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Taking the Lead and Challenging the Future Together

Guidance Notes of Good


Contracting Practice

Scoffolding

Offshore Contractors’ Association


58 Queens Road
Aberdeen AB15 4YE

Telephone: 01224 326070


email: info@oca-online.co.uk

www.oca-online.co.uk
INDEX
1. Introduction ……………………………………..………... 3

2. Responsibilities ……………………………………………. 4
2.1 Initiator of access requirement .……………...……..4
2.2 Scaffolding Foreman ……………………….……….. 4
2.3 Scaffold / Access platform user …………….……….5
2.4 Project Support (onshore & offshore) …..…………..5

3. Risk Assessment ………………………………………… 7


3.1 Introduction … ……………………………………… 7
3.2 Manual Handling……………………………………. 9
3.3 Raising and Lowering of Materials …………………10

4. Fall Arrest Equipment ………………………………...….. 12


4.1 Inspection and use of Fall Arrest Equipment ……... 12
4.2 Working at Height ………………………………….. 13
4.3 NASC Guidance Note SG4:00 ……………………… 15
4.4 Rescue Plan ……………………………………….….16

5. Conventional Scaffolding ……………………….………….17


5.1 Scaffolding Tube……………………………………. 17
5.2 Scaffold Board ………………………………………. 18
5.3 Fitting : Double Coupler …………………………….18
5.4 Fitting : Single Coupler ……………………………...19
5.5 Fitting : Swivel Coupler …………………………….. 19
5.6 Fitting : Sleeve Coupler …………………………….. 20
5.7 Fitting : Base Plate …………………….…………… 20
5.8 Fitting : Gravlock …………………………………… 21
5.9 Fitting : Band & Plate ………………………...……. 21
5.10 Timber Pole Ladder ………………………………… 22
5.11 Lightweight Platform Stagings ……………………. 22
5.12 Ladder / Unit (Lattice ) Beams ……………………. 23
5.13 Types of Scaffold Structure ………………………….24

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5.14 Designed Scaffold Structures ………………………. 29
5.15 Scaffolds Requiring Design Engineering Input ……29
5.16 Ladder Access ………………………………………..30
5.17 Life Duration of Erected Scaffold ………………….. 36

6. Other Access Systems …………………………..………... 37


6.1 System Scaffold ………………………………………37
6.2 Aluminium/GRP Tower Systems ………………….. 38
6.3 Mechanical Elevated Work Platforms
(mechanical mobile plant) …………...……………...40
6.4 Rope Access ………………………………………….40

7. Material Storage …………………………………..………. 41


7.1 Inspection & Storage of Scaffold Material ………….41
7.2 Inspection Details : Scaffold Fitting ……………….. 42
7.3 Inspection Details : Scaffold Board ……...………….42
7.4 Inspection Details : Scaffold Tube ………………….43
7.5 Inspection Details : Pole Ladder ……………………43
7.6 Illustration of Rack Capacity ………………………..44
7.7 Tube & Fitting Self Weights…………………………45

8. Inspection & Tagging ………………………….………… 46


8.1 Inspection / Tagging ………………………………..46
8.2 Inspection Tags ...…………………………...……….48

9. Overside Working ……………………………..…………. 49


9.1 Restrictions ………………………………………….. 49
9.2 Manning …………………………………….………..49

10. Competence & Training ………………………………….. 50

11. Legislation and References ………………………………. 51

12. Contributors ………………………………………………. 54

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1. INTRODUCTION

Member companies of the Offshore Contractors Association (OCA) provide


scaffolding access services to the Offshore Oil and Gas industry.
Over the years various means of access have been introduced into the
offshore oil and gas industry, including system scaffolding, aluminium
scaffolding and roped access. This document is intended as guidance for
member companies, their clients and contractors as to the various types of
Bill Abbott Steve Black access available. Advice as to the appropriateness of particular access
The Rigblast Group Ltd Salamis (Marine & Industrial) Ltd systems should be sought from those member companies of OCA, which
provide access services.

Scope

This guidance is intended for the users and providers of temporary access
Keith McMillan systems on oil and gas installations operating on the United Kingdom
Cape Industrial Services Ltd Continental Shelf. Additional risk assessment may be required for floating
installations.

Objectives

To provide guidance on types of temporary access available to companies


Graham Morrison requiring access to work faces, which do not have permanent access.
Health and Safety Executive To provide guidance on health and safety issues arising from the provision
Joe Bogan and use of temporary access systems, such as risk assessment, manual
SGB Powerchem handling and overside working.
To list relevant legislation and other sources of information.

Robin McKenzie
The Rigblast Group Ltd

Doug Sheal
Salamis (Marine & Industrial) Ltd

Gail Amey
Offshore Contractors Association

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2. RESPONSIBILITIES This recent Directive is expected to be incorporated into UK law by
2004 by amending the regulations to describe a preferred hierarchy
The following is a broad set of responsibilities for the key positions in any of access systems as between scaffolding, ladders and rope access
scaffolding / access environment. It is recommended that they be used as
the basis for the development of local rules that more specifically define the and the arrangements for their use. Compliance with the minimum
key interfaces and responsibilities at a specific location. requirements is designed to ensure a better standard of health and
safety for workers in the use of work equipment provided for
2.1 Initiator of access requirement temporary work at a height.

For every scaffold / access platform erected there will be an initiator, who
will request the scaffold in order to complete a scope of work or service. The 10. Other Applicable Regulations include:
initiator therefore has a number of responsibilities to fulfil to assist in the safe
and efficient erection of any access structure: ⇒ Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations
1994 (COSHH). These require employers to protect
• Formally notify the Scaffolding Foreman of access requirement.
workers’ hearing form exposure to noise at work.
• Accurately define the scope of the access requirements, to assist the
scaffolding contractor in ensuring that the structure is ‘fit for ⇒ Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (NAWR). These require
purpose’ on erection. employers to protect workers’ hearing from exposure to
• Ensure that reasonable timescales are provided to allow sufficient pre noise at work.
task planning and risk assessment to be carried out by the Scaffolding
Foreman. ⇒ Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 (EAWR). These
require employers, employees and self-employed workers to
2.2 Scaffolding Foreman prevent risks of injury from electrical equipment and
systems.
The Scaffolding Foreman / Chargehand will be the central focus for all
access activities. This ensures that one central point is utilised to co-ordinate
all aspects of access management, reducing risk and increasing efficiency. 11. Step Change in Safety Task Risk Assessment Guide.
The following responsibilities ensue:
This document gives comprehensive guidelines of the completion of
⇒ Arrange appropriate Permit to Work compliance at all times. task risk assessment.
⇒ Co-ordinate the completion of task risk assessments and toolbox 12. CONTRIBUTORS
talks to relay information and instructions to the working party.
⇒ Ensure that any potential conflicts of activities are addressed during
the pre job planning.
⇒ Request Design Engineer assistance if access requirements are not
within the parameters of BS5973 or the company’s Technical
Manual.
⇒ Ensure that sufficient materials are readily available to complete
workscopes.
⇒ Allocate personnel to the task ensuring competencies and numbers
are sufficient to complete tasks safely.
⇒ Handover completed scaffold structure to initiator / end user.
⇒ Ensure that a competent person is available to conduct statutory 7-
day inspections and to maintain the inspection tags and scaffold
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⇒ Make adequate provisions available (labour) for the safe dismantle of
5. The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous access structures.
Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) ⇒ Follow local rules relating to ‘adverse weather’ policy.

