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# Introduction

Route surveys involve measuring and computing horizontal and vertical angles,
elevations, and horizontal distances. The results of these surveys are used to
prepare detailed plan and profile base maps of proposed roadways. In addition, the
elevations determined in the survey serve as the basis for calculation of
construction cut and fill quantities, and in determining roadway banking. This
section presents a review of basic terminology, concepts, and standard procedures
used in highway surveys. The review begins with some basic definitions.
Highway curves can be either circular arcs or spirals. A simple curve is a circular
are connecting two straight lines (tangents). A compound curve consists of two or
more circular arcs of different radii tangent to each other with their centers on the
same side of the common tangent. Compound curves where two circular ares
having centers on the same side are connected by a short tangent are called
broken-back curves. A reverse curve is two circular arcs tangent to each other but
with their centers on opposite sides of the common tangent. A curve whose radius
decreases uniformly from infinity to that of the curve it meets is called a spiral
curve. Spiral curves with the proper superelevation (banking) provide safe and
smooth riding qualities. Circular and spiral curves are used for curves in the
horizontal plane. Tangents in the vertical plane are joined by parabolic curves
(also referred to simply as vertical curves)
A route surveying system usually contains four separate but interrelated
processes:

• Works design

## • Right of way acquisition

• Construction of works

DEFINITION OF TERMS

SIMPLE CURVE
• Most commonly used for highways and railroads construction.
• Circular arc, extending from one tangent to the next
PC
• Point of the curvature
• The point where the curve leaves the first tangent

PT
• Point of the tangency
• The point where the curve leaves the second tangent

PC and PT
• Tangent points

VERTEX
• Point of the intersection of the two tangents

## TANGENT DISTANCE (T)

• Distance from the vertex to the PC and PT

## EXTERNAL DISTANCE (E)

• Distance from the vertex to the curve

## MIDDLE ORDINATE (M)

• The line joining the middle of the curve and the mid-point of the chord
joining the PT and PC

## DEGREE OF CURVE (D)

• Generally used for highway practice (when the radius of the curve is
usually small)
• It is the angle of the center subtended by an arc of 20m (SI) or
100’(English)

A. ARC BASIS

3
1. SI 2. ENGLISH

B. CHORD BASIS

• The degree of the curve is the angle subtended by a chord of 20m (SI) or
100’ (English)

## ELEMENTS OF A SIMPLE CURVE

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Tangent distance (T) External distance (E)

## Tan I/2 = T/R cos I/2 = R/R+E

T=R tan I/2 (R+E) cosI/2 = R
R+E = Rsec I/2
E=RsecI/2-R
E= R(secI/2-1)

## cosI/2 = R-M/R sin I/2 = LC/2 /R

Rcos I/2 = R-M LC = 2Rsin I/2
M = R-Rcos I/2
M = R(1-cos I/2)

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LCu/I = 20/D
LC = 20I/D

EXAMPLES:

## 1. The tangent distance of a 3˚ simple curve is ½ of its radius.

Determine:
• Angle of intersection (I)
• LC
• Area of the fillet of the curve

Solution:

## D=3˚, T=1/2R LC=20I/D

T=RtanI/2 LC=20(53.13)/3˚
1/2R=RtanI/2 LC=354.2m
tanI/2=0.5
I/2=tan 0.5
I=53.13˚

## A=T(R)- R² o/360˚ A=(190.99)(381.97)-

R=1145.916/D (381.97) (53.13)/360˚
R=381.97 sqm A=5305.89sqm

## 2. The point of intersection of tangents on a simple curve is inaccessible

falling within a river.

## • Points B and C on the tangents are connected by measurements on

the ground.

Figure:

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REQUIRED:
• Distance CD and the length of curve
• Area of the cross-hatched section

Solution:

## use sine law

I=180˚-45.48˚ o=180˚-47.5˚-87.02˚
I=134.52˚ o=45.48
128.015/sino=T-53.58/sin87.02˚
T=232.88m

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Sine law:
232.86-CD/sin47.5˚=128.015/sin45.48˚
CD=100.51

## LCu=RI, 20I/D LC=97.61(134.52˚)(‼/180)

T=RtanI/2 LC=229.7m
232.88=Rtan134.52˚/2
R=97.61m

Area
Asec-Atriangle LC=2(97.61)sin134.52˚/2
R²o/360˚-1/2(180.05)(37.73) LC=180.05m
A=384.79sqm cosI/2=x/R
x= 37.73m

If station PI=sta1+054

Req’d: staPC=1+054-232.88
staPC=0+821.21

staPT=staPC+LC
staPT=0+821.12+229.17
staPT=1+050.29

## 1. Two tangents AB and BC intersecting in at an angle of 240˚. A point P is

located 21.03 from point B and has a parallel distance of 2.79m from line
AB.

