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- Fundamentals of Surveying
- Lecture 1 - Curves (Simple & Compound).pdf
- 2010 Besavilla - Surveying
- May 2011 Board Exam All Subjects
- Hydraulics Reviewer
- Symmetrical Parabolic Curve
- Lecture 4.0b - Unsymmetrical Parabolic Curves
- Simple Curve Route Surveying
- Surveying by Dr. Ramachandra
- Surveying 1 Lecture Notes
- Lecture 5.0 - Spiral Curve
- 9. Earthwork and Mass-Haul Diagram
- Curve Surveying
- Reversed Curves
- Problem Set 2- Compound Curve
- Curve
- 2010 Besavilla - Transportation Engineering
- NSCP 2010 6th Edition
- Field Procedure for Laying Out a Simple Curve Aaaaa
- Simple Curve Samples

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Route surveys involve measuring and computing horizontal and vertical angles,

elevations, and horizontal distances. The results of these surveys are used to

prepare detailed plan and profile base maps of proposed roadways. In addition, the

elevations determined in the survey serve as the basis for calculation of

construction cut and fill quantities, and in determining roadway banking. This

section presents a review of basic terminology, concepts, and standard procedures

used in highway surveys. The review begins with some basic definitions.

Highway curves can be either circular arcs or spirals. A simple curve is a circular

are connecting two straight lines (tangents). A compound curve consists of two or

more circular arcs of different radii tangent to each other with their centers on the

same side of the common tangent. Compound curves where two circular ares

having centers on the same side are connected by a short tangent are called

broken-back curves. A reverse curve is two circular arcs tangent to each other but

with their centers on opposite sides of the common tangent. A curve whose radius

decreases uniformly from infinity to that of the curve it meets is called a spiral

curve. Spiral curves with the proper superelevation (banking) provide safe and

smooth riding qualities. Circular and spiral curves are used for curves in the

horizontal plane. Tangents in the vertical plane are joined by parabolic curves

(also referred to simply as vertical curves)

A route surveying system usually contains four separate but interrelated

processes:

• Works design

• Construction of works

DEFINITION OF TERMS

SIMPLE CURVE

• Most commonly used for highways and railroads construction.

• Circular arc, extending from one tangent to the next

PC

• Point of the curvature

• The point where the curve leaves the first tangent

PT

• Point of the tangency

• The point where the curve leaves the second tangent

PC and PT

• Tangent points

VERTEX

• Point of the intersection of the two tangents

• Distance from the vertex to the PC and PT

• Distance from the vertex to the curve

• The line joining the middle of the curve and the mid-point of the chord

joining the PT and PC

• Generally used for highway practice (when the radius of the curve is

usually small)

• It is the angle of the center subtended by an arc of 20m (SI) or

100’(English)

A. ARC BASIS

3

1. SI 2. ENGLISH

B. CHORD BASIS

• The degree of the curve is the angle subtended by a chord of 20m (SI) or

100’ (English)

4

Tangent distance (T) External distance (E)

T=R tan I/2 (R+E) cosI/2 = R

R+E = Rsec I/2

E=RsecI/2-R

E= R(secI/2-1)

Rcos I/2 = R-M LC = 2Rsin I/2

M = R-Rcos I/2

M = R(1-cos I/2)

5

LCu/I = 20/D

LC = 20I/D

EXAMPLES:

Determine:

• Angle of intersection (I)

• LC

• Area of the fillet of the curve

Solution:

T=RtanI/2 LC=20(53.13)/3˚

1/2R=RtanI/2 LC=354.2m

tanI/2=0.5

I/2=tan 0.5

I=53.13˚

R=1145.916/D (381.97) (53.13)/360˚

R=381.97 sqm A=5305.89sqm

falling within a river.

the ground.

Figure:

6

REQUIRED:

• Distance CD and the length of curve

• Area of the cross-hatched section

Solution:

I=180˚-45.48˚ o=180˚-47.5˚-87.02˚

I=134.52˚ o=45.48

128.015/sino=T-53.58/sin87.02˚

T=232.88m

7

Sine law:

232.86-CD/sin47.5˚=128.015/sin45.48˚

CD=100.51

T=RtanI/2 LC=229.7m

232.88=Rtan134.52˚/2

R=97.61m

Area

Asec-Atriangle LC=2(97.61)sin134.52˚/2

R²o/360˚-1/2(180.05)(37.73) LC=180.05m

A=384.79sqm cosI/2=x/R

x= 37.73m

If station PI=sta1+054

Req’d: staPC=1+054-232.88

staPC=0+821.21

staPT=staPC+LC

staPT=0+821.12+229.17

staPT=1+050.29

located 21.03 from point B and has a parallel distance of 2.79m from line

AB.