2.3 Scaffold / Access platform user


These require employers to notify certain injuries, diseases and
dangerous events. To ensure that the scaffolding / access platform is maintained to as safe a
standard as practical, the user has these key responsibilities:
6. The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992
⇒ Conduct a task risk assessment (TRA) for the activities to be carried
These require employers to assess and control the risks to their out on the scaffolding structure.
employees from manual handling. The employer should avoid the ⇒ Identify and manage any conflicting activities that occur when using the
scaffolding / access structure.
need for hazardous manual handling, assess the risks of injury from
⇒ Ensure that the scaffold is ‘fit for purpose’ for the intended workscope.
manual handling that can not be avoided and reduce the risks of
Any alterations to the structure should be requested to the scaffolding
injury, as far as reasonable practicable. foreman.
⇒ Notify the scaffolding foreman of any changes to the scaffold due to
7. Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 weather, damage or collision.
(LOLER) ⇒ Maintain a high level of housekeeping / tidiness whilst working on the
access platform and when leaving the worksite unattended.
LOLER require that where the scaffolding is erected using lifting ⇒ Formally notify the scaffold foreman when work on scaffold has
equipment the equipment is strong and stable enough for the ceased, ensuring the access platform is left in an acceptable condition.
particular use and marked to indicate safe working loads, positioned
and installed to minimise any risks, used safely ie the work is 2.4 Project Support (onshore & offshore)
planned, organised and performed by competent people and subject
to ongoing thorough examination and inspection by competent Project support function provides technical support to the scaffolding
foreman to carry out their duties. Responsibilities include: -
people.

⇒ Providing a Safe System of Work, in conjunction with the client.


8. Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 1992
⇒ Ensuring that the quality of the equipment supplied for erecting the
scaffold / access structures meets the relevant standards.
The primary purpose of these Regulations is to reduce risks to the ⇒ Providing the Scaffold Foreman with suitably trained and competent
offshore workforce from major accident hazards, It also requires personnel to complete the workscopes safely.
arrangements to be in place for the verification of safety critical ⇒ Providing access to competent design engineers.
elements and to show that risks are as low as reasonably practicable
(ALARP). Where scaffolding offshore is left in place for any length
of time, for example, the effects of increased congestion in
increasing blast overpressures may need to be considered.

9. Temporary Work Act Height Directive 2001

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Flowchart of Key Responsibilities. OCA Revision of Offshore Scaffold Guidance Regulations

1. Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (HSW Act)


Initiator Requests
Scaffold access This act covers nearly all the safety regulations in Great Britain both
onshore and offshore (see below). The Act places general duties on
employers to ensure, so far as is reasonable practicable, the health
Scaffold foreman
and safety of their employees and others who may be affected by
Surveys
workscope their undertaking (HSW Act sections 2 and 3). These general duties
are supported by the specific requirements of the supporting
Regulations.
Does scaffold
require a design?
(I.e. outwith the Yes Request design 2. Application Outside Great Britain Order 2001 (AOGBO)
parameters of drawing from Design
BS5973 or Engineer
This order is an amendment of the earlier Order that applies most of
Technical Manual)
the regulations made under the HSW Act to offshore installations,
No Develop a design pipeline works and connected activities in the territorial waters
drawing
Requisition outside the mainland of Great Britain. As well as these general
Materials regulations, there are also some offshore-specific regulations made
under the Act.
Erect Scaffold
3. Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999
(MHSWR)
Scaffold inspected
by a competent
person These contain general duties to carry out risk assessment, undertake
appropriate health surveillance and arrange appropriate information
Scaffold Register &
Inspection Tag Handover to end and training for employees.
maintained user
4. Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998
Statutory (PUWER)
Inspection
PUWER contains general duties covering the selection of suitable
Job complete, work equipment and its maintenance and information, training and
scaffold foreman instruction for workers. The equipment to which PUWER applies is
notified to
dismantle scaffold wide, covering mobile equipment such as scaffolding as well as fixed
plant. PUWER also cover the control of hazards such as instability
and contact with dangerous parts of machinery and hot and cold
surfaces.

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3. RISK ASSESSMENT
requisite skills, knowledge and understanding to enable them to perform
their work tasks to an appropriate standard, and also ensures that those skills
are maintained and enhanced. 3.1 Introduction

A competency process ensures that: A scaffolding activity risk assessment together with a task based risk
assessment must be carried out prior to the erection or dismantling of a
scaffold and must involve the persons carrying out the task. (See Risk
♦ Competent persons are employed
Assessment Flow Chart).
♦ Evidence of competency can be provided to the client
♦ Evidence of competency can be provided to the regulatory The control room via the permit to work system must ensure that all hazards
authorities in the area of the task location are clearly identified and communicated to
♦ Training needs are identified and appropriate training programmes the persons carrying out the task.
implemented
The success of a Task Risk Assessment will depend on the method of
It is acknowledged that, whilst training imparts knowledge, the employee communication to the workforce. Those carrying out the task must be fully
must be given the opportunity to put this knowledge into practice, in order aware and thoroughly understand, the hazards and the precautions put in
to develop the requisite skills and achieve the standard required in the work place. Open two-way dialogue should take place at a meeting prior to
place. starting the task, these meetings are referred to as toolbox talks.

Failure by management to provide a safe system of work, and failure by The toolbox talk should fulfil four functions:
employees to adhere to procedure, may result in serious injury.
1. Give everyone involved in the task a thorough understanding of the
It is recommended that employers have in place procedures for the erection activity details involved in the task, both their own and that of
and dismantling of scaffold structures. Section 11 of this guidance contains others. The potential hazards should be identified for each stage of
further references to legislation, standards and codes of practice relating to the task.
access.
The control measures to be put in place to mitigate the hazards and
It is recommended that scaffolders hold a recognised qualification, which the individual actions and responsibilities at various stages of the
demonstrates the level of skills and competence attained, through training task should be established for each specific project.
and examination. The Construction Industry Training Board, CITB, is the
lead body in the provision of scaffold training. The Engineering 2. Provide the opportunity for those involved in the task to identify
Construction Industry Training Board (ECITB) is also a recognised body, any further hazards and control measures which may have been
which provide scaffolding qualifications based on continuous assessment and overlooked in the initial assessment.
competency. It is further recommended that employers have in place a
programme of continuous assessment, in order to demonstrate that skills are 3. Reach agreement of the whole work team on whether or not to
maintained and training needs identified. proceed with the task. If agreement cannot be reached, THE JOB
SHOULD NOT BE STARTED.
Recommended Training
4. Make clear to all involved that should conditions or personnel
11. LEGISLATION & REFERENCES change or assumptions made when planning the job prove false,
they should re-assess the situation and, if in any doubt, THE JOB
Scaffolder (CITB) Basic & Advanced SHOULD BE STOPPED.
Inspector (CITB) Advance or Inspectors
For these reasons a toolbox talk should be held at or near the worksite, and
Scaffolder (In-house) Scaffold Awareness, Component Identification should include all people involved in the work and those who may be
Helper Manual Handling, Material Quality, etc. affected by it.

