J10)l(HJ111 Ha4aJIO Tpa.uI1UI1H raxoro cnopa. Bee nOCJIe.uYlOlUl1e KOMMcHTaTopbl Tpa.uHUI1JO npo.uOJ1)1(I1JII1. 3aMe4aTeJ1bHO 06bHCHI1J1 3TOT diaxr aMepl1KaHCKHH Y4eHblH LI,)I(eK06 n~J1.uCTeHH. OH CKa3aJI, 4TO J1JO- 60H TOJIKOBaTeJlb CTpeMl1TC5I npurnyn, KaK MO)l(HO auure, a, eCJ111 n0J1Y4I1TC5I, TO 11 nonerers. l{T06bl 3TOro .u06I1TbC5I, naao OTTOJ1KHYTbC5I OT rsepnoro, npo-uioro OCHOBaHH5I. Hey.uHBI1TeJIbHO, '-ITO cnop C PaWH - Ha4aJIO BC5IKOrO TOJIKOBaHI151. KOMMeHrapnn Paunr K O5lTHKHl1)1(l11O 6blJIl1 nepBbIM eBpeMCKI1M nesaruuu nponaaeneaneu. C 3Tl1X nop 11 nouuue OHI1 uenpeueuuo BXO.u5lT B JII060e H3.uaHl1e Ml1KpaOT r.uOJlOT. Ero KOMMeHTapl1l1, KaK npaBI1JlO, Ha6paHbl cneunansnsur «paBBHHCKI1M» WPI1<pTOM (OH )l(e «WPl1<PT Pauni»). OH - scerna nepsua H acerna OC06bIH.

B COBpeMeHHOH HaYKe ecri, nOH5ITHe «I1H.ueKC nay-moro UI1THpOBaHI151». 3TO - 4aCTOTa ynOMI1HaHI151 l1MeHI1 y-tenoro 11 CCblJ10K na ero pa60TbI B I1CCJIe.uOBaHl151X KOJIJIer. l{eM HH.ueKC 60JlbWe, TeM urupe 113BeCTHOCTb y-renoro H ssnue ero aBTOpl1TeT. 00 3TOMY nOKa3aTeJIIO PaWI1 - a6COJIIOTHbIM 4eMnl10H scex apeven cpenn eBpeHCKI1X KOMMeHTaTopOB OI1CaHI1H. Pauee .uPYrHX OH CTaJI aBTOpl1TeTOM H .llJ1H HeeBpeHCKI1X TOJIKOBaTeJleM DI16JlI1H. 8 XIV sexe na Hero C n04TeHI1eM CCbIJIaeTC5I <ppaHUY3CKHH <ppaHUI1CKaHeu, MOHaX-3K3ereT Hl1KOJl51 ne J1I1P, aBTOp nexorna 3HaMeHHTblX «Pastilles perpetuellesi «<Be4Hblx nOCJlaH 11M»). 3TO npouasenemre OKa3aJIO BJII151Hl1e na MHOrl1X KaTOJII14eCKl1X, a BnOCJle.uCTBHI1 11 ua npoTecTaHTCKI1X Y'-leHbIX, BKJlI04a51 11 J1JOTepa.

CTI1Jlb Paw 11 necer aa ce6e cnenu ero npenonaaarenscxoro MeTo.ua. 11 uorna OH KaK 6y.uTO OTBe1laeT ua He3a.uaHHb1M sonpoc. Oc060e y.uOBOJIbCTBl1e B TaKOM CJIy'lae - .uora.uaTbC5I- KaKOB 6blJI 3TOT nonpoc. Vf HOH pas xaxercs, 'ITO ero KOpOTKl1e,

XXII II XXIII

roxuue penJ1HKH - 3TO yna-rusre 3KCnpOMTbl, HaH.ueHHble B nOJ1eMHKe. TaK H BH.uHWb, KaK aocxaurennue cryneirru 3aIlHCbIBaIOT 3TH CJ10Ba ua IlOJ1HX CBOHX nepraMeHToB.llJ1H HCHOCTH H3J10)l(eHHH PaWH xacro BCTaBJ1HJ1 B TeKCT MHOrOliHCJ1eHHble rnoccst ua CTapO<ppaHUY3CKOM, PO.uHOM H3blKe 60J1bWHHCTBa CBOI1X YlieHI1KOB. OH Ha3blBaJ1 3TI1 rJ10CCbl «J1Y03UM» (HHOCTpaHHble CJ10Ba), I1X B ero KOMMeHTapl1HX HaCYI1TbIBaeTCH fionee .uBYX TbIC5I4. <DpaHUY3CKI1H J1I1HrBHCT KOHua XIX sexa Apceu llapMcTeTep oueHHBaJ1 ux KaK 60raTeHWltH MaTepnaJl .uJ151 H3Y'-leHHSI ucropnu dipaauyscxoro 513bIKa.

Pauru XOTeJ1, liT06bl ero Y4eHHKH nOHSlJ111 ero, 11 Bepl1J1, -rro OHI1 cnocofiuu ero nOHSlTb. OH OKa3aJ1CSI npaa: Mbl, see ero yqeHI1KH, a 3TO MI1J1JlI10Hbl JlIO.ueH aa COTHI1 ner, IlOHI1MaeM ero 11 finaronapno CKJlOHSleMC5I nepen HHM.

ll. Mauux

ABPAAM MSH 33PA

Aspaau 6eH Meup 116H 33pa (Tyaena, 1090-1164), nonoouo MHOrHM cpenaeBeKOBblM YlieHblM, np05lBI1J1 ce651 cpasy B HeCKOJlbKI1X 06JlaCT5IX HayKI1 H I1CKYCCTBa:

Sl3bIK03HaHHI1I, aCTpOHOMHlt2, MaTeMaTltKe3, <pltJlOcoqmH\ n033ltltS, nepesoae 11 XYJlO)l(eCTBeHHOH npoae". OJlHaKO 113 scex ero COliHHemlH HaH60JlbWeH nortynapuocTbIO na npOTH)I(eHHH MHOrHX CTOJleTI1H nonsayerca KJIaCCJ1lleCKHH KOMMeHTapHH K nSlTHKHl1)1(ltIO H .upyrl1M KHHraM eBpeHCKOH D116J111 J17 .

O.uHH H3 nOCJle.uHI1X npencrasarenea «30JlOTOro sexa» eBpeHCKOH KYJlbTYPbl MYCYJlbMaHcKOH I1cnaHHH, 116H 33pa 60JlbWYIO sacn, )l(H3HI1 npOBeJ1 B cTpaHCTBJ151X

I Moznayirn, ed, W. Heidenheim (1791); Safa Berurah, ed. G.H.Lippmann «1839); cd, M. Wilensky; Dcvir, 2 (1924), 274-302); Zacher (ed. G.H. Lippmann (1827); cd, and trans!. into Spanish by C. dell Valle Rodriguez (1977); Sefat Yeter (ed, G.H. Lippmann; Frankfurt a.M., 1843; ed. I. Oshri: M.A. thesis, Bar !Ian University, 1988); Yesod Dikduk, ed. N.AlIony(1984).

2 Ta'arnei ha-Luhot (Liber de rationibus tabularum, ed. J.M. Millas vallicrosa; Madrid-Barcelona, 1947); Keli haNehoshet, ed. H. Edelmann (1845) Reshit Hokhmah, ed. R. Levy & F. Cantera (1939); Sefer ha-Te'arnim A (first version), ed. J.L. Fleischer (1951); Sefer ha-Tearnirn B (second version), cd. N. Bcn-Menachem (1941); Seier haMoladot. ed. MY Bakal; in: Seder 12 ha-Mazalot, 2 (1995), 193-248; Sefer ha-Mivharim, cd. J.L. Fleischer (1969); Sefer ha-She'elot, ed. M.Y. Bakal, in: Goralot ha-Ra'aba (1995),6-39; Sefer ha-Mc'orot, ed. J.L. Fleisher; Sinai. 5 (Romania. 1933), ixl= li: Sefer ha-Olam, ed. J.L. Fleisher; Ozar ha-Hayyim, 13 (1937), 33-49; Le Livre des Fondcments Astrologiques, ed. J. Halbronn (1977).

3 Ha-Ehad, ed. S. Pinsker (1867); Ha-Mispar, ed. and trans!. into German by M. Silberberg (1895). 4 Yesod Mora ve-Sod Torah (2006).

; Abraham Ibn Ezra's Diwan, ed. J. Egers (1886); D. Kahana, Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ezra I-II (1922); The Religious Poems of Abraham Ibn Ezra I-II, ed. I. Levin (1975-80).

, lgcrct Chay bcn Mekitz by Abrahamlbn Ezra, cd. I. Levin (1983).

t Mikra'ot Gedolot Mchokekei Yehudah 1-5 Piotrkow I Vilna 1907-28); Mikra'ot Gedolot "Ha-Keter" I (Ramat Gan 1997); Ibn Ezra's Commentary on the Pentateuch.Genesis, Exodus, Numbers & Deuteronomy. rr, into English and ann.by H.N. Strickman I A.M. Silver (1988-2001); Abraham Ibn Ezra's Commentary on Genesis 1-3, cd. and ann. by L.H. Prijs (1990); Abraham Ibn Esras Komrncntar zur Urgcschichtc [Genesis I-III; Langer Kommcntar ZUni Buch Exodus, tr. into German and ann. by D. U. Rottzoll (1996-99): The Short Commentary on Exodus, edition and supercomrncntary by J.L. Fleischer (1926); The Commentary of Abraham Ibn Ezra on tile Pentateuch: Leviticus, tr. into English and ann. by .I.EShachtcr (19S6); The Commentary of Ibn Ezra on Isaiah, ed., transl.into English, and ann. by M. Friedlacndcr (I S73-77): Abraham Ibn Ezra's Two Commentaries on the Minor Prophets, An Annotated Critical Edition. I. HoseaJoel-Amos, ed. U. Simon (19S9): The Commentary of Rabbi Abraham Ion Ezra on Hosea, cd. and transl. into English by A. Lipschitz (1988): Abraham Ibn Ezra's Commentary on Canticles (First Recension), ed. H.J. Mathews (1874); EI comentario de Abraham Ibn Ezra del Eclesiasrcs, ed. and trans!. into Spanish and ann. by M. Gomez Aranda (1994); Abraham Ibn Esras Kornrncntare ZLI den Buchcrn Kohelet, Estcr und Rut, trans!' into German and ann. by D.U. Rottzoll (1999); Abraham Ibn Ezra's Commentary on the Book of Esther (Second Recension), cd. J. Zcdner (1850); Abraham Ibn Ezra's Short Commentary on Daniel (III ed. H.J. Mathews, in: Miscellany of Hebrew Literature, 2 (1377).257-76; 121 ed. and ann. by A. Mondschein: M.A. thesis. Bar llan University; Ramat Gall 1977).

H CKHTaHHHX, 3apa6aTbIBa51 na )l(H3Hb CTHXaMH, nepenonaux, npenonaaaaaeu H yxeHblMH CO'-lHHeHH5IMH na 3aKa3. HCnOBellY51 06pa3 )l(H3HH 6poLl5l'-lero MYllpeua, H6H 33pa n06blBa.J1 B TYHHCe, M)I(Hpe, Mapoxxo, HTa.J1HH, Ilpoaance, a B 1158 rOLlY Llo6pa.J1c5I naxe LIO JloHLIoHa. nYTeWeCTBH5I H6H 33Pbl He TOJ1bKO cnocoficrsoaaJ1H pacnpocrpaaemuo cpenn eapees xpacrnaucxoa Esponu HaYYHblX 1l0CTH)I(eHHti apa60-MYCYJ1bMaHCKoro MHpa, HO H ll,a.J111 eMY caMOMY MHO)l(eCTBO 3MnHpl1'-1eCKOrO MaTepHa.J1a 1lJ151 KOMMeHTapH5I K Tope. Hanpnaep, uexoropue HCCJ1ellOBaTeJ111 YTsepxnator; '-ITO TOJ1KOBaHHe «rycroti TbMbl», OllHoti 113 Ka3Heti ErHneTCKl1x (Hex. 10, 22), KaK CHJ1bHOro TYMaHa CBH3aHO C BneyaTJ1eHH5IMH H6H 33Pbl OT TYMaHa HaJJ, TeM- 30til. nOCT05lHHa51 HeYCTpoeHHOCTb 11 3aBI1CHMOCTb OT 6J1arOB0J1eHH5I MeueHaTOB HaWJ111 csoe asipaxeuae BO MHOrHX CTHXOTBOpeHH5IX H6H 33Pbl:

Moa nnaui noxox na CHTO - Taxoji nonpo6yi1 nOHOCH Tbl! Ero paCKHHY HOYblO, KaK urarep,

H 3Be3llHbiM CBeTOM 6YlleT sees npofinr OH. BOi1ll,YT B Hero Ilneanu H JlYHa,

H 0PHOHOM 6YLleT TeMb 06J1HTa,

A eCJ1H Myxa C5ILleT na Hero,

To CBa.J1HTCH H 6YlleT BC5I n06HTa. YCTa.J1 51 llblpbI Mep3KI1e C'-IHTaTb, H npo ce651 51 LlYMalO cepznrro,

YTO see 3TO rpsnse (HIILlaTb HH B3HTb) He 6YLleT HHTKOIO npOWHTO.

0, Iocnomi, CMeHH MHe 3TY psaas Ha MaHTI1IO, YTO CJ1aBOIO nOLl6HTa.

Ilepeeoo B. J/Q3QPUCQ

3Be3llbl B 3arOBOp BCTynHJ1H B HOYb, xorna 51 HapO)l(1Ia.J1C5I, Orroro He YllaeTC5I MHe, sa YTO 6 51 HH npHH5IJ1CH.

TOprOBa.J1 6bl H CBe'-laMH - BeYHO COJIHue 6bl CBeTHJ1O.

WHJ1 6bl casanu yMepwHM - cveprs 6bl KJ1IOll,SlM nyrs 3a6blJla.

Ilepeeoo H. J/u6epMQHQ

***

«BeJ1bMO)l(a YCKaKa.J1}} - TBep1l5lT MHe noyrpy; «J.13B0J1I1T nO'-lI1BaTb» - TBep1l5lT MHe aae-repy Ilpany K ero nsopy - H J1HWb anany B xaunpy:

Ilon 3Jl01O, 3HaTb, 3Be3lloi1 pO)l(1leH 51 He K nofipy Ilepeeoo 1Il. KpOJIQ

I CM. Hpocrpuunun KOMMCHTapl1H H6H 3Jpbl ua Hex. 10. 22, a raxxe Jacobs L. (ed.) The Jewish Religion:

A Companion. Oxford University Press, 1995, «Abraham Ibn Ezra».

