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Intermediate Language Practice


MICHAEL VINCE

with Key

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MACMILLAN HEINEMANN

English Language Teaching

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English

Language Limited

Teaching

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OX4 3PP, UK

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l'uhlinhers

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the world

Contents
Grammar
IINS

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Unit 1

Introduction
How you can usc this book - Thinking about grammar - Langu,lbc comparisons learning - Which English? - Other ways of

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puhlic.nino

II.LlY Ill' ITl'l"tltiU(l,d,

Unit 2

Present time 1
Present simple: formation rulcs.rncaning - Present continuous; fonnarion rules.meaning

3
7
contrasts-

Unit 3 Present time 2


Present simple: frequency adverbs - SLHl' ,lnt! event verbs - Simple and continuous Future reference - Other problems

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f,tl .111 ill'!'


SWi.Ul

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1\'11/ :'

I wIlldd like ro rh.ruk in p.nricul.u011 ttl

Unit 4

Past time 1
Past simple; formarion expressions rules, mea'lillf; - Past continuous: Iormarion rules, mc.winb - Time

11

cl)J\l1l1Clltillg

this hOlik,
ii.inc

:~i.l,~II\ r

\ l'ldd likl'
it'll
\\'l"d

th.iuk

CUSI.1S c;,lhrid.itus,1

It ,HIlI \ \ il

Unit 5 Past time 2


Past perfect simple: [orrn.uiou forms with other meanings rules, meaning - Common uscs - ",ed to - ',,:ollld - Past simple

15

Unit 6

Present perfect 1
Present perfect simple: formation rules, mc,wing - Common Common uses (with time expressions) uses (no time mcntioncd)-

19 23
with prcsclll

L__ ~

i'

Unit 7 Present perfect 2


Present perfect continuous; formation rules, mcaninb - Common uses - Contrasts perfect simple - Present perfect problems

. Unit 8 Unit 9

Future 1
Future time - 'will and slrall-: be going to - Present continuous - Problems

28

Future 2
Future continuous - Future perfect - Timetable future - Functions; 'Will, shall, goillg 10

33 37 41

Problems, Errors and Consolidation 1 Unit 10 Reported speech 1


Reported speech - \'V'ithout tense changes - Tense changes after a past tense reporting verb - No changes after a past tcnse reporting verb - Speakers in reported speech - Other chanbcsSunuuarizing instead of verbatim reports - Verbs c,lsily ron fused: ,"),, /1'11, ;/,C,'1.:

Unit 11

Reported speech 2
Commands and requcsts - yes/no questions - u/bctlicr> \FiJ- questions Rl'poning verbs -Tudircct questions>

45

Unit 12
.: It:

Condi.t!or)als: 1 and 2
simple + present simple -1/+ imperative - Condition.rl I; i/+ prest'llt simple + 'i.~'illh"'o/l'I- Conditional 2; if + past simple + 'i.i'ullldh·ollldll'l1111 less - Other uses of ... ould v

49

1/+ present

1.

:1'\ III "Iplll1

II~,'!\'1.l1t'lr

('rOIIlt1,

S,A. l'iuu. (M.ldrid)

20U ;002 2001 2000 I;' 11 10 9 8 7 6 5

Unit 13

Conditionals: 2 and 3
Conditional sentences Medals in conditional without sentences

53 if -1/1 W('I'C
),011-

Conditional

J: i(+ l1.\st perfect + ,;'0111£1 /},'VC.

ill/(!nllediate Language Practice

Contents

Unit 14 Unit 15

Wishes
Wishes about the present - Wishes about the past - Wishes with could -bope -If only

56

Unit 28

Place and position


ill, out, inside, on -at, to and ill- Expressions ncar, by, beside - opposite with at and 10 <above, oucr.bclour.undcr=ncx:
10,

:107

Passive 1
Transitive and intransitive - Passive: formation With the instrument uiitb - Withollt the agent rules - Contexts of use - With the agent by-

58
Unit 29 62
with ;>; ssive -ba·V(' somelbillg done

Problems, Errors and Consolidation 3 Time expressions in, on and t1f- during - Calendar references - Day references - Periods of the day - for, since and ago - once and one day -now and 1I0'W"dll),s =tbcn, n/lerwards, «[tcr and later=unril and by - at last, ill tbc end and at the end - Oil time and in lime Unit 30 Countable and uncountable
a/all, some, an)' - milch and m.lI1.l'- Materials - Problem Alternatives: with a/an or s plur"l- Other problems uncounrnblcs - Alternatives: a/some=

111

Unit 16 Unit 17

Passive 2
Verbs with two objects - Problems

Modals 1: present and future


Problems with form and meaning - Ability - Permission - Possibility Impossibility or certainty - Obligation .. -P dvice apd opinion
I

64
or unceminty-

iF)

Unit 18

Modals 2: past
Abilit~· - P"ssihility opinion or uncertainty - Impossibility or ccrtainry - Obligation - Advice
;111.1

69

Unit 31 Unit 32 Unit 33

Articles 1
ZCI'll

123
12G

article -a/an

Problems, Errors and Consolidation 2 Unit 19 Purpose


/01'- infinitive in orderto

72 77

Articles 2
Definite article: the

-so (Ibal) + pn'sent simple -so (lb,lI) + "'I'/! and ",'oilid - so (tb.u} + can/could>

Determiners and pronouns


(lll, $0111[>,
110 -

130
of - Expressions with not
(1,

eacb, both, cvery - either, ncitber=none

not

ONe

Unit 20

Result and reason


so, because -as, since - so mucb, so mall)" sof(''''', so little -so + adjective + Ib,'1- such + adjective + noun + that - 100 + adjective + infinitive with 10 -1101 + adjective + enougb + infinitive with tonot + (,1I0Ilg/) + noun, 100 1I11111_)' + noun, too mucb + noun, too little + noun, too [et: + noun - as " result, in the end, e""'lIll1a/ly

80

Unit 34 Unit 35

Adjectives and adverbs


Adjectives - Order of adjectives - Problems with adjectives - Adverbs - lnrcnsificrs

13:1

Making comparisons
Formation of comparatives and superlatives - Irregular superlatives - Making comparisons= Inrensificrs forms -Mcaning of comparatives and

139

Unit 21

Contrast
although, tbollgh and even tbollgb - wbile and nahcrcas - despite - ill spite of - hou.eoer=but yet - on tbe other band and

84 Unit 36 87
Asking for information- Requesting - Suggcsting

Phrasal or multi-word verbs 1


Phrasal verbs: usc - Verbs with three pans - Verbs with two P"fts: transitive, inseparable

Unit 22

Functions
What is a function? - Advising - Asking, accepting and rcfusingMaking offers - Offering - Permission - Preferences - Promising

Unit 37

Phrasal or multi-word verbs 2


Changes of meaning intransitive - Verbs with two parts: transitive, separable - Verbs with
IWO

'148
parts:

Unit 23

Relative clauses 1
Relative clauses - Defining and non-defining clauses - Leaving Out relative pronouns clauses - Defining clauses - Subject and object

92
Unit 38

Problems, Errors and Consolidation 4 Verbs followed by verbal noun or infinitive 1 Verbs followed by verbal noun -illg or infinitive: with lin!c or no chanbc of meaning - Verbs followed by infinitive + to - Verbs [ollowcd by infinitive + 10, or Ibal-clausc Verbs followed by verbal noun or infinitive 2
Verbs followed hy verbal noun -illg or infinitive + 10 or tbal-el.tuse: with change of 1I\eanin~;Verbs [ollowcd by verbal noun-ing or bare infinitive: with change of me.l1\in~ - Verbs [ollow.«! hy verhnl noun -illg or nOUII- Verbs followed by verbal noun -illg, noun or 11,.II·clause

152 157

Unit 24 Unit 25

Relative clauses 2
Combining scntcnces - Non-finite clauses - Nominal relative clauses

96
Unit 39

Questions 1
yes/no questions - Short answers - IFb- questions - Subject or object questions
=

99
I'cs.rivc and negative questions

Unit 26 Unit 27

Questions 2
Reply questions it and there its and it's - there, they're and Iheir- Verb forms with there - il alld there

101 -1:1g questions,


Ionnarion.mcaning and intonation-leI's -T'roblcms

Unit 40

Verbs followed by prepositions


Verbs [ollowcd preposition by prepositions: about, at,for, ill, 0[.
Oil, 10 -I)c

lG(l
+ adjective followed b)'
;l

105

Unit 41

Pronouns
Impersonal one - someone.somebody
-110

110
something - ('~'e'Tul1e, cuerybody, one.nobody, nothing - Reflexives: 1II),;('//CIl',
C.'l..'{!I)I/bing - tlJl_l'lnIC,

anybod», ,,")'thi"g

II'

l i.t crmc diatc Lallguage

Practice

Unit 42

Possession l'ossessiv« apostrophe - oland compound I )uutlk, pussL'ssi\'c


words - Possessive adjectives - Possessive

174
pronouns-

Unit 1 Introduction
How you can use this book.
This book is for practising grammar and building up a wider vocabulary, Practising might involve working on your own or with others. You can study the explanations and then do the activities, or you can do the activities and check the explanations when you need them, You can usc the units in an)' order, You can either work through the whole book, or focus on areas which ~'ou find problematic.

Unit 43

Text organizers ,/1/(1, lrot h, ("0, {/5;;'('1/, .ils» .- (",,'11 - either, or - First (o/,rll), s('('OI/(I/), ct(',,fill.rll), - As 'wel/.ll this, /ll'>id"~'lbij -111m)' 'i·ic'ii.'l/,cr.HJlI.dly -/11 conclusion= (!XCCPI- [orexample, sucl: as - ill [act, ,/(,(/(,"/.1''' inst c.ul (o.f) - Time words with other meanings

178

Unit 44

Capitat letters ancl punctuation


C,lpit,1111,.·ucrs - Punct uat ion

183 187
01'

Unit 45

Spelling and pronunciation

1 -ci .. Silent lcucrs

Ad,1 i Il~ '/l1g tu \'n!>s -. \\'01'.1, <'lid in),; in -jid- ·ie

Unit46

Spelling and pronunciation


S.IIIlL'

189

difr ... -rcnt spdlin~ and Illl';lnint; - \'\'nrlls ",hi"h I,)nk silllil.)r- \'i'ords with ,I syllabic which is not pronounced .. Nouns and \'Cl'[,S with (' .!Ilt..\ i - HlI\\, [0 improve spelling
SlIlIlIlllliffl'I'\.'lll spl..'lIil1g - Samc pronunci.uiou,

Thinking about grammar


1.
a) I've been studying b) Helen c) English for two years, Continuing time up «ntil the present. thing in the morning, I'd get to school more easily! Can you name the tense underlined in each example? What kind of time docs each one describe? Present perfect continuous/progressive.

Problems,

Errors and Consolidation

191

Vocabulary
1 Dealing with vocabulary
\,'1"'11 \ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
(Ill

is leaving first If I had a helicopter,

iilld " new word - ~ I.tkinf\ sense of words - Milking rhc most of your dinion.tr),
I'l'cord

195 197 199

d) I~at7.30.
c) By the time we got to the station, the train had left. a) It's your birthday on Saturday,

_. Kl·l"pin~;.l wriucn

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
20

Word formation Word formation Expressions Compound words Money and shopping Living space Personal matters Family and friends Tile body and clothes Everyday problems Travel and holidays Interests and free time Places Food and drink WOr!1and study Tile natural environment Tools and technology Everyday objects People rules verbs

2
For each situation, decide which expressIOns arc possible in the context. If you choose more than one, what arc the differences?

Invite a friend to your party,


You will come.
to

202 205 207 210 212 214 216


219

I) I'll have a party on Saturday. 3) I have a party on Saturday,

2) I'm having a party on Salllrday. Do vou want Are you coming? b) You arc on the bus. Ask a stranger I) Could you open the window,
2) Open

come?

to open the window. please?

the window.
to

221 223 226 229 231 234 236 239 242 245 246
249 251

3) Excuse me, but do you think you could possibly open the window? c) You arrive late for class and apologize I) 1'111 late, 1 apologize, 2) Sorry I'm late. 3) Please accept my most sincere apologies, d) You arc a witness to a minor accident. Explain wh,u you saw. I) This car comes down the road and hits a tree, ballg! 2) A car had
COIllC

yom teacher,

Formation Irregular Grammar Answer

down the road and had hit a tree.

3) A car came down the road and hit a tree,

index
key

.\"

,.--,

lnlcrml!diate Language Practice

,
;

3
Compare each pair of sentences. Decide if they are both possible.

a) 1) I'm living in Paris. 2) I'm owning a motorbike. b) 1) We went there by car. 2) We went there in Helen's car. c) 1) Where is the bank? Do you know? 2) Do you know where the bank is? d) 1) I used to like !,ictory lessons. 2) I was liking history lessons.

possible not possible

Unit 2 Present time 1


Explanations
Present simple: formation rules • Present simple is formed with the bare infinitive form of the verb. 1 like You like \Ve like They like We add s in the third person singular he/she/it. Verbs ending in 0, s, cb, 51>, x add -es. Some verbs are irregular: have, be She likes He goes She watches She misses He wishes He relaxes Do and does questions Present simple questions are formed with do and the bare infinitive form of . the verb. \'V'eform third person singular forms with does and the bare infinitive form of the verb. Do you/ike? Does she like? Do not and does not negatives Present simple negatives are formed with do not and the bare infinitive fllrln of the verb. Third person singular is formed with docs not and the bare infinitive form of the verb. I do not like. She does not like. Do and does contractions In speech and informal writing, do not becomes don't, and docs not becomes doesn't. 1 don't like. She doesn't like. Do and docs Wh- questions \'V'e also usc do/does when we form questions with when, what, why, icbcrc, how, etc. What do YOII want? Where does she live? We use present simple to describe: Habitual actions I usually get lip at 7.30. Personal facts Liz plays in the school basketball team. \Ve like ice-cream. Facts which are always true. The sun rises in the east. See Unit 3 for future meanings.

Language comparisons
What problems do you have in Iearning English? Howisyour language different from English? TIck the points which are problematic for you. a) the articles a/an, the b) tenses Talking about the present, past,futHre, etc. c) prepositions at, to.for, etc. d) auxiliary verbs

f) conditional
g)

h) i) j)

do.baoe
slowly, well e) modal auxiliaries can, must

sentences If I ... , I willI! would ... passive voice It is made of wood. The book was written in 1997. forming questions \Vho are YOII? Where do YOII live? etc. adjectives and adverbs happy, important phrasal verbs get up, look up a word

Other ways of learning


Whicl; of these ways of learning do you think are useful? Which ones do you regularly use? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Reading widely for pleasure. Translating. Making lists of words, or problem Using a dictionary. Listening to songs. Keeping a diary. Reviewing your written work. Listening to the radio or watching • points.

Meaning television.

Which English?
English is a world language, and the English spoken in the USA or Australia differs from the English spoken in Britain. There arc also differences between speakers from Scotland, Ireland and England, and between different parts of the same country. This book uses what is generally called Standard British English. References are also made to some differences in American English.

l ntcrmedinte Langllage Practice

Pronunciation
Verbs which end iniz/, /dz/, lsi, /sh/, /rsh/ and /ks/ make an extra syllable in the third person, pronounced [u]. uratchcs misses relaxes Attcr /1/, /1:./, /p/, /1/, third person sound is lsi. hits /hlts/ Other third person /5/ arc pronounced as /z/. sees /si:z/ Docs is normally pronounced /d/lz/ and says lsc d,
l'rcscnt
(lll1t

Practice
:1.
Choose the correct phrase underlined in each sentence. a) What time go youfdo you go)o bed on Saturdays? b) Why are you waiting/do d) I having/I'm

you waiting outside the door?


knows the answer,

c) Don't ask Tim. He doesn't know/not e) When yQuleave/do f) I don't understand.

having my lunch at the moment. you leave the house? What is happening/is hap-pen? you knQw the time?

Present continuous

is formed from the verb be and the bare infinitive with

g) Excuse me, does you know/do

uiuous:

-ing,
f alii relaxing.
YOII

h) This is a great party. 1'111 having/Am j) What you are doing/arc

I h;1\'inl_;a lovely time.


work.

lorm.u iou rules

are relaxing.

He is relaxing. We are relaxing.

She is relaxing. They are relaxing.

i) We can't usc the lift because it don't works/doesn't you doing here? ? ? ? I'm doing my homework. ? ? ? because I feel cold! ?
'1'0111.

Present continuous •

is also called present progressive.

Spelling Verbs ending -e drop the -e when the)' add -ing.

2
Read the answers and then complete the questions.

a) Where . .flP.(~~'!{;/iy.c Sue? She lives at the end of A x we II Road, b) Do Jim? No, Idon't know him. c) \'Vhat At the moment? d) Are Here? No, I'm sitting over there. e) Do Here? No, we change trains at the next station. f) \'Vhy I'm wearing two pullovers
g) Is

like liking decide deciding 'Write umtmg Verbs with OIlC syllable, ending in one vowel and one consonant, consonant when they add -ing. sit sitting lie

double the

swim tie

sunmming die

dig dying

digging

Verbs cndin& -ic change -ie to -)'.

lying

lying

Com ructions In speech and informal 1'111 writing

writing, the verb be is contracted:

You 'I'etarit ing


He's uiriting We're writing


questions

Sbe's iariting They're writ ing


by inverting the verb be.

Questions We form present continuous

A1Il11.~'riting? Are YUII writing?


• • \\'!J- questions

15be "<.,riting? Arewe writing?

Is she ioritingi Are tbey writing?

David? No, he's not staying with h) \'Vhen


<0

Kate? She comes home at 6.30.

What arc YOIl writing?

W/;y are ioc writing?

3
Rewrite each sentence so that the verb underlined is a negative contraction.

a) Naomi and Bill are watching television. .. NlJiW1({II1r!.IMf.tJl:m, 't.11(lJl<ni!1j. kkv:(~il'.'.l b) Peter likes chocolate cake.

Negatives \'i'e form present continuous negatives with the verb be + not. L'm not ioriting He's not uniting They're not writing We use present continuous to describe: Actions happening at the present moment. Sorry, 1call 't speak to YUII, I'm soasbing my bail: Sec Unit J for future meanings.

,..

c) Carol drives a little red sports car. d) I'm using this pencil at the moment.

\ k.1I1 I Ilt;

[l1termediate Language Practice

e) The children are having lunch in the kitchen. ..................................................................................................................

Unit 3 Present time 2


. Explanations
Present simple: frequency adverbs • Frequency adverbs are often used with present simple. They explain how often someone docs an action, or something happens. .

f) The sun ll:li in the east.

............................. . .
.....................
;

~~,
:;

g) I ~

early on Saturday.

h) Kate is writing a1C vel. ................................................................................................................... i) Sue lives in London.