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When new team members join the team, the same communication should be
given to them. The guidance below has been developed to act as a checklist of activities that
require to be considered and/or actioned when working overside:-
Once the team is satisfied that all hazards have been identified and that
suitable controls have been put in place to reduce the risk to an acceptable • Valid Permit to work is available for the task in hand
level, they can then undertake the task. • Task specific risk assessments are conducted for each individual
overside job. “Take 5 principles” are encouraged as the mechanism to
address any changes to the workscope.
Risk Assessment Flow Chart • Stand-by vessel is available at all times when working overside.
• Radio contact is maintained with the stand-by vessel at all times.
• Fall arrest system is in place including training to the scaffolding
Break tasks into component parts to operatives, rescue arrangements for working overside to be detailed on
identify activities to be assessed
a rescue plan.
Identify any hazards • Twin chamber, self-inflating lifejackets are worn at all times when
working overside.
• Any overside scaffold that is outwith the parameters of BS 5973 and/or
Identify who hazards could affect company technical manuals, is designed by a competent design
engineer.
Using risk ratings – determine level • Weather restrictions are advised by the standby vessel captain.
of risk
Overside working during the hours of darkness will only be undertaken in
yes EXTREME emergency situations and with a suitable & sufficient task risk
Is risk significant? no
assessment in place.
Identify and evaluate
current control measures
Is
Issignificant
significantrisk
riskalready
already 9.2 Manning
no
yes adequately
adequately controlled?
controlled? Recommended minimum manning for overside scaffolding works:-
Review/revise existing control measures
or identify/implement new preventative • Two competent scaffolders overside
and protective measures • One competent scaffolder providing materials for overside workers.
• One competent radio operator. (Must have valid training on the radio
communication equipment onboard)
Evaluate controls 10. COMPETENCE & TRAINING

yes no
Is
Is risk
risk now
now acceptable?
acceptable? A competency and training process ensures that employees have the

Implement controls

Record findings of risk assessment


and set date for review

Monitor and review

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9.1 Restrictions 3.2 Manual Handling

The manual handling of scaffold components on offshore oil and gas


installations is commonplace because of restricted access for mechanical
handling aids. In practice, this results in scaffold components being man-
handled from storage racks to worksites, often at different levels on the
installation and often, at outside locations, in inclement weather e.g. high
winds. Manual Handling risks can be reduced by the use of lightweight
system scaffold, where feasible (see section 6). The manual handling
operations regulations apply to all employers in respect of their employees at
work and others who may be affected. Manual handling operations are
defined as the transporting or supporting of any load, including the lifting,
putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving by hand or bodily force.

The scaffolding service provider shall, so far as is reasonably practical, avoid


the need for his employees to undertake any manual handling operations at
work, which involve a risk of personal injury.

Risk assessment shall identify whether mechanical handling aids (e.g. crane)
can be used. Where mechanical handling aids cannot be used, the employer
shall:

a) Make a suitable and sufficient assessment of the manual handling


operations to be undertaken
b) Take appropriate steps to reduce the risk of injury to those
employees arising out of manual handling operations
c) Take appropriate steps to provide those employees who are
undertaking any manual handling operations general indications,
and, where it is reasonably practical to do so, precise information on:

• The task to be carried out


• The weight of each load/component

Attention to the ergonomic design of the workplace is an important factor in


controlling the risks associated with manual handling.

Appropriate manual handling training should be provided for all personnel


involved in the erection/dismantling of scaffold structures. The training
should address:

4 How to recognise harmful manual handling


4 Appropriate systems of work
4 Use of mechanical aids
4 Good handling techniques

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Each person should be assessed with particular consideration given to their
shall record all such inspections in the contract scaffold register, to certify
individual capability.
that, at the time of inspection, the scaffold structure is in good working
When assessing the capability of personnel the following should be taken
order and fit for it’s intended purpose.
into consideration:
Any scaffold requiring modification will be considered in relationship with
Age Health Strength
the initial request. All subsequent modifications will be recorded in the
Fitness Height
contract scaffold register.
Consideration must also be given to the possible need for special training to
Prior to any scaffold being dismantled the details regarding dismantling
perform the task, especially if mechanical handling aids are employed.
authorisation, authorisation date and date dismantled will be entered in the
contract scaffold register.
3.3 Raising and Lowering of Materials
As soon as instructions have been received to dismantle the scaffold, the
Scaffold Identification & Inspection Record inserts should be removed from
Lifting equipment is defined as follows:
all structures, exposing the prohibition notice, thereby removing
authorisation.
Any device which is used or designed to be used directly or indirectly to
8.2 Inspection Tags
connect a load to a lifting appliance and which does not form part of the
load e.g. rope, sling, chain, hook, plate clamp, scissor clamp, shackle, eyebolt, 9. OVERSIDE WORKING
lifting beam, lifting device etc.

All lifting equipment should be of adequate strength, of sound material, and


of good construction for the duty it is to perform. It should be tested to
appropriate testing standards, in accordance with LOLER and a test
certificate should be obtained and identified with the equipment before it is
used. The certificate is an important legal document.

Good practice requires that any lifting equipment shall have an adequate
factor of safety incorporated into its design. Where appropriate in each of
the separate equipment types, a minimum factor of safety for the specific
item is recommended and this should not be reduced.

The methods used to raise and lower scaffolding materials will be determined
by the extent and type of scaffolding being built and the equipment available.

When hand balling (lifting or lowering from hand to hand) materials up and
down the scaffolding structure the scaffolder must either:

a) construct a safe handling platform, fully boarded with appropriate


guardrails, or

b) be clipped (attached with harness to a suitable anchorage at all


times)

Scaffolders do not need to be clipped on when working within a finished


working platform, but as soon as an opening is formed, scaffolders must be
clipped on to a suitable anchorage point.
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8.1 Inspection / Tagging The methods available will generally fall into one of the following categories:

Upon completion of the scaffold structure, the inspector ( competent ⇒ Hand balling
person ) shall satisfy himself that the construction conforms to the initial ⇒ Light line/hand line
request information. The scaffold will be unsatisfactory and require ⇒ Gin wheel and rope
amendments if any of the following faults are found :-

Footing :- Soft & uneven, No base plates, No sole boards, Undermined Prior to raising and lowering scaffolding materials , a risk assessment must
Standards :- Not plumb, Joined at same height, Wrong spacing, Damaged be performed to identify hazards, which pose a risk to personnel, to the
Ledgers :- Not level, Jointed in the same bays, Loose, Damaged environment or to equipment. The information gathered, along with the
Transoms :- Wrongly spaced, Loose, Wrongly supported risks identified may be the basis for generating a safe and efficient lifting
Coupling :- Wrong fitted, loose, Damaged, No check couplers operations plan.
Ties :- Missing, Loose, Wrong coupler being used
Boarding :- Incomplete, Insufficient supports, Insecurely fastened, Damaged The extent of the risk assessment and the approach taken must be consistent
boards with the type of lift that is being performed.
Guard Rails / Toe Boards :- Wrong height, Loose, Missing,
Ladders :- Damaged, Insufficient length, Insufficient tying The suitability of rope equipment should be established for specific tasks.