8

Figure:

R/sin 70˚23’=R+E/sinβ o=7˚57’

ℓ=90˚-12˚-7˚37’

ℓ=70˚23’

E=R(secI/2) R/sin70˚23’=R+E/sinβ

E=R(sec 24˚/2-1) R/sin70˚23’=R+0.022312/sinβ

E=R(12˚-1) β=74˚21’

E=0.022312 180˚-74˚21’

=105˚39’

o=180˚-β-ℓ

o=180˚-105˚39’-70˚23’

9

o=3˚58’

R/sin 70˚23’=21.03/sin 3˚58’

R=286.36m

sin8˚2’=LC/2/R

LC=40.02m

T=RtanI/2

A=TR- R²I/360˚

GIVEN:

AB=S65˚30’E required:

BC=S25˚30’E; 170.75m R=?

CD=S54˚20’W I=?

Station PT if V is at sta 20+140

I=119˚50’

170.75m=T1+T2

170.75m=RtanI1/2+RtanI2/2

170.75m=Rtan40˚/2+Rtan79˚50’/2

170.75m=R(tan20˚+tan37˚25’)

10

R=142.22m

T=RtanI/2

T=142.22tan(119˚50’/2)

T=245.57m

sta PC= 20+140-295.57m

sta Pc=19+894.44

LC=RI /180˚

LC=142.22(119˚50’) /180˚

sta PT=19+894.44+297.57

sta PT=20+192.06

GIVEN/FIGURE:

11

tan20˚=600m-OI/587.96m

OI=386m

IP= 625.69m

cosine law:

OP²=625.69²+386²

OP=2(625.69)(386)cos110˚

OP=840.05m

o=?

sine law:

386/sino=840.05/sin110˚

o=25.58˚

β=180˚-110˚-25.58˚

β=44.42˚

12

cosine law:

600²=840.05²+(Px)-2(840.05)

(Px)cos25.58˚

Px=279.75m

LC=(600)(32.81˚)(‼/180˚)

LC=343.59m

sta x=staA+LC

sta x=50+000+343.59m

sta x=50+343.59

COMPOUND CURVES

but whose center lie on the same side of the curve.

• Any two consecutive curves must have a common tangent on their meeting

PT.

PCC

• Point of compound curvature the PT on the common tangent the

through which the two curves join.

13

EXAMPLES:

1. The long chord from the PC to the PT of a compound curve is 300m long

and the angle that it makes the longer and shorter tangents are 12˚ and 15˚

respectively. If the common tangent is parallel to the long chord.

Required:

• R1

• R2

• Station PT if PC is at sta 10+204.30

14

sine law:

300m/sin166˚30’=LC1/sin7˚30’=LC2/sin6˚

LC1=167.74m

LC2=134.33m

LC=2RsinI/2

LC1=2R1sinI1/2 LC2=2R2sinI2/2

167.74m=2(R1)sin6˚/2 134.33m=2(R2)sin7˚30’/2

R1=802.36m R2=514.57m

LCu1=802.36n(6˚)( ‼/180˚) LCu2=514.57m(7˚30’)( ‼/180˚)

LCu1=168.05m LCu2=134.71m

sta PT=staPC+LCu1+LCu2

sta PT=10+204.30+168.05+134.71

sta PT=10+507.06

15

I1=268˚30’-247˚50’

I1=20˚40’

I2=282˚50’-268˚30’

I2=14˚20’

I=35˚

R1=1145.916/D1 T1=R1tanI1/2

R1=1145.916/4˚ T1=286.479tan(20˚40’/2)

R1=286.479m T1=52.23m

T2=76.42m-T1 T2=R2tanI2/2

T2=76.42m-52.43m 24.19=R2tan(14˚20’/2)

T2=24.19m R2=192.38m

staPC=staA-T1+LCu1

sta PC=10+010.46-52.23+103.33

sta PC=10+061.56

LCu1=(286.479)(20˚40’)( ‼/180˚)

LCu1=103.33msta PT=staPCC+LCu2

staPT=10+061.56+48.13

staPT=10+109.69

LCu2=(R2I2)( ‼/180˚)

16

LCu2=(192.38)(14˚20’)( ‼/180˚)

LCu2=48.13m

REVERSE CURVES

• Composed of two consecutive circular simple curves having a common

tangent but lie on the opposite side.

PRC

• Point of the reverse curvature.

• The point along the common tangent to which the curve reversed in its

direction.

17

18

19

EXAMPLE:

The parallel tangent of a reversal curve are 10m apart the long chord from

the PC to the PT is equal to 120m determine the following:

• Radius of the curve

• Length of the common tangent

Solution:

sinI/2=10/120

I=9˚33’

sinI=10/2T T=RtanI/2

2T=60.27m 30.14=Rtan(9˚33’/2)

T=30.14m R=360.82m

20

EXAMPLE:

common tangent AB has an azimuth of 320˚. The distance from the point of

intersection of two converging tangent and that of the vertex of the second curve

has a distance of 100m. if the radius of the first curve is 285.4m between.