j)

~~~·:;~·:;i·~;~~·f~~·;~·~· .. ···/··············· ..···· ·


P.p.J.(J!!.Mt:..
cheese sandwiches? ?

.

..................................................................................................................

always often usually sometimes rm'ely,/ never

,/,/,/,/,/ ,/,/,/,/ ,/,/,/ ,/,/

I always get up at 7.00. Pat oftell goes to football matches. It IIsllallyrains 'When [go 011 holiday! We sometimes eat pizza for lunch. Jane rarely listens to jazz. /vi)' bus /lever arrives on time .

4
Complete each sentence with a present simple or present continuous form, using the words gl\'en.

a)

you like b) What time the sun rise c) What you read d) Sorry, Ican't talk Ihave e) \Vle not watch videos at school. . Why ? to school by bus every day. a uniform at your school? you wear hobby a boat. • at the moment? a bath. State and event verbs •

Note that the frequency adverb goes between the pronoun (/, she, CIC.) or person and the verb. Other frequency adverbs are: seldom (v"), hardly C',!cr

(,/), occasionally (,/ '/), normally (,/,/ '/),freqllently


Frequency

(,/,/,/ '/).

adverbs used with the verb be come after the verb.

Jim is usually late.


Some verbs arc usually used in present simple and not in present continuous. These arc sometimes called state verbs, because they describe continuing states, not sudden actions.

f) Look out of the window!


itsnow g) This is an examination! you talk h) Ann go i)

• having and being belong to, contain, cost, depend on.liave,

OWII

• thinking and feeling belieuc.forget, like, hate, kno,;,',prefer, understand


• Some verbs are more common as state verbs in present simple, and change their meaning when they arc used as event verbs in present continuous. Event verbs describe actions. (permanent) I bnue two sisters. (a tcmporary action) I'm having problems witb this computer: Examples include be, baue, taste, think. Some state verbs can be used to describe temporary How are YOII getting all at )'0111' net: school? feelings.

j) Pat has got an interesting


she build

5
Choose the correct spcllinf; [rom each pair of words.

a) (writing)'writtin{; b) diging/digging c) rakcing/raking d) deciding/decideing e) swirning/swimming

f) having/havcillg g) lying/lieing h) readding/reading i) using/uscing

k) washcing/washing I) riding/rideing

I'm hating it!

111) flyeinglflying n) studing/studying


0) going/goring

j) waiting/waitting

I
Simple and
L'1I111111UOU~

Unit J Present time 2

co nt rast s

Simple forms usually describe states which are permanent or a fact. Continuous lorms describe events which are happening at this moment. They will not continue fur ever, or are not complete, and are temporary or in progress. I live ill Budapest. (permanent) I'm liuing ill Budapest. (temporary) This p/,lIIC lands in FrankJurt. (a fact) \\'Ie're landing. (in progress) • Present continuous is also used to describe a future arrangement. There is usually a future time expression. This reference to the future emphasizes an event already arranged. Paul is leaving early tomorrow morning. My parents are buying me a mountain bilee[or my birthday. This future reference is common when we describe social arrangements. Arc ),011 doillg anything 011 Sa til rday ? \\'Ie'regoing skating. SCI..' also Unit S.

Practice
1Choose the correct sentence in each context. a) You want to invite a friend to your p.ut), on Friday. You say: 1) 1 have a party on Friday. Do you want to come? 2) I'm having a party on Frida)'. Do vou want to come? b) You find a wallet on your desk and ask the people nearby: 1) Who docs this wallet belong to? 2) Who is this wallet belonging 1) Thanks, 2) Thanks, to? c) A friend invites you to a snack bar at lunch time. You say: but I always go home. but I'm always going home.

d) A friend opens the door and says: \,\'h,lt are you doing? You reply: 1) I work as a secretary. 2) I'm repairing the computer. e) A friend asks: Do you like lemon tea? You reply: 1) I prefer tea with milk. 2) I'm preferring tea with milk.

• [eel
Sometimes there is only a small difference of meaning between simple and continuous. I Jeel awjit!! 1'111 feeling awJul! When we use present continuous, it suggests that we arc asking whether any change has occurred.

f) You haven't decided yet about buying a new bike. You say: 1) I think about it. 2) I'm thinking about it. g) A friend asks you if you havc finished the book she lent you. You say: 1) Sorry, I still read it. 2) Sorry, I'm still reading it. h) It is a hot day, but a friend has a heavy coat 1) Why arc you wearing a heavy coat? 2) Why do you wear a heavy coat?
011.

H o'UJ are YOIIfeeling now?


Are YOItany better?

Present perfect Check with Unit 6 about uses of present perfect tenses for situations which might seem to refer to present time. Sue is staying with jill. (temporary situation) Sue bas been staying with jill since March. (time until now) Present continuous with always We can use always with present continuous when we arc complaining about actions which we find annoying. \Vle emphasize a/ways in speech in this case.

You ask:

2
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

a) That can't be right!Q don't believe)'I'm c) Sec you in the morning. I leave/I'm

not believing it!

b) Carol can't swim today. She has/is ha\"in~ a cold. leaving now. d) What do you do/arc you dQing? If you drop it, it will explode! c) Stop doing that, Billy! You are /You arc being vcry silly. f) I drive/I'm driving! You can sit in the back with Martin. g) What do we cat/arc we eating this evening? I'm really hungry! h) You're a great cook! This cake tastcs/is t,lsting wonderful. i) Where do )'ou go/are you going? I haven't finished speaking j) Chemistry is hard. I <'mllot lInderstandin~/1 don't understand
to

You 're always [orgetting YOllr keys!


• Historic present In informal speech or in telling jokes present simple is used to dcscribe : narrative events in the past. This is also used in written summaries of film or serial plots. A mall taalles into a bnrand asks [or a glass oj water ...

The story so [ar: Micbncl meets Susan in the library and tells her aboutthe missillg earrings ...
• See also Unit 4 and 5.

you! it.

intermediate

Language Practice

3
Put each verb given into present simple or present continuous.

a) Ugh, don't show me that picture! I (hate) ...f:rp.k ...•.................. spiders! b) Who (you, go with) ttl the match on Saturday? c) In the winter, what (you, wear) ? d) I can't stand horror films. I (think) e) Diana (not, usually, sit) f) Why (you, look at) wrong? they're really silly! next to Ellen. me like that?Have I done something

Unit 4 Past time 1


Explanations
Past simple: formation rules • Regular verbs Past simple regular verbs add -ed to the bare infinitive. Verbs ending in -I( simply add -d.
I enjoyed the film. I loved the music.

g) Excuse me, but (this bus, stop) outside the Post Office? h) I (not take) the bus to school today. My mother (give) ................................ mea lift.
!

All persons have the same form . • Spelling problems Verbs ending in consonant + -y change -y to -ie.
try tried cry cried fit fitted

4
Choose a sentence from a) to h) which is the best continuation of the conversations beginning 1) to
S).

1) What do you usually do on your birthday?

./J..

2) Would you like to meet again on Saturday? ..... 3) What do you usually do when there is an earthquake? ..... 4) Have you finished your homework? ..... 5) What are you doing? ..... 6) What are you doing on Friday? ..... 7) Are you in the school basketball team? ..... 8) What do you do? ..... a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) I have a party. I lie under the table. I work in a travel agency. Yes, we play every Friday. I'm still doing it. It's hot in here. I'm opening some windows. I'm going back to Canada tomorrow. I'm having a party. What (usually, you, do) ...dfl~P.':(ffJ!1(1.{/p/£! at the weekend? Don't worry about the cat. It (only eat) once a day. I can't work out the answer. (you, know) what it is? What's the matter? Why (you, stare) at me like that? Excuse me, but (you, speak) English? I'm looking for a hotel. with her brother while her house is being repaired. g) You should go on a diet. (you, put) on weight. h) (they, speak) French or German? I can't tell the difference. . Meaning

Verbs ending with one vowel and one consonant double the final COnS0I1.1.1ll.
regret regretted

Irregular verbs The most common past simple irregular verbs are listed on page 246. It is necessary to learn irregular forms.
eat ate drink drank 'Wake woke

Questions Questions are formed with did and the bare infinitive.
Did-you enjoy the film? \Vhat did you do yesterday? Did-you drink all the milk? Why did she leave?

Negatives Negatives are formed with did not and the bare infinitive. This is contracted to didn't in speech and informal writing.
The coat didn't fit me. Carol didn't eat very milch.

5
Put each verb
given into

present simple or present


continuous.

a) b) c) d) e)

Past simple is used to describe definite events in the past. A definite rime expression can be used with these events.
I enjoyed the film we saw last night. We listened to some new CDs yesterday afternoon.

• •

Past simple is used to describe habitual actions in the past.


Every day 'Wegot up early and went to the beach.

f) Helen (stay)

See Unit 7 for contrasts with present perfect simple .:

10

II

!III ('! /IIcdi,1I L'

Language j'raclice

I
1

Unit 4 Past lime

I'.lst cout inuous: o rn r.u ion rules

Past continuous
-mg.

is formed with the past of be and the bare infinitive

with

Practice
1
Choose the correct word or phrase from each pair underlined. a) While I washcel~Vils ~I\\y b) How did you felt/did call. d) Last summer I was going swimming/went swimming every weekend .. screaming. next? a cup. e) When the dog bit/was biting Laura's leg, she screamed/was hair, the phonc~ringed. afternoon? recciving David's phone you feci yesterday

I was silting by the door.


VOII

were laugliing.

He was sleeping. We urere crying.

She was driving. They were eating.

Past continuous •

is also called past progressive. questions by inverting the verb be.

c) When J rcached /was reaehinl; home I received/was

Questions \Vc form past continuous Was I sleeping?

Were you waiting? •


Was he reading? Were we writing?

Was she driving? Were they leaving?

f) We sang/sung

some songs and then ateicat some sandwiches, happening breaking washing-up, she broke/was

Wh- questions \'(/bat "I-'eIT YOII writ irlg?

g) When you fell/felt over the cliff, what happened/was

Wby were they waiting?

h)' While Mary washed-up/was i) I didn't see/didn't bus. j) What did you do/were
)'OU

Negatives We Iorm past continuous negatives with the verb be + not. \'(las IIOt is contracted to W.1Sll 't, and were not is contracted to weren't. I W.tSII 't listening. He umsn 't playing. They weren't looking. Past continuous describes a continuing with a sudden event. Continuing situation l uia» hauing Illy lunch situation. This is often contrasted

saw where the bus-stop

was, so I was missing/missed phoning you last

the

doing when I phoned/was

night? There was no reply.

2
Rewrite each, sentence according to the instructions given.

a) Ienjoyed

the concert.

(negative), (question) (question) (affirmative) (negative) (affi nnativc) (question)

.. ,f.tIJ.(j,.1. t.f.lJjp)'. (h~mnr.t:rl

..

Sudden event

b) Sue liked the party ... c) You ate all the bread. d) Did Tom spend a lot? e) I felt well yesterday. f) Ann didn't buy a car. g) They won the prize. h) Paul doesn't speak Polish. i) I paid all the bills.

Whilc I was waiting for the bus,


when Ruth phoned. I met Karen.


of continuing situations, as

Past continuous is used to describe a number background description.

tbe airport '<(las of people. SOlliewere sleeping on benches, full some were shopping, others were reading. Everyone ums soaitingfor nctos of the delayed plane.
• It is also used to describe the same time. tIVO continuing situations, which are happening at

(affirmative)
(negative) (question)

j) Ruth madc a mistake.

II/hilL'J im was cooking, David was phoning afriend.


i

3
Complete each sentence with a suitable time expression from the list. You can use an expression more than once.

I
b)

ago

Il1

last week

at

when

while television.

l/lle expressions

With past simple

a) Two burglars

broke into the house ...w/llk .......we were watching the policeofficer half-past eight outside knocked the cinema. .

I arrived here two hours ago/ill September/last week/at 6.00. N clcn lived in Madrid for three years.
e With past continuous

I met an old friend of mine in the city centre. on the door?

c) What were you doing d) Jan met Sarah e) Dick was preparing to be a doctor

\'(/bile ',(II' uicrc waitingf?r the train, it started to rain. I cut III)' finger suben I was peeling the potatoes.
• N .ur.ui
\'C

lunch, he cut his fingcr badly. hl' met Sally. 1992. .

f) I first carne to this town more than twenty years g) Jim was studying h) Tony bought i) his first motorbike

rime expressions

- see Unit 29.

did you start playing basketball?

j) Most of the young people left this village a long time

Intermediate

Langu~ge Pra~tic~·

., i:
o.

4
Choose a sentence from a) ro h) which is the best continuation of the conversations beginning I) to S).

I) What was Carol doing when you knocked 2) How did Brenda spend her holiday? .

on the door? ..ri••

Unit 5 Past time 2


Explanations
Past perfect simple: formation rules Past perfect simple is formed with the past tense auxiliary had and the past participle. The past participles of irregular verbs arc listed on page 246. I had decided. She bad left. We had eaten. In speech and informal writing these forms are contracted to: I'd decided. She'd left. \Ve'd eaten. Questions: Had she left? Negatives: She had not left. She badn't left. • Past perfect simple is used when we need to make clear that one event in the past happened before another event in the past. Site left at 7.00. \\'1(' arrived at her house at 8.30. \Vhen 'Wearrived at Sue's bouse, she had left. It may not be necessary to lise past perfect simple if we lise bcjorc or a/fer to make the time clear. Sue left her bouse before we arrived. \\'Iearrived at Sue's house after she left. Although both arc correct, many speakers still prefer to usc past perfect simple in this case. Sue had left her bouse before we arri·;ed. \\I'earrived at Sue's bouse after she bad left. Note that it is not necessary to lise past perfect simple just because an event happened a long time ago. We usc past simple . The Chinese built the Great Wall over two thousand yenJ'S ago. With realize. When I got borne I realized I had lost my wallet. With verbs of thinking: think, know, be sure, remember, suspect.understand, etc. I thought I'd seen the film before, but I hadn't. David kncw be bad seen her somcuilicrc before. Ellen was sure she hadn't locked the door .. The inspector suspected that the thiefbad used a special /"1'),. Sec also Units 10 and II Reported speech -.

J) What happened

when the lights went out? ..... .....

4) When did you meet Cathy?

5) What did Jean do when Tony called? .....


6) Did Ann hear whet David said? ..... 7) What did Pat do when the bell rang at the end of the lesson? ..... 8) Why did Helen leave so early? ..... a) b) c) d) c) She went sailing most days, and sunbathed at the beach. She put the phone down. I She was listening to the radio in the kitchen. She went to meet her parents at a restaurant. She came to Illy brother's birthday party. f) While Tina was looking for a torch, they came back on. g) She wasn't listening. h) She put her books away and left. a) When Harry (wake up) b) Where (you leave) swimming? c) Everyone (arrive) d) When Tom (finish) the post office. c) Pam (want) ......................... a relaxing holiday, so she (choose) to stay on a small island. abroad, my parents (phone) my lost pen while I (look for) television when julie (arrive) , I (lie) to the new Chinese restaurant, my . (wait) . his letter, he (take) it to for the concert to begin when a message
Wl!h~IIl , we

Meaning

5
Put each verb given into either past simple or past continuous.

(tell) ...Mi.....him the good news. .

your wallet when rou (go)

£) When I (study)
me every week. g) I (find) pencil sharpener. h) Ann (watch) i) When the lights (go out)

Common

uses ,

• •

. in bed reading. what (you cat)

j) When you (go)

......................... ? 6
Choose the correct spelling [rom each pair of words. a) siting(~itting) b) felt/fellt c) rrycd/tricd
tI) crying/cring

f) enjoyed/cnjoicd
g) thoght/rhought h) livcing/living i) shopping/shoping j) hcard/hcared

k) hidding/hiding 1) waircd/waittcd

m) plnicd/playcd
n) whcnr/wcnt 0) fined/fired

c) wasn't/wa'snr

I~

l nt crmediat.c Lallguage Praclice

,
t

'~.c,.~.
Unit 5 Past time 2

uscil

10

describes a habit or state in the past. There is not a present form. to often makes a contrast between a habit in the past and a habit we have now.
10

Used Used

g) Maria would live in Sweden when she was a child.

I used to have long hair toben I was younger. I used to play tennis, bitt now I play football. Question form: Did YOIIllse to? Negative: I didn 't use to.
• Pronunciation Used is pronounced /ju:st/. This is different use, pronounced Iju:zd/. from the past tense of the verb

h) I was using

to get up early when

I had gone sailing.


years ago.

i) The Vikings had sailed to North America a thousand

j) Sue was sure she was seeing the tall man before.
................................. ~ •••••••••••••••••••• : ••• I ••••• , ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Note that some grammars make «sed to an unchangeable the written forms Did ),011 lIsed 10? and] didn 't uscd 10.

2
form, and accept Choose the correct word or phr'ase underlined in each sentence.

a) While I had waitedtwas noticingNillll5HDa before. b) I had gone/went that someone c) When George knowing

waitiniYwaited

at the bus-stop,

I had noticed/was

new shop which wasn'tn,ad out into the garden


to

not beelj)in the street the day finding

;,'(JIIld

Would can be used to describe repeated actions in the past. It is often used in
descriptive writing. '

fetch my bike, but found/was

stole/had met/was

stolen it. meeting Diane for the first time, he knew/was met/was meeting her somewhere before. left/was waiking in~o the bank

011 uiin tel' days, 'We would all sit around the fire and tell stories.
• Note that would cannot be used for states.

that he met/had

I used to own a motorbike. "I would own a motorbike.


P,lS!

d) Helen got off/was getting off the bus, and walked/was when she realized/had leaving her handbag re,dizcd/was on the bus.

(Not a possible sentence.)

realizing that she left/had

fUI'Il1S

simple with other

Note that the forms of past simple and past perfect are used in conditional sentences. See Units 12 and 13. The form of past simple is also used as an unreal tense. See Unit 14.

3
Put each verb given into past simple, past continuous or past perfect. Mort: than one answer may be possible.

11lt',l11111gS

Practice
1
Un.icrlinc the
In t'1"J"t1rur errors
c',1,'1151.'11l1.'I1CC,

.\) When we had ate lunch, we were sittinl; in the garden.

... w.!Jr.~,.H-:r.hf{lir.lJ/(t1.f!Hl(h...l;IIr.Ml":lJ.thr.!Jw:rlr.I;(
b) While I looked [or my keys, I remembered c) Anna had used to play badminton d) When] l lcft them at horne.

Rcwrite the
:-'l'lllCI1CC,

when she had been at school. The police suspected house because he (b) at the door. (c) (d) that Brian (a)

got into bed, I was falling asleep immediately.

hfJfl.br.~lro.r.. ..... (break) the window at his


(want) to make them think that a buq;l:lI' They (do) this because he they (g) (j) (not (take

e) Whell I was finally finding the house, [ was knocking

(steal) his valuable stamp collection. (think) that Brian (e) (need) the money. However, (be) abroad when the burglary

f) Ai icr Jill was giving Nick his books, she went home.

(I)
(i) place).

know) that Brian (h)

(fly) to Brazil the week before, and

Intcnnediate

Language Practice

,
r

4
Complete each sentence, using would or used to with the verb given. More than one answer may be possible.

a) Jack (have) c) During

~tJdtp.hl1y.(

a beard but ne shaved it off. to me every night. at the beach every morning.
to

b) When Iwas young my mother (read) the holidays we (meet) d) I(not like) c) Helen (write) f) Tina (live) h) Whenever spinach, but now Ido.

Unit 6 Present perfect 1


Explanations
Present perfect simple: formation rules The present perfect simple is formed with the present tense of the auxiliary verb have, and the past participle. The past participles of regular verbs have the same form as the regular past simple. The past participles of irregular verbs arc listed on page 246. (regular) I have decided to leave tomorrow. (irregular) Have you written the letter yet? Present perfect simple generally describes past events which arc connected the present. There are a number of different meanings, • to

me very often, but now she phones. (be) wanner.

in the house opposite. our teacher let us leave early, we (cheer)

g) I'm sure that when I was young, the summers

5
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence and contains the word given.

a) Michael took a deep breath and dived into the water. After had' Terry didn't c)- Gary was sure his keys were in his pocket. Gary was forgotten d) Last summer, Julia got up early every morning. Last summer, Julia to e) Ithought I thought had f) When he was younger David used g) We missed the bus so we took a taxi. We had h) In those days, we spent the summer in the mountains. • In those days, we . 'would thesummer in the mountains . the bus .. David played tennis. when he was younger. the book seemed familiar. the book before. Common uses (no time mentioned) early every morning. his keys.

t1I!'.h«db.tJ.titl1km.. !..;

a deep breath, he dived into the water. Meaning

b) Terry was fatter. :


to

be so thin: .

An event in the past but without a definite time. Helen bas broken her pencil. We do not know exactly when this happened, and the pencil is still broken. There is no time expression. A state or repeated event lasting until the present, and still happening. There is a time expression, describing how long or how often something has happened. I've lived here for ten years. I've often seen Jim with his dog in tl epark. Explaining a present situation We often use the present perfect simple when we explain a present An exact time is not mentioned. What's the matter? Why are ),011 walking like that? I've burt my foot. Experiences We use present perfect when we describe experiences exact time is not mentioned. Haoe you visited any other countries? Yes, I've been to Italy and France .

siruation.

in the past, and an

Completion We often lise the present perfect when we describe how man)' [11 nf',s arc i completed so far and an exact time is not mentioned, I've read a hundred pages of this book.

18

'"

ntcnncdi.itc

Language Practice

Unit 6 Present pelfect 1

Common
(wit

uses

h umc

cx prcssious)

eucr.ncucr \Y/e use ever and never when we ask or talk about our experiences Have you ever cat en Japanese food? No, I've never eaten it.

inlifc.

a)

d)

Complete what each speaker says.

yet and already, so far We use yet in questions and negative sentences. It has a similar mcaning to so [ar. We use so far in positive sentences. Have YaH finished this book yet? No, I'm on page 56. How 1/7(111), pages have you read so far? I've read 56 pages. We usc alreatiy to describe an action which happened before. When arc YOIl going to finish )'0111' letter? I've already uiritten it. just \Y/eusc just whcn we describe a very recent event. Cathy bas just pboned from the airport. Frequency adverbs: always, often \Y/c can usc frequency adverbs with present perfect. He bas always loved you. (a state) We have often visited Spain. (a repeated event) of time. here for three months. the period of rime started. here since JlIly l Otb.

We

l.:.lJxr.p.wl.tJ:fllr.r/r.ti.
wonderful

..
years! e)

1
snail before!

for twenty-five b)

• for and since for describes a period Tom bas worked since describes when Tom bas worked

Practice
1
USC I he

1 holiday
to Australia. H.iJJ':(l.lUWlt

011

1
since the day we met! f)

YOll

a) What's the matter? (you cut) verbs to b) The ship (not sink) condition. c) (your sisters write) d) I (have) c) Nadia (never see) f) Someone (steal) g) The passengers
h)

yourself? but it's in a dangerous


to you yet?

!luke ,1 lorm of I he presellt


!'nfccl simple.

c)

a headache ever since lunchtime. any Chinese films. Mr Grant's bike.

are tired because they (not sleep) all night. your window. Spanish food? It's great! Sorry! 1 twenty-three letters! .. Ohno! 1 .. a prize this time, I'm afraid.

...............................................

1'111 afraid we (just break)

i) David (not win)

j) (you ever cat)

my pencil!

.-;:-:. ('

,-",.,_

fntermcdiate

Language Practice

3
Put a time word or phrase from the list into each space.

yet for since never already

often so far

ever just always

Unit 7 Present perfect 2


J 996. Present perfect continuous: formation rules

a) Carlos has lived in the city centre b) Thal}~sfor the present! I've c) Have you d) I've

$inr.c.

Explanations
The present perfect continuous is formed with the present perfect tense of the auxiliary verb be, and the present participle. I've been wailing here all morning. What baoe YOII been doing lately? Present perfect continuous, like present perfect simple, generally describes past events which arc connected to the present. The continuous form gives a nurnhcr of different meanings. • It can emphasize the length of time of the action. I've been waiting here all morning. The person speaking is not happy about this situation! It can emphasize that the action is recent. You're very dirty! What have you been doing? I've been fixing my bike. This action is recent, because we can see the result. It can emphasize that the action is temporary. I've been staying in a hotel for the past month. Here present perfect continuous emphasizes that this is onl y ternporarv. Recent activities What baoe you been doing lately? I've been working a lot. I've been feeling illfOT weeks. Continuing actions How long have yolt been living here? Carlos bas been studying English for two years. Repeated actions I've been phoning her for days, biu she's never at home. Time expressions with present perfect continuous all day, all morning, etc.,for days,for ages, ctc., lately, recently

wanted a pet goldfish!

drunk pineapple juice? It's fantastic! heard some fantastic news! I've passed my exams!

e) Hurry up! Haven't you finished

? You are a slow-coach!


five years. Meaning

f)

Nina has worked in this company

g) I've i) I've

been on a big ship before. It's an interesting experience! we've sold over a hundred bikes. read this one. passed this building, but this is the first time I've beer. inside.

h) We're very busy today

j) Can I have a different book? I've

4
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) We started working here three years ago. We I c) That's strange! My pen isn't here! That's strange! d) Nicky and Jan aren't at this school any more. Nicky and Jan e) I saw a friend of yours a few moments ago. 1 a friend of yours. my letters yet. before? : my wallet in the car. • this school. Common uses • disappeared! •

hl1g~.lw?d.t:ffhm;fo.r.

three years. before.

b) This is the first time I've been on a plane.

f) I'm still writing my letters.


1 Have h) Oh bother! My wallet is still in the car. Oh bother! I We j) Is Anna still asleep? Has upyet? g) Is this your first visit to South America?

i) It's a long time since we spoke to your sister.


to your sister for a long time.

• •

22

!ntcvnicdi.u c LlIIgllagc

j'raclicc

Vllit 7 Present perfect 2

Cunuasts ',II11I,le

with

l'I'('\l'lllI'L'I'kn

Present perfect simple often emphasizes that an action is finished, perfect continuous can emphasize that it is still going on. I've ioriucn Jive letters. (present perfect simple) The number stresses that the action is completed. I've been writing letters. (present perfect continuous) This suggests that the writer has not finished. • Confusions with other tenses

but present

Practice
1
Choose the correct word or phrase underlincd in each sentence. a) I livc hcrc!\l have lived hcr~sincc b) Someone d) Yesterday c) Thank has just stolen/has the cnd of last year, just been stealing my bicycle,

c) I'm afraid the last train left/bas left an hour ago. I lost II havc lost my wallet. for your offer, but I\'e dccided/I dccidcd not to accept. so far. startcd raining. two countries
YOll

I,rl'.\l'11 1 pcrt",'rt

1)1'.,I,!ellls

Present simple We usc present simple to describe habits or states in the present, but we lise presellt perfect to describe the time until the present. [live in Prague. (present state) This means that I always live there. It's my home. I baue lived there Jar two years. (time until the present) This means that I arrived there two years ago and I live there now. Past simple Past simple describes a definite event in the past. \'(!hen did ),011 arrive ill Prague? I arriocd here in September two years ago. Speaker attitude The choice of present perfect simple or past simple may depend on how close to the event the speaker feels. You bnd fill umbrella, didn't you? Where is it? Ob bother! I've leJt it all the bus. This is recent, or the bus is still ncar. I had nnumbrclla, but I left it all the bus. The event is more distant, and the speakers are probably far away from the bus. • liaue been and havc gone have been
AI'II)I bas been 10 China. This means that she has visited China, but is not there at the moment.

f) Takc your umbrella with you. It's startedlIt


g) We're enjoying

our trip. We have \'isited/\'isited

h) I'm standing j)

herc/I've

bcen standing here for hours and I fccl tired. bcen to a party last night.
111)'

i) This has becn/was

a busy day and it isn't over yct!

1 fccl really tired, We went/have Last week 1 (lose) .. .tf(~L ... !(tJ.'((:.Ji1~(/f7.qt. my gloves.

2
Put each verb given into either present perfect simple, past simple or present simple.

a)

scarf, and now I (just lose) but I (decide)

b) I (work) ........................... c) Wc (be) ........................... d) (you see) it here earlier. c) We (have) .. f) 1 (never eat) ........................... g) 1 (hope) you some lamb chops. h) Recently

for Blue Bank at the moment to change jobs.

here for hours. Are you sure we (comc) to the right place? my calculator? I'm sure I (leave) .

some coffee alter that and then (catch) the bus home. octopus, some squid. you aren't a vegetarian. a lot of young people (take up) : I (cook) in-line skating. .. and he (go) .. but once on holiday I (eat)

i) When we (reach) any tickets left.

the cinema, there (not be) an accident,

havcgo/ll! AIary bas gOlle 10 China. This means that Mary is not here at the moment China.

j) Please come quickly! Nick (have)


.. because she is ~'isitillg to hospital.

Intermediate

Language Practice

Unit 7 Present pel/at 2

3
Complete each mini-dialogue, using the verbs given, in either present perfect simple or present perfect continuous.

A: B:

Terminator 2 is on at the Rex? (you see) .. .HlIK9'p.f!Jr!.fl No, not yet. Shall we go? I (look forward) seeing it. What's the matter? You look really tired! I am! I (study) finish) yet. Oh well, time for a break. I (phone) reply. I expect she (go) friends. (you hear) What news? Someone (rob) the road. Why is your leg in plaster? That's a silly question! I (break) course. Someone (write) the plaster! / : all day, and I (not

it? to

f) Ten of the letters are ready.


1 1 I I have ten letters so far. to the cinema for ages. snails before. Helen's phone number. his mind. g) It's ages since I last went to the cinema. h) This is the first time I've eaten snails. i) I don't remember Helen's phone number.

aJ.1:(/p,QKil;lJfo.r.w((rfi.

A: B:

A:

A:

Carol all day, but there's no

j)
swimming the news? the bank u the end of with her

David has a different opinion now. David

B:

A: B: A:

6.
Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each. sentence.

a) My penfriend ~ writing to me for years but has never sent me a photo.

...My.p.m/r:i(lJIihM.6.(OJ.

W.O,{(':lj. (P. mf. for .1l«rA

!lHl.h{($.110:r-r...m:tl !!If.lll'/.lpfp. ...

b) We have started this course three weeks ago. c) 'What have you been doing all day?' 'I've been written letters.'

A: ll:

it, of 'Time for a break' on d) When have you arrived in this city? e) You have ever been to India? far, and we've had some interesting to some . .. h) I live in this city since I was born. i) I wait here a long time. Where have you been? : ..

A:

4
Put one suitable word in each space ..

We've had a very interesting trip (a) ...$P,........ adventures (b) beautiful islands, and (d)

the last time we wrote. We've (c)

f) Paula has been stayed in a hotel by the sea.


g) I've been feeling ill three weeks ago.

a lot of interesting people. In fact (e) , but Ann

we've made friends with some people in a village, and they've been (f) us the local language. I haven't managed to learn much (g) (h) picked up quite a lot, and can speak well. She's been (i) me everything she knows! every day, and she has (j)

5
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) I came to live here three months ago. I ...hfJKr.P.w:rlir:iflj./rrr.r. .......... for three months. b) Mary is out at the shops at the moment. Mary I d) I'm still reading this book. 1 e) Paul left the Paul has
)'001'1 1

j) Tony has leaved his books on the bus.

to the shops. french since March. reading this k,ok yet. moment ago. the room.

c) I have had French lessons since March.

2(,

17

Unit 8 Future I

Unit 8 Future 1
Explanations
We can refer to future time in English by using will/shall, be going to or by using present tenses. These forms do not all have the same meaning, and we have to choose the most suitable one. • formation rules Will future is formed with the infinitive without to. Shall is used in formal situations with I and we. The negatives of will is won't and of shall is shan't. Will is usually shortened in speech and informal writing to 'II. Meaning Will generally describes a prediction or what we think will happen in the future. There is usually a time expression. We can use perhaps when we are uncertain, probably when we are almost certain, or definitely when we are certain. United will definitely win tonight. Perhaps it'll rain tomorrow. In the next century, most people will probably live in big cities. Formation rules Be going to future is formed with the verb be + going + the infinitive. j call is going to learn to drive. Tim and Ann are going to travel abroad next year. Meaning There are two meanings which are very similar. Plans or intentions We use going to when we talk about plans or intentions. I'm going to do lots of work this evening. This is a plan, so it may not happen. Present cause This is a prediction based on something we can see or know about. Look out! Those books are going to fall on your head! Meaning We can usc the form of the present continuous to refer to the future. We use it when we talk about events which are arranged for the future. It is often used when we talk about social arrangements. Are you doing anything on Friday evening? Not really. Why? I'm having a party. Would you like to come?

Problems

Choosing how to refer to the future can be difficult, as sometimes there is more than one choice. • going to or present continuous? It is possible to use going to in places where present continuous is more usual, when a time is mentioned. I'm having a party on Friday. I'm going to baue a party on Friday. However, we cannot usc present continuous in places where going to is usual without changing the meaning, when no time is mentioned. Jean is going to learn to drive. This is a plan, with no time mentioned. Jean is learning to drive. As no time is mentioned or implied, this describes a present action. will or going to? Impersonal predictions Here the choice is sometimes a matter of being formal or informal. I think it's going to rain tomorroui. This would be possible in everyday conversation. Tomorrow it will rain in Northern England. This may be more common in a weather forecast, where the speaker is being more formal. . Plans If we use will instead of going to, the meaning changes. I'm going to do lots of work this evening. This is a plan or intention. I'll do lots of work this evening. This sounds like a promise. • be We usually use will or going to with be. I'll be back on Friday. ' I'm going to be back on Friday.

!'': guing to

l'rcscIlt
I~OlltinUOUS

Intennediate

Ltlnguage Practice

Unit 8 Future J

Practice
'.'

3
night;' Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) My party is on Thursday. I It's I think d) Tomorrow 1 Terry 1 g) What's our arrangement Where Everyone thinks a large number summer. I'll be absent, teacher. here tomorrow, teacher. painting the kitchen this evening. outside the station at 5.30. for lunch? for lunch? this country next

«lJ:f.h«ril!!J.t.l.ju{dj

on Thursday. tomorrow. win.

1
Choose the correct sentence, 1) or 2), in each mini-dialogue.

a)

A:

Can you come dancing tomorrow 2) Sorry, I'm ')hying basketball.

b) Tomorrow's

weather forecast is for rain.

B: 1) Sorry, I'll play basketball.

b)

A: B:

What are your plans for the summer? 1) I'll spend a month in the mountains. 2) I'm going to spend a month in the mountains.

c) I predict a victory for our team.

c) A: What do you think about the weather?


B:

e) Terry intends to finish painting the kitchen this evening.

1) It'll probably rain tomorrow. 2) It's raining tomorr6w. at about S.30?

f) Meet me outside the station at 5.30 ..

d) A: What about tomorrow


B:

1) OK, I'll see you then.


2) OK, I'm seeing you then.

e) A: Mary is buying a dog next week.


B:

h) Everyone expects lots of tourism in this country next summer.

1) Really? What is she going to call it?


2) Really? What is she calling it?

f) A: It would be nice to see you next week. B: 1) Are you doing anything on Wednesday? 2) Will you do anything on Wednesday?

i) I don't plan to sell my bike after all.


I j) Are yeu free tomorrow? Are anything tomorrow? my bike after all.

2
Put the verb given into a form of will, going to or present continuous. More than one answer may be possible.

a) Have you heard the news? Harry (join) .. i.fjl!ittittj/M!JP.li:rj.II!Jp.in b) Sorry to keep you waiting. I (not be) c) According to the weather forecast, it (snow) tomorrow. d) I'm sorry I can't meet you tonight. I (go out) parents. e) Careful! You (knock) bicycles to work. g) Our teacher (give) h) I (go) i) Look out! You (hit) j) I think our team (probably win) us a test tomorrow.

.... the Army!


.. with my

long.

4
Underline the sentences which are Incorrect. Rewrite them.

a) I go swimming next Saturday. Would you like to come?

...tnm :'f1!1"nj. ~wi!11mif1!J.I!l.d.$.IJt.I!.(fl({j..

W(J.4"J.~!i

.6h II! .t;Wfff.?

'"

b) What are you going to discuss at the next meeting? c) The boat is turning over! I think it will sink! d) Sue is going to lend me her roller-skates. e) I've read the weather forecast, and it's definitely sunny tomorrow. f) David and Helen will be here at 9.30.

that jug off the table! ..

f) In fifty years' time, most people (probably ride)

to Manchester at the end of next week. that tree! . g) There is a lot to do. Is anyone going to help you? h) Sorry I'm not seeing you tomorrow. I have to go to London.

11

30

l ntcnncduuc

LlIlguage

Practice

,
at this time?

i) Where will you be tomorrow

Unit 9 Future 2
Explanations
Future continuous • Formation rules Future continuous is formed with will or shall + be + the present participle (-ing). . This time tomorrotu I'll be eating lunch on the plane. Shall is used' in formal situations with I and we . Meaning Future continuous describes a temporary situation or activity in the future. We often use it when we compare what we are doing now with what we will be doing in the future. We usually use a time expression. Where will you be living in five years' time? We also use future continuous-to describe something which will definitely happen because an arrangement has already been made. We'll be holding a meeting soon, so we can decide then. This means that the meeting will happen anyway. Formation rules Future perfect is formed with will or shall +have + the past participle . By the time we get to the cinema, the film will bave begun. Meaning Future perfect describes a situation which has not happened yet. At a time in the future, it will happen . By the time we get to the cinema, the film will have begun. This means that when we arrive at the cinema we can say, 'The film has begun. 'We often use by or by the time with future perfect. When we talk about events which are fixed and cannot be altered, we use present simple. We use this when we describe timetables. Jim's plane leaves at 12.00 . Our head teacher retires next year. Future time clauses In a future time clause, we can refer to the future with the form of the present simple after a time word. We can also use present perfect, when we emphasize that an action is complete. When I see her again, I'll tell her your news. please wait here until Mrs Hall comes back. As soon as we're ready, we'll phone you.

j) Bye for now. I see you later this evening.

5
I\l'wrill' each
sentence so that

a) I plan to study engineering in France. f /; d" . .. ... m.!}'1It1!J q.•~ ,\'.<y.(ff!J(lJff.rlt1!J".~~E(fIl!{;(, ..

o.

..

it contains going [0.

will or

b) I've arranged a party for next Friday. .................................................................................................................. •

c) I predict a score of 3-0. .................................................................................................................. d) We've an appointment at the doctor's, so we can't come. .................................................................................................................. c) Paula is likely to get the job. .................................................................................................................. f) Martin's wife is pregnant again.

Future perfect

.......................................

.
Timetable future
II

g) Sarah doesn't plan to get married yet. .................................................................................................................. h) There's a possibility of snow tomorrow: .................................................................................................................. •

Intennediate Language Practice

,
"

...' ::.;~.
-.

Unit 9 Future 2

Let's run home before it rains. Hand in your paper as soon asyou have finished. • in case
We use in case when we want to refer to a possible problem. We refer to the future with a forn·. cf the present simple.

f;
;

~ 1
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

Practice
a) This time next week Billy willlie{will be Iyingpn the beach. b) Please stay in your seats until the bell will ring/rings. c) We will have moved twill be moving to our new house on Tuesday. d) What time does your train leave/will your train leave? e) Don't forget to turn off the lights before you are leaving/leave.

Take an umbrella, in case it rains.


Functions: will, Language functions describe the ways we use language for a purpose. Many uses of will and shall are more easily described in this way. • • • • • Promise Threat

shall, going to

f)

Where will you work/will

you be working

in ten years' time?

I'll try as hard as I can.

g) Wait for me.

I'll be!I'U

have been ready in a moment. have stopped talking all the time! bite you.

h) John won't stop/won't

i) Stop teasing the dog, or it's biting/it'll

Stop doing that, or I'll tell my dad.


Offer

2
Complete each part sentence a) to h) with one of the part sen tences 1) to 8). More than one answer may be possible.

a) As soon as I hear from Helen, ..6.. b) By the time Mary arrives ..... c) Please take a seat ..... d) This time next week ..... e) The next time you see me .....

Shall I open the door for you?

Paning remark

I'll see you tomorrow.


Decision of the moment

f) We'll have time to have some lunch .....


g) In a few moments ..... h) There won't be any more lessons ..... 1) 2) 3) 4) until the dentist is ready. the match will be over. I'll have had my haircut and you won't recognize me. it will have stopped raining. before the train leaves. I'll ask her to phone you. until the teachers' strike is over. we'll he enjoying ourselves on holiday.