Once the equipment has been selected, it must be subject to a ‘pre-use’


The scaffold shall not be used until all defects noted during the inspection examination. Should any item fail this visual examination, it must be
have been rectified. withdrawn from service immediately.
When the inspector is satisfied that a scaffold structure is in good order, the A waterproof container / store, should be used as a permanent storeroom
Inspection Tag, Side 1 (green), ( See sketch details, noting colour coding to for ropes and gin wheels to prevent deterioration of condition as a result of
suit specified loads, i.e. 0.75 Kn/M2 : white, 2 Kn/M2 : orange, Special exposure to adverse weather, chemicals etc.
duty : brown, etc. ), must be completed and inserted into the holder,
signifying that it is fit for use at the time of inspection. Any person using rope lifting equipment must be trained to operate that
equipment, including the use of knots and hitches common to scaffolding.
The inspector shall record the initial inspection in the contract scaffold
register, to certify that, at the time of inspection, the scaffold structure is in That person must also have a working knowledge of its properties and the
good working order and fit for it’s intended purpose. defects likely to arise in service. This knowledge will be of value when
carrying out the pre-use examinations.
Inspect Monitor & Maintain Scaffold

On a regular basis, at intervals not exceeding 7 days, or subsequent to any


high winds or severe weather conditions, which may have effect upon the
integrity of the structure, the inspector will ensure that all erected scaffolds
are inspected.
In instances where scaffolding personnel are de-mobilised from site and
scaffold structures are to remain erected, and scaffold inspections cannot
take place within the 7 days period, all the Scaffold Identification &
Inspection Record inserts should be removed from all structures, exposing
the prohibition notice, thereby withdrawing authorisation for the scaffold to
be used. Inserts shall only be replaced following the remobilisation of
scaffolding personnel and a satisfactory inspection of each structure.
All inspections of scaffolding structures, must be recorded on the Scaffold
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4. FALL ARREST EQUIPMENT WORKING AT HEIGHT

4.1 Inspection and Use of Fall Arrest Equipment


TUBING BOARDS LADDERS
Self Wt. 4.37Kg/M As B.S. 5973:1993 Self Wt. 6.00Kg/M As B.S. 5973:1993 Self Wt. 8.0Kg/M As B.S. 5973:1993
All equipment should comply with the requirements of statutory provisions, 2.94lbs/ft( Section 6, Page 4.03lbs/ft( Section 6, Page 5.38lbs/ft ( Section 6, Page
such as The Personal Protective Equipment Regulations. The legislation for 80 ) 80 ) 81 )
Length Self Qty/ Self Wt. Qty/ Length Self Qty/ Self Wt. Qty/ Length Self Qty/ Self Wt. Qty/
ensuring the health and safety of the workers must be adhered to. Ft Wt.Lb Ton Kg Tonne Ft Wt.Lb Ton Kg Tonne Ft Wt.Lb Ton Kg Tonne
2 5.9 381 2.7 375 3 12.1 185 5.5 182 6 32.3 69 14.6 68
3 8.8 254 4.0 250 4 16.1 138 7.3 136 7 37.6 59 17.1 58
A fall arrest system should include a full body harness, a shock absorbing 4 11.7 190 5.3 187 5 20.2 111 9.1 109 8 43.0 52 19.5 51
system, (i.e. a lanyard or a block) and a 55mm opening scaffold hook. These 5 14.7 152 6.7 150 6 24.2 92 11.0 91 9 48.4 46 21.9 45
must be EN approved and visually marked to confirm this standard. 6 17.6 127 8.0 125 7 28.2 79 12.8 78 10 53.8 41 24.4 41
7 20.6 108 9.3 107 8 32.3 69 14.6 68 11 59.1 37 26.8 37

Under the legislation on PPE, product information must be supplied by the 8 23.5 95 10.7 93 9 36.3 61 16.5 60 12 64.5 34 29.3 34
9 26.4 84 12.0 83 10 40.3 55 18.3 54 13 69.9 32 31.7 31
manufacturer. This information should be read and understood by the user 10 29.4 76 13.3 75 11 44.4 50 20.1 49 14 75.3 29 34.1 29
before using the equipment. 11 32.3 69 14.7 68 12 48.4 46 21.9 45 15 80.6 27 36.6 27
12 35.2 63 16.0 62 13 52.4 42 23.8 42 16 86.0 26 39.0 25
Fall arrest equipment should be thoroughly examined by a competent person 13 38.2 58 17.3 57 TOTAL FOOTAGE PER METRIC TONNE 17 91.4 24 41.5 24
= 546 Ft 9 Inches
at intervals determined by the manufacturers recommendations, but at least 14 41.1 54 18.6 53 TOTAL FOOTAGE PER IMP. TON = 555 Ft 18 96.8 23 43.9 22
6 Inches
every six months. Also all fall arrest equipment must be given a visual and 15 44.0 50 20.0 50 19 102.1 21 46.3 21
physical inspection before each use to ensure that it is in a safe condition and 16 47.0 47 21.3 46 LADDER BEAMS 20 107.5 20 48.8 20
operates correctly. Employers should ensure that information and training is 17 49.9 44 22.6 44 Self Wt. 11.90Kg/M As Manufacturers 21 112.9 19 51.2 19
Spec.
provided on how to complete these inspections and on how to put on the 18 52.9 42 24.0 41 8.00lbs/ft 22 118.3 18 53.6 18

harness. Items showing defects should be withdrawn from service 19 55.8 40 25.3 39 Length Self Qty/ Self Wt. Qty/ 23 123.6 18 56.1 17
Ft Wt.Lb Ton Kg Tonne
immediately. Employers should record details of thorough examinations and 20 58.7 38 26.6 37 6 48 46 21.8 45 24 129.0 17 58.5 17
any maintenance carried out. 21 61.7 36 28.0 35 7 56 40 25.4 39 25 134.4 16 61.0 16
TOTAL FOOTAGE PER METRIC TONNE 8 64 35 29.0 34 26 139.8 16 63.4 15
= 750 Ft 9 Inches
Information on use, care and maintenance should be provided by the TOTAL FOOTAGE PER IMP. TON = 762 Ft 9 72 31 32.7 30 27 145.2 15 65.8 15
6 Inches
manufacturer and should be strictly complied with. In particular:: 10 80 28 36.3 27 28 150.5 14 68.3 14
11 88 25 39.9 25 29 155.9 14 70.7 14

• Webbing should be carefully checked before being stored and before 12 96 23 43.5 22 30 161.3 13 73.2 13
13 104 21 47.2 21 TOTAL FOOTAGE PER METRIC
being used, by being run through the hands to combine a visual and TONNE = 410 Ft 0 Inches
TOTAL FOOTAGE PER IMP. TON =
physical examination. FITTINGS As Manufacturers Spec. 14 112 20 50.8 19
416 Ft 6 Inches
• Harnesses and webbing should be checked for cuts, abrasions, Type Self Wt.
Lb
Qty/
Ton
Self Wt. Qty/
Kg Tonne
15 120 18 54.4 18

broken stitches and undue stretching. Double 2.01 1116 0.91 1098 16 128 17 58.1 17

• Items showing defects should be taken out of service. Swivel 2.25 996 1.02 980 17 136 16 61.7 16 NOTE : IT HAS TO BE
ACKNOWLEDGED THAT THE
Sleeve 2.49 899 1.13 884 18 144 15 65.3 15
TIMBER SCAFFOLD BOARDS
Single 1.70 1319 0.77 1298 19 152 14 68.9 14 INCLUDE A MOISTURE CONTENT
Metal items such as rings, buckles on harnesses, Karibiners and connectors Joint 1.87 1195 0.85 1176 20 160 14 72.6 13 OF 27.0% (B.S. 2482), THEREFORE
THE ABOVE SELF WEIGHT OF A
etc., must be inspected to ensure that they work smoothly, that bolts and Pin
BOARD COULD BE LESS THAN
Band & 4.41 508 2.00 500 21 168 13 76.2 13
rivets are tight and that there are no signs of wear, cracks, deformation or Pt SHOWN, DUE TO EXPOSED
WEATHERING. THE SAME WOULD
Gravloc 3.24 691 1.47 680 TOTAL FOOTAGE PER METRIC TONNE
other damage. Any items showing defects should be taken out of service. k = 275 Ft 9 Inches
APPLY, TO A LESSER EXTENT,
Basepla 2.45 915 1.11 900 TOTAL FOOTAGE PER IMP. TON = 280 Ft REGARDING THE TIMBER
te 0 Inches LADDERS.
Equipment should be stored unpacked in a cool, dry, dark place in a
chemically neutral environment away from excessive heat or heat sources,
high humidity, sharp edges, corrosive or other possible causes of damage.