Determine:

• R2

• sta PRC and sta PT if station of V1 is 10+040

•

By sine law:

100/sin20˚=AB/sin30˚

AB=146.19m

21

AB=T1+T2

146.19=R1tanI1/2+R2tanI2

R2=205.59m

station PT= staPRC+LC2

sta PRC= 10+089.30

sta PT= 10+268.71

EXAMPLE:

radius of the curve passing thru PC is 800m. if the total length of chord from PC to

PT is 300m and stationing of PC is 10+620.

Determine:

• I

• R2

• Station of PT

22

sin I/2=20/300

I=7˚38’

AB=150-56=T1+T2

150-56=R1tanI1/2+R2tanI2/2

R2=1456.89

2nd way:

300=2R1sinI/2+2R2sinI/2

R2=1453.47

3rd way:

cosI=800-b/800

b=7.09

a=12.91

cosI=R2-12.91/R2

R2=1456.85

station PT=staPC+LC1+LC2

LC1=R1I( ‼/180˚)

LC2=R2I( ‼/180˚)

sta PT=10+920.67

Example:

23

Solution:

X²=R²+100²…….eqn1

X²=(R-100)²+400²…….eqn2

R²+100²=R²-200R+100²+400²

200R=400²

R=800m

tano=100/800 I=β-o

o=7.13˚ I=29.74˚-7.13˚

tanβ=400/200 I=22.61˚

β=29.74˚

• A curve tangent to two intersecting gradelines

A parabolic curve wherein the horizontal length of the curve from the PC to the

vertex is equal to the horizontal length from the vertex to the PT.

24

ELEMENTS OF A SYMMETRICAL PARABOLIC CURVE

1. VERTEX (PI)

2. PC

3. PT

4. BACKWARD TANGENT

5. FORWARD TANGENT

6. g1 and g2 (GRADES)

changes in a horizontal distance.

eg 5% = g

2. The vertical offset fro the tangent to the curve is proportional to the squares of

the distances from the point of tangency. (Squared Property of a Parabola)

y1 / x1 = H / (L/2)2 = y2 / (x2)²

1. The curve bisects the distance between the vertex and the midpoint of the

long chord.

BF / (L/2)² = CD / (L)²

2. If g1 - g2 (+) = “summit”

g1 - g2 (+) = “sag”

25

4. The slope of the parabola varies uniformly along the curve.

r = g2 - g1 / n ; n = 20m stationing

1. FROM PC

S1 = g1L / g1 - g2

2. FROM PT

S2 = g2L / g2 - g1

symmetrical parabolic curve tangent to that point A and PT

• Used in provide a smooth and continues curve transition from PC to PT

• Point A is the common tangent point

26

EXAMPLE:

Given: g2=-8%

g1=5%

L1=40m

L2=60m

Required:

Height of fill needed to cover the outcrop

Elevation at station 6+820

Elevation of the HP

27

Required:

• Elevation of the curve of the underpass

• If elevation curve is 22.6835m

• Stationing of the HP of the curve for question#2

2H/L1=(g1-g2)L2/L1+L2

L1=2HL2/(g1-g2)L2-2H

160=2H(120)/(0.11)L2-2H

H=3.77m

y/(60)²=H/(120)²

y=0.94

elev curve=30-2.4-0.04-4.42

elev curve=22.24m

28

elev curve=22.6835m

L2=?

H=4.42m(remains the same)

L1=2HL2/(g1-g2)L2-2H

160m=2HL2/(0.11)L2-2H……..eq’n1

Elev 22.6835=elevV-(60)(0.04)-y-4.42

22.6835=30-2.4-y-4.42

y=0.4985

0.4965/(L2-60)²=H/(L2)²

H=0.4965(L2)²/(L2-60)²

H=3.10m

160=2(3.10)L2/(0.11)L2-2(3.10)

L2=100m

g1L1/2 ? H

(0.07)(60)/2 ? 3.10

5.6 > 3.10

S2=(0.04)(100)/2(3.10)

S2=64.52m

station HP=staV+35.48m

station HP=12+200+35.48m

station HP=12+235.48

29

SPIRAL BASEMENT CURVE (TRANSITION SPIRAL CURVE)

track in order to allow the vehicle or train to pass gradually from the

tangent to the circular curve.

• A curve provided to smooth the elevation from the super elevation of the

tangent to the maximum super elevation at the circular curve.