'Which one do you want?' 'I'll take the blue silk one. '
This is a decision made immediately. In the example, the speaker is in a shop. • Decision

I'm going to buy a new camera.


This is a general decision about buying a camera, but it is not at the same time as buying the camera. The speaker is not in the shop. • Request

5)
6)

Will you carry this bag for me?


This is an informal request. • Suggestion

7)
8)

Shall we play tennis?


This kind of suggestion includes the speaker. • Other uses of will and would. See Unit 22.

3
Rewrite each sentence with will/shall or going to, using the verb underlined.

a) Howabout~tennis?

...~6.q./1 /11fl)'.lt.tr«~l. W.(


b) I've decided to ~ c) I promise to Arabic in Cairo.

ru: home by midnight.

d) I hope to mill you later. c) I'd like you to gQ to the shops for me.

34

l ntcrmcdi.uc

Language Practice

.,
l,

.. , ......
".

f) Wc promisc not to 111ilk!; too much noisc.


••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1 ••••

f?

g) Would you like mc

to

b.ciJl you

with those bags?

Problems, Errors, Consolidation 1


1
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentcnce. a) When I was a childll used to ride)'I was riding a tricycle. b) That looksvery heavy. Will I1Shali I help you? you been working herc? yet. c) I'm waiting for Sue. Have you seen her/Did you see her? d) How long are you working/hayc e) I can't come out because I haven't finished/I didn't finish my homework f) When the phone rang I washed/J was washing my hair in the bathroom . g) Why do you stare/arc
YOLI

.................................................................................................................. h) Wc could come back later if you likc. .................................................................................................................. i) 1'vc decided to have a lemonade. ..................................................................................................................

j) Can youlilhl: the dog for a walk?


..................................................................................................................

4
LJndnline the i Il;)l'l'ropri;)te
\'nb {orms.

a) By the time the police get here, the burglars will have vanished. b) When you'll grow older, you'll change your mind about this. c) The bus leaves at 1.00, so we'lIlcave the house at 11.30.

........f.........

staring at me like that?

h) I've finished my exams so I'm having/! have a party tomorrow. i) Wc'd better wait here until the rain stops/will stop.

IZl'writl' them. NOI ;111 the verb


iurills arc Il1.lpprUl'l'late.

d) I won't leave until you will give me the moncy.


c) As soon as the taxi will arrive, I'll be letting you know.
f)

j) When did you last go/have you last been

to the cincma?

Will you have been using the video next Icsson?

2
Put each verb given into prcsent simple or continuous, or past simple or continuous.

a) 'What (you do) ... a~:lp.!I.t/,q".?' 'I'm an engineer.' b) The door was open so the dog (run) c) When we arrived home Jan (sit) d) Can you help me? I (not understand) e) At the beginning of the film I (realize) into the living room. outside the door. Spanish. I'd seen it before. .foran examination. in bed. the results.

g) By the time wc get to Helen's house, she'lIlcave. h) 'Do you want me to carry this?' 'No that's all right, I'm doing it.' i) I'll be secing Nick tomorrow, so 1 can give him the message.

j) By the rime we'll arrive, the play will have started.

f) I'm sorry, I can't talk long. I(study)


g) At the moment of the earthquake Pat (read) h) I'll get in touch with you as soon as I (know) i) I (stay) j) 'What (you do)

5
( .omplcte the ','(und sentence \l' ih.u it has a "1I11ihr meaning !,' I he fi I'St
, \' Jill' Ill'C.

a) The work won't take us longer than an hour. We

w.lllf{(l}:f.ftl1i~f:t.~,f.

the work in an hour. you.

b)' I promise to phone you before our next meeting. Before we Shall Sheila won't c) How about having a game of chess? 5110111 Please don't Whcn What will a game of chess? come back. we'll meet and play tennis. in twenty years' time? e) Would you like me to check the spelling for you? for you? book. d) Sheila refuses to let me share her book.

at the Hotel Superior. Why don't you call me? when you saw the snake?' 'I ran away!'

3
Put a suitable time word or expression in each space, Each space is for one word.

Just a quick note (a) ..b.~!(J.(f....I leave for the airport. Sorry I haven't been in touch (b) .. (e) (f) (g) Wednesday, but I've been busy getting ready (c) , and I haven't collected my ticket (d) 1get to Sydney, I'll write you a letter. I've been to Australia before but I've been reading a lot about it It sounds great! I'll be in Sydney (h) ; the end of next week, a month. .. from the travel agcncy.

f) Please stay here until I come back.


g) After the lesson. we'll meet and play tennis. h) \,\1 hat job will you have in twenty years' time?

and then I'm travelling to Melbourne. I'll be there (i)

(j)

I get back all my friends will have forgotten me!

J ntermediate Language Practice

~ :_
..

-,'

'-

4
Decide which answer, a), b), c) or d), best fits the space.

Helen's homecoming When the bus (I) .. fi. in a small square, Helen (2) ..... her magazine and didn't realize that she (3) ..... at her destination. 'This is Santa Teresa,' Martin said. '(4) ..... home! I suppose your cousin (5) Helen thought, 'all those years when I (7)
for us. Come on. (6)

,
I
f
!

:-,.., :!::,_,o.

Problems, Errors, Consolidation

f) In the middle of my meal, the phone rang.


While I I'm sorry but Mrs Dawson has h) Jack has come to stay for the weekend. Jack i) I last saw David in 1990. I Are since 1990. . even 109? anything tomorrow with me for the weekend. the phone rang. out. g) I'm sorry, but Mrs Dawson isn't here ".

the bags.' of this

in New York, 1(8)

f t

moment. And now it's real, I can't believe it! dere I am, (9) ,;;.. in the square'. Santa Teresa was Helen's birthplace, but she (10) ..... the town at the age of six. She had some memories of the [Own, and some photographs, still? She (12) ...... Nobody (13) (14) ..... Helen's letter. 'What (15) hotel here!' 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) but (11) ..... here in the square. Perhaps her cousin Maria now?' asked Martin. 'There isn't even a

i !
,

j) Are you free tomorrow evening?

a) has stopped b) stops' c) stopped d) was stopped a) was reading b) read c) had read d) used to read a) arrived b) arrives c) has arrived d) had arrived a) You arrive b) You are arriving c) You have been arriving d) You've arrived a) waits b) will be waiting c) has waited d) is going to wait a) I'll carry b) I carry c) I've carried d) I carried a) live b) have lived c) was living d) am living a) dream b) am dreaming c) used to dream d) will dream a) I really stand b) I was really standing c) I had really stood d) I'm really standing

6
Look carefully at each line. Some lines are correct but some have a word which should not be there. Tick each correct line. If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space.

Dear Ann, I'm sorry I haven't been written to you lately, but I've been working hard. When I received your last letter I was acting in a play at school, and when I have finished that, I went on holiday with some friends. I meant to send you a postcard, but I had forgot to take your address with me. How are you getting on at college? You didn't say very much about this in your letter. I hope you are still like it, and don't been work all the time! Do you still want to come and will stay for a few days? I'm starting work in London after I shall leave school inJuly, and I want to see you before then. I have know you are busy, but by the time your term finishes, I'll have started my job. I've been done so many things lately! I've just learned to drive and my parents have sometimes lend me their car, so I often go out with friends. Maybe I'll be drive to Nottingham and see you one day. I) .. hr'(l1 .. 2) .. ..t 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) .. .. .. .. . .. . . . .. .. . . .

10) a) was leaving b) had left c) used to leave d) has left II) a) will she belong b) did she belong c) has she belonged d) does she belong 12) a) wasn't knowing b) hasn't known c) hadn't known d) didn't know 13) a)waswaiting b)iswaiting c) waits d)waited 14) a) wasn't receiving b) didn't usc to receive c) had not received d) hasn't received 15) a)arewegoingtodo b) have we done c)didwedo d)arewedoing

5
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) Steve left before my arrival. When I Shall

(!rr.i'(f.ti$.tf.'(f.hful..

already left. you with your suitcase?

Best wishes, Maria

b) Do you need any help with your suitcase:

7
Underline the error in each sentence. Correct the error.

a) By the time I got to the phone it sto~

ringing.

c) What's your usual time of arrival at school? \'(Ihen arrive at school? d) Alice started playing tennis six months ago. Alice \'(Ihen it stops raining six months. leave, e) I'll wait here until it stops raining.

... (?1;.4r1.~l.ql'r.(fl.
b) I'm not very good atthis game. You see, I didn't play it before.

...................................................................................................................
c) When has Peter written to you last?

JR

39

il.:.""
1J/~!_II/L'''lille

LllIgu"ge

Practice

d) What do you do at weekends? Are you ever going to the cinema?


.............................................................. c) When I was on holiday last summer ~·:~'~·~~~;~~·~·~·~j~~·b~·~~;;·~~:~·I:;·J·ay.

f
,

::.If':','~"~',"

{r:iF'

!
!

Unit 10 Reported speech 1


Explanations
Reported speech We often tell people what other people have told us. This is called reported or indirect speech. We usually change tenses and references to people, places. and times. Statements are often repeated immediately, and the reporting verb is in a present tense. In this case, there are no tense changes.

f) j·:;j;~·~:~;;:;··I~·:~·~;·;·~~;·;~~·:~;'·I:~~:·;j~~·~·;ji·;~i~;·~~~'I~·~·:b~·i;:·····················

............................................................
h) ;~·~:·i~;;~·~~·;,~·~;·ii·;~·;·~·~h;~·fi~;~·;;·,~·~·~;;.;~~.~.;

'
.

g) You're always late! I'm waiting here·~~·;·~'~·~~; ....···..······························

..................................................................................................................

g
'I L"'l'ryt!ay

Without tense changes

a) Finished yet? We're all waiting!

,,,kcll
L' OiIL'1l "',11

I-:ngiish, leave

b) Bye for now! See you tomorrow! c) ~~~·~·i~~i;~·;~;·~·~·~d··~·;;;~~·;;~;~·;············ d) ;·~:I·;'~·~ ;·~·d;ffi·~·~:i~:·~~~·~·:·I~·~·:·;·~~~;~~ ..b c) ;~;·i·:~~:;;;;·.·~~·I~·~;;;~·~~·t··i~~·~·~;.·i·;~k·;~;~; .. ;

..H".':r )'P.« p,wAiIrfl),d l.

'Jack is on the phone. He says he's going to the cinema, and do we want to go too?'
. . . . • • Tense changes after a past tense reporting verb Statements arc usually reported with a past tense verb and an optional that. All tenses that follow move back into the past. This is sometimes called backshift. • Present simple to past simple Present continuous past continuous Present perfect to past perfect to

Ihl' subjccI lnstc.«]


ilf' we

i '<lIHlUIl and ,i,\iii,1Jf


(I:

.'dYlng, (1)0

'J need some help. ' She said (that) she needed some help. 'We are having our lunch. ' She said that they were having their lunch. 'I have lost my keys. ' He said (that) he had lost his keys. 'I will be home at 6.00. ' She said that she would be home at 6. 00.
'I wrote two letters to her. , He said (that) he had written two letters to her.

,-" ," //1,,,


,'" I',

'Lii:« il?'
so that has a

1\"I\'/'IIL'l'.lCh

;,"llleIlCC

il.. I'nh
\/IiliniIIlCd
\ll' ')L'C[

.................................................................................................................. f) Been waiting long? Sorry for the delay. .............................................................................. g) Good party, isn't it! Enjoying yourself? ....................................

pronoun.


will

to

would

Past simple to past perfect

.......................................................................................................... Check the differ~nce between present simple and present contilluous. can you show this difference in your language? 2 How

• •

be going to, to was/ were going to must

'They are going to come back. ' She said (that) they were going to come back.
. 'J must [inish this before J go.'

~ocs you r.langua.ge have a tense with the same form as present perfect Simple? Is It used III the same way? Can you show the difference in your language between present perfect simple and past simple? Do Y~lll havc a .future tense in your language? Does it express all the meanings of will, gozng to and future use of present continuous? •

He said be must finisb it before he went. Note that must does not change. He said he had to finish it before he went.

Note that sentences in direct speech have speech marks (inverted commas) around the spoken words. Indirect or reported speech does not use speech marks. Note that past perfect in reported speech can be a report of either past simple or present perfect.

Joe said he had lost his keys. 'I've lost my keys!' saidJoe. 'I lost them yesterday,' he said. He said he had lost them the day before.

Intermediate Language Practice

'!f'!-,:~:: .. ,
,.,

Unit 10 Reported speech 1

No changes after a past tense reponing verb

If the report is about something which is always true, it may not be necessary to
backshift.

I
t
i
\

Practice
1
a) Sally told that she had lost her keys. Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence.

like apples more than J like oranges. ' She said that she likes apples more than she likes oranges. 'Budapest is the capital of Hungary'. He said that Budapest is the capital of Hungary.
'J

...$.4/y.,mMlhnf.$h.~ hnn.(I1$.(hlr.ko/~

.
. .

Some speakers prefer to backshift in sentences of this kind. Speakers in reponed speech • Speakers can be mentioned at the beginning or end of the sentence in direct speech. Direct speech

b) Chris said me that he must leave early.

.
c) Maria and Tony said they shall see us tomorrow.

.
d) Tom said, I'm coming to your party.

..................................................................................................................
e) Sue said that she had wrote a letter to Lisa.

Jack said, 'We're going to miss the train.' 'We're going to miss the train,' saidJack.
• Speakers are mentioned at the beginning of the sentence in reported speech. Reported speech

.
f) Steve said us that he was arriving at 8.00.
.................................................................................................................. g) 'I had bought a new bike Pam told us.' . : h) 'What's the matter? Ellen told. . i) Jim says that he had needed some help.

..

Jack said (that) they were going to miss the train.


Other changes In reported speech, references to people, places and times often change, because the point of view changes.

.
.

'J'/I see you here tomorrow,' said Sue. Sue said she would see me there the next day. 'J bought this book yesterday,' said Martin. Martin said he had bought the book the day before.
Summarizing instead of verbatim reports • Sometimes each word is reponed (verbatim reporting), but we often summarize what people say when we make reports.

.
j) Joe said that he doesn't feel well yesterday.

.
.

.. 2
Rewrite each sentence in direct speech, ending as shown. a) Anna told us that she had finished.

'Look, actually, tell him I'll give him a call next week, OK?' She said she'd call you next week.
• See Unit 11 for ways of reporting some kinds of statement.

•../r:~fini$hd
' ' ' ' , .......................................................... h) Bill said he was going to be late. '

" Anna

told us.

b) George said that he would be back at 6.00. ,' G,eorge said. ' said Helen. ,' said Paul. ,'Tina told the teacher. ,' David said. ,' Jan told me. ,' Bill said. c) Helen said she was going to go shopping. d) Paul said that he wanted to make a phone call. e) Tina told the teacher she had forgotten her homework.

Verbs easily confused: say,

tell, speak

Speak describes the act of talking. Simon spoke to me in the supermarket yesterday. Say describes the words used. It is followed by optional that. 'It's warm today,' she said. She said (that) it was warm. Tell describes giving information I t needs an Object. It is followed by optional that. 'You've won first prize,' she said. She told me (that) J had won first prize.

£) David said he had to be back by 3.30.


g) Jan told me she would let me know .

42

III[cnllt'dl~lle Language Practice

3
Match each sentence in direct speech with its summarized
vcrsron m

a) 'Look, sorry about this, but I'm afraid I'm going to be a bit late.' .J.. b) 'Actually d) 'Anyway, I've no idea at all where I am!' ..... I'll be back in next to no time.' . . commands requests and c) 'The thing is, I know it's silly but I've missed the bus.' ..... e) '1 did ring, you know, earlier in the evening

Unit 11 Reported speech 2


Explanations
• Commands with tell and the infinitive. ftuld him to stop. Requests are reported with ask and the infinitive. 'Please wait!' I asked her to 'wait. are reported

reported

speech.

1) She said she would be back soon. 2) She said she had missed the bus.
3) She said she was going to be late. 4) She said she had already rung. S) She said she didn't know where she was.

'Wait! Wait!'

yes/no questions
team.

Questions

with the answer yes or no are reported

with backshift

(see Unit

10) and using

if.

4
Complete
sentence,

a)" J irn each lIsing b) 1

Mrf.
lucky,' I

me that he was playing in the school basketball to Helen, and she Steve. '1 the President my teacher that I anything her, 'why don't you Chinese,

she would phone you. you that you would win!' what everyone was . believe me. us. me what you mean?' but she didn't •

'Does the London train stop here?' she asked. She asked me if the London train stopped here.
Note that the question form of the direct speech is not used in reponed speech, as there is no longer a direct question. There is no question mark. linkcd

sa)" tell or speak in anappropriate form.

c) 'You're e) 'Look,'

d) A translator

f) 1
g) 'Please don't h) 1

whether

during the test,' our teacher

\Vbether means if. .. or not. \Y/c use u-betlrcr when we report questions with or. The question is reported with backshifr. 'Are you staying the night, or are you going home?' he asked. He asked me whetber I was staying tbc night or going home.

my friends about my party, and they Helen.

they would come.

5
Rewrite each .cntcnce in reported speech, bcginning as
-Iiown.

a) '1 won't be there because I'm having a party,'said Helen told us that she Jack told me that he

WP.«MI;I.'t.IH:.thr.rr:.h(:k«!< ..u:~b.t;.WMhl1/':i.f;I!J.(I./l({d.J.
, said Carol.

.
.

Wh- questions

b) 'I've lost the map and I don't know the way,' said Jack.

Questions beginning when, iobat, why, uherc, how, etc. are reported with backshift (sec Unit 10). The question forms of direct speech are not used, so the subject in bold comes before the verb. There is no question mark.

c) 'When I finish the book, I'm going to watch television,' Carol said that when d) 'I'm doing some homework Mike said that he e) '1 like swimming but I don't go very often,' said Mary. Mary told us that she f) '1 got up late and I missed the bus,' said Richard. Richard said that he

. but I won't be long,' said Mike. . . . . any money,' said Tony. . • Indirect questions •

'Where is the bus-station?' she'asked. She asked where the bus-station "i.'a;. 'Wbere have you come from?' he asked. He asked me where f had come [ron:
Indirect or embedded questions are questions which have an introductory question before them. The indirect question docs not have a question form. Note that there is no change of tenses (backshift). Introductory question: Could you tell me ... ? Do you lenou: ... ? W/J- questions

g) 'I'm going to visit friends in Fiji but I'm not sure when,' said Jill.

J ill told

us that she

Where is the post office? Could YOIl tell me where the post office is? When docs the film start? Do YOIl know soben the film starts?

b) 'I want to buy it, but I haven't brought Tony said that he

Intermediate

Language Practice

Yes/no questions

These questions use if


Is this the right street? Do YOIlknow if this is the right street?

f
'l

"'·!~··'" ,~I~·~

Unit 11 Reported speech 2

r
~'

Practice
1
Put one suirable word in each space. a) b) c) d) e) f) Helen asked me .. w.hd«t:r. I .. y!M David asked his mother she Peter asked us we Costas asked me I Maria asked a policeman the Dora asked her sister she school or nor. be coming home. ever been to Hungary. many photographs. museum was. fed their dog.
to

I
f
~ i
t

going

• There is a question mark, because of the introductory question. Reponing verbs Reporting verbs include part of the meaning of the words reported. Here are some of the most common reporting verbs. .
advise agree apologize ask congratulate decide 'I wouldn't buy that car,Janos, I were you. ' I advised Janos not to buy the car. 'Yes.jill, I think you're right,' said Mike. Mike agreed with jill. 'I'm really sorry for being so late,' said Maria. Maria apologized for being late. 'Do you think YOII could help me, Sue?' I asked Sue to help me. 'Well done, Tina, you've passed the exam!' I congratulated Tina on passing her exam.

if

! i
t
2
Complete each question in direct speech, ending as shown.

~
j

There are two types of decision.


'I'm going to become a doctor!' said Helen.

t
f

,
i

This is a decision about the future, or a pin.


Helen decided to become a doctor. 'I'll have the fish pie, please,' said Bill.

This is a decision of the moment.


invite Bill decided to have the fish pie. 'Would you like to come to the cinema on Saturday, Pam?' I invited Pam to the cinema on Saturday. 'Shall I carry your case, Dawn?' said Peter. Peter offered to carry Dawn's case. 'I'll definitely be home by eight, 'said Ann. Ann promised to be home by eight. 'I'll wait for you, Helen,' said Peter. Peter promised Helen that he would wait for her. 'No, I won't open the door!' said Carol. Carol rejusrd to open the door. 'Don't forget to send YOllr mother a birthday card,Joe.' I remindedjoe to send his mother a birtbday card. 'How about spending the day at the beach?' said Carlos. Carlos suggested spending the day at the beach.

t
r

I
I
(

I
i
!

a) Jack asked me whether Iwas having lunch or going out. ' ..l.Irlj(Jf!.hrr'fi'1j/f:I};t.(h.f!r.!}(Ji'1!pmf... ?' Jack asked me. b) Carol asked Ann what she had done the day before. ' , Ann?' asked Carol. c) John asked us if we often went sailing. ............................................................................... ?' John asked LIS. d) Kate asked me how maIlY German books I had read. ' ?' Kate asked me. e) George asked Sue if she was going to change schools. • , Sue?' asked George. £) Alice asked me who I sat next to in class. ............................................................................... ?' Alice asked me. g) My teacher asked me if I would be there the next day. ' ?' my teacher asked I11C. h) Mary asked me where exactly I lived. ' exactly?' Mar), asked me. a) 'Are you staying here all summer?' the little girl asked me. The little girl asked me .. .i!lw.hdhr.rll!!({$.$liJ)lit1j)lb.t:r.oJ.lI..$f!!I1!11rr... . b) 'What does 'procrastinate' mean?' I asked my teacher. I asked my teacher , , c) 'Have YOll done your homework, or not?' my mother asked me. My mother asked me _ "' d) 'When is YOllr birthday?' I asked Sue. J asked Sue ' '., ..".","" e) 'Did you remember to lock the door,' Ill)' lather asked me. My father asked me , ,.,..," ' f) 'Why have you turned off the television?' Ellen asked me. Ellen asked me , ,'.'."""" g) 'Do you speak Italian?' the tourist guide asked me.
The tourist guide asked me "."""".,,''''''''"

offer promise

~
[

3
Rewrite each sentence in reported speech, beginning as shown.

refuse remind suggest

h) 'How much did you pay for your bike?' I asked Steve. I asked Steve .

Unit 12 Conditionals: 1 and 2


Explanations
if + present
This type of sentence describes what always happens. When or if can introduce the sentence. simple + present simple

4
Rewrite each
question,

a) What's the time?

Could you tell me .. H!h(lt.(h~timt:.I~


b) What does this mean? Do you know ".""".".""""".""""""""""." c) How much does this cost? Could you tell me Do you know e) Am I in the right seat? Could you tell me f) Wherc's Asham Street? Do you know g) Is this Trafalgar Square? Could you tell me h) When docs this bus leave? Do you know ? ? " ? d) What time does the museum open?

? ?
?

beginning as shown.

It's a tropical country, and so if it rains hard, everyone stays indoors. When it rains bard, everyone stays indoors.

if + imperative
? Conditional!: if + present simple + will/won't ?

This type of sentence tells people what to do in certain situations.

If YOIl feel dizzy, stop taking the tablets. If you change your mind, give me a ring.
• This type of sentence is sometimes called a real condition. It describes what someone thinks will happen in a real situation. We use real here to show the difference with the imaginary situation in Conditional 2. You believe that the things you are talking about will happen.

If we walk so slowly, we'll be late. If we run, we suon't be late. If we don't run, we will be late.
• Situation: You arc at the supermarket with a friend. Your friend has put some eggs in one bag, and is trying to pick up lots of other bags too. You say:

5
Rewrite each sentence in reported speech, beginning as shown. Use a verb Irom the lis t.

advised offered

apologized promised

congratulated invited refused suggested

a) 'I'll definitely be at your house before 8.00, Sue,' said Mike. Mike ..f.rP.m~t:.,f Sue that ..

b.o:!'P.ffM"f/itlitrl)d/"flf.It{r./.t.q~.I;.64w:r.~.9.(I,
asked Chris.

..

If you carry too many bags, you'll drop the eggs. If you drop the eggs, they'll break. If the eggs break, tberesoill bean awful mess on the floor! If you are careful, you won't break them.

b) 'Would you like to come to the cinema,jean?' Chris

I ·1
i
.. .. . Conditional 2: if + past simple + wouldhOJouldn 't

• It is possible to use other present tenses instead of present simple in this type
of sentence.

c) 'I wouldn't eat too much if I were you, Dave,' said Patsy. Patsy d) 'How about going for a walk?' said George. George e) 'I'm terribly sorry for breaking the window,' said Carol. Carol f) 'Shall Ido the washing-up?' said Bill.

present continuous present perfect


If you're driving, 1 '/I come with you. If I've seen the film before, I 'll lct )'011 know!

This type of sentence is sometimes called an imaginary condition. It refers to things that might happen in the future, or things that you can imagine happening.

If I had a helicopter, I'd fly to school. If I flew to school, I wouldn't be late.


• Situation: You are watching the stars one night with a friend. You start talking about aliens. You say: .

Bill ........................................................................................................................
g) 'Well done, you've passed your driving test,' said Tina's mother. Tina's mother Pat her .. .. h) 'No, I won't go to the dentist's!' said Pat.

If some aliens landed on earth, I'd make friends with them. If they didn't speak English, I'd use sign language. If they took me back to their planet, I'd learn their language. If anyone believed my story, I'd become famous!

48

Unit 12 Condition~ls: 1 an.! 2 Intermediate Language Practice

• •

The form of t~e past simple is used in this type of sentence, but it does not refer to past time. See Unit 13 for Conditional 3, which refers to past time. We usually use were for all persons in Conditional 2 if sentences. In speech, was and were are used. If I were an astronaut, I'd enjoy being weightless! Note that would is usually contracted in speech.

a) You are standing very close to the edge of a swimming-pool. wearing

You arc says: about

Complete the sentence for each situation, using the verbs given.

all your

clothes, not a swimming costume.

A friend

If you (fall in) fo((jtt

, your clothes (get)

wllf!Jd

wet!

b) You are sitting in the classroom on a hot day. You are day-dreaming going to the beach. You think: If today (be) a holiday, I(go) but she doesn't know the answer. She says: to the beach.

c) You can't answer a question in your English book. You ask a friend· to hel h

I'd become famous. unless Unle~s ~eans only

I would become famous.


will only happen in

if not. We use it to say that something


Compare these sentences.

If I(know)

the answer, I(tell)

you.

certam circumstances.

d) You are walking towards the bus-stop with a friend. Suddenly the bus arrives. The bus-stop is far away, but you think there is a chance of catchi n.: the bus. You say: If we (run) , we (catch) it! e) You are planning to go to the beach tomorrow with some friends. You art' not sure about the weather, because it sometimes rains at this time of the year. You arrange to meet tomorrow afternoon and say:
to the cinema instead. also

We'l! go out for a walk if it doesn't rain. We'll go out for a walk unless it rains.
Other uses of We also use would in situations which do not involve conditional sentences. Politeness Request Offering Refusing

would

Would you take a seat? Would you open the window? Would you like a pot of tea? The clerk wouldn't sell me a student ticket.

If it (rain)

, we (go)

f) You are very busy, because you have lots of school work, and you
in two teams. A friend as\f.vou to join a computer club. You say:

ph v

If I(have)

more free time, I(join)

the club.

Practice
:L
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each pair. a) IflW?ijYwe would be late for class, our teacher~was b) If we liyed/would the sky. c) If we take/will take a taxi, we'll arrive/we arrived sooner. d) If we don't hurry/won't hurry, we'll be/we would be late. e) If we were!are birds, we would be able to/are able to fly. angry. Iiye on another planet, we'd see/we will see the Earth in

But it's impossible at the moment because I'm too busy! g) You are discussing the idea of underwater cities. People are describing the advantages and disadvantages of living under the sea. You say:

If we (live)
advice. She says: If you (study) test.

under the sea, we (eat)

fish all the time!

h) You are worried about a test next week. You ask your teacher for some for on" Lour every day, you (pass) the

f) If you don't wear/wouldn't wear your pullover, lQu'l1 feel/you felt cold. g) If I studied/will study harder, I would get/get better marks. h) If I had/have a motorbike, I'd ridelI rode it to school. i) If you lend/will lend me your bike, I'tlletlI let you borrow my.skateboard.

3
Complete each sentence, using if, unless or

a) If you had asked me to help you, I.. .wt?«M b) We'll have lunch outside in the garden, c) John d) Come on! e)

. it's too cold.

win more races if he trained harder. we hurry, we'll miss the plane!

j) If I bad/would

have lots of money, I'd give!I gave some to

all my

friends.

would.

you like to see my stamp collection? f) The manager won't be long you take a seat, please. g) I'm sure that Carol h) i) What go to the cinema with you, if you asked her. you feel like a char, phone me tonight. you do if you saw a snake? I swim every day.

j) I don't feel happy

4
(:. 'IIII'ICI(,

caeh

a) If YOLi play the music too loud, .§ .. b) If the North Pole melted, ..... c) If we don't have enough icc-cream, ..... d) If I Iound someonc'e wallet , ..... e) If a burglar broke into this house, .....

1) the alarm would go off. 2) I'll buy a new bike . 3) I'll be in Paris at 6.00. 4) you wouldn't see me any more!

.sen: cncc a) to

j)

Unit 13 Conditionals: 2 and 3


Explanations
conditional scntcnces without if Conditional sentences usually begin with often use imagine or supposing.

wir l, .111 cllding fl'(\ll1 1) to 10).

f) If my train isn't late, g) If you were famous,

. .

5) you would feel better.


6) the water would flood Illany cities. 7) I'll buy it for you. 8) you'll wake up the neighbours. 9) we'll get some more. 10) I'd take it to the police station.

if. However,

in everyday speech, we

h) If my father lends me the money, ..... i) If you took more exercise, ..... j) If YOLi tell me what ~'ou want, .....

Imagine you saw a snake, what would you do? Supposing you owned a helicopter, what would you use it for? ,
We can give advice by using a Conditional 2 sentence beginning If I were you.

If I were you

5
C(\Il>l'ict('
;;CI1I,'I1<'C •• 1

each a;; either

a) If I (have) ../w.L .....arms five metres long, I (bc able) .... wfmMhr.IlM: reach the top of that shelf! b) Don't worry, you've just got a cold. If you (take) (feel) bcner, c) Vegetarians believe that if nobody (cat) ···..· longer. d) If I(become) parents an enormous a famous rock star, I (buy) house.

..... to
Conditional 3: if + past perfect +

If I were you, I'd spend more time on your written work. If I were you, I wouldn't eat so much chocolate! It is also possible to put the if-clause at the end. , I'd be more careful, if I were you.
• This type of sentence is sometimes calIed an Impossible Condition. It refers to things in the past, and it is impossible to change things that happened in the past. Situation: You went for a long walk, but you did not take your umbrelIa.lt rained, and you got wet.

. 01'.1 (

C'''I.liti(\n.111 (\ndllional

an aspirin, ~ou meat, everyone (live) my

WOllldhave

2 Sl'llt<..'flCC using Ihe "nl> si,·en.

If I had taken my umbrella, I wouldn't have got wet. If I'd heard the weather forecast, I wouldn't have gone out.
Modals in conditional sentences • We often use might and could in conditional sentences. We use might or could when we are not certain about the results. We also use could to describe ability. We use could have (done) or might have (done) in Conditional 3 sentences. ' Condi tional l Conditional Conditional 2 3

e) Itsays'NoParking' . If you (leave) , ............................. you a parking fine.

t I car h ere, t I po I' (. 1C ie Ice give) this path, you (come) ..

£) It's 1I0t far. If you (follow)


to the station.
'g)

If people ill ciric (l ISC,) ICS

bikcs i I cs instca d 0 f cars, there (not be)


it, it (not bite) .. ..

............................. so much pollution. h) Actually it's a vcry friendly dog. If you (touch) ............ ·........ · you. i) If you (leave) your books on the desk, I (give) them back to you at the end of the lesson. j) If you (own) you! a pet tiger, your friends (not visit)

.t

I
i

If you cany too many bags, you might drop the eggs.
(uncertain)

I I
I

If anyone believed my story, I could become famous! (uncertain) If I had taken some money with me, I could have taken a taxi.
(ability)

See Units 17 and 18 for more information about modal auxiliaries.

I !
52

Unit 13 Conditionals: Intermediate Language Practice

2 and J

Practice 1Rewrite each comment, beginning as shown, a) Supposing you had wings, what would you do? What

3
.. ;: ..
.

Complete the sentence for each situation.

wP,l:dt/.j.(JH.fl(l.ifJfJ.«hffrl.wil1!J.~? ;

b) Why don't you leave now? That's what I'd do.

H
How

c) Imagine you lived on Mars. How would you feel? d) I think you should i-uy a bike. That's what I'd do.

If
e) Imagine you were rich. What would you do? What

.
.. came with us, what would you say? . a) Helen didn't leave early, and so she missed the bus. If Helen ...«IJi.(qJ_r.<l.dj. ... , she .. .IJ!p.liMJ;('l.h(iyr.mi.~$r.l ......... the bus.

f) SupposingJim
What

g) Why don't you take the bus. That's what I'd do.

.
i

b) 1 didn't buy more milk, so I didn't have enough for breakfast.

If 1
breakfast.

,I

enough for

IE
h) Imagine you owned a robot. What would you do? \~hat

.
.

t\ !

c) We forgot to take a map, so we got lost in the mountains. If we , we


d) I didn't go to bed early, so 1 didn't wake up at 7.00. If I early, I

in the mountains. at 7.00.

2
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

a) If you phoned.Q1ad phone&me yesterday, I had given&vou!d have givervyou the news. b) If you took/would c) If Tim drove/had crash. d) If you had come/came to see the film, you would have enjoyeei/had it. e) I(I'd known/I would know it was your birthday, I would send/would
s.rn! you a card.

have taken more exercise, you might feel/had felt better. driven more carefully, he wouldn't have crashed/didn't enjoyed have

I l i
l

e) Mike didn't make a shopping list, and he forgot to buy some coffee.

! \

If Mike he some coffee. £) I didn't realize you were tired when 1 asked you to go for a walk. If 1 I : for a walk.
g) The Romans didn't sail across the Atlantic. so they didn't reach America.

If the Romans

, they

..

f) If people helped/had be/was a better place.

helped one another more often, the world might more goals, it had won/could a coat, you wouldn't get/didn't have won. get wet.

t
\

America. h) Ididn't turn left at the station, and Ilost my way.

If 1

· my way.

g) If our team had scoredlscored h) If you would have worn/wore

54

·0

Unit 14 Wishes
Explanations
Wishcs about the
I -rcse.u

r
I
t
1 I.

oo

~.:·ooo

Unit 14 Wishes

2
Choose the correct .' continuation f or each sentence.

a) I've got lots of work to do, and I'm tired, but I can't stop ... Z. 1) I wish I had taken a rest. 2) I wish I could take a rest. . 2) I wish I'd listened to my teacher. 2) She wishes she painted it blue. b) I wasn't paying attention in class, and now I can't do my homework 1) I wish I listened to my teacher. 1) She wishes she'd painted it blue. d) This is a very puzzling problem! 1) I wish I'd known the answer. 1) I wish we lived in a warm place. 1) If only I would have a screwdriver. 1) I wish they play well. ..... 2) I wish I knew the answer. 2) I hope we live in a warm place. . 2) If only I had a screwdriver, c) Sarah painted her room green, but she doesn't like it. .....

i
2 sentence.

This kind of sentence is similar to a Conditional

I wisb low/led a helicopter. If I owned a belicop/e/; I would be happy. I wisb I didn't have to go to school! If I didn't go to school, I would be happy. • ~s in Conditional tune.
2 sentences, the past simple form does not refer to past

! l i [

e) It's really cold and miserable here in the winter .... ., f) I can't repair my bike because I haven't got any tools. ..... g) I'm worried about my basketball team. Perhaps t hey won "t wrn: , 2) I hope they play well. h) You promised not to tell anyone my secrets but you did!

I
!
~
i

Wishes about the


p.ist

This kind of sentence is similar to a Conditional

J sentence.

I wish I bad lived in the eighteenth century! If I bad lived in the eighteenth century, I would have been happy. I wisb I badn't eaten so much! I feel awful/If would have been better for me! I had not eaten so much, it

.
! ,
! I

1) I wish I hadn't told you.

2) I wish I didn't tell you.

Wishes with

cu/{Id

This kind of wish is about a change you would like to make. I wish I could fly! I wish I could stay at home tomorrow. When we make wishes about the future, we use hope. We do not usc conditional sentence rules with hope. It is followed by present simple or will. I hope the weather will be fine tomorrow. I hope you bave a good time at the party.

ljonly .

We can replace I wish with If only for emphasis. We usually stress oniy in speech. If only I owned a helicopter. If only I hadn't eaten so much!

Practice
1
Clioosc the

! !!
I
I

I
I

3
Complete each sentence with a suitable form of the verb given.

a) I'm soaked to the skin! If only I (bring) them! c) I like your school. I wish I (go)

hadhr.qJf§ht

an umbrella! two of

b) This pullover was really cheap. Iwish J (buy) there too.

d) I must get in touch with Sue. If only I (know) number!

her phone .. the train instead. it. the .

I· us is . e) This bus i rea IIys Iow. I I WIS h we (t a k e)


f) I'm disappointed in this camera. I wish I (not buy) g) Ianswered three questions well. If only I (finish)
whole test! h) I can't understand French. anything Marie saysl I wish I (speak)

UlITcct word or 1'11I'ISC

a) J am sunburnt. J wish IQladn't sunbathedYdidn't sunbathe for so long. b) J don't feel well. J wish I could stay/stayed at home tomorrow, c) I'm not a good swimmer, but I wish I could swim/would d) J wish I had/have a puppy or a kitten!
e) I wish I could sec/saw you tomorrow,

swim well.

4
Complete each sentence in a suitable way.

a) I'm hungry. If only .. l.h(ldfl.Mt1fIw.((h b) Enjoy your holiday. I hope c) This is a lovely place. I wish we d) It's a pity you live so far away. If only you street! e) Ellen is a fantastic dancer. Iwish I

in my pocket. time. before. in my as well as her!

ullcicriincd
c.i,

in

Ii sClltcnce.

but it's impossible.

l) I wish Jim didn't sit/doesn't g) If only we had/would h) I hope you enjoyed/enjoy

sit next to me. He's so annoying! yourselves at the dance tomorrow.

have some money we could take the bus.

Unit 15 Passive J

Unit 15 Passive 1
Explanations
Transitive and intransitive • Verbs which have objects are called transitive verbs. In this sentence, milk is the object. Diane drinks milk every morning. • • Passive: formation rules Verbs which do not have objects arc called intransitive verbs. Diane walks tv college. Only transitive verbs canbe made passive.

With the instrument with

Passive sentences may include information about what v:as us~d to perform an action. This is called the instrument and is introduced usmg with. The windows were broken with a baseball bat. • It is not always necessary to mention the agent. There are several reasons for this. The passive is often used because who did i~is ~ot known or the speaker does not want us to know, it is obvious, or remains Impersonal, perhaps because an authority is involved. . Not known Brenda's motorbike was stolen last night. . If we knew who had stolen it, we would mention the name of the person. r t is not necessary to add by someone. Obvious One protester was arrested. .. It is not necessary to add by the police, because we k~ow that I~ IS always the police who do this. However, some people prefer to include this information. Impersonal di I ... Sometimes a group of people is responsible for an action, and who I( It IS not mentioned. All school outings have been cancelled. . .. We assume that the school authorities have made this decision.

Without the agent

The passive is formed with the verb be and the past participle. The object of the verb becomes the subject in a passive sentence. • • Present simple Passive Past simple Passive Passive We build hundreds of houses every yea1: Hundreds of houses are built every year. The police arrested one protester. One protester was arrested. They will play the match on \Vednesdayevening. The match will be played on Wednesday evening. We have chosen Helen as the new president. Helen has been chosen as the new president. The authorities are questioning two men. Two men are being questioned by the authorities.

• will
• •

Present perfect Passive Present continuous Passive

Practice
1
Underline phrases which are not necessary in these sentences. Not all sentences contam unnecessary phrases. a) My wallet has been stolen by someone. b) We were taught by a different teacher yesterday. c) Nick was operated on at the hospital by a doctor. d) The meal was served by a waiter in a red coat. e) We were shown round the museum by a guide.

Contexts of use

Putting emphasis on important information. Hundreds of houses are built every year by the Gooemment. In this sentence, it is what was done, the number of houses built, which is given emphasis. Emphasized information usually comes at the beginning of the sentence. Compare: The Government has built hundreds of houses this year. In this sentence, more emphasis is given to w~o did it, the Government.

£) Two letters were delivered this morning by the postman.


g) Three men have been arrested by the police. h) Yesterday a window was broken by someone.

Spoken and written Passive tends to be used more in writing, and in formal speech.

With the agent by

Passive sentences often include information about who did it. This person, thing, organization, etc. is called the agent. Stones were tbroum by angry football fans.

58

/ I/lc/ll/cJiatc Language Practice

Unit 15 Passive 1

2
l:olllplcte each -enrcncc with a I'.lssive verb.

a) The police questioned George. George