SCAFFOLDING 12 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 45 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


The following Scaffolding details will support :- in each "Pigeon Hole" suspect equipment, which has been withdrawn from service, does is not
a. 116 Off Scaffold Tubes OR used again without the inspection and approval of a competent person. After
b. 68 Off Scaffold Boards OR arresting a fall, fall arrest equipment must be immediately withdrawn from
c. 22 Off Scaffold Pole Ladders use, and replaced as necessary.

A. Max. bay between standards, at front storage entrance @ 1.0M. On no account should harnesses or lanyards be altered or adapted in any
B. Max. bay between standards, along length of rack @ 1.0M way, as this may adversely affect their operation and render them unsafe.
C. Max. "lift" height @ 1.0M Any repair to a harness, lanyard or inertial reel should be carried out by the
D. Check fitting under all transom/standard positions manufacturer or an approved service agent.
E. Max. number of lifts :- 2 Off ( As these illustrated details )
F. Fully braced throughout It is a requirement, when using an inertia reel, that it is not used in
conjunction with a lanyard which incorporates a shock absorbing system.
Note :- The foundation steelwork/deck must be suitable to support the rack The inertia reel should be connected to the harness ‘D’ ring or a 400mm
and stored material. webbing strop.
7.7 Tube & Fittings Self Weights
8. INSPECTION & TAGGING
4.2 Working at Height

Work at height may expose workers to severe risks to their health and safety,
notably to the risk of falls from a height and other serious occupational
Check Fitting Req'd Under All
accidents, which account for a large proportion of all accidents.
Transom: Standard Positions

Any employer who intends to have scaffolding work carried out at height
Max.
must use working methods and equipment, which afford adequate
Lift Ht protection against the risks of falls from height.
1.0 M

Max. No.Lifts
2 Scaffolding, ladders and ropes are the equipment most commonly used in
performing temporary work at height and the safety and health of workers
engaged in this type of work therefore depend to a significant extent on their
correct use; the manner in which such equipment can most safely be used by
workers must therefore be specified; adequate specific training of workers is
required.

The Health and Safety at Work Act requires employers to ensure that all
Max. Std Centres employees enjoy a safe place of work and that there is a safe means of access
1.0 M and egress from that place of work. It also requires that other persons are
Max. Std Centres
1.0 M not put at risk by any work activity. These general provisions apply to all
work situations, including those where people are required to work at height.
Capacity Per "Pigeon Hole"
a) 116 off Scaffold Tubes OR
b) 68 off Scaffold Boards OR Other duties under the Management of Health and Safety at Work
c) 22 off Scaffold Ladders
Regulations, which have particular relevance when work is to be undertaken
ALL RACKS TO BE DESIGNED : SEE PREVIOUS SECTION at height include:

⇒ The provision of comprehensible and relevant information about


risks to employees, including protective and preventative measures
identified by the risk assessment as being necessary.
SCAFFOLDING 44 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 13 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA
⇒ Taking of individual capabilities into account when selecting persons
to carry out such work. Circular profile,
uniform & not ovalled
⇒ The provision of adequate training Straight to
the eye

Regulations require suitable and effective safeguards to be provided, so far as Tube ends cut
cleanly & square
is reasonably practicable, to protect persons from falling a distance or being
with axis of tube
struck by a falling object, which in either case is likely to cause personal
injury. Areas where these hazards may occur must be clearly indicated.

Risk Assessment for working at height

Central to the development of a safe system of work at height is the


assessment of the risks involved and the implementation of precautions to
eliminate or control them.

The assessment of risks will generally include an evaluation of the extent to


which risk is being controlled, taking into account the control measures
provided, or to be provided.
Free from excessive distortion, cracks, paint (except for
In many situations where work at height is involved, specific risk assessments identification purposes), corrosion, splits, lamination &
must be completed prior to the commencement of the work. In some surface flaws
circumstances, this may be a complex task depending on the nature of the
work involved and the environment in which it is to be completed. In others, 7.5 Inspection Details : Pole Ladder
it may be a simple process involving the application of the generic risk
assessment information to the particular circumstances. In either case, those
assessments made in relation to the work activities must be subject to review
to ensure they remain valid.
Tie-rods under
Planning is required to anticipate potential problems and implement safe every rung
Ladder showing no
procedures.
signs of rot or insect
attacks
Emergency procedures should not be neglected in relation to working at All stile ends to be
height. Plans for evacuation from height in the event of an incident and any square & even
special first aid requirements should be in place. Free from excessive oil, grease, paint
(except for identification purposes),
Equipment and Materials solvent, cracks, splits, knots and
distortion
Providing a safe place of work at height and safe access and egress involves,
the provision of all necessary equipment. This may include the selection,
installation, use and maintenance of temporary access equipment as well as
the provision of adequate edge protection, the use of safety nets or other
specialist access equipment. Consideration should extend to the training and
experience of those required to install or use the equipment and any
SCAFFOLDING 14 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 43 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA
7.3 Inspection Details : Scaffold Board

Suitable work equipment may include the use of lifting equipment as well as
Free from excessive corrosion, distortion & paint (except for identification purposes)
the provision of suitable plant, tools and equipment to enable the work to be
completed and materials to be safely lifted. This may involve additional
considerations in relation to any further hazards posed by the use of the
Slot jaws allow equipment.
bolt access
Other aspects to consider when working at height include:
Nuts should
turn without
undue force
⇒ Environmental hazards, for example, work over water, working in
an open environment, the effects of adverse weather conditions,
work at dusk, night or dawn, or work adjacent to ventilation outlets
Free from worn posing a risk of exposure to hazardous substances.
threads, damaged Free movement
bolts & nuts at joint position
⇒ The protection of others not involved in the work, for example, the
control of access to the work areas; the provision of barriers and
warning signs at ground level: the posting of banks-man etc.

7.4 Inspection Details : Scaffold Tube 4.3 NASC Guidance Note SG4:00
7.6 Illustration of Rack Capacity
SG4 guidance note applies to the erection, alteration and dismantling of
basic independent and tower type tube and fitting scaffolds only. It provides
Boards to be unpainted, practical advice on the duties placed on employers and employees on how to
(Except for identification purposes) carry out this work using fall arrest equipment.
showing no signs of rot or insect No board to show signs of
attacks excessive splits, cracks, Where system scaffolds or alternative materials are used, the user must
distortion, knots & pressure contact the supplier to ensure anchoring to the scaffold structure is
appropriate.
Board to be free from oil, grease
solvents & notches All those involved in scaffolding operations must wear and use fall arrest
equipment, and must have received appropriate training in the use,
inspection and maintenance of such equipment.