XXIV //XXV

MO)KeT 6bITb, He CJIY1.IaHHO 116H 33pa B KOMMeHTapl1H K ObIT. 25, 34 TaK 3M01..J,110- HaJIbHO pearnpyer na HeLlOYMeHHe HeKOTopbIX KOMMeHTaTopOB no nOBOLlY 6eLlHOCTH Hcaaxa: «JIIOLlI1 C nOMYTI1BWI1MCH pa3YMOM nOJI ara JOT, 4TO 60raTCTBO - OLlHO 113 LlOCTOI1HCTB npasenuuxa, onnaxo I1CTOPI1H I1JIl1l1 noxasusaer ofiparuoe». He CJIY4aHHO TaK)Ke TO, 4TO 113 scex cpeLlHeBeKOBbIX MYLlpel..J,OB I1MeHHO Aspaa« 116H 33pa CTaJI OLlHI1M 113 nonYJIHpHbIX nepconaxen CKa30YHOrO CPOJIbKJIOpa, npexne scero y espeea BOCTOYHbIX 06lU11HI. Jlerenasr, J1I1Wb B MaJIOH 4aCTl1 rtonrsepxneuuue HaXOLlKaMI1 B Kanpcxoa renase, maCHT, lJTO CbIH Aspaava 116H 33PbI )KeHI1JICH na ,ll04epl1 BeJII1KOrO eapericxoro n03Ta 11 CPI1JIococpa l1erY,llbI faJIeBI1, cortposoxnan faJIeBH B ero nyreurecrsau B 3eMJIIO 113pa11JIH, a 3aTeM npl1HHJI I1CJIaM.

KOMMeHTapl1H aa nHTI1KH(1)Kl1e 116H 33pa HeOLlHOKpaTHO nepepaoarstsan? 11 3aKOHlfl1JI He3aLl0J1rO LlO CMepTI1, nas CMY Ha3BaHl1C «Cetpep xa-Iiaiuap», TO ecrs «Kanra npavoro [CMbICJIa]». Y)Ke B caMOM Ha3BaHl1l1 co.uep)KI1TCH HaMeK aa rnanHbIH npaauan 3K3ereTI14eCKOro nonxona 116H 33PbI, CCPOPMYJIl1pOBaHHbIH 11M BO BBeLleHl111 K KOMMCHTapHIO: «3TO "Kaura npavoro [CMbICJIa]" Aspaaaa-rtoara, CB}l3aHHaH nyraMI1 rpaMMaTI1KI1 11 rroaepeuuas YM03peHl1eM». COOTBCTCTBeHHO, 60JIbWaH 4aCTb KOMMeHTap"H COCTOI1T 113 ,llOCKOHaJIbHoro JII1HfBI1CTWleCKoro anaJII13a 6116JIeticKI1x CJIOB 11 Bblpa)KeHI1H, OCHOBaHHoro na ,llOCTI1)KeHI1HX cediapncxon WKOJIbI enpeacxoro H3bIK03HaHI1H (HeXYLla XaIOLl)K, l10Ha 116H )l)KaHax). BTOPOH acneKT 3TOro LlBO}lKOrO npuuunna - paUI10HaJII13M - HaWeJI astpaxeuae B TeHLleHUl111 TOJ1KOBaTb nOBeCTBOBaTeJIbHbIe 4aCTI1 nHTI1KHI1)KI1H B COOTBeTCTBl111 C eCTCCTBeHHOH I1 nCI1XOJIOrl14ecKoti npaenortonofinocrsto, naxe CCJII1 3TO npOTI1- BOpeYI1T Tpa,ll111..J,110HHbIM TOJIKOBaHI1HM MYLlpel..J,OB TaJIMY,lla3: «MbI LlOJ1)KHbI CJ1CLlOsan, HanI1CaHHOMY» (axap xa-tcamye HUpOOrjJ) - rOBopHT 116H 33pa B npOCTpaHHOM KOMMCHTapl111 K Hex, 10, 11. C npyroa CTOPOHbI, 116H 33pa rtpuaitaer nOLl06HYIO 3K3erCTl1yeCKYIO cB060LlY TOJIbKO B OTHOUleHI111 nOBeCTBOBaTCJIbHbIX lJaCTeH OHTI1- KHI1)KI1H, a B I1HTcpnpeTaUI1I1 3aKOHo.uaTCJIbHbIX -racreu acerna ornaer rtpuopurer TaJIMY,llI1yeCKOH Tpa.uI1Ul1l14. OH TaK)Ke pe3Kcfl3blcTynaeT npOTI1B BHeCeHI1H J1106bIX 113MeHeHI1H B MacOpeTCKI1H TeKCT 0116JI11115• npl1Bep)KeHHOCTb Tpa,llI1UI10HHOMY TOJIKOBam11O 3aKOHOB 11 a6C0J1IOTHOe ,llOBCpI1e K MacopeTcKoMY TeKCTY ypasuoaeWI1BaeTCH Y 116H 33PbI BCCbMa pa,llI1KaJIbHbIMI1 nns ero BpeMeHI1 B033PCHI1HMl1 aa aBTopcTBO 11 naraposxy 6I16JICHCKI1X TeKCTOB. I1MeHHo npHMblc 11 3aByaJ1I1pOBaHnue YKa3aHI1S1 aa MHoro4I1CJIeHHbIe aHaXpOHI13MbI 11 n03LlHI1e .u06aBJ1eHI1S1 n TeKCTC nSlTI1KHI-DKI151 11 I1cal1116 npI1HCCJII1 eMY CJ1aBY rJIaBHOrO «6I16JICHCKOro KpI1TI1Ka BHyrPI1 TpaLlI1 1..J,I1 11»7. Ilonxony 116H ::hPbI CBOHCTBeHHa TaK)Ke I1HTeJIJIeKTYaJIbHaH lJ.eCTHOCTb: OH MO)KeT np113HaTbCSI, uanpuvep, 'HO LlJI5I TOJIKOnaHI1S1 CTI1Xa eMY He XBaTaeT HCTOpl1lJ.eCKOH I1HcpopMaUI1H (CM. ObIT. 49, 19).

Euie O.llHOH oc06eHHOCTblO KOMMCHTapHSl 116H 33PbI SlBJISleTCSl I1Cn0J1b30BaHl1e aCTpOHOMl111 H aCTp0J10rHH ,llJUl TOJ1KOBaHI1Sl MHOfHX CTI1XOB nl1CaHI1S1 (CM. ObIT.

I C\1. Avishur Y. The Folktales of Jews of Iraq (Hebrew). Haifa, 1992.

110 Hac ilOW.~O "HK MHHIHly\1 nna aapuaura KO\IMCHTapI1Cll HGB 33Pbl ua KHIlrI1 5blTI11! II HCXOil. C\I .. unnpuvcp, Kparxuj! KOMMCHTapllti K Hex. 16.5.

4 C\1. KOM\JeHTapl1l1 K Hex. 13.9 II Jleu. 21. 2.

CM. ,<MeCOll Mopa», rn. l.

• C\1. KOMMCHTaplll1 H6H 3Jpbl K bblT. 12.6: 27, 19: STOp. 1.2: He. 40. I 11 IIp.

CM. 30B Baricuau. Bncncuue B 6H6.~CI1CTI1KY. Kuura ncpaan. 4acTfl 1-2. OrKpblThlil YHI1BcpCI1TeT H spaun». c. 39-67.

7, 4; Bsrr, 34, 25). B ::noH CB5I3H cnenyer OTMeTHTh, 'ITO ofipaureuue 116H 33PbI K HeOIlJ1aTOHH'IeCKOH KOCM0J10rHH, aCTpOHOMHH H 1lpyrHM 330TepH'IeCKHM, C ero T04KH 3peHH5I, 06J1aCT5IM 3HaHH5I 3a4aCTYIO OKYTaHO aTMOCcPepOH TaHHCTBeHHOCTH H He.ll.OrOBopeHHOCTH, BbIpa)KeHHOH B xapaxrepuux rppaaax: «cpena HaC naxe O.ll.HH H3 TbIC5I4H aroro [TOJ1KOBaHH5I] He nOHMeT» (Bur, 8, 22), «a pa3YMeIOWHH.ll.a nOHMeT» (Bsrr. 1, 1), «a pa3YMeIOWHH,lla npOM0J14I1T» (Bsrr, 12,6). He CJ1Y4aHHo KOMMeHTapl1H 116H 33PbI Y1l0CTOHJ1C5I aa nOCJ1e,llHHe 6 CTOJ1eTHH He MeHee .ll.eC5ITH cynep- KOMMeHTapl1eBi.

fiY1lY'IH O.ll.HI1M 113 J1Y4WI1X eBpeHCKHX n03TOB Cpe1lHeBeKOBI,'i. H6H 33pa ua Y1lI1BJ1eHHe MaJIO BHI1MaHH5I Y1leJ151eT n03TH4eCKHM 11 CTHJ1HCTH4eCKI1M oc06eHHOCT5IM 6H6J1eHcKoro TeKCTa, npnnepxneancs MHeHH5I, 4TO «CJ10Ba nO.ll.06HbI TeJ1aM, a 3Ha4eHH5I - nytuav, a TeJ10 1lJl51 .ll.YWH nO.ll.06HO COCY.ll.Y, n03TOMY BO scex 513blKax MY1lpue J1101lH oopautaior BHHMaHHe npexne scero aa 3Ha4eHH5I, a He aa CJ10Ba»2. CTHJ1b )Ke npe1lCTaBJ151eTC5I 116H 33pe ewe 60J1ee .ll.aJIeKHM OT CMbICJ1a yxpaurenneu CJ10BCOCY.ll.OB H nOTOMY He 3aCJ1Y)KHBaIOWHM cepsesnoro BHHMaHH5I 3K3ereTa3• O.ll.HaKO 3TO He MewaeT KOMMeHTapHIO 116H 33PbI caMOMY no ce6e 51BJ151TbC5I 3aMe'laTeJ1bHbIM 06pa3UOM espencxoro KpaCHOpe4H51. nOMHMO H3blcKaHHoro n03TH'leCKOro rrpenacJ10BH5I, 'lHTaTeJ1b HaH1leT B HeM MHO)KeCTBO HCKYCHbIX, nepaxnx H OCTPOYMHbIX cPpa3 H KaJIaM6YPOB, B OCHOBHOM HanpaBJ1eHHbIX npOTHB onnOHeHTOB. BOT, nanpauep, ero

r KOMMeHTapHH K Bsrr, 29, 17:

Cnafia (paKKom) rnasaaa - B np5lMOM CMbICJ1e. Hexoropue 3a,llaIOTC5I BonpOCOM, IlOlJeMY ee rnasa 6bIJ1H TaKHMH, .ll.YMa5l, 'lTO 3aMbICJ1bI Bcesuumero nO,ll06HbI HX MbICJ151M H 'ITO see TBOpeHH5I ,llOJ1)KHbl 6bITb 01lHHaKOBbIMH. oeH-3cPpaHM4 YTBep)l(JlaJI, 'ITO anecs sunana 6YKBa aned), H aaao nOHHMaTb, 'ITO rnaaa 6blJ1H npO,llOJ1roBaTbIMH tapytocom), O.ll.HaKO y Hero cauoro ssmana 6YKBa anetp".

KOMMeHTaTopCKoe OCTpOYMHe He nOKHHYJ10 116H 33PY naxe na CMepTHOM onpe. Cpe.ll.HeBeKOBbIH nepertucuux ero KOMMeHTapH5I K Tope paccxaausaer; 'ITO

,..._ CeMH.ll.eC5ITHn5lTHJ1eTHHH Anpaau, YMHpa5l, npouanec CTHX H3 Bsrr, 12, 4: «ABpaM 6bIJ1 CeMH1leC5ITH n51TH J1eT, xorna BbIWeJ1 H3 Xappana», CJ1erKa H3MeHHB nOCJ1e1lHee CJ10BO, TaK 4TO n0J1Y'IHJ10Cb: «H3 xapona [HBp. «rues»] rOCIlO.ll.H5I», TO ecn, H3 aroro Ml1pa. HeCMOTp51 na TO, 'ITO Anpaa« 116H 33pa IlOKI1HYJ1 3TOT MI1P nOlJTI1 TbIC5IlJY J1eT nasan, ero cKpynYJ1e3HbIH, KpHTHlJeCKHH, OCTPOYMHbIH H saranovnuji KOMMeHTapHH OCTaeTC5I He3aMeHHMbiM cnYTHHKOM 1lJl51 J11060ro, KTO XO'leT my6)Ke nOH51Tb KaK 6YKBY, TaK 11 nyx TOPbl.

c.r. flapUJlCCKUU

I Samuel Ibn Motor, Megillat Setarim (on the Pentateuch; \l:nice, 1554); Samuel Ibn Carca, Mekor Hayyirn (on the Pentateuch: Mantua, 1559); Joseph bell Eliezer. Zafenat Panc'ah (011 the Pentateuch; cd. D. Herzog, 1911-30); Y. Sherirn. Bc'er Yizhak (on the Pentateuch) (IS64); idem, Hadar Ezer (011 the Prophets & Writings), 1865; Y. Pilvarg, Benei Reshef(on all Ibn Ezra's commentaries). 1900; M. Roth, Mevasscr Ezra (on all Ibn Ezra's commentaries) (19611) H IIp.

J Ilpocrpauuuu KO\f\1CHTapHH K Hex. 2U, I.

C~1. KOPOTKUH KOMMeHTapl1ti K Hex. 23, 20 11 .i1ecoll Mopa», rJ1. I. 4 KapaHMcKHti 3K3erCT.

TaK YTO I1M\ll)eH-3<jJpaHM npenpauiaerca B .6CH-napHM» (,.CKomlla·,).

XXVI / / XXVII

PAMEAH

Pa66H Mowe 6eH HaxMaHI (1194-1270) pOnHJIC5I B )KepoHe (l1cnaHH5I) H, non06Ho MHorHM CBOI1M COBpeMeHHI1KaM, espeacxoe YlJeHl1e COlJeTaJI C 3aH5ITI1HMI1 HaYKoH, $11J10coqmeH, n033HeH H MenI1UHHOH, nOCJ1enHeH aapafiarstsaa ua )l{H3Hb. Ilpncrynue K raJ1aXHlJeCKOMY TBOplJeCTBY B 16 J1eT, Haxuaaan scxope CTaJ1 OnHI1M H3 aBTopHTeTHblX 3aKoHoY'lHTeJ1eH KaTaJ10HHH. Korna B 1 230-x rr. B MOHneJ1be pasropenacs nOJ1eMHKa Me)I{D.y nOCJ1enOBaTemIMH H npOTHBHHKaMI1 MatiMoHHna, Mowe 6eH HaXMaH npH3BaJ1 CTOPOHbI K npHMHpeHHIO; OH CTpeMHJ1CH conerars MHCTHKY H q)HJ1ocoqJl1IO.

B 1263 rony, nOCJ1e CMepTH 110HbI Iepounn", Haxuaaun, BepOHTHO, 3aHHJI nocr rJ1aBHOrO paBBHHa KaTaJIOHHI1. B TOM )f(e rony no HaCT05lHI11O KOP0J151 Aparoua XaHMe I OH npHHHJ1 Y'laCTHe B ny6J1l1lJHOM nyneo-xpucruaacxoa nl1cnYTe. AprYMeHTHpOBaHHOCTb n03HUHH Haxuanana 3aCJ1Y)l{HJ1a KOpOJ1eBCKYIO nOXBaJ1Y, onuaxo xepea nsa rona I1HKBH3I1UH5I nonaeprna ero npeCJ1e1l,OBaHI151M, 11 scxope OH BbIHY)I{D.eHHO nOKHHYJ1 I1cnaHI1IO.

