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MANUAL ON DESIGN FABRICATION ERECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF STEEL

IIYDEL CIVIL DESIGN DIRECTORATE-I CENTRAL WATER COMMISSIO NEW DELHI

PENSTOCKS

MANUAL ON DESIGN FABRICATION ERECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF STEEL

..

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~---- -_-------

-----

~--

,
"',Grld fI., _
E. bIVATIA A. S. CHELV ARAJ G.N. MURTHY

Sri K. Madhavan6 gave his valuable suggestions and guidance in the preparation of this Manual.

Penstocks form a very, important component of Hydr-o-Ejectr-ic Projects specially in high head plants. These have to be designed to withstand high hydraulic pressure under static as well as transient conditions. There has been considerable advancement in the development of special types of steel to be used, the design criteria to be adopted, fabrication and erection practices. In order to achieve the maximum economy in the cost of penat ocks , it is found essential to adopt the latest practices in de s i gn , fabrication and testing. At present this information is scattered in 'various articles on the subject. It is necessary to compile all the data and criteria avai.lab.le , so that they can be adopted giving due consideration to the mater-Ial readily available in the country" Central Wate r and Power Commission 'which is engaged for the past twenty-five years on the designs of penstocks';pressure shafts has attempted to collect the recent practices adopted in the design of penstocks. This manual covers all aspects involved in planning, des tgn , fabrication erection of welded steel penstocks. It also deals with design of components like bends ~ bifurcation and other aries vi.z , , manhole etc. The matter presented is based on the design practice followed in CW&PC and supplemented with extensive study of the relevant literature on the recent trends. I am, sure that this manual will meet the long felt need of the Hydr-au Iic engineers concerned with the design, fabrication and erection of penstocks.

1974

(Y. K.Murthy) Chair-man, CW'&PC.

CONT.EiNTS

si.ne.
Introduction Types

Subject -~
-. ".C>

Page ~-

No,

-.

.'.

1
1

of StE),el Pipelines

3 2. 3 Type of Penstocks Layout of Penstocks 3 5 '7


7

Hydr-aufi c Design 3.1 3,2 3.3 3.4 General Hydraulic Losses Pressure Bise and Pressure Drop lDconornic Studies of Penstock Design Criteria of F'enstock

13 15 19

Structural

General Forces and Stresses in Shell Operating Condition ...R..ecommendedMethods of Calculation of Stresses in Pipe Shell ... . Liner Thickness Working Stresses and Factor of Safety

..

...

23
32

32
3.5

Supports
5.1.
..);?-

c;

~)

')

General Recomrnended

Metho d of Calculation of SllPPO:cts

35

87

S1.No.

Subject

6.3 6.4 6.5 7.

Types of Joints Recommended Metnod of Design Couplings and Wyes

Branches

7.2 7.3 8.

Types of Reinforcement Analysis of Wyes

Bends and Reduce r Piece

8.2 8.3 9.

Design of Bends Reduc e r Pieces Accessories Manholes Piezometric Connections Flanged Connection Bulk Heads and Test Heads Clos:ing Pieces Filling Connections Drainage Connections Air Vents and Air Valves Valves and Control Gates Specific ation and Tests

57
60

Penstock
9.2-

62
62 63
63

9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6


9.7

9.8
9.9

64 64: 64

9.10

65 65 66·
613

10.

Materials,

10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6

Introduction Chemical Composition Heat Treatment Physical Property Tests and Inspection Feattlres of Plate Fabrication

G8

68.

penstock

.. Introduction .Process of Fabrication Weldil.1g .' Tests and Inspection Stress Relieying

..

(viii )

S1.No.

Subject Erection of Penstock

Page 75 75 75 76 76 76 76 77 78 78 78

No.

12.

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 13.

Introduction Surface Penstocks Penstock in Tunnel or Pressure Penstock in Dam Buried Penstocks Field Welding Completion of Work Tests and Acceptance Test

Shaft

Inspection

13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 14.

Introduction Radiography Examination Ultrasonic Examination Other Tests Hydrostatic Te sting Acceptance Test

79 79 79
80

Painting of Penstock

81 81 81
82 82 82

14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7

Interior Painting Exterior Painting Sequence of Operations Primer Coating Coal-Tar Enamel Painting Paint Characteristics and Tests

83 85

Appendix - I Appendix - II Appendix - III Appendix - IV Biblio ~aphy

87
89

97 99

(ix )

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure

2 3 4 5 6
7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21' 22

23
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Barapani Penstock Reveted Girth Joints Gandhi Sagar Dam Project Nagarjuna-Sagar Dam Project J awahar Sagar Dam Project Pong Dam Project Upper SiIer-u Project Ballmela Proj ect Beas Sutlej Link Project Idikki Project Pressure Shaft Trash Rack Losses Bellmouth Details Scobey I s Friction Loss Curves Darcy's Friction Factor Bend Losses Losses in Valves Losses in Needle Valves Losses in Butterfly Valve Losses in Wyes Losses in Wyes with and without Tie Rods Losses in Spherical Wyes Losses in Wyes with Sickel Wave Velocity Allevi's Chart - Pressure Rise Water Hammer - Alievi 1 s Change Pressure Drop Pressure gradient for Turbine - Penstock Installation with Surge Tank. Economic Diameter Chart Combined Equivalent Stresses - Henckey-Misses Chart Steel Lining Desi gn with Rock Participation Steel Lining Design, Embedded in Concrete Critical Buckling Pressure for Various Gap Openings Critical Buckling Pressure for Var-ious Types of Steel Typical Details of Saddle Support Typical Details of Ring Girder and Column Supports Types of Rocker Support a) b) c) d) e) Nagarjuna Sagar - Rocker Support Upper Sindh - Rocker Support J aldhaka Rocker Support Lower Sile ru - Rocker Support Roller Support

Figure

35

Setting of Rocker
(x)

Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure

37
38 39 40

36

41
42 43

44
45 46 47
48

49 50

51 52
53

58 59

Sliding Support Coefficient of Moment at Saddle Support Bending Moment Coefficients for Pipe Full Bending Moment Coefficients for Pipe Half Full Bellow Type of Joints a) Sleeve Type Expansion Joint b) Double Sleeve Type Expansion Joint a) Forces on Expans ion J oint b) Forces on Gland Dresser Coupling Wye piece with External Heinforcement (Upper Sindh Pr-oject ) Forces on Yoke Girder of Bifurcation Reinforced Wye Piece (Lower SiIe r u Project) a) Bend Details b) Reducer Bend Manhole Details Peiz ometr-ic Connection Flanged Connections Bulk Heads Shapes for Butt Weld and Fillet Welds Method of Bending Penstock in Tunnel Typical Support for Penstock in Dam Typical Details of Buried Penstock Hydraulic Test Rig for Standard Pipes Typical Arrangement - For Shop Hydraulic Test Bends and Bifurcations Field Hydro-Static Test

on

INTRODUCTION
'This manual presents general information and gives guide line regarding criteria for hydraulic and structural steel penstocks for hydro-electric power plant and steel pipelincsfor pumping plants taking into account the current development in the high strength steel plates, advancement in welding technique and modern methods of analysis. Considerable information on the subject is available in the literatures published on the 'subject and codes on the penstock design is also prepared by various countries like France, Italy, Ruasf.a, ASME Pressure Vessel Code. is also attempting to prepare the code on the subject. The design criteria presented here are based on the information from various codes and experience gained by Central & Power Commission in penstock design and construction the last two decades. The manual also dea ls with general and maintenance of pipe-lines, TYPES OF STEEL PIPELINES Steel pipelines dealt with in this manual are closed steel which convey water under pressure. The various types of conduit which can be designed as per the guidelines underthis manual are described as follows: a) Penstocks: Which convey water from reservoir to turbine of a Hydro-Electric Plant. Various types installations are described in Chapter 2. or of methods of fabrica-

Which convey water from pumping e levati on, For reversible pump tur-. serve as discharge lines and vice-versa. pipes are installed to release other purpose, These are or laid in a tunnel below

d) Pipe syphon: Conveys water across a depre13sion~.\ or nafla, These in the depression or nal.la beds connEi the two ends of canal or tunnel on either bank ofihe Dana, .....

"are 'lard

1.2. 2 'The hydraulic and structural design four types discussed above are identicaL

....

.... • .•.