All ends to be All erection works should follow the working method as described below.
square & fitted with Scaffolding should be completed progressively with scaffolders installing the
end bands minimum of a single guardrail on all lifts to provide protection whilst
No nails within traversing and at work. Scaffolders must be clipped on at all times when
board, except for end installing components outside of the single guardrail.
bands

To suit offshore operations, all boards to be fire retardant It is recommended that a single guardrail remains to ensure that scaffolders
are protected when carrying out alteration work. Scaffolders should be
working off a minimum of 3 boards when carrying out these operations. All
dismantling activities should be carried out progressively, reversing the
SCAFFOLDING 42 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 15 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA
removing the single guardrail and then lowering the boards from that section
7.1 Inspection & Storage of Scaffold Material
of guardrail to the lift below. The single guardrail must not be removed from
the whole elevation before lowering the boards.
Once the scaffold is dismantled, all scaffold equipment should be inspected
in strict accordance with the following requirements :-
The SG4 guidelines apply to independent and tower scaffolds only. For all
other scaffolds structures refer to existing platform procedures.
Boards shall :-
Note: Contractors procedures may exceed the requirements of SG4.
1. have square or chamfered corners
2. be free from oil, grease, paint (Only acceptable for identification
purpose) and solvents etc.
4.4 Rescue Plan
3. be free from signs of excessive pressure
4. be fitted with galvanised end bands
It is advisable that, due to the health hazards associated with being
5. be free from notches
suspended in a harness, a suitable emergency procedure be in place to ensure
6. be free from splits
that scaffolders are aware of who to contact and what rescue procedures to
7. be fire retardant, to suit offshore operations
follow.
Tubes shall :-
Emergency procedures should consider:
1. be free from excessive corrosion
a. the location of the work
2. be free from excessive bends
b. access to emergency services
3. be free from thin, rough or split ends
c. provision of communication equipment
4. uniform and not ovalled
d. number and experience of scaffold teams
e. the nature of the site
Fittings shall :-
f. the type of scaffolding structure
g. any surrounding hazards, e.g. working in proximity to hot pipes,
1. be free from excessive corrosion
electricity cables or other construction activities.
2. be free from distortion
h. first aid provision
3. have all T bolts present
4. have nuts which are not seized
Rescue plans should be based on the risks that potentially impact the
scaffolding operation. These plans should be documented, accessible, clearly
Ladders shall :-
communicated and align to the clients emergency response management
system.
1. be free from oil, grease, paint and solvents etc.
2. be free from distortion
Equipment, facilities and personnel needed for emergency response should
3. be free from cracks or splits
be identified, tested and available.
All equipment which conforms to the above shall be placed in the relevant
Personnel should be trained and understand rescue plans, their roles and
racks.
responsibilities.
Any equipment which does not conform to these requirements, and can be
Rescue Plans at associated training should be periodically reviewed to
repaired, shall be serviced. Equipment which is beyond repair or defective
incorporate lessens learned from incidents and exercises.
for any reason will be quarantined for disposal.
7.2 Inspection Details : Scaffold Fitting

SCAFFOLDING 16 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 41 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


Description
5. CONVENTIONAL SCAFFOLDING
Mechanical mobile plant comprises of tracked and wheeled units capable of
elevating personnel to access work areas.
Conventional Scaffolding comprises 3 basic components:

Uses · Tubes
Mechanical mobile plant allows rapid access to work areas. · Boards
· Fittings
Restrictions
These are supplemented by the following components, dependent on the
• Self weight of unit type and design of the scaffold structure:
• Restricted work area
· Ladder Beams
• Lack of flexibility in tight locations · Unit Beams
· Lightweight Platform Staging
Recommendations · Pole Ladders
All Operatives must have training and competency in the use of this type of
Examples of these various components are illustrated in this section.
machine.

6.4 Rope Access 5.1 Scaffold Tube

Description Purpose : To provide the tubular members in scaffolding structures


Rope access activities are primarily used to allow Operatives to work in areas
that cannot by reached by conventional means of access. The Operative NOTE :- To comply with HSE Manual Handling Guidelines,
would normally undertake this job task. Max.25kg (18ft) to be handled by 1 x person, tube wts/
lengths above (in lengths exceeding 18ft (25kg) it is
Uses recommended that the tube be handled by a minimum of 2
persons)
The benefits of rope access allow for rapid deployment of the Operative to
the Work area.

Restrictions
• Are limited to the individual Operative who had access to the work
area.
• The weather is another limiting factor

NB. Rope access is limited to trained and managed Personnel only in strict
accordance to recognised codes of practice.
7. MATERIAL STORAGE

SCAFFOLDING 40 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 17 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


5.2 Scaffold Board All operatives erecting and dismantling tower systems should undertake
dedicated training to identify any areas or omissions from the CITB syllabus.
Purpose : To provide the support surface or platform in a scaffold
when supported at appropriate centres and subjected to
anticipated loadings. No structure should be build unless the assembly guide for the specific
tower is available.
Finish : ‘Flame retardant’ 6.3 Mechanical Elevated Work Platforms (Mechanical Mobile Plant)

Four Typical Types of Prefabricated Aluminium Alloy Towers

5.3 Fitting : Double Coupler


Inclined Vertical Stairway or Frame
Ladder Ladder Stairladder Access
Purpose : For connecting two scaffold tubes crossing at right
angles, especially for joining ledgers to standards.

SCAFFOLDING 18 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 39 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


5.4 Fitting : Single Coupler
scaffolds may have a speciality against other system types.

6.2 Aluminium/GRP Tower Systems Purpose : For connecting transom tubes to ledger
tubes.
Description
The tower systems can be manufactured from aluminium or glass reinforced
plastic (GRP). The main structure comprises frames, diagonals and
horizontal braces; adjustable legs with base plates or castor wheels. Above a
certain height stabilisers or outriggers will be required. Working areas at the
top and intermediate level are required by platform units, around which will
be guardrails and toe-boards for safety. (Conforms with BS1139 Part 3 1994
(HD1004).

Uses
Tower structures are primarily used for short duration work and are
especially valuable in a quick response situation.

Restrictions
⇒ Tower systems are typically restricted to maximum safe working 5.5 Fitting : Swivel Coupler
limits.
• Aluminium 950kgs
Purpose : For connecting two scaffold tubes at any angle other
• GRP 720kgs
than a right angle.
⇒ Aluminium and GRP towers are more susceptible to mechanical
damage.
⇒ Aluminium towers should not be used in areas where exothermic
reactions may occur (incendive sparking) such as zone 1 hazardous
areas.
⇒ GRP Towers are Zone 1 approved.

Recommendations

SCAFFOLDING 38 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 19 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


5.6 Fitting : Sleeve Coupler 6.1 System Scaffold

Purpose : For joining two scaffold tubes end to Description


end, particularly bracing and ledger tubes. System scaffold is a generic term used to describe a proprietary type of
scaffold made from prefabricated components such as steel, aluminium or
GRP (glass reinforced plastic) and which, when erected, forms a safe
scaffold structure.