Jlerosr 1267 rona Mowe 6eH Haxvaa nOCTHr 3eMJ111 113paI1JI5I. nOCeJ1HBWI1Cb B MepYCaJI.I1Me, OH BOCCTaHOBI1J1 TaM eBpeHCKYIO 06LUHHY H nOCTpOI1J1 cuuarory'. l{epe3 ron PaM6aH BepHYJ1CH B AKKO, rne BCTym1J1 na CBHTYIO 3eMJ11O nnepnsre, TaM OH 6bIJ1 nyxoBHbIM HaCTaBHHKOM .llJ151 MeCTHbIX H npneaxaeumx K HeMY H3 1l,aJ1bHI1X crpaa espeea no xoaua ceoen )l{H3HH.

K COCTaBJ1eHHIO KOMMeHTapHH TOPbl Mowe 6eH Haxvau npacrynnn aa CKJ10He J1eT, Y)I{e 6ynYlJH asropcv MHomx raJ1aXH4eCKHX H 3TH4eCKHX npOH3BeneHHH. 3aBepWHB TOJ1KOBaHHe n5lTHKHH)I{IHI, HaXMaHHn He pas K HeMY B03BpalUaJ1CH, 4T06bl BHeCTH n06aBJ1eHH5I H rtortpaaxu, MHome MeCTa OH 113MeHHJI yxe B CBHTOti 3eMJIe, n03HaKOMHBWl1Cb C ee oc06eHHOCT5IMI1. KOMMeHTapl1H COCTaBJIeH C 60J1bWOti ruiaTeJIbHOCTblO: Ka)I{D.bIH sonpoc, npenCTaBJI5IIOLUI1HC5I eMY 3HalJHMbIM, PaM6aH nOCJ1enOBaTeJIbHO pastiapaer, aHaJ1113l1pyeT see B03MO)l{Hbre HCTOJIKOBaHHH, paccuarpasaer MHeHI1H CBOI1X npenweCTBeHHI1KOB H 06bHCHHeT npenver C pa3HbIX n031111I1H.

B OTJIHlJHe OT MHOfl1X KOMMeHTapl1eB, B ueJIOM CJIenYIOw,I1X onHOMY HJIH 1l,PYrOMY MeTony, rpyn Haxuaunna conepxirr TPH OCHOBHblX ypOBHH - npsuoe, aJIJIeropnsecxoe 11 Ml1CTH4eCKoe 3Ha4eHI151 nHCaHI1H. HeCMOTp51 ua WI1POKHH cnexrp paccuarpanaeuux PaM6aHOM 06bHCHeHI1H, npn nOCJ1e1l,OBaTeJTbHOM aHaJIl13e ero KOMMeHTapl1!f BbICTpaI1BaIOTC5I B enHHYIO KapTHHY BHyTPI1 Ka)I{D.OrO 113 ynouaHYTblX YPOBHeti. HH oznro 113 npoaaaeneuna HaXMaHHna He naer CTOJIb nOJIHOrO npenCTaBJIeHHH 0 ero B3rJIHnaX H MHPOB033peHHI1, KaK ero KOMMeHTapHH K nHTHKH(1)1{HIO. Topa nJIH Hero YHI1BepCaJIbHa: JTI060ti CTI1X HJII1 rnasa MorYT cootiurars He4TO aaxoroe 06 HCTOPI1I1I1 C06blTHHX npouinsrx naen, OKa3aTbCH 060CHOBaHl1eM .llJIH 3TH4eCKoro HJ111 raJIaXHlJeCKOrO HaCTaBJ1eHI1H H O.llHOBpeMeHHO uauexart, na TatiHbI MHp03naHHH. B TO xce BpeMH TeKCT nHTHKHH)f(HH .llJIH Haxuaauna ennnoe uenoe , aucrpoeuuoe B J10rHlJeCKOH H XPOHOJTOnl4ecKoti nOCJ1e.llOBaTeJIbHOcTH4,

I Taxxe II3BeCTHbll1 KaK Mencer! lepouan (llMH • .uaHHOC CMY no MeCTY P0lK.ilCIIIHI). Haxxiauun. PaM6all (aKpoHHM OT I1Bp. pa66ctiHY Moure 6eH Haxuau) 11 non CROI1M Jl3TllHCKI1\1IfMCHCM - Bonastruc ca Porta.

1 HOH3 6CH Aspaa« fCPOH)IH (1200. lKepolla - 1263. DapCCJlOHa) - 11CnallCKI1il paRBHH. ra13XliCT 11 MOPiUlI1CT. , Cunarora P3M6aH3 CYWCCTBYCT 11 CCrO.ilHH - OHa 6bLIa BOCCTaHOB.1CHa nocnc WCCIH.~HCBHoi1 HoiiHbl.

• B ornu-ure OT Pauiu, PaM6aH C'lIllaCIIIOJMOlKHbIM npnucueuue npuuuuna "Ji1H MYKllaM yxieyxap 6eTopa» (<<HeT B Tope «no» 11 «nocnc-» TOJlbKO B C<lMbiX KpaiilH1X CJlY'ImIX.

naxe npn MHCTHlJeCKOM 06b5ICHeHHH KaKOrO-J1H60 CTI1Xa HaXMaHHn paccuarpaeaer ero BHYTPI1 KOHTeKCTa.

fJ1y60KO aepyiouurn lJeJ10BeK, MOllie 6eH HaXMaH He OTBepraJ1 paU110HaJlhHOro noaxona K TeKCTY nl1CaHI151 11 K .nnreparype MynpeuoB TaJlMynl1lJeCKOH 3nOXI1. ABTopHTeT MynpeuoB nJ151 Haxaaunna npaKTl1lJeCKH uenpepexaev, HO, B OTJ1l1lJl1e OT PaWI1, OH crporo OTneJI5IeT anneropasecxne lIv1l1npaWl1 OT npsvoro 3HalJeHI151 nI1CaHI151. LITO xe KaCaeTC5I 60J1ee 6J1113KHX npenweCTBeHHI1KOB - -raure OH BCTyrtaer C HI1MI1 B OCTPYIO nOJ1eMHKY, npu 3TOM COXpaH5I5I K HI1M rJ1y60Koe yaaxeaue, a naorna lJHTaTeJIb BCTpeTHT UHTaTY 113 npyroro KOMMeHTaTopa, COnpOBO)KJleHHYIO cornacnev , nOXBaJlaMH 11 nonp06HbiM paat.acueuaeu.

Pa306paTbC5I B JIOrHlJeCKOH uenoxxe PaM6aHa - sanasa HenpOCTa51 aaxe nJI5I nOnrOTOBJIeHHOrO lJHTaTeJI5I. LlJI5I ny-uucro nOHI1MaHH5I cnenyer pa3neJI5ITb TeKCT KOMMeHTapHJI na COCTaBHble lJaCTI1, no nopaaxy aHaJlH3HpOBaTh HX B OTLleJIbHOCTH H J1I1Wb nOTOM CTpeMI1TbCJI HaHTI1 B3aI1MOOTHOWeHI1J1 Me)KJlY HI1MH. Ha nepnuf B3fJ1J1n, 06b5lCHeHI151 HaXMaHHna nopoa npenCTaBJ1J1IOTC5I npOTI1BOpelJI1BbIMI1, HO BHI1MaTeJ1bHbIH aHaJlI13 nokaastsaer, lJTO onno YTBep)KJleHl1e Haxvaauna MO)l(eT npOTI1BOpelJl1Tb apyrovy TOJ1bKO B TOM cnysae, eCJ111 OHI1 OCHOBaHbl ua pasusrx npenn0J10)l(eHI1J1X.

Ilepenons KOMMeHTapl111 Haxuauuaa, Mbl CTaBI1J1l1 CBoeH OCHOBHOH aanaxea cnerrart, nOHSlTHblM nJIJI lJl1TaTeJIJI HX CMbICJ1. Pana LlOCTI1)KeHI1J1 3TOH ueJ1H aaxac'ryio H3MeHeH nopanox CJ10B l1 naxe COCTaBHbIX '-IaCTeH npenJ10)l(eHH5I. Jll1lJHble MeCTOI1MeHI1J1 BO MHOrl1X CJIYlJa5lX 3aMeHeHbl HMeHaMI1. B HeKOTopbIX MeCTax llJ151 06JIerlJeHl151 lJTeHl151 Mbl n06aBJ151J11111 y6aBJIJlJ111 CJ10Ba. UI1TaTbl l13 ortopuoro CTl1- xa BhrneJ1eHbI )I(HpHblM naxce B rex CJIYlJa5lX, xorna OHH rtepeseneuu l1Halfe, lJeM B Cl1HOnaJIbHOM nepesone - B COOTBeTCTBl1l1 C KOMMeHTapHeM. K CO)l(aJ1eHI1IO, no TeXHl1lJeCKl1M npl1'-1l1HaM B 3TOM H3naHI1H KOMMeHTapl1H Haxvaunna npuaonurCJI B COKpalUeHHOM eapnaare. B OCHOBHOM COKpalUeHbI UI1TaTbl H3 npyrnx l1C-

i,,- TOlJHl1KOB l1 KOMMeHTaTopOB, l1HOrna TaK)I(e 11 nOJ1eMl1Ka C Hl1Ml1. KpOMe roro, B 3TO 113naHl1e He BKJIlOlfeHO npenacnosue Haxaauaaa K c06CTBeHHOMY KOMMeHTapHIO, xoropee, no CyTH, 5IBJ151eTCJI caMOCT05lTeJ1bHbIM npoaaaenemreu. Bsrfiop MeCT COKpalUeHH5I 06b5lCHJleTCJI JII1Wh JIl1lJHbIMH B033peHH5IMH nepesoa-nocoa, H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb aa Hero nOJ1HOCTblO JIe)f(I1T ira HI1X. Taxxe OTBeTCTBeHHOCTblO nepeaon-nrxon JlBJIJlIOTC5I BceB03MO)f(Hble HeYKJIIO)f(He Bblpa)f(eHH5I, OWH6KH H HeTO'-lHOCTI1 nepesona.

Pa60TaJi Han TeKCTOM PaM6aHa, Mbl CBepJlJ1HCb C aHfJ1I1HCKHM rrepeaonov KOMMeHTapH5I, npuuannexaunoa X. Illeseny', 11, XOTSI Mbl CJ1enOBaJlH eMY He BO acev, Mbl 6J1aronapHbl asropy sa BeJ1I1KOJ1enHYIO, npl13HaHHYlO KJIaCCl1lJeCKOH pa60TY, KOTOpa51 BnOXHOBJ151eT 113Y'lalOlUl1X HaXMaHHna J.1 noworaer 11M Y)l(e MHoro J1eT.

O. Jleunepm

A. fiUleHUlI.K.UU

I Rarnban (Nachmanides): Commentary on the Torah: Genesis. Trans./ Ed. Ch, Chavcl. New York: Shilo Publishing House, Inc., 1971.

XXVTII//XXIX

C<I>OPHO

OBaD.H5I 6eH-51aKoB - Cct>OPHO - KOMMeHTaTOp DHCaHH5I, 3K3erCT H TaJIMYD.HCT.

POD.HJlC5I B 1475 r. B Y.e3eHe (l1TaJlH5I), yMep B 1550 r. B DOJlOHbe. 0POHCXO.llHJI H3 3HaTHOH H 60raTOH CCMbH HTaJIb51HCKHX eapees - paBBMHOB 11 YlJeHblx. 00 npoct>ecCHI1 6blJl BpalJOM, H3YlJaJI MeD.HUHHY B CaJIepHO H B PHMe. nOMHMO MeD.HUHHbl, 06J1aD.aJI 06UJJ.1PHbIMH n03HaHH5IMH B MaTCMaTHKC, ct>HJlOCOct>HH, D.peBHHX 513bIKax. Erne B MOJlOD.OCTH Cct>OPHO npaofipen aBTopHTeT KaK CpCD.H espeiicxax, TaK H cpeD.H xpHCTHaHCKHX YlJeHblx. l1MCHHO ero nopeKOMeHD.OBaJIH B KalJeCTBe HaCTaBHHxa l10raHHY PCHXJlHHY, npaexasureuy B PHM YCOBepweHCTBOBaTb CBOH n03HaHH5I B HBpHTe. PCKOMCHD.aTCJlSlMH aucrynana xpHcTHaHcKHH Ka66aJIHCT OHKO lleJla Mapannona H Kapn.HHaJI 1l0MHHHKo rpHMaHH. Cct>OPHO rtpenonasan PeHXJl11HY eBPCi1:cKYJO JlHTepaTYPY, ct>HJlOCOct>HJO H paBBHHCKYJO 3K3ere3Y C 1497 no 1500 rOD.bI. YlJCHHK 6blJl oseus Bb[COKOrO MHCHHSI 06 Yt{HTCJlC, oc060 OTMct{aSi ero rrpesocXOn.HOC 3HaHHC .narsnur. CTOJlb )J(C BHD.HOC MCCTO Cct>OPHO 3aHHMaJI cpena ranayD.HCTOB. B DOJlOHbe OH OCHOBaJI TaJIMyn.Ht{CCKYJO WKOJlY, rne npenonasan no KOHua CB011X D.HCH. OH 6blJl H3BCCTeH BCCH yt{eHoM 3JlHTC Esponu, COCT05lJl B nepenucxe C BHD.HCHWHMH YlJeHblMH csoero BPCMCHH H naxe C KopoHoBaHHblMH oc06aMH. <1>paHUY3cKHH KOPOJlb rCHpHX II BCCbMa UCHHJl ero COBCTbl, a Cct>OPHO nOCB5ITHJl KOPOJlJO KOMMcHTapHH K KHHrc KOrCJleT (EKKJlccHaCT) H nOCJlM eMY c06CTBeHHblH JlaTHHCKMH nepeson csoero rpaxrara «Op AMHM» - «CBCT Haponos». B MOJlOn.OCTH Cct>OPHO MHoro CTpaHCTBOBaJI, 6bIBaJI oueus 6CD.CH, 3aTeM CTaJl 3a)«HTOlJHbIM 4eJlOBeKOM, HO B 6bITY scerna OTJlHlJaJIC5I CKPOMHOCTbJO, fpaHHlJHBllJeM C aCKeTH3MOM. OH OCTaBHJl no ce6e n.06pyJO navnrs CpCD.H COBpeMCHHHKOB, aero TPYD.bl ofiecnet{HJlH eMY rrOD,JlHHHylO cnasy 3TOH CJlaBOM OH 06513aH rJlaBHblM 06pa30M CBoeH 6H6JlCMCKOH 3K3crC3e.