30

PRINCIPLES OF A SPIRAL CURVE

• The super elevation varies directly with the length of the space.

e/ec=L/Lc

where: e super elevation of the spiral curve at any point

ec super elevation at SC

L length of the spiral from TS to any point

Lc length of the spiral curve

• The degree of curve varies directly with the length of the spiral

D/Dc=L/Lc

where: D degree of the curve of the spiral at any point

Dc degree of the spiral at SC

S=L²/2RcLc

• The deflection angle varies directly at the square at the lengths from TS

i/ic=(L)²/Lc²

where: i deflection angle at any point

ic deflection angle at SC

i=S/3

FORMULAS

31

• Spiral angle, S

where: s spiral angle of any point along the spiral

Sc spiral angle at SC

D=1145.916/R Dc=1145.916/Rc

D/Dc=L/Lc

(K/R)/(Kc/Rc)=L/Lc

Solving R:

R=RcLc/L …….eq1

L=ro

dL=Rds……..eq2

dL=RcLc/L ds

∫ ds=∫ LdL/RcLc

S=1/(RcLc)∫ LdL

S=L²/2RcLc (in radius)

20m=DcRc

Rc=20m/Dc

32

Substitution to Sc=Lc/2Rc

Sc=LcDc/40 (in degree)

where: x offset from tangent to any point along the spiral curve

Xc offset at SC or CS

sinS almost= S

sinS=dx/dL

dx=sins dL

dx=SdL

∫dx=∫ L²/2RcLc dL

x=1/2Rdc∫ L²dL

x=L³/6RcLc

at SC or CS : X=Xc, L=Lc

Xc=Lc²/6Rc

33

Slope correction formula:

c²=a²+h² (2c)(c-a)=h²

c²-a²=h² c almost equal to a

(c+a)(c-a)=h²

b=dx y=∫ dL-(1/8Rc²Lc²)

c=dL ∫ LydL

y=L-(L /40Rc²Lc²)

dy=dL-(dx²/2dL)

sinS=dx/dL

S=dx/dL

dy=dL-S²(dL)²/2dL

dy=dL-(L²/2RcLc)²dL

at SC:

y=yc

L=Lc

yc=Lc-(Lc³/40Rc²)

34

• Deflection angle, i

where: i deflection angle at any point along the spiral curve

sini=X/L X=L³/6RcLc

i=X/L i=L²/6RcLc

S=L²/2RcLc

i=S/3

• Length of throw, P

P=?

Ts=?

Es=?

180˚=I+2β Ts=?

Β=90˚-Ic/2-Sc sinI/2=Ts-9/Rc+Es

35

180˚=I+(90˚-Ic/2-Sc) Ts=Rc+Es(sinI/2+9)

0=I-Ic-2Sc

Ic=I-2Sc

P=?

cosSc=Rc-(Xc-P)/Rc

P=Xc-Rc(1-cosSc)

or P=Xc/4; P=Lc²/24Rc

Es=?

cosI/2=Rc+P/Rc+Es

Es=(Rc+P)secI/2-Rc

EARTHWORKS

• Distribution Analysis (HAQL and MASS DIAGRAM)

ROUTE SURVEYING

DEFINITION

alignment, grades, and earthworks quantities necessary for the location and

construction of engineering projects. This includes highways, drainage, canal,

pipelines, railways, transmission lines, and other civil engineering projects that do

not close upon the point of beginning

ROUTE LOCATION

Development of the interstate highway system and more general acceptance of the

limited access principle for major highways have resulted in a more and more

highway projects being to serve local traffic, surveys for highway projects where

new location is being considered start with a general study of the entire area

between termini, proceed to more specific studies of possible alternative routes,

and finally conclude with a detailed survey of the selected route and staking of the

final centerline on the ground.

36

These procedures are generally carried in three stages:

• RECONAISSANCE

• PRELIMINARY SURVEY

• LOCATION SURVEY

RECONAISSANCE

Includes a general study of the entire area the development of one or more

alternative routes or corridors, and the study of each of these corridors in sufficient

detail to enable the proper officials to decide which will provide the optimum

location.

PRELIMINARY SURVEY

centerline on the ground in some cases, the preliminary survey may be completed

and staked in the field without variation in other instances, Minor adjustments may

be required during the location survey.

LOCATION SURVEY

Consists in staking the final centerline and obtaining all additional information

necessary to enable the design engineer to prepare completed plans, specifications,

and estimates of earthwork quantities and to prepare deeds and descriptions

covering the rights of way to be acquired.

EARTHWORKS

involving both cutting and filling of material other than rock.

EXCAVATION – is the process of loosening and removing earth or rock from its

original position in a cut and transporting it to a fill or to a waste deposit.

EMBANKMENT – the term embankment describes the fill added above the low

points along the roadway to raise the level to the bottom of the pavement structure

material for embankment commonly comes from roadway cuts or designated

borrow areas.

SETTING STAKES FOR EARTHWORK

37

The first step in connection with earthwork is staking out or setting slope stakes as

it is commonly called.

II. Keeping the Notes

B. A record of benchmarks and of elevations and rates of grades established.

C. The base and side slopes of the cross section for each class of material.

D. In practice, notes of alignment, a full profile, and various convenient data

are commonly given in addition to the above mentioned data.