The system scaffold comprises of 5 basic components:

♦ Adjustable base
♦ Standards
♦ Ledgers/Transoms
♦ Braces
♦ Decking

Uses
The uses of system scaffold are wide and varied, the main benefits being:

5.7 Fitting : Base Plate ♦ Lighter weight reducing manual handling and lifting by crane
♦ Speed of erection, with no loose fittings (dropped objects)
Purpose : For providing a flat bearing surface for distributing ♦ Low maintenance (servicing & costs)
the load from a standard to a foundation or
supporting structure. Restrictions
System scaffold does not accommodate confined areas with limitations
especially when used in overboard situations.

♦ Lack of flexibility in tight locations

Recommendations
The Operative erecting the system scaffold shall strictly adhere to the
manufacturers guidelines and code of practice.

Orientation should be given to the Operative as different brands of system

SCAFFOLDING 20 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 37 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


5.17 Life Duration of Erected Scaffold 5.8 Fitting : Gravlock
Within B.S. 5973:1993, there is no mention of life spans, but it should be
noted that scaffolding is only a TEMPORARY structure.
Purpose : For coupling of scaffold tube to a beam flange,
There are two main factors which determine the life of a scaffold. for use in applications with flange thicknesses of up to
45mm.
1. Location : Whether exposed to sea/salt water, such as an
under-deck scaffold or within a dry module.

2. Frequency of Use : Either constant or intermittent.

On this basis, after a scaffold has been erected for 12 months, a Risk
Assessment, should be conducted, by a competent person, in order to
identify the condition of the materials. On these findings a decision should
be made on the appropriate action to be taken.

5.9 Fitting : Band & Plate

Purpose : For connecting of two scaffold tubes crossing at


right angles.

SCAFFOLDING 36 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 21 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


Flow Chart No.4:- Hazards associated with contamination to the ladder
5.10 Timber Pole Ladder

Pole ladder, with varnished stiles, fitted with a mild steel tie rod
under every stile. Rungs spaced at 250 mm (10”) centres.
Are there substances in the local environment that could
contaminate the rungs of the ladder (i.e. oil, drilling mud, No
water etc)?
Yes

Hazard Prevention
Can the hazard be avoided through changing the access
point to the scaffold? Yes

No

Can the hazards be avoided through extending the size of Yes


the scaffold structure?

No
5.11 Lightweight Platform Stagings

Designed to provide a safe, strong, uninterrupted working platform Carry out risk assessment and consider implementing the
following control measures:-

Hazard Control
0.6M wide that will span up to 7.2M without intermediate support.
1. Introducing suitable fall arrest equipment.
2. Introducing additional housekeeping measures at
This staging is reinforced with steel cable on the bottomed edge of
the base of the ladder (i.e. absorption pads,
stiles and screwed and nutted tie-rods under each cross bar. brushes, etc).

Proceed to construct scaffold

SCAFFOLDING 22 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 35 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


5.12 Ladder/Unit (Lattice) Beams
Flow Chart No.3:- Hazards associated with falling from height
Primarily manufactured to increase the capacity of a load-bearing scaffold or
introduced to an access scaffold, to allow the required standard centres to be
increased to suit conditions.

Could you fall beyond the base of the ladder to another Ladder Beam
level below or overboard when ascending or descending the No
ladder? All members are conventional scaffold tubing, ( top/bottom chords and
‘rungs’ ) forming a ladder type welded construction. The chords and ‘rungs’
No are spaced at approx. 0.3M centre. Standard maximum length 6.4M, 21 Ft.
Hazard Prevention

Scaffold Tube 48.3mm dia


Can the hazard be avoided through changing the access
point to the scaffold? Yes

350 mm
No
Overall
Can the hazard be avoided through extending the size of Yes
the scaffold structure? Max Length 21 ft ( 6.4M )

No

Carry out risk assessment and consider implementing the Unit Beam ( Lattice )
Hazard Control

following control measures:-


Top/bottom chords and outer vertical members are conventional scaffold
1. Introducing suitable fall arrest equipment.
tubing and diagonal members are approx. 26mm Dia., constructed to form a
2. Erect additional handrails / barriers or install lattice type welded construction. The chords are spaced at approx. 0.6M
fall-arrest netting with associated warning signs. centres. The flat gusset plates and the machined spigots at the ends of the
beam are to join the units end to end, thus enabling any length of beam to
be achieved.

Proceed to construct scaffold Scaffold Tube 48.3mm dia


Tube 26mm dia

650 mm
Overall

Standard lengths 3.6M & 2.4M (12 & 8 Ft. )

SCAFFOLDING 34 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 23 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


5.13 Types of Scaffold Structure
Flow Chart No.2:- Hazards surrounding the access point to the scaffold
There are 5 basic types of scaffold structure:

1. Independent
2. Birdcage
3. Tower
4. Cantilever Are there any hazards in vicinity of the access point that
5. Hanger or Slung version of 1-4 would increase the severity of injury if a person fell from No
the ladder?
This section contains illustrations of these scaffold structures, describing
Yes
terminology and maximum dimensions.

Is is practicable to remove the hazards (e.g. oil drums,


1) Independent Scaffold crates, etc.) from the access point of the scaffold to another Yes
location?
Scaffold Definitions: (this diagram illustrates the location & terminology of

Hazard Prevention
the material in position) No

WORKING PLATFORM
INDEPENDENT SCAFFOLD Can the hazards be avoided through changing the access
point to the scaffold? Yes
RAILS
MAX. HT. LIFT
OVERALL No
1.0 M HEIGHT

Can the hazards be avoided through extending the size of


TOE
the scaffold structure? Yes
BOARDS

No
BRACER
STANDARD
Carry out risk assessment and consider implementing the

Hazard Control
BOARDED
TRANSOMS BASE PLATE
following control measures:-

LEDGER 1. Reducing the exposure height through


TRANSOM constructing intermediate access lifts for ladders
OVERALL
LENGTH internal to the structure.
BAY LENGTH
2. Raising awareness to the increased hazard
WIDTH
through warning signs.
3. Introducing suitable fall arrest equipment.
KEY DETAILS STANDARDS :-
LEDGERS :-
TRANSOMS :-
WORKING PLATFORM :-
BOARDED TRANSOMS :-
TOE BOARDS :- BRACERS :-
Proceed to construct scaffold
BASE PLATES :- RAILS :-

SCAFFOLDING 24 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 33 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


INDEPENDENT SCAFFOLD
Guidelines for Erecting Ladder Access MAX NO MAX NO.
MAX. LIVE-LOAD MAX MAX BAY BOARDING WORKING
Kn/M2 WIDTH M LENGTH M LIFTS LIFTS
Flow Chart No.1:- Pitch and projection of Ladder
2.0 1.20 2.1 10 10

NOTE: All other scaffolds outwith the


above are subject to design & calculations

Can the pitch of ladder be set an angle of 4 vertical to 1 LIFT HEIGHT


horizontal (75% angle) and will it project a minimum of Yes MAX 2.5M

1.05m above the top landing?


O V E R A L L
HEIGHT
No MAX. 20.0 M
TIED

Can the correct ratio and projection be achieved through


Yes
Hazard Prevention

changing the access point for the scaffold? O V E R A L L


LENGTH

No M A X
B A Y L E N G T H
WIDTH

Can the correct ratio and projection be achieved through Yes


extending the size of the structure? This diagram illustrates the Scaffold Constructual Terminology & Max
No Dimensions
INDEPENDENT HANGER

MAX LIVE-LOAD MAX MAX BAY


Carry out risk assessment and consider implementing the Kn/M2 WIDTH M LENGTH M
following control measures:-
2.0 1.20 2.4
1. Reducing the exposure height through
constructing intermediate access lifts for ladders NOTE: All other scaffolds outwith the
above are subject to design & calculations
Hazard Control

internal to the structure.