MeToD. C<pOPHO OTJlH"IaCTC5I HeKHM caoeotipaaaeu, He n03BOJl5llOrnHM ero OD.HO- 3Ha"IHO KJlaCCH<pHUHpOBaTb. CaM OH npu-urcnaer ce651 K «pOD.ct>eH ruuar», TO CCTb CTOpOHHHKaM npocroro, HJlH 6YKBaJIbHOrO, MeTon.a, HO O"IeHb "IaCTO ero paccyxn.CHH5I Hn.YT rOpa3D.OD.aJIbWe YCTaHOBJleHH5I npocroro CMbICJla 6H6JleHcKoro CTHxa. Cct>OPHO scerna npennaraer aHaJIH3HpOBaTb ct>aKTbI, H36craH ct>aHTa3HH MHn.parna 11 TCHn.CHUH03HOCTH HHblX KOMMCHTaTopOB. Ero 3aMClJa'PeJlbHOC 3K3ereTHlJCCKOC lJYTbe np05lBJl5lCTC5I, nartpavep, B sorrpoce 0 JlOfHKe. OH HCYKOCHHTCJlbHO CJlCn.YCT CH, HO 3TO HC TOJlbKO JlOfHKa pasyua, HO H JlOrHKa BCPb!. 3TOT CTPOfHH HCCJleD.OBaTCJlb npennaraer "IeTKO paanusan, nOJlO)«CHH5I apHCTOTeJlHaHCKOH ct>HJlOCOct>11H 11 I1YD.CHCKOH aepu, ssrcrynas npOTHBHHKOM MatiMoHHD.a H ero npneepxeaues, nuTaBllJHXC5I 3TH nOJlO)«eHHSI npHMHpHTb. OH He 6eCKOMnpOMHCCHblH lJCJlOBCK, OH npOCTO HC nurer KOMnpOMHcca TaM, rne ero 6blTb HC MO)«CT. B 3TOM CMblCJlC ero CY)((D.CHH5I 6J1H3KH MblCJl5lM Zlexapra H cro MJlan.llJCro COBPCMCHHHKa Mansopaaura, nOJlaraBWHMH, lfTO pa3YM ecrs nepesrji HHCTPYMCHT, C nOMOUlbJO xoroporo lfeJlOBCK n03HaCT DO)«eCTBCHHoe OHcaHHc. To, -rro MO)«CT 6blTb n03HaHO pa3YMOM, D.OJl)«HO 6bITb n03HaHO HMeHHO HM. TaM )«C, rne pa3YM orcrynaer (aanpnvep, B sonpoce 0 xynecax), B CBOH rtpasa scrynaer sepa. ECJlH 6bl see MO)«HO 6blJlO nOCT11lfb pasyMOM, rorna He Tpc60BaJlOCb 6bl H nepu. TaKI1M 06pa30M, snecs sepa sucrynaer He aHTHTe30H paayna, HO KaK 6bl n.onOJlHeIH1eM ero. B 3K3erC3C Cct>OPHO 3TOT MeTOn. OKa3bIBaeTC5I O'leHb npon.YKTHBHbIM.

Cn1J1b ero OTJ1H4aeTC5I 51CHOCTblO H J1aKOHH3MOM. B KOMMeHTapH5IX CcPOPHO HeT BKJ1104eHHH H3 CTap0cPpaHUY3CKOro, KaK y PaWH, HJ1H H3 apaficxoro, KaK y H6H 33- pu. Ero 3HaKOMCTBO C J1aTHHCKHMH KJ1aCCHKaMH nupaxaercs He B 6YKBaJ1bHOM UHTHpOBaHHH, a B CJ1enOBaHHH nyxy BeJ1HKOH n033HH. Jl106HMblM ero C04HHeHHeM B Tanayne 6blJ1 TpaKTaT Ilapxea ABOT, K KOTOPOMY OH HanHCaJ1 cPHJ10COcPCKHH KOMMeHTapHH, cpaay xe nepeseneanurt aa naruus, a 3aTeM H ua HOBoeBponeHCKHe sr3bIKH. OH qaCTO UHTVlPOBaJ1 3TOT TpaKTaT H oco6eHHO J1I06HJ1 noaropars cPpa3Y pa66H Taprpoua (2;21): «He refie npenCTOHT aasepunrrs pafiory, HO VI He BOJ1eH Tbl OCBo6omrrsca OT Heel>.

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I: I B HO'f(He comeopun 50l He60 U sestnto, - B llPCIlHI1X nepesonax (rpexecxou, J1aTI1HCKOM, cl1p~li1cKOM) nepllblH CTI1X KHl1rl1 6blTlUI nOHI1MaCTCSI KaK HC:3alll1ellMOe npeanoxeaae. B03MOlKHbl nile IlHTepnpeTaUl1H srorc npenncxeuua. Cornacno onnon, rrepen HaMI1 csoero poaa noruar, xparxo q)OpMymipYlOllIl1~1 cyrs nocnenyiouiero paccxasa. COrJ1aeHO npyroii, He60 U seunn, 0 KOTOPblX rOBOpl1TCSI B I: I, OTJ1114Hbl OT roro He6a 11 ToB 3CMJ1I1, C03llaHI1C KOTOPblX 6yncT onucauo B 1 :6-10. (TaK, eJ1OIlO .He60» B Bur I: I nepeaxo nOHI1Mful0eb

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1,1. B Ha'laJle - HaWI1 Y'leHblei yreepxnanu, 'lTO rtpennor; Bblpa)KeHHblH 6YKBOH 6em B cnose tiepetuum [«8 Ha'laJJC'» He HeceT He06xOlll1MOro cxisrcJl0BOro 3Ha'leHI1S1, nOll06HO 6em B eJ10Be 6apUlUOHO (Bsrr, 13,4)', nOCKOJ1bKY Mbl HaXOlll1M ColOBO pUlUO«a [B TOM )Ke 3Ha'leHI1I1, ynorpefinsevoe 6e3 npennora]: putuoua uuccay (4I1c. 2, 9»). Om13KO eCJII1 6bl :lTO 6blJlO TaK, TO 6em [B cnose 6epeUlum)I1MeJI 6bl [rJlaCHYIO «a», 0603Ha'laeMYIO xepea] Ka.Ma~ eaoon«

)1,pyme ymepxaator; 'lTO cPopMapelllllm [Ha'IMe) scerna ynOTpe6J1HeTCSI TOJlbKO KaK nepsaa xacn, COnpSllKeHHOH KOHCTpYKUI1I1, 11 H)')KHO nOHIIMaTb: «B Ha'lMe aexepa», I-fJlI1 «HO'lI-f», I-fJlI1 «TbMbl». OllHaKO OHI1 3a6blJll18aUUap petuum no (BTOp. 33, 21 )4.

ECTb raxxe re, KTO ymepxnaer, '{TO 6em aecer 11 HCTpYMeHTaJJbHoe 3Ha'leHl1e [enocpencraou»], 11, TeM eaMblM, TO, 'ITO CKa3aHO 6epeWI1T [ertocpenCTBOM Ha'laJJa»), I-fCKJIIO'laeT 1303MO)l(HOC OLU11604- Hoe MHeHl1e, 'lTO Y He6a 11 3eMJII1 HeT aasana.

51)Ke C'-II1TalO, '-ITO 3neCbneHCTBI1TeJlbHO 11 MeeTeH COnpH)I(eHHaSl KOHCTpYKUI1H, TaK xe KaK B Bblpa)l(eHl1116epeUium MaMAexem ueXOffKUM (Hep. 27, I )j. He cnenyer Y11,I1BJJHTbCH TOMY, '-ITO BTOpoH '-IaCTblO COnpSl)l(eHHOH KOHeTpYKUl111 BllaHHOM cnyxae Bblcrynaer neprpexruasr cPopMa rnarona, nOCKOJlbKY 3TO BCTpe'{aeTCSI 11 B mexunsam iJu66ep YHWH 6exouiea (<<Ha'laAO CA08a Iocnonns K OCI-fI1.> r (Oc, I, 2),11 B KupbRm xaua iJa8uo «<i!OPoiJy, 8 KOInopOM JlCU,q )1,aBI111'» (He. 29, I). A 06Wl-fH CMblCJI cPpa3bl CTaHOBI1TCH seen 113 sroporo CTI1Xa.

COTBOPHJI- 60JlbW11 HCTBOTOJ1KOBaTeJleH yrsepxllMI1, 4TO rnaron 6apa I1MeeT 3Ha'leHl1e COTBOpeHI1H 113 Hl14ero, KaK B cnyxae ee-uu 6pua iiU8pa YHWH (<<a eCJlI1 rOCn011,b comeopum He06bl'faUHOe,» (4I1c. 16, 30). 01lHaKOOHI13a6bUlI1Saiiiiuspa 3Jl0Xll.iI-t3n7Xa-maHHUHlIM «<II comeopun Eor puf fionsiuux») (5bIT. 1,21),11 ewe Tpl1lKllbl B 011,HOM CTI1Xe: saiiiiu8pa 3AOXUM om xa-aoau ... «<u comeopun Bor 'leJlOBeKa ... ») (Bsrr, I, 27f, a TaK)I(e y-sope xotuex (<<u meopto TbMY») (He, 45, 7), a TbMa JlI1LUb OTpI1UaeT CBeT, HBJ1HIOWI1HCSI eYWI1M.

Ha caMOM nene CJlOBO 6apa I1MeeT B Sl3blKe nea 3Ha'-leHI1S1. Onuo 6blJlO TOJlbKO '-ITO yrtouaayro. )1,pyroe xe - KaK B 8e-AO sapa ummau ,1OxeM «<11 He en C HI1MI1 XJIe6a») (2 Ilap, 12, 17). npl-f'{eM B xopue C 3Tl1M BTOPblM 3Ha'leHl1eM 6YKBa aned: B3al1M03aMeHI1Ma C 6YKBOH xeu, TaK KaK cPopMa npI14I1HI1TeJ1bHOH rnarOJIbHOH noponu [xu¢ 'U.ilb] OT Hero 6yneT: eauuaso «on« xa-au nexaepom 3m da8ud «<11 npuuien sees uapon naxopuum» )1,aBI111,a»)X (2 Ilap. 3, 35). ECJlI1 6bl anetp 6blJl nOCTOHIlHblM xopueasur, TO cPopMa npl1'II1HHTeJIbHOH rnaronsuoa noponu 6blJIa 6bl KaK B sexaepuaxes« stepetuum tcon« uunxam ucpaxas «,ymY'fHfIfI ces» Ha'-laTKaMI1 scex npl1HOIlleHI1H 1-13pal1J1H») (1 Uap. 2, 29). 6blBaeT 01111 B YCI1J1I1TeJlbHOH rnaronsuoit nopo- 11,e Inu .3Jlbj:ysepemallexGl/IGJH«<TaM ... paC.fIlCll1l1ce6e»)(HaB.17.15).npl1.leM ero cnenyer oroxnecrsnsrrs He C tiepy naxess uut«<8b16epumey ce6S1 'leJIOBeKa») (1 Ilap, 17,8), a cysap'o1l1xeli «<1/ u3py6um 11X») (HC3. 23,

P .... MI>AH

1,1. B Ha4aJJe COTBOPHJI Eor - < ... > MO)l(II0 yrsepxnars, 'lTO OLleHb HY)I(HO 6bUlO Ha'laTb Topy co CJlOB «B naxane COTBOPI-fJI 50r», TaK KaK B 3TOM xopeas sepu, a TOT, KTO He separ B 3TO 11 C'II1Taer Ml1p Be4HbIM, OTpI1UaeT OCHOBbl eBpeHeKOH sepu. 11 OH He anaaeer Topon eosce. OTBeT aa 3TO TaKOB:

COTBOpCHl1e Ml1pa - fJly60Kast TaHHa, KOTOpylO He nOHSlTb 113 nI1CaHI-fSi. n03HaTb ee MO)KHO TOJlbKO 113 COKPOBeHBOro )"-IeHI-fSi KaOOaJIbl, eocxonsutero ewe K MOHcelO, KOTOPblH nOJI),,!I1)l ero 113 YCT Beeusuuucro, Ii ananeroume I-fM 06S13aHbl ero CKPblsars. n03TOMY pa6611 l-1uxaK CKa3M, 'iTO He HY)l(HO 6blJlO Ha411HaTb Topy C Onl1CaHI1H cOTBOpeHI1S1 Ml1pa 11 nOCJlenYIOWl1x e06b1TI1H, < ... > TaK KaK OHI1 uenoCTI1)KI1Mbl, 11 .nona, sepsume B Topy, otioiunacs 6bl 6e3 HI1X. OHI1 6bl sepanu B CKa3aHHoe I-fM B necsrn aanonenax: «1160 B urecn, llHeH C0311,aJJ rOCn011,b He- 60 11 3eMJIIO, Mope Ii Bee, '!TO B HI1X, a B lleHb CeJIbMOH nO'lI1J1» (Hex. 20, 11), a rannoe 3HaHI1e OCTaJlOCb 6bl Y rex HeMHOfHX, KTO ananeer TpNlI1Ul1eH, flOJ1Y'-IeHHOH OT Moncen, KOTOPOMY OHa 6blJla naua na CI1Hae BMecre C YCTHOH Topoa, < ... >

Pa6611 Huxax 06bstCHI1J1 npl1'lI1Hy 3TOro. < ... > npaBI1_~bHO, '-IT06bl, xorna uapon npononxaer rpeunrrs, OB 1l0JllKeH 6blJl rtorepars csoe MeCTO, 11 npyroa HapOJI npauien 6bl YHaCJIe11,OBaTb ero 3eMJlIO, 1160TaKOB3aKoH Bceasnuaero c cavoro uaxana Ml1pa. TeM 60_~ee, CKa3aHO B Tope, 'iTO Xauaaa 6blJl npOKJIHT 11 ornan HaBeKI-f B pa6CTBO (5bIT. 9, 25), TaK He roanrca eMY YHaCJlenOBaTb canoe nynuee 113 HaCeJleHHbIX MeeT. A 110Jl)KHbl ero YHaCJIel10BaTb

I O'ICBHllHO, p. Caaausr laou 11 110HH HOH D,lKaHax (0(, CC(~CP xa-pnxva). «110 MCCTa )l(epTBeHHHKa. xoropuii Oil cnenan TaM BfW'Ia.1C».

"nepllblMH OHll1l0_~lKHbl OTnpaHJll-ITbCH').

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I «B IJa'i'i..~e lJapCTIlORaHH~ V10aKI1MM. " nCpCIIO,l MOH. - c.n .

•••. no ofipasy CBOCMY, no oopiny OO)l(HKl COTBOPflJl ern; MY)]('1I1HY I1lKCHWHHY COTBOPIW I1X» . . \ Ilepcsoa ~lOiL - c.n.

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1: 1

CpCJlHeBCKOBblMI1 KOMMCHTaTOpaMH KaK YKa3aHHe na HCBI1JlI1MblH Mlip aHrCJlOB, a «3CM1Hl» - KaK o606wCHHOC H,HlMCHosaHI1C BI11111MOrO MaTCpl1aJlbHOrO MHpa.)