Thesepipe£are constructed of wood staveS"re:ltl'f(Xn· concretes prestressed concrete or steeL To ',havemaxirinixn.li Iic efficiency and structural safety against pressure fluctuatiOn steel is considered as best material for penstock becauseoflJ strength and flexibility. In this manual de sf.gn of only welded pipelines with special reference to their use for hydro-electd proj ects is presented,

y
':1
::>

2.
l-

GENERAL
TYPE OF PENSTOCKS the penstocks

2.1

Depending upon the method of fabrication are classified as under:2.1.1 Riveted or flange bolted Penstocks

Riveted penstocks were in vogue in India during 1940 to 1950 when the present welding technique was not developed fully. I ue to the difficulty of welding and stress relieving of thick plates t field, n was a practice to use riveted circumferential joints hich involved three to four rows of rivets for high head plants I Ice Mahatma Gandhi Hydro-Electric (Mysore) and Barapani Hydel sam) involving more mater-ial, and the total weight of the pipes more by 8 to 10% than welded pipes and also gives higher hyiuli c losses which made them uneconomical and now riveted pipes I obsolete. Photo 1 shows a pipe line with riveted girth joints. Flange bolted pipes are only used for small diameter site condition render field welding and rivetting difficulty.
1,2

Welded Penstocks

With the advancement in welding technique and developheads, all welded steel penstocks are mostly used. ripe s are formed by butt welding the longitudinal and circumIII al joints. The main advantage of this type over riveted penI are (i ) Lower Weight (H) Lesser Hydraulic Losses and ise of' Fabrication and Erection.
of higher
I

Most of the penstocks recently in India are of all welded type.

designed for Hydro-Electric

I " er capacity

With the advancement in designs, higher and higher heads of power station are .deveIoped for power 3

development. As the head increases so also the thi ckne as and various difficulties are faced in rolling and welding of thick plates, This difficulty is overcome by the development of high tensile multi-layered penstocks and banded or hooped penstock. 2. 1. 4 Multilayered Penstock: This consists of several laye r s .ot -thin steel plates wrapped around the pre-fabricated central pipe by a special wrapping machine. The internal pressure is sisted by the interaction of layers. It is claimed that this type design gives a saving of about 10 to 150/0 in material. But the cost of fabrication and installation is expected to be high. The use of thin plates eliminates the stress relieving. 2. L 5 In this type the bands or hoops are slipped over thin walled penstock pipe by cold process or hot process. These bands or hoops induce prestress in the pipe as a result of which high operating heads can be carried by comparatively thin pipes. The. banded pipes are designed for equal stress in the hoop and in the .. pipe under maximum operating pressure. Inspi te of saving in . material the banded pipes are more expensive, mainly because of specialfabricaUon process.'I'his type is adopted for .Ioginder-naga Penstocks .. 2.2 The various types o£ penstock installations ed for a hydr-o-ce Ie ctr ic project or a pumped storage further classified into following categor-Ie s rgenerallY;:tdqj scheme are

a) Surface Penstocks; Where steel conduit or pipe is laid exposed and is supported above ground by saddle supports or Ring girder supports. b) Embedded Penstocks: The steel conduit is ernbe dde mass of dam concreteser'tling as water tight membrane .. c). Buried Penstocks : backfilled with earth.·. The conduit is laid in 0pf;nt:t.'~J

in large

d) In Tunnel: .Conduitsare placed in opentunnel,,~&i . pipe is either supported in .sirnilarmanneras$urfacepenstoc]If backfilled with concrete. In the latter case, theconduitip.c?,11i shaft.
The type of installation generallyadoPteddl?pendsuP()~i

2.3

LAYOUT OF PBNSTOCKS

-.The .Iayout and arrangement of penstock depends upon .the ': type of development, site conditi ons , topography and relativeloca. .. dam and power phmt.· .. . .. ....

..

......•
:..:

..

..•.

..•....

'.

..

".

is located at the toe of dam. the 6nstocks aregeIlerally short and embedded in dam concr-ete or . . ... as in case of Gandhisagar Dam Project (Fig. 2). .. . . . Sometimes, the penstocks are partly embedded in dam and p,lrtly supported on the downstream slope of dam by rocker supports to facilitate construction of dam earlier to erection of Penstocks as (}.t' Nagarjunasagar Dam Proj ect (Fig. 3). When Power House is located a little further away from and depending upon the utility of space between dam and house the penstocks are encased in concrete before burying as for Jawahar Sagar Dam Project, where the space betpower house and dam is utilised as switchyard (F'ig.4). Advantage situated at plac~dinthe plugged as is also taken. ofdiverslon tunnel, when power the outfall of diversion tunnel. .The8teel con-. i~nn~l. rrlterJiversion is complete and tunnel in case Of Pong Dam Project (Fig. 5),

For a head development. where underground power house just below r-ese rvoi.r-s, the steel conduits are placed in shafts and backfilled with concrete as in the case of Koyna

.•••• i.\.>~·1J;!;~~l(;i I II

...

'.

".

··The Hydrauli~ design a pem;to~k involves determination .......uliclossesina pipelil1e~pressure rise or pressure drop bine or pump operation and ascertaining ofrnost economic . er of penstock on the basis of available data. . These are .ed as below, Sometimes studies are required tobernade r'tam the necessity or desirability of providing surge tank ssurerelief device in the penstock .':

of

Entrance losses Friction loss in pipe Conduit losses other than friction loss. These losses are expressed in terms of coefficient to be to the velocity head at the section in question. . .

Friction.

loss per

1000 ft.

A loss coefficient depending upon the pipe . material and interior condition of pipe. Recommended valueAordesigns is O. 34 for . all types of installations. .

. Dia.

of pipe. can be directly fLv2 2gd loss through pipe found for pipe

12, the losses

formula:

hf

(4)

"' friction -

Length of pipe Velocity through


.. .
"

. ...

...
". ":

a loss coeUicientdepending upon type and -.condition of pipe and Reynolds Number Hecommended value is O. 014. It can be obtained from chart on fig. 13. other than friction other conduit losses loss include losses due to

Where

hb

=
=

Head loss resulting

from bend.

'1

Bend loss coefficient which can be estimated from charts in Fig. 14 for various RID ratio and deflection angle.
in pipe. & contraction

v :;; velocity 3.2.3.2 Loss due to


a)

expansion

Head loss due to gradual

expansion may be estimated


(6 )

as:

This excludes Where vi

the friction

loss in the expansion


end,

section.

Velocity at upstream

=
K
=

Velocity at downstream A los s coefficient angle is generally

end.

depending upon the cone given by


(7 )

Where ai a2

:;;

Area Area

on upstream on downstream A taper of 1

:;;

One half of the flare angle. in 10 is recommended. in reducer 0.25 v 2g


2

b) Head loss

piece may be estimated


(8 )

as:

hr :;;

:;; velocity

at d/ send.

10

Depending upon the number of units a single penstock feeds the penstock branching is defined as Bifurcation - when feeding two units, Trifurcation - when feeding three units and Manifold when feeding more than three units.
l

The hydraulic losses at wyes are governed by angle of ' bifurcation, ratio of cross sectional area and type and shape. of bifurcation. The hydraulic phenomenon in a b_ranch pipe corresponds to that due to change in direction, change in shape or sudden expans.ion and losses caused by obstruction, such as tie rods or sickel. The various are:a)

types of wyes and branches

generally

adopted

b) c) d)
e)

Wyes with sharp transition. Wyes with conical transition. Wyes with tie rods. Wyes with sickel. Spherical type of bifurcation.

Extensi ve studies and model tests are conducted to determine the head losses in various types of wyes and branches. These model tests are conducted for wyes with bifurcation angles 30°, 45°, 60° and 900• For the Hydraulic loss to be minimum it is recommended to keep the angle of bifurcation between 450 and 600• The losses are more when one or more of pipes are closed. transition The head loss coefficient is given in Fig. 18. for wyes with various types of

The head loss coefficient largely increases due to presence of a tie rod. The model test results with and without tie rod conducted by Hydraulic laboratory unit of Columbia is shown in Fig.19. The head loss in a spherical wye increases rapidly with increasing diameter of the wye. The results of model test conducted by Hydraulic labor.atory unit o.f Columbia is shown in Fig. 20. The head losses for wyes with- sickel is very hlgh due to the obstruction caused by sickel plate. The loss can be reduced by improving 'flow condition and reducing approach velocity by proper shaping of the wye. Escher Wyes has done a lot of experiments in this regard. Fig. 21 gives losses in a Wye with sickel.

The loss K

coefficient

for a trifurcation

can be given as r-

Sin

62

Sin

+ Entry loss coefficient


• •• (10)

Discharge Dischar-ge

through through

main pipe branches

'The horizontal

angle of take--off

The above formula cannot be used for evaluating loss coone or more branches are closed. The losses will

PllESSUHE

HISE AND PRESSURE DHOP

Water hammer phenomenon is caused by the rapid moveturbine gates. Due to rapid opening and closing of the turthe rate of flow in a conduit i s changed rapidly and this effect in turn develops a series of positive and negative "·\.'.·'3'>i.i~';'C'. waves along the pipe line. The pressure wave velocity fa f function of diameter (d) and thickness (t) of pipe and is given units by 4660

/0~?_ lOOt

, ••

(11)

gives wave velocity for various ratio of pipe diameter to s. The maximum pressure rise pipe diameter to thickness. pressure rise occurs at the end of first time inte1'is given by:

and .the pressure

drop at the instant tr

::: tiT

is given by:-

••• (12b)

Where

28
ho

4Vo ho

, e~
, T .::
the pressure

y
T

F,or instantaneous

closure,

"

.fz..b.
a
rise is given by,

h =-g Where h
a
V
:::

avo

(12c)

:::

-. g= ho = L=

maximum pressure rise wave velocity of pressure wave as determined above velocity of flow at that instant acceleration due to gravity static head, = Time of closure or opening Length of pipe.

'i

3.3.2

Pressure

Rise Computation and

For pryliminary designs, the maximum pressure rise drop due to water hammer can be estimated from the Aillevils charts shown in Fig. 23 and 24.

It is recommended that accurate determination of pressure rise along the penstock or pump discharge line shall be made by the solution of characteristic equations of water hammer. The various operating conditions for which the water pressure is to be evaluated are enumerated in Article 4.3. Pressure Rise Gradient

hammer 3.3.3

The pressure rise due to water hammer is measured above static water level in reservoir or surge tank and it is assumed to vary uniformly along penstock, from maximum at turbine end to zero at intake for a turbine penstock installation without surge tank.