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Figure:

## sine law: sino=2.79/21.03

R/sin 70˚23’=R+E/sinβ o=7˚57’
ℓ=90˚-12˚-7˚37’
ℓ=70˚23’

E=R(secI/2) R/sin70˚23’=R+E/sinβ
E=R(sec 24˚/2-1) R/sin70˚23’=R+0.022312/sinβ
E=R(12˚-1) β=74˚21’
E=0.022312 180˚-74˚21’
=105˚39’

o=180˚-β-ℓ
o=180˚-105˚39’-70˚23’

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o=3˚58’

## using sine law:

R/sin 70˚23’=21.03/sin 3˚58’
R=286.36m

sin8˚2’=LC/2/R
LC=40.02m

## Area of the fillet

T=RtanI/2
A=TR- R²I/360˚

GIVEN:

AB=S65˚30’E required:
BC=S25˚30’E; 170.75m R=?
CD=S54˚20’W I=?
Station PT if V is at sta 20+140

I=119˚50’

170.75m=T1+T2
170.75m=RtanI1/2+RtanI2/2
170.75m=Rtan40˚/2+Rtan79˚50’/2
170.75m=R(tan20˚+tan37˚25’)

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R=142.22m

T=RtanI/2
T=142.22tan(119˚50’/2)
T=245.57m

## sta PC=sta V-I

sta PC= 20+140-295.57m
sta Pc=19+894.44

## sta PT=sta PC+LC

LC=RI /180˚
LC=142.22(119˚50’) /180˚
sta PT=19+894.44+297.57
sta PT=20+192.06

GIVEN/FIGURE:

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tan20˚=600m-OI/587.96m
OI=386m

## IP= (587.96)²+ (214)²

IP= 625.69m

cosine law:
OP²=625.69²+386²
OP=2(625.69)(386)cos110˚
OP=840.05m

o=?
sine law:
386/sino=840.05/sin110˚
o=25.58˚
β=180˚-110˚-25.58˚
β=44.42˚

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cosine law:
600²=840.05²+(Px)-2(840.05)
(Px)cos25.58˚
Px=279.75m

LC=(600)(32.81˚)(‼/180˚)
LC=343.59m

sta x=staA+LC
sta x=50+000+343.59m
sta x=50+343.59

COMPOUND CURVES

## • Composed of two or more consecutive simple curve having different radii

but whose center lie on the same side of the curve.
• Any two consecutive curves must have a common tangent on their meeting
PT.

PCC
• Point of compound curvature the PT on the common tangent the
through which the two curves join.

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EXAMPLES:

1. The long chord from the PC to the PT of a compound curve is 300m long
and the angle that it makes the longer and shorter tangents are 12˚ and 15˚
respectively. If the common tangent is parallel to the long chord.
Required:
• R1
• R2
• Station PT if PC is at sta 10+204.30

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sine law:
300m/sin166˚30’=LC1/sin7˚30’=LC2/sin6˚
LC1=167.74m
LC2=134.33m

LC=2RsinI/2
LC1=2R1sinI1/2 LC2=2R2sinI2/2
167.74m=2(R1)sin6˚/2 134.33m=2(R2)sin7˚30’/2
R1=802.36m R2=514.57m

## LCu1=R1I1( ‼/180˚) LCu2=R2I2( ‼/180˚)

LCu1=802.36n(6˚)( ‼/180˚) LCu2=514.57m(7˚30’)( ‼/180˚)
LCu1=168.05m LCu2=134.71m

sta PT=staPC+LCu1+LCu2
sta PT=10+204.30+168.05+134.71
sta PT=10+507.06

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I1=268˚30’-247˚50’
I1=20˚40’
I2=282˚50’-268˚30’
I2=14˚20’
I=35˚

R1=1145.916/D1 T1=R1tanI1/2
R1=1145.916/4˚ T1=286.479tan(20˚40’/2)
R1=286.479m T1=52.23m

T2=76.42m-T1 T2=R2tanI2/2
T2=76.42m-52.43m 24.19=R2tan(14˚20’/2)
T2=24.19m R2=192.38m

staPC=staA-T1+LCu1
sta PC=10+010.46-52.23+103.33
sta PC=10+061.56

## LCu1=( R1I1)( ‼/180˚)

LCu1=(286.479)(20˚40’)( ‼/180˚)
LCu1=103.33msta PT=staPCC+LCu2

staPT=10+061.56+48.13
staPT=10+109.69

LCu2=(R2I2)( ‼/180˚)

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LCu2=(192.38)(14˚20’)( ‼/180˚)
LCu2=48.13m

REVERSE CURVES
• Composed of two consecutive circular simple curves having a common
tangent but lie on the opposite side.

PRC
• Point of the reverse curvature.
• The point along the common tangent to which the curve reversed in its
direction.

## FOUR TYPES OF REVERSE CURVES:

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18
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EXAMPLE:

The parallel tangent of a reversal curve are 10m apart the long chord from
the PC to the PT is equal to 120m determine the following:
• Length of the common tangent

Solution:
sinI/2=10/120
I=9˚33’

sinI=10/2T T=RtanI/2
2T=60.27m 30.14=Rtan(9˚33’/2)
T=30.14m R=360.82m

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EXAMPLE:

## Two converging tangent have azimuth of 300˚ and 90˚ respectively

common tangent AB has an azimuth of 320˚. The distance from the point of
intersection of two converging tangent and that of the vertex of the second curve
has a distance of 100m. if the radius of the first curve is 285.4m between.
Determine:
• R2
• sta PRC and sta PT if station of V1 is 10+040

## Isolate triangle ABC

By sine law:
100/sin20˚=AB/sin30˚
AB=146.19m

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AB=T1+T2
146.19=R1tanI1/2+R2tanI2
R2=205.59m

## station PRC= staV1-T1+LC1

station PT= staPRC+LC2

## sta PRC=10+040-50.32+285.40(20)( ‼/180˚)

sta PRC= 10+089.30

## sta Pt=10+089.30+(205.59)(50)( ‼/180˚)

sta PT= 10+268.71

EXAMPLE:

## Two tangents 20m apart are to be connected by a reversed curve. The

radius of the curve passing thru PC is 800m. if the total length of chord from PC to
PT is 300m and stationing of PC is 10+620.
Determine:
• I
• R2
• Station of PT

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sin I/2=20/300
I=7˚38’

## 1st way to get the R2:

AB=150-56=T1+T2
150-56=R1tanI1/2+R2tanI2/2
R2=1456.89

2nd way:

300=2R1sinI/2+2R2sinI/2
R2=1453.47

3rd way:

cosI=800-b/800
b=7.09
a=12.91
cosI=R2-12.91/R2
R2=1456.85

station PT=staPC+LC1+LC2
LC1=R1I( ‼/180˚)
LC2=R2I( ‼/180˚)
sta PT=10+920.67

Example:

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Solution:

X²=R²+100²…….eqn1
X²=(R-100)²+400²…….eqn2
R²+100²=R²-200R+100²+400²

200R=400²
R=800m

tano=100/800 I=β-o
o=7.13˚ I=29.74˚-7.13˚
tanβ=400/200 I=22.61˚
β=29.74˚

## • A curve used to connect two intersecting gradelines

• A curve tangent to two intersecting gradelines

## 1. SYMMETRICAL PARABOLIC CURVES

A parabolic curve wherein the horizontal length of the curve from the PC to the
vertex is equal to the horizontal length from the vertex to the PT.

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ELEMENTS OF A SYMMETRICAL PARABOLIC CURVE

1. VERTEX (PI)
2. PC
3. PT
4. BACKWARD TANGENT
5. FORWARD TANGENT

## 1. A given grade or slope ( in %) is numerically the rate at which an elevation

changes in a horizontal distance.
eg 5% = g

2. The vertical offset fro the tangent to the curve is proportional to the squares of
the distances from the point of tangency. (Squared Property of a Parabola)

y1 / x1 = H / (L/2)2 = y2 / (x2)²
1. The curve bisects the distance between the vertex and the midpoint of the
long chord.

BF / (L/2)² = CD / (L)²

2. If g1 - g2 (+) = “summit”
g1 - g2 (+) = “sag”

## 3. No of stations to the left equal to the no of stations to the right.

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4. The slope of the parabola varies uniformly along the curve.

r = g2 - g1 / n ; n = 20m stationing

## LOCATION OF THE HIGHEST OR LOWEST POINT OF THE CURVE

1. FROM PC

S1 = g1L / g1 - g2

2. FROM PT

S2 = g2L / g2 - g1

## • Consist of a symmetrical parabolic curve from PC to PT. A,B another

symmetrical parabolic curve tangent to that point A and PT
• Used in provide a smooth and continues curve transition from PC to PT
• Point A is the common tangent point

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EXAMPLE:

Given: g2=-8%
g1=5%
L1=40m
L2=60m

Required:
 Height of fill needed to cover the outcrop
 Elevation at station 6+820
 Elevation of the HP

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Required:
• Elevation of the curve of the underpass
• If elevation curve is 22.6835m
• Stationing of the HP of the curve for question#2

2H/L1=(g1-g2)L2/L1+L2
L1=2HL2/(g1-g2)L2-2H
160=2H(120)/(0.11)L2-2H
H=3.77m

y/(60)²=H/(120)²
y=0.94

## elevation of the curve= elevation V-(60)(0.04)-y-h

elev curve=30-2.4-0.04-4.42
elev curve=22.24m

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elev curve=22.6835m
L2=?
H=4.42m(remains the same)

L1=2HL2/(g1-g2)L2-2H
160m=2HL2/(0.11)L2-2H……..eq’n1

Elev 22.6835=elevV-(60)(0.04)-y-4.42
22.6835=30-2.4-y-4.42
y=0.4985

0.4965/(L2-60)²=H/(L2)²
H=0.4965(L2)²/(L2-60)²
H=3.10m

160=2(3.10)L2/(0.11)L2-2(3.10)
L2=100m

g1L1/2 ? H
(0.07)(60)/2 ? 3.10
5.6 > 3.10

## S2=g2L2/2H (from point PT)

S2=(0.04)(100)/2(3.10)
S2=64.52m

station HP=staV+35.48m
station HP=12+200+35.48m
station HP=12+235.48

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SPIRAL BASEMENT CURVE (TRANSITION SPIRAL CURVE)

## • A curve of ranging radius introduced at the outer edges of the roadway or

track in order to allow the vehicle or train to pass gradually from the
tangent to the circular curve.

• A curve provided to smooth the elevation from the super elevation of the
tangent to the maximum super elevation at the circular curve.

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PRINCIPLES OF A SPIRAL CURVE

• The super elevation varies directly with the length of the space.

e/ec=L/Lc
where: e super elevation of the spiral curve at any point
ec super elevation at SC
L length of the spiral from TS to any point
Lc length of the spiral curve

• The degree of curve varies directly with the length of the spiral

D/Dc=L/Lc
where: D degree of the curve of the spiral at any point
Dc degree of the spiral at SC

## • The spiral angle at any point on the spiral curve

S=L²/2RcLc

• The deflection angle varies directly at the square at the lengths from TS

i/ic=(L)²/Lc²
where: i deflection angle at any point
ic deflection angle at SC

## • The deflection angle is 1/3 of the spiral angle

i=S/3

FORMULAS

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• Spiral angle, S
where: s spiral angle of any point along the spiral
Sc spiral angle at SC