OJlHaKO nepBblH CTHX KlIl1r11 MOlKCT 6blTb nOIlHT 11 no-npyrouy: KaK npanarounoe BpeMeHH (<<KOloa EOl na«a» meopums He60 U N.M.1IO, 3eA1J/H 6b1Aa nycma u nycmunna, msua 6b1,1Q nai) nysunoi: ... »), Cp, uaxano paccxasa o C03JlaHHH Ml1pa B 6blT 2:4-5 «(Koloa fOCI100b EOl c030aA 3eMAIO u Hc60, mo lie 6b1JIO ua 30Ule /lU «ycma, nu mpaeunku ... »}, 3ro nOlll1MaHI1C orpaxeuo, uanpnvep, y Pauru.

PAUl 11

I, I. B H3'1aJ1e - CKa3aJl pa6611 Hcaax: « Pa3BC HC HYlKHO 6blJlO 6bl HalJaTb ToPY [CJlOBa~tI1J «MeCHU cea na 6Y)1eT y BaC ... » - (Hex, 12, 2), nOCKOJlbKY 3TO - nepsaa sanosens, KOTOPYJO npl1HlIJl Ha cc6l1 113paI1Jlb. nOlJCMY)I(C Topa OTKPblBaCTCH CJlOlk1MI1 «B uaxane»? nOTOMY lITO (Tlc, 110,6): «CI1.HY aen CBOI1X lIBI1Jl OH uapony CSOCMY, 'lT06bl nars CMY uacneaae lI3bl'lHI1KOB». ECJlI1 cxaxyr uaponsr Ml1pa H3pa11JlIO: . «Bbl - rpa6l1TCJlI1, 1160 JaXBaTl1.HI1 3CMJ111 CCMI1 Hapo)10B,', TC CK~ 11M: «Bcs 3CMJlll npI1H3JlJlC)I(I1T CBHTOMY, 6.~arOCJlOBCH On, OH C03JlaJI CC 11 OTJlaJI TOMY, KTO CMY HpaBI1TCH, no BOJlC caoea llaJIl1M 11 no csoea )l(C BOJIC on OTHlIJl CC Y HI1X 11 OT)1aJ1 HaM"I.

B H3'1aJ1e COTBOPHJI Bor - B 3TOM CTI1XC ronopurClI I1MCHHO 0 TOM, 0 lJCM TOJIKOBMI1 MYllPCUbl, na 6Y)1CT 6JlaroCJlOBCHHa I1X naMHTb': 113-3a Topu, KOropan Ha3blBaCTClI <'HalJaJlOM nyn« (npI1TlJ. 8, 22), 11 panl1 H3pal11111, KOTOPbli1 Ha3blBaCTClI (,HalJaTKOM nJlOnOB Ero- (Hep, 2, 3) nplIMOC 3Ha'lCHI1C CTI1Xa TaKOBO: B Ha'laJIC COTBOPCHl1l1 Hc6a 11 3CMJlI1, 3CMJ1H )l(C 6blJla xaOCOM, nycroron 11 TbMOH 11 T.ll. 11 CKa- 3M Bor: (,lla 6YllCT CBCT». 3TOT CTI1X npl1BOlll1TCH HC.IlJIlI roro, 'H06bl pacxpsrrs nOCJlC)10BaTCJlbHOCTb TBOPCHI1H 11 CKa3aTb, lJTO O)1HO npenurecmosano )1pyroMY. ECJlI1 6b! OH npenjraaaananca .IlJIlI 3TOro, TO 6blJlO 6bl HanI1CaHO: (,CHa'IMa OH C03JlM He6cca 11 T.)1.» BC)1b HC 6bIBaeT B nl1CaHI1I1, lJTo6bl CJlOBO <'Ha'lMO" «<pelUum») HC OTHOCI1JlOCb K conepxaHI1IO craxa, n03ToMY HanI1CaHO: <. B uasane npasJleHI1H uaps 110aKI1Ma" (Hep. 26, I), <.uapCTBO ero BHalJMe,) (Bur, 10, 10), «Ha'laTKI1 OT xnefia» (Brop. 18,4). 3)1eCb)l(e CKa3aHO: (,B HalJaJle COTBOPI1.H Eor Hc60 11 r.n.» TO CCTb B uaxane COTBOPCHl1l1 nefiec npCCBHTbIM, 6J1arOCJlOBCH OH. Taxxe rOBOpI1TCH: <,Ha'laJIO CJlOBa locnoaus K OCI1I1» (Oc. I, 2), T.C. HalJMO pasroaopa CBHTOro, 6J1aroCJlOBCH OH, C OCl1ci1: <.11 CKa3aJ1 rOCnO)1b OCI1I1I1 T.)1.'). It! 113)l(C CCJlI1 Tb! yrsepxnaeurs, 'lTO TaK CKa3aHO, lJT06bl noxasars lJTO OHI1 - aasano TBOpCHl1l1, 11 3TO 03HalJaeT: rrpexne scero OH C031IM I1X, TO ecrs CTI1XI1, ysopoxeauue If1111 YMCllbUICHHble na OllHO CJlOBO, aanpauep: «sa TO, lJTO He 3aTBOpl1Jla nsepen xpesa» (HOB 3, 10), HO He CKaJaHO, KTO He 3aTBOpI1Jl: «OoraTCTBa llaMacKa ... nOHeCYT" (He. 8,4), HO He 06bHCHeHO, KTO noaecer, ('MO)l(HO JlI1 pacnaXI1BaTbCe BO,laMI1» (AM. 6, 12), HO HOCOBOPHTCH: ('MO)l(HO JlI1 pacnaxasars lJeJlOBCKY BOJlaMI1", 11 KaK «~ B03- seuiaio OT aaxana TO, lJTO 6YlIeT B KOHue» (He, 46, 10),11 He CKaJaHO: <,~ B03BeWaJO OT rtepaoro C06blTl151)10 nocnennero». ECJlI1 Y Te6H B03HI1KHeT COMHeHl1e, lJTO, MOlKCT 6blTb, sonu [6b1JlI1 C03JlaHbIJ B aaxane, Bellb HanI1CaHO: (, H )lYX Oo)l(l111 HOCI1JlClI HM B0)101O», 11 XOTH ewe HI1'lCro HC roBOPI1JlOCb 0 npCMCHI1 COTBOPCHHlI eonu, 3anOMHI1, lJTO BO)1a npelIweCTIIOBaJJa 3CMJle, eens Bee eLUC He pacxpsrsaercs nocnenonarensuocrs TBOpeHI1Hl. It! 1I0 TCX rtop, noxa lle6cca ae 6blJll1 C0311allb1113 orlm 11 BO)1bl no HC06X0)1I1MOCTI1, Ilncaaue He cootiuiaer HHlJCro 0 nOp5l11Ke npC)1LUCCTBYIOLUI1X 11 nOCJle)1YIOIUI1X [aKTOB TBOpeHI1HJ.

PAM6AH

CJlYrI1 Eiora, ceMlI Jl106HLUI1X Ero, KaK CKa3aHO: « ... 11 11M 11M 3eMmi Hap0)10B, 11 OHI1 HaCJlCllOBMI1 TPYll I1HOnJleMeHHbIX, 'lT06bl C06JlIO)laJIl1 VCTaBbl Ero 11 XpaHI1JlI1 JaKOllbl Ero» (Ilc, 104, 44~45). TaKI1M 06pa30M, 011 113rHM BOCCTaBaBllll1X npOTI1B Hero 11 nOCeJlI1,l TaM CJlYlKaLUI1X EMY, lJTo6bl OHI1 3Hanl1, 'lTO, CJ1YlKa CMy, 6Y)1YT nnaaers 3T0i1 3eMJlei1, a CCJlI1 BOCCTaHYT npOTI1B Hero, I1CTOprHeT I1X 3eMJllI, KaK I1CTOprJla TOT HapO)1, lJT0)10 HI1X. < ... >

Ha npI1BC)1eHHOe MHOH 06bHCHCHI1C rtponser CBeT TO, 'lTO roBOPI1TClI B EiCpCLUHT pafifia'. < ... > Ewe O)1I1H I1CTOlJHI1K 0 TaHHe COTBOpeHI1H Ml1pa, KOTOPYIO 1I ynOMI1HM - 3TO cnoua HaLUI1X YlJl1- TC"1Ci1, 6JlarOCJlOBCHHa naMHTb I1X: «(,CI1JlY zten CBOI1X HBI1Jl OH aapony CBoeMy!.)2. HCB03MO)l(HO noxaaan, npOCTOMY CMepTHOMY MorYIUCCTBO COTBOPCHI151 Ml1pa. n03TOMY nl1CaHI1C 3aKpbIJ10 3TY TeMY CJlOBaMI1 «B uavane COTBOPI1J1 00[»,,3. TaKI1M 06pa30M npOllCHHeTCH CKa3aHHOC HaMI1 BbILUC.

B H3'1~e (tie-peuuun) COTBOPHJl 60r - CKa3M PaLUI1: (,3TOT CTI1X 30BeT K I1CTOJlKOBaHI1IO, nOlI06HOMY TOMy, KaK I1CTOJlKOBMI1 HaLUI1 MYlipeUbl: «paan (6e) Topsi, KOTOpylO naausaior petuum, KaK CKa3aHO: (TOCnO)1b I1Me.1 MeHlI Ha'laJIOM (petuum) nyTI1 Cnoero- (Ilpnr-r. 8, 22) 11 pana (tie) 1t!3pa11JlH, KOTOPblH Ha3blBalOT peiuum, KaK CKa3aHO: «Hapaum,

I Eepeunrr pa66a 1 :3. 1 CM. nco ItO, 6.

) HCT04HMK HeH3BCCTeH. Cp, Munpaiu WHCi1 KCTYBI1\l. I.

6aTci1 MHJlpaWOT I,

I C\1. 6CpCW~1T pa66a 1:2.

C\1. 6epewHT pa66a I: I, 1 :4. ) CM. Xarura 12a.

C<I>OPIIO

1, I. B Ha'la.1e - B ua-iane BpCMeHI1 - 3TO nepnoe HClleJll1MOe MrHOBeHl1e, TaK 'lTO He 6blJlO BpCMeHI1. npenurecruytoutero eMy.

COTBOPHJl - cnenan uecyuiecreyiouiee CYlUeCTRYIOUlHM, 11 'lTO COBceM He 3aHlIJlO BpCMem1.

I: 1

CHHoaAnbHWH nEPEBOa Nor He60 If 3eMJIIO.

47), B 3Ha'leHI1I1 «peaart,», ('YCTaHaBJlI1BaTb '1eTKYIO rpaHI1UY'), l1 pa3YMeIOWl1H na nOH.MeT.

Eor (3JIOXUM) - nOCKOJlbKY cyuiecrsyer CJlOso 31100X (ABB. 3, 3)1, MbI 3HaCM, 'ITO 3,1OXUM - 3TO MHO)f(CCTBeHHOe '1l1CJlO, HO ynorpetinsevoe B ~3bIKe B OC060M 3Ha'lCHI1l1. B K8)f(llOM H3bIKC I1MeeTCH YBa)f(I1TeJlbHa51 <popMa PC'II1. B eBpOnel1cKI1X ~3bIKax 3a'IaCTyIO MeHbWI1H ofipauraercn K 60J1ee BCJlI1KOMY BO MHO)l(CCTBeHHOM '1I1CJle. B ~3bIKe l1CMal1"~I1TOB npI1HHTO, '1T06bI BeJlI1KI1M YB8)I(l1TCJlbHO roBOPI1J1 0 ceoe BO MHO)f(eCTBeHHOM '1I1CJle, KaK uaps, B CR~TOM xe H3bIKe YBa)l(l1TeJlbHOH <pOPMOH pe'll1 51BJ1HeTCH ynorpetinenue MHO)l(eCTBeHHoro '1I1CJla B oruouieHI1I1 aenaxoro naua, KaK OOOHUM «(BJlaCTI1TeJlb'» 11 6eilAUM 8 QiJoHUM KOUIe «'8/10CmUmeAR )I(eCToKoro.» (Plc, 19,4) 116e/lOKaxfJeilAQ8 «<I1X03JIUH nonxei: npuH~Tb") (Hex, 22, II). Cioaa xe OTHOCHTCH '1aCTI111bI O"1a8 «<0 HeM.», 3J108 «<K HeMY'», 0008 «<no nero[OKOH'IaHI1H KOTOPbIX HneHTI1'1HbI MeCTOI1MeHHbIM Cy<pqll1KcaM MHO)l(eCTBeHHoro '1I1CJla]. n03TOMY CKa3aHO B naureu cntxe tiapa «'COTBOPI1J1"), a He 6op'y «,COTBOPI1J1I1"),

Enaronapa npl1pOnHOMY pa3YMY MbI 3HaeM, 'ITO pest, Ha3bIBaeTCH «H3bIK», nOCKOJlbKY Bl1nHO, 'ITO OHa otipaayercs npn ero nocpencrae-. TaKI1M )I(e 06pa30M MbI 3HaeM, 'ITO sucuras nyura B'IeJlOBeKe Ha3bIBaeTCH «cepnue» (/le8), HeCMOTpH Ha TO, 'ITO OHO nJlOTCKOe, a nyiua - HeMaTep"MbHa, nOTOMY 'ITO cepnue HBJlHeTCH nepRI1'lHblM BMeCTI1J1l1weM nyura. TaK)I(e 11 Bor naausaerca 3/10XUM «,He6ecHble CI1J1bl>,), nOCKOJlbKY see Era neHHI1~ COBepwaIOTCH xepes aarenoa. 51 xce 'laCTI1'1HO pacxpoto TaHHY Ero I1MeHI1 B CBoeM KOMMeHTapl111 Ha CTI1X «1160 I1MH Moe B HeM» (Hex, 23, 21).

He oopautaa BHI1MaHI1H Ha CJlOBa [Caaana] Iaoua nPO TO, 'ITO '1eJlOBeK ssnue anrenoa, B csoea -Kmtre OCHOBaHI1~') H yxe onponepr nee ero apryaenrsr, HaM)I(e 113BeCTHO, 'ITO HeT cpena JIIOneH HI1KOro 60Jlee eenaxoro, 'leM npopoxa, a Hl1cyc HaBI1H nan JlI1UOM CBOI1M na 3eMJlIO nepen anreJlOM Bcessnuuero, 11 nOKJIOHI1J1CH, 11 CKa3M: «'ITO rocnoznra MOM cxaxer pa6YCBoeMY?» (HaB. 5,14). H rax xe nocryrnrnn 3axapl1H3 H naHI1I1J14, TaK 'ITO MHe HeT H)')I(!lbl 06 3TOM pacnpocrpaaarsca.

Bupaxeune «uoxei: u,e8QOm» «<Dor-CaBa0<p", «Bor BOI1HCTB», Oc. 12, 5) nonoono no 3Ha'leHI1IO BbIpa)l(eHHIO «moxeii XQ_3/lOXUM»5, me (<3/IOXUM') osaasaer «anren». 3THM )I(e CJlOBOM Ha3bIBaIOTC~ JlIOnl1, JaHI1MaIOWl1eCH JaKOHOM Bora [r.e. cynbl1]h.