wl1~f/l1fJti{'.l;I.d

by the police. by millions of people. at the end of the month. . . . by students. by a burglar. at the bus-station by United.

4
Rewrite each sentence beginning with the words given.

a) Archaeologists

have discovered a new tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

b) Millions of people watch this programme. This programme Our new house d) They have elected a new president. A new president The damaged stadium f) They have closed the mountain road. The mountain road g) Students write most of this magazine. Most of this magazine h) A burglar stole my television. My television You Last year the cup i) Somebody willmcet you at the bus-station. c) They will finish our new house at the end of the month.

A new tomb . ./.t."A.I;"(t!.ffl~,,qy.(r.t;r/.bl.(I.((hfl(:.q{(J!JI~i~.it1if:t(.VRllrpfthf.KiI)jL b) The President will open the new sports stadium on Saturday. The new sports stadium . c) One of the most [amous painters in the world painted this portrait. This portrait : tomorrow.

.
.

.
.

e) They are rebuilding the damaged stadium.

d) They will announce the results of the competition The results e) They are redecorating Our school

. our school during the summer holidays. . : , . . . . system every day . . syster:,l

f) The police in New York have arrested three terrorists. Three terrorists g) Our company sells more than a thousand cars every week. More than a thousand cars A new museum i) Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928. Penicillin h) They are building a new museum in the city centre.

j) United won the cup last year.

3
\ :ndcrlinc the errors in these
svutcnccs. RL'\vritc svntcncc.

a) Many pet dogs are losing every year.

j) Two million people use the London Underground .


The London Underground

...M(ln)'.f.(l.fl(J3~flr.t;lq~/."y"ty.~mr..
b) The ill man was been taken to hospital. .................................................................................................................. c) A new bridge is be built across the river. .................................................................................................................. d) All the food at the party was ate. .................................................................................................................. e) Nothing will being decided before next Saturday, ................................................................................................. f) Thc match is playing on Friday evening.
'

. 5
Rewrite each sentence with a passive verb, and so that the names of people are not mentioned. a) The authorities
•••T/.'f:Ii«.Hill'.

~
have closed the casino.
.

each

h(I~.P.(f:I;I.Ii(q,'l!a.

b) Someone broke into the flat last week .

.
c) People all over the world speak English . d) The authorities have opened the new swimming-pool.

.................................................................................................................. g) The robber unlocked the door by a false key. .................................................................................................................. h) This book was writing by Sam's father. ..................................................................................................................

e) Someone left this purse in the classroom yesterday .

f) The city council has banned traffic fron: the city centre .
g) People have elected a new government. h) The clubs have postponed the match.
_

.................................................................................................

~ ..

.. -,-,-

'-'"

Unit 16 Passive:'

Unit 16 Passive 2
Explanations
Verbs with two objects Some verbs can have two objects. These verbs include:

2
Rewrite each sentence beginning and ending as shown.

a) Someone stole Bob's bike. Bob .. .l!'1.t1.II1$. b) John lent me this book. This book Yesterday I d) Cairo is my place of birth. I I was Tom had g) When is your date of birth? \X'hen exactly h) My parents gave me this ring. I parents. born? in Cairo. by a friend. last week. e) A rock concert ticket was sold to me by a friend. f) Someone broke into Tom's house last week. John. out. c) The dentist took out one of my teeth yesterday. bike stolen.

buy, give, lend, offer,promise, sell, take,promis(!, send. Peter gave Karen apresent. Peter gave apresent to Karen.
Sentences with these
V~,

bs can be made passive in two ways.

Karen was given a present by Peter. A present was given to Karen by Peter:
Problems with passive


To be born is a passive form but does not have an obvious passive meaning. I was born in Uruguay.
Some verbs may have a passive form in other languages, but are not translated into passive in English. When a professional person, e.g. a mechanic, a plumber etc. docs some work for us, we can use have something done. Have can be used in any tense,

have something done

3
Rewrite each sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word given.

a) They are servicing my car tomorrow. having ••. {l1m.l:r.IJ.v:'·njJ.Jtf.jf.IJ.ar.(y.!(dt.fiw.r?r.mw, b) Yesterday they stole my bike. had c) Last year they painted our house. had .

We had our house painted last year. I'm having my car serviced tomorrtno. I've had my room decorated.
• We also use this for unpleasant happenings.

She had her house broken into. Tim had his arm broken playing rugby.

Practice
:l
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. d) They are taking out Illy tooth tomorrow! a) I'm having my hair cutting~to c) I was sending/sent/send have cut tomorrow. to the seaside for the day. e) They have just cut my hair. tomorrow. by vandals. had .................................................... having g) They have just painted Ann's portrait. had having b) The children were tQok/taken/taking

here by the manager.

d) Kate is having her car services/servicing/serviced e) Sue had her windows breaking/broken/broke f) David has been offer/offering/offered g) Where exactly were
YOll

a new job in Brazil.

f) They are fitting our new carpet tomorrow.

horn/did_yoll horn/did you bear?

h) I've just had my bike repaired/repair/repairing.

Unit 17 M odals J: present and futllre

Unit 17 Modals 1: present and future


Explanations
1'IllbicIllS with f"lrn and
• Modal auxiliaries do not have third person s, and use inversion in questions not do/does. They do not form tenses. The meaning of modal auxiliaries depends on the context. One modal can have several meanings depending on their function, or purpose.

Impossibilityor certainty

must and can't We often know that something is impossible.

President jones can't will the next election. (It's irnpossiblc.) Sometimes we make a guess from facts, and feci almost certain about something. In this context, must and can't are very common with be. He must be stuck in the traffic. (I'm sure he is.) She can't be ill Italy! I saw her today! (I'm sure she isn't.)
Obligation

must and have to We can use must or have to to explain that something is necessary. I must finish my homework before 8.00. I have to phone Jan at 9.00.
There is a difference in some contexts. We use have to to describe official rules: e.g. rules about school 01' jobs, or any other organized activity.

• can, can't, cannot I call swim.


• Pronunciation: /c<en/.

Call YOIl swim?

Cannot is generally used in writing or more formal speech.

can is normally unstressed /c';!11/ ut is stressed for emphasis b No, but I can speak Japanese.

At our school, we have to wear a uniform. Every player in afootball team has to have a number. Some speakers use have to to describe any rule which comes from an
external authority. That means, a rule which is made by someone else.

Can you speak Chinese?

When the traffic lights are red, ),011 have to stop.


We lise must with emphasis to show that an action is very important.

• be able to Be able to forms tenses and is sometimes used instead of can. Will you be able to help me /zft the furniture tomorrow?
I'cunissiou

You must be here by 8.00,01' the bus will leave without


Note that we do not lise to after must. • In everyday speech, we lise have got to instead of have to.

YOIi.

Call and can't are used to describe what is allowed or not allowed. See Unit 22. Call I leave early, please? I call 't come skating tomorrow. • may and might We usc may and might when we think something is possible, or we arc
uncertain.

mustn't and don't hauc to These have different meanings. Mustn't describes an action which is forbidden. You mustn 't cross the road when the red light is showing. Don't have to describes an action which is not necessary. You don't have to tum 011 the central heating. It's automatic.

I', ,\sibility or uucrrtauu y

President Jones might win the next election. I may Imight have some news for you next week. Some speakers feci that may is more formal.

(It's possible.) (Perhaps I will.)

Advice and
OpII1l0n

• should and shouldn 't Should and shouldn't give the speaker's opinion of what is a good or bad
action. As this is an opinion it is often used for giving advice. Advice I think YOIl should talk to YOIII' teacher about it. Opinion I think the police should arrest hooligans. We can also describe what we expect should happen. Expectation They should arrive here at about 6.30.

Note that may not and might not describe uncertainty, not impossibility. I may not have time to finish tonight. (I don't know.) We use could when we are uncertain, especially with be. He could be stuck in the traffic. (Perhaps he is.)

• could

alight to and ought not to Ought to and ought not to can be used in the same way as should and shouldn't. I tbinle YOIl ought to talk to your teacher about it.
.'_' r."_,,.

Intermediate

Language Practice

Unit 17 Modals l i present and ju inrc

• Note that not is added to think.


I don't think you should/ought to go.

• Note that should is more frequently used than ought to.


• had better

i) Excuse me, is it all right if I open the window? Excuse me, ,' the window? j) I suppose you are Mrs Perry. How do you do? You Mrs Perry. How do you do?

This has a similar meaning to should and ought to. Had is usually contracted. I think you 'd better talk to your teacher about it.
We'd better not forget to turn of! the computer!

Practice
:1.
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.
a) Look at those clouds. I think it can,(mighr)must rain. b) This is impossible! It can't be/ mustn't belmay not be the answer.

c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

Well done! You may be/must be/might be very pleased! I've no idea where Jane is. She could be/must be anywhere! I suppose it's possible. I might/can/must come to your party. I'm not sure. I must not/may not be able to get there in time. That can't be/mustn't be/may nO( be David. He hasn't got a bike. Lisa isn't here yet. She can be/must be on her way. There's someone at the door. It can be/cQuld be the postman. Sorry, I can't come/may not out. I have to do my homework.

Decide whether each pair of . sentences have a similar meaning, or whether they arc different. Write S for same or D for dtfferent.

a) b) c) d) e) £) g) h) i) j)

You'd better go. You don't have to press this button. You should have a rest. You must be crazy! YOUl11ustbe here before 8.30. You mustn't do that! You shouldn't eat so much. \VIc have to work harder. I'd better write my letters. I ought to leave now.

You should go. You mUS[J1'tpress this button. You ought to have a rest. You should be crazy! You have to be here before ~..\O. You don't have to do (hat' You ought not to cat so much. \V!emust work harder. I must write my letters. I have to leave now.

.s.

4
Rewrite each sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word given.

a) It would be a good idea for you to see a dentist. ought ...YP.H/li1!JMi".$.e.(.(I,r!r.t!(I~f.. b) It's not necessary for us to go to school tomorrow. have c) I'm sure that isn't John, because he's in Paris. be d) Perhaps Ann is at home. be e) You ought to wear a warm coat today. had f) It's possible that I'll be late. may
g) I wouldn't go skiing if Iwere you.

2
Rewrite each sentence, using
can, can't, might or must, and

beginning and ending as shown.

a) Helen is really good at swimming. Helen (fIn.~.'1!imr.(fl/b'. well. b) It's possible that our team will win. Our team win. c) I'm sure this isn't the right road. This the right road. d) I'm sure you work very hard! You very hard. e) Carol isn't allowed to come to our party. Carol to our party. I) It's possible that I'll see you tomorrow, but I'm not sure. 1 , but I'm not sure. g) I'm afraid that your teacher is unable to come today. I'm afraid that today. h) I'm sure it's very hot here in summer. . It here: in slimmer.

think

lUI, ' 'lI('d,.lIe 1.(lIIguagc Practicc

h) It is forbidden to leave your bike here. can't i) Perhaps I'll see you on Thursday evening. might j) It is the rule have
to writ :

Unit 18 Modals 2: past


Explanations
Ability
• could, couldn't, was able to

this test in pencil.

These describe ability in the past. '


Jane could swim/was able to swim uiben she was ten.

We use was able to when we want to show that an event was possible and also happened.
When David fell in the riucr.jane was able to rescue him.

5
l'ut
ill
!'Ill'

SlI;t.lhlc
.iux ih.uv

11W,U
\.',1\'

h ~l),lCC.

a) b) c) d) c)
f)

g) h) i)
j)

Soldiers ...IUl'i:c t» obey orders. I thinl~ you take your umbrella. Sorry, 1 go now. I don't want to be late. I'm not sure, but I be able to help you. Helen isn't at home, so she be on her way here. We better not leave any windows open. It be a star, it's too bright.Pcrh.ips it's an alien spaceship! I don't to go to work today. It's a holiday. Sorry, but I wasn't to finish all the work you gave me. I think you to ask your teacher for some advice.

Possibility or ullcertainty

might have done, rna)' have done, could have done The form is modal + have + past participle. Have does not change. AIelria might/may/could haue taken the bus. (I think perhaps she did.) must have done, can't have done

Impossibility or certainty

The form is modal + helve + past participle. Have docs not change. You must have left yo/(r passport 011 the plane. (1'm sure YOlidid.) Lina can't baue ioriuen this. (I'm sure she didu't.)
• had to, didn't have to, tlidn 't need to, needn't have done

Obligation

There is no past form of must. We use had to.


\Vhen / was at school, we bad to/did" 't bd·ve to wear a uniform. .

G
IZl'''":
s,'IHCI

a)'
,ll'

L'.lell

ic'C Sl) ih.u

If I were roll I'd take more exercise. ...W(l:'.I.~fqH ;l.lld.(t;r'/Y(J.H ,~!(f(uld.(!{h;I.lJlm;.t;(<.(m;~~, b) I expect the plane will land soon. c) You ;lIT not allowed to usc a dictionary. d) It's impossible for that to be Sue. She's abroad. c) It's possible that I'll come
f)
to

• There is a difference between didn't need (I didn't have to do something.)

10

and needn't have done.

:i'

/ didn't need to do any homework yesterday. I needn't "ave done any homework yesterday.

,,,,1\,,,,1 the·
l'llr., •.,

ill!\')l'>

I1Ul

lllllk,l;'ll'li. Advice and opinion


(I made a mistake. 1did something that was not nccessary.)


should have done, ought to have done The form is modal + have + past participle. Have docs not change. They

your party.

often describe criticism of an action.


/ think you should have worked harder. You shouldn't have eaten so much!

It's against the law

to

drop litter in the street. •

(I think you were wrong.) (I think you were wrong.)


10

We can lise ought to have done and ought not

have done in the same wa y.

g) It's not I1ccessarr for you to wait.


It)

You'd beller stay in bed today.

68

69

Intermediate

Language Practice

Unit 18 Modals 2: pas!

Practice 1Rewrite each sen renee so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word given. a) I'm sure you dropped your wallet at the bus-stop. must

2
Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown.

a) You were wrong to study so late! You shouldn't Were c) It wasn't necessary to work hard. I didn't . . . . . . . . soaked! We are sill)'! \,\Ie ~h(J,4d.h(!vdtJhl;1.fll1.(·!!!d!a(lfI . . . d) Perhaps Tim has lost his way. Tim might e) It was possible for you to hurt yourself. You could

h(('('f?,~fH(fi'd.$l!lqt.C
?

b) Did you manage to stop him?

...>P.!1m.<jAt.!!(Ixr.flr;qff.:ll(lHt:.wfl((dflf.fhr.hlf'~7~((Jfl"""';'"
b) Maybe joanna miss-d the last bus. might .
,

c) Peter knew how to skate when he was twelve. able ............................................ , d) £l11m.1 was wrong not to tell YOll the answer. should .................................................................................................................. e) It wasn't necessary for us to pay to get in. didn't ..................................................................................................................

f) I t would have been a good idea to tell me .


You should g) I'm sure the class enjoyed it. The class must h) I helped her but it wasn't necessary. I needn't i) It was a mistake to leave . You ought

f) It wasn't necessary for me to buy any food yesterday.


need .................................................................................................................. g) I'm sure that Diana didn't take your books. can't

j) I'm sure the butler didn't do it.


The butler can't

......................................

3
Complete each sentence so that it contains the words given.

a) I'm completely should/umbrella

h) Perhaps David didn't notice you. might

b) I've lost l11ybag. I think I must/bus c) I tried to phone Sam, but I couldn't/get should/present e) The cat doesn't like fruit! It can't/orange through d) I forgot Kate's birthday. I

..................................................................................................................
i) Terry arrived early, but it wasn't necessary. needn't .................................................................................................................. j) It was a bad idea for us to be rude to the policeman! shouldn't

.
. . ..

..................................................................................................................

f) Jo hasn't turned up yet. I suppose she


might/address g) I did badly in the test. I ought/harder h) It's a shame we didn't go on holiday. We could/good time

70

Problems, Errors, Consolidation 2

Problems, Errors, Consolidation 2


:l
('house
l"\I!Tcct

3
Decide which answer, a), spacc.

Making arrangements with Paul

b),

A few days ago Paul phoned c)

me and (1) .. f.. whether

I (2) ..... Iooking

after his

or d), best fits the

dog when hc (3) ..... away. I (4) ..... that I didn't lie (5) ..... all his other friends, round

really like dogs, but he said that mc

and that I (6) ..... his only hope, He invited

the word or

a) JimGlSQtold b)

the teacher

if the book was his.

to his house (7) ..... to meet the dog, and he told me that he (8) ..... dinner again and said that hc

Ihave

had/had

two teeth taken out last week. a calculator with me.

for me. An hour later he phoned (10) ..... meeting appointment


III

(9) ..... after

all, so

I
this

I,hrasc
un.] c rli ned in c.uh sentence,

c) I can't do these sums. I wish I have/had d) Ann refused/said e) Helen didn't f) she didn't

the following exactly (13)

day for lunch. The next morning ,' he said. 'Could

he cancelled

want mc to borrow have stolcn

her bike. fro the office. She

and, after he (11) know

,s~id that hc (12) ..... the dog to my house at you tcll me how (14) ..... down. Luckily

can't havc stolen/must marc money,

the moncy

6.00. 'I don't thcre?' heard

come in to the office on the day it was stolen.


I'd pay for you too. bctter/you could leave.

I quickly fro
III

said I (15) ..... out and put the phone

I haven't

If I have/had

him since. b) said me c) asked me d) spoke

g) It's getting very late, so I think you'd


h) Ann phoned earlier i) The next two lessons were becn/havc remembered

1) a) told

and said that she had bcen/would been cancelled.


to bring

be late,
have

j) If wc'd
got lost.

remembered/we

the map, we wouldn't

2) a) would mind b) want c) like d) will help 3) ;l) has gonc b) went c) would go d) will go 4) a) told him b) said him c) asked him d) replied him
5) a) asks 6) a) am b) would b) will be ask c) will ask d) had already asked d) in evcning d) had cooked d) has to go out d) suggest d) had apologized c) had been b) that evening b) will cook b) went out b) would

2
I ,'uk l'.lrdully at

Do-lt- Yourscl]
Last week my brother bedrooms and I decided to paint our

7) a) this evening S) a) is cooking 1) .. I..


2) .. done 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) my I on .. .. .. . .. 9) a) had to go out 10) a) had suggested 11) a) has done 12) a) would 13) a)whereisit bring

rl) was c) the cvcning


c) goes out c) asked it is

c) would cook suggest

L",h lille, Some I" "'s .uc correct


1)1I1

if while our parents usually

were out for the

if..

c) suggested c) brought

some have a \\'hich


not be

day. Our parents

they have the painting we could

b) told me sorry b) had brought b)ifitis

\\','rd ,1'''lIld
i lur«.
,'I

by a local firm, but wc thought money painters if wc did paint

to save some

d) brings

it ourselves, We had watched the had to been painted, be able to do the job.

c) where

d)howwasit

Tick c.ich

"Teet line, If a lill,. has a word

the last time the house we would

so we thought 'first brother replied.

14) a) do I get b) I gct c) I will get d) I'm getting 15) a) went b) go c) will go d) was going

\\ I"ch ih;

should

not

all the surfaces said. 'That 'We'd better

must have to be washed,' can't have be very difficult,' if put some newspapers

8) 9)
10)

.. ..
..

4
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first

a) I don't

know

the answer,

so I can't help you.

he 1 here, write wurd in the


SI'.h'C,

If I kw!fv.lh.umAIv.~r;.I.«~qHMh~.Jilff
b) Don't If c) An off-duty The robber d) We didn't Ifwc e) I ate all the icc-cream, Iwish and now I regret it. leave early, so we missed the train. policewoman arrested the robber. run fast, or you'll feci tired. .

the carpet. trouble.'

If we

can make a mess, we'll get into we looked use said that

11)
12) 13)

..
.. _

After that had been have done,

for some paint in the garden this red paint,' he preferred

shed, 'Wc could

I was suggested.

My

brother

sentence.

14) 15)
16)

. ..
..

green paint. Just as if ~vc were going to arrived too!' home. 'You should have been

start, our parents asked us first,' rest of the house

Ill)' mother

said us. 'You can paint the

17)
18)

..
,..

f) Where is the bus station?


Could you ?

lmermediate Language'

PraCtice'

Problems, Errors, Consolidation 2

g) The local council is building a new sports centre. A new sports centre h) Ithink you should g.J
.0

6
. Put one of the words or phrases from the list in each space. Words can be used 1110re than once.

the doctor's.

could didn't have to don't have to might have mustn't must have should had to have to a) We .. it?n:t.~/J!(dp. like. b) You

must

If I
i) Someone used a hammer to break the window. The window .' j) 'Don't forget to buy some milk, Sue,' I said. I reminded

.
. .

.... wear a uniform at my schoo!. We can wear


play with matches! It's very dangerous!

whatever

we

c) I'm not sure, but I think I d) I'm getting up early, because I e) Sorry Ican't stay any longer. but I really I) If you want to, we g) Sorry 1'111 late, but I i) I think you

left my wallet in the bank. go running before school.


go home.
to

5
Rewrite each . sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word given.

a) It wasn't necessary for me to go to work yesterday. have b) I'd like to be rich! wish . c) I'm going to the hairdresser's having . tomorrow. /
I

go swimming this afternoon. take my dog the vet's . been him.

.. ,(FI/rI.'1:U(IJ.I;'(:,fp.!Jp.I.f!.W,l!r1Ir.~lt.rFlf1y,

h) Tim usually wears clothes like that, so I think it

go to bed earlier, and stop drinking coffee. do any homework last night, so I went to the

j) Luckily, I
C1I1ema.

7
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) The painters are coming to our house tomorrow.


•.. W(:,(l(J;.~.q.&i«J.(J.W:.b.qH.~(." "

.................................................................................................................. d) Perhaps David missed the bus. might

painted tomorrow. stolen last week. lost his ticket. were you, Diane,' said Paul. starts? the weather's bad. stayed lip late .

b) Someone stole Peter's car last week. ............................................................... c) 'I've lost my ticket.Kate,' .... , d) Paul advised Diane not to take the job.
«

..................................................................................................................
e) Marconi was the inventor of radio. by

said George .

..................................................................................................................
f) I think you were wrong to forget the keys! shouldn't

e) When does the play start? ............................................................... . ............................................................... You then . i) 'Do you have to leave early tomorrow. Ann?' asked Mary. ............................................................... early the next day. to pass the salt.

..................................................................................................................
g) It would be a good idea for us to take an umbrella. better ..................................................................................................................

f) Let's go for a picnic if the weather's good .


g) I stayed up late because I didn't feel tired. h) Jim lived in Italy then, so it was impossible that you met him here.

h) I'm sure that Maria worked very hard.


must

..................................................................................................................
i) Helen gave a camera to Richard. by

jim here, because he lived in I talv

..................................................................................................................
j) It was unnecessary for us to buy so much food. bought ..................................................................................................................

j) 'Do
..

YOll

think you could pass me the salt, Peter?' Isaid .

74

J .ncrmcdi.uc

Language Practice

8
i J nclerlinc
l'II'U!"

hc in e.ich
t

a) \\far and Peace was writing by Leo Tolstoy.

...wr.rrl.t;!1... . ..

.
. .. . .

b) That mustn't bc David! He's on holiday in Bermuda.

Unit 19 Purpose
Explanations
for For followed by a noun can be used to describe purpose, especially with verbs
of motion. I went to the shops for some milk. Infinitive \V'ecan use the infinitive to describe the purpose of the person mentioned ill the opening of the sentence. Jim scent to the station to meet iJ;'s .irents. p \v/e can use so (that) and present simple to describe a habitual purpose.

_',('IHCIlCC. ( <lrll',llill'
l'1

c) David asked a passer-by where was the railway station.


d) If] had lived in Ancient Greece, I might be a slave! c) In the army, you'd better wear a uniform. .. .. f) Kate told me that she must to finish her homework.

rcu.

..

g) ] think someone must open your bag. That's the only explanation. h) I wish] am taller! i) I repair my car by a qualified mechanic.

j) If] saw a snake, I'll scream and run away!


I'rohbll check Do you change tenses when you use reported speech in your language? Check the punctuation of direct speech in Unit44.
2

so (tbat) +
present simple

Bill wears thick socks ill bed so (sbat) his[eet don 't get cold.
• • • • \V'ecan lise so (that) and 'i,;.Jill/'i,;.'oll describe a future purpose. 't [0 We'll lake an umbrella so (tbat) ''(4,'e·011 't get teet. ·... We can also usc present simple. We'll take all umbrella so (that) 'u;'e 't get 'ii/ct. don \V'hen we describe in the past a future event, will becomes would.

Check the difference between Conditional tense verb in Conditional 2 docs not refer

2 and 3. Rcmcrnbcr
to past rime,

that the past

so (that) +~'ill and .... -ould

3
4

Whcn do we use the passive? Docs your language use verbs with a passive form in situations where English uses an active verb? How do we usc 111 list, have to and should] Are the), all the same? \V'hen might you say: a) Jim has to get up early every day. b) Jim must get up early every day. c) Jim should get up early every day. Explain the difference between each pair of sentences. a) I'm cutting my hair. I'm having my hair cut. b) I must have lost my keys. I can't have lost my keys. c) I didn't need to buy any food yesterday. l nccdn't have bought an)' food yesterday. d) If you came by bus, you'd get here faster. If you had come by bus, you would have got here faster.

We took an umbrella so (that)


We can also usc past simple.

uie

uiouldn

'I gel

wet.

We took an umbrella so (that) we didn 't get wet. so (tb,u) + can/could


• We can usc so (tbnt) + call for present time and so (that) + co IIld for P,lst lime when we describe purpose.

[leave the unndoui open so (tbat) tbe Ctltcall gel in and alit. Dora left class early so (that) she could go to the dentist. • If the person mentioned in the opening of the sentence and the action in the
second part of the sentence are different, we can't lise Infinitive of Purpose. We have to lise so (tlrat) + can/could.

Helen played the piano to entertain bcrlricnd». Helen played the piano so (that) every'olle else could dance.

Intermediate

Language Practice

Unit 19 PlII1)ose

in order to

In formal speech anJ writing we can usc in order to. Both verbs must have the same su bject, The President 'n tde a speech in order to explain the policy. This means: The President wanted to make a speech because the President wanted to explain the policy.

f) Helen went shopping to buy some new clothes. for g) I went to a private school for English lessons. to h) Sam went to a specialist to get treatment. for

• •

Note that Infinitive

of Purpose

is more often used than in order to.

Sec Unit 20 Result and reason and Unit 43 Text organizers,

Practice
:l
Put one suitable word in each space. Conrractions COUntas one word. a) 1 wrote the date in my diary b) Most tourists come here c) Mary called a meeting d) The thief c) Jack came to me in black so that nobody advice. cheat! help yourself. finish her homework. have parking problems, explain the new rules.

se

I/tflf

l wouldn't forgel it. announce the team. sec him.

3
COlnple[e the second sentence . so that it has ;1 similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) Paul had to go to the doctor's, and left work early. Paul .. k{t.mrr.kmr.IJ. Thc school Tina so that

.Jtww/t!j.f?

to the doctor's. larger,

visit the ancient temples.

b) The school was rebuilt because il wasn't Lugl' enough. in order to so that so that so that so that to gct a good scat, so he arrived early, so that so that a good seat. better. c) Tina wanted Jack to call her, and gavc him her phone number.

her.
sunburnt. them. dance.

f) Our teacher made us sit far apart so tliat we g) I'll leave the box open so that you h) Lisa got up early so that she i) Wc went into town by bikc so that we

d) I might get sunburnt, so I'll put on some suntan oil.

1·11
Cathy \,(ie g) Dick wanted Dick
.•..••••..••.

e) Cathy hid the presents and nobody saw them. f) We wanted people to dance. so we had the party in a large hall.

j) The school sent everyone a letter

2
Rewrite each sentenceso thar il contains the word given.

a) I went to the shops to get some cggs. for

" .t.~!r.J:t.U('.tIIa.I;t/!f..f for. J(JlJ!.t; ~.J!l'~.""""'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' b) Ann came here for ameeting with the director.
to

h) I couldn't see well in the cinema, and changed scats. 1

.................................................................................................................. c) Wc went on holiday to have a rest. for .................................................................................................................. d) Peter plays chess for relaxation. to .................................................................................................................. e) I opened the window to let in some air. for ..................................................................................................................

i) Harry wanted his friends

to

notice him so he wore a Iunnv hal. so that him . .

Harry
\Vletook so that we

j) \Vledidn't want to feel hungr~', so we took some sand\\·iches.

Unit 20 Result and reason

Unit 20 Result and reason


Explanations
• \VIecan link results and reasons with so and because.

not + enough + nOun, too many + noun, too much +


noun,

These sentences suggest a result, even when it is not stated. • Countable

too lit tic + noun, too few + noun


\\fe haven't got enough books, (so you'll !lave to share). There are too few books. There are too many people in the class.
Uncountable

Tim had eaten fifteen ice-creams, (and) so he didn't feel vel)' well. Tim didn't feci well, because he had eaten fifteen ice-creams.
• Normally we do not begin sentences with because, but this is possible in informal writing and speech.

We haven't got enough time, (so 'we'll hauc to burry). There's too little time. There are too man)' things to do. as a result, in tbc end, eventually
We can also introduce the result of a situation br usin!; a result phrase, such as lIS a result, or time expressions such as ill tlu: end and cvent ually, \'ile usually usc these in formal speech or writing. Two metres of SilO'"fell durillg Ibe Ilight. As a result, several main ro.ul,

Because Tim had eaten fifteen ice-creams, he didn't feel vel)' uiell.
If::, SIJIC('

\'ill' can usc as and since in formal speech and writing. They have the same Illcaning as became. As/since Tim bad eaten fifteen ice-creams, he didn't feel very well. Tim didn't [eel well, as/since he had eaten fi/teen ice-creams.

so mucl),

SO

ny, III ill'


NLl

SO

[ci»,

50

These expressions can be used with that, but that is often left out in speech and informal writing. • Countable.

were blocked. It started raining u-lnle "'!C' urcrc h,r"illg ourpicnic, and eventually ',,'e decided to go home. Kite and Tim waited jill' the bus for it long time, and in the end Ihc)' look
a taxi.

I bought so mallY books (that) I couldn't carry them all. There were sofew people in the theatre (that) the actors didn't perform socll.
• Uncountable

Practice 1
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. a) It was€HfIV'so a delicious drink, tliat.I had
to

have another glass.

b) Jack ate so much/so many cakes that he could hardly walk! c) Kate's offer sounded so/too good to be true! d) There arc ~o few/so little good programmes on TV that I rarely watch it. e) I felt so/toQ weak that I couldn't stand up.

There is so much rain at tbe moment (that) we hardly ever go out. We have so little free time (that) toe don't watch television.
SO ~I

adjectivc

iI',1/
surl. + 'ldjective !WIII] + that
t oi.

That is often left out in speech and informal writing. Last night was so hot (that) I couldn 't sleep.
+

£) We had so much/so man}' free time, that we got bored. g) I waited for Mary for ages, und as a result/in the end I ga\'c up.
h) There was so much/so man/rain last night, that the roads were flooded. t.ll1/ver\" tall to reach the shelf. i) David was too tall/tall enough/enough

Tbnt is often left out in speech and informal writing. II was such a lovely day (tbat) we went for a walk in tbe cOllntry. Too always suggests difficulty, and that something cannot be done. It was too far to walk so we took a taxi, The mountain seas too difficult (for us) to climb.
Compare the use of too + adjective and not +adjcctive + enough. Little Gerry is too young to walk to school.

I- adJcctive-/1I11I"iti\'(' with 10

j) I had so few/so little knowledge of the subject that Igot zero in the test.

.icljccr ivc + + IIlI illlli\'(' wul: to


111// I' (,1I()ji.~f,

Little Gerry is not old enough to walk to school.

Intermediate

Language Praaice

. Unit 20 Result and

I'C.1SOIl

2
Pur one suitable

a) My tea is .. l(JP' .. hot to drink at the moment. b) I had to stand at the back, ......... there weren't any seats left. c) Tom had , homework, that he had to stay lip until midnight. d) There were e) Helen missed the bus, f) There were h) Sue was i) We had people in iront of us that we couldn't see. she took a taxi. customers that the shop closed down. tired that she fell asleep on the train. money that we couldn't even buy a sandwich.

j) I haven't got enough time to do all my work.


too ..................................................................................................................

word in each space.

4
Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewritc each sentcnce.

a) Sorry, but Ihaven't got little time.

...$.f1r.()'../mt.l hfJ.w!:t:'j.td.mp.f!y/" timf.


b) Helen is not enough old . c) Paul has so much friends that he is always busy. d) We had too few time to go sight-seeing.
to

.
.

g) The room wasn't large ......... for so many guests -".

drive a car.

j) ......... it was raining, the sC!lOolpicnic was postponed.

3
Rewrite each sentence so that it Ius a similar meaning and contains the word given.

a) I felt really tired, so I stayed at home and had a rest. because

e) It's too hot that I can't think!

.. .I J((()'lX( 111111'.IJ1.1Ult.,fl.I((l.d n.a;$!.I!({,IJ,I.liH:1 (r(t.I:~(I.{!xl('rf.d..


b) I didn't use that piece of string, because it was too short, enough ............................................................................................................... c) The question was so difficult that I had to ask for help. such .................................................................................................................. d) There weren't enough seats for all the guests. few .................................................................................................................. c) There weren't enough seats for all the guests. many
,

..

f)

;i~~~~·:~~·~~·~·:;;~;~i~·~·~·~:·;i~~~·~ .... ·······················

..

g) It was so a long way that we decided to drive there.

h) So that I had run a long wa)', I felt exhausted.

5
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) I'm afraid you're not fast enough to be in the funning team. I'm afraid you're too .. .$/p,w.f.f!.b.t;ilJ.thuwminj/.mlJ:l. b) It's not very far to the house. so we can walk. Wecanwalk c) The film was so long that we missed our last bus. It was d) Tina felt unhappy and she cried. Tina felt so c) Some millionaires have lots of money, and don't know what Some millionaires Jim isn't g) Ican't afford to buy this bike. I haven't got 11) There are too few plates I'm afraid . There aren't . . have so . f) Jim is too young to get married. .
to

.
. .

..................................................................................................................
f) Icouldn't take any more clothes as there wasn't any space in my suitcase. little

..................................................................................................................
g) It was such a good play that the audience cheered. so ..................................................................................................................

do with it. .

h) I've got such a lot of work that I can't go our.


so .................................................................................................................. i) She had lots of children and didn't know what to do. lTlany .................................................................................................................

82

83

'Unit 21 Contrast

Unit 21 Contrast
Explanations
•i ii

'bowever

• However introduces or completes a contrasting sentence. However always


has punctuation before and after. Houieucr is more common in formal speech and writing.

!Jough, though

Maria was ill. However, she taent /0 school. Maria 'Weill to school. She was ill, however .
• Note that we cannot say: "Hoioeuer she was ill, Maria (Incorrect sentence)
U

,1",1","'1/

(!'(Jugh

• Although is used to introduce a contrasting clause. This is a second


statement which contrasts with the first statcmcut. Maria went to school although she was ill.

'!l't to school.

Altbough she was ill, Maria went to school. • Although is often emphasized by expressions such as still, anyway and all the same. Maria still went to school, altho 11gbshe W,1S ill. Altbough she was ill, Maria toent to school anyway/all the sallie,
• Euen though is uscd to emphasize the contrast.

but and yet

The most common kind of contrast is made with but.

Maria felt ill, but she went to school. • Rut is often emphasized by expressions such as still, al/)",,'a)' and all the same. Mariafelt ill, but she went to school anyway/al! the same. Maria felt ill, but she still went to school. • Yet can be used instead of but in formal speech and writing. Maria felt ill, yet she went to school.

Even tbough sbe felt very ill, Maria went to school. • Though is used in speech and informal writing. In these contexts, the two clauses arc often made into two sentences, and though is put at the end. Maria went /0 school. She was ill, tbougb.
all tb« other luind

Wbile and whereas can often be used in formal speech and writing instead of ,t/though. \Vhile/Whereas some experts expect the Government to win the election, most believe that the opposition will will. • Despite is used to introduce a contrasting clause. It is always followed by a noun phrase, or the verbal form of the noun (-ing). It cannot be followed by
a main verb.

all the other band introduces a contrasting opinion. It is usually used in formal speech and writing, Television bas mall)' aduantages.Lt keeps us informed about the latest
news, and also provides entertainment in the home. all tbe other band, television has been blamed for the violent behaviour of some young people, and for encouraging children to sit indoors, instead of taking exercise.

See also Unit 43 Text organizers.

Despite her illness, Maria went to school. Despite being ill, Maria went to school.
• Note that we cannot say:

".Despite she felt ill, Maria went to school.


(incorrect sentence) lJl.'piICO/

• In spite of is used to introduce a contrasting clause. It is always followed by a noun phrase, or the verbal form of the noun (-ing). It cannot be followed Lr
a main verb. III spite of her illness, Maria went to school. .

ln spite of being ill, Maria went to school.


• Note that we cannot say:

".In spite of she felt ill, Maria went to school.


(incorrect sentence)

R4

Intermediate

Language Practice

Practice
l.
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. a) I read the book you suggested. b) In spire of! Although c) Although/Howeuer we warned I didn't enjoy it, although{jlOwever) him, Harry still got lost. they cause traffic

Unit 22 Functions
I like it here, I won't stay here long. On the other hand/Whereas, Whatisa function?

Explanations
• • A function is a way of describing language according to its purpose. This section gives examples of some of the most commonly used functions. Most functions have several different ways of expressing the purpose. language we use often depends on: The situation we are in. Is it in private or public? The person we arc talking to. Is the person our own age, do we know them well. etc? What we arc talking about. Arc we borrowing a pen, or a large amount of money? The.

d) Cars arc fast and convenient. problems in cities. e) Ididn't

have much time, but/however

Imanaged to visit lots of places. falling over.

£) Kate won the race, although/despite


g) AlthoughlIn

spite of the delay, the train arrived on time.

h) Ididn't manage to jump ,6l'er the wall, although/yet

J tried twice,

2
Put one suitable word in each space.

a) .. Afth(J.I.'!Jh ..... Tim felt tired, he stayed u;, to finish his homework. b) Alan didn't enjoy skating, c) I found French hard at first. d) Jane kept running, e) Mike was lost, but he he went with his friends all the same. , Isoon started to enjoy it. though she knew she couldn't refused to look at the map. she had seen it before. competition, in of her cold. , your ideas arc worth discussing. lent some to his sister. Asking. accepting and refusing Asking for information . they were losing at half-time, : : City won in the end. . Making offers . . Advising win. •

£) Carol went
g)

to sec the film,