D=1145.916/R Dc=1145.916/Rc

## D=K/R let K 1145.916

D/Dc=L/Lc
(K/R)/(Kc/Rc)=L/Lc

Solving R:

R=RcLc/L …….eq1
L=ro
dL=Rds……..eq2
dL=RcLc/L ds
∫ ds=∫ LdL/RcLc
S=1/(RcLc)∫ LdL

## Recall full arc length is equal to 20m

20m=DcRc
Rc=20m/Dc

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Substitution to Sc=Lc/2Rc
Sc=LcDc/40 (in degree)

## • Offset from tangent to spiral curve (x,Xc)

where: x offset from tangent to any point along the spiral curve
Xc offset at SC or CS

## Note: for small angle S

sinS almost= S
sinS=dx/dL
dx=sins dL
dx=SdL
∫dx=∫ L²/2RcLc dL
x=1/2Rdc∫ L²dL
x=L³/6RcLc

at SC or CS : X=Xc, L=Lc
Xc=Lc²/6Rc

## • Distance along the tangent

33
Slope correction formula:

c²=a²+h² (2c)(c-a)=h²
c²-a²=h² c almost equal to a
(c+a)(c-a)=h²

## a=dy ∫ dy= ∫ dL-∫L dL/8Rc²Lc²

b=dx y=∫ dL-(1/8Rc²Lc²)
c=dL ∫ LydL
y=L-(L /40Rc²Lc²)
dy=dL-(dx²/2dL)
sinS=dx/dL
S=dx/dL
dy=dL-S²(dL)²/2dL
dy=dL-(L²/2RcLc)²dL

at SC:
y=yc
L=Lc
yc=Lc-(Lc³/40Rc²)

34
• Deflection angle, i
where: i deflection angle at any point along the spiral curve

sini=X/L X=L³/6RcLc
i=X/L i=L²/6RcLc

S=L²/2RcLc
i=S/3

• Length of throw, P

P=?
Ts=?
Es=?

180˚=I+2β Ts=?
Β=90˚-Ic/2-Sc sinI/2=Ts-9/Rc+Es
35
180˚=I+(90˚-Ic/2-Sc) Ts=Rc+Es(sinI/2+9)
0=I-Ic-2Sc
Ic=I-2Sc

P=?
cosSc=Rc-(Xc-P)/Rc
P=Xc-Rc(1-cosSc)
or P=Xc/4; P=Lc²/24Rc

Es=?
cosI/2=Rc+P/Rc+Es
Es=(Rc+P)secI/2-Rc

EARTHWORKS

## • Areas and Volumes of earthworks

• Distribution Analysis (HAQL and MASS DIAGRAM)

ROUTE SURVEYING

DEFINITION

## Route Surveying is a survey which supplies data necessary to determine the

alignment, grades, and earthworks quantities necessary for the location and
construction of engineering projects. This includes highways, drainage, canal,
pipelines, railways, transmission lines, and other civil engineering projects that do
not close upon the point of beginning

ROUTE LOCATION

## STAGES OF HIGHWAY SURVEYS

Development of the interstate highway system and more general acceptance of the
limited access principle for major highways have resulted in a more and more
highway projects being to serve local traffic, surveys for highway projects where
new location is being considered start with a general study of the entire area
between termini, proceed to more specific studies of possible alternative routes,
and finally conclude with a detailed survey of the selected route and staking of the
final centerline on the ground.

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These procedures are generally carried in three stages:

• RECONAISSANCE
• PRELIMINARY SURVEY
• LOCATION SURVEY

RECONAISSANCE

Includes a general study of the entire area the development of one or more
alternative routes or corridors, and the study of each of these corridors in sufficient
detail to enable the proper officials to decide which will provide the optimum
location.

PRELIMINARY SURVEY

## Is a survey of selected corridors in sufficient detail to permit staking of the final

centerline on the ground in some cases, the preliminary survey may be completed
and staked in the field without variation in other instances, Minor adjustments may
be required during the location survey.

LOCATION SURVEY

Consists in staking the final centerline and obtaining all additional information
necessary to enable the design engineer to prepare completed plans, specifications,
and estimates of earthwork quantities and to prepare deeds and descriptions
covering the rights of way to be acquired.

EARTHWORKS

## EARTHWORKS – the construction of large open cuttings or excavations

involving both cutting and filling of material other than rock.

EXCAVATION – is the process of loosening and removing earth or rock from its
original position in a cut and transporting it to a fill or to a waste deposit.

EMBANKMENT – the term embankment describes the fill added above the low
points along the roadway to raise the level to the bottom of the pavement structure
material for embankment commonly comes from roadway cuts or designated
borrow areas.
SETTING STAKES FOR EARTHWORK

37
The first step in connection with earthwork is staking out or setting slope stakes as
it is commonly called.

## I. Setting the Stakes

II. Keeping the Notes

## A. The ground with center stakes set at every station.

B. A record of benchmarks and of elevations and rates of grades established.
C. The base and side slopes of the cross section for each class of material.
D. In practice, notes of alignment, a full profile, and various convenient data
are commonly given in addition to the above mentioned data.

## MATERIAL EXCAVATION SIDE SLOPE

ORDINARY EARTH 1.50 : 1.00
COURSE GRAVEL 1.00 : 1.00
LOOSE ROCK 0.50 : 1.00
SOLID ROCK 0.25 : 1.00
SOFT CLAY OR SAND 2 or 3 : 1.00

## Setting the stakes work consists of:

a) Making upon the back of the center stakes the cut or fill in feet or meters
and tenths, as C 2 3 or F 4 7
b) Setting side stakes or slope stakes at each side of centerline at the point
where the side slope intersects the surface of the ground and marking upon
the inner side of the stake, cut or fill at that point.