CJlOBO 3TO HBJI~eTC~ arpaoyro«, a He I1MeHeM C06CTBeHHbIM, 11 He BCTpe'laeTCH HI1 B <POp Me neprpexra, HI1 B <popMe I1Mnep<peKTa.

He LlYMaH, 'ITO aurem» COCTO~T 113 OrH~ 11 803- nyxa, I1cXOM 113 cxasaauoro: «Tbl TBOPI1Wb aurena-

I -Bor OT <t>cMaHa rpaner...»

2 B eBpeilcKoM Opl1rHHaJ1C ncnomcyercu npyraa napa: «cml>a •• ("ry6a.' - pe-u.) 11 «carpa» (,<ry6a •• -oprau pC'II1).

1 CM. 3ax. 1,9.

4 CM.11.aH.IO. 17.

j «Bor 60r06» (BTOp. 10, 17).

" <,XOJHI1H nova npl111CT npen cyneii ... » (Hex. 22. 8).

3 II 4

nEPEBOLl PliO Nor He60 If 3eMJIIO.

IlIiH·33PA

1'.111 TBOIfMI1 nYXOB, CJI~I1TeJlHMI1 TBOI1MI1 - orous nbIJlaIOWI1H') (Ilc. 103, 4), 1160 He TaKOB npHMOH CMblCJI sroro CTHxa. naBHn rOBopHT 0 COTBOpeHHH ~1I1pa, Ha4HHaH CO CBCTa: «oaeaaeunca CBeTOM» (TaM )I(e, 2), nOTOM: «npocrnpaeun, nefeca» (TaM xe), Han KOTOPblMI1 Bona, orons, cuer H B03nyX. 3aTeM OH roBOPI1T 0 TOM, 'ITO serep CJlY)l(HT nOCJ1aHHHKOM Dora 11 HarIpaB.~HeTCH ryaa, xyaa OH BeJlHT, a ratose 0 TOM, 'ITO orcas - 3TO roxe onHH 113 Ero CJlY)f(ItTeJleM (TaM )I(e, 4). OH raxxe roBOP"T: «Tsr nOCTaBI1J1 3eMJlIO na rsepnsix OCHOBaX,) (TaM xe, 5) - 3TO cyura, H ewe HarIHCaHO: «6YPHbIH aerep, HCnOJlH~IOWHH CJlOBO Ero» (nc. 148,8).

(3T) - «sm» vxassrsaer ua CYWHOCTb BeWH, a TaK)I(e ua npauoe nononseaae, KaK B sm xaUlOMOUM (<<He60.». HHoma ero onYCKaIOT, KaK B auiep tiapa 3.qOXUM OOOM «<B KOTOPbIH COTBOPHJI Bor 4eJlOBeKa'), BTOp. 4, 32), a I1HOrna OTHOCHT K nonJle)f(ameMY, KaK B y-80 xaapu ee-sm XO-008 (enpnxonun nee HJlH MenBenb») (I Uap. 17,34), snpo-rev, nocnezmee 6blBaeT 4pe3Bbl4aHHo penxo, Taxxe ynOTpe6J1HeTcH BMeCTO npennora UM «(C~, ObIT. 5, 22) H BMecTO npennora.ezzs (<<OT», bbIT.6, 13).

He60 - XQ-UlOMOUM C onpenene-uru« apTHKJleM, 11 3TO yxasusaer na Bl1nHMblM He6eCHblH cson. CJlOBO 3TO scerna ynOTpe6J1HeTCH BO MHO)f(eCTBeHHOM 'lI1CJ1e. YTO )I(e kacaercs Bblpa)f(eHHH uuiumapo «<rocnoncTBO ero») (HOB. 38, 33), ornocauieroCH K He6y, TO, BepO~THO, pe-ts uner 0 rocnoncrse xaxaoro H3 He6eCHblX CBonOB B OTlleJIbHOCTH.

3Ha'leHl1e CJlOBa UlOMOUM (<<He60.» CBH3aHO C sstCOTOM H npeB03HeceHHOCTbIO, KaK 11 B H3blKe I1CMaHJ1HTOB, KOTOPblH B 3Ha'lHTeJlbHOH CTeneHI1 COBnanaer no CBoeM crpyxrype CO CBHTblM H3bIKOM.

Cyuiecrayer raxxe asrpaxeune tueuei: UlOMOWI1 (<<He6eca He6ec.» (Ilc. 148, 4), KOTOpoe CBHJaHO C Hepa3neJlbHOCTbIO, KaKpexoUM (<<)«epHoBa.), Hex. II, 5) HJlH u,OXOpOUM (enonneus», Bsrr, 43, 16). 3Be31104eTbl nOHMYT, KaKl1e TaHHbl sa 3THM CKPbIBaIOTCH.

Caaaaa Iaon YTBeP)l(llaJI, 'ITO 3eMilll ~BJUleTCH ueurpou, a He60 - OKp~HOCTbIO. nOCKOJlbKY 06a OHH COTBOpeHbl, TO see, 'ITO Me)l(llYHHMI1, Hanpl1Mep, BOna 11 oroxs, roxe COTBOpeHO. )lpyrne )f(e yraepxnator; 'ITO Bona (CM. nanee, rnaaa 2) BXOill1T B COCTaB 3eMJIH, a B0311YX - B COCTaB He6a. 51 )I(e C'lHTaIO, 'ITO He60 H 3eMJIH, 0 KOTOPblX anecs naer pe'lb, - 3TO He6eCHblH coon (CM.LlaJIee, rnasa 6) If cywa (CM. nanee, rnasa 9), H60 B onHH neHb He TBOPI1J1OCb 60JlbWe onHOH CYWHOCTI1. B nepBblH neHb - CBeT, BO BTOPOH - coon, B TpeTl1M - WCTeHHH, B 'leTBepTblH - CBeTHJla, a B nsTblH 11 urecroa - )f(HBble cytuecraa, CBHLlCTeJ1bCTBO TOMY - BblweynoM~IHYTblH nCaJlOM (Ilc. 104). H He MO)f(eT 6blTb, 4T06bl OKPY)I(HOCTb npenurecrsoaana ueHTpy, HJlH Ha06opOT, n03TOMY CKa3aJ1H !MynpeUbI Tanvyaa]', 'ITO He60 H 3eMlI~ 6bl1l11 COTBOpeHbl pa30M, H npl1BOIDIT B Ka4eCTBe nonrsepxaeuas CTI1X: «npH30By HX, H OHH npencranyr emecme» (He. 48, 13). Onaaxo nozrraepxnca He 3T0 He 0'leBl1l1HOe, noCKOJlbKY He COOTBeTcTByeT np~MoMy TOJlKOllaHl1IO cruxa, 1160 KaK OH MO)f(eT npmears rex, xoro ewe

7 Xarura 11:1.

KHl1fA EbITI1.S1

I: 1

OHKEJlOC

rOCnO,11,h COTBOpWI He60 " 3eMJIIO

1l6H-33PA

uer? KaK OH MO)l(CT npaanars Hl1'lTO? npHMOC TOJlKOBaHflC aroro crnxa raxoe: ~ fiX COTBOPfIJI, 11 xorna rtpuJOBY I1X, 06a npencraayr npeno MHoM KaK pafisr, 'IT06b[ BbInOJlHI1Tb MOIo BOJlIO, 11 3TO)l(e TOJlKOBaHI1C cnpaIlCIUlI1BO Il OTHOWCHIII1 crnxa: <' ... CJJOBO TBOC YTBep)l(JleHO ua He6ecax·> (Ilc. 118, 89). Ilocne 3TOro ynoMHHYJI JeMJllO (TaM xe, 90), a 3aTeM CKa3aJ[, '[TO 11 ceroaun OHf! npeacrauyr, '1T06bl IICnOJlHIITb Jlt060c Ero nOBC,leHHe (rau xe, 91).

PA\IIiAII

[6blJlI CBHTb[HelO Iocnona, Ha'l3TKOM (peuium) nJlOJ1OIl Ero» (Hep, 2, 3).>. 3TOT MIIllP3W H3WI1X Y'II1TeJlcti IlCCbMa COKPb[T II 33nC'IaTaH. Bens OHf! Hawml HCM,UlO BCUlcH, KOTOPb[C naastsaiorca petuum, II na.;111 HM HCTO.~KOllaHlle B MI111paWaX, a Ma~OBepbII1C'IHCJlfIJOT I1X COTHHMH. K rtpnvepy, CKa3MI1 MYllpeubll: «EnaronapH TpCM BCUlaM 6b[J1 C0311aH MI1P: npl1HOWCHI11O TCCTa, OTllCJleHI1JO lleC5!TI1Hb[ 11 np"HOIlICHl-f1O rtepnstx nnonos. <,B H3'1llJ1e (6e-pewum) COTBOPHJI Bor- - petuum 03Ha'JaCT npuaoureune TeCTa> KaK CKa3aHO, «OT Ha'!aTKOI3 TCCTa saurero» (]lCB. 15,20). Petuum 03Ha'laCT llCC5!Tl-fHY, KaK CKa3aHO, «Ha'laTKH OT XJJe6a rsoero(BTOp. 18, 4). Petuum 03H3'13CT nepnue nnonu, K3K CKa3aHO: «Ha'laTKI1 nJlOllOBJCMJll-f TBocH') (Hex. 23, 19),). H euie CKa3MI1 MYJlPCUbl': «PaJIH MOl-ICC}!, KaK CKa3aHO «OH 1136pM ceoe Ha'laTOK 3CMJII1', (Brop, 33, 21). OHI1 nonaraior, 'ITO CJlOBO tiepetuum HaMCKaeT na C0Tl30PCHl-fC Ml1pa npn nOMOUlI111CCHTI1 cedmpor", H B 43CTHOCTI1 CCq)l1Pbl MYllPOCTb, B xoropoti OCHOBaHl1e ucero cyuiero, KaK CK333HO: «Iocnons npCMYLlpOCTblO OCHOBM JCMJlIO» (Ilpnrv. 3, 19). 3TO xpaMOBOC npHHOWCHHC (mpyua), OHO CIlHUleHHO, ero HeJlb3H H3Mepl1Tb - TaK MaJIO C031laHl1H EimKbl1 nOHHMalOT 0 HCM. K3K '[CJlOBCK OTC'[HTb[B3CT LlCCHTb MCP 11 OTKJlMblBaeT onny Il npl1HOWCHl-fe1lCCHTl-fHb[, TaK MYllpcUbllla6JllOllalOT necnryto cerpupy 11 roBOPHTO HCH. npl1HOWeHI1C TCCTa, KOTOPOC HBJlHCTCH ennncrseanoa sanosenuo, cBH3aHHoM C TCCTOM, HaMCKaCT aa 3TO. HJpal1J1b )l(C, KOTOPbli1 Ha3blBaCTCH Ha'laJIOM (petaum), 3TO «cofipanue Hspauna», KOTOPOC Il Ilecna Ilecuea cpaanuaaercs C neaecron 11 xoropoe nHcaHHC Ha3blBaCT Ll04epbJO, cCCTPOti H MaTepblO. 3TO ~e 06bHCHHJlOCb B Ml1llpallIC, TOJlKYJOUlCM CTHX «BCHeu, KOTOPblM ysea-rana ero MaTb ero- (nCCH. 3, 11)\ 11 Il11PYfI1X MCCTax. Taxxe 11 rtpo MOl-fCCH CKaJaHO B CTI1Xe; «OH 1136pM cefie Ha'[aTOK (petuum) 3CMJlI1, [TaM nO'lTCH yneno« OT saxononarena] ... >, (BTOp. 33, 21), KOTOPblH Y'Il-fTCJlSl H3WI1 TOJlKYIOT> TaK, 'ITO MOHCCti uafimoaan '1Cpe3 CIlCTlIUlCCCH 3CpKaJlO l-f YBMeJl TO, 'ITO Ha3bIBaeTCH petuum, CBOI1MH D1a3aMl-f, 11 3a 3TO 3aCJlY)I(I1n Topy. Bee 3TO 3Ha'll-fT OllHO 11 TO )l(C, HO ua ary TCMY HCJlb3H nncars n01lp06HO, a HaMCKaTb TeM 60JlcC onacno, nOTOMY 'ITO MOryr B03HI1KHYTb 06 3TOM MHCHI1H, B KOI1X HCT npasm,r. Ho 51 see xe ynoraanyn 06 3TOM, 'lT06bl aaxpsrrs pru MMOBcpaM 11 rnyrtuasr, KOTOPblC HaCMcxalOTCH Hall CJlOBaMI1 HallIHX y-nrrenea.

I Bepeunrr pa66a 1:4.

TaM xe.

1 CM. Cerpcp t1eullpa I: 1.

, CM. Hanp. Munpaur 3YTa, WHP xa-WHpHM, I.

S Paura B KOMMeHTapl111 K BTOp. 33, 21 11 PaM6aH B KOMMeHTapHl1 K BTOp. 33, 20 (CM.) cornauraiorcs, 'lTO B 3TOM CTI1Xe pe-ts HlieT 0 3CMJle, KOTOPYIO Moncetl 3a6paJI Y uapeii Ora II Cnroaa.

, HCBaMoT 496.

PAWI1

COTBOPHJl Bor - l-f He CKa3aJl <'C0311M Ibcnons», TaK KaK B nauane EMY npHIlIJlO ua YM C0311aTb ero no saKOHY cyaa, HO ysanen, 'ITO Mllp He CYUlCCTBYCT TaKHM 06pa30M, 11 Ha'IaJl C 3aKOHa MI1.1l0Cepll1111 l-f coenun H.~ ero C 3aKOHOM cyna.' 06 3TOM HanI1CaHO: «Korna Iocnons Eor C03llM 3CMJllO 11 Hc60" (I'>b[T. 2, 4).

I CM. Eepeunrr pa66a 12: 15.

C<I>OPHO

Bor - CJIOBO «001"» (3J10ax) yxaastsaer ua BClJHOCTb, HO TaK)l(C ua llCMOHOB, KOTOPblC CMCPTHbl, nOll06HO JllOllHM, KaK HaCTaBJlHJlI1 6Jla)l(CHHOH naMHTI1 HaWI1 y-nrrena: CKa3aHO «6ecaM, a He Eory» (BTOp. 32, 17), o Eore xe (na 6YllCT OH 6JlarOCJlOBCH) CKa3aHO «00[»,1160 OH a6COJllOTHO BC'IHbIM, K3K CKa3aHO: «11 OCT3- 11I1Jl OH Bora, coanasiuero ero» (TaM )l(e, CTl-fX 15). H roaopurcs 0 HCM 3J1OXUM BO MIIO)l(eCTllellllOM 'IHCJle, lla6bl noxasars, 'ITO OH - ¢opMa BCCX BC'lHbIX 11 I1HblX ¢OPM, KaK CKa3aHO: «BC}( JCMJlll norma cnasu Ero» (He. 6,3),1160 HeT lIapHll.Y C HI1M 6bITI1R, KpoMe KaK HaneJlCHHOrO Ero 6b1Tl1eM, H HC cytnecrayer HH'lCro, CYUlCCTBYIOUlcro nOMI1MO Ero 6b[THlI, KaK CKa33HO: «11 Tb[ )l(HBl1l1Ib see CI1C'> (Heeu. 9, 6). A BCC OTJlI1'IHOC OT [Ero] MaTepl111 Ha3blBaeTCH 3J1OXU.M no nOll0611JO, n 3HaJOwnc CYll[,l-f nasusanucs 3JIOXILM, nOCKOJlbKY OHI1 cynsn no 06pa3Y EiO)l(I1IO. A 4T06bl YKa3aTb na llPCIlOCXOllCTBO Ero BC'IHOCTH, OT KOTOPOH npoucxonur Re'lHOCTb scero OCTMbHOro, B3HToro ornensno, CKa:3a!10, 'ITO 011 - «Eor 60r06» (BTOp. 10, 17).