The functions below are classed as formal, neutral or informal, but remember that you might be informal with a friend if )'ou want to borrow pen, but formal if you want to borrow a large amount of money.

the rain, the school Sports were a great success.

h) Helen IVan the swimming

i) I'm not sure I agree with you

Asking for and giving advice or making recommendations. I think YOII should stay at home. (formal) If I noere you.L'd stay at home. (formal) Can YOII help me? Sorry, I can't/Of course! can. Will yo II wait here, please? Would you wait here, please? (neutral) (formal) (formal)

j) Tony was short of money, but he

3
Complete the second sentence beginning as shown, so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) Although Despite While

it was snowing,

we went OUt for a walk.

.. i!;J,t; ..wp.w,.II'.t;.wf.«f.(JHt.fo,(.(l..w«f( .
to

.
warmer, but others disagree. the concert anyway.

b) Some experts think the world is growing c) I don't enjoy rock music, but I went Although d) Even though Despite Although

The order is from neutral, to most polite. Can you tell me what time the bus from Glasgow arrives? Note the indirect question, and the present simple for timetable times. Could you tell me ... ? Would YOIl mind telling me ... ? Making an offer to do something. Shall I carry this suitcase for you? (neutral) Thank you very mucb.r'Ibnnlss, but! can manage. Offering something. Wouldyoulikea

e) Despite the heat, Diana wore her winter clothes.

f) Whereas prices rose last year, this year they have gone down.
Prices rose last year g) Jim had a headache. but he still read until late. In spite of . h) Although Sam had~'t studied, he did well in the test. Sam hadn't studied .................................................................................... Offering

soft drink?

(neutral)

R7

; IIICI"Jllcdiate Language Practice

Unit 22 Functions

1'L'rlllission

Asking for, giving and refusing permission. The order is from neutral, to most polite. fs it all righ: if I leaue early plcase?
Can Lleaue early, please? Yes, of course. Could Llcaue early, please? Sorry, but YOIl Call'to

Practice. ·1
a) Would you like a cup of tea? .,1.. b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)
I)

Note that we do not say


May Lleaue early, please? ( )Ifcrsand
l~rl,rl'rl'I1(l's

:;"Sorry but you couldn't'.


Yes, ),011 may.

When we offer people things, we often ask them what they would prefer, would like or would rather have. All these arc neutral.
Wlollld you like tea or coffee? I'd rather baue cofTee,please. I'd prefer tea, please. I don 't 1/1 iud.

Match the utterances ,1) to j) with the functional descriptions I) to 10).

When we ask people what they prefer, we do not use would.


Do you prefer rock or folk music?

All these are neutral.


I'll be back at 11.30. I won't do anything silly! 1\,'qUl'stillg

Making and responding to requests The order is from neutral, to most polite.
Call you open the window, please? Sure. Could you open the window please? Of course. \Vould you mind helping me? Sure, no problem. Note that it is best to avoid answering \\lould you mind ... ? questions with yes or no. Often requests are not answered, but an action is performed instead.

2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)

Excuse me, do you know what time the museum opens? ..... Actually, I think I'd rather have a Chinese meal. ..... I know, we could walk along the river. How about that? ..... Sorry, but I won't do it. ..... That looks difficult. Shall I help you? ..... Excuse me, but do you think you could turn your music down a bit? ..... Well, to be honest, I think you should go to the police . Is it all right if I pop out to the shops for a moment? . I'll definitely be there at 6.00. I won't be late! ..... Givingadvice. Asking for information. Making an offer. Offering something. Asking permission. Refusing to do something. Expressing a preference. Making a promise. Making a request. Making a suggestion.

2
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

Making suggestions. All these are neutral.


Let '5 go to the cinema. \Vby don 't we go to the cinema? How about going to the cinema? \Ve could go to the cinema .

I'm very busy.@Ould YOLI mindYL.ill giving me a hand? If I were you. I'd write/HowaboUl you write the letter again. Why don't we go/going to the theatre tomorrow? Could you/Would you mind close the door please? Do you like/Would you like some more water? I promise. I don't do it/I won't do it again. I'm quite good at cooking too. Would I help/Shall I help you? I have a suggestion. Why don't you go/Could you go to the beach? Would I borrow/Could I borrow your ruler? j) Arc you tired? I think YOll should go~voll can go to bed early.

a) b) c) d) c) f) g) h) i)

• SeealsoUnit9.

intcrmediate Language j:irad~e··

Unit 22 Functions

3
Replace the underlined parts with a more appropriate or accurate expression,

a) Look, don't worr, about me, there's a bus at 12.30. So I'm back by 2.00, Ipromise!

e) I'd like you to turn off the television. Could f) Let's go for a walk. How ? g) I promise not to talk to Richard again. ?

.. .l.'I!IJ.(}IJ.{t
b)
A: B:

Would you like an ice-cream? Or some cake perhaps? Ichoose ice-ere.1m, please. . I'm having problems at school. What do you think I should do? I talk it over with your parents.
:

. c)
A: B:

I
h) Would you Iike me to help you?

. ?
? .

......................................................................
d)
A: B:

Shall
i) When does the plane arrive? \'<'ould

This suitcase is really heavy, and my back is killing me! Do Icarry it? / I'm not sure what to do this evening. Any ideas? You will go to the cinema. perhaps? I've got an appointment at the dentist's. Shall I le~ve school early? Have you brought a note from your parents?

j) My advice is to see a doctor.


If I

.................................................................................................................. e)
A: 11:

5
Put one suitable word in each space. More than one answer may be possible .

a) I think you ...$hp.«M .. spend more time on your homework. b) you help me carry these bags? you tell me what street this is? you please be quiet! telling me what time it is? st.1Yat home. c) Excuse me d) What a terrible noise! e) go skating tomorrow.

.................................................................................................................. f)
A: B:

.................................................................................................................. g) Excuse me, I want to catch a bus from here to London. Tell me how much does it cost.

f) Would you
h)

g) Thanks for the offer, but I'd

..................................................................................................................
h)
A: B:

you sign your name here, please, sir?

I feel really hungry. Have you got anything to eat? Do you like some lemonade? It's very hot in here. Are you opening the window? Of course . Come on, hurry up! Tidy your room and make your bed! No, Idon't! It's not fair!

..................................................................................................................
i)
A: B:

..........................................................................................................
j)
A: B:

.................................................................................................................. 4
Complete the second sentence so tharir has a similar meaning to the first sentence. a) Please take a seat. Would ..jp.l;I.mi/1fl.fllhl1j/J..Mn( b) Fruit juice would be better for me. I'd rather c) I'd like you to wait f.,r me. Can d) Will you allow me to leave the room? May ? . i) you like another slice of pizza?

j) Please

I leave the table?

')0

')1

Unit 23 Relative clauses 1

Unit 23 Relative clauses 1


Explanations
Relative clauses arc normally joined by relative pronouns, but thcs« pronouns can somctimcs be lclr out. Some types of relative clauses are more (0111111011 ill formal speech and writing. It is important to know whether a relative cia usc is Defining or Non-defining, and whether it is a subject or object clause. Sec below. Ilc· i IIIi II,~ ,111<1 N'lil-dl'lining L'Llltscs • Defining clauses give information which cannot be left out because it uivcs important information about the subject. b

Subject and object clauses

Subject clauses refer tu the subject of the sentence. Tbe doctoruilro treated me tc 'a" me not to worry. Tbe doctor (subject) treated me (object). Object clauses refer to the object.

The doctor tbat/wbo/wbom] spoke to told me nOI to worry. I (subject) spoke to the doctor (object).
Leal'int,;out relative pronouns • \Y/e cannot leave out the relative pronoun in' non-defining clauses.

Pablo Picasso,wbo died ill 197.1, ""as a painter and sculptor:


• \Y/e can leave out the relative pronoun clauses. in defining clauses which arc object

The doctor tolro treated me told


This describes • Non-defining main sentence which doctor
clauses

/1/('

not to ",'on)"
• from the • This is separated

Tbe doctor I spoke to told me 1I0t to irorry.


\Y/e cannot leave out the relative pronoun subject clauses. in defining clauses which arc

we arc talking about.

give extra information. by commas.


1973,

The doctor wbo treated me told me 1I0tto won)'.


We can also leave out the relative pronoun after a superlative. That was the best meal I've euer eaten!

Pablo Picasso, wbo died ill •

taas a painter and sculptor.

tobicb, that \l',1hich that refer to things. That is less formal than which, and some and speakers prefer to usc which. That is also used to refer to people in speech
and informal writing in defining clauses.

Practice 1
Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence. a) An old man,E!illYwhich b) The girl who/whom c) The box that/whQmJean d) The winner, whom/whose e) The girl who/whom f) The museum, g) A policewoman which/whose that/which was carrying a suitcase, knocked at the door. lives here knows my sister. picked up had a hole in it. bike was an unusual design, won a medal. was in a beautiful building,
to

71Jebus uibicl: goes to Cairo leaves from here. The road that we took led to an ancient temple. The woman that we spoke to gave ItS directions. • who and whom Who and whom refer to people. We use whom in formal speech and writing to introduce an object clause. (See page 93). Whom is used after a preposition in formal language. In informal language, many people prefer to use who, or that, instead of whom. Many speakers never use whom. (Sec also Leaving
out relative pronouns.) ,

spoke to me turned out to be in m)' class. was closed. we asked told us how pen Iborrowed get there.

h) The boy whose/whom

house I was staying at was an old friend. didn't get it back! leaves at 8.00 stops at e\'cry station.
...

i) The last person which/whose

The woman who teaches lIS music also plays in an orchestra. I t was the same boy whoml mel yesterday. (formal) No one knows by uibom the victim was shot. (formal) No one knows wbo the victim was shot by. (informal) The people tbat live next door malee a lot oj noisc. • whose Whose means 'of whom'. The girl whose case had been stolen toent to tlic police station.

j) The train which/who

2
Put either iobo or 7;.'/)011/ in each spacc.

a) The waiter by .. W.!!Il!II b) The teacher c) The friend to d) The boy e) The man to f) The people with g) The assistant

we were served expected a large tip. also teaches managed


111)'

taught us yesterday llent my basketball opened

brother.

to lose it.

the door looked familiar . I travelled were good company. made a mistake with the bill.
r'r'

I spoke told me to wait outside the office. sold me the compllter

··r··'" ,,,' .',

',~,:

92

en

lmcnnccliate

Language Practice

Unit 23 Relative clauses 1

h) The player

had the ball was tripped by the goalkeeper.

i) The girl from j) A strange man

r received

the card was someone

r met

on holiday.

a) These are the boys with whom

said he knew you phoned while you were out.

3
Put who, whose or (hat in each space.

a) The friend ... W/!'OH•.•• house b) The guidebook c) It's difficult to say d) The couple e) I'd like you to tell me f) The girl g) The game

r stayed

in is coming to stay with us. everything. was painted by.

we bought explained this portrait

Rewrite each formal sentence as an informal one, ending with the word given.

r went

on holiday. with. for. from. at.

...rhr..fr.«rll~dl!J..f.l.wr.J;t.((!I1.b.I/MtJj
b) This is the letter for which I have been waiting. ................................................................................... c) That is the shop from which Sue bought her bike. ................................................................................... d) That is the bed-and-breakfast . e) Tim is someone . to whom I hardly ever write. at which I stayed.

house I bought both worked in my office. you were talking to. wanted it back. ruler Ihad borrowed

we played was difficult to understand.

I I can 'lrerncm rer 1) t


i) Do you know

. J"lent my bike to.


Catherine wevisited works for? were all very interesting. impatient.

to.
W;\S

f) Do you know by whom this book


. g) Ravenna was the most interesting

written? by?

j) The places

town in which we stayed.


Ill.

4
Decide whether the clause underlined is Definingor :'-llll1-defining. IV'rite D or N icxt to each .enrcnce.

a) The girl who was waiting was becoming b) The room, which was enormous, c) The students,

..0..

was filled with lines of chairs. day.

h) United .

were the best team against which we played. ag;1inst.

who were late, waited in the playground.

d) The food which was left was eaten the following

e) A tall girl, who was wearing a hat, came into the room.

7
Add a relative pronoun to each sentence.

a) Friday was the last time I saw Jim.

£) The dog, which was lying on the sofa, had long pointed cars.
g) The train which leaves at 8.00 doesn't h) Two boys, who were playing football, stop at Bath. saw the robbery.

.. .f.dfl«J,

fWJ..f.flr r. (fI..ft.ti!l1r.I.~f1t.I.${I IHJ.I!11,

,
beautiful.

b) The island we visited was extremely c) The girl I met was a friend of Harry's. d) The meal we ate was not very tasty. c) Mary W;1Sthe first person I asked.

:;
Jnderline dative ,ronouns which an be left out in hcse sentences.

a) The book that John was reading was a bit frightening. b) The travel agency which sold me the ticket was near my office. c) The name of the girl
IV

ho lived next door was Ellen.

d) In the end, our holiday was the best that we had ever had. e) The dentist who I go to isn't very expensive. f) The film which we saw last week was much better than this one. g) The people who were l"aving couldn't i) The car which David bought find their coats. h) The garden, which wasn't very large, was full of flowers. was not in good condition.

f) The book I read didn't explain the problem. g) The teacher we usually have was away ill. h) The friends I met last night send you their love. i) Unfortunately I've lost the pen I always usc.

j) The girl who

r sit

nex-

tJ

in class is my best friend.

j) The bus I catch stops outside the university,

94

'Pi

Unit 24 Relative clauses 2

Unit 24 Relative clauses 2


Explanations
<..

Practice
1
Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence. a) The train~who b) That/What goes to Brighton leaves from here. at the beach. lost had this desk?
to

I like best is an afternoon luggage I left


W<1S

:(l!llhillillg
l'llet'S

c) I didn't know who/which d) The people which/whose e) Wherc's f) The shop whatlthat h) Everyone who/which

to ask about l11y timetable. wait a long time.


011

~t.'ll!

Note the changes made when sentences arc combined using a relative clause. Il bus goes to Cairo. It leaves [rom here. The bus that/wbich goes to Cairo lcaucs from here.

the ruler whose/that

I went to didn't have any mill" bag this is? the day lorcvcr. was full, didn't stop either. told him the answer.
..f..

\\Ie took a road. It led to an ancient temple. The road (tbat) we took led to an ancient temple. \\Ie spoke to a woman. She gave liS directions. The woman (that) we spoke to gave ItS directions.
Il woman teaches •
lIS music. She also plays in an orchestra. The woman who teaches us music also plays in an orchestra.

g) Do you know whom/whose i) The second bus, which/whose

was there will remember

j) Jim was helped by someone who/whom

2
arc Some sentences have a word which should not be there, Write the word at the end, or put a tick .! ii the sentence is correct.

a) The woman whom I asked didn't know the way. b) TI1(! man whose his car had been damaged was very angry. c) That was the longest film I've ever seen. d) The train which it goes e) The policewoman g) Everyone
to

Note that articles arc often changed e.g. from a/an to the when sentences combined. A girl's case was stolen. She went to the police station.

London

leaves from here. me asked me my name. in 1889, is made of iron.

The girl whose case was stolen went to the police station.
A doctor treated me. She told me not to won)'.

who she stopped

[) The Eiffel Tower, which it was completed h) The children a)


\Y,fc want

The doctor who treated me told me not to won)'. I spoke to a doctor. She told me not to worry. Tbe doctor I spoke to told me not to worry.
• Note this common error. ':'The bus tbat/which goes to Cairo it leaves from here. The subject is not repeated (The bus ... it) in a relative cia usc.

that Helen spoke to advised her to try again. that they live next door arc my friends. It opens at 12.00.

3
Rewrite each pair of sentences as one sentence, and include the word given. Begin as shown, and make any necessary changes,

to visit a museum.

that The whose

w.(w'!.w.thl1t.w.(.w/1J.1'(M.IfI~'li!f.m~l1t.{l,.,e(J,

b) A boy's bike was taken. He visited the police station.

N"II·i'illiIC ci,l\I\cS

These are clauses with an -ing form verb.

I sent a card to the girl living across the street. (I sent a card to the girl who was living across the strect.}
rci.llin' These can be used as subject or object. They arc common means the things which. with what which here

The
who The

,
He carried my suitcase.

,.

c) A friend met me at the airport.

N(IIII111,d

Cl.ll1:.l'S

d) Tom cooked a meal. It was delicious. that The who The : , . , . c) A friend is staying with me. She lo'nes from Paris.

We didn't understand what she said. Wlhatl want now is a Clip of tea.

",--'. /'

··~.:t·

r'(

<Jr,

f) I found a man's wallet. He gave me a reward.


whose The g) I go to a shop in the centre. It is cheaper. that The h) I went to a girl's party. She phoned me. whose The i) Iknow someone. This person likes you. who .. .. yrs/no questions .

Unit 25 Questions 1
Explanations
These are questions with the answer yes or no. Present simple Do you live in Prague? Present continuous Are you sitting comfortably? Present perfect Haoe you ever eaten octopus? Past simple Did you phone SIIe? Past continuous Were you having a bath? Past perfect Had YOIl already left? can/could Can you swim? Could ),011 see? must M,lst ),011 go? Do yO/l have to go? These arc questions with what, wl)y, toben, who, whose, which and boio, Present simple When do you usually leave? Present continuous \Vhat are YOIl doing? Present perfect \Vby have yO/l stopped? Past simple How did YOIlfeel? Past continuous Where were you liuingi Past perfect \Vho had told you? can/could What can J do? \'(fhere could he go? must What must J do? \'(fhat do J have to do? Qucstions about the subject do not use do/does/did. Cats (s) eat fish (0). What do cats eat? Cats eat fish. (object question) \Vho eats fish? Cats eats fish. (subject question) A positive question could have ayes or no answer. Do you like dogs? Yes, J do.!No, J don't. A negative question supposes that the answer will be no. A yes answer means [bat the questioner has supposed wrongly. Don't you like dogs? No, J don't. Don't you like dogs? Shorr answers Yes, of course J do. \'(fhat made
YOII

1
one word in ach space, or ick the space if he sentence is
orrcct,

.
[0

a) We sent a present

the children

..1..........

living next door.

'lit

b) Mike doesn't really know c) I started talking to some boys d) I asked Mary f) I don't really know c) There were lots of people at the party

he wants. sitting by the side of the road. we went to.

W/h- questions

she was thinking, but she wouldn't tell me. you arc talking about.

Subject or object questions

g) We saw two rabbits h)

playing in the garden.

Positive and negative questions

we need now is a map and a compass.

tliinl: tb.it :

Auxiliary verbs, and modal auxiliaries, arc used for short answers. Do you speak French? Yes, J do. Have you-seen this film? No,l haven't. Did)'ou stay long? No,! didn't. Will you be late? No, J won't. Have you got a pen? Yrs, J have. Call ),011 drive? No, 1can't.

98

fJ'l

Practice
1
question for e,lch answer.
\\'IIIe a

Unit 26 Questions 2
.
. , ,', , , . . . . Get up? At about 7.30 usual] y. I was reading \Val'and Peace, I well! there
to

a) . "W.!!lJii(i,':',oiQ),I1.((/M!f(l,(I;t!}rl.wll

b) ..".,""', c) ." d) c) ., ,

buy some food. Reply questions

Explanations
Reply questions arc a way of replying to a statement, when you do not "bree or arc not sure, or arc surprised, (not sure) 'Are-we? We're leaving at 6.00, (surprise) Haven 'I YOIl? I've neuer eaten spaghetti. Tag questions add a question to the end of a statement. The meaning whether the question is positive or negative, and on the intonation. depends on

So far I've only eaten breakfast. Now you have to put it in the oven! Yesterday? I'm washing

f)
g) h) .., i) j) ,., , , ,",., . ..

I felt absolutely

aw Iul. bill!

my hair. Ican't talk, son·~'. tile school. Tag questions

Because Ihaven't paid the electricity My bike? I left it outside

My part)'? All my friends arc coming, .,,I;~/!i/./t.o:r..j.(lOd.d~I!r.?


"

2
\\'1 Ill' ,1

.1)

".
..

A f.1I11ilyof three lives next door. I play with m)' little brother. Mrs Dawson Horror teaches me m.uhs. for lunch, I usually cat a sandwich

Formation

v/;" ur
"

:"",,/

b)

I,,, ,"1Cir

qucsuon
;l1ISWCr.

c) .., , d)
c)

,
,.. ,

.
.

1'lg questions arc formed using the auxiliaries. When the main verb is posit ivc, then the t.lg is negative. When the 1ll'1i,l verb is negative, then the tag is positive. You speak french, dOIl'1YOIl? (negative tag) You don't speak French, do YOIl? (positive tag) • There arc two possible questions, each with two intonations. Negative tags gener.llly suppose the answer will be yes. The rising tone is like a real question because the speaker is not really sure and needs information. Thc level/falling tone is used to check information. You speak French, don't YOII? (rising) I'm not sure, so tell me if rill right. You speak French, don 't you? (level/falling) I'm sure that you do, but I'm checking. Positive tags generally suppose the answer will be no. You don't speak French, do you? (rising) I'm sure you don't.Zl'rn surprised that you do. YOl/don't speak French, do you? (level/falling) I'm sure that you don't, but I'm checking. Tenses i This is a selection of examples, with explanations of meaning. Not all types arc included, (LlF) Present simple You don't know the answel; do YOIl? You've been pretending to know. (LlF) Present continuous We're enjoying ourselves, aren't we? You want someone to agree with you. (1\) Present perfect He's moved bouse, bnsn 't be? You're not sure about this. (1\) Past simple You didn't tell her, did youi You're angry because it's true!

films frighten me.

f)
g) " , ..

Italk most to my friend Dina.

1\'1caning and intonation

I sit next to Maria in English.


I take m)' dog for a walk cvery evening, " My friend Tim makes me laugh. Music helps me study. No Yes, Yes, yes,

Il) i) j)

3
\\'rIll' a short
,1 11 s wc

a) Have you been ill long?

I./t(lx(:.!1L

.
. . .

b) Are you waiting for me? c) Did you go to the cinema?


d) Will you be here tomorrow?

r lor each
Ilg ;lS

<]l1l'\lIOIl,

I)i..'~:1!}I]i
Shll\'"[l.

e) Did you have


g) Do you know h) Is George

to

pay a lot?

f) Can you help me with this problem?


where the theatre is? going to be there?

No No,
Yes, ." No,

. .
. .

100

1"1

Intermediate Language Practice

Unit 26 Qllestiolls.!

Past continuous Past perfect • Medals can could should

I uiasn't driving fast. was I? You need a witness to prove this. She hadn't met him then. had sbei You're surprised by what was said. The), can't be here yet. CantlJey? You're surprised. You couldn 'I jump over it. could YOII? I didn't suppose that you could! You shouldn't do that. should you? I think it's wrong.

(LlF)

2
Add a reply question 10 each sentence.

(1\)

(1\)
(ur:)

(UF)

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

We've got a test tomorrow. I don't understand this sentence. Sue phoned me last night. I don't like ice-cream. Tom is leaving tomorrow. There's a policeman at the door. Lisa has just had a baby -, I haven't eaten Chinese food. There isn't any milk in the fridge. I met David in France.

...I:II1Y.~.W/;

? ?

..

..
.. .. .. ..

?
? ? ? ?

..................... ?

..
..

?
?

'el's

Let's uses shall as a tag. Let's go to the cinema. shall we?


Impcrarive, be and hauc Polite instructions use will or uion't as a tag for the imperative, Sit down. will ),Oll? Sit doton, won't YOII? There is no difference in meaning in this context. Be also uses will or won't as a tag for the imperative. Be quiet. will YOIl? Be quiet. won't YOIl? This is an order! Have in a polite instruction uses will or soon't with the imperative, Have a scat. WO/l'tYOII?

3
J\~ld a tag question to each
sentence.

'roblems

a) We're nearly there •... ({(f.I;t.f.!.I{(:. ? b) You haven't got a spare pen, c) You're coming to my party d) You won't be late, ? e) Harry's fifteen, ? f) Kate and Pat live in Leeds, g) You don't feel well, ? h) You like fish ? i) Richard's bought a new bike j) I shouldn't tell you this

?
?

Practice
This unit also includes further practice for Unit 25. vdd a short nswcr to each
entence,

4
Make a new sentence with a tag question which has the same mcanmg as the first sentence, and begins as shown. Make any necessary changes.

a) b) c) d) e)
f)

g) h)
i)

j)

Have you ever been to Brazil? Do you like sausages? Are you coming to the match tomorrow? Did Helen phone YOL today? Has Jack done his homework? Can George and Sue skate? Will you be late? Has Tina got a brother? Is that your house? Did Jane give YOll that book?

No •.. J./mVt;!1t. Yes Yes No


Yes

.
. . .
.

Yes, No No,
Yes

. . .
.

No,

a) I'm sure that Paul doesn't like football. Paul af{t;-5I1.'t.Mf.fo,CJl.blllf. ...........•.. .rfqM.k ? b) I'm checking that you've got a sister. You ? c) I don't think that you've done your homework! You , ? d) I'm angry that you sat next to Ellen! You ? e) I'm surprised that the guests have arrived. The guests , ? f) I'm checking that your name is John. Your name , ? g) I'm surprised to meet you and think (hat ~'our name rniglu be john. Your name , ? h) You are certain that you didn't leave your wallet on the desk. I ?

102

10.1

j,//(I/II(·,/i.lte

Language

Practice

i) You're surprised William j) You 'rc chccking This book

that William has got married. , that this book is by Martin Aimless. , ? its and it's ?

Unit 27 it and there


Explanations
Its is the possessive form oUt. It 's is a contraction of it is or it has. I/ike this botel.Lt s comjortable and its restaurant isgood. It 5 got a lovely sunmming-poo], too. Verb forms with it.
• Impersonal verbs Some verbs which describe impersonal third person with it. It:( raining. It S sncncing, activities arc normally only Iound in

5
('I""
'SL'

.1) Why did you forget your keys! You arc silly!
Ihe hcsr

SL'11I,'11CC \.'PIl1l'Xl.

ill each

1) I didn't tell you

to

forget them, did I? I?

2) I told you not to forget them, didn't

b) Ugh! I can't believe it! I'm sure they must taste horrible! I) You like eating snails, don't you? 2) You don't like eating snails, do you?
c)

If we go to Italy, we might have problems I) You speak Italian, don't you?


2) Y(lU don't

with the Ianguagc.

speak Italian, doyou?


to be a surprise [or Stella.

d) I told you to keep the party a secret. It's supposed So, Ijust want to make sure. I) You didn't tell her, did you? 2) You told her, c1idn 't you?
,'1

be with adjectives The verb be is often used in this way with adjectives It '5 ill/cresting that yo« like jazz too. It's strallge that 'We'·vcnever spoken bcjore.

and that.

Well, Mr Robinson, I think it's time you told the police the truth. You sec, we've found your fingerprints on the murder weapon.
I) You didn't murder

Lord Chumley,

did you?

2) You murdered
f)

Lord Chumley,

didn't you? there, they're ami their

look, seem, appeal' Look is usually followed by ,1S if with verbs and like with nouns. appear call be followed by that, Itlooks as if Carol bns ·",'011. She looks likc a real champion. It seems that the Brazilians arc goillg to u-in. It appears that aile of tbe customers called the police.

Se(,111 and

Only two minutes to the end of the match and United arc still 5-1 in the lead. It looks certain now. I) United aren't gain!:;
to

There can refer to place, or is used when a subject is needed for be or some other
verbs.

win, arc the)'? abroad I think.

2) United arc going to win, aren't they? g) I havcn'r sec Ann for ages. She's working I) She's got a job in France, hasn't she? 2) She hasn't got a job in France, has she? h) I just can't answer this question. It would be nice to 11:1\'esome help. I) You could help me, couldn't you? 2) You couldn't help me, could you?

A [amous 'Writer used to liue there. There is a shop at the end oj the street. They 're is a contraction for thc)' arc. NaIlC), and jim haul' arrived. They're both 'WearingJaney dress. Their is the possessive form of they. Ask them to leave theircoats i., the hall.
Verb iorms with tlierc
it

There is used with scent and appear. There seems/appears to be a problem ';Sh~ seems unhappy. It and there are used as subjects for be. It refers to something
mentioned.

wei there

already

There is a shop ,1/ the end oj the street. It is 0/,1'11 every day.

Intermediate LanguagePractice.

Practice
1
Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence. a) Are their~any eggs in the fridge? arriving at about 5.00. b) It's/Its really cold this morning. c) Peter says they're/there e) Is therelthey're d) I like this bike but its/it's wheels are too small. anybody their/there? house.

Unit 28 Place and position


Explanations
ill, alit, inside, on • in and inside In generally describes things contained by something else. There are some cups in that cupboard. We use inside to emphasize the idea of containing. Lllckily there was nobody inside the blazing bouse.
Compare: is an apple tree. (she's at home) (she's not at home) (in the house, not out here in the garden) There arc many expressions with ill. This is a selection. a country My parents are ill Canada at the moment. a city My sister lives in Madrid. street Jack lives ill Garden Avenlle. road She was walking in the road, not on the pavement. mirror Tony could seehis face in the mirror. hole/crack There was a hole in my shoe. hand Ellen had a bunch of flo·wcrs ill aile hand. armchair She sat ill all armchair . country Paul and Mary live ill the country, not in the city. hospital Sally is ill, and is ill hospital . pnson Keith stole some money and ended lip ill prison.

f) It's/Its a pity we missed the opening of the film.


g) Kate and Sue have sold their/they're
I

h) What a lovely dog. What's it's/its name?

2
Put it or there in each space.

a) .. l/rrr.r. b) c)

is a treein the garden .. .ll... looks as if is strange rhar

is going to rain. arc no restaurants in this town. •.............. is only me!' •.............. is the one at the end of the street.' ? was nobody is a swimming-pool. when I phoned. is only open in summer.

Kate is ill. Kate is out. Kate is imide.

d) 'Who's that at the door?' e) 'Which house is yours?' g) appears that

£) .•.•..•••....• seems to be something under the cupboard, but what is


h) Near the park

3
Rewrite each sentence ending as shown so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, md so that it contains it or 'here.

a) Ncar the hotel is a small restaurant.

...rhr.(f.I$.n.$m(If(r.r~f({«rnl1t.
.......................................................... .......................................................... .......................................................... e) Brian seems to have left. .................................... :

ncar the hotel. to Spain for your holiday too. road. engine trouble. has left. today. to Budapest. torch. lost again! haven't arrived.

b) You went to Spain for your holiday too, which is strange. c) My road has a big tree at the end of it. d) The plane apparently had engine trouble.

£) Today is really cold!


.......................................................... g) Budapest is a long way from here. .......................................................... .......................................................... i) We appear
to

h) Your torch hasn't got any batteries in it. be lost again!

on On generally describes a thing on the surface of another thing. Don't leave your bag all the flam: Expressions with on. transport There were few passengers on the plane/bus/train . chair She sat Oil a chair. What's all television/the radio this eueningi' television Let's hang this picture all that wall. wall Tim cut his foot all a piece of glass. mjurres There's a cinema all the left. left/right There are small houses all this side of the street. side She was toalleing in the road, IIOt011 the pavement. pavement

.......................................................... ..........................................................

j) The police haven't arrived, which is strange .

106

'f'l7

Unit
,II, Iu

28

Place and position

'Illd ill

• At and in are used to describe a person's position.


point or place.

At describes

position

at a

\\1e met in tbe airport bllilding. (inside the building) I'll see ),011 tit the cinema. (the place in general) ['II sec ),011 in tbe cinema. (inside the building) At and in arc used with arrive. \\'Ie arrived ill Prague. (the city) \\"e arrived at Prague AiJport. (the pLICC)

III describes position in a place which h;1s walls (like a building). It is also used with cities and towns, etc. The difference between at and ill is clear in examples. \\Ie met at the airport. (the plan: in gcneral)

beside and by beside means the same as next /0. Some speakers feel it is more formal. Come and sit beside me on tbe SO/;I. By means the same as near, It is often used in descriptions of rooms. There was a table by the scindoio. HI! 'was standing by the door.

opposite

Opposite means exactly on the other side of a space. There is a baker's opposite 01,1' bouse.
• See Units 3 J and 32 Articles.

To is used with verbs of motion. Lls/nigh/·wl' well/t(~ the cinema,


A/

Practice 1
Chllllse the correct word undc'rlincd in each sentence. a) There's a small shop~ the end

(If the

road.

'~IHcssi()ils with

,II 'lIlei t u

b) Paula was standing gn/with


d) Don't

one foot.

Tlierc's a cali!at the end uj'tbe street. Do ),011 sit at the front or at tbe back o/the class? [olin isn't at school. He's at bome. Mr King ',;){CSII 't at work yesterday. Could you take this letter to the post office? I sent a parcel to my sister,

c) Helen has moved at/to Barcelona. walk at/in the road! It's dangerous! below/under. aboveltwer it. e) From the plane we could see the mountains f) Brian spent his holiday at/in Hungary.
g) When h) Julia's

To

the horse came to a small stream it jumped house is at/on the other side of the street.

i) Lisa cut her foot at/nn some broken glass. j) Tim was sitting in/on an armchair.

,{/)O'-i)C,O'Ver,

/Jc/u"',lIlIder

• abouc and over Above means higher tluin. You call see the top o.f the totoer aboue tbe trees. Over means higher than, but in the same position. The alien spaceship houered ouer the building. It also means across or covering. There was a plast ic sheet over the bole in the roof There is a.footbridge over tbe motorway. • belou: and under bcloio means lower tlian, From the mountain, / could sec the lake below. Under means lower than, but in the same position. I keep my suitcase 1111 del' my bed.

2
If the word
underlined is not

a) Jane's sister has a job !1! Manchester b) l mct David yesterday c) Ellen had a large holc
gj

Airport.

.....f.....

~ the citv centre, her left boot.

appropriate,
write a new word in the space. Tick if the word is correct.

d) jack sits in the backof the class.


e) There was a small table.l! the bed. f) The robber was holding a gunm onc hand. g) There was a beautiful h) Bill didn't i) The children portrait hanging!1! the wall. feel well and his doctor sent him to hospital. usually sit ill the back scat of the car.

j) To reach our village we lake a road abo\'(: the mountains.

Ij('X!

t o; JJl'dr, /;.1',

/)1':.1"('

to and Ileal' Ncxt u, means exactly at the side o]. Mnri« sits next to Pauln. Ne,11' means close to. Tom s house is Ileal' the sports centre.
next

3
PUt one suitable word in each space.

a) Maria lives .../).1..... Bellingham


b) Can
YOLI

Road.
the shelf please?

put the plates back


to

c) Please don't stand d) I'd really like live

vour desks! the coulltr)'. the building but there was no one '-':'~"'::.'
,I.' '_' ,'.

e) Go down this street, and you'll sec the cinema .......... the right. f) The police searched
i
:,-ro-'

.. ,

'.'

\\.

Intermediate

Language Practice

g) I met Ann

the bus yesterday. He's the bus left. . this evening.

h) Sorry, George isn't here at the moment. j) Just as Tom arrived .......... the bus-stop,

i) Alice wants to know what's .......... television

Problems, Errors, Consolidation 3


1
a) We arrived early, so that wedin order t9 get tickets. b) It was too/enough long to wait, so we went home. waiting outside. about it. bike I borrowed had forgotten c) Tim and Helen have arrived, and they're/there d) The boy of which/whose f) Ann felt lonely because/so g) Despitc/ i) Yesterday j) However/In Althoul!h e) \VIewent to the beach for/so that a swim. no one had invited her to the pany. until late. the country. I felt tired, Iworked Choose the correct word or

4
Put one suitable word in each space.

a) The statue was holding b) What's on

a sword .. .(1\ .... one hand. myself! .

the cinema this wcek?

c) When I look the mirror. I don't recognize d) What have you got YOllr b:tg? c) Peter found somcone's waller .......... the pavement. i) 1\1Y family moved from th~ country g) You've got a small holc ..' h) The burgLtr climbed .... :

phrolse
underlined in each sentence'.

.......... the cirv,

your pullover,

the fcnce and into the garden. Street.

h) We spent a lovely holiday in/into was so/such

5
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence.

a) Karen is living at@London b) Marv sits by/next

cold that I stayed at home.

spite of the rain, we went for a walk. it was Lite. we decided to go for a walk. . with. finish it. . it was raining, wc worked in the garden . at the beach. ? in Ann's house. so that hungry.
horne.

to Sally in the physics class.

c) I want to scnd this letter atlto Brazi].

2
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) Although

d) \Vhen 1 opened the box. there was nothing in/inside.


e) Exactly by/oppositc thc cinema, there's a fast-Food restaurant. Monte Carlo. f) Wc had a holiday in a small village by/ncar h) We had a lovely mealin/on the plane.

It was late .. l(,<l.lJ!r.fl(Xlfkd.(p.fj(J.fo.(/J.!1!(1.(L b) John is someone . c) The exam was so difficult that I couldn't It was d) Although Despite e) Let's spend the afternoon How with whom I used to work.

g) Paula lay down at/on the floor to do her exercises.

6
Put one suitable word in each space.

f) Ann's house has got four large bedrooms .


................................................................................... \l/c·II ................................................................................... a) I decided to visit my grandmother ... Itt.... hospital. h) The cat hasn't come home, which is strange.
.

g) \VIe might feel hungry, so we'll take some sandwiches.

b) We put a blanket the injured man to keep him warm. c) It's not far. Wc'rc getting . <I) We found our cat hiding f) I decided to go the shops g) \X'hat rime is the news h) Bye for now.T'll sec rou a car,
Ill}'

i) Harry can't afford to go on holiday Harry \I/ould hasn't got Museum? ? .

e) Jim hung his coat ....... :.. the bark of a chair. bikc. thc r;1(lio? school tomorrow.

j) Where's the National

110

III

l ntcrntcdiat e La/lgU(lge Practice

Problems, Errors, Consolidation]

3
I )ccidc which ,II ISWLT, a), b), c) (" d), best fits the

II (lise uJmisttlken identity When Diana got off the train, (1) ..b: was a woman waiting for her (2) ..... the platform. '(3) ..... ?' she asked. '(4) ..... a car waiting for you (5) .... .' Diana was (6) ..... she thought that her aunt must have been (7) ..... busy the woman, (10) ..... not very surprised,

5
Look carefully at each line. SO)\\C lines arc correct but some have a word which should not bc therl·. Tick each correct line, If a line has a word which sllllllid not be there, write rhc.wnn! in the space.

II case oj mistaken identity After a few minutes, the car stopped in front of I)J .. 2) w/(q 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) S) 9) 10)
I I)

a large hotel. The driver who opened the door, and said, 'Please follow me.' The), went up in to a lift. Then there was a long corridor doors. Although with two or three it seemed strangc so thar the car hadn't

. . . . . . . .
.

to meet her (8) ..... the station. (9) ..... she did not recognizc

was dressed very formally, and had an attache case (11) ..... her arm, she was (12) ..... tired after the journey that she was happy to get (13) :.... the car. The woman, (14) ..... , just said a fcw words to the driver, and then walkcd away. Di,lna wondered (15) ..... she was. 'It's strange that shc didn't even i ntroducc herself,' she thought.
I) a) who

taken her to hcr aunt's house, Diana who wasn't surprised, Her aunt, who she was very rich, owned several large hotels, which she often staved in them. I suppose she felt so much bored at home that she decided to St.l~·here. 'Please you wait here, will vou?' said the driver, and disappeared There seemed into a room at the end of the corridor,
to

2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10)
II)

12) 13) 14) 15)

b) there e) whose d) it a) below b) to c) on d) in ;1) You Di.ma, arc you b) You're Diana, isn't it c) Arc you Diana d) You aren't Diana a)There's b) Theirs e) Its dl lr's ;1) out b) In c) inside d) outside a) so b) despite c) too d) as a) so b) too c) enough d) very a) at b) to c) in d) for a) However b) Since e) In spite of d) Although a) she b) who c) and d) whose a) at b) in c) under d) by a) enough b) so c) too d) vcr)" al witli b)by e)at d)imo a) however b) despite c) although d) in spite of a) whether b) there c) who d) however woman (a)
('.tJ•••• the bus, and Kate sat (b)

be

;1

lot of people that in one of the

12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17)

. . . . . .

rooms. Then the driver, who he hadn't been gone long, came back at and asked Diana to follow him. The)' went into a large room full of people, who all started clapping. There was a poster that it said, 'Diana Harris, Supcrmodcl.' 'Oh dear,' said Diana, 'I think so there's been a mistake!'

6
Rewrite each pair of sentences as onc sentence with a similar mcamng, completing it as shown.

a) Sue read a book. She really enjoyed which Sue .. r.mfl.(I./u({!AJHiHciJ.,</!I:o:rdf;;

it.

,. cnjoyccl.
me a present. prescnt.

b) Some friends visited me. They brought who Thc friends that The hotel d) I borrowed whose Tilc ." that I wanted who Thc girl , , ~; '

There was another I'ut c,lch


ouc

her and

c) I stayed in a hotel.It was cheaper than this one. this onc.

suitablc
ill

started chatting. interview bus-stop?' woman (d)

She said she was going (c) a place called Murcott the right (g)

Forbes Road too. 'I've got an

Il!"l'pnsililHl
SP,I(C.

House,' said Kate. 'Is it (e)


When I look out of
Ill)'

the
I can

'It's not far. It's (f) replied. 'In fact, I live (h) (i)

the end of the street,' the window, the stop, they got

a friend's bike. He wanted it back. back.

see people working

' When they arrived (j)

off and walked up the street together,

c) I saw the vase in the shop. I wanted to buv it. shop.

f) A girl sings in the ~r(ll1p. Sh~'s ~0t green hair. gr.:cn hair.

. Intemlt'diate

Language Practice

g) 1 met a girl. Her brother whose