Figure

38
Figure

Process of determining the height of cut or fill at the center stake or at any other
points between the center space and slope stake.

39
Figure

Let HI = elevation of the line of sight or telescope refereed fro known or assumed
datum.

Grade ROD = difference in elevations between the line of sight (HI) and the grade
elevation
Ground ROD = HI – Grad Elevation
CUT = Grade ROD – Ground ROD

Figure

40

FILL = Ground ROD A – Grade ROD A

## 1. When the instrument is set up below the grade or subgrade:

FILL = Grade ROD B + Ground ROD B

## SETTING SIDE OF SLOPE

(FIELD PROCEDURES)

The cross – sectioning is done after the grade lines have been determined in the
office. The amounts of cut and fill at the center are computed, the distances and
their heights above the base, or below it of the slope stakes are determined as
follows:

1. An engineer’s level is set up and rod readings are taken at the center and at
trial point. Assume that the third trial point is on the slope, compute the
distance fro the center using the following formulas:

## DL = B / 2 + SHL S = Horizontal / Vertical

DR = B / 2 + SHR

41
Where:
S = Side Slope HL = Side Height Left
B = Base pr Width DR = Distance out right
HR = Side Height Right DL = Distance out left

2. Measure the distance from the center to the trial point, if this distance is
less than the calculated distance, the rod is to be moved out for another trial
point; if greater, the rod is to be moved in, if equal, the point is correctly
located. A stake is placed here indicating the right of the slope point above
or below the base or sub grade.

ILLUSTRATION:

## A. If the measured distance is greater than the calculated distance, then

the trial point is too far out the center line of the roadway and the
direction to the rodman is to move in.
Figure

B. If the measured distance is less than the calculated distance, the trial
point is too near to the centerline of the roadway and the direction to
the rodman is to move out.

42
Figure

## C. If the measured distance is exactly equal to the calculated

distance, the point is correctly located and the slope stake is at on the
ground indicating the height of the slope point above or below the
ground.

Figure

43
A. LEVEL SECTION

If the ground level in a direction transverse to the centerline, the only rod reading
necessary is that the centerstake, and the distance to the slope stake can be
calculated once the center cut or fill has been determined, such a cross-section is
called level section.

## 1. LEVEL SECTION IN CUT

Figure

Centerheight = 1.83m
Base for Cut = 8.00m
SS for Cut = 1:1
DR = DL = B / 2 + SC
= 4 + 1 (1.83)
= 5.83

## 2. LEVEL SECTION IN FILL

Figure

44
Centerheight = 1.50m
Base for Fill = 7.00m
SS for Fill = -1.50 : 1.00
DR = DL = B / 2 + SC
= 3.50 + 1.50 (1.50)
= 5.75

## A. THREE LEVEL SECTION

the center as will normally be done whre the ground is sloping the cross-section is
called Three Level Section.

Figure

45
Base for Cut = 8.00m
SS for Cut = 1.00:1.00
DL = B / 2 + SHL
= 4.00 + 1(0.63)
= 4.63m

DR = B / 2 + SHR
= 4.00 + 1(4.96)
= 8.96m

Figure

## Base for Fill = 7.00m

SS for Fill = 1.50:1.00
DL = B / 2 + SHL

46
= 3.50 + 1.50(3.12)
= 8.18m

DR = B / 2 + SHR
= 3.50 + 1.50(2.62)
= 7.43

## B. FIVE LEVEL SECTION

When rod reading is taken at the centerside the slope stake and at points on each
side of the center of the distance of half the width of the road bed, the cross section
is called a FIVE LEVEL SECTION.

Figure

## Base for Fill = 7.00m

SS for Fill = 1.50:1.00
DL = B / 2 + SHL
= 3.50 + 1.50(2.42)
= 7.13m

DR = B / 2 + SHR
= 3.50 + 1.50(3.28)
= 9.23m

## SAMPLE PROBLEM (Setting Slope Stakes)

In setting slope stakes, the height of cut at the center has been found to be 1.43m,
the ground readings at center “M” and trial point A on the slope are 2.33m and
1.46m, respectively, and the measured distance from the center line of the
roadway to the trial point is 8.24m. If the base of the roadway is 9m and the side
slope is 1.50:1.00, should the trial point be moved in or out?

47
Figure

Solution:

## Grade Rod – Grade Rod @ M = 2.33+ 1.43 = 3.76

Measured Distance (DM) = 8.24
Calculated Distance (DC) = B / 2 + SHR
Where: B / 2 = 4.5m
HR = 3.76 – 1.46 = 2.30m

## 1.50 / 1.00 = SHR / 2.30

SHR = 2.30 (1.50) / 1.00
SHR = 3.45
DC = 4.5 + 3.45 = 7.95
Since DC < DM
--- Move In

Figure

48
Base for Cut = 8.00m
SS for Cut = 1:1
DL = B / 2 + SHL
= 4.00 + 1(2.75)
= 6.75m

DR = B / 2 + SHR
= 4.00 + 1(3.60)
= 7.60m

Figure

## Base for Fill = 7.00m

49
SS for Fill = 1.50:1.00
DL = B / 2 + SHL
= 3.5 + 1.50(2.84)
= 7.76m

DR = B / 2 + SHR
= 3.50 + 1.50(2.92)
= 7.88m

## C. IRREGULAR SECTION IN CUT

A cross section for which observation is taken to points between center and slope
stakes at irregular intervals is called irregular section.