Hefio ("J/II xa-tuauauu) - CJlOBO «Taw) (waJ~t) YKa3blJ!aCT ua OTllaJ[CHHOC MecTo, a llCflKI1H 3HaK MHO)l(CCTBCHHOro 4HCJla C npellweCTBYJOWHM namaxosi n C YllapCHI1CM ua npennocnennev cnore yxassusaer ua naa pasnux. H noceuy cnOBO «uefieca» (UiaMaUM) YKa3blBaCT Ha [IPCllMCT, ymtJ[CHHblHllO OTHOWCHI1IO K HaM ua OllHO H TO )l(C paCCTOHHHC C Ka)l(JlOf1 CTOPOl["!. 11 OH He nepecexaercs CO MHOM, nOCKOJlbKY 06XOlll1T IlO xpaio C(PCPb[; I1TaK ~I CKa)l(Y, 'ITO On COTBOPl'lJl TOT npenner, KOTOPblii Yl[,L1CH OT Hac Ha O.GI1HaKOIlOC paCCTO~[HI1C C Ka)I(JIOM CTOPOllb[. 11 3TO crpepa. A noceuy H HC rosopto «COTBOPIUl He6eca» (6apa UlajI1GUM), 1160 ro[lOPI1TCH TaK IIC no OTHOWCHI1IO K HCMY caMOMY, HO no OTHOWCHHIO K HaWCMY MeCTOHaXO)l(JlCHI1K). H CKa)l(Y «[1 3e~lJlIO" (Be-JI1l xa-apeui, T. C. UCHTP. COOTBCTCTBY[OIUllti crpepe.

2· EH6JJeilcKlle KOMMeHTapHH

1:2

CI1HOllAJlbHblH I1EPEBO)l

2 3eMJUI }Ke fibiJIa 6e3BHllHa H nYCTa, H TbMa Hall fie311HOIO, H )]yx liO}KHH HOCHJICSI Hall BOllOIO.

5//6

I1EPEBO)l 1'60

2 3eMJISI 6bIJIa nYCTa H nYCTbIHHa, TbMa 6b1JIa Hall nytIHHOH, H llYX liO}KHH BeSlJI Hall BOllaMH.

1:2 Ilepnona-ram.uoe COCTOHHl1e Ml1pa OI1J1CaHO Tpe~151 1011O'leOb1MH o6pa3a~lH: msua, OOllHa51 nynuna, nycma« J1 nycmunuas 3C~L15l. B rtepaun nens TBOPCHli51 TbMa naer MeCTO COCTY; 00 BTOPOH 11 TPeTlIH llCHb TBOPCHI111 113 1l0,~HOH nY'[HHbl 11011BJlllIOTCH Hc60 11 cyura; 3aTeM He60, MOpfi J1 3eMJlH 3aCeJl5IIOTCfI lKHBbIMJ1 cyiuecrnaau.

1:2 Espeacxoe pyax MOlKCT oaaaxars H «nyx», J1 «BCTep.), 11 ('llYHOBeHJ1e.), 11 «auxanne». B Bur 8: I JTI1M C.~OBOM 0603Ha'weTCfI serep, nOCJlaHHblH OOroM, 'IT06bl npOTHBOCTOflTb 1l011HOH CTI1XIH1, a B Bur 6:3 - lKIDHeHHaH cana, KOTOpylO Eor BllOXHYJl B 'lCJlOBCKa H 6e3 KOTOPOH TOT yMHpaeT.

116H·331'A

2. 3eMJlH - ee-xa-apeu - :no He06bl'fHall cPopMa, nOCKOJlbKY maCHM[ «a», 0603Ha'iaeMa51 npu nOMOWH /WMGl(a non 6YKBOH aned), coxpauserca B 3TOM CJlOBe BO BCCX CJlY'I351X nocne onpeneneuuoro apTI1~H xeu [a He TOJlbKO B nayse]. '1ero Mbl He BI111HM, aartpauep, B CJlOBaX Be-Xa-3J1erjJ nexa UleJlOMO «<mblCfI'Ia nycrs refie, COJlOMOH») (Ilecu. &, 12) HJU'! Be-xa-3Ben xa-30m (<<TO 3TOT KalffeHb») (Esrrue 2&, 22).

lie3BHlJ,Ha (moxy) - Caanas Iaoa yTBCPlKllaJI, 'ITO moxy - 3TO np0J13BOllHOe OT mexou (<<6e311lla.», 'ITO HCB03MOlKHO, nOCKOJlbKY 6YKBa MeM B CJlOBe meXOM - kopnesan, KaK, uanpuvep, B CJlOBe xaOOM «<nOllHOlKl1e.), Hc. 66, I). B Cerpep MeuHpa CKa3aHO, 'ITO moxy - 3TO 3eJleHa51 J1I1HI151, a 60xy - 3aMurenue KaMHI1./ Onaaxo, npaBI1J1bHblM 51BJ1HeTC5I apaxrencxoe TOJlKOBaH l1e OHKeJlOca: u,aiJbfl (ertycrora-), nonxpenneanoe eTI1XaMI1: y-e-moxy UeJ/eJlb ueIUUMOH «<Il cmenu ne'laJIbHOM 1111I1KOM'» (BTOp. 32, 10) 11 axapeu xa-moxy «<BeJlellIlU'ImOJICHblx,» (I Hap, 12, 21), TO ecrs ncnen rex, KTO HC I1MCCT CYWHOCTI1.

Ilycra (6oxy) - CllOIlO tioxy 1101106HO CllOBY moxy TeM, 'lTO Il HI1X 060l1X 6YKBa eae 3aMeH5IeT 6YKBY xeu, KaK 11 B CJlOBaX eauuuiamaxy «<11 nOKJlOflUJlCJ/.» (ObIT. 18,2) w eamup'sua tie-axy «<11 naCJlI1Cb Il mpocmuuxe») (ObIT. 41, 2).

CMblCJI CTI1Xa B TOM, 'lTO 110 Ha'laJTa COTBOpeHl1ll He6ecHoro cnona 11 cyunr na 3eMllC H~1KTO He )I(l1ll, nOCKOJlbKY OHa 6blJla noxpsrra BOllOH, BCJIb Eor HaLleJlI1J1 ee npaponauv CBOHCTBOM 6bITb THlKCllec H Hl1lKe BOLlb!.

11 He Ylll1BJlllMCH COlO3Y ee-xaapeu «'3CMll51 »ce»), 1160 OH nonooeu COlO3Y cjJa B ll3blKe I1CMal1J1I1TOB, 11 nOJI06Hoe ero ynorperineune MO)l(HO BCTPeTI1Tb B cruxe ee-so uaane MUll xa-apeu «<110 nap nOJIHHMaJTCH C 3CMJlI1») (ObIT. 2, 6), 1160 MOl1ceH rosopan HC 0 60)l(eCTBeHHoM Ml1pe aarenou, a 0 Ml1pe CTaHOBJleHI1H 11 VHI1'1TO)l(eHI1H.

-Tc )I(e, KTO yrsepxnaer, 'ITO «Hc60') nepnoro CTI1Xa - 3TO «He6eca He6ee.) (Hex. 10, 14), He CMOryT 06bHCHI1Tb, nO'IeMY 'rorna B nepao« CTI1XC ynoMHHaCTCH «3eMllH». BCllbJII06QMY 311paBOMbIC]15IweMY 'IeJlOBeKY 51CHO C HeonpOBCplKl1MOM O'lCBI111HOCTbJO, 'lTO cyuiecrsyer JlI1UJb onua 3eMJlH. 4TO KacaCTCH TOJlKOBaHI1H rtpo ceMb 3eMe.,]b, TO OHO nOJIpa3YMeBaeT lll1Wb pa311eJlCHI1C 0611TaeMOH CYWI1 na ceMb rtoacos 11 TO, 'ITO Xpav HaXOJII1TCH B ueirrpe 0611TaeMOH cyWI1, nOCKOJlbKY OT ueurpa 3eMJlH KaK TaKOBOH OH aecsua 1l<L1eK.'

Ilyx IiOlKHH - L1.yx, serep conpaxeu C Borou, nOCKOJlbKY HBnHeTCH Ero nOCllaHHI1KOM 11 I1CnOllHI1TellCM Ero BOJlI1 no OCYUJeHl11O 3eMJlI1.

Hall BOllOJO - MaUM «'Bolla.» - MHOlKeCTBeHHOC '1I1CJlO, 11 B elll1HCTBeHHoM He ecrpe-raercn. L1.BOHCTBCHHaH cPopMa MHOlKeCTBeHHoro '1I1Clla CB5I3aHa C TCM, 'lTO 31'0 CllOBO MOlKeT 11MCTb OKOH'faHHll KaK MY)I(CKOrO, TaK 11 xeucxoro pona. 11 aorna OHO raxxe corJlaCYCTCH C eJII1HCTIlCHHblM '1I1CJlOM rnaronos:

Mea fluiJiJa no JOpaK {L1G8 (<<O'l!1CTI1TeJlbHaH eooa He OKpOnUJla ero») (4I1c. 19, 13). J

HOCHjlCIi - uepaxeibem «<HOCHJlC5I'» - 03H3'laeT «llyeT CBCpXy aa BOllY'>, KaK B crnxe au. eosanae aepaxerfJ (<<Ho('umcfl Hall rrrenuavu CBOI1MI1») (BTOp. 32, II).

/ Ccdicp iieUl.Jpa 6:6 Munpatn Mtuuneii 9:1 Flcpcnon Moil. - en.

PAM6AH

B rraxane - < ... > nocnyuiau rtpavoe, nOHHTHOC 11 BCPHOC 06b5lCHeHI1C ororo cruxa, CBHTOii, 6J1aroCJlOBeH OB, COTBOP"Jl Bee cyuiee 113 a6COJlJOTaero HI1'1TO, 11 B HaweM CB51TOM H3blKe HCT npyroro CJlOBa LIJJH COTBOpeHI1H 'lerO-TO 113 nn-rero, KpOMe tiapa «<C0311aJI»). Bee, '[TO CYWCCTByeT non COJIHUCM 11 Han HI1M, HC 6blllO C0311a1l0 cpasy 113 HH'lerO, 113 nOJlHOrO 11 a6COJllOTHOrO HI1'1TO BeeBblUlHI1H 113BlleK TOHKoe BeweCTIlO, 6eCTeJlCCHOe, HO oonaaaouiee CI1ll0H norrnoutenaa, rorosoe OcPOPMI1TbCll 11 113 nOTeHUl1aJTbHOCTI1 nepCHTI1 B PCaJTbHOCTb. 3TO nepsoosrruoe BeweCTBO, COTBopCHHoe oOroM, rpexu Ha3bfBaJOT XUUYJ/UI (srarepua). [locne xuiiynu OH HI1'1erO HC TBOpl1J1, a cPOPMI1POBaJT 11 CTpOH.'] 113 Hero, 113 aroro XUUYJ1U OH COTBOPI1J1 Bee 11 06J1CK B cooTBeTcTBYJOWYJO cP0PMY 11 npaaen 3TO B 3aKOH'ICHHOe COCT05lHI1C.

OIlKEJlOC

K H 11 r A I; hi T 11 51

1:2

2 3eMJUl6b1J1a 6e3J1lO!I.Ha H nycra, TbMa 6b1J1a nan nyqHHOH, H oYllo6ellue rocnOM BeMO Hau nOBepXHOCTblO BO.ll,bI.

Cospenennue nepesoau KHHfH DblTHH npeanaraior caMble paamr-mue nOHI1MaHHl! sroro MeCTa: «1l,yx DO)l(Hii», «lIYHoneHHC DO)l(bC», «CHJ1a Boxsn», «Do)l<I1H BeTCp», «MorY'IHii serep». BOJMO)l(HO, espeilcKllH TeKCT uecer B ce6e B nepacsneneuuou sune BClO 3TY faMMY CMblC10B.

.: , .\ + 2

~~::lJ ~~n ~~~ rl~;;ry

1'J~)! oi~I;i ~~-"P l~ "j~-~l) n:Jn'~ o"f1~~

- .: v,' -: .

r : :

PAMIiAII

3Hai1 »ce, 'ITO uefieca H ace, 'ITO B HI1X, COCTOHT 113 onnoro seuiecrea, a 3CMJ1f! 11 BCC, 'ITO B HCi1, COCTOI1T 113 npyroro seuiecrsa. CBl!TOH, 6J1arOCJ10SeH OH, C0311aJJ 3TI1 nna aeuiecrna 113 HI1'1ero. TOJ1bKO OHH 6blJ111 C0311aHbl 113 HI1'1erO, a ace OCTaJJbHoe - caenano 113 HI1X.

3TO seuiecrso, Ha3blllaeMoe rpexasia XUUYJIU, ua CRHTOM H3bIKe 30BCTCH moxy , Col0BOM, rrpoucxoasunoa H3 BbICKa3bIBaHI151 MYlIpeuoB: «6emoxeu «<06nY~ibIBaI01llI1HI» CBOH lIeHHHH B npournow-'. TaK KaK eCJ111 '1enOBCK XO'lCT nars 3TOMY IlClllCCTBY Ha3IlaHHC, OH 0611YMblBacT 11 Ha3blBaCT ero npyrl1\1 HMCHCM, nOToMY 'ITO aeurecrso He 06nC'ICHO B KaKYIO-HH6Yllb <jJOPMY, K KOTOPOi1 MO)l(HO npuxpernrn, I1MH. A ra <jJopMa, KOTOpylO 0110 npl1HI1MaeT, Ha3blBaCTCH 60xy, 3TO COCTaBHoe cnono, npoacxonnuiee 113 enos 60 xy «<B HeM ecri,»). TaK, K rtpnwepy, YCTpoeHO CJIOBO B CTI1Xe «Tbl Olll1H He MO)f{eWb ucnpaanars ero (acoxy). (Hex. 18, 18) - B CJ10Be acoxy ; COCTOHlueM 11311BYX CJlOB, aco xy, He XBaTaeT 6YKB BaB 11 anetp. Flucanne rosopnr: «11 nporsayr no Hei1 sepss pa30pCHI1H (moxy) 11 OTsec (KaMHI1) YHI1'1TO)f{eHIHI (tioxy)» (He. 34, II). Toxy - 3TO uruyp (KaB), KOTOPblM peMeCneHHI1K 0603Ha'laeT nnan caoero crpoemia 11 TO, 'ITO OH HaMepeH cnenari.. 3TO cnOBO CBH3aHO C « Hanetics (xaee) aa Iocnona» (Ilc. 26, 14). KaMHH - 3TO <jJOPMbl B CTPOCHHI1, KaK CKa3aHO: «MeHee HI1'1TO)l(eCTBa 11 nYCTOTbl (moxy) C'lI1TaIOTC}I Y Hero>, (He. 40, 17), nOCKOJlbKY moxy cnezryer sa HI1'1TO)f{eCTBOM, 11 B HeM HI1'lerO ewe HeT. < ... >

I KHllYWHH 406.