14

For

a penstock turbine installation with surge tank, the r gradient varies along the penstock as sh own in

ECONOMIC

STUDIES OF PENSTOCK

Ina ..Hydro-Electric Project" the power potential to be riurnberv; size of units to be installed in a power after water power studies taking into consihydrological data and head available for power genera, for large diameter, it is more economical to many penstock lines as the number of units, but the general is to use single penstock to feed more than one unit by bifurcations and/manifolds. The number of penstocks to be for any par-ticular installation depends upon ia) b) c) d) Spacing and size of units. .Locati on of take-off of penstocks. Size easy for handling, fabrication transportation and erection of pipes. .Head losses occurring at the manifold ver-sus .losses in single line. Costof¢ivil works like number of piers, anchor ', .blocks etc. F'lexibility in the operation. 'I'hi.cknes s .0£ liner not exceeding 50mm.

.analysts,

The number

of penstocks

should be determined

by eco-

A comparison

of single penstock identical head loss

to multi-penstock for condition can be

Items Discharge Diameter Velocity Head loss Wall thickne s s Total weight

Single penstock Q d

'n ' number of penstocks Identical velocity Identical Q/n din v

head loss

Q/n d/n2/5

v
h S G

v/nl/5
1

hnz

h
1

S/nz G

S/n2/5 G Inl / 5

number 3.4.2

The diameter of pipe to be adopted for a single line or a of lines is to be determined by economic diameter studies. Economic Diameter Studies

The economic diameter of penstock is the diameter for which the annual cost, which includes the cost of power lost due to fricti.on and charges for amortization of construction cost. maintenance operation etc. is minimum. The economic diameter formula such as: can be evaluated initially by an

empirical

(p ) 0.466
H

(13 )

Where
D
=

Diameter

of pipe

p = Rated H
=

H.P.

Rated Head

The economic diameter is calculated by evaluating annual . power loss and annua l cost for maintenance etc. and equating first

16

with respect

to D to Zero,

The steps

involved

are as

annual

loss

of power .

due to friction:
• •• (14)

', ~

550

x e x 0.746 x 8760 x f
cost of power lost, putting

._Ks Ql.9 631.93D4.9


__ .:>.

~ Ifb . annual
co

1. 17631 Ks Q2. 9 efb - .~-. "--D4.9


__

. ••

(15 )

cost

of penstock

334 HD2
~~

ap x (1 +i )

Per ft. length of penstock

.•.

(16)

Total

annual cost
.

+E

P -.

=E

~..
r

(17)

the total annual cost IE


dE

to be mirrimum and simplifying the diameter

dD

0, solving

is given by

• . .(18)

.·Diarn~terofpel1.stock .. Headron penstock including water Discharge thr-oughpenstook.


Overall efficiency of plant.

f '" Loss factor Fig. 26.

corresponding

to load factor

as per

b = Cost of power per kWh. Ks '" Loss coefficient in Scobey's Formula total loss expr-es sed ias pipe friction.
=J oint efficiency

considering

of penstock.

- Allowaplestr?ssofpellstockmeterial· -Unit cost of steel Inipens tock, := Hatioofannual fixed operating and maintenance charges to construction cost of penstock. i
=

Percentage

by which steel

in penstock

is

The economic mately from the charts required by considering thickness of pipes along An example is given in

diameter can also be estimated approxion Fig. 26. However ~ detailed studies are .. various diameter pipes and variation of profile to arrive at economical diameter. Appendix II.

The cost of power=and iannual, charges like interest on capital cost, depreciation. operation and maintenance charges . be determined accurately before .hand as per the practice followed by State. .. . .

DESIGN CRITEfUA OF PENSTOCK

s tr-uctur-a.L'de s ig» of ]h11:' ck mvojves -deter-mlnaticn sand str-e s s e s in pipe ocheIl for various oper-ating the met.r-.ds gen r aIl y adopte d by Penstock designer: discussed in Follow5ng paragraphs. The working stresh8S eff'i ci.ericy to be adopted for the design depends upon the aterial used, me thod of fabrication and testing as de scr-Ibed 10, 11 and 12. The factor of safety generally adopted operating conditions are discussed in Art. 4.6. FORCES AND S'I'llESSES IN SHELL

. The surface penstock is a continuous beam supported over of intermediate supports between vanchor-s with or without j oint installed between anchors. nor-mal conditton-of.: operation. the pipe shell of a· shall be designed to withstand the forces as

Mid-span L) The Hoop stresses developed due to internal pressure sum of static pressure due to maximum water level in or surge tank plus the dynamic pressure due to water as calculated in Art. 3..2 for operating conditions specified

4.3.
The Iongitudtnal ,stresses weightofwaterbybeanlaction. developed .

iv ) The longitudinal stresses developed due to expansion contraction of pipe shell due to variation of temperature. 4.2.1.2 At supports stresses
pr-easur-e,

i) The circumferential due to bending caused by internal

developed

at the

H) Longitudinal stresses due to secondary bending caused by the restraints imposed by Ring Girder or stiffner iii)

beam action

Longitudinal stresses developed as in (Li) or Art. 4.3. 1. L

at the support

due

rated

i.v) Longitudinal, stresses developed as (iii) and (iv) of Art. 4.2.1.1.

by the forces

enume

4.2. 1.3 stresses

The pipe she Il shall also be examined to withstand developed due to following exceptional ror-ces •

the

i) Longitudinal stresses developed due to earthquake wind forces acting on shell during normal operating condition. ii) 4.2.·2 The circumferential and longitudinal stress obtained as specified in Art. 4.2.1.1, 4.2.1.2 and 4.2.1.3 above, shall be combined to obtain equivalent stresses in accordance with Hencky Mise s Theory, which states that, Stresses developed due to filling and draining of

Se

Where Equivalent stress - Psi or Kg/sq em

·_ Circumferential

stress

~Psi stresses

or Kg/ cu2

Sum of all longitudinal

-. wtth iconcr-ete shall be designed


in "'·",'·t>,G1'te plus

..~....

..

in

..

less
.k',':"".o,"",,"··

and

to withstand the stress closingfue initial gap between liner and surrounding the stress devefoped dn liner due to remainder of the portion of the pressure carried by surrounding rock. backfilled with concrete

4.4.3 4,4,3.1

Membrane shell stresses Longitudinal stresses ~ due to Beam action

or

WL2 1.22

kg/ern

W-

+ weight
L-

Total weight i ,e. of water Span ". it or M

self weight of shell Ibs 1ft or kg/ em

r2t

-seetionmodul·cs

_ in3 orcm

Vi/here

/U

-Co-efficient of friction depending as given in table below,

Longitudinal stresses caused due to expansion pipe shell without expansi on joint.

or con-

.,.

(25)

Ri.s e or. drop of temperature

in

°c

Longitudinal stress caused due to expansion or conan expansion j oint is provided is given by following

The formula

for the moment,

ver-tica.Lr-e-

4,4.4 'L 4.4,1

Hock Participation when the liner is placed In: the transference of Load to

J'.,

T"'

+
C

"2-r'Y.

-(1·

L".
~-----

ID r

OR
y

- Eo/r

J.~

C:-::i

Modulus Modulus Modulus

of Elasticity
of 1!;lasticity of Elasticity

of steel of rock
of concrete

r "·.!.,r· ...,.
Ec

Internal Poi.saons

pressure ratio

in conduit of rock. for various types of rock

rock participation
of elasticity rock

can alao.ibe.iobtafned

(33 )

.The value of K for uncrackedconcrete from the figure 29.

or cracked

concrete

As specified in article 4.2.3.~; buckling stresses are embedded steel pipe due to ground water and grout presthe assumption that there would be a radi'al gap between surrounding concrete, the critical stress in the liner is the solutiono~:fol1owing two equations:

;;1<

LVj,J?>k
E*

1'68k[~r ~ ":

J [1- ~

fl<.

Where ~ Allowable stress Yield stress of material .

ry E Yo

of material

Modulus of elasticity -Initial

of material

gap between liner and concr-ete


ratio
y

Poissons'

For different values of I' 0 and nit a family of curves is shown on Fig. 30 which gives critical external pressure for a material with yield stress 32,000 psi. A value of 3 x 10-4 for initial gap is recommended and Fig.31 gives a family: of curves which gives critical external pr-ea', f f Yo -4 sure or a gap 0 :: 3 x 10 ,for various types of steel
r

used in penstock design.

4.4.6 4.4.6.1

Initial Gap Article 4.4. 4and4.4. 5 the initial gap ho1'urC,C\ gap influences the percentage of rock participressure and also critical bukling external gap Yo is originated by the combination of
....

A? seen from steel liner and concrete pation against internal pressure. The initial the following effects:

i) Shrinkage of concrete, ii) iii) Temperature Plastic var ation, and and surrounding rock

deformation

of concrete

under Internal pressure.


follows:-

The gap originated by the decrease of temperature and is to the expansion co-efficients of concrete and steel. . • .(37)

Co-efficient
=

of expansion of steel

'" 0.000Q11

peroe

Co-efficient

of expansion of concrete = 0.0000'7 per during placing of concrete o C and rock

°c

T To
~'.

'" Average temperature

°c

Actual temperature deformation

Plastic

of concrete

A gap is created due to plastic deformation of surrounding and rock due to transference of a certain part of internal This is given by-

pr{~}-).
pres sure

. . · . £.c··
+fi~j
Proportion of internal surrounding rock P - Internal

I (.l:rpr)
5r

-I-

£~~..

lO!l(~)
;.
to,

pressure

transferred

Internal radius of steeltiner Outer radius of concrete lining

Modulus of plastic deformation same as concrete. Modulus of plastic deformation

of cracked

rock

of rock participation 4.5· LINEn. THICKNESS

and external

buckling pressure.