is in my class. class.

Unit 29 Time expressions


Explanations
at 4.30.
• III

..............................................................

h) We are taking the train. It leaves at 4.30. that The train i) A man knocked who The man at the door. He was selling brushes. brushes.

Years Months Seasons on Days at Times Night

i1l1999 inJanuary in tbc summer \Vedll('se/ay

Morning Afternoon Evening

in the morning in the aJternoon in the evening

j) Isaw a film with Tom. It 'yas interesting.


which The film / interesting. you?' ?' 'Yes, thanks.' 'Good idea!' [uring

• •

011

011

my birtlrdny
at midnight

7
Complete each space, using the verb given where necessary,

a) •... 'rp.;(hrrv.t:!ll!( ..... (have got) a book, haven't b) 'They'll be back by 6.00, c) •.........................

at 4.00 at night

at midday

'1 expect 50.' 'Sorry, Ican't, Calendar rcicrcnccs

(go) for a walk, shall we? It's a lovely day!'

d) 'You (leave) now, arc you? Stay a bit longer.' 1 have to catch the bus.' e) 'Jim and Ellen have seen this film, ?' were you?'

During is used about periods of time. 1 didn't [eel nervous during the performance. We say: the seventh of September September the seventh We write: 7 September 7th September September 7th Dates arc written Day/Month/Year in British English: 7/9/99

'Yes, Ithink so.'

f) 'You can meet Helen at the station,


g) (be) here yesterday, to know the time, h) 'You don't happen

?' 'Yes, of course I can.' 'No, Iwasn't.' ?' ?' 'Sorry, I don't.' 'Yes, that's right.' two

Day references

If today is 7 September:"
tomorrow the day «[ter tomorrow yesterday the day before yesterday
8 September

i) 'Both drivers were driving too fast,

j) 'You
cartons.' Problem check

(forget)

the milk, did you?'

'No, 1 bought

9 September 6 September 5 September tonight last night tomorrow night

Check the different L1Se5 so, too and enougb in Unit 20. When do we use so of and such] 2 3 Check the differep :'!s between although, botoeuer and despite/in spite of

Periods of the day

this morning yesterday morning tomorrow morning

this afternoon ycsterdayaftemoon tomorroio ajternoon

Can you add any more expressions to the list of functions in Unit 22? I-low important is your intonation and tone of voice? What do you say in similar situations in your language?
Out

for, since and ago

4 Check when you can leave

relative pronouns.

5 Check the meaning of they're, their and there.


6 Check the differences between at, in and to. once and one day

For refers to a period of time. I have lived here for six years. Since refers to a point at the beginning 1 have lived here since 1995. Ago refers to a point in the past. \Ve arrived Jive hours ago. • Once refers to a state in the past. Once I owned a motorbike.

I studied French Jor two )'ean. of a period of time. I've been waiting since 3.30.
1 knew that ages ago!

114

115

l nt.crmcdiat c Language Practice

Unit 29 Time expressions

One day can refer to past or future, One day I was walking through the town centre tabcn l met jill, One day 1'1/ be [amous!
No7.C refers to an exact
1lI01llCIH,

Practice 1
a) lmet Tina a daytlOi1CJlWlast b) In these days/Nowadays c) This morning/The week. seems to watch too much television. the end of the week. I)ext day. had a shower. where I'd left my keys, Choose the correct wurd or phrase underlined in each sentence. everyone

.: () ~l' .11 1<.1

or a general state,
IIOW

You have to fill ish ,., Notu! Peter used to live ill Rome, but

morninl: I was busy in the garden,

be's living in Florence.

d) We have to finish this project ~ f) During/While h) Helen's the film I remembered is in/on January

e) Bye. I'll see you the day after tomorrowlthe g) John played tennis, and after/afterwards birthday 10th.

Nouiadays is used when we generalize about the present. Nowadays people arc 1I0tas polite as they used to be. Then refers in the past to the following moment, \\1(' taent to the cinema, and then 'i.i'C had il pizz'l .

If.,CII,,,_licr'U'.m/.i,

.,_Ii ['/' ,Inc! I"Ier

• Ajicn,-'t1rds can be used in the sallie way, Wc ioeut t o tbc cinema, ,llld afterwards 'i.i'ehad a pizza.
• When after is used, there is an object. Afler the film 7.':'(' had ,I pizza. After tbat we toent home.

2,

a) We had lunch, and afterwards b) Jill is never late for lessons. Jill is always c) I won't leave before 8.00. I'll be here

we went for a coffee.

COlllpic-lc the
second scntence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

After ... !¥.t;/wil.hn({/!tJil.fl!!I(/i ..l;I!t;.t.'!r.H((jIUf.(P/ft.'r. ... , ' . . , or. the . hours. , . ?

• Later means ill a later rime. Mrs James isn't here at the moment. Call ),011come back later!
,'IIIIil aud

d) I've been living here for three months. I started living here e) When we met for lunch it was 12.00. We met for lunch f) \Y/hat do you do in your country What do you do in your country g) I'll see you not tomorrow I'll see you the h) It's 10.00 and I've been waiting here since 7.00. I've been waiting here on january 1st?

by

Until refers to the latest point in a period of time.

I waited for Alex IInliI6.00, and then I left, I'll be here until the end of Milrch," • By means at a time before. \Y/e usc it when we do not know exactly when something happened or will happen, We'll be there by 5.30. (not at 5,)0, but no! later) Helen worked all day, and by 6.30 she felt exhausted,
,{I 1.[;1, //I

but the next day,

the cud

We use at last whcn wc are pleased that a long wait has ended.

,Inel "I tliccn

At last we can be together! • In the end describes the final result. We waited for Tim for ages, and in tbe end we left. • At the end describes a point at the end of something. At the end of the [ilm we all cried.

3
Put one suitable word in each space.

a) Would you like to go out .. ,P,H .... my birthday? b) Rita moved to this town four years c) I won't phone Jim now. I'll phone him d) I woke up twice e) g) Luckily midnight the night. the frog turned into a prince, most use their cars. catch the train, . . time
to

. .

"1/

lillie

and ill


11111<'

011 time means at the hour which was arranged, The plane to uk off exactly all time,
//1 time means with enough lime to do something. \\Ic arrived ill time 10have a meal before the plane left.

f) People in cities used to take the bus, but Kate arrived just h) We felt fine in the restaurant, i) I've been waiting here

but we both felt ill half an hour!

j) Don't wait for me any longer. I'll see you

Intermediate

Language Practice

"

.: .... ,

4
Rewrite each sentence so that it has a similar rneuning and contains the word given.

a) I spend the summer at the seaside. in


•.• (!}(/.

I.t!lnr.${;(/.-?irlr. in.-?Hmmrr.,

b) I'll see you in a few hours. later . c) I started at this school in 1997. since ................................................................................................................... d) George had a bath and after that washed his hair. / then .................................................................................................................. e) Dianeldtmy house at 10.00. until ..................................................................................................................
a/all, zero article,

Unit 30 Countable and uncountable


Explanations
• some, all)' • • • Nouns are either countable or uncounrablc. Uncountable nouns arc sometimes called mass nouns. Countable nouns have plural in s or an irregular plural. Some countable words do not have s plural e.g. people. A/an the indefinite article is used with singular nouns. Sec Unit 31. Sue has got a motorbike . Zero article is used with countablcs and uncounrablcs. Sec Unit 31. I don 't like fizzy drinks. I prefer still mineral water. Some is used with countables and uncounrablcs. Any is used for questions and negatives. We've got some lemonade, but we haoen 't got any glasses. Have YOll got any cupsi Some is used in questions when we ask about something we have a definite idea about. This is necessary in requests beginning Can/Could .. , e Have you got some letters for me? (I think this is probable.) Have YOIl got any letters for me? (I don't know the answer.) Can/Could I have some more tea, please?

f) The train arrived exactly


on time

when

it was supposed to.

.................................................................................................................
g) I won't arrive later than 2.00.

by

..................................................................................................................
h) Paul tried hard but finally gave up. end '

..................................................................................................................
i) I was too late to say goodbye to Lisa. time much and many

..................................................................................................................
j) I've been learning English for two years.
ago ................................................................................................................. Materials

Much is used for uncounrables and many is used for counrables, They arc used mainly in questions and negatives . How much money have we got? There isn't milch water here, How many chairs are there? There aren't many cushions, • • Materials are uncountable. \'(Iood burns easily. Words for materials often have a countable meaning. See page 120, Some words arc uncountable grammatically, nlrhough we miglu not CXpl'l't this. Examples arc: advice hair knowledge spaghetti English (language) health lllggage travel furniture information machinery weather

5
Put one suitable word in each space.

a) Did you sleep well

In~L

night?

b)
c)

the hot weather, we have our meals in the gardcn. the lesson, Mike and Tina decided to play basketball. three weeks, day you will be a star! to arrive time for the examination. . night. Problem uncountables

d) Sam hasn't seen Lisa e) I know that f) It's very important

g) The robber ran out of the bank and was arrested shortly h) There is a lot of noise in our street

J 1R

11')

!lJiCllllcdi,ltc Language Practice

Unit 30 Countable

and uncountable

• •

A singular verb is used: His advice was very usefld. A/an cannot be used. Could I have some information?

French is difficult. Do ),ou allY luggage?

"~.'" ;1

Practice 1
Choose the correct word or phr'lsc underlined in each sentence.

a) Q-Iow mucliYHow
c) I put somt'lan)' d) Peter went
to

man)' spaghetti have we got? somewhere, but where is it? time. shops are there?

b) Where islare m)' new trousers? chocolate buy ~/soml' glass so he could fix the brokcn windows.

:\ h cru.u ivcs:

Some uncountable words have a differcnt meaning with a/an or some. II fish (the animal) some fish (a portion of loocl) a loaf some bread (the material) a coffee (a cup of coffee) some coffee (the material) a paper (a newspaper) some paper (the material) a wood (a small forest) some 'wood (the material) all iron (for pressing clothes) some iron (the material) a glass (for drinking) some glass (the m.ucrial) • Some uncountable words usually with zero article have a different meaning with a/an or s plural. I can't stand liaise. (in general) I heard a strange liaise. I keep hearing noises. (spcci fic) Nouns ending -ing usually have a general meaning and arc uncountable, some also have countable meanings. Do you like drllwing/p,1iming? (in general) I bought a painting/a drawing last week. (specific) Some nouns change meaning with a/an but cannot have s plural. Education is vel)' important. (in general) Diana had a vel)' good education. (her time at school) Knowledge can be dangerous! (in general) A knowledge of boats is useful. (knowing about a subject) but

c) I'm afraid we haven't gutmuch/many f) The news islare on at 9.00. g) How much/How man>: furniture

h) I've found the milk but I can't find a/sollie glass. i) Could you give me some/an;,: orange juice, please? j) Mary's advice-was/were
IW[

very useful.

.\ Ilnn.Hi H:S:

with ,111111 or s l,Jur.ll

2
Put one word in each space. Pu t a dash (-) if the sp.Ke should be blank.

a) My trousers c) I'd like d) Tina has

need ironing. Have you got .. ,Iw...... iron? loaf, please?


to

b) Could you go to the baker's and buy information about trains vcr)' good health. drawing.

Paris.

c) The war ended .. ;......... ),c'lrs ago.

Jane isn't vcr)' good at

g) Harry didn't have h) Vanessa bought i) Could you give me j) Do you know

very good education. paper and read it on t hc bus. advice please? people in this \'illage?

3
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence and contains the word ginn.

a) Let me tell you what I think you should do. advice Let me :iv:()'liH ..'j(J,mt:.IJ.tiv:i(r. b) I need a clean pair of trousers: any I haven't got c) There isn't a lot of water in thc pool. much ................................................... d) I have to wash my hair. washing My hair e) I can't find my scissors. where ...................................................... . :.. water in ihe pool. , .

\ )l

licr problems

singular verb The news is on. money singular verb There isn't any money. police plural verb The police are coming. Government/Army singular or plural verb The Government has/have decided to resign. scissors/trousers always plural Where are my scissorsi I bought some ncu: trousers.

nc ...'s

. sCissors. )
:-'".~'" r ,":','r

Intermediate Language Practice

f) The book did not contain any information.


in The information

Unit 31 Articles 1
Explanations
Zero article Zero article is used when a general statement is made. • Plurals

.......................................................

g) What did your new bike cost? how ...................................................... your new bike cost? h) All the sandwiches have been eaten. left There .......................................................

Dogs are not allowed in this shop.

4
Choose the best alternative, I) or 2), to complete each sentence,

Compare The dogs next door bark all night . Here we arc referring to some particular dogs, not to dogs in genera 1. • U ncountablcs

a) The fire is going to go out. Can you go and get ...~p.m(.wl!(1.r/. .... I) a wood 2) some wood b) I) There was I) an advice c) Let me give you 2) some advice . money all over the floor! 2) There were .

Milk is good for yo II.


Compare The milk on the top shelf isfat-free. This group includes:

d) Lemonade? Sorry, no, we haven't got I)some 2)any e) Peter keeps 1) a chicken

at the bottom of his garden. 2) some chicken we were given 2) was very useful people were there on the bus? . •

Abstract ideas Food and drink Languages Materials Verbal Nouns

War is a terrible thing.


I love chocolate. I don't like orallge juice. Spanish is spoken by about 300 million people, This chair is made of plastic nnd leatlier. Speaking is not permitted during the examination.

See Unit 30 for other uncountables, Buildings and purpose Zero article is used withcertain buildings when their purpose is important. Jim is in prison (He committed a crirne.) Compare My company is repairing the prison. Words of this type are: be in or go to hospital.prison, bed, class,court be at or go to work, school, university, sea others be at home, go home Countries, states and cities Zero article is used with most countries.

f) The information g)

1) were very useful

1) How many
I) It's green!
i)

2) How much . . 2) it's on its way . • 2) They're green!

h) Look at Rita's hair! I've called the police and 1) they're on their way

j) The assembly hall was full of 1) a noise 2) nois;

Marie comes [rom France.


Countries which are a group or plural have a definite article.

5
Put one suitable word in each space.

a) I wanted to have a bath but there wasn't any hot ...WilMr...... b) When is the on? I haven't heard any today. c) 'lim's eyesight was bad and he had to have new d) Helen had to pay extra at the airport because sh~·h~~·~~·~ ;l1l1ch e) If you want to make an omelette there are some ill the .. . .

We left the Netherlands and crossed to the United Kingdom. Note that Great Britain has zero article.
Zero article is used with most states and cities.

f;;~·I·(~·~: .
t>

Los ATlgeles is in California.


• Streets Zero article is used with most streets.

f) You can't cut that with a knife. You need some g) We need some bread. Could YOll go and buy a large
h) When the burglar ran out of the house he was arrested by a

I bOllght this dress from a shop ill Bond Street. Definite article the is used in the High Street.

122

ID

Unit31

Articles 1

Buildings Zero article is used with names of buildings preceded by place names. We visited Blenheim Palace and Coventry Cathedral. The is generally used when there is a phrase after the noun, often with o], which adds more information. We visited the Palace of \VestlllillSter. Names of people Zero article is used with names, but the is used with titles. Carol Parker is the Minister of Communications. Meals Zero article is used with meals when we refer to them in general. Dinner is at 7.30. At the end of the conference there was a dinner. Compare The dinner they save here is really fantastic. Geographical features Zero article is used with geographical areas, lakes, mountains We visited Lake Victoria. It's in East Africa. They climbed Mt. Everest in record time. H clen spent her holidays on Crete. and islands.

Practice
1
Underline the errors in these scntences. Rewrite each scntence.

(See Unit 32 for activities including the) Kingdom?

a) Have you ever visited United

•.. HnK9'P'«.i;Y.t;(:Y.{~/It:.tit/J.i;.I/.!ldr.t/.K.itJ!JI:{(lml.
b) On our trip, we visited the Canterbury c) Love is wonderful thing. in this hotel. Cathedral.

d) The pets arc not permitted

e) Rabbit is small wild furry animal with long ears. f) The New York is in United States of the America. g) The judge sent David to the prison for a month.

2
Put a/all or leave the space blank.

a) .. ::;.. love makes the world go round. b) Sheila has got c) Rita works in German office in car. West Street. electrician.

• •

General historical references I'd like to have hued in Prehistoric Europe/. 'Ancient Rome. Transport Zero article is used with by for general forms of transport. We went there by car. Compare We went there in a really old car. Note that we say on foot.

d) I've got ....... friend who is

e) Paul goes to ....... special school for ....... musicians.

£) You are
g) Jack is in

silly boy! This is ....... cat not ....... dog! hospital and can't go to ....... school. and study to be ....... doctor.

h) Carol wants to go to ....... university

3
• Alan refers to one thing, or to something indefinite or not described. Unit 30 for alan and some. I've got a brother and a sister. (not two) Tim works in a [actory. (not described) Compare Tim works in tbe factory down the road. Note that alan are unstressed, and are pronounced l'dl and /;ml. General descriptions An ocelot is a wild animal, similar to a leapt/rd. Descriptions often use plurals. Ocelots are wild animals, similar to leopards. A/an are used when we describe the job or the character Peter is a fool! Mary is an engineer. of a person. See Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) Mary teaches English. Mary ...(~.«~l........ English teacher, . b) Charles has a factory job. : factory. Charles works ...................................... At the moment e) Susan conducts Susan the orchestra. of the orchestra. foot. animals . animal.
j -.-

c) You are not allowed to park here.


is not allowed here. sea. d) Jim is on a ship at the moment.

f) We walked to the station.


We went g) Frogs are small amphibious ........................... ;

174

Unit 32 Articles 2

Unit 32 Articles 2
Explanations
Definite article: the • The refers to something definite or described. The is usually pronounced /0;:'/ before consonants and /[)i:/ before vowels. The beginning. The end. We often use the when we refer to something already mentioned. We saw a good film last night. It was the new film by Berghini. Reference with of The film was about the love of a girl for her cat. Compare Love is a uonderjnl thing! Other references Tbe war between tbe two countries lasted for six weeks. Compare War is a terrible thing. Unique objects and known references Definite article the is used with objects which are unique. How many astronauts have landed on the moon? The is used when the context is known, and we understand what is meant. \Vhere's the newspaper? Groups Definite article the is used with nationalities and other groups. 1 really admire the Italians. Classes Definite article the is used with adjectives to describe groups. The old, tbe sick and the unemployed need our special care. Other uses Playing musical ins·., iments Time Superlatives (See Unit 35) Fixed phrases Names of ships Rivers Oceans Do YOIl play the gllitar? In tbe past lin the [uture But: at present This is the biggest one. The sooner the better. We sailed on the Neptune. The Amazon, the Danube The Pacific, the Atlantic

Practice 1
Choose the correct word underlined in each sentence. a) Where's ~electric heater? I can't find it. b) What happened at an/the end of c) David has illl!the appointment

a/the film?

at a/the optician's.

d) An/The old person sometimes feels lonely. e) Peter owns a/the largest model plane in a!the world.

• •

f) Luckily a/the fire brigade soon came and put out althe fire.
g) Harry's mother bought him a/the guitar for his birthday present. h) I'm thinking of buying a/the new pair of trousers. i) In the end there was a/the war between the two countries. j) I didn't know an/the answer to a/the question, so Ileft it alit.

2
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) Jim is a very good pianist. Jim .. 'lo/J.f!tr.p.t.q.!J/l The Government Helen's d) Tom has a doctor's appointment. Tom e) The film was about an artist's life. The film The g) The school term finishes today. This is h) No one in the class is taller than Jane. Jane is class. is school term. of an artist. Italians. doctor's. should fastest. very well. poor. b) Poor people need help from the Government. c) Helen's bike is faster than everyone else's.

f) The only goal of the match was scored by Italy.

3
Put a/an or tlre in each space or leave the space blank.

a)

.Tht;.President

.th.

largest cruise ship in door.

.th. world.

b) Everyone in c) There's e) At g) i) In

class agreed that strange person at robbery called film, station, I ate new film at population

happiness was important. police. sandwich and waited for good job. country.
mOlley.
t r.un.

d) Someone who saw beginning of person with past, most of f) When I arrived at h) Have you seen j) I needed

ver)' tall man sat down in front of me.

good education usually gets Embassy cinema? lived in

new pair of trousers so m)' mother gave me

12(,

j /I: l'rlJlcdi<lte

Language

Practice

Ullit32

Articles 2

Practice
1.
,i/all/tI)e in c.u h space, or Ic" I'e the ~pace
PUl

(Units 31 and 32 mixed activities)

e) Anna is learning to be a guitarist. play

a) .r{(t;. Italians eat .. fl... lot of .. :7... spaghetti. b) ....... most people thought d) What's ....... difference c) f) g) that Beatles were ....... very good group. milk in ....... morning. rabbit and ;. finishing line is interesting hobby. ticket. hare? winner. e) I usually drink ....... glass of between first person who crosses playing ....... guitar is

...................................................................................................................
f) Mike is an officc-worker. works

1>1.1I1k.

..................................................................................................................
g) Marie is a Frenchwoman. France

Helen got on ....... bus and bought

.
h) David is still working. at ..................................................................................................................

h) There's ....... newspaper

shop at ....... end of ....... street.

2 C:, .rrcct

a) Could you get loaf of bread from baker's?

the LTrllrs in these ",'lIlences by alL lin); or


rl'llIU\,lnt\

... c.(l.t.<ItlJp.!!Jr:.t.tJ.f"nf"fb.rf!(1.,f(r."m.th~b.(1.kt;r.~?
b) The milk is good for the children. .................................................................................................................. c) Thc

. 4
Complete each sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) I didn't expect to see George.

J 01111 is at a work

... <1~qr?Jw:M.thr.
Do c) Nick teaches chemistry. Nick is

last person I expected to sec .


ho-ne? teacher . present. gave me was wonderful. Australia . French . . film last night. was very entertaining.

at moment,

b) Do you have a dog in your house?

,iI.lIl/the.

.................................................................................................................. d) We travelled to the Italy by a car. .................................................................................................................. c) Have you got a brother f) War between or the sister? was longest in the history. .................................................................................................................. two countries .................................................................................................................. g) Who was first astronaut who landed on moon? .................................................................................................................. h) Nile is longcst river in world. ..................................................................................................................

d) My friends gave mc a wonderful ............................................... c) The Australian Canberra

capital is Canberra.

f) The French lesson is the first tomorrow. ............................................... g) Someone is phoning on you. There's someonc .

3
j\l'\vrit" each sentence so th.u il 11.15 a similar Ilh'cliling and c(llllaillS the \von..! given.

a) We travelled there by train. on

h) We saw a very entertaining

... WI-: 1r.(1. rr:.{Ir:.,f J.{(~r.t;.qn.thl-: fmil;l


b) There isn't a larger size than this one. largest .................................................................................................................. c) Clara sings for her living. singer .................................................................................................................. d) People who arc unemployed the .................................................................................................................. often feel depressed.

5
Put a/all/the in each space, or leave the space blank .

..1.\ .. (1) fricnd of mine, Sally Milton, wanted to become ....... (2) dancer whcn
she was practise in (3) girl. ....... (4) every morning (6) living room at before (5) school she used (8) dancers need
to

(7) horne

(9)

lot of ....... (10) exercise, so Sally uscd to go to

(11) gym two or three times

....... 12) week. In ....... (13) end she got ....... (14) job in ....... (15) theatre company and became ....... (16) actress. In ....... (17) fact, ....... (18) last week I saw her in ....... (19) programme on ....... (20) television!

,.-"----.'.'

Unit 33 Detemiine~s and pronoun's

Unit 33 Determiners and pronouns


Explanations
1//, some, no
• all All is usually followed by a plural noun and verb. All students are expected to arrive on time. In the expressions all day, all night, all the time, the noun is singular. A// can be followed by the anda noun. A// of is also used when all is followed by the or a possessive adjective (my erc.), All (of) the tickets for tbe match had been sold. Not is also used with ali. Not all students have bikes. Not all (of) my friends have bikes. Allis also used as a pronoun at the beginning of a sentence. AliI want is some peace and quiet! All Lneed is £400! AliI have is £50! Allis not normally used as an object. Sec Unit 41 Pronouns: eucrytbing, some Some is used in the same way. Some is not used with not. Some students are expected to help. no No is used as the opposite of all. No students actually arrive on time! No cannot be followed by the. Sec none on page 131. each

.:'"

both Both refers to two things and is used with a plural verb. Note the position. Both people in the room were tuearing hats. The people in the room were both wearing hats. There were two people in the room. Both (of them) were wearing hats. Both of yotl can help me. You can both help me. every Every has a similar meaning to each in some contexts. It refers to all the things together, while each refers to them separate] y. Euery box was wrapped in coloured paper. Every person in the room was wearing a hat. We cannot say "eoery of you. See Unit 41 Pronouns: everyone Either means 'this one or the other one'. It is followed by a singular noun/verb. We can paint it green or blue. Either colour matches the 7,;,'alls. It is often used with end/side and here means both. There (II'etrees on either side of the street, Either of is also used when either is followed by the or a possessive adjective. Eitber of the books will be very IIseful. Neither means 'not this one nor the other one'. We can't paint it green or blue. Neither colour matches the iualls. There arc trees on neither side of the street. Neither of these books will be very usejul. None of means 'not one of'. It is followed by a singular verb, but many speakers use a plural verb. None of the guests is/are here yet. None can be used alone. It means not one. It is often used with at all. 'Were there any letters for me?' Sorry, none for yo II. ' 'How many people turned up?' 'None at all!' Not a and Not one are used to emphasize the idea of none. 'How many people turned lip?' 'Not aile!' 'Not a single one!' Other examples: Not one person has done any bometcork! f haven't had a single phone-call today.

eitber,lleither

• •

none of

icb, both, every

Encb refers to the separate things in a group.


The name of a person was written on each box. Each is used with a sinr;t lar noun and verb. Each person in the room was wearing a hat. Each is often used with one, There were ten people in the room. Each one was wearing a hat. Each of is used when each is followed by the or a possessive adjective. Each of yotl can carry one parcel. Each is also used after the subject. My sisters each have their own room. Each can also be used at the end of a sentence. My uncle gave my brother and I £5 each. (Gave £5 to each of us.)

Expressions with not {I, not one

130

.1.

jill

ermediale Lallguage Practice

Unit 33 Determiners

and pronouns

Practice
1
(:IIOOSC

g) We only want to listen to a few cassettes. all at the bus-stop. have their own car. chargc extra for brcad. of you properly, tyre were flat.
h) Thc two books arc interesting.

the
word or

a) There were nO!1cr@pcoplc b) My two brothers c) Not oue/Not d) Some of/Somc each/evcry restaurants no student

e,

>ITCC!

I,/irasc 1111,lnlillt'dill l'.l,h sentence.

has come late this weck!

both

c) Sorry, but I can't hear cither/ncither

f) When I got on my bike I noticed that both tyres/every g) According to the song,.!l!Jillcl! you need is love. h) I looked for the books, but none of/no them was there.

4
Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.

a) These books aren't interesting. None All c) The hotels were both unsuitable. Neither d) No one replied to my letter. Nota e) Paul and his brother Both f) Nobody All g) The police searched all the houses in the street. Every h) Not all the questions Some in the test were cas)'. . houses but . .l.. 2) either of them was too small. David arc ill. . in the team played badly. . . . .

(lpb.~M.b.q(Jhi~/:lJkr.t;$I.(~,
.

b) You have only ten minutes left.

2
o nc suitable \,,"(\rd in c.rch
"III

a) Isent letters

to

ten people, but

mL

(l.I.1.t: ••••••

replied!

b) I'm sorry, but there are


e) There arc only two rooms,

tickets left for the concert. and of them is large enough. was a banana. I can find, but nothing works. but Stop it, You can take one was closed. for you, I'm afraid. of you! one.

d) c) I've tried f) g) I tried

I ate for breakfast medicine

desk had a namc label stuck on it. the supermarkets,

h) I had two phone calls, but there were i) You two arc always quarrelling!

j) Both roads lead

to the city centre.

3
Rl'write each scutcucc so that it 11.IS a similar
11Il'.lllillg

a) All the dogs in the garden were barking. every

...t;rt:'Y riP} il1.th(:!Jt)Kflm.l¥.«~.I.w:ki»j,


b) Nobody singlc at all came to the meeting.

5
Choose the correct continuation for each sentence.

a) We looked at two different

and

1) both of them were too small. 1) no turned up.

Cllllt.lillS the \\"'Id givell,

b) Liz invited a dozen guests to her party but ..... 2) none turned up. c) Helen and Mark are well behaved, but please let me know if .....

.................................................................................................................. c) Not all the members of the class were on time. some .................................................................................................................. d) Not one of my friends has got a car. none .................................................................................................................. e) This chair is not comfortable, neither and nor is this other one.

1) both of them misbehave.

2) either of them misbehaves.


2) slept all for a moment.

d) Mary feels so tired because she ..... 1) didn't sleep for a single moment. 1) each time one passes.
f)

e) Write down the number of the car on thi~ list :':". 2) all the time one passes . ..... How many presents 1) One at all. did you get on your birthday?

2) None at all. 2) each one had an umbrella. but ..... 2) none of us\vas·rigl~l.',:r

..................................................................................................................

g) There werc ten people standing at the bUS-SlOP and ..... 1) all people had umbrellas. h) We wrote all our answers on the blackboard

f) There weren't any boys in the class.


no ..................................................................................................................

1) no one of us was right.

Unit 34 Adjectives and adverbs

Unit 34 Adjectives and adverbs


Explanations
djectivcs Adjectives have the same form for singular and plural. They do not change for male and female. Most adjectives are used in front of nouns. • When more than one adjective is used. the order is important. It is not advisable to put more than three adjectives together, There arc four main groups of adjectives, numbered here Position I to Posiriton 4. The order inside the opinion group is also important. or more of these types of adjective b size cage· d shape e temperature lovely large old round hot Position Z Colours green, blue, etc. Position 3 Material what it is made of: wooden ,plastic. etc. Position 4 Purpose what it is for: a swimming-pool Position 5 Noun a swimming-pool All old leather football boot. old = age leather = material football = purpose Note that a word usually a noun (footbal/) can be used as an adjective. A lovely green silk shirt. lovely = opinion green = colour silk = material Position lOne

Adjectives with be. become.feel.look Adjectives can be used on their own after these verbs. This beach isfantastic! Sue has become happy. I feel terrible! You look ill! If we usc more than one adjective, we can separate them like this. Sue has become happy and rich. Sue has become happy, rich and famous. one \Y/e can usc one instead of repeating a noun. I like YOllr new coat. It's a really lovely aile! Adverbs describe actions. Most adverbs arc formed from adjectives adding -Iy. slow - slowly quick - quickly careful- carefully Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives, This train is very fast. (adj) Tbis traln goes fast. (adv) Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives and a different meaning the -Iy form It was a very hard question. (adj) \'(/eworked hard. (adv) I could hardly stand up. (adv: meaning almost not) I don't jeel uiell. (adj) Everyone acted well. (adv) See Unit 3 for Frequency adverbs. Note their position with be and auxiliaries. Katherine is never late. She has neuer arrived late. These are used to describe how much with adjectives. The adjective has to be gradeable, i.e. an adjective which can have more or less of a quality. Peter is happy at his new school. Happy is gradeable. We can say very happy really happy extremely happy When an adjective has an extreme meaning, a strong intensifier We cannot say "The film was extremely excellent. We can say The film was terribly/awfully/really good. is not used. Ior

Irder of

ljccrivcs

Adverbs

by

a opinion

• •

)blems with ecuves

Gradeable adjectives' Some adjectives describ e similar qualities. For example. there are many adjectives which describe hot and cold: boiling hot warm cool cold freezing Which one you use depends on your opinion. Adjectives ending -ed and -ing It is easy to confuse these adjectives. My work was tiring. It made me tired. This film is interesting. I am interested in the film. Others of the same kind are: excited/exciting, embarrassed/embarrassing, 'Worried/worrying, bored/boring.

Intensifiers

134

1.15

I illcnllcdialc Language Practice

Unit 34 Adjectives and adverbs

Practice
1
!'utcachgroup ,,/ words into the bc~t ordcr. a) old a plastic large bag grcen

3
: .

a) The old couplelived happily

together and were happy.

...«/Ilryr. (l.M!}(ml'/M.((~.b.tJ!J
b) wooden square two tables

.................................................................................................................. c) red a dress silk beautiful. .................................................................................................................. d) silver a of jugs antique pair .................................................................................................................. c) bowl small a plastic .................................................................................................................. f) winding road country long a .................................................................................................................. g) boots some old football dirty .................................................................................................................. h) cotton long a skirt yellow .................................................................................................................. i) of trousers old pair a blue

Rewrite each scntence so that it has a similar l11cani g and n contains the word gil'en .

... [h.t;.qffl.~l?,w;((.f!·'((:lhIlI'Fift.t.q!}~thr.r.
b) This has been hard work for you . worked c) Chris and Paul are slow walkers. walk d) George is a good pianist. plays c) Sue is a graceful dancer. dances f) Kate is ill. well g) Michael's skating was wonderful.

.................................................................................................................
j) squeezed cold juice a freshly glass orange of
..................................................................................................................

skated h) Mary is a careful writer . writes i) David didn't sleep well. slept

2
Cil"OSC the
con vet adjective

a) I can't drink this tea! It's~warl11! b) Look at that skyscraper! It's gigantic/large. c) Jill couldn't drive any further that day as she was so tired/tiring. d) I love summer evenings whcn at last it feels cool/freezing. e) The first part of the film was really excitcd/exciting. f) That was the best play I've ever seen. It was fantastic/good. g) You look worricd/worrying. i) If you feel bored/boring, Is anything the matter? h) We won't go camping until the weather is more boiling/warmer. why don't we go to the cinema? in ancient history.

underlined in c.ul: sentcncc.

j) Ann completed the course with success.


successfully

j) I didn't think you were interestcd/interesting

:'" - ,/

"

·'-;.r~ ,"

Intermediate

Language Practice

4
Complete each sentence with one of the words from the list. Use each word once only.

extremely fast good happy hard hardly ill quite terrible well a) When I heard that Kate had passed her driving test I was really ../;1,111'1;1 ......... b) Jack dances very c) Alan was so tired that he could d) The hotel was e) Clara was extremely and never steps on people's feet. keep his eyes open. , but we didn't like the food in the restaurant. and spent a month in hospital. and was stopped by the police. good. and was given an extra holiday. . expensive. : Formation of comparatives and superlatives

Unit 35 Making comparisons


Explanations
o

f) George was driving too


g) It's not a wonderful film, but,it's h) Helen worked very

Adjectives Comparative adjectives with one syllable are normally formed by adding-cr to the adjective. In one syllable words ending with one consonant, the final consonant is doubled. Words ending in consonant + -y change -y to -i. Superlative adjectives are normally formed by adding -est to the adjective. long -longer big - bigger dry - drier long <longest big - biggest dry - driest Comparative adjectives with two or more syllables arc normally [ormcd with more. Superlative adjectives with two or more syllables arc normally formed with most. There are some exceptions. modern more modem interesting - more interesting modern <most modern interesting - most interesting
=

i) When I realized I hadn't paid for the coat, I felt

j) I can't afford to buy that bike because it's

5
Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence.

a) Peter has been working very hardly.

...f.rkr.h({$.P.rr.':!.l!!I'l:kit!jw')'.!ttJ..rfl..
b) My sister bought me a blue lovely woollen sweater. c) This book I'm reading is extremely excellent.

.

Some adjectives with two syllables can form in either way. common commoner/commonest more/most common Others include: quiet, tired and words ending -our, -le and -cr. Adverbs Comparative arc normally Can yml The film adverbs arc normally formed with more. Superlative adverbs formed with most. work more quickly? ended most happily.

• d) David felt badly because he was tall, thin. e) Everyone in the team played good. f) Too much exercise can make you feel tiring. g) Paula fel t happily when her exams were over. h) Harry has arrived late at school never. i) One boxer hit the other really hardly right on the chin. j) I'm not really interesting in this car.

Irregular forms

Adjectives Irregular comparatives and superlatives: good better best bad worse worst far farther/further farthest/furthest much/many more most When we describe family members we can use: old elder eldest This is my elder brother. Jane is their eldest daughter.

~k

kn

~"

UR

IJ?

1111 crmcdiatc Language Practice

Unit 35 Making comparisons

Adverbs Many commonly used adverbs have comparative and superlative forms in -er and -est. These include: early,far,fast, hard, late. In informal speech 101ld, quick, slow are also formed in this way. Could you drive more slowly, please? Could you drive slower, please? (informal)

Practice
1
Choosc the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. a) The fish was so tasty as!(ts tasty as)the meat. b) This book is the most interesting/the c) This temple is the c1dest/ol!kll e) Nothing is worse/worst d) That dress is a lot longer than/that more interesting I've ever read. in Europe. the other one.

ilil',lIliIlgof r. 11 np.ir.u ives and sUI,erl.llivl's

Comparatives are used to compare two separate things. Superlatives compare one thing in a group with all the other things in that group. Comparative Mary is a better player than Monica. Superlative Sarah is the best player ill the team. NOLl'that the comes before a superlative if a noun follows. Superlatives can be used without nouns. The is still used. Sarah is the greatest! • Than is used with comparatives. Mary is better than Monica. Mary is a better player than Monica. Note that when we compare actions, we use an auxiliary instead of repeating the verb. Mary plays better than Monica does. You've done more work than I have. We can also say: M~ry plays better than M onica. You've done more work than me. just as ... as is used when the things compared arc equal. Mary isjust as good as Cathy. Mary isjust as good a player as Cathy. not as ... as is used when we compare things negatively. Cathy is 1I0t as good as Mary. Cathy is not as good a player as Mary. more and less than is used for longer adjectives. This game is more interesting than the last one. I think this game is less interesting than that one. the adjective is often strengthened with an