C<l>OPHO

2. 3eMJllI IKe 6b1J1a 6e3BHIlHa H nYCTa - 3eMml, COTBopeHHaH roraa, 6blJla seuisro, cocronuiea 113 nepBH'lHOH MaTepl11i, Ha3blBaCMOH moxy 11 nepBI1'1Hoi1 <jJOPMbI, Ha3blBaeMOH tioxy. 1l,ei1- CTBI1TeJ1bHO, He 6bl1I0 HW'lero, COOTRCTCTBYlOwero nepBI1'1HOH MaTcpHH, KpOMe ellHHCTBeHHoi1 CPOPMbl, 11 OHa HCI136e)f(HO 6blJ1a nepBH'IHOH DJlH BCHKI1X <jJOPM CJlO)l(HbIX aeiueii; 11 orciona CTaHOBI1TCH HCHO, 'lTO rrepBI1'lHaH MaTepl1H - neuu, COTBopeHH35I; 11 Ha3BaHa MaTepl1H TOi1 CnO)l(Hoi1 nCpBI1'1HOH seuiu moxy, rrOCKOlIbKY ee 6bITI1C B03MO)l(HO 'ronsxo B OTHOWeHI1W caMoi1 ceos, 3TO BCWb, cyuiecruyiouias J1I1Wb nOTeHUl1aJJbHO, 11 axryam.no He CYllleCTBYCT, KaK CKa3aHO: «1160 OHI1 - HI1'1TO» (KU moxy xeuua, 1 Ilap, 12, 21), TO ecrs OHI1 He cyweCTBYIOT axryansuo. HO JlI1Wb B Bo06pa)l(CHI1H; a <jJopMa, npl1HHTaH 3TOH nepBH'lHoi1 CnO)f{Hoti neursso, Ha3blBaeTCH 60xy, 1160 I1MCHHO B moxy, 0 xoropon H rOBOplO, OHa aKTY-

aJJbHO cyuiecrnyer, H '1l1Tati «OTBec YIlI1'ITO)l(eHI1H,) iaene 60xy) - BCWb, He npeousaiouiaa B CBOCH <jJOPMC onpeneneanoe BpeMH, KaK 3TO np0l130WJlO C seuiuo nepBI1'lHot'1 <jJOPMbI, 'lTO tor-rae otinexnacs Il <jJOPMbl MeHHIOWI1XCH nepB03.~eMeHTOB.

H TbMa - 3TO TCMHbIH 3<jJI1P, BblllencHHblH H3 nepBH'IHOH ClIO)f(HOi1 BCIUI1, 6blJ1 Hall6c311HOH, Han llBYMH TaK)I(e Bbll1emlBWlIMHCH 113 nepBI1'IHoi1 cno)l(Hoii neun- HH'3I11HMlt Ila'la,laMH, OKpY)I(aBWHMH npyr npyra, H )J:yx IiOIKHH - rtpnnonauure B LlIlH)I(ellllC CqlCPY Ht13BaHblllYXOM, KaK CKa3aHO: «Tu TBOPHWb aureolaMH TB0I1Mll11YXOB>' (Ilc. 103,4).

HOCHlICli uaa BOllOIO - TOnJa 01H! npnnonumt [lllBH)f(CHHC TCMHblti 3qll1P HM nOBcpXHOCTblO B011bl, oxpyxaioinea OCHOBaHHC 'leMJII1; n03TmlY CJlY'II1JIOCb TaK, 'ITO 'IaCTb ero, CMe)l(HaH co C(llCPOH, B llBII)f(eIlI1I1 BOCnlIaMCIH!JIaCb. Ii 3TO - Ha'la,~bllbli1 orous, a '1aCTb, 6;lH)f(a~lllJaH K BOLlC, npuofipena HeKOTOPbl~l XO,~Oll OT BOllbl, xpove MeHbwcH 'HlCn!, uarpenureiics cJlY4ai1Ho IlPI! npc06pa10BaHI111 HWY'leHflH CIlCTI1,l.

PAUl 11

2. 3eMJllI 6blJla 6e3BHIlHa H nYCTa (6YKB. «CMHTeHI1C 11 xaoc» «moxy» - osnavaer ynnanenue H YHbIHI1C, TaK KaK 'leJlOBeK Ylll1SJl}leTCH 11 npHXO- 11I1T B YHblHl1e OT 'roro xaoca. Ha I1H03eMHOM I HaPC'l1111 - acmopouco«. «boxy» 03I1a'laeT nYCTOTY 11 6e3J1lOnHOcTb'.

Han BOnOIO - Han nonon, KOTopaH rtoxpunaer 3eMnlO.

H .LJ:yx IiOIKHH HOCHJICli. TpOH cnanu CTOI1T na B031Iyxe H napnr Han BOllaMI1, 6JlarOnapH nuxaHI1IO CBHTOro, finarocnoseu OH, 11 ero pe-ru, no- 1l06HO rorrytuo, rtapsuuevy Hall fHe3110M.) Ha I1HO- 3eMHOM Hape'll1l1 - akoeemep',

I Astordison (CT.-<ppaHU.) - 3a6BeHHe.

TaK nepCBOllHTC5[ 11 B TaprYMC OHKeJlOca. eM. Xarn ra 15a.

4 Acoveter (CT. -<ppaH u.) - napl1Tb, PC5ITb.

1:3

CllI1011A.~bllbIH nEPEBO!1

3 M CKa3aJl Bor: na 6Y.lleT CBeT. M CTaJJ CBeT.

7 II 8

nEPEBOlI PliO

3If CKa3aJl 6or:-,ll;a 6Y.lleT CBeT. If nOSlBUJlCSI CBeT.

1:3-5 3a K3lKllbiM nOBeneHHeM Bora cneayer onncaaae roro, KaK sro noneneauc npersopaerca B lKH3Hb. Bee, 'ITO bor rsopur, 3aCflYlKlm3CT Ero 01l06peHHSl (<<K3K 31'0 xopoiuo» - cp, I: 10, 12. 18, 21, 25). OKOH'IeIlHOC TBopeHHC -oseas XOPOWO» (I :31).

I1IiH-33PA

3. Ii CK33llJJ - [Caanua] Iaoa yrsepxnan, 'ITO 80LIU0Jl1ep «<CKa3aJl») oaaaxaer «saxorex», HO B raKOM cnyxae 6blflO 6bl CKa3aHO nanee «lfT06bl B03- HHK CBeT» [a He «na 6YlIeT cse r» J, TaK 'ITO HYlKHO nOHHMaTb 31'0 Bbfpa)KeHHe no era npflMOMY CMbICJlY. J.1 B nonraepxneuae 3TOMY CKa3aHO, 'ITO «CflOIlOM Iocnona cornopeau uefieca» (Ilc. 32, 6), «1160 OH T10BeJIeJI, J.f COTBOPI1JIHCb» (Ilc. 148, 5). Bee 3TH eupaxeuua YKa3bIBalOT ua neacraue, rrpoaaseneaaoe 6e3 sarparst c06CTBeHHblX YCI1- flHH, nOlI06HO uapio, ornaioiuevy pacnopaxeHHfI CBOHM cnyrav, A CBeT 3TOT HaXOlIHJICH asuue soaayxa-serpa.

PAM6AIl

3. H CK33llJJ Bor (3.110XUM) - CflOBO 3J70XUM 3H3- '1I-1T «nOBeJII1TeJIb acex C~IJI'), nOTOMY 'ITO OCHOBa CJIOBa 3.'1b - CHJla, a CJlOBO ]J/oXUJI1 - COCTaBHoe CJIOBO, 3!lbxeM. KaK 6YllTO CJIOBO JAb B cortpaxeuHOt! <popMe, a xeu «<OIlH») n011pa3YMeBaeT nee OCTMbHble CI1Jlbl. TaKHM 06pa30M, 3:10XUJI[ 3Ha'1I1T «CHJIa CI1Jl». ECTb 311eCb 11 ewe 011Ha T3HH3, KOTOPYIO npellCTOI1T pacxpsrn,

Ecnn TaK, TO npauoe npaaunsnoe TOJIKOllaHHe sroro cruxa cnenyiouree: « B H3'13JIe COTBOpHJI Bor He60 11 3eMJIIO') 3H3'1I1T, 'ITO OH cosnan I1X ueuiecraa 113 HI1'1ero. «J.1 3eMJIIO» ua caMOM nene BKJlIO'IaCT ace sersrpe 3JleMeHT3, K3K B CTHxe «TaK coaepuieau He60 11 3eMJIll 11 ace BO-

HIICTBO HX" (ObIT. 2, I), KOTOPblH BKJIIO'IaeT see HH)[(Hee nonyuiapue , 11 B CTI1Xe «XIlaJIHTe locnona OT 3eMJII1, BemlKl1e Pbl6bl 11 ace 6e3llHbI» (Ilc. 148, 7), 11 BO MHOrHX npyrux. J.1 BOT 3TI1M TBOpeHl1eM, nOlI06HbIM MaJIeHbKOH TO'lKe 6e3 BCHKOH CYIUHOCTI1, 6blJ10 COTBopeHO ece B nefiecax 11 na 3eMJIe. CJlOBO sm (sm XOUWMOUJI1 ee-sm xaapeu) KaK «CYLUHOCTb BeLUH». Mynpeusr' scerna 06bHCHllJlH, 'ITO OHO OTlHCblBaeT conepxavoe, KaK B ssrpa)KeHI1I1 «npI16J1I1)[(aeTCH (ama) YTPO, HO ewe HO'Ib'> (J.1c. 21,12). n03TOMY OHI1 rOBOpI1JlI12: B CJlOBe «He60» (sm xaWaMaUJI1) sm BKJIIO'IaeT B ce611 CO.1Hue, JIylIy, 3Be311bl 11 C03Be31I1111. "J.1 3eMJIIO» (ee-sm xaapeu) - 8e-3m nonpaayaesaer nepenss. rpaust 11 call ElleM, a raxxe see renecuue TBOpeHI1H.

CKa3aB )Ke, 'ITO 011HI1M IlOBeJleHl1eM Eor C031IaJI B uaxane He6eca 11 3eM.'11O H see I1X BOI1HCTBa, IlucaHl1e B03BpaLUaeTCll 11 06bllCHlleT, 'ITO nocne sroro C03llaHI111 3eMJlH 6bwa moxy, TO ecrs BeLUeCTIlOM 6e3 CYLUHOCTI1. 0Ha CT3;la tioxy, xorna OH 06J1eK ee B <pOPMj. Torna 06bllCHlICTCH, 'ITO B sry <POPMY fibIJll1 BKJlIO'leHbI <pOPMbl '1eTblpex 3J1eMeHTOB: oras. sonu, 3eMJlI1 11 soaayxa. B 3TOM CTI1Xe 3J1eMeHT oras uaauaaercs «TbMa», nOTOMY 'ITO nepBH'IHblH orcas - 31'0 TbMa. Ecna fibl OH 6bIfl KpaCHbIM, OH 6bl caenan uauiy HO'lb KpaCHoH. 3JleMeHT BOllbI, C KOTOPblM 6blJI cueuraa npax, aaecs 30BeTClI «6e311Ha.). n03TOMY sonu OKeaHOB Ha3blBalOTCH «6e3llHbl'>, KaK CK33aHO: «6C3llHbl noxpsum HX>) (J.1cx. 15, 5), «orycrena 6e3nHbI'} (J.1cx. 15,8), «6e3nHa 3aKJlIO'II1J1a MeH51» (J.10H. 2, 6). Ililo okeana TO)KC Ha3blBaeTCH «6e31IHa.>: «rp03HO pex MOPIO 1..JepMHoMY, 11 OHO I1CCOXJIO; 11 npOBeJI I1X IlO 6e3JlHaM, KaK no cyure» (Ilc, 105,9), «BeJI I1X spes 6e311Hbl, KaK KOHli no crena» (J.1c. 63, 13). A 3JIeMeHT aoanyxa anecs 30BeTClI «l1YX». YlKe 113BeCTHO, 'ITO -rersrpe 3,1eMeHTa HanOJIHlllOT see IlpOCTpaHCTBO MaTepHeH. To, 'ITO Hen011- BI1)f(HO - 3eMHall crpepa. Bonu OKpYlKalOT 3eMJIIO, B03llYX oxpyxaer aonu, a orous OKpY)KaCT B03llYX. TaKI1M 06pa30M, Ilucaaae ykaasmaer, 'ITO 3eMJISl npunana <POPMY, orons csepxy OKPY)KHJI cneiuaunue BOllbl H Ilblflb, a nerep nyn 11 npOHI1KaJl BO TbMY t1 JlCTaJI Hall BOnaMI1. MHe xaxercn, 'ITO 3Ta 'ro-nca, KOTOpa51 npana.na <POPMY 11 crana tioxy, 11 ecrs TO, 'ITO MYllpeUbl' Ha3bIBalOT «KpacyrOJlbHbIM KaMHeM.>, ua KOTOPOM 6blJl C031Iall Ml1p. < ... >

I Ilecaxuv 226. bepeunrr pa66a I: 14. HlHlU 526.

OHKEJlOC

KHHrA 6bITl1H

1:3

3 M CKa3aJI rocnons. «Ilycrs 6YLleT CBeT!'>. M B03HHK CBeT.

1:3 ... (JUA •.. UMfI ... - Beun, OKOH'laTC.lbHO 06peTaCT C!loe 6bITHC J1I1Wb Toma, Koma cli )laCrCR ce HaCTORlUCC HMR (<<llCHb", a HC npOCTO «CBCT»; <'HO'lb», a He npOCTO ('TbMa»; «Hc60'), a lie npOCTO «CBO)l'>; «3CMJlR», a HC npOCTO «cyuia»; «MOPH", a HC npocro «c06paAWHeCR nonu»). flpnxre-rarensuo, OJIHaKO, 'ITO Eior He naer HMena lKH!lOTHbIM - JTO JlCJlO uenouexa (2:20).

C<I>OPHO

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, Kery60T 1116.

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, bepeunrr pa66a 3:8.

i EiepewlH pa66a 12:14 .

.\ CM. Cediep xa-oaxup 190. 4 Cpo I flap, 29, II.

CM. MHlI1HH ASOT 5:2.