4.5.1 The liner thickness of an exposed penstock shall withstand the equivalent stress as specified in Article 4.2.2 whereas the liner embedded in concrete and tunnel shall withstand the forces enumeArt. 4~2.3 ..
.. . . . .

.. .

thicknessoqtainedasspecifiedin

F'A,CTOR

,~""",.,,:,',",>:~>.j:)edaed) shall not exceed ,"of rock surrounding it.

0.67 yp toO. 8 yp depending

normal operating c ondtttonr rthevmaxlmum allowable manifold shall be limited to 0.45 to 0.5 times "yield

ien penstock is subjected to wind forces or earthquake , ecified in Arti cle 4. 2. 1 . 3 (i) the allowable working , all be increased by 33% over the stress specified in 1 .1 i.e .a factor of safety of 2. 25 on specified mini1+"'JLA~"~""-, tensile strength or 2/ 3rd of specified yield strength

enev er tatpens tock laid in tunnel is designed to resist recommended to provide a factor of safety .above the cl'itical external pr-easur e vspecr-

treatment the following joint efficiency shall be adopted above the allowable s tr e s se s specified in Article 4. G. Table 3

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE JOINT AHC AND GAS

No.

Typ e of Joint Description

Limitations

ully "radi o- 'r-adioI graph- I graphted led and !stress 'not "r ell.eved-str-ees
1

Double welded butt joint with single 'V' excluding butt joints with backing strips.
.. ...

Plate thick1. 00 ness not more than 20 mm thick

..Plate thick·:: J.OO Double welded butt ·joint. wtthdouhle IV' ness wore excluding butt than 22mm joints requiring no but not greater than 36 mm stress relieving.

3.

Double welded butt joint with double IV' requiring stress relieving.

Plate thickness m or-e than 36 rnrn

1.00

0.90

4.

exposed penstock which are laid on the surface are anchored at bends and sometimes at intermediate points shift in alignment during In sta Ilatfons , to prevent sliding at intermediate support and to resist the forces causing at bends. The anchors are obligatory at every change and spacing between two anchors is limited to 300 to

In between two anch or-s, the pipe is supported over a piers on which it is free to move. The pipe acts as beam over these supports and spacing of these suplimited by the beam stresses as discussed in Chapter 4.
$

type of support generally


Saddle supports Ring girder

pr-ovided are:

and column support.

The saddle supports are generally used for the penstock less than 8 t or 2.5 me ter s , 'I'he spacing of these restricted since the frictional forces are very high. of shell immediately adjacent to horns of saddles is high localized bending stresses and requires extra thickeno:rprovisionoi'stiffnersat supports. .. The-bendtng supportarecalqy,+a,t~(ias specifieddn Article 5. 3.1. type .the~f~~;±'estsonthe saddleswrth contact from 90° to.1200~ Thebear~ngplate on support Is suitable lubrication devices to reduce the friction

so as to reduce the load coming on anchors. saddle supports are shown in Fig. 32. 5.2.2 Girder ~~th.~ Column SUPEo:t;:,ts

Typical

details

5.2.2.1 "This. type of support Is provided when thepenstqck carried onrockerorrpllertypeofsupports or Qn sliciing support. Inthistype~th.t:;l()adistransferredthroughthe ... tlvo.ppints onc81uJJ:ll1on~ide . unltke the Baqdle~upp():rtpyera, ·t:;tctal'eaof90to120o.Th:isreducesthebendlIlg11l0mentat ··Bupportsandh.encepreferableiorlargerspansand bigger Atypical ring girde;t'anct column support details are shown Flg.33. . .. . .

I,;.U.CUlJ."

..'

5.2.2.2 The secondary bending stresses are developed due to restraint caused by the ring girder and require thickening of lin at supports. The stress developed due to restraint is calculate .•.. specified in Art. 4.4.3.4. The stresses in the ring girder due .. internal pressure and load transmitted by shear shall be evalua as specified in Art .5 ,8 . 2.· . 5.2.3 .Rocker and Roller

5. 2.3.1 Rocker or roller supports provide very little resistan ... to movements qUE; to ternpera,tgrech.angesali,d are usually uaed ..• conduit s oLb :iggerdial1lete 1". <These areeltb,cl' of cast steel ..... .fabricated 0ut··of .•. m:i14···.stet:;1·platElf;i· .•...... ~·.· ·· ··.The.various.·types ··of .r-ock .......•.... . suppor'tsadoptedonvarious Proj eqfsareshownoIlFig .34,Pig. 34(a) and 34{b) shoWScCiststeel rockers proposed to be used at Nagarjunasagar Project and UpperSindh Project respectively. Fig. 34{c) and 34(d) shows fabricated rockers used at Jaldhaka .. Project and Lower SiIer u Project respectively. Fig • 34(e ) sh a roller support used at Bhira tunnel. 5. 2. 3. 2 The diameter of roller or load per liner inch or ern at contact given by following formula.

The value of C for different angles of support is given Fig. 37 • The effective length of the shell resisting the bending moment is equal to 4 times the radius of she ll ,

b - Wi.dth of ring girder


r-

- inches

or ems.

l1adius of shell in inches


of shell

or ems. or ems.

t -v.Thi.ckneas

.., inches

Pr .. b + 1. 56Jr't [
',

A Ar

.r

- bt + 1.56.JR ~

;,1. "

(47)

ding moment M ;;:KWR is rmrumum when «t« ;;: 0.4 . . absolute bending momelltco-efficient values vs , values . '.' . 0 bending moment occurs at e '" 61 391, when '.

-+--

MZ

.....

+N

• ••

(49)

;;'HIP,

epa pipe is partly full, due to discontinuous es ses develop in addition to the direct stress.

surfac e t

Where

11'IllIiI

o Aeceleration

(58)

(59)

II'

a,~ at inner

or outer fibre

is given by formulae

I Ill'

III I.

I' r-d r shall be supported on either end of pen'1 hese columns shall be designed as short r Inri direct and bending stresses as specified in I IU' (r vised) for steel structures. llings ks embedded in concrete at anchor blocks or to any other external pressure may be provided The stiffener rings provided at the spacing of have a moment of inertia given by following external pressure. 0.37 R3L
E

Pc

• ••

(61)

Moment of inertia Radius Distance of centroid

of ring girder of ring in.

in4

or cm4

or cm.

between the rings

in. or crn , psi or

3';xternal Pressure Modulua of nlastici1.y

]~ ern 2 gl

psi or :'g/CL':. 2

4:'.

The exposed penstocks which are laid on surface are subjected to large variation of temper-atur-e resulting in longitudin movement ietthe r by expanaion or contraction of pipes. In order ' .. '. permit these longitudinal movement, expansion joints are provided' between two fixed points vi z.. anchors blocks. When no expansion joints are provided, the anchor block and penstock liner shall hax to be designed to take the stresses caused due to temperature variation as specified in Art. 4. 4.3. 3 (i ),

in temperature. 6,2 LOCATION

G.2. 1 The expansion joints are located In ibe.twe en two anchor: blocks gener-a Ily vnext to uphill anchor block. This facilitates <e . erection of pipe s on steep slopes s.>

........ gland bolts are to be tightened enough to press the he . inst the retainer ring so that the packing in turn exerts ressureon the inner sleeve to prevent leakage. These tpbe used only on the pipes which are accessible for the bolts or replacing the packings.

Diameter to the centre of Packing Rings :


. . . .. . . . . . . .

designed such that the gland bolts yield before the gland _ Fig. 42 (b).

Root area

of one gland

Thickness Yb Yg
=

of leg of gland of bolt material of gland material

in

Yield point Yield point

circumference.

•.•

(69)

the installation

Because of the sImple components of the coupling the (issemblyof joints for the installation Is speedy and can be done under any conditions Of the site, . Therefore they are economicaL of expansion of joints

in cases. of large deflections effect the design. When the

and this approximation

does not sel'

~aly.sis

of Exter_nal Heinf~cel~

The yoke is considered as an elliptical cantilevered beam ••... It is assumed to be loaded by vertical forces varying linearly from. Zero at X '" 0 to P(rl Cos G 1 + r2 Cos 2) at X == L and by the

forces

Vland

V2 due to tie rod at 0 and Cand

by the mornentM, shear

See Fig. 45. Where P c Internal pressure. and tension in beam for the region

The m cmerrt,

Sin ~

l(x2 L

The equations for deflection at point '0' is given by

and rotation
.

of beam rOB I and


.. . ..

;:X".L

./ -it1~
»
".

.,.

('76)

.of an Un.,.Symmetrical bifurcation where a second for moment, shear and tension in :"
....". ".. .

•+V4R Cos<b V4 Sin(/)


• •• (77)

Where f/J is angle measured in the plane of the ring.

from

the vertical

center

(84)

If no tie rods
I

are provided and.A

then,
=

V2

0, A c

0,

VI

+ V3

+ V4

=~

AR
M3, V3'

The solution
111

of these

equation yield M1, VI'

1 V4 and VI.

Once the reactions are found out the bending moments at pn nt in the girder is calculated as for a centilevered beam. A , I I ·tion factor may have to be applied to the stresses calculated tIll ve to take into account the curvature of the grider as in the d beams. These correction factors may be obtained from t mulae for stress and st.ratn" by Roark and "Theory of Applied I 11m' cs by F. B. Seely. The. resultant equivalent stress at any section of the 111ft rcement girder calculated as outlined above shall not exceed mue allowable stress as specified in Art. 4.6 . •0 Sickle Type Reinforcement

As an alternative to the yoke type reinforcement at the n of bifurcating pipes, Escher Wyes propounded strengthening I. U irne with a sickle shaped steel plate broad at the apex (crown) III profile of junction and narrow at the other end.
I

The design of the sickle reinforcement involves (1) deterthe shape of. the sickle to ensur-e sufficient radial plate width p the resultant reaction exactly at the centre of the width lIy particular place and thus obviate eccentricity and its effects (2) the thickness of the sickle to keep the stresses within the , III ssible limits, same as stress in shell. The equation developed to determine the dimensions ckle reinforcement for a bifurcation or Y with cylindrical can be reduced to the forms given hereunder:1. Radial distance of a point on the profile section of two cyUnderical branches. 53 of interof

II

··A

"'}Or

( r- . the unifor-m Yadiu s of branches)

, p being the internal pressure, the radius of the branches, S - the per-mi s sib le stress in the plate.)··

-. ..'1)5..
bifurcating

and

2f
.

are the non dimensional

para-meters

of the

branches.