OVERALL
2. Introducing additional handrail supports if the LENGTH
MAX.
OVERALL
ladder cannot project beyond 1.05m beyond the DROP
top landing. 4.0 M

3. Raising awareness to the increased hazard


MAX.
through warning signs. LIFT HEIGHT
2.0 M
4. Introducing suitable fall arrest equipment.

Proceed to construct scaffold


MAX.
WIDTH BAY LENGTH

SCAFFOLDING 32 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 25 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


2) Birdcage 6. OTHER ACCESS SYSTEMS
This diagram illustrates the Scaffold Constructual Terminology & Max
Dimensions
BIRDCAGE SCAFFOLD MAX NO. MAX NO.
BOARDED WORKING Note: Top rail identified
MAX. LIVE-LOAD MAX MAX BAY LIFTS LIFTS with opening/closing
Kn/M2 WIDTH M LENGTH M
mechanism, replacing fixed
0.75 1.85 1.85 1 1 rail system, type dependent
NOTE: All other scaffolds outwith the on scaffold contractor
above are subject to design & calculations

OVERALL
HEIGHT
MAX. 20.0 M
TIED

LIFT HEIGHT
MAX 2.5 M

OVERALL
LENGTH
MAX.
MAX. BAY WIDTH
OVERALL
BAY WIDTH
WIDTH

BIRDCAGE, HANGER

MAX. LIVE-LOAD MAX MAX BAY


Kn/M2 WIDTH M LENGTH M

0.75 1.85 1.85 (The above diagram illustrates a ladder and top rail access the actual
configuration is dependable on scaffold location and area conditions)
NOTE: All other scaffolds outwith the
above are subject to design & calculations

OVERALL
DROP

MAX.
LIFT HEIGHT

MAX.
BAY LENGTH

MAX.
OVERALL OVERALL
BAY WIDTH
LENGTH
WIDTH

SCAFFOLDING 26 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 31 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA


Providing safe access and egress is fundamental to the construction of any 3) Tower
scaffold structure that is required for a working platform. When planning This diagram illustrates the scaffold Constructual Terminology & Max
the construction of a scaffold structure consideration must therefore be Dimensions.
given to how such access / egress can best be provided onto the platform
based on the following goals: - TOWER SCAFFOLD MAX NO MAX NO.
BOARDED WORKING
MAX LIVE=LOAD MAX MAX BAY LIFTS LIFTS
• The pitch of ladder should be set at an angle of 4 vertical to 1 Kn-M2 WIDTH M LENGTH M

horizontal, i.e. 75° angle (See Flowchart No.1). 0.75 1.85 1.85 1 1
• The stiles should be securely fixed to the scaffold at both the top
NOTE: All other scaffolds outwith the
and bottom of the ladder and where appropriate at a central above are subject to design & calculations
position. OVERALL
• The ladder should project a minimum of 1.05m above the top HEIGHT
MAX. 20.0 M
landing with the landing rung level or slightly above the level of the TIED
landing platform angle (See Flowchart No.1).
• There should be clear unobstructed access with no potential hazards MAX.
in the area that would increase the risk of injury if a person fell from LIFT HEIGHT
MAX 2.5M
the ladder (See Flowchart No.2).
• Personnel should not be able to fall beyond the base level of the
ladder to another level or over-board from the platform (See
Flowchart No.3). OVERALL
WIDTH LENGTH
• There should be no substances in the local environment that could
potentially contaminate the rungs of the ladder, i.e. oil, drilling mud,
water, etc (See Flowchart No.4). TOWER, HANGER

• Ladders should be tied just below the rung level to prevent any Kn/M2 WIDTH M LENGTH M
obstruction to the foot and handholds of the users. MAX LIVE-LOAD MAX MAX BAY
Kn/M2 WIDTH M LENGTH M
It is recognised that the temporary nature of scaffold access will make it 0.75 1.85 1.85
impossible to achieve these goals for every scaffold. The flowcharts on the 4) Cantilever
following pages therefore provide guidance on what is deemed ‘best practice’
NOTE: All other scaffolds outwith the
if these goals cannot be achieved and are based on removing or controlling above are subject to design & calculations
the resultant hazards.
OVERALL
Maximum Ladder Height HEIGHT

BS 5973 stipulates that the “vertical distance between two successive landing places
should not exceed 9.0m”. It should be noted, however, that scaffold ladders
greater than 3m in height pose a significant risk to the user because there is
MAX.
no fall protection (e.g. back scratchers) that would normally be found on a LIFT HEIGHT
fixed vertical ladder. The Scaffold Contractor should therefore discuss with
the Installation Operator reducing this potential risk through constructing
intermediate access lifts for ladders internal to the structure where
practicable. These discussions may result in the introduction of ‘local rules’
that limit the maximum vertical height of a ladder to 3m (i.e. 1 working lift).
Irrespective of this, a firm grip of the ladder should always be maintained OVERALL
OVERALL
when ascending or descending ladder, which should be done in a controlled WIDTH LENGTH

manner to minimise the risk of slipping.


SCAFFOLDING 30 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 27 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA
This diagram illustrates the Scaffold Constructual Terminology & Max
Dimensions. those described earlier in the preceding section require the scaffold design
input of a competent engineer.
CANTILEVER MAX NO. MAX NO.
BOARDED WORKING
LIVE-LOAD MAX MAX BAY LIFTS LIFTS
Kn/M2 WIDTH M LENGTH M
5.15 Scaffolds Requiring Design Engineering Input
2 1.20 2.1 1 1

NOTE: All other scaffolds outwith the Typical examples of scaffolds that require design input are listed below :-
above are subject to design & calculations
2.5 M 1. Independent tied, birdcage, tower & cantilevered scaffolds other
MAX VERT
BRACING HT than those covered by BS 5973:1993 ( European Standard EN
12811, Parts 1, 2 & 3 )
2. Load bearing/support scaffolds
3. Exposed sheeted scaffolds ( encapsulated ) other than those covered
by BS 5973:1993
WIDTH 4. Scaffold utilised for lifting/rigging purposes
5. Suspended cradle other than those covered by BS 5974:1993
OVERALL
6. Slung scaffolds other than those covered by BS 5973:1993
MAX
LENGTH 7. Truss-out scaffolds
BAY LENGTH 8. Bridging within access scaffolds
9. Scaffolds utilising ladder/unit beams
CANTILEVER HANGER
10. Storage racking
11. Uniformly distributed loads greater than 3.0 kN/M2
LIVE-LOAD MAX MAX BAY
Km/M2 WIDTH M LENGTH M 12. Temporary buildings & roofs
13. Temporary ramps
0.75 1.00 2.7
14. Pedestrian bridges & walkways
2 1.25 2.1 5.14 Designed Scaffold Structures 15. Scaffold subjected to extreme wind forces
3 1.5 1.8
Scaffold structures outside the parameters of (The above list is for guidance only; refer to scaffolding contractors
NOTE: All other scaffolds outwith the
above are subject to design & calculations management systems for any additional requirements and appropriate design
requisition procedures etc.)

5.16 Ladder Access


MAX
LIFT
HEIGHT

MAX BAY
WIDTH LENGTH
OVERALL LENGTH

SCAFFOLDING 28 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA SCAFFOLDING 29 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA

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