ORDINARY EARTH 1.50 : 1.00

COURSE GRAVEL 1.00 : 1.00

LOOSE ROCK 0.50 : 1.00

SOLID ROCK 0.25 : 1.00

SOFT CLAY OR SAND 2 or 3 : 1.00

a) Making upon the back of the center stakes the cut or fill in feet or meters

and tenths, as C 2 3 or F 4 7

b) Setting side stakes or slope stakes at each side of centerline at the point

where the side slope intersects the surface of the ground and marking upon

the inner side of the stake, cut or fill at that point.

Figure

38

Figure

Process of determining the height of cut or fill at the center stake or at any other

points between the center space and slope stake.

39

Figure

Let HI = elevation of the line of sight or telescope refereed fro known or assumed

datum.

Grade ROD = difference in elevations between the line of sight (HI) and the grade

elevation

Ground ROD = HI – Grad Elevation

CUT = Grade ROD – Ground ROD

Figure

40

When the instrument is set up above the grade or subgrade:

FILL = Ground ROD A – Grade ROD A

FILL = Grade ROD B + Ground ROD B

(FIELD PROCEDURES)

The cross – sectioning is done after the grade lines have been determined in the

office. The amounts of cut and fill at the center are computed, the distances and

their heights above the base, or below it of the slope stakes are determined as

follows:

1. An engineer’s level is set up and rod readings are taken at the center and at

trial point. Assume that the third trial point is on the slope, compute the

distance fro the center using the following formulas:

DR = B / 2 + SHR

41

Where:

S = Side Slope HL = Side Height Left

B = Base pr Width DR = Distance out right

HR = Side Height Right DL = Distance out left

2. Measure the distance from the center to the trial point, if this distance is

less than the calculated distance, the rod is to be moved out for another trial

point; if greater, the rod is to be moved in, if equal, the point is correctly

located. A stake is placed here indicating the right of the slope point above

or below the base or sub grade.

ILLUSTRATION:

the trial point is too far out the center line of the roadway and the

direction to the rodman is to move in.

Figure

B. If the measured distance is less than the calculated distance, the trial

point is too near to the centerline of the roadway and the direction to

the rodman is to move out.

42

Figure

distance, the point is correctly located and the slope stake is at on the

ground indicating the height of the slope point above or below the

ground.

Figure

43

A. LEVEL SECTION

If the ground level in a direction transverse to the centerline, the only rod reading

necessary is that the centerstake, and the distance to the slope stake can be

calculated once the center cut or fill has been determined, such a cross-section is

called level section.

Figure

Centerheight = 1.83m

Base for Cut = 8.00m

SS for Cut = 1:1

DR = DL = B / 2 + SC

= 4 + 1 (1.83)

= 5.83

Figure

44

Centerheight = 1.50m

Base for Fill = 7.00m

SS for Fill = -1.50 : 1.00

DR = DL = B / 2 + SC

= 3.50 + 1.50 (1.50)

= 5.75

When Rod readings are taken at each slope stake in addition to readings taken at

the center as will normally be done whre the ground is sloping the cross-section is

called Three Level Section.

Figure

45

Base for Cut = 8.00m

SS for Cut = 1.00:1.00

DL = B / 2 + SHL

= 4.00 + 1(0.63)

= 4.63m

DR = B / 2 + SHR

= 4.00 + 1(4.96)

= 8.96m

Figure

SS for Fill = 1.50:1.00

DL = B / 2 + SHL

46

= 3.50 + 1.50(3.12)

= 8.18m

DR = B / 2 + SHR

= 3.50 + 1.50(2.62)

= 7.43

When rod reading is taken at the centerside the slope stake and at points on each

side of the center of the distance of half the width of the road bed, the cross section

is called a FIVE LEVEL SECTION.

Figure

SS for Fill = 1.50:1.00

DL = B / 2 + SHL

= 3.50 + 1.50(2.42)

= 7.13m

DR = B / 2 + SHR

= 3.50 + 1.50(3.28)

= 9.23m

In setting slope stakes, the height of cut at the center has been found to be 1.43m,

the ground readings at center “M” and trial point A on the slope are 2.33m and

1.46m, respectively, and the measured distance from the center line of the

roadway to the trial point is 8.24m. If the base of the roadway is 9m and the side

slope is 1.50:1.00, should the trial point be moved in or out?