These parameters the branches ,and

vary with the bifurcation

angle

. :i. 7

Reinforced

Concrete

Bifurcation

• :1.7.1 Wyes for large penstocks are normally too heavy with conlit rab le physical dimensions and present transportation difficulties. uol bifurcations are normally split into portions and assembled at II'; conventional yokes and ring girders are also deleted and reIt! or ing steel arranged in the form of a cubic Parabola as shown II It Figure 46 to resist discontinuity forces in pure tension. This I gn has been adopted for Lower Sileru Bifurcation. Principles From Fig. W L Tl followed the design at any point are indicated x below:-

T Sin (/J =

X .2

T Cos (/>=

T tan

(/> =

But tan

(/J = s!L dx

dy

·W

dx

2Tl

ting
y =

W
6 TIL

at x = (/J

For

Curve Equation, At x = L W L2 Tan 9 = x L 2 Tl

Or

Tl T2

WL
2

Tan 6 Sin €I then for any value

WL
2

Given W, L and Q. T can be computed. T


= TI =

WL

Cos (jJ

2 Tan €I x Cos (jJ

--_ ....._

55

For theoretical stress conditions to exist> the forces must be transferred lineally to the supporting bars. assumption here is that the bars are close enough to theiconduit intersections to between will ..... alter thefor~ep~ttern.·· ensure that the concrete in..... .. . . ........... not . . .. . .... ..

BENDS AND REDUCER PIECE


The topographical features of the sloping terrain mainly II rmtnes the ideal alignment of the penstock pipe.s. Often- the I dion of the alignment of these penstocks are to be changed in I I f" to obtain the most economical profile avoiding excess of I vutton, poor foundation strata, and also 'to keep up the aesthetic III y of the natural scenery. These changes in direction of alignI re negotiated by providing successive segments in a curve , II d penstock Bends, The change in the .direction of alignment V h' either in profile or in plan or in both directions. Also in, i1 ,of very long penatccks it is often necessary to reduce ~he dial<! I' of the pipe as the head the pipe incr-eases to obtain maxi .. IlIlconomy as analysed in the economic diameter study for the I , lock, This reduction from one diameter to another is effected hf! By by introducing special pipe piece called as reducer piece. v r , it is economical to combine the function of reducer with 11 ncl wher.ever possible at the same place by providing a special lid called reducer bend.
I

on

DESIGN OF BENDS The bends of the penstocks shall be designed to rnirrirni ae lIy lraulic 'loss due to change in the direction of the .flow. To 11.11'\1 this the successive segments of the curved portion shall be 1,Iill d with the optimum deflection angles to avoid sharp changes tion of flow and the bend shall be provided with large radius. ,I for these bends the plates are required to be cut to form meter I III. As this involves extra cost, it is not economical to provide J III my mitred joints. However, the designer shall judiciously II "Inine the criteria for proportioning the bend pieces' keeping in the ec~momy of fabrication. coupled with the minimum head loss II ified in Art. 3.2.3.1. The general practice is to provide 1'1 drus of the bend three to five times the diameter of the pipe. lit l'lection angle between each successive segments are to be l! II to in between 5° to 10°.
,I

57

however

The most recommended value of successive 0 5° to 6 • Typical bend sections areshovvn in Fig.

47 .

..Deflection

angle

A,OB -. .. .• =~

Compound Bends Sometimes the penstock alignment will be deflected both in ontal plane and vertical plane to conform the contour and alignIII. The construction is greatly simplified if the" pipe is bent to It I Ie which will accommodate the deflection both in profile and 1 This is called a compound bend and in case of the compound , It is required to determine true or developed bend angle since d 19n and fabrication of the curved bend segments of the bend ,I based on this true angle. This determination of true angle done as fol.Iows rCos x Cos A Cos B Cos C

+ Sin A

Sin B

True
=

bend angle. angles (with Horizontal) in a vertical

nul B

Projected plane. Projected

angle in Horizontal

plane.

III nus (-) sign is used when both vertical angles (A & B) "are Ilorizontal line. Plus (+) sign is used when one" vertical above the horizontal and the other is below the horizontal. Reducer bends bends the following simpli-

For the design of the reducer 1II11Lllae can be made use of:-

A
R n Dl
n

=
=

Angle of intersection Radius of bend of deflection) pipe pipe

= =

2 (number Inside

dia of large

Inai de dia 0f small

59

:.K

2("-2.)

D,.,..Dn

R t~n.¢)

..... .~.a~

t··

Z,

.=

rl s: in-. () ....
Cos :2..

__ f.,..
Cos.

e)

"1'" sin

() cos

Cos

2.

f+

r,

sin ~

sine

r;( =
·D
-.:)(.::l .

rl _
··.::·.!./~.

(:

_ , '.

R. t.QI'\

I.

n (j

·R"fqn f'sln.8 ~~~"="":::-~~--:-C~ __ .


·}Ju.mbel'"

WAere.)

to

X:::::

p o irtf

u I'\d

t.y

c::J,'V I S I 0

n..s

,tt'

CansideY"~tioY)

'" mally the angle of divergence shall be kept between 50 to 100 so to minimise the hydraulic loss at the juncture where the diameter I duced.

of convergence
11({th

=
:::

a
L Dl 2 D.l D2
2 =

of reducer

pipe

IIge in radius

:::

AB

II

:::

AO
:::

AB

:::

2L

D2

(Dl

D2)

2. tan

61

PENSTOCK ACCESSORIES
Besides the main components of the penstock system desin earlier chapters several accessories will also have to be provided for in a pipeline to facilitate fabrication, In stal.latron, testing. safe operation, and inspection and maintenance. These accessories are described below :9.2 Manholes

Manholes are required in the course of the penstock length to provide access to the pipe interior for inspection and maintenance and repair. These are spaced at practicable distances normally not more than 400 to 500 ft. apart so that no part of the pipe length is unduly too far from the manhole , The location of the manholes can be at top, bottom and side quandrant of the pipe depending upon the individual profile and size penstocks. If the penstocks are above the natur a'l ground level the manhole is located about 2 or 3ft. from· the ground Ieval.. depending upon-the diameter of the pipe OX' tbebottomhaliofthepipe at 450 off the vertical diameter.· 'If' vthe penstock is below the natural ground level the p i-actrcabl e position for the manhole is in the top position of the pipe, In such cases a portable ladder is to be used by the personnel to reach the bottom of the pipe. Also as far as possible the location of the manholes shall be fixed so as to provide natural ventilation to the interior surface for easy inspection and repairs. The general size of the opening of the manhole is normally 20" diameter. Typical 'details of the manhole is shown in the Fig. 48. The forged ste e l type of manholes are normally used high heads whereas the plate steel type are suitable f or-: .Iow head penstocks •.. 'I'hermanhole ..• ingenerfl1 cpnsistsof a nQzzleheador'.wallatthe opening:i.nthe pipe~with fi#edt()iLby bolts .. ·'I'oprevent leal<agethe sealing to~eprovidedbetween tl1.enozzleheac,i and cover plate as ···.<.th.ef:ig..48 .•..··.·.Il1..·.-som e . type. ·.ofl11anholes ... .··filler-. . a 'plate .. ·>called ·Wliicl1~s.Qurvedtosuitthe interDftlshapeofthepipesection

opening is fitted to the inside of the coverp.late , This the smoothening of the interior of pipe and avoids tur-buin the flow at the manhole opening which is otherwise cr-eated depression in the pipe surface. The nozzle head, the cover the bolts shalibe designed to withstand the internal water head in the penstock at the position of manhole. !tis .that the pipe shallberellu orcedaroundthemanhole . providing extra reinforcing plate adjacent to the nozzle ·c()mpensateforthematerial r-emoved f'r-om the normal section of the pipe. Generally the sectional area of cornreinforcement shall at least be 5 to 10 per cent more . sectional area of the circular pipe shell which is cut away .• e .opening, The size, shape and design of these manhole shall conform with the specifications provided in the L S. L unfired pressure vessels, PIEZOMJ£TIUC CONNECTIONS

The piezometric connections are to be provided in the pipes to facilitate connections for measuring devices for turbine performance tests. Normally these piezometric are provided in the straight length of pen stock away branches and in the near viscinity of the power house. They are provided in groups of four, around the perifphery of the pipe se ctton, FFom these connections the piezometric line is connected box of the pressure rne asur-ing device. Details of a connection is shown in the Fig. 49. FLANGED CONN.ECTIONS

'I'he f'Iange d connections are provided to connect the pen-~ line with. any equipment such as valves, expansion joints, e scroll cases etc. 'I'he type and the design of the he designed to l'3Uit the connecting flanges of the equip," the penstock isLo be connected. The general type the welding neck type, the s Iip=onshown in .theFigo50. .Generally stE':clandisused forhfghheacls ...Qtb,eriypeCl,rellsPclwIth sm0JJ,erSi~e .....•... ·.Thedesign ()intfjof •.thef1al1gfPlqte?a_nd for the .conn.ectionsshall pre s s l.1reY8i3B.e18
0 •...

he

-.