Figure

SS for Cut = 1:1
DL = B / 2 + SHL
= 4.00 + 1(2.60)
= 6.60m

DR = B / 2 + SHR
= 4.00 + 1(3.47)
= 7.47m

## D. SIDE HILL SECTION

50
Where the cross-section passes through from cut to fill, it is called a SIDE HILL
SECTION and an additional observation is made to determine the distance from
center to the grade point. That is the point where subgrade will intersect the
natural ground surface. A peg is usually driven to grade at this point and its
position is indicated by a guard stake marked “Grade”. In this case also cross-
section is taken additional plus station.

## Base for Cut = 8.00m

Base for Fill = 7.00m
DL = B / 2 + SHL
= 3.50 + 1.50(3.60)
= 8.99m

DR = B / 2 + SHR
= 4.00 + 1(3.67)
= 7.47m

PROBLEMS:

In two ways, find the areas of each of the following cross-section note, given the
corresponding bases and side slope if not given they are to be computed

## SIDE SLOPE 1.50:1.00 ? / 2.84

? / 12.84 + 2.84

B. BASE WIDTH ?

51
SIDE SLOPE ?
5.79 / -1.86 – 1.27 6.03 / -2.02

C. BASE WIDTH ?
SIDE SLOPE ?
7.85 / 3.08 4.00 / 3.65 + 3.27 4.00 / 2.83 8.05 / 3.24

## D. BASE WIDTH 8.00m

SIDE SLOPE 1.50:1.00
? / -3.56 6.28 / -2.28 -2.32 1.00 / -1.11 7.50 / -3.82
? / -2.74

## E. BASE WIDTH 8.00m (Cut) 5.00 (Fill)

SIDE SLOPE 1.00:1.00
6.97 / -3.47 -0.61 1.04 / 0.00 3.66 / -5.94 3.44 / 2.44

52
A. LEVEL SECTION IN CUT

FIGURE

## B. THREE LEVEL SECTION IN FILL

FIGURE

53
C. FIVE LEVEL SECTION IN CUT

FIGURE

## D. IRREGULAR SECTION IN FILL

FIGURE

54
E. SIDE HILL SECTION

FIGURE

## METHODS OF DETERMINING VOLUMES O EARTHEWORKS

FIGURE

55
A. By Average End Areas

V = L / 2 (A1 + A2)
Where:
V = Volume of Section of Earthworks between Sta 1 and 2, m³
A1 , A2 = Cross – sectional area of end stations, m²
L = Perpendicular Distance between the end station, m

NOTES:

## 1. The above volume formula is exact only when A1 = A2 but is approximate

A1 <> A2.
2. Considering the facts that cross-sections are usually a considerable distance
apart and that minor inequalities in the surface of the earth between
sections are not considered, the method of end areas is sufficiently precise
for ordinary earthwork.
3. By where heavy cuts or fills occur on sharp curves. The computed volume
of earthwork ay be corrected for curvature out of ordinarily the corrected is
not large enough to be considered.

A. By Prismoidal Formula

V = L / 6 (A1 + AM + A2)
Where:
V = Volume of section of earthwork between Sta 1 and 2 of volume of prismoid,

A1 , A2 = cross – sectional area of end sections, m²
AM = Area of mid section parallel to the end sections and which will be computed
as the averages of respective end dimensions, m³

NOTES:

1. A Prismoidal is a solid having for its two ends any dissimilar parallel plane
figures of the same no. of sides, and all the sides of the solid plane figures.
Also, any prismoid may be resolve into prisms, pyramids and wedges,
having a common altitudes the perpendicular distance between the two
parallel end plane cross – section.
2. As far as volume of earthworks are concerned, the use of Prismoidal
formula is justified only if cross-section are taken at short intervals, is a
small surface deviations are observed, and if the areas of successive cross-
section cliff or widely usually it yields smaller values than those computed
from average end areas.

56
PRISMOIDAL CORRECTION FORMULA

Figure

## CD = L / 12 (b1 – b2)(h1 – h2)

Where:
CD = Prismoidal Correction, It is subtracted algebraically from the volume as
determined by the average and the areas method to give the more nearly correct
volume as determined by the Prismoidal formula, m³
L = Perpendicular distance between 2 parallel and sections, m
b1 = Distance between slope stakes at end section ABC where the altitude is h1, m
b2 = Distance between slope stake at end section DEF where the altitude is h2, m
h1 = Altitude of end section ABC at Sta 1, m
h2 = Altitude of end section DEF at Sta 2, m

## PRISMOIDAL CORRECTION FOR IRREGULAR SECTION

In prismoid, there should be equal number of slope in both bases so that on equal
number triangles can be found. The Prismoidal correction can then be found. The
Prismoidal correction can then be found using either the fundamental formula of
correction, CD = L / 12 (b1 – b2)(h1 – h2)
or any of the formulas derive from it, where, however one base or any a five level
section or three level section and other. A five level section (or irregular section)
or both bases are irregular sections or, if one base is a five level section and the
other irregular section, the formulas cannot be directly applied without making
certain assumptions because there are more triangles formed in one section than in

57
the other. The determination of the correction is at best only approximate. For the
purpose of determining the Prismoidal correction, the following may be used:

## A. Neglect the intermediate heights thereby reducing the sections into

three level or level sections this is the most convenient method.
B. Plot the irregular or five level sections on cross sections paper.
Draw on this section two equalizing lines starting from the same
point or the center height such that the error added equal the areas
subtracted approximately by estimating the center height as well as
the distances in the right or in the left can then be scaled. This is
more accurate than method A but involves more work.
C. Reduce the five level or irregular section by calculation to
equivalent level or three level sections as follows:

1. To LEVEL SECTIONS
a. The area of a level section BC + SC (B is the base, C is the center point,
and S is the side slope.)
b. Equate this area forced per the irregular or five-level section
c. Base SS being known, a quadratic formula in one unknown is formed from
which C is determined.
d. Solve for the corresponding value of C.