than being stuck in a traffic jam.

f) That skyscraper is one of the taller/tallest buildings in the world.


g) The test wasn't as hard as/hard as I thought. h) Actually, today I fed more bad/wl'ru: j) Could you work more quicti)'/morc than Idid yesterday. quicter please? i) Our journey took longer than/the iOllgest we expected.

l\!,;I,i I1g
comp.ursons

2
Complete each sentence with a comparative or superlative form of the adjective given. Include any other necessary words.

a) The Nile is .. l!!(ltm!Jc~L. river in the world. long b) I was disappointed entertaining as the film was trains. days of the year. the other one. Sue. . the Pacific Ocean. the one next door. television programme I've ever watched. than I expected.

c) Most planes go a lot fast d) Yesterday was one of hot c) I think this book is much good f) The twins arc the same height. Tim is tall

g) The first exercise was easy but this one is


difficult h) The Mediterranean large i) This classroom is big j) This is bad is not

I· ,

Jill

'_'11Silicrs

When we make comparisons intensifier.

This house is much/a lot/far bigger than that one. \\'e can also use intensifiers with more/less The I talian film was much more interesting than this one. That film was far less frightening than this one.
-,-

r,:-"-',r-

'.

,,....~

1J 1

intermediate

Langl/age Practice

Unit 35 Making comparisons

3
Rewrite each sentence beginning as shown so that it has a similar meaning [0 the first sentence.

a) David is a better runner than Paul. Paul is not Carol is the c) I haven't written as much as YOLl. You've written d) We expected the play The play wasn't e) Jane's hair isn't as long as Helen's. Helen's hair is Iam the :
i .
[0

5
.
. .
'.\

a) Could you not talk so fast, please? slowly


... c.(J.t·4F/),P.H

M.!Jl!d«r.I1I1I1f.('IJ.~.l?ny'(if{ift,).

b) Nobody in the class is taller than Carol.

Rewrite each sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word given.

.t.«/h.m(Jr.M/(J.w/y,.P./((/$/.1.

b) The last film we saw was more frightening than this one. as .................................................................................................................. c) Nobody in the class cooks better than Sam. . best

be better. .

.
d) I haven't eaten as much as you. more . . . . .

f) No student in the school is rioisier than I am!


g) This exhibition is much more interesting than the last one. The last exhibition was not h) This is as fast as the car can go. The car can't i) This bike is not as expensive as the green one. The green bike is

..
e) Supermarkets as . arc more convenient than small shops.

,.,.

I) Skating isn't as exciting as skiing.


more . g) Richard doesn't work harder than Alan. just . h) Jack isn't as interested in football as his brother is. more .
'

j) Kate ate much less than George did.


Kate didn't

4
Put one suitable word in each space.

a) . Our team is ..jiMf b) This is one of c) Everyone did e) Ann is taller

:'L work

good .. IJ.L ... your team. They are both the same. famous paintings in the world. Harry . slowly. tallest in the family. bad that interesting I've ever read.

d) You're not a safe driver! You should drive Mike but their son Dave is f) What an awful book. It's one of g) It makes no differel. c. , because this road is one. h) Today is i) Nobody knows cold

.
i) Bill is the youngest in the family. older .

j) You ran a lot faster than Idid.


fast

yesterday, so I'm wearing my shorts. about electronics friendly Tina pct dogs. .

. 6
Correct the spelling of these words where necessary. a) bigest b) grcattcst c) shorter d) likeliest

j) I don't think that pet cats are

.. .h!j!Jf.d ...
.................

f) fater g) srnalcsr h) longest i) hardder

................. .................

k) fitter
I) tighter

.. ..............

.................

c) tallest

................. .................

j) wettest

................. ................. . ................

111) newt's!
n) heavier

0) wielder

......... ....... .,....... ...... ............ .... ... .... . ... . . .


, , , ,,

142

IH

Unit 36 Phrasal or multi-word verbs 1

Unit 36 Phrasal or multi-word

verbs 1
Explanations
j'i1usal verbs:
u-«:

look forward to (want to happen, as you think you will enjoy it) I'm looking forward to going on holiday this YC{Ir. Note that to is a preposition so is followed by the verbal noun -ing. look out onto/truer (have a view 00 Our hotel room looks out onto the garden. put up with (tolerate) I can't put lip with all this noise!
nil!

The term phrasal verb is used here for verbs followed by one or more prepositions. They arc also called multi-word verbs. The meaning cannot usually be guessed from the meaning of the verb on its own. These verbs are common in informal writing and speech, but many are used in formal speech and writing. There are many verbs of this type, and the ones listed here arc those which are common, or which occur elsewhere in this book. Verbs are divided here into different types. Verbs can belong to different types with a different meaning for each type. It is advisable to study the context of use, and check the meaning in a dictionary.

out

I think the car is about to run out of 'petrol! There isn't all)' more milk. We've run out.
Verbs with two parts: transitive inseparable These verbs are followed by an object. The object cannot be put between the verb and the preposition. call for (come to your house and collect) We'll call for you about 8.00 so please be ready.

or

(have none left)

call on

(pay a short visit: usually formal)

\ ,'!"hs with three


I',' rlS

These verbs are followed by an object. The object cannot be put after t~le first or second word. Verbs marked '1 can be used without the final part, but with no object. catch lip with';' (reach someone by going faster)

I called

all

Professor jones and wished her a Happy Birthday.

deal with (take action over, handle) Could you deal witb this customer's problem please? get at
(try to say) ,

You can rest now and catch up witb us later: You're going too fast! I can't catch up!
cut down on';' (reduce or reduce the amount spent on) Sheila has decided to cut doum 011 holidays this year.

Helen couldn't understand what her boss was getting at. get over (recover from) Peter was ill with flu, but he's gettillg over it now.
join

You're eating too many sweets. You sbou ld cut down. drop in on';' (visit, perhaps unexpectedly) Let's drop in all David while we are in Paris. The next time you are nearby, please do drop ill! get along/on with'} (have a friendly relationship with) james doesn't get all well witb his matbs teacher: We work in the same office, but we don't get 011. keep II/, with';' (move at the same speed as) You're going too [astl I can't keep up witb you. Patty finds this class difficult, and can 'I keep up. live Ifp to
(be as good as was expected - usually used with promise or expectation) The film didn't live up to our expectations.

(take part in, contribute

to)

When Alex started singing, everyone joined in. make for (go in the direction of) The escaped prisoner is thought to be making for London. sec to
(pay attention to, often meaning 'repair')

-,

The brakes

011 )'0111'

car need seeing to.

stand for (tolerate) I will not stand for so much talking! takc after (be similar ill appearancc or character) Karen takes after her mother. They're very similar.

J IIIr:mlt!{llfltc

Lallgllag~ Practice

Unit 36 Phrasal or multi-word

verbs}

Practice
1
Complete each sentence a) to h) with an ending Irorn I) to S). a) If you have any kind of problem, just call me and I'll deal.i. b) I've been so busy lately that I've decided to cut ..... c) Ann and Sue are rea!ly looking ..... d) Our teacher told us that she would not stand ..... e) Nearly everybody says that George takes . .

h) Kate will come and collect you at 6.30. call . i) Nobody getting understood what I was trying to say. .

..
j) I can't bear so much air pollution! put

f) Clara is very friendly and generally gets

g) Half-way through the race, Martin found that he couldn't keep ..... h) We were told that the concert was going to be good but it didn't live ..... I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) B) for cheating in our end-of;term test. on well with the people 51{eworks with. with it as soon as I can. after his father's side of the family. down on the amount of time I spend watching television. up with the others any more. up to our expectations at all. forward to seeing you both again inJuly.

3
Rewrite each sentence so that it docs not cont.lin the words underlined, and so rhar it contains a phrasal verlx

a) Brian

and

his mother are very similar.

...8r.i«I;!t.f1R(J/J(!.(r.h/~mp.fh(r.,
b) There isn't any food left! c) Mike and Tom arc not very good friends. d) Jean is very good at handling people's problems. c) The handlebars
011

2
Rewrite each sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word given.

a) Someone needs to look at the central heating system. seeing

my bike need fixing.

... r"'t;.«(.I1l.m/!tf.{Jli':t!J.$/~l(m.«(f.r/J.~f.t;i':t!J. t.l!•..................................................


b) Let's pay a surprise visit toJulia while we are here. drop

f) Julia was very ill, but she's recovered now.


g) What exactly are you suggesting?

.
c) We're going in the direction of Paris. heading d)

.
h) Paul's new school wasn't as good as he expected it to be.

;·~·~·h~·~~·i·;~~·~·h~·~·~·~·i·~:·~f·~j~~·~~i·~·~~·~~·; up with . 4 catch


looks

..................................................................................................................
e) Two children started playing, and then the others played too. joined

..................................................................................................................
f) We paid a visit to my aunt on her birthday. called

.Complere each sentence with a suitable form of one of the phrasal verbs in the list. Use each one once only.

keep up with

cut down on drop in on get on with (not) live up to look forward to run out of my expectations. us. her new neighbours. him. the other studcnrs. my holiday in Italy next week . smoking if you can't stop completely.

a) The book you lent me ... ffii'1'1.h'v.o:I/l.fr. b) Any time you're in the area, feel free to c) Sorry, we have d) Unfortunately Susie doesn't e) Billlcft before I did, but I ran and

orangeade. Would you like some water?

..................................................................................................................
g) I'm afraid that we haven't got any eggs left. run

£) I'm really
11) You should

g) It was a difficult class, and I couldn't

..................................................................................................................

Unit 37 Phrasal or multi-word verbs 2

Unit 37 Phrasal or multi-word verbs 2


Explanations
Changes
1\11'.111111~

put up take up tryon

(stay in someone's

house)

A [riendin Prague put me up for a couple of nights.


(start doing a hobby or activity)

Sam has just taken up parachuting.


(put on clothes to sec if they arc suitable) I tried the coal on, but it was too big and the wrong colour. (begin or stop operating electrical equipment)

of

Verbs are divided here into different types. Verbs can belong to differcnt types with a diffcrcnt meaning for each type. It is advisable to study the context of use, and chcck the meaning in a dictionary.
two

tum on/off

Don't forget to tum off the light before you go to bed. wash up (clean plates, knives and forks, erc.) After the party, Martin wasbed lip ~Il the glasses.
Verbs with two PartS: intransitive These verbs do not have an object. break

\',Tbs with Sl'!';\1'.lblc

!',\r!S: transitive

These verbs preposition. the verb and long phrases.

arc followed by an object, or the object is put between the verb and Pronouns such as YOII, it, him, her, us, them are always put between the preposition. Verb and preposition arc not usually separated by These are put after the preposition.

kd

bring up (educate, look after a child) Tom's aunt brought him up after his parents died. cdloff clear up (lit oJf
(cancel)

. II own (stop working, espcCl<., y cars) The car broke down when we were on the motoruiay.

drop out (leave without finishing) Two of tbe runners dropped alit balf-'W'ay through the race. get on
(make progress)

The school called off the match because of bad weather.


(make clean and tidy) Could you help me clear lip the room after the party? (be disconnected during a phone-call)

Nina likes her new college, and is getting all well. get auiay (escape) One of the burglars 'was caugbt, lnu the other got away. grow lip (changc from a child to an adult) I grew liP in a small town in Peru. set off/out (begin a journey) We set off early to avoid the traffic. take off turn up
(when a plane leaves the ground)

I'd just got through to Delhi when / was cut of!


This is usually used in the passive.

fill in give up

(complete

a form)

Could

YOIl

fill this form in with all your details, please?

(choose to stop doing something)

Paul had to give up gymnastics because of injury. knock out (hit and make unconscious) Bryson knocked his opponent out in the second round. let down (disappoint, fail to keep a promise) Ann said she would help, but she let me down. look up ,;ick up
(search for information (collect in a car) in a reference book)

Our plane took offmorethallibrec


(arrive, or arrive unexpectedly)

hours late.

We invited twenty people, but 0111.1' five turned liP.

/ looked this word up in a dictionary and in an encyclopedia. The taxi will pick you up at 6.30.

'

r« off

(postpone) The saeatherioas bad, so they pllt offtbe match fort! week.

in t{'rmediate Language Practice

Unit 37 Phrasal or multi-word

verbs 2

Practice
:l.
Pur one suitable word in each space. a) Sue asked if she could help me b) I need a dictionary, c) If I were you I'd d) Our meeting tomorrow f) Jim had to so Ican has been
Wl/~k ..... up the dirty dishes.

e) Could you write all the details on this form? fill in up this word. off early because Edinburgh off,Tm is a long way. it on? details. our. afraid.

..................................................................................................................
f) Jack arrived half-way through
turn up the lesson. .

c) I'm not sure about the size of this coat, so can I


in a form, giving all his personal g) You'll never guess who

.
g) You can stay with us for a week. putup .................................................................................................................. h) Helen is doing well in her English class. geton

up at our school party last week!

h) Six people applied for the job, but one of them

2
Complete each sentence a) to h) with an ending [rom 1) to 8).

a) It's very cold and wet at the moment c) Your room is very untidy! e) Tina tried to persuade

so we have put ..J.. her .....

b) Mary's parents were quite strict and brought d) Iwas talking to Helen when suddenly

.. 4
Rewrite each '. sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word given. a) Paula spent her childhood grew in Uruguav,

Could you clear ..... we were cut .....

her mother to give ..... .. .

f) Tim started painting his room this morning and he's getting .....
g) The branch of a tree fell and knocked h) If you like, we could come and pick 1) . 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

... !?(l!:l(f.!.!JrJ;w.Hf. ifJ..l!r.I1!l!:l(lj


b) As soon as it was dawn, we started our journey. set

..
c) Parachuting give is dangerous so you should stop doing it.

it up please, and put everything away . Peter out for a few moments. off our garden party until next week. up smoking, but she didn't have much success. on very well so far. off and I couldn't get her number after that. you up in our car at about 7.00. up to be very polite and obedient.

.
d) Martin clear tidies his room every morning.

.
e) How do you start the computer? turn

3
Rewrite each sentence! so that it contains a form of the phrasal verb given.

a) Don't leave the li;;hts on when you leave the school. turn off

..................................................................................................................
.
f) Can I see if these shoes arc the right size? try .................................................................................................................. g) Carol checked the dates in an encyclopedia. .

...li!r.l;!l~di§hf.~.t?/f.whl;!I(Jf!·!mgt;.th('~t;~qp'(.
b) You should use a dictionary look up
to find this word.

..................................................................................................................
c) The athletics meeting was postponed
putaH for a week.

1001,
..

..................................................................................................................
d) The doctor told David to stop playing football. give up ..................................................................................................................

h) Skating is a great sport. When did rou start doing it? take ..................................................................................................................

150

151

Problems, Errors, Consolidation 4

Problems, Errors, Consolidation 4


i
( :1'1l()Se the C''ITeet words un.ler lincd ill
c.h:h
SCJ1lCIlCC.

a) These classrooms aren't very largc. Complete the second sentence 50 that it has a similar meaning [0 the first sentence. None q!fh(:~M/{1Mm(J,'»A.(~.Yr.;y./f1qjr. . b) George won't leave here before the end of April. George will be here c) \Y/edon't allow smoking ill this cinema. No Can you give me c) You have waited longer than I have. I haven't I've been waiting here since
g) All classrooms
I

. .
YOll

a) I think my school is just as good~than


b) There arc enough apples for one each/every,
c) Paula has been working very hard/hardly.

yours,

d) Can you tell me what please?

think I should do? ? . . .

d) Could you give me an/some information, c) This is the best/better


g) There arc no/none

icc-cream in the world!

f) I have been working in this company for/since three months. eggs left in the fridge. h) The news is/arc on in a few minutes.

f) It's 4.00 now, and I started waiting here two hours ago.
must bc kept clean,
to

2
I)", ide which
,1 11

Life
""cr, a), b), c)

011

tbe farm
by my uncle and aunt and (2) ..... on a small farm in the West of

Each

I was (I)..d.

11) Most of the class walks

school. . . .

or d), best fits the


SI'·\U,'·

England, I think it was better (3) ..... Iiving in a city, because (4) ..... da y I ran about in the open air. (5) ..... I went to school, (6) ..... I did was play on the farm all day. (7) ..... my aunt and uncle worked with the animals, and although they worked very (8) ..... , they always explained (9) ..... things to me. They didn't have (I 0) ..... money, but they (11) ..... well with everyone, and we didn't have (12) ..... of the problems of living in the city. I always felt (13) ..... on the farm. There was (14) ..... noise or pollution, and it was (15) ..... peaceful. That's probably why I became a farmer when I was older.
1) a) lived up to 2)

Most of the class comes to school i) This is as far as we can go along this road. \Y/ecan't

j) The fire brigade arrived too late to save the burning house. Thc fire brigade didn't arrive

4
Rewrite each sentence so that it contains a form of a phrasal verb lISilll~ word the given.Make any other necessary changes. .

a) You can come and stay with me. put


••. { {;I!.(tfl«f,yf{!l

3) 4)
5)

6) 7) 8) 9)
10)

II) 12) 13) 14) 15)

b) taken after c) grown lip d) brought Ill' a) grew up b) joined in c) turned up d) put off a) as b) more c) than d) the a) every b) in c) for d) both a) by b) nowadays c) in time d) until a) every b) each c) none d) all a) either b) both c) neither d) all a) hardly b) harder c) hard d) hardest a) interests b) interesting c) interest d) interested a) much b) lots c) many d) too a) dropped in b)gotalong cj kept up d)dealtwith a) much b) none c) no d) any a) happily b) a happy c) happy d) the happy a) any b) no c) none of d) not a) too b) much c) really d) as

.,,/1

b) Harry can't stand loud music. put

..................................................................................................................
c) Peter is making good progress at university, get .................................................................................................................. d) I'll tidy up the room if YOll do the washing-up. clear .................................................................................................................. e) Wc're going in the direction of Madrid. make
...... ,
,:

;:

f) Why don't you search for this word in the dictionary?


look ...................................................................................................................

Intermediate

Language Practice

Problems, Errors, Consolidation 4

g) Jane is very similar to her father. take h) Sue's father is trying to srop smoking. give

7
Rewrite each ,. sentence so that it has a similar meaning and .- contains the '" word given .

a) Nobody single

at all picked up the litter.

.. .N.f!l.aAi!1j1t.fm:~f!n(1.M,t.tl.'!fl.fh(:.l!·fff.(,
b) Paul started learning since c) There isn't any cheese in the fridge. Hungarian in 1997.

.................................................................................................................. 5
Look carefully at each line. Some lines arc correct but some have a word which should not be there. Tick each correct line. If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word in the space.

. Holiday problems
Last month we decided to drive to Scotland looking it forward Unfortunately, for a few d,IYS, for a short holiday. We were the really to a quiet rest in the country. a lots of things went wrong. First

is

. 2) . .lk .
3) 4) : . .

1) ..• ..1.

d) People who arc rich aren't necessarily the

happy.

of all, the car was broke down just after we had left home, and we had to phone a garage and then wait by the side of the road for hours ago. By the time the car had been repaired, it was too much late to go on, so we went the home. The next day we set off more early to avoid the traffic, but we had forgotten that it was a public holiday. Everyone in the country found ourselves single person must have had the same idea, so we in a long traffic jam. We after decided

5)
6)
7)

.
.
.

e) Jane's drawing
draws

is beautiful.

8)
9)

.
.

f) I haven't seen a worse film than this one.


ever g) Helen left Paris inJuly. stayed h) Do you find opera interesting? are

10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17~

. . . . . . . .

that the best thing to do was to take after a different road, and look up for a hotel. First we got lost on a narrow country road, and then the car once ran out of the petrol. Finally, we gave up and went home for the second time.

8
. Put one suitable word in each space.

a) You work ... w-wk. harder .. .t!!IJ.I:t ..• I do. b) In c) Alex plays we saw last week. e) There is g) exam. h) Jogging isn't interesting playing tennis. then. cooked! meal you have i) I'll wait here 6.00, so try and be here hot water left, but there isn't have windows hard, and on Bill and Mary studied . sides of the h()"S~' the end they passed the future, people will live longer guitar in It was rock band. interesting than the one they do now.

6
Pur one suitable word in each space, or leave the space blank.

While Helen was visiting (a) . .iI!(:.. United States, she decided to go by (b) plane from (c) with her friends (c) California was a (g) information New York to (d) West Coast. She had already stayed . have warmer for a start, and travel but she two weeks, and they had told her that (f) more exciting. 'It's (h) Pacific Ocean!',

d) I think the film was terrible!

you'll be able to swim in (i)

they said. Helen didn't

f) These three bedrooms

(j)

about flights or fares, so she went to (k) following morning,

agent's next door to (I) discovered couldn't get (n)

block of flats where she was staying. She of them,

that there were two flights (m) seat on (0)

j) That was great! It was the

i ntcnnediate

Language Practice

9
l j nclcrlinc the c ITOr errors ,',\(h sentence. J~c\Vritc each
l)l'

a) I'm really interesting


III

in the travel.
.

... {;.IJ.r.t;(l(!p.f.t(f:(~((fl.t"n,((f1y.d

Unit 38 Verbs followed by

b) Kate's brother

is doctor.

verbal noun or infinitive 1


Explanations
When you learn a new verb, it is advisable to check in a dictionary whether it is followed by a verbal noun (this is also called the -ing form, and the gerund) or infinitive (with to; or without to, also called bare infinitive). Units 38 and 39 include some of the most common verbs, but these are only a selection. See also Unit 40 Verbs followed by prepositions. Verbs followed by verbal noun -ing or infinitive: with little or no change of meanIng • These include: begin, continue, not bear, hate, intend, likc.loue.prejcr,

~l'l\ll'11(C .

c) I ate a food with Jack, and after Iwent home. d) The milk is good for you. e) Can you give me an advice? f) I've looked in the box. All is broken, I'm afraid.

g) They will have finished the new hospital until the end of March. h) There's a police waiting outside. i) Icome to class with the feet.

start

j) Your hair arc very beautiful.

When she stood lip, the President began to speak. When she stood lip, the President began speaking. Some people at the back continued chatting/to chat. I can't bear listen ing/to listen for along time. What do YOII intend doing/to do about it? I don't like watching television. I prefer reading/to read. I think yolt should start practising/to practise now! • When we use prefer, we prefer one thing to another activities, gerund is used. Tom prefers reading to watching television. For some I like (a habitual I like (likes and thing, If the things are

h"hlclll check
2

Time words like for, since and ago are linked to the use of tenses. Check Units 4, 5, 6 and 7. The same word can be countable and uncountable \X/hich words of this kind do you know? with a change of meaning.

Compare the uses of articles with articles in your language, if it has articles. Keep a checklist of common differences. Note that the choice of article can depend on meaning and context. together. Note the dillcrence and superlatives? Are they used • •

speakers there is a difference between like to do and like doing, to listen to the radio every morning while I'm ill the bath. action) listening to the radio. dislikes) , contexts.

4 Avoid using more than three adjectives between hard and hardly. 5 6

What is the difference between comparative in the same ways in your language? Phrasal verbs can have many meanings,

Hate to do is more usual than bate doing in some idiomatic I hate doing the washing-up! I hate to tell YOH this, but we've missed the last train!

so check in a dictionary. •

Love to do is more common than love doing in some idiomatic Sue really loves swimming. He's the man they love to hate!

contexts.

Note that when would is used with like.loue and prefer, they are followed by infinitive with to. I'd like to go to Portugal this summer.

Intermediate Language Practice

Unit 38 Verbs followed by verbal noun or infinitive 1

Verbs followed by infinitive + to

These include:

Practice
1
Correct the ' errors. Some sentences do not have errors. a) Jim can't afford going to the cinema twice a week.

afford, ask, choose, happen, help, manage, offer, refuse, wait, want / can't afford to go to the cinema twice in one week. I n the end, Laura chose to study Economics. Do you happen to know the time? Could someone help me to cany this?':' (Help is also used without to. Could you help me carry this?) Jim can't manage to come this evening. I offered to give her II lift, but she said she'd ordered a taxi. The manager refused to see me. There are some people waiting to see yo 11. What do YOIl want to do this evening?

..hI;( (,I/,I'}. 'l.fl/fod!.1l .,'}.t!lC'.thr. (,(i:t.~m({ .~wif.(,I.1,w.(,~k

b) David wishes leaving the room. c) Are you waiting to lise the phone? d) I'd really like going swimming on Saturday. e) Everyone decided to put off the football match.

Verbs followed by infiniti\'e + to, or that-clause

• • •

These include:

f) Emma pretended leaving, but waited outside. seem, wish


g) Jack agreed to meet me at the beach. h) My bike seems having something wrong with it. i) The director refused answering Helen's phone call. j) What exactly do you intend to say to Mrs Dawson?

agree, decide, expect, hope, Ienni.pretend.promise,


It is possible to leave out that in everyday speech.

Note that that-clauses often follow sequence of tense rules, as in reported speech. See Units 10 and 11. The main verbs of this type are:

Sarah Sarah Sarah Sarah

agrees to meet you after school. agrees that she will meet )'ou after school. agreed to meet me after school. agreed (that) she would meet me after school. We decided (that) we would go home. Mike expects (that) he will win. / hope (that) I'll see you later. Helen pretended that she was ill.

We decided to g,l home. Mike expects to win. / hope to see you later. Helen pretended '0 be ill.

2
Complete each sentence with a form of one of the verbs from the list. Use each verb once only.

afford learn

bear continue expect happen love offer prefer pretend spending all day at the beach.
50

There is a small difference in the meanings of learn.

At school Graham learned to speak French.


(learn a skill)

a) John really .jqgt;L b) I'm completely d) We e) Kate broke, c) Excuse me, but do you
to

I can't

to go on holiday. to know the way to Old Street?

At school we learned that the Earth goes round the Sun.


(learn information) • Note the uses of seem. It + seem + that-clause is very common.

our team to win, but they were badly beaten. speak French and German when she was at school. speaking. to listen to this awful music! to help me paint my bike. to have a bad leg so he didn't have to go to the gym. playing football to doing homework.

You seem to know the answer! •

It seems that you know the answer.

f) Even when the examiner told him to stop, Bill g) I'm sorry, but I can't h) Last week George i) Paul

Wish followed by infinitive with to has a similar meaning to want. I wish to leave early today. Wish followed by a that-clause usually includes would or could. I wish (that) I could leave early. I wish (that) my teacher would let me leave early.

j) Sam usually

158

"i,C)

J nt crmcdiatc Language Practice

Unit 38 Verbs followed by verbal noun or infinitive 1

3
Complete
ol'(llild

a) My teacher wouldn't let me leave early.


the sentence
1l1C;lllillg

5
.
. Rewrite each . sentence so that it has a similar mcaning and contains the word given.

a) What arc you thinking of doing? intend

My teacher refused .. .fp,/rd.!';f,t;k({rr:.r.tJKft. b) Jill sang without stopping for an hour. Jill continued c) Apparently you have passed the exam. . .

s() that it has a


SillHLlr

... w.h(1f."I/)'p,«llJ.t.~nrl.fl'.fll'.?
b) 1 find getting up early unbearable! bear c)

t"

the lirst

It seems
d) Richard thinks he is going to do well. Richard expects c) What are your plans for the summer? \X'hat do you imend

. I'll sec you


to

.
in the morning, I expect.

...............................................................................................................
? . . . . .

'"

f) Clearing up my room is something Idislike!


I hate g) Helen said she'd go to the cinema with me. Helen agreed h) Tina and Brian arc getting married. Tina and Brian have decided i) Sec you later, 1 hope. I hopc

j) What do you fancy doing this evening?


What do you want d) 'I won't help!' said Tom. refused .................................................................................................................. c) Pat was taught to drive whcn he was roung. learned . f) 'Would you like me to help you?' I asked Joe. offered . g) Ellen didn't have enough money for the ticket, afford h) 'I'll be back at 6.00,' said Susan. promised .

4
C, .mplctc each sc.ucucc with

agreed hopes

asked chose decides hate like refused seems want


8{fm:;, ......

""l' olt hc words


I rom the list.

a) Jack often b) I c) 1 d) Do you c) Carol

to be worried.

to tell you this, but wc've lost all our money. Ann to wait for me, but she didn't. to go for a walk this afternoon? to become a champion skater, to listen to my explanation. to work on Saturday instead of on Friday. to sec you again some time.
to

f) The police officcr g) Peter h) I'd i) Jim often

stay at horne and go to bed early, to give me extra lessons.

j) I asked my teacher for help, and she

-r ..' ,'" .. :/ ..- ,,-.-~

Unit 39 Verbsfollowed by verbal noun or i~finitive 2

Unit 39 Verbs followed by

verbal noun or infinitive 2


Explanations
When you learn a new verb, it is advisable to check in a dictionary whether it is followed by a verbal noun (-ing form, or gerund) or infinitive (with to, or without to, also called bare infinitive). Units 38 and 39 include SOmeof the most common verbs, but these are only a selection. See also Unit 40 Verbs followed by prepositions. .' Verbs followed by verbal noun -ing or infinitive + (0 or thatclause: with change of meaning These include:forgl't, mean, remember, stop, tl)' forget Sorry I forgot to post ),our letter: (I didn't remember) I'll never forget learning to drive! (I'll always remember) I forgot that I'd promised to pbone you. mean Jan meant to watch the programme, but she forgot. (intended) Keepingfit means taking exercise every day! (involve) \Vhen I miss the bus, it means that I have to walk to school. remember Remember to take your keys! (don't forget a [urure action) I remember telling you! (remember a past action) Then I remembered that YOIl were out. stop [o has stopped learning French. (give up) We stopped to look at the view. (purpose infinitive) Stop is not followed by a that-clause. try Peter tried to lift the table, but it was too heavy. (try/fail) If you have a headache, try taking two of these pills. (suggesting an action) Try is not followed by a that-clause. • These include: feel, hear, see, soatcb I could feel my bands sbaking with fear! I felt tbe building move! We watchedJoe eating his lunch. We watched Joe eat his lunch.

We heard that YOIl were ill. I saw that it was too late. Verbs followed by verbal noun -ing or noun

(receive news) (realize)

These include: dislike, enjoy.fancy, "can't help, ':'keep, mind, practise, call 't stand Those marked ".have a change of meaning. I dislike going alit in the rain. I really dislike my new boss. Everyone enjoys going to parties. I enjoyed this lesson. Do YOIl fancy going to the cinema? I fancy a swim! I can't help feeling bungry. I can't help myself! (I can't stop) Sill' keeps phoning me late at night. (a bad habit) Keep this. Don't throw it a·way. Do YOIl III ind waiting? Do you mind cold weather? I must practise speaking French more often. Julia practises the violin every day. I can't stand waking up early. I can't stand hot and spicy food. • These include: admit, deny, imagine, suggest The Minister admitted taking a bribe. Paul admitted tliat he was ""mng. Tina denied stealing the money. Both men denied that they had done anything wrong. Imagine travelling to another planet! Do you really imagine that I want to see you again? I suggest goingfor apizza. I suggest that we go for a pizza. • Suggest is also followed by should. I suggest that we should go for a pizza.

Verbs followed by verbal noun -ing, noun or that-clause

Verbs followed by verbal noun -ing or bare infinitive: with change of


meaning

(continuing action) (completed action) (not completed) (completed)

• Feel, hear and see are ;i!:;oused with a that-clause, with change of meaning. I feel that this is the time to resign. (an opinion)

162

t.'"

1I1ennediate Language Practice

Unit39

Verbs followed by verbal noun or infinitive 2

Practice
~
( .hoosc the
(, .rrcct word or

(Contrasts

with verbs from Unit 38 arc included hcrc.)

3
Choosc the corrcct verb underlined in each sentence.

a) HelenfIiOSC)'enjoyed c) Do you mind/want d) Tina meant/suggested c) Katc denicd/refused

to learn French. to travel by planc. coming back in half an hour? to buy some potatoes, but she forgot. opening the office safe. making a serious mistake. to send me to a different school.

b) I really can't afford/stand

a) Tom suddenly realized he had forgotten (fOJ%)5ylocking his door. b) On the way back we stopped to have/having some tea. c) Could you stop 1QJalkltalking, please. d) Learning a language means to be/being interested in another culture. e) Ann tried to open/opening the window, but it was too high to reach. the dog for a walk. for the first time. school when I was five. f) PIcase remember to takc/taking h) I don't really remember
to

,.fllasc Ililcierlincd

in

f)

Bill admitted/agreed

l'.lch sentence.

g) My parents decided/disliked

h) I really fancy/like a trip to the country.

g) Cathy says she will never forget to sky-dive/sky-diving start/starting

4
Complete each sentence with a fO~ll1 one of of the verbs in the list.

2
each ~l'[HCI1CC so that il has a similar ll1l'anirrg to the f[ [5t sentence.
( ornplctc

a) Would you like to go to the beach?

deny mean a) If you b) Harry d) Ann

enjoy expect try practise

lInagllle manage pretend'duse

...P'P'~(I.~'.fIll1(I···.·.·
b) The boy admitted stealing the bike. ......................................................... c) In my opinion, you arc wrong. I fecl d) Why don't we wait for the bus? ......................................................... e) David often interrupts me. ...................................................... ......................................................... ......................................................... ......................................................... i) It's not my fault if I eat a lot . ......................................................... .........................................................

going to the beach? stolen the bike. . waiting for the bus. '" interrupting me.

(ry.

to work a bit harder, I'm sure you'll pass the exam. to have toothache, and left school early. to start work soon. to eall you last week, but she forgot. robbing the bank. speaking to an audience, to gain confidence. myself living on a desert island . to speak to me .: .

c) The builders arc not sure of the exact date, but e) The woman arrested by the police f) You should g) It's interesting to

h) I phoned the director six times, but she

l) Is it all right if you come back later?


coming back later? being a millionaire! writing the letter. eating a lot. collapse. g) Think what being a millionaire would be like! h) Paula said that she hadn't written the letter .

5
Put one suitable word in each space.

a) Don't .. for.Jld b) If I'm late, it c) 1 d) Paul can't e) Lisa

to buy some milk on your way home

I have to wait until the next Icsson begins . thinking about his favourite team . Ieaving her books a~home.

throwing the ball, but I didn't break the window,

j) The building collapsed and we saw it .

£) I can't
g) 1 h) Gina

walking home in the rain! It's horrible! to climb in through the window, but it was locked .
._.:_.. .,/,..../".- r.... '~,... :-/r·~':r(_:··
i'~~/~;'-~',,;,'(".;' ""''''''':.1:'-

playing with my friends when I was little.


,ro.". :.,_r

:__ ,:,-

..'

'"'

.'

-.

'~

..'.'.

Unit 40 Verbs followed by prepositions

Unit 40 Verbs followed by

prepositions
Explanations
Verbs followed by prepositions When you learn a new verb, it is advisable to check in a dictionary, so that you know which preposition follows it. Some verbs are followed by different prepositions, with and without change of meaning. About dream know talk At . laugh look For apologize apply ask look pay wait In believe succeed Of accuse remind taste
On

be + adjective followed by a preposition

Note that most adjectives listed here have different meanings when used with other prepositions. It is advisable to check in a dictionary. About ':'angry, "annoyed, excited, happ)', "pleased, )'ight, sorry, upset Helen is excited about winning the prize. I'm sorry about YOllr difficulties. Call I help?
to

Adjectives marked ro· are followed by other prepositions when they refer people. See For, With below. At For bad.good Dora is really good at maths. [amous, late, ready, sony Ollr cit)' isfamous for its beautiflll buildings. I was sony for George 11I/;CII he Ca/ll('last in the race. differcnt This room is different [rom the other OIlC. interested Arc YOll interested in computers? a/raid,fond,frightened,fufl,jcillolfs, My sleeping bag was fill! of ants! keen I'm not very keen
011

/ I dreamt abo'ltt Harry last night. Do YOIlknow a lot about cconomicsi What arc ),011 lalking about t Don't laugh at me. Look at that bearltlful chen")' tree! I must apologize for being late. Jill has applied for a new job. Why don't we ask [or the bill? I'm lookingforthe bus station. Sheila paid for my ticket. I'll wait [or yo« outside. Do you believe in ghosts? H elcn succeeded in collecting £35 for charity. Albert was accused of spying. This city reminds me of Buenos Aires. Does your coffee taste of soap? I might come. It depends on the weather. YOIIcan rely on Ann to work hard.

From III Of
On

tired

fried food.

To With

kind, married.used Ellen is married toJack. angry, annoyed, bored.pleased I'm really angry with YOII.

Practice 1
Put one suitable word in each space. a) b) c) d) e)
f)

depend rely To belong explain

Does tliis belong to you? Could yull explain something 10 me please? lend Brian lent his car to me for tbe weekend. We can also say: I'rian lent me his car. listen You're not listening to me! talk Ellen was talking to her mother cn tlie phone.
166

g) h)
i)

j)

Fiona is very different ../mttl her sister. This house reminds me the house I grew up in. Please try and listen my instructions. My home town is famous its peaches. Excuse me, but does this umbrella belong you? What exactly was George talking ? I think we should ask some information .. Kate is very keen growing her own vegetables. I feel sorry Sam because he hasn't gOt any friends. When I speak Italian, all the others in the class laugh

111(,.

1(,7

IJ::,Tlllcdi,lle

Language Prllctice

Unit 40 Verbsfollowed by prepositions

2
i,(\vrill'cach se-ntence so that ir 1',lS a similar 111"lI1iIlg and l l" "lI.1il1s the \I, 'I'd given.

a) Dick found his work boring. bored

e) The bad news made me feel upset. I felt . . . my bike for the weekend. . . . .. lL it . our finding a his ticket. his bad behaviour. us.

,.,P.if.~w.(I.~,b.qr.t;i.withhl~.H!(Jd,
b) This town is a bit like Glasgow. reminds
.

f) My dog was in my dreams last night! Idreamt g) Sue is a reliable person.

.
of biology.

You can h) Jack borrowed I lent my i) The dark makes me afraid . I'm afraid j) There were lots of people in the sqUi'.re. The square was

c) Paula has a good knowledge knows

.................................................................................................................. d) 1'111 trying to find the art gallery. looking .................................................................................................................. e) l likc cream cakes. fond
f)

4
Put one suitable word in each space.

a) We asked our teacher to ...rxf.{t!in... a difficult problem b) The comic told a silly joke, but nobody c) The ring I found d) We may come to your party, but it babysitter . e) WhenJoc f) Harry g) You really h) Tony i) See you in a minute! flew to Australia, his aunt
to his neighbours

................................................................................................................... Sue is Adrian's wife. to

an old lady who had lost it in the street.

.................................................................................................................. g) Dina always treats animals kindly. kind ................................................................................................................... h) Ugh! This cake has a rubbery taste! rubber .................................................................................................................. i) You make Lisa feel jealous!
IS

my brother. You are vcry alike!


passing his driving test at the first attempt.

1'11

you outside

the cinema. ..

j) They spoke so quickly, that I didn't know what they were

.................................................................................................................. j) Our new house makes me feel excited! about ..................................................................................................................

