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formed when the community of living things interact with the non-living environment

e.g: milipedes decompose dead materials, releasing minerals, CO2, and water. The plants take it back to make nutrients.

Some other terms

Habitat Individual Population Community

Population always change

‡ Changes can be predicted by comparing birth rates and death rates. ‡ How to calculate birth rate? ‡ How to calculate death rate? ‡ Birth rate > death rate ??? ‡ Birth rate < death rate ???

Opposite Population of Predator and Prey

Endangered species!!!

Birth rate <<<<< Death rate loss of habitat (woodlands cut down, rivers drying up, hedgerows removed). chemicals or pollution poison the plants or animals. hunting (for sport, their fur, or meat).

How to manage?

By conservation Zoo, captive breeding Botanical garden, seed bank Conservation area