47

Figure

Solution:

Measured Distance (DM) = 8.24

Calculated Distance (DC) = B / 2 + SHR

Where: B / 2 = 4.5m

HR = 3.76 – 1.46 = 2.30m

SHR = 2.30 (1.50) / 1.00

SHR = 3.45

DC = 4.5 + 3.45 = 7.95

Since DC < DM

--- Move In

Figure

48

Base for Cut = 8.00m

SS for Cut = 1:1

DL = B / 2 + SHL

= 4.00 + 1(2.75)

= 6.75m

DR = B / 2 + SHR

= 4.00 + 1(3.60)

= 7.60m

Figure

49

SS for Fill = 1.50:1.00

DL = B / 2 + SHL

= 3.5 + 1.50(2.84)

= 7.76m

DR = B / 2 + SHR

= 3.50 + 1.50(2.92)

= 7.88m

A cross section for which observation is taken to points between center and slope

stakes at irregular intervals is called irregular section.

Figure

SS for Cut = 1:1

DL = B / 2 + SHL

= 4.00 + 1(2.60)

= 6.60m

DR = B / 2 + SHR

= 4.00 + 1(3.47)

= 7.47m

50

Where the cross-section passes through from cut to fill, it is called a SIDE HILL

SECTION and an additional observation is made to determine the distance from

center to the grade point. That is the point where subgrade will intersect the

natural ground surface. A peg is usually driven to grade at this point and its

position is indicated by a guard stake marked “Grade”. In this case also cross-

section is taken additional plus station.

Base for Fill = 7.00m

DL = B / 2 + SHL

= 3.50 + 1.50(3.60)

= 8.99m

DR = B / 2 + SHR

= 4.00 + 1(3.67)

= 7.47m

PROBLEMS:

In two ways, find the areas of each of the following cross-section note, given the

corresponding bases and side slope if not given they are to be computed

? / 12.84 + 2.84

B. BASE WIDTH ?

51

SIDE SLOPE ?

5.79 / -1.86 – 1.27 6.03 / -2.02

C. BASE WIDTH ?

SIDE SLOPE ?

7.85 / 3.08 4.00 / 3.65 + 3.27 4.00 / 2.83 8.05 / 3.24

SIDE SLOPE 1.50:1.00

? / -3.56 6.28 / -2.28 -2.32 1.00 / -1.11 7.50 / -3.82

? / -2.74

SIDE SLOPE 1.00:1.00

6.97 / -3.47 -0.61 1.04 / 0.00 3.66 / -5.94 3.44 / 2.44

52

A. LEVEL SECTION IN CUT

FIGURE

FIGURE

53

C. FIVE LEVEL SECTION IN CUT

FIGURE

FIGURE

54

E. SIDE HILL SECTION

FIGURE

FIGURE

55

A. By Average End Areas

V = L / 2 (A1 + A2)

Where:

V = Volume of Section of Earthworks between Sta 1 and 2, m³

A1 , A2 = Cross – sectional area of end stations, m²

L = Perpendicular Distance between the end station, m

NOTES:

A1 <> A2.

2. Considering the facts that cross-sections are usually a considerable distance

apart and that minor inequalities in the surface of the earth between

sections are not considered, the method of end areas is sufficiently precise

for ordinary earthwork.

3. By where heavy cuts or fills occur on sharp curves. The computed volume

of earthwork ay be corrected for curvature out of ordinarily the corrected is

not large enough to be considered.

A. By Prismoidal Formula

V = L / 6 (A1 + AM + A2)

Where:

V = Volume of section of earthwork between Sta 1 and 2 of volume of prismoid,

m³

A1 , A2 = cross – sectional area of end sections, m²

AM = Area of mid section parallel to the end sections and which will be computed

as the averages of respective end dimensions, m³

NOTES:

1. A Prismoidal is a solid having for its two ends any dissimilar parallel plane

figures of the same no. of sides, and all the sides of the solid plane figures.

Also, any prismoid may be resolve into prisms, pyramids and wedges,

having a common altitudes the perpendicular distance between the two

parallel end plane cross – section.

2. As far as volume of earthworks are concerned, the use of Prismoidal

formula is justified only if cross-section are taken at short intervals, is a

small surface deviations are observed, and if the areas of successive cross-

section cliff or widely usually it yields smaller values than those computed

from average end areas.

56

PRISMOIDAL CORRECTION FORMULA

Figure

Where:

CD = Prismoidal Correction, It is subtracted algebraically from the volume as

determined by the average and the areas method to give the more nearly correct

volume as determined by the Prismoidal formula, m³

L = Perpendicular distance between 2 parallel and sections, m

b1 = Distance between slope stakes at end section ABC where the altitude is h1, m

b2 = Distance between slope stake at end section DEF where the altitude is h2, m

h1 = Altitude of end section ABC at Sta 1, m

h2 = Altitude of end section DEF at Sta 2, m

In prismoid, there should be equal number of slope in both bases so that on equal

number triangles can be found. The Prismoidal correction can then be found. The

Prismoidal correction can then be found using either the fundamental formula of

correction, CD = L / 12 (b1 – b2)(h1 – h2)

or any of the formulas derive from it, where, however one base or any a five level

section or three level section and other. A five level section (or irregular section)

or both bases are irregular sections or, if one base is a five level section and the

other irregular section, the formulas cannot be directly applied without making

certain assumptions because there are more triangles formed in one section than in

57

the other. The determination of the correction is at best only approximate. For the

purpose of determining the Prismoidal correction, the following may be used:

three level or level sections this is the most convenient method.