5
Complete each part sentence a) to h) with one of the endings 1) to 8).

a) Ellen is not really interested b) The hotel was diffcrent c) Little Suzie was jealous d) I was really annoyed e) Paul is very keen f) Jane is really good g) At home, I'm used ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....

..1..

1) at making new friends .


2) about losing my new calculator. 3) for another big meal. 4) in learning how to ski. 5) of her new sister at first. 6) to going to bed early. 7) from what we expected. 8) on collecting old bottles.

3
Cornplcrc
Sl'C,

a) Do you find archaeology the


11<15 a '!ld sentence

interesting?

Are you

I.i:r.(t;r:t;~.((:rl.li111t:(h(lm{q!JJ.

so

I li.u

it

b) You have made me angry. I am .......................................................... c) I'd like my lunch now. I'm d) Geography is Richard's best subject. . Richard is very for lunch.

h) Idon't think I'm ready

ximil.ir
III till' Sl'11Il'ncc.

Ill~a!ling

fi rsl

./ro

1'....... :.;

.., '

.. "

•.. '

".,

1611

169

11r ::?

:e' ~.~/ ....


I

Unit 41 Pronouns
Explanations
Impersonal one • In formal writing and in formal speech, one is used as an impersonal subject. In this context it means 'people in general'. One takes the train to the airport from the Central Station. There is a possessive form one's. One's luggage is carried in a special compartment.
I

.-

r
!!
!
I
I

.'"

-'
• Everything describes all of a group of things.

Unit41

Pronouns

Eoerytbing in the room was red.


Everything is used as a general subject instead of all. Everything has gone wrong. Pronunciation: the stress is normally on the first syllable . anyone, anybody, anything • Anyone and anybody describe unknown people. A singular verb is used. They arc used in questions and with not ... in negatives. Does anyone know the answer? There isn't anybody at home. Anything is used in a similar way about things. A singular verb is used. Is there anything I can do to help? See someone ctc., on page 170, for the usc of someone
CIC.

•1

• If one is used as a subject, all later references also use one.


One takes the train to the airport from the Central Station and one can reserve one's seat in advance. • In everyday speech it is common to use YOII, or to avoid using a personal subject, especially by using the passive. You take the train to the airport from the Central Station. Seats can be reserved in advance. For some speakers the use of one seems over-formal.
YOIl.

• • no one, nobody, nothing •

in questions,

No aile and nobody describe people with a negative meaning. They are used with a positive singular verb. No one knows the answer. Nobody is at home. Nothing describes things in the same wa~·. There is nothing to eat. Double negatives are not used. We cannot say: ':'No one doesn't lenoio. Some verbs describe actions which refer to the same person who performs the action. In this case we use a reflexive pronoun. I have cut myself He cut himself Did you cut yourself? We enjoyed ourselves. She introduced herself Have YOIl hurt yourselves? It's destroying itself Tbey introduced themselves. Verbs often used in this way: cut, enjoy, burt, introduce, kill At the end of the play, Cleopatra kills herself _. Note that verbs may be reflexive in your language, but not reflexive III English. Myself etc. are also used for emphasis. Harry cooked all the food himself This means that no one helped him.

• • Reflexives: •

• If you use one, you must continue to use it. Do not mix one and
omeone, omebody, omething •

Someone and somebody describe an unknown person. Someone and anyone (see below) follow the same rules as some and any. There's someone/somebody at the door. Something describes an unknown thing. Something is worrying me. We use someone, somebody, something in questions about a definite idea. Is someone coming to collect YOII? Can I ask YOIl something? Note that we refer to someone using they/them. Someone phoned, and I told them you were out. Everyone and everybody describe a group of people. A singular verb is used. Everybody likes Sue. Everyone has a different meaning. It is an emphatic way of saying each single one. There were ten chocolates in the box and YOIl have eaten evelY one! Pronunciation: both words have equal stress.

myself esc.

verrone. ucrybodv; 'iJcrytbillg

• e

170

171

l nt crmediate Language Practice

Unit

41

Pronouns

Practice
1
Clu.osc the .or: cct word

4
one in the garden, to drink. to see you outside. you want. about it. Rewrite each sentence so that it has a similar meaning and contains the word given.

a) The box isn't empty. something

a) There isn't(ijillpij£Yno c) There is anything/nothing d) There's anyone/someone

... Tht;r/j.i,t~p.IJ.\t;fhit1!Ji".th"h(J;,
b) All the people were dancing. evel'yone c) I feel annoyed. something d) \VIe haven't got any food. nothing

b) Excuse me, could you move? I can't see anything/something.

llll,krlincd in l',\l It sentcncc.

c) You can do anything/something

f) Anyolle/Someonc
h) No one/Someone

stole the money, but we don't know who. would tell me the answer, so I guessed.

g) Idon't know an)'thing/nothing

2
ClIlllplcte
,l'L'1

the

'1ll1

sentence

so i h.u it has a similar meaning to I he first


SCI i ll'I1CC.

a) There was nothing Icould do. Icouldn't .. .t/.(!.tJ.I!lthil1g b) I know Mary better than anyone. Noone c) No one was on time yesterday. Everyone d) I haven't got any work. I'vc got e) There's something I'd like to ask you.

.
. . to do.

e) The office is empty. noone

f) Helen is vcr)' popular.


everybody

May I
f) We are all milk drinkers here! Everybody g) When I phoned, there was no reply. Noone h) Are we going to be driven there? Is

?
milk. . ?

5
Put one suitable word in each space.

a) That's an easy question! b) Is c) d) There's c) They introduced I) g) h)

"'{;~"fJ.b.qflt. .... knows the answer!

the matter? Can I help you? is wrong with the car, and it won't start. to see you. Shall I ask them as Helen and Ann.
to

wait?

never really knows what will happen, docs one? I've done so far today has gone wrong! you could say would make me change my mind, I'm afraid. spoke to me, but Ican't remember its name.

3
JZc\\lite
sentence each so that

ask behave blame ellJoy express hurt

cut dress introduce

talk

it i ncludcs a suu.rblc form of Dill Il[ the verbs [nlill the list, and ,\ !c:"lexivl'

a) Have a good holiday, both of you! And ...t;n;f:l ......... c) I keep

Ip.!ir.ldy.,~ .
.
. . easily. .

6
Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence.

a) Someone

...:iqmt:.lmr.·~fl(lhk.m( •.b.'!l/.{fI!1.1.rt:.!«t;I!1b.(r..({(t;Ii:I1!lm( •.................................


b) All in the garden has been growing a lot lately. c) Carol didn't do nothing yesterday. d) There isn't no one waiting for you.
• ••••••••••••••••• ?.' ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

b) We leave little jimmy's clothes beside his bed, and he


why I didn't speak to him. but Ijust don't know. and to d) Our teacher told us to stop shouting c) Whcn I fcll off the horse, I didn't f) Paula knows a lot of French, g) Let me i) When 1
to

but can't I'm Susan Perry.


, other people stare at me!

h) The accident wasn't your fault. Don't j) While TOIll was picking up the broken glass, he

e) Peter and Kate enjoyed thcmselfs . f) One fills in an application


• ••••••••••••• 00.0

at the party.

form, and then you wait for an answer.


::.~~ ~:/.'-.•

. Unit 42 Possessio/l

Unit 42 Possession
Explanations
Possessive apostrophe • When a thing or things belong to a person, a possessive apostrophe's normally added to the thing or person. is

posscsslve adjectives

• • •

Possessive adjectives are used before nouns.

my

)'0111'

her

its

his

our

their

We do not usc an article with a possessive adjective.

Peter is my cousin. He doesn't live in our town.


Possessive adjectives can be strengthened Paul cooks all his own meals. with own.

This isJim's scarf. Those are Helen ~gloves. \Vhere is the director's office?
• When a thing or things belong to a plural noun ending in s, the apostrophe only is added. / possessive pronouns •

This isn't my own bike. I've borrowed it from a [riend.


Possessive pronouns are used instead of a possessive adjective and noun. They stand on their own, and are not used with another noun. This is my bike. (possessive adjective + noun) This bike is mille. (possessive pronoun)

Those are the students' c~ats.


• A possessive apostrophe thing. is sometimes used when a thing is part of another

What is the book ~ title? \Vh,1t is this plant ~ namei


• Note that names of shops and other services are often made by using the name of the shopkccper or the business, with a possessive apostrophe. George bought this melon in the greengrocer's / in Smitlr's. I went to the doctor's and the dentist's 011 the same day. Note the common mistake of putting an apostrophe plural words. We do not write: "Apple', sold here. Note that an apostrophe missing. is also used in a contraction, before the s-plural of
to show that letters are

mine )'o/lrs hers his ours theirs .~ Whosc kcys nrc thesei Are they YOllrsor I1Ime. Yours are on the table. These are mine.
Note that there is not an apostrophe Double possessive in possessive pronouns

ending In s.

There are two common types. Both are normally used to describe the relationships between people. Possessive apostrophe and of

• •

Jo is afriend of my brother's. Of and possessive pronoun I met IT cousin of mine at the party. It is possible to use of and possessive pronoun
people. .

.,
to describe things owned

b)

It's a lovely day.


J/and :ompound . ords v •

It's

= It is

It's got a battery,

It's = It has

Do you like this new hal of minei

O/is normally used to show that a thing or things belong to another thing.

Practice
1
Choose the correct word or phrase underlined in each sentence. a) Jane met a friend of her..Q}g§)in the street. b) Helen docs all herself/her own decorating. ., ... c) Are these scissors your/yours? d) The desk next to the window is !l1ylminc. c) Paul and Alice introduced f) Excuse me, is this your/yours h) Peter has borrowed seat? me to a neighbour of thelr/thclrs.

The end of the street. The last twenty pages of the book .

Compound words are formed from two or more words. Compound words are often used when a thing is part of another thing, or used for a certain purpose.

I saw the shirt in a shop window. I bought some new football boots.
• Compound words are very common in technical descriptions.

~) David asks if you have seen that old coat o! 1lls/Lu!J1. my/mine bike. books with us. i) We haven't brought our/ours

Loosen the comer brackets first.


• Sometimes a hyphen is used to join the words. Check in a dictionary when a hyphen is used., . to sec

j) The dog is black and white, and its/it's cars arc very long.

I bought a chocolate ice-cream.

175

Unit 42 Possession

2
j'ut an .ipostrophe where necessary.

a) Tell Susan its Marys turn, not hers. •.• Tt;{{ $.I1M!J. it.~. Mllf)'.~..'1r.n.!1p.f.«(f..f, t b) Alices younger brothers called Bill. ................................................. , c) Tims sandwiches were tastier than ours.

d) This is my favourite programme on television.

.
.

. What ............................................... Those ............................................... Do you like this

programme. names? opener? bikes . table . ? calculator .

e) What are your teachers called? f) Have you got a thing for opening uris? g) Those bikes belong to our neighbours, h) I put my books on the table in the kitchen.

..................................................................................................................
d) The films beginning is good but its ending is weak. .................................................................................................................. c) Are these keys yours or hers? ..................................................................................................................
f)

Kate fills in the patients record cards at the doctors.

i) Do you like my new umbrella? j) This calculator doesn't belong to me .


...............................................

.................................................................................................................. g) When its raining, evcrybodys raincoats get wet. .................................................................................................................. h) The managers assistant reads all the customers letters. .................................................................................................................. i) Your sisters dog runs faster than ours. j) .................................................................................................................. Ones our teachers car and the others a visitors. ..................................................................................................................

5
Underline the errors in these sentences. Rewrite each sentence .

a) There are two bus-stop'S near my house.

•.. [/;.t;r.l!na.twp. b.!i~.:~l~f.~. nmr..IJ.1J.lr.q!l~.(,


b) Our cat sleep's all day in it's bed . c) Have you met the sister of Jane? d) Creature's like these live at the sea's bottom.

3
J\1.1kc two CI Impound vords from the words listed.

a) football cheese boot sandwich b) window pocket coat shop


c) gate garden lamp bicycle el) department cottage store country e) engine singer rock fire

··fop.fp.({(b."p.f ..........

...d1i?l:~r.~({l1dw.I.~L
.............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. ..............................

..............................
..............................
.. ............................

e) This book is the mine. f) I noticed these shoe's in a window's shop. g) Everybodys drawing's were better than our's .

f) post sharpener office pencil


g) ground report school football h) assistant shop station railway i) mixer money food pocket

.............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. .............................. ..............................

j)

h) Are these your's or mine glove's? i) The house stand's on it's own at the street's end.

market street failure power

4
(:, 111lplctc thc <,c,·\)lld sentence S\' i h.u it has a .'lllIilar mcallint; til Ihl" first
~l'iltL'lllL'.

a) Naomi is a friend of my sister's. Naomi is my These are lmct a

~I~{(r.4n~I;(d.
.

b) These shoes belong to Sam. c) I met one of my friends outside the school. outside the school.

i)

Those are two friends' of my fathers.

177

Unit 43 Text organizers

Unit 43 Text organizers


Explanations
This unit includes words and phrases used to organize speaking and writing.

Inlnyview, personally

These are used in formal speech and writing

to

introduce our own ideas,

Some people believe that television has killed the art of coriuersat ton. 111 my view/Personally, I think it gives people something to talk nbout.
This is used in formal speech and writing to introduce our final point.

/11 conclusion

In conclusion, we can say that television has both good and bad feat ures. except Except describes something not included. Foris sometimes used with it. \Ve have painted all the house, except (for) the front door. They gave presents to everyone except me. • For example is used either before or after the examples. Diet varies from place to place, For example, in hot countries, pcop]» t cm! to eat more [ruit. In hot countries.for example, people tend to eat more [ruit, • Such as follows a general idea and gives examples. In hot countries, such as Greece, people tend to eat more fruit.
• Such as cannot be used at the beginning of a sentence.

and, both, too, as well, also

• And is used to join words, phrases or clauses. Helen put on her coat and picked lip the suitcase.
• To emphasize two actions or descriptions, both ... and is used. Helen picked lip both her suitcase and her umbrella.

for example,
SIIC".:5

Too, as well and also areused to describe two actions at the same time. Helen picked lip her suitcase and her umbrella too, . Helen picked up her suitcase and her umbrella as well.

• As well is also used with as. Helen picked up her suitcase as well as her ~mbrella.
• Note the position of also.

Helen picked up both her suitcase and also her umbrella. even
• W~en someth.ing is thought to be surprising, even is used action. or a thing, We do not use and to do this.
to

infact, actually
emphasize an

Sam studies very hard. He even gets up at 5.30 to study! • Even is also used to emphasize comparative adjectives. This question is even harder than the last one. either, or • Either ... or is used to describe a choice or an alternative . .We can either go to the cinema, or stay at home.
Or IS not used at the beginning of sentences in writing. It is used in speech to complete someone else's sentence. Time words with other meanings

In fact is used when we give more detail, or contradict what has been said. Dave has several dogs. IIIfact, he's got tuielue. (more detail) I thought Gina toas a doctor but, in fact, she's tI vet. (contradiction) / thought Gina was a doctor but, actually, she's a vet. (contradiction)
• This is used to describe a change.

instead (of)

Instead of cooking I ordered a take-a "'a), meal. Jill came to the party instead of her sister.
• At the end of a sentence, instead is used without o].

I didn't cook. I ordered a take-away meal instead.


The meaning of a word depends on its lise. Many common words have other uses. The following tend to be used more in writing. I couldn't swim, since I had a cold. since meaning as No one replied to llly knock, yet all the lights were (In. yet meaning although while meaning although The first two buses were full, uibile the next W,\S completely el1\pt~·,

'We could go to the cinema I suppose ... ' .... orwe could stay at home and watch a video. ' First (of all), secondly, erc., finally
Whe.n we list points in writing and formal speech, we often show that we arc making a new point, so that our point of view is easier to understand.

Television has zhanged our lives in several ways. First of all, it has ... Secondly, more people ... Finally, it has changed the way that ...
These arc use.d.in writ:.:g and formal speech to show that we are adding a point.

As well as this, besides this

Television has changed 0111' lives in several 'ways. First of all, it has ... Secondly, more people ... As well as this/Besides this, more people .. ,

17S

179

Intermediate

Language Practice

Unit 43 Text organizers

Practice
1
Choose
,',)lTl'((

i) Though yet

I have written twice, I have not received a reply.

a) Mrs Davis taught us except for.(jnstead of)MrTaylor. the


word or

.
j) We can waidor either the bus or take a taxi.

b) We can either/or

wait here, or phone for a taxi. writes songs.

phrase \\\lllnlilll'l1 ill


,·.leh sentence.

c) Helen plays the guitar and ~ e) Everyone

d) There is a very cold winter in countries ~lDrlc/such in the team played badly also/exccpt geography and history. since/yct Sam. f) All the shops were closed, since/yet
g) jack studies and/both

as Finland. 3
Decide which answer, a), b), c) or d), best fits the space. Nowadays there are many good reasons for using bicycles (1) ..(.. cars
(0

it was a public holiday. light to carry. reach it.

travel

in city centres. (2) ..... , bicycles are (3) ..... silent and clean, (4) ..... are easy to park. (5) ..... , using a bicycle (6) ..... keeps people fit. However, (7) ..... have cycle lanes (8) ..... be free of private cars completely. cities, (9) ..... Amsterdam (10) ..... , a combination transport in the Netherlands, city centres must Some large in this way.

h) The Peak worth lent is strong and waterproof, i) jane felt wet and miserable both/too.
j)

The shelf was so high that and/cven our teacher couldn't

are already organized

2
Rewrite c.ich <cnt cncc so that it has a similar mc.uuu]; and ,',"l1.liIlS the word given.

of the use of bicycles with very cheap or free public

a) Paula visited both the castle and the museum. too

solves the problem of traffic jams and makes the city centre a more

pleasant place. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) a) but b) except for c) instead of d) such as a) as well b) first of all c) in fact d) personally a) both b) and c) too d) as well a) also b) for example they c) except d) and as well as this a) and b) yet c) while d) secondly a) and b) both c) also d) too a) in conclusion b) either c) besides this d) both a) such as b) yet c) also d) or . a) such as b) as well c) in my view d) while a) personally b) finally c) for example d) actually actually except a) Everyone c) d) I managed as well as this both either instead personally such as ... (x(t'pL ......... julia remembered to bring their dictionaries. we've repainted my passport and Illy wallet.
to

...P.Il«{iJ. .t~lft.tf1.~IUIl~t/t:. nt/.fi1f!. tI1l1~~f1ttt..q(J, .••••••••.•••••••..•.....•.•.••.•..••.•....•... y n /


b) jack was thc only person who came late. except . c) Although fact I said it was raining, it isn't! .

.................................................................................................................. d) Helen hurt her leg, so she couldn't play.


since

.................................................................................................................. e) My opinion is that smoking is bad for you. view ..................................................................................................................

4
Complete each sentence with a word or phrase from the list. Usc each word or phrase once only .

f) I ate the chocolate cake and the lemon pie.


as well as .................................................................................................................. g) Jim played in goal, in his brother's instead place.

b) We've repaired the roof, and to lose

the whole house.

I don't think that there are aliens or flying saucers. the theatre he is very talkative . .

e) I was going to go to the cinema, but I went

.................................................................................................................. h) Finally, I'd like to thank the head teacher, Ann Coles.
III

f) People think that Tim is shy, but


g) Some illnesses, h) We're going to

the common cold, do not have a cure. go camping, or stay with some friends.

..................................................................................................................

.,_ .... I

lsn

1R I

Intermediate

Language Practice

5
Complete the spaces a) to j) using 1) to 10).

Unit 44 Capital letters and punctuation


Explanations
Capital letters • Capital (or upper-case) letters to begin a sentence for names of people for addressing people for personal pronoun I for titles of books etc. for names of places for calendar information are used:

(a) .5.. I'd like

to

thank everyone

who has helped with the school play. (b) .....

the actors, and the stage hands, have worked vcry hard, and ever):one who made the costumes worked hard (c)

I would (d)

like

to

rhank all those who


This is a beautiful place. Jim, Helen Mrs Jones, Uncle Peter, M UIl1 I saw Ellen last night.. '. 'Three Men and a Baby' IS afUll 11.1' [ilin. France, Hungary \\Iednesday, March, New Year's Day
do not have capitals, unlcs-,

have sold tickets. This year we had an (e) ..... larger audience than last yeM, and (f) ..... Tuesday evening, every single seat was sold. This year the play ran for a week (g) ..... for two days. We did not have a lot of time for rehearsals, and all (h) ..... the play was a great success. (i) ..... , J feel that we should congratulate

Note that words like and, a/the and prepositions they arc at the beginning of the title. 'In tbc Heat oj tbe Night' is a good film.

the actors for their wonderful performance. (j) ..... , I'd like to give judy \\Ialkcr, the director, this present from everyone at the school. 1) even 2) yet. 3) ;IS well 4) except for 5) first of all 6) in conclusion 7) also S) personally 9) both 10) instead of

Some words can be written with capitals, or in lower-case. names of the seasons in Spring, in spring decades the Fifties, the fifties jobs Sanderson 'Wasa good president. Paul met President Brunstoicli. I liue in the north of Scotland. compass points

These arc:

(used generall,)
(n.uncd jol»)

Sallyuiorles in tbe Far East.


Punctuation • Full stop (.) At the end of a sentence. After each letter which stands for a word in an abbreviation.

e.g.

etc.
Mr and Mrs

Full stops arc often left out after the abbreviations Comma (,) A comma represents a pause. It is used in lists.

I bought some bananas, some oranges and some potatoes. If the l.ist two items of the list arc long we usc a co 111 III a. 11 !I day ~i'ecleaned the floors, 'Washed the iaalls, and tidied the house.
Openings Some words or phrases at the opening of a sentence arc foll(lwcd hy commas.

First of all, this can be dangerous.

IS?

IS.1

igl/'Ige Practice

Unit 44 Capital letters and punctuatioll

Parentheses These are phrases PUt between the subject and the verb. Ann, on the other hand, did not agree. Non-defining clauses - see Unit 23. Tony, who is usually late, turned up at 10.30. Commas arc not used after reporting verbs in reported speech. Jim said he would be late. Compare direct speech, where a comma is needed: . J un said,'l'll be late. ' Commas separate clauses and phrases, and cannot be used to join sentences. Tuio men were walking doion tbe street, They were carrying a box. Two men carrying a box were walking down the street. "Two men were walking doum the street, they were carrying tl box. The last sentence is not acceptable in formal writing. • Semi-colon (;) \'i/e can join two sentences, with related meaning, using a semi-colon. Road users annoy pedestrians; pedestrians annoy road users. A semi-colon is also used to separate long items in a list. Students are asked not to leauc bicycles by the entrance; not 10 leave bags ill the ,illillg room; and 1I0t 10 lcauc coals in the dining room. .. Colon (:) A colon introduces the sentence. items in a list, or an explanation of the previous part of

Practice
1
Tick (,I) the sentence which is punctuated correctly. a) 1) 'Would you mind telling me where we are?' Tina askcd.v' 2) 'Would you mind telling me, where we are Tina asked?' 3) 'Would you mind telling me, where we arc,' Tina aske'd? b) 1) I agreed, that a cottage in the mountains, 2) I agreed that a cottage in the mountains would be better. would be better.

3) I agreed that a cottage, in the mountains would be better. c) I) Helen who arrived after I did, asked me when the play finished? 2) Helen, who 'arrived after I did, asked me when the play finished.
3) Helen, who arrived after I did asked me, when the play finished.

d) I) Peter told me, not to wait and said 'I'll see you later.'
2) Peter told me not to wait and said, 3) Peter told
111('

'I'll sec you later.'

not

to

wait and said I'll sec you later. and felt ill.

e) I) In the end I went home, I was wet and hungry, and felt ill.
2) In the end I went home; I was wet and hungry; f) 1) I bought 2) I bought

3) In the end I went home: I was wet and hungry and felt ill. some flour, some eggs, two lemons and some sugar. some: flour, some: eggs, two: lemons and some sugar.

3) I bought some flour some eggs two lemons, and some sugar . g) 1) Ann told us that nobody had asked her for her passport.
2) Ann told us that, nobody 3) Ann told
LIS

There are two rules: OIlC, don 'I do it; noo, don 'I gel caught. hnally, we had 10 stop: ".'e tccrc tired «lid iI4',/S darle. ~ Quotation marks (" ") (' ') Quotation marks (or speech marks) arc used with direct speech. Punctuation goes inside the marks. Quorarion marks can be double or single. "\'(Ih),art' toe leaving so ~arl)'?" Helen asked. 'It might rain later, 'I explained. Titles of books, films, plays etc. are usually put inside single quotation marks ,'.-hclllising handwriting. Punctuation is put outside in this case. \Ve went to a performance of Ibsen's 'Ghosts', III printed text, the titles of books, films, plays etc. arc usually pu~ in italics. ~~lcstiClnlllark (?) and Exclamation mark (!) Question marks only occur after the question, \V!Ja/ 's tbe time? Lxclalllationl1larks arc used in informal writing, but arc not considered ,11 propriatc in formal writing. YOJ{ 'II never glless what! I've just got engaged!
1

h,yd asked her, for her passport. had asked her, for her passport.

that nobody

2
Rewrite each group of words so that it contains the punctuation listed.

a) First of all who is going to carry the suitcase asked Sue (one full stop, one comrn.i, one question mark, speech marks)

... :r,l.(.~(.t/tJ/!..w!.'p',1;j!Jp.I:,.'J.((!ml:rJ.fllu.'!.'Z(({$r.t({~h.t/.$.H(',
b) Kate said she would be
011

time but I didn't believe her

(one full stop, one co 111 111.1)

c) Jack said that he had missed the train got lost and been arrested

(one full

SLOp,

two conun.is)

d) \Vhcn the bell rallb our teacher stood up and s'1id Stop writillS plc.is c (one full stop, three conunas, speech marks)

.
...................................................................
,

.
.

184

IB5

Intermediate

Language Practice

e) On the other hand we could go to the cinema couldn't

we said David

(one full stop, two commas, one question mark, speech marks)
.0 ••••••••••••••••••••••• ~ •••••••• , •••••••••••• 0 •••••• 0 •••••••• 0 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

Unit 45 S,pelling and pronunciation 1


Explanations
Adding -ing \'crbs
to

f) Hello Alan said Tina how do you feel today (one"fulfstbp, letter)

..

","

one comma, one question mark, speech marks, one capital

One- syllable words which end in one vowel and one consonant last consonant. swim/swimmillg /Jut/putting Compare these words which do not double the consonant:

double the

g) If I were you I'd ask for some help or perhaps start again (one full stop, two commas) • h) The old stadium was eventually it was becoming dangerous (one full stop, one comma, one colon) demolished very few people well! there and

shoot/shooting

lift/lifting

Two-syllabIc words which end in one vowel and one consonant double the last consonant when the stress is on the second syllable. begin/beginnillg controlrcontrolling Compare these words with the stress on the first. syllable. wonder/wolldering threaten/tbreatenlllg One exception to this rule in GB English is trave//mwelling. . \V'ords which end in one vowel, one consonant and -I' drop the fllul -e. write/writing leaue/leauing

3
Rewrite each sentence putting In an)' necessary capital letters,

a) we're meeting uncle david on tuesday evening at eight.

••.Wr.r.o.'.w.t.i.':'fj.f.!nt/t;.p.(mil.p.'.t.7J:<.w/.'1J..t.'yt.!1i!(9,(lf.(ig/t(,
b) last february i met mrs wilkinson for the first time.

Words ending in

The suffix -fill has only one

i. i is formed.

-fill

beftlltiflli beautiflllly

" sllccessflll sllccessflllly

When -lv is added for adverbs, a double

c) tim lives in the south of france near cannes.

-ie or -ei?

There is a useful rule: i before c except after c, when the sound is [v]. field niece but receive • Many words contain letters which do not obviOt~sly Iorrn the sound. These arc sometimes referred to as 'silent letters'. The silen t letters are underlined. ht/rnb doul!.t plumber thuml: kn knee knife know ps psychology /!.sychiatl'ist sc dcsccntl nsccnd
II II.

d) we saw a great film at the abc called 'the remains of the day'.

Silent letters

e) carol works as the manager of a tourist agency.

f) we went to a part.~ at mrs harrisons'

house on new year's eve.

• q and

The letter q is always followed by question squu! acquire g) julia's reading 'a i"- rtrair of a lady' by henry james.

h) when jean met the prime minister she asked some difficult questions.

IR7

,',,,__

..

--------------~Language Practice

l ntcrnretliatc

Practice
1.
• ....' 'orrcct
t hc

(Words conimonly
.. .df!.~irl!i1j..........

spelled wrongly g} thier


h)

are also included

hcrc.)

a} dccidcing

.........................
.........................

b) swiming c) foro d) qcstion e) whistle i) knowcn

beatiful

'i'elling

where

i) rccicpt

1Il'll'ss.lry.

j) begining
k) phychiatrist I) sucesfull

......................... ......................... .........................


.........................

Unit 46 Spelling and pronunciation 2


f8 '""'.

Explanations

,
(cdlif),

Same sound,

2
l be I he let
1I1,1ke a
Ins In

a) Sue said she'd .. p/rP.!1(.... (nchop)

me but I haven't ... rr.w:wl.... (ircdvccc) a call. (stcwlih)


) completed

d ifferclH spelling

130th vowel and consonant sounds in English have several ways of spelling the same sound. In each group, the sound underlined is the same. Vowels cumpany brQtha laoe traubl» rubbish !'Q£ld /IIQst hQlllc thQ11gh IQu' earth further u'Qrd hurt willt grrut late wright nQw sbQlit drown plQ11gb Consonants relation mock sure conscious delirious murch [urnuure waWz lei~ure measure conflll.ioll blQQd

word .vhich [its the

b) When the referee blew the c) Ellen ............. (shipscy)


(Icclyslusucs

the players left the .." the course in nuclear a

d) I didn't
I) Jim asked a g) Al the

(wonk) how

10 cut

the string without

(iukcf).
(ncgvial) the bank. (nilsigent). (wive) of the screen. made.

c) The police arrested the (nigengibn)

(itfch) as he was
(siqontuc),

but his teacher wasn't (yitbucllual) i) write j) improve 1\) swun


I) ride

of the film, I had a poor

h) These ancient "

(rnulcosn) arc e) iI)' f) make


~) upsct h) hook

3
\Vritc each verb \I,'ith ;1I1-illg
('llLiillg.

a) control b) thicken c) gnp d) choose DcarTina, I am


SOl')'

".(P.!1tm((.:!'j ...

.....................

.....................
.....................

..................... ..................... .....................


.....................

..................... ..................... .....................

.....................

Same pronunciation, different spelling and meJning Words which look similar

Common examples are: coun/ceugb! stair/stare lesson/lessen find/fined warn/worn u!ait/'1l,·cight

sore/sat» 'waste/wilist no/lenou.

«lloiocd/alou

fare/fair two/too meaning.

4
the ·.jll'llill~ illlhis
\:OITl'C[

that I have not wrircn

to

)'OU for so lung. I'm afri"d I've been vcry


to

lcu cr,

hussy at shoo I. and I haven't had much time for writeing lctcrs, Last week I finiscd my cxamcnaticns, I was wundering
c.um I11call11YIrcinds,

so now I'm geting rcdy


to

go on holyday, You The whc.u hcr is rc.d), good Words with a

SOI11C words are similar to other words, but have a different later/latter quiet/quite recent/resent accept/except Ihrolig/;/thol'OuglJ fonnerly/fonnally insure/ensure lose/loose
Some words pronounced.

wether you wood like

come to stay for a ficw lbrs?

and we coud all go swimcing.

now hear in Italy, and 1'111 sliurc you will cngoy yourshcll. best wishes, Ivbria

syllable which is
not pronounced

appear to have more syllables than they actually have when Examples which are often spelled wrongly: temperature librm)' \\Ic£illesd'l)' vegcwblc people interesting advice advise
prac! ice practise

5
\.:tI!

a)
1\.'Cl

tOlnIlHHO\V

... t(l.J.I.f/!OJ'.l;f,l ........

g) l1ecccss~rry

..... ................... .
...............
,

lll(,sl'

'.', (lilis
"'t)111111l1

h) WcnsliJy

111y '1',·11c-c1 wron~ly.

c) advcrtismcru
d) ncihbour

........ . ........ .. .. .... .........................

h) dissappoinrccl i) wheat her

Nouns and verbs with c and 5


ll ow to improve

Noun Verb

.......•.

.........................
.........................
.........................

j)

rembcr

e) tlirugl: f) greatfull

k) libar),
I) anscr

......................... ......................... ......................... .........................

spelling

Usc a clictionary 10 check the pronunciation of new words, and rcl.uc their spelling to words you know. Make lists of the words you usually spell wron[;lr Reading widely will give you experience of the way words are spelled.

··1~~i a
Intermediate Language Practice
~":.

Practice
:t
Find pairs of words with the same sound underlined. a) In b) plum c) h~n d) catch e) phone f) ~ure

(Words commonly g) eQmpany h) doubt i) measure j) Iurnijure k) toast I) food

spelled wrongly

are also included here.)

m) park n) rlJ.le 0) brQwf16 ~"

Problems, Errors, Consolidation 5


1
Choose the correct words underlined in each sentence. a) Paula keeps talking about that new bike ~f~her/her's. b) 1 asked my teacher for help', but she refused to help/helping c) David isn't interested d) Sue couldn't f) Ireally enjoy at/forlin collecting stamps. she had a bad cold. time with you! Frcnch. about the trip. swim although/as
to

me.

2
Choose the correct word in each sentence.

a) Please Stop looking at me like that! It's very rude to st~ir48I9 b) I think you should practice/practise diving every day, examination. c) The doctor gave Martin a through/thorough

e) It's really dark. I can't sec anything/something/nothing. spcnd/spending g) Ann is not very good at/by/for

d) Could you give me some advice/advise about language courses? e) \Y/e wanted to go by train, but we couldn't afford the fairlfare. f) Could you wait a moment? g) Reading allowed/;lloud I'm not quirt/quite ready. tired. is hard unless you have time to check first.

h) Helen hasn't told me anything/nothing

2
Decide which answer, 01), b), c) or d), best fits the space.

An unfortunate

misunderstanding

h) Sorry I didn't comc to your party, but 1 just felt (woltoo

Last year we (1) ..6.. to havc an expensive holiday, so we (2) ..... to visit some friends, Brian and Ann, who (3) ..... to live by the sea. They (4) ..... to put us up for two weeks, and as we always (5) ..... seeing them, it (6) ..... to be a good idea. They asked
LIS

3
Tick (,I) if a pair of words rhymes.

a) sweet/eat

...f..

f) thought/short g) later/latter h) word/heard i) chose/bruise j) low/go

k) abroad/afford I) quite/diet m) friendllcaned n) blood/food 0) weight/height

if we (7) ..... sleeping on the sofa, and said that the)' would (8) ..... We (9) ..... to get there by bus, and when we arrived we that they hadn't (12) ..... to see us. The)' said that we h.lel so the I1CXtd.l), we

b) worse/horse c) worn/torn d) lose/loose e) tea/bee

to make us comfortable.

could (to) ..... Brian and Ann sitting in the garden. They (11) ..... to be glad to sec us, but it was obvious
(13) ..... to tell them when we were arriving, and they (14) ..... asking us how

4
Correct the spelling in this letter.

Dear Maria,
abraod

long we were going to stay. We (15) ..... feeling embarrassed, went home. 1) a) continued
2) a) fancied

Thanks for your letcr and your invittation to Italy! I have never traveled before, and I am realy looking forwerd to staying with you and your
to my parrents

familly. I have spokken

and they have aggreed. They say they are


to

going to phone soon to discus the arangcmcnts. I've dicided to have some Italian lesons so that 1 can practice when 1 come Italy. I'd like you to write some simple scntanccs for me. Please note my new adress. We moved Ian weak and now I've got a much biger bedroom. best wishes, Tina

3) 4) 5) 6)
7)

5
Correct these words commonly spelled wrongly.

a) vegtablc
b) Iangage

.. Xf:9r.1r.Yt: ..........
.......................... ......................... .......................... ..........................

g) illtresting h) hiscit i) cicling j) dilrcru k) knowligc I) ind.pcndant

.......................... ..........................

c) qCltCU d) recrcvc c) peple f) beatilul

.......................... .......................... ..........................


..........................

S) 'J) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

b) couldn't afford c) liked d) promised b) tried c) wished d) decided a) meant b) kept c) hoped d) happcned a) offered b) admitted c) enjoyed d) intended a) denied b) imagined c) enjoyed d) preferred a) began b) seemed c) imagined d) expected a) mindcd b) suggestcd c) wanted d) remembered a) practise b) mean c) learn d) tr~' a) suggestecl b) tried c) managed d) started a) watch b) sec c) keep d) wait a) intended b) pretended c) expect cd d) suggest cd a) preferred b) forgotten c) promised cl) expected a) forgotten b) denied c) seemed d) chosen a) loved b) wanted c) kept d) couldn't stand a) imagined b) minded c) couldn't hell' d) seemed

..........................

1')0

I 'JI

I nt crmcdiatc

Language

Pmctice

Problems,

Errors, Consolidation

3
( ornp lctc the s ccond sen renee ", that it hasi' -unilnr mcaning 1·, the first .... .ntcucc.

a) Tim was the only student who forgot the test. Everyone Noone c) These two pairs of gloves belong to the twins. These arc d) Sam wouldn't Sam refused
c) Peter is reliable.

5
.
. . Put onc suitable word in each space.

All afternoon

at the bus station

remembered

the test . .lu((rpf.[im

Kate had been waiting (a) .. for. waiting. There was (d)
friend of (f)

a colleague of (b) else there, and it had (e)

father's to collect ..
e .'

b) Helen knows this town better than anyone.

her from the bus station for more than an hour, and she was tired (c) raining. A ;
had lent he~ an umbrella to take on her trip, but she

(g) thought, .

to be getting wet. Perhaps her father was angry (h) or had simply (i)
to collect her. Ther~ wasn't (j)

her, she a

carry my bag.

phone-box in the bus station.Why did (k) always go wrong when she travelled by bus? (I) the bus was crowded and she Iclt very uncomfortable, Suddenly It was hcr father! or it (m) stopping a car stopping and the journey lasted for hours. was waving at her. she (n) outside, (0)

You can f) Mary is one of my brother's Mary is a It h) The classroom There's i) Do you think you could close the window? \V'ould you mind j) Bill borrowed Sue lent her 'l '. "ok carefully at .. Ieh line, Some
': :1('5

. friends. . evening. . is empty. . ? . ;

g) The snow began yesterday

6
this letter, correcting the spelling and adding any necessary capital letters and
Rewrite punctuation.

17 Harford Bilsworth,

Street,

lIK34JG TeI:OS1436783 dear david it was grate


100 here

Sue's calculator.

from you after so long i cnjoicd hearing all )'oure kncws you must have had a rcaly dicided to go their next surncr praps we coud go
year at colidge the work is harder than the work we did

i didn't reallizc that you had spent a year abbroad good :imc in grcccc.ivc iwogcthcr ivc had a [antastick computer you like
to

Winning

a million

Life changed completely


£ 1,000,000

for Carol Miles when she won


to

I) .....f. 2) .. iAtJl

arc correct

in the lottery. 'I decided that

buy a ticket

..
.. .. .. .. . ..
. .. .

at scool but its more intrcsting


sicnce

im studing bussiness administration ive also maid lots of ncw frcinds

and

i 'lIt some have a

while I was waiting for take the bus. 1 didn't get excited about it, because I didn't expect me to win. In fact, 1 completely surprised forgot it to check my numbers, until a friend reminded for me to do it. You can imagine how that having lots

3) 4) 5) 6) 7) S)
9) 10) 11)

at the momment of comming

··.mel which
.hould
I

im thinkcing

to bristol for a few days to vissit my sister woud our old


to

not be

meat you coud show me the sites and we coud talk abowt

lu-re. Tick c.ich orrcct

line. Iia ,11C h.1S a word ·'.hieh should not


i \l' there, write
llc

I was!' Carol had often been dreamt about always mean being happy. 'I can't now. When I go out with my friends, the bills,

scooldays why dent you give me a ring and we coud discus it it woud be wunderfull see you agane best wishes ellen wilson

being rich, but she has got discovered of money doesn't enjoy for anything

wurd in tI,C

for example, they either expect me to payor

or they arc angry with me when I offer to pay it. Some

12)

..

7
Put o n c suitable word in each
Sp.1CC.

a) ... b1~kw{ ...


b) There

p! ........

goinl~ out to lunch, we stayed at home. oranges in the bowl but you've eaten today, but
to

people they arc jealous of my good luck, I think, and accuse me of thinking
to have understand.

1.»
14) 15) 16) 17)

.
. .. .. .

were a dozen

. it's Tuesday!

only about money. Nobody

seems except for

onc. e) I thought d) e) Ted is a fricnd it was Wednesday , I would like thank e\'cryone who has given help. .

1 thought I would enjoy myself, but


to

everyone has started to treat me with differently, one friend of mille who has asked me

lend it him £IO,OOO!'

brother's,

but isn't a friend of

193

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