9.5

BULK HEADS AND TEST HEADS of. hydrostatic

9.6

CLOSING PIECES

Often small unavoidable errors creep into the penstock system due to descrepancles between theorfti cal calculations and actual laying of the pipe lengths at site. or due to errors in pr-o··cessof fabrication or erection at $ite; or due to shrinkage of field we'ld joints • In order to per-mit the final fieidadjustlllents . andtooptain perfectassem.blyof the pipelinesystell1 it is often··. . necessaryt() provide. for oneo;!:' ITlOre.special piece length ()fpipe. These are >calledasclosingpieces or-rnake pieces. . The number andlenEfthof these closing pieces shall be fixed for fabrication . only after the pipe line is errected and actual measurements for . perfect fitting of pipe line are made. Normally these pipes will fitted either at the connection to valves or near expansion joints and turbine scroll cases or at the portals .of the tunnel.

up

9. 7

FILLING

CONNEC'rlONS

dunder submerged conditions. These filling lines are conwith the reservoir on the other end and provided with proper valves. These lines are to be of sufficient eapacHyto the filling of. the entire length of with a poasfbleu-easondepending thesizeandthelengthofti1epenstock .systern • . . able to provide separate filling1ir1esforeach individual for0asyopera Han.· .. .

/!;'+'.p"c

Whenever the penstocks are to be inspected for mainrepairs they are to be drained off. For this purpose conne cti ons shall have to be provided, These drainage .. located at the bottom most reach of the penstock at the of the pipe with proper gratings flush wi th the inner of pipe. These drainage lines are normally connected to tube of the vtur-bine vor to sump provided In ithe lower pl.ant , ctty of these drain lines are determined according to the . hich the pipe is to bevernptred depending on size and the pipe system.
•.

vent$sha.llbeprovided on the immediate down stream .........•.. rolgat~.or.YalYetofacilitate.sol1nectionwithatmos.·.··.·eairinletsiiseryethe.purposeof .admitting the . air . Whenthecontrolg<3.teor·valve Jsclosed and the·· drhlned th,usayoiding collapse of the pipe due to vacessive negative pressure .. Also the air admitted will ..•..he draining action of the pipe. t Similarly when the being filled up these vents facilitate the proper escape from the pipe s . In long discharge lines from pumping .....cially where there are steep slopes depending on tho i features of the rough terrfrin it is advisible to provide ..••.......••..• .points either ai r vents or air valves to release air i< .•• .<sudden shutdown. . 'I'heae summit pockets .in a pipe .....• ···.eelim~natodasfara,spossible. .Care. should betaken ....,...~ ... . r· vents wi thaClequa,teca.padty()~air ,.. , ..entryas.s er-Iou s ... .'-""".-« .........v.··.sIIlayre~ultdllfJtoirlad~q~~te venting. ..,.· .'I'he·· .
.•.. ··.• C>..JL.I. .

".

"

.·esize\ofih.eyentsa.rethe.leIlgth~diallleter,
. ..W.aJeranddischarge.inthep~Ilstoeka.ndstrength . del' ·externa.lp res viz. .Roll~psihle trel1gth>of··.

sure

.·8

Following arc some formulae for the vent to be provided for a steel penstock pipe:

(t)
F

.- Area of air inlet in squar-e ft.


inlet in Cft! Second. collapse
of pipe.

Q = Flow of air through S _- Factor C


•..

of safety

against

Coefficient

of discharge

through air inlet . in inches.

d :::diameter
t
==

of st.eel penstock

thickness

of steel pipe in inches.

This formula is based on studies by Carman and Carr's equation for strength of steel pip_?and studies of air vents on steel pipe . .1-'-"''<9 byiM, L.EngerandF. O. Sf,'ely. It is customary to provide .. i r a valves on a penstock line aJwaysj.n rairsto ensure required Of safety. The~ostlmpOJ;tant requirement is that all the air must be protected against freezing, This is done by enclosing all' valves in separate compartment and using electric heaters or insulating the valve sufficiently to avoid freezing. 9. to

.\.]1

VALVES AND CONTROL GATES

Gates and valves are to be provided for control of tho flow into the penstocks for operation, inspection and repairs. type of the gate or valve to be provided wiEbe selecteO.based the type of intake,size of intake and oper-ating condittons.
. . -.
'

.'

,'-

,.

Caterpillar

gates

Tainter- gates

valves which will be used for a


.. .

<Butterfly valves
..

Gate valves Spherical valves. general any type of the gates enlisted above will be Intake of the conduit whereas the valves are used at in the Course of the pipe line for effecting conoperation. It is general practice to provide valves length of pipe is long, These are normally provided one at the upper end of the conduit say after the one at the lower end of the pipe line near the. entry ', .Thepre$ent (1971) .tr-end is to put the valve below case of pressure shafts in sound rock. .. The valve at . fitted With an automatic over-velocity tripling dethe pipe when velocity exceeds 20% normal. The valve in general can be described of having a which operates and remains within the passage design of the valve should be quite safe against the is the most important c:r:iteria for successful operavalve. These controlling devices can be operated hyelectrically and by manual operation also. These confor penstocks will normally be used only either in or in full closed conditions.

10.
10.1

M~TERIALS"

SPECIFICATION AND TESTS

INTRODUCTION

10.1.1 The steel plates to be used for the fabrication of penstock shall be of pressure vessel quality. Prior to 1950 the penstocks were fabricated from low carbon steel plates or mild steel plates. But with the development of high heads and increasing number of high capacity power plant, the steel with high yield point stress is developed to provide economy and facility of fabrication. These are low alloy steel plates, including some which are quenched and tempered. 10.1.2 The type and grade of steel is defined by' chemical composition, mechanical properties, method of production and heat treatment given to it. Some of the commonly used steel plates for penstocks in India at present are ASTM 285 Gr. 'C' A 537 Gr. 'AI, A 517 from USA, Aldur-58 from West Germany and IS 2002 from India. The chemical composition and physical properties of these steel along with a few more type of steel are given in Annexure III. 10.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

10.2.1 The chemical .composition of the material shall be such that the mechanical and technological properties are guaranteed. The steel in addition to iron and carbon contains mangan« nickel. chromium. molybedenum , copper aluminium with i rn like Sulphur and Phosphorous to give required strength.

silicon, purities

The equivalent carbon content given by following formula. is usually restricted to 0.45 %. Equivalent Carbon content
=

Mn + %C + 0/0 6 Cr + % -~·-5- + % 68

%
Cu 15

Ni -15

01

IQ--

Mo
4

valid when %

e c. O. 5 %
c.
O. 6 1. 00

Mn L

1. 6

c:

3. 5 1. 00

% Mo %

cez,

impurities like sulphur and phosphorous .maximum of O.04 percent.

each shall

be

further

be classified depending upon of rolling:

used for penstocks

due to their

lack of homo-

in penstock

upto 25 mrn thickness.

at controlle d rtemper-atur e rand silicon killed steel homogenousrand use df'or+al.l rthickneaaes and for temperature.

consists

of heating

at temperature

9000e

Steel - Special heat treatment is given strength of material and notch toughness. The toatemper:3.ture at about900oc.quencl1ed tempered at about 700°C . . . .

to inprocess in .

the manufacturers I) ii) iii) iv )


v)

in final fabrication:

Yield point stress Ultimate Tensile Strength at rupture

Percentage

Elongation

Bending Properties Notch toughness or Breaking strength fracture before and/or after ageing WeIdabfli ty .
ror brittle

vi)

10.4.2 For the selection of suitable type of steel, apart from chemical and physical properties of steel plates,its commercial availability and combined costs of material, fabrication, transportation, erection, shop and field tests shall be known. 10.5 TESTS AND INSPECTION enumerated in Article tests and inspection, 10.2 and 10.4 shall

10,5.1 The features be checked by suitable

10. 5, 2 The chemical analysis to determine the contents of silicon, manganese, sulphur, phosphorous and other alloy elements shall be carried out by plate manufacturers as per the prevalent standards of ASTM specification. 10.5.3 The physical the following tests: I) properties of material sha.ll be guaranteed by

Tensile Test: To determine yield point and elongation. Bending Test!_ To determine formation under cold bending.

breaking

strength,

ii)

the capacity

of de-

iii)

Im:eact Test: To determine the brealqng and energy at various conditions and temperature. also constitutes a check on the tendency of ageing to brittle failure.

70

Apart from above tests to determine physical properties each plate shall be subjected to following test: Ultrasonic Examination the abThe ul-

Plates subj ected to ultrasonic examination ensure any serious internal defects in the plates if any. exami.nati on of plates are recommended. Ie Homogenity FEATURES rom 'ctal Tests OF PLATE

The surface of plates shall be smooth and plane, The of plates length, width and thickness, the accuracy of weight of the plates must meet the requirements speciinto account the permissible tolerance specliied in

71

PENSTOCKFA:sRICATION
INTRODUCTION 11.1.1 The fabrication of penstocks involve fabrication of straight pipes, bends, special fittings like Wyes. Supporting Rings, Expansion joints and Bearings. etc. The fabrication procedure of these items depend upon the available fabrication facilities and fabricators shop practice. 11. 1.2 'I'he fabricator shall adopt suitable welding proces s , the shape of bevels, electrodes and filler metal. In order to obtain quality as laid down in the specification. the fabricator shall take care that they are complied with by proper inspection during fabrication as laid down in Art. 11. 4. ·11.2 PROCESS OFF.A,BIUCATION of fabrication involves marking. chamfering.