B. Plot the irregular or five level sections on cross sections paper.

Draw on this section two equalizing lines starting from the same

point or the center height such that the error added equal the areas

subtracted approximately by estimating the center height as well as

the distances in the right or in the left can then be scaled. This is

more accurate than method A but involves more work.

C. Reduce the five level or irregular section by calculation to

equivalent level or three level sections as follows:

1. To LEVEL SECTIONS

a. The area of a level section BC + SC (B is the base, C is the center point,

and S is the side slope.)

b. Equate this area forced per the irregular or five-level section

c. Base SS being known, a quadratic formula in one unknown is formed from

which C is determined.

d. Solve for the corresponding value of C.

Figure

58

Total Area of three level section in cut

A = A1 + A2

Where:

A1 = B / 4 (HL + HR)

A2 = C / 4 (B + S) (HL + HR)

NOTE:

The unknowns are C, HR and HL. Two these should be assumed and the third

computed. It is simpler to covert to level section.

PROBLEM:

of 1.25:1.00, between the volume of the prismoid between the two-end sections

by the following methods:

B. PRISMOIDAL FORMULA

C. END AREA METHOD and PRISMOIDAL CORRECTION FORMULA

10 + 000 +6.55 + 2.84 +2.84 +6.55 + 2.84

10 + 020 +7.55 + 3.64 +1.85 +3.65 + 0.52

SOLUTION:

Figure

59

Check for Cut distances

DR1 = DL1

= B / 2 + SHR

= 1 / 2 (6m) + 1.25(2.84)

= 6.55m

Area by method of triangle and rhombus

A1 = BC + SC² = 27.12m²

Figure

60

Check for the distances

DR2 = B / 2 + SHR2

= 1 / 2 (6) + 1.25(0.52)

= 3.65m

DL2 = B / 2 + SHL2

= 1 / 2 (6) + 1.25(3.64)

= 7.55m

A2 = Aa + AL + Ac + Ad

= 1 / 2 (3)(3.64) + 1 / 2 (1.85)(7.55) + 1 / 2 (1.85)(3.65) + 1 / 2

(0.52)(3)

A2 = 16.60m²

Figure

61

DRm = 1 / 2 (DR1 + DR2) HRm = 1 /2 (HR1 + HR2)

= 1 / 2 (6.55 + 3.65) = 1 / 2 (2.84 + 0.52)

DRm = 5.10m HRm = 1.68m

= 1 / 2 (6.55 + 7.55) = 1 / 2 (2.84 + 3.64)

DLm = 7.05m = 3.24m

= 1 / 2 (2.84 + 1.85)

HCm = 2.345m

DRm = B / 2 SHRm

= 1 / 2 (6) + 1.25(1.68)

DRm = 5.10m

DLm = B / 2 SHLm

= 1 / 2 (6) + 1.25(3.22)

DLm = 7.05m

Am = A e + A f + A g + A h

= 1 / 2 (3)(3.24) + 1 / 2 (7.05)(2.345) + 1 / 2 (5.10)(2.345) + 1 / 2

(3)(1.68)

Am = 21.68m

IN BETWEEN THE TWO STATIONS

Figure

62

1. By End Area Method

Ve = L / 2 (A1 + A2)

Where:

L = (10 + 020) – (10 + 000)

= 20m

A1 = 27.12m²

A2 = 16.60m²

Then,

Ve = 20 / 2 (27.12 + 16.60)

= 437.20m²

2. By Prismoidal Formula

Vp = L / 6 (A1 + 4Am + A2)

Where:

L = 20m

A1 = 27.12m²

A2 = 16.60m²

Am = 21.67m²

Then,

Vp = 20 / 6 (27.12 + 4*21.67 + 16.60)

= 434.13m³

Cp = L / 2 (A1 + A2)(b1 – b2)

Note:

Resolve the given prismoid into a series of triangular prismoid into a series of

triangular prismoid.