## 1. To THREE LEVEL SECTIONS

Figure

58
Total Area of three level section in cut
A = A1 + A2

Where:
A1 = B / 4 (HL + HR)
A2 = C / 4 (B + S) (HL + HR)

## Then K = BC / 2 + (HL + HR) (B / 4 – CS / 2)

NOTE:
The unknowns are C, HR and HL. Two these should be assumed and the third
computed. It is simpler to covert to level section.

PROBLEM:

## 1. Given the following cross-section notes of a roadway with a base of 6m and SS

of 1.25:1.00, between the volume of the prismoid between the two-end sections
by the following methods:

## A. END AREA METHOD

B. PRISMOIDAL FORMULA
C. END AREA METHOD and PRISMOIDAL CORRECTION FORMULA

## STATION CROSS – SECTION NOTES

10 + 000 +6.55 + 2.84 +2.84 +6.55 + 2.84
10 + 020 +7.55 + 3.64 +1.85 +3.65 + 0.52

SOLUTION:

## Compute for the area at each station cross-section and at mid-section

Figure

59
Check for Cut distances

DR1 = DL1
= B / 2 + SHR
= 1 / 2 (6m) + 1.25(2.84)
= 6.55m
Area by method of triangle and rhombus
A1 = BC + SC² = 27.12m²

Figure

60
Check for the distances
DR2 = B / 2 + SHR2
= 1 / 2 (6) + 1.25(0.52)
= 3.65m

DL2 = B / 2 + SHL2
= 1 / 2 (6) + 1.25(3.64)
= 7.55m

## Area by method of triangle

A2 = Aa + AL + Ac + Ad
= 1 / 2 (3)(3.64) + 1 / 2 (1.85)(7.55) + 1 / 2 (1.85)(3.65) + 1 / 2
(0.52)(3)
A2 = 16.60m²

## Compute for the dimensions of the mid sections

Figure

61
DRm = 1 / 2 (DR1 + DR2) HRm = 1 /2 (HR1 + HR2)
= 1 / 2 (6.55 + 3.65) = 1 / 2 (2.84 + 0.52)
DRm = 5.10m HRm = 1.68m

## DLm = 1 / 2 (DL1 + DL2) HLm = 1 / 2 (HL1 + HL2)

= 1 / 2 (6.55 + 7.55) = 1 / 2 (2.84 + 3.64)
DLm = 7.05m = 3.24m

## HCm = 1 / 2 (HC1 + HC2)

= 1 / 2 (2.84 + 1.85)
HCm = 2.345m

## Check for Cut distances

DRm = B / 2 SHRm
= 1 / 2 (6) + 1.25(1.68)
DRm = 5.10m

DLm = B / 2 SHLm
= 1 / 2 (6) + 1.25(3.22)
DLm = 7.05m

## Area by method of triangle

Am = A e + A f + A g + A h
= 1 / 2 (3)(3.24) + 1 / 2 (7.05)(2.345) + 1 / 2 (5.10)(2.345) + 1 / 2
(3)(1.68)
Am = 21.68m

## COMPUTE FOR THE VOLUME OF EARTHWORK VOLUME OF CUT

IN BETWEEN THE TWO STATIONS
Figure

62
1. By End Area Method
Ve = L / 2 (A1 + A2)

Where:
L = (10 + 020) – (10 + 000)
= 20m
A1 = 27.12m²
A2 = 16.60m²

Then,
Ve = 20 / 2 (27.12 + 16.60)
= 437.20m²

2. By Prismoidal Formula
Vp = L / 6 (A1 + 4Am + A2)

Where:
L = 20m
A1 = 27.12m²
A2 = 16.60m²
Am = 21.67m²

Then,
Vp = 20 / 6 (27.12 + 4*21.67 + 16.60)
= 434.13m³

## 1. Prismoidal Formula for Correction

Cp = L / 2 (A1 + A2)(b1 – b2)

Note:
Resolve the given prismoid into a series of triangular prismoid into a series of
triangular prismoid.

## Cp = Cpa + Cpb + Cpc + Ppd

Where:
Cpa = 20 / 12 (2.84 – 3.64)(3-3) = 0
Cpb = 20 / 12 (2.84 – 1.85)(6.55 – 7.55) = -1.65m³
Cpc = 20 / 12 (2.84 – 1.85)(6.55 – 3.65) = 4.785m³
Ppd = 20 / 12 (2.84 – 0.52)(3-3) = 0

63
Then,
Cp = -1.65 + 4.785
= 3.135m³

2. Corrected Volume

Vc = V e - C p
= 437.20 – 3.135
Vc = 434.065m³

Given the following cross section notes, determine the volume of the prismoid b
end areas method and apply the Prismoidal formula. The roadway base is 6m with
side slope of 1.25:1.00