11. 2.1 The process rolling and welding. 11.2.2 Marking

11.2.2.1 The plates are laid out and trimmed to true rectangular shape. In case of bends. bifurcations and other specials, the . developments are marked on the plates with great accur-acy,

prepared .tipg'ishearing. planning~rnli1ling ~ ··':rhechamf ers .sa.ti~fCtctoryafter flame cutting particularly as .. <aIldrnetta~urgical con diti ons shall be ground.

.....-... ..... .

.Chamfer-sior+bevej.scar e generally

welding process called for. The most common shapes and fillet welds are shown in Fig. 52.

plates shallber()l1edtotruecurvature typtcalmethod()f Bendingiss:hownin

In a bending Fig .53.

diametric?-l distance between any two points on the shall be within the tolerance limit ofD .-:.5 m. Tile tolerances for the shape and appearance of longitudinal joint shall be as given in Appendix IV.

can be welding is carried ... and filler and speed

made by well tried methods. Usually out by automatic welding machine. The metal shall be as per Art. 11• 3. 2. The of deposition shall be as per the pre-

selection of quality of welds shall depend upon the and atr-es s ea ron the same,since the longitudinal and welds unde r go some forces as the basic material. mechanical properties ofelectrocleand filler metal to those of parent metal. The weld metal shall tests as per 1. S. 1. code for unfired pressure vessel. The welding sequence' shall be determined in advance -. hen the shape of the part is likely to cause shrinkage w complicated shapes. preheating of material will depend upon the material thickness of wall and process used.

or

H'''''n.<:;

fabricator shall be responsible for the qualitycolltrol neces:saryinspection Of welds: .bynon~des:tructive .spe 9tfied in(~hapte r 13 and shall submitarep()rt results of test and assessment of radiographic or ..

11. 5

STRESS RELIEVING

11. 5. 1 After fabrication, when the shape or magnitude of ture requires, the welded joint must undergo stress relieving treatment either locally or as a whole as specified. It is a post heat treatment given to a welded body to eliminate any -etr-eas due to welding. 11.5. 2 The stress r-e.li.evtng vshal l be carried out on (a) All the pipes fabricated out of the plates of thickness greater than 36 (b) All the complicated fabricated structure like man-hole opening. bifurcation and trifurcation, ring girder, fabricated rocker. supp etc. 11. 5.3 The stress relieving shall be carried out as per 1. S. 1. Code for Unfired Pressure Vessel. The stress relieving process consist of heating the welded structure under controlled condition a furnace to a temperature of 580°C to 6200C and then cooling in the furnace to 4000C at a rate of 55 deg. per hour. Below 400°C the ves sel may be cooled in still air. 11• 5. 4 In the field the stress relieving of girth j oint is not carried out. In special cases, where stress-relieving in field is specified the stress relieving is usually carried out by Electric Pad Method with. suitable precautions . ."

ERECTION OF PENSTOCK
INTRODUCTION Erection consists of laying down the penstock sections n two anchor points and assembly by welding - manually or III.>' other process. 1.2 For accurate alignment and- designing suitable erection I dur-e, the following data shall be made available to erector: a) b) c) Site Plan Ground longitudinal profile like anchor blocks,

Preparatory works on layout, supports, etc. Storage Erection Transport area and premises

d) e)
f)

season

and time available - Road and Rail

facilities

g) h)

Handling facilities Extreme Supports temperature conditions for setting and adjustment of expansion joint. Rocker

The choice of erection u tocks and site condition.

procedure depend upon the details These can be 'generally classified

Surface

Penstocks at their laid either

Surface Penstocks consist of sections anchored with or without expansion joint. These are usually 75

"by crawler crane, trolleys moving on side track or by overhead cableways depending upon ground profile and grading. The penstock supported for temperature condition. on rockers need special setting

12.3.1 In+ca.se of penstocks or steel lining concreted in a orsnaft,thepipesarepre,.,assembled in long sections of 5 to length and carried on trolleys or skidded into shaft with the help of winches. Enough clearances of about 300 mm all around the liner shall be maintained for welding and inspection before concreting (Fig. 54), 12.3.2 Suitable internal bracings shall be provided to wf.tbstand the external pressure caused during concreting or grouting process. 12.3.3 In case of free penstocks laid in tunnel, there shall be adequate room between liner and tunnel wall for subsequent inspection and maintenance. 12.4 Penstock in Dam to

12.4.1 Penstccksdn dam shall be laid prior to dam is raised full height. Theere-ct()r$hallprovidesuitable supports ,internal and external to wtthstand iexternal pressure carried during concreting and grouting process (Fig. 55). 12.5 Buried Penstocks

12.5.1 In case of penstocks laid in trench and backfilled, the penstock steel liner must be covered with asbestos felt wrap and white wash before backfilling and the backfill must be deposited by successive compacted layers (Fig. 56). .

Wherever required the field welds shall be stress method as specified in Art. 11. 5. 4. Completion of Work

relieved

On c omp letion of erection the unpainted parts (welded be prepared and painted with specified paints as a pro-

case of pressure shafts, flush and painted.

the grout openings

shall be

Before putting into service, all the internal spiders, etc. removed and penstock cleaned from inside from all foreign

On completion of erection, finishing of protective measures the penstock shall be subjected to acceptance test as in Art. 14. 6, and results, if found satisfactory. the acof installation shall be pronounced.

13.
13.1

INSPECTION TESTS & ACCEPTANCE TEST


INTRODUCTION

13.1.1 For the quality control of work the welded joints shall be subjected to inspection and non-destructive testing. The nondestructive testing gives the information about the homogenity of 'weld and the quality of work. The following methods are generally used for inspection of welds:

-y1:S')

/aV Radiography

Examination Ultrasonic Examination c) Magnetic Particle Method ~Dye Penetration Method Radiographic Examination, Ultrasonic Examination of two processes is used ,for inspection.

~suallY, or a combination 13. 2

RADIOGRAPHY EXAMINATION 13.5 '3.5 ion hop. l3.5. res

13.2.1 Radiographic Examination is carried out either by X-ray or Gamma Ray, depending upon the source of radiation. In either case the radiographic films are placed on one side of weld and subjected to specified intensity of radiation, the source being placed on other side of weld. Depending upon the quality of weld the films are exposed and indicate any flaws in welding, such as pores, slag inclusion, lack of fusion and cracks, etc. These films shall be submitted as permanent records. 13. 2. 2 It is recommended that all the longitudinal joints shall be radiographed for 100% length. The circumferential joi.nts shall be spot radiographed for 100/0length of each j oint. It is also recommended that all the T junctions between longitudinal and circumferential joint shall be radiographed.

dove ore 13.5.

78

Aay defects shown. during the radiography cted to re ..examination. ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION

shall be repaired

Ultrasonic Examination, enables faults to be located more I t~ly and access the necessity for repairs. The ultrasonic I r tion is carried out by electronic equipment and' requires I y qualified oper'ator-, The disadvantage of this method is that no
u

I"

can be mamtafned, During ultrasonic examination the base matartat- on either weld shall be free trom segr-egatton, lamination and other

II,

II

All field welds. if not spot radiographed or such joints h are difficult to be radiographed or inacces sible to radiographic I rlnatfon such as g:I.rth joint ·of liner in a .tunnel or shaft with II\mg .strip. m:ay be subjected to ultrasoirlc examination in lieu I I diograpbic examination.
I,

OTHER

TESTS

II

Other 'non-destructive tests like a magnetic particle method dye penetrant method can be done to detect the surface cracks. I II is usually adopted for the inspection. of field welds in case of dJ:lficult weld. the intermediate runs of welds are subjected to e tests.
I

I: . 5, d
I,

HYDROS'r ATIC TESTING

I'

.5,.1 All the fabrica~ed sections. straight pipes, bends, expanton jointa, wyes. etc. shall be su.bjected to Hydrostatic testing in hop.

13.5.2 During t.esting, each piece shall be subjected to a test pressure of 1.5 times design pressure or to a pressure which will eve lope a stress equal to 0.8 times yeild point. whi.chever is more. 1.3.5.3 Each individual secttoa shall be completely filled with water and the pressure is gradually raised to test preasuee, The pressure shall be applied three times successively increasing and decreasing at uniform rate. The test pressure shall be held stationary for such a time as is considered. sufficient for inspecti.on

79

of all plates. of failure.

joints

and connections

to detect

leakage

and

13.5.4 The straight pipes are tested between two head or ina testing pig. A typical testing rig is shown in Fig. 57 •. The space between liner and concrete block is fillecI with water under .requiredp·ressureandinspectio.l1 is:made. .The' leakage from . andpottoll1isstopped byprqvidillgseals. ....

a.LJ,UU'.LCI.~.:

The bends are tested as a Single piece between two heads as shown in Ftg . 58 or each bend piece can be tested as straight member before being finished. The wyes and expansion joints
13.5.5

are tested

with bulk heads.

strains,
13.6 13.6.1

If test discloses any defects such as leakage or local these shall be rectified as mutually agreed upon.

ACCEPTANCE

TEST

customer, tightness.