Where:

Cpa = 20 / 12 (2.84 – 3.64)(3-3) = 0

Cpb = 20 / 12 (2.84 – 1.85)(6.55 – 7.55) = -1.65m³

Cpc = 20 / 12 (2.84 – 1.85)(6.55 – 3.65) = 4.785m³

Ppd = 20 / 12 (2.84 – 0.52)(3-3) = 0

63

Then,

Cp = -1.65 + 4.785

= 3.135m³

2. Corrected Volume

Vc = V e - C p

= 437.20 – 3.135

Vc = 434.065m³

Given the following cross section notes, determine the volume of the prismoid b

end areas method and apply the Prismoidal formula. The roadway base is 6m with

side slope of 1.25:1.00

10 + 040 +4.05 +3.00 + +2.85 +3.00 +7.05

+0.84 3.50 +2.12 +3.24

10 + 050 +7.80 +2.00 +3.25 +4.00 +5.65

+3.84 +2.24 +2.50 +2.12

SOLUTION:

Figure

64

Check for distances:

= 3 + 1.25(3.24) = 3 + 1.25(0.84)

DR1 = 7.05 DL1 = 4.05

A1 = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4

= 1 / 2 (3.5)(1.05) + 1 / 2 (2.85) + 3.5(3) + 1 / 2 (2.12 + 2.85)(3)

+ 1 / 2 (2.12)(4.05)

A1 = 23.11m²

Figure

= 3 + 1.25(2.12) = 3 + 1.25(3.85)

DR2 = 5.65m DL2 = 7.80m

A2 = Aa + Ab + Ac + Ad + Ae + Af

= 1 / 2 (2.12 + 3.84)(5.80) + 1 / 2 (2.42 + 3.25)(2)

+ 1 / 2 (2.50 + 3.25)(4) + 1 / 2 (2.12 +2.50)(1.65)

– 1 / 2 (4.00)(3.84) – 1 / 2 (2.65)(2.52)

A2 = 27.11m²

SECTIONS

65

Figure

1.11 = 13 HCe1 + S (HCe1)²

3.11 = 6 HCe1 + 1.25 (HCe1)²; Let C1 = HCe1

3.11 = 6 C1 + 1.25 C1²

By quadratic formula

C1 = 2.52m

DRe1 = B / 2 + SHCe1; DRe1 = DLe2

= 3 + 1.25(2.52)

Figure

66

27.11 = BHCe2 + S(HCe2)²

27.11 = 6HCe2 + 1.25(HCe2)²

Let Ce = HCe2

By quadratic formula

C2 = HCe2

Dre2 = B / 2 + SHRe2

= 3 + 1.25

DLe2 = DRe2

a) Stationing of the limits of free haul

b) Stationing of the limits of economical haul

c) Vertical volume

d) Length of overhaul

e) Cost of haul

f) Cost of waste

g) Cost of borrow

Given:

FHD = 50m

Cost of borrow = P 4.00/m3

Cost of excavation = P 3.50/ m3

Cost of haul = P 0.20/m station

END AREA M2

Station

CUT FILL

1+460 40

2+060 60

LEH = 450 m

ax = 60300 ; a = 60x300 - eq. (1)

b50-x = 40300 ; b = 2000-40x300

67

0.5ax = 0.5b(50 – x) - eq. (2)

Equate 1 and 3; 2 and 3:

x = 22.47 m ; a = 4.49 m2

50 – x = 27.53 m ; b = 3.67 m2

a) Left limit = 1+760 – 27.53 = 1+732.47

Right limit = 1+760 + 22.47 = 1+782.47

S = 50 m = FHD

(b’ + 7.34)(400 - y) = (a’ + 8.98)(y) - eq. (3)

Equating (1) and (3):

y = 177.81m

equating (2) and (3):

400 – y = 220.19 m

a’ = 35.96 m2

b’ = 29.36 m2

b) Limits of LEH:

Left limit = 1+760 – 27.53 – 220.19 = 1+512.28

Right limit = 1+760 + 22.47 + 179.81 = 1+962.28

LEH = 450

= 4040.33 m3

OH Vol. = 0.5(b’ + b + b)(400 - y) = 0.5(29.36 + 7.39)(220.19)

= 4040.49 m3

OH Vol. = 0.5(4040.33 + 4040.49)

= 4040.41 m3

d) ATXL = AiXi

4040.49XL = 0.5(b’)(400 - y)(2/3)(400 - y) + b(400 - y)(0.5)( 400 - y)

= 0.5(29.36)(220.19)( 2/3)( 220.19) + (3.67)( 220.19)(0.5)( 220.19)

XL = 139.45 m

ATXR = AiXi

4040.33XR = 0.5(a’)(y)(2/3)(y) + (a)(y)0.5(y)

= 0.5(29.36)(220.19)(2/3)(220.19) + (3.67)(220.19)(0.5) (220.19)

XR = 113.89 m

68

Length of OH = XL + XR = 139.45 + 113.89

Length of OH = 253.34 m

e) Cost of haul = OH Vol.cost of haul(length of OH)C

= 253.340.20(4040.41)20

Cost of haul = P 10,235.97

= 0.5(60 + 35.96 + 4.49)(97.72)

= 4908 m3

Cost of waste = P 3.50(4908)

Cost of waste = P 17,178.00

g) cost of borrow = vol. of borrow x cost of borrow

= 0.5(40 + 29.36 + 3.67)(52.28)

= 1909.0 m3

69

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