## STATIONS CROSS-SECTION NOTES

10 + 040 +4.05 +3.00 + +2.85 +3.00 +7.05
+0.84 3.50 +2.12 +3.24
10 + 050 +7.80 +2.00 +3.25 +4.00 +5.65
+3.84 +2.24 +2.50 +2.12

SOLUTION:

## 1. Compute for the end areas of the end sections

Figure

64
Check for distances:

## DR1 = B / 2 + SHR1 DL1 = B / 2 + SHL1

= 3 + 1.25(3.24) = 3 + 1.25(0.84)
DR1 = 7.05 DL1 = 4.05

A1 = A1 + A2 + A3 + A4
= 1 / 2 (3.5)(1.05) + 1 / 2 (2.85) + 3.5(3) + 1 / 2 (2.12 + 2.85)(3)
+ 1 / 2 (2.12)(4.05)
A1 = 23.11m²

Figure

## DR2 = B / 2 + SHR2 DL2 = B / 2 + SHL2

= 3 + 1.25(2.12) = 3 + 1.25(3.85)
DR2 = 5.65m DL2 = 7.80m

A2 = Aa + Ab + Ac + Ad + Ae + Af
= 1 / 2 (2.12 + 3.84)(5.80) + 1 / 2 (2.42 + 3.25)(2)
+ 1 / 2 (2.50 + 3.25)(4) + 1 / 2 (2.12 +2.50)(1.65)
– 1 / 2 (4.00)(3.84) – 1 / 2 (2.65)(2.52)
A2 = 27.11m²

SECTIONS
65
Figure

## A1 = five level section – A1 (equivalent level section)

1.11 = 13 HCe1 + S (HCe1)²
3.11 = 6 HCe1 + 1.25 (HCe1)²; Let C1 = HCe1
3.11 = 6 C1 + 1.25 C1²

C1 = 2.52m
DRe1 = B / 2 + SHCe1; DRe1 = DLe2
= 3 + 1.25(2.52)

Figure

## A2 = irregular section = A2 (equivalent level section)

66
27.11 = BHCe2 + S(HCe2)²
27.11 = 6HCe2 + 1.25(HCe2)²

Let Ce = HCe2

C2 = HCe2
Dre2 = B / 2 + SHRe2
= 3 + 1.25
DLe2 = DRe2

## Ex. Solve for the following:

a) Stationing of the limits of free haul
b) Stationing of the limits of economical haul
c) Vertical volume
d) Length of overhaul
e) Cost of haul
f) Cost of waste
g) Cost of borrow
Given:
FHD = 50m
Cost of borrow = P 4.00/m3
Cost of excavation = P 3.50/ m3
Cost of haul = P 0.20/m station

END AREA M2
Station
CUT FILL

1+460 40

2+060 60

## LEH = CbCh(C) + FHD = 4(20)0.2 + 50

LEH = 450 m
ax = 60300 ; a = 60x300 - eq. (1)
b50-x = 40300 ; b = 2000-40x300

67
0.5ax = 0.5b(50 – x) - eq. (2)
Equate 1 and 3; 2 and 3:
x = 22.47 m ; a = 4.49 m2
50 – x = 27.53 m ; b = 3.67 m2
a) Left limit = 1+760 – 27.53 = 1+732.47
Right limit = 1+760 + 22.47 = 1+782.47
S = 50 m = FHD

## 0.5(b’ + b + b)(400 - y) = 0.5(a’ + a + a)(y)

(b’ + 7.34)(400 - y) = (a’ + 8.98)(y) - eq. (3)
Equating (1) and (3):
y = 177.81m
equating (2) and (3):
400 – y = 220.19 m
a’ = 35.96 m2
b’ = 29.36 m2

b) Limits of LEH:
Left limit = 1+760 – 27.53 – 220.19 = 1+512.28
Right limit = 1+760 + 22.47 + 179.81 = 1+962.28
LEH = 450

## c) OH Vol. = 0.5(a’ + a + a)(y) = 0.5(35.96 + 8.98)(179.81)

= 4040.33 m3
OH Vol. = 0.5(b’ + b + b)(400 - y) = 0.5(29.36 + 7.39)(220.19)
= 4040.49 m3
OH Vol. = 0.5(4040.33 + 4040.49)
= 4040.41 m3

d) ATXL = AiXi
4040.49XL = 0.5(b’)(400 - y)(2/3)(400 - y) + b(400 - y)(0.5)( 400 - y)
= 0.5(29.36)(220.19)( 2/3)( 220.19) + (3.67)( 220.19)(0.5)( 220.19)
XL = 139.45 m
ATXR = AiXi
4040.33XR = 0.5(a’)(y)(2/3)(y) + (a)(y)0.5(y)
= 0.5(29.36)(220.19)(2/3)(220.19) + (3.67)(220.19)(0.5) (220.19)
XR = 113.89 m

68
Length of OH = XL + XR = 139.45 + 113.89
Length of OH = 253.34 m
e) Cost of haul = OH Vol.cost of haul(length of OH)C
= 253.340.20(4040.41)20
Cost of haul = P 10,235.97

## vol. of waste = 0.5(60 + a’ c)(97,72)

= 0.5(60 + 35.96 + 4.49)(97.72)
= 4908 m3
Cost of waste = P 3.50(4908)
Cost of waste = P 17,178.00
g) cost of borrow = vol. of borrow x cost of borrow

## vol. of borrow = 0.5(40 + b’ + b)(52.28)

= 0.5(40 + 29.36 + 3.67)(52.28)
= 1909.0 m3

69