On completion of penstock erection, before handing over the penstock is filled and checked for stability and

13.6. 2 The fill~ngofpenstockE:lhall bevdoneiat a slow rate and dUI'ingfillingJhecl()sinKan<:ltightnessofallthevalves ,inspection openings and other accessories shall be checked and the penstock shall be properly vented at high points to prevent formation of air pocket. 13. G.3 For field Hydr-osta tic test the penstock shall be filled to full reservoir level 1. e. to static head or to a higher pressure (F'i g. 59). 'I'he wate r in the penstock shall be maintained to require d head for such a time as· is considered necessary for inspection of an joints. Any joint leakage shall be repaired and retested.
J

PENSTO.9K

~:",::,,:: ::':-..':.' .' : ..<

......... Irrespective of the type of penstock, painting on the inside ..'. "of one coat of cold applied coa.ltar primer followed by one ..•..oal-tar enamel 3/32 inch to 1/32 inch. Alternatively, 3 . <.::oldapplied coal-tar apoxy (British Epilux 5~paints) have rovid~dforsome penstock in India. ..
. .

···.8

>iiiPaintingof the interior with hot c oal.eta r enamel is usually ·):lshop.· Straight pipe courses can be spun and the coal-tar deposited in the spinning pipes. This results in a smooth . ni sh , Sections of pipes which cannot be spun, such as elbows . on s with man-holes are hand-daubed. The hand-daubed seems to protect the steel as effectively as the spun lining, quite rough and is avoided wherever possible to minimise losses. EXTERIOR PAINTING

>.Prior t() thedel3patch of fabricated pipes from the shop . ·th~.pl.l~s~de ofpipeisprotectedwHhonecoatof.Redoxide " nate, A second coat of red oxidelsals o given in ~dbYa.coatofaluITliniu1tl paint. 'rhehighlyre~. ··oftb.ealulDJI1il.l~n.pai!1t ..i$believed ...neces sarytokeep ....... pipe ,wh~nemptY,bel()wate11lpera.turethat the -. ' •... 'coal;,;iar'enamelandaJsotominimisethemove_: the .......... ..... ::
._,.
'-.'_
,_.' '.-,

..

",

.-

,.,-:

..

::':

-_.:.'

..

',

'-_

-_

.:

..

',:

'-.,

-_"

-,

'-

-,

',-.

Outside surface of buried pipes are painted enamel and to keep this coat from being damaged by operation are given a thin coat of reinforced gunite. a layer of fibrous glass mat wrap followed by a coat of Asbestos Felt wrap and finally a coat of white wash are given (see Fig. 62). Portions of penstocks embedded in. concrete anchors are given a coat of red-oxide or zinc chromate. Penstocks embedded in tunnels form steel liners and are given a similar coat and a coat of asphalt or bitumen 1/8 inch thick immediately upstream. from the power house for a distance of about 25 ft. so that the thrust on the liners, as a result of closing the power house valves would not be transmitted to the power house wall. 14.4 SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS

The various operations involved in paintings for interior surfaces are (i ) cleaning and preparation of surface (Ii) Primer coating (iii) coal-tar enamel painting and finally (Iv ) inspection an d testing. The operations are described in detail below:

I)

CLEANING

AND PREPARATION

OF SURFACE are removed thoroughly by

a) Oil and grease on the surface ith !IX 1 I" . f1 hi '.us mg an d" wIpIng WI·. yo ...

.b ) All other foreign matter, weld spatter, objectionable surface irregularities are removed till exposure of grey coloured base metal. The used for blasting should be dry and should pass screen and at least 85% should be retained on a 14.5 PRIMER COATING

burrs and any by sand-blasting sand or steel grit a No.16 standard 50 standard screen

Primer coating is applied by hand brushing, air gun spraying and brushing at a coverage of 350 to 400 square feet per gallon. The surface should be dry at the time of application of primer; to facilitate sprayingancIspreading~ the primer <may heatedrand matntatnedjtui-ingjne application at a.tempera.tul\? o .' ". ' '. .. than 120F.

with tight closing lids and easily readable thermometers 63). Application temperature may vary between 450 to A coverage of 125 square feet may be expected from one of coal-tar enamel. Finished coal-tar enamel lining should from wrinkles, sags, blisters or blow-holes.
PAINT

CHARACTERISTICS

AND TESTS

A good and durable paint should have the following charac• these have to be verified on test plates:

Test Softening Point Filler


(Ash)

Min.

Max.

25%

35%

Fineness filler 200 mesh Specific gravity Penetration a)

through
90%

at 25°F

1.4

1.6

At 77 degree F - 100 g weight ,.. 5 secs. At 115°F - 50 g weight 5 secs. test at

10

20
55

b)

15

High temperature 160°F - 50

g weight - 5 secs. test at

2/32 inch.

Low temperature 20°F (cracking) Deflection Initial test

none (initial heating)

crack

0.8
3 sq.miles

Disbanded area

83

9.

Deflection a) ',b )

test

(after heating) 0.6 m

Initial qrack Disbonded·.area

Impact. test (at 770F 650 •g .8 <ft. <drop)


a)

Direct Indirect

impact

- disbonded area

b)

impact - disbonded area


No feeling

2 sq.

11.

Peel test

APPENDIX PENSTOCKS DESIGNED IN CW&PC

-1

Test Deflection
a)

Min. (after heating) 0.6 m


I I' I

test

static IDesign Head IHead in ft. lin ft.

I
500 665

t Installed I Capacity I in MW I
5 2 of 11.2

Size and No. of Penstock

Length in ft.

Tonnage Tons

in

Type of steel Type of Installation

6 1 of 7' dia bifurcating two of 5' C/J each 3 Nos. into

7 1380

8 500

9 ASTMA-285 Gr. 'C' IS 2002/62 Gr. 'A' ASTM 285 Gr. 'C' Surface Penstock

10
supportod on Rockers.

Initial

crack

b)

Disbonded area

221

275

3 of 35

14: 75 ~ straight

1120

1400

Surface

Penstock

support

d on Rockers.

Impact test (at 77°F 650 g 8 ft. drop) a)


b)

1240

1428

Direct Indirect

impact

- disbonded area
242
303

3 of 4.6 5 of 2 of 5.0

1 No.5' <p reducing to 4' and bifu rcating into 2 '- 3 II C/J 1 No.4' C/J .reducing to 3' (/J and bifurcating into 2'_3" C/J 3 Nos. of 3' ~bifurcating 25" ~ each

3400 each

Surface

Penstock

supported

on Rockers.

impact - dis bonded area No feelinL

into 6 of

No.1 800 No.2810 No.3830 1835

ASTM 285

Surface

Penstock

supported

on Rocker s ,

Peel test

590

820

2 of 30

2 Nos.

8 ft. I./J

each

Fire Box quality steel 2503 'ASTM A-285 Gr. 'C' & ASTM-A-537 Gr. 'A'

Surface

Penstock

suppor-ted

on 'Bock

1'8.

870

935

3 of 67

3 Nos. 9. 02 ft. C/)

straight

840

Partly

surface

@ partly

shait.

177

220

4 of 43 each

4 Nos.

20'

r:J

straight

121
each

Penstock

embeded

in concrct

1111,1

120

138

3 of 138

3 of 20'

r:J

424 No.1 387 No.2 350 No.3 (/J 183 each

906

ASTM A-285

Penstock

embeded

in concr-ete ,

J,

159 137

210 157
385

5 of 23

5 of 15'-6"

450

ASTM-A-285

Penstock

embeded

in Dam.

4 of 75
4 of 60

4of23.00'(/J

4 of 197' each No.1 No.2 1024 1076

4 of 215
tons each 1250 639 1200 4200

ASTM-285 Gr. C 15-K Russian & T -1 steel Steel

Embeded in concrete.

1,1

310 650

2 of 18 (/J penstocks reducing to 17' (/J 3 Nos.18' (/J varying to 16.5'(/) 8Nos.16'(/) each

Surface penstock Rockers.

supported

on

792

6 of 115

1515 each

Aldu 58 & ASTM 285 Gl'.'C'

Steel lined tunnel, surface penstock and shaft.

I II

8 of 50

360

299.686M

374.606

I 6 of 60 II2 of 60 65

SNos.8.2'(/) 8.75 to 7.75 I No.12'-10"

(av.)str~ght

1800

2382
(]) about 1300

10000 16,000
550

15-K Russian

steel

Surface penstock Rockers.

supported

on

445

560

ASTM 285 Gr. 'C' & ASTM 537 Gr.'A'.

-do-

460

570

65

-do-

about

1600

850

ASTM 285 Gr. 'C' & ASTM 537 Gr. 'A'.

-do-

550

663
1300

4 of 9.4

2 of'

6'-6" (/J

2 of

1644

1700

ASTM 285 Gr. 'C' & CT-3. ASTM A-285 & ASTM A-537 ASTM 285 Gr. 'C'

Steel lined tunnel surface penstock. Surf'ac e penstock Rockers. enstock embeded

&

84

1100

2 of 35

3 of 7'_6" (/J
4 of 23.00' (/J

5340 each

4800
4 of 215 each 1017

supported

on

136

157 210

4 of 75 4 of 60

4 of 197.23

each

in concr-ete.

II

156

4 of 18' (/J straight

245

ASTM 285 Gr.

~ 'e'

.Penstock partly ernbede d in Dam and partly surface"

¢)

(;) C N C)

ill

(,') +~,

to '.-_,(.J C) 0 If:': ;_:.,.l co co 1:~--:J 1.....,"- c» (~) 'i'


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0001."-

l(..'

tt.1t .. 0CDNO.:::J-.:trW ~ Q;J l........CO 0 co? CO If) -CO -q~


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