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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The economic realities of Nigeria over the years have exposed the marketers

to serious problems. It is an open fact that industrial products represent the

origin of other products, most especially the consumer products. It is also

indisputable that although advertising, sales promotions and publicity play an

important role in the industrial promotional mix, personal selling serves as the

main selling instrument. It is no gainsaying therefore, that the level of success

of an industrial market depends largely on how effective the selling efforts are.

This prominent position occupied by personal selling can be easily understood

since while the other marketing communication elements such as advertising,

sales promotion, and publicity create awareness and knowledge for a

company’s product, the onus is on personal selling to convince the potential

consumer through person to person interaction to develop a lone for its product

in preference to other competing ones and see to it that the consumer parts

with his money for the company’s product. We have chosen Chemical and

Allied Product Plc (CAP) among other manufacturers of industrial products due

to our being impressed by their use of sales force for effective personal selling

especially now that the Nigerian consumers are becoming more sophisticated

and selective in their demand for the consumption of industrial products. These

and some other related issues will be considerably analysed in this study.

1. 2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

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The bulk of the selling activities of any industrial products rest comparatively

on the company’s sales force much more than is the case with consumer

products. This is so because with the latter the consumer has already realized

the need for such a product and all the needs for the product may not have

been known to him. It may therefore required skilled sales personnel as well as

sophisticated equipment for visual displays and practical demonstration to

convince the potential customers the need for the product. For this reason, it I

necessary to ponder on the following:

 How effective and comprehensive are the recruitment staffing and

training procedure of the industry’s sales force?

 How appropriately equipped are the industry’s salesmen for effective

personal selling efforts?

 How adequate are the supervision, levels of control, remuneration and

other incentives as means of motivating the industry’s sales force.

1.3 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purposes of this study among others are centers on the following:

 To examine the extent of effectiveness of the industrial products

personal selling

 To under study the efficacy of the management of the industry’s sales

forces.

 To examine how realistic and attainable the sales target and objective of

the industry are.

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1.4 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is expressed that at the conclusion of this study, its significance would have

proved itself. It is hoped that it will prove to be of immense benefit to the sales

management of the industrial products in general and especially the industrial

paints, which normally should be interested in the suggestions towards

improved efficiency of its sale force and consequently greater sales results.

1.5: THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS OF THE STUDY

The research questions for this research work are outline as follows:

1. What are the reasons why personal selling is the most appropriate marketing

technique for industrial products?

2. Is personal selling also appropriate for consumers’ goods?

3. What are the likely hindrances to effective personal selling of industrial

products?

4. Do effective recruitment, Selection and training of the sales force enhance

effective personal

selling?

1.6: THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY

The study shall test on the following hypotheses:

 Personal selling is the most appropriate channel for selling industrial

products

 Effective recruitment, Selection and training of the sales force enhance

effective personal selling.

3
1.7: THE SCOPE OF THE STUDY

More than ever before, industrial products manufacturers like other products

are facing great challenges to their survival in the present day economic

realities. The emphasis now is for the sales management to explore the virgin

avenues to persuade its present and potential customers to prefer their own

product with greater patronage.

The study shall examine how, particularly CAP is weathering this storm. To do

this, administration of questionnaire, personal interview and practical

observation of operational procedures shall be employed.

1.8 THE LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

As it would be expected with studies of this nature, this research is constrained

by some factors:

The list of the constraints includes the generally non-cooperative attitude of

members of staff of the company to the management cadre when it comes to

offering information about their organization.

Another constraint was the time available. Because of the nature of our

respondents, salesmen for industrial paint, it was pretty difficult to get up to

ten salesmen in a single company as desired. The alternative would be to

travel to some other towns and time made this virtually impracticable.

Finance is another constraint; cost of traveling to places to obtain desired and

required information vital to this study could not be absolutely afforded.

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

4
For the purpose of clarity and understandability, some terms used are

considered definable. These include the following:

 CAP: Chemical and Allied Product

 Promotion: The publicizing of a product or celebrity for better

recognition.

 Recruitment: To engage something to work or serve in an organization.

 Specification: Detailed description of something to be made or done.

 Target Market: The group of marketing segment towards which all

marketing activities are directed.

 Profitability: This is a major index that measures the effectiveness of

an organization. It is deduced from deducting cost from income.

 Promotional Mix: These are activities that is intended to increase

the number of buyers of product or to improve public acceptance of an

idea, example are: advertising, sales promotion etc.

 Advertising: Any form of non- personal presentation of goods,

services, and idea for action paid for by an identify sponsor.

 Brand: A name, term, symbol or the combinations of these names

that differentiate product form that of the other.

 Brand loyalty: Active support by consumer in continuing the

consumption of a particular brand in the face of competition by other

branded substitutes.

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 Consumer behaviour: The totally of behaviour displayed by

consumers in the process of acquiring goods and services for

consumption.

1.9 A BRIEF ABOUT THE COMPANY (CAP)

The company started operation in Nigeria in 1955 as a trading concern,

importing and selling industrial products from Britain. This continued till 1962

when it started to manufacture its own paint locally. The Chemical and Allied

Product Limited (CAPL) was given to the company when it changed its name in

1978 in line with the Federal Government indigenization decree of 1974 when

the company was acquired by Nigerians and other bodies in Nigeria. The

company later changed to CAP Plc when it became a public liability company.

Presently, the company’s operation has become so diverse with which it can be

described as a leading manufacturer of industrial and consumer product. Its

area of specialization includes manufacturing of paints, pharmaceutical,

agricultural and industrial chemicals. Of all these, the paint division

[manufacturing and marketing constitute the core of the business of the

company.

REFERENCE

Aderika, E.O., et al (1996). Principle and Practice of Marketing. Enugu,


Jomoe Enterprises
Nigeria.

Charles, Rueben (1982). Marketing: concepts and Applications. 1st Ed. New
York: McGraw Hill

6
Book Company.

Cole, A.A. (1999). Basic Principal of Marketing. Lagos, Beyus Consults,


marketing Consultation
and analysis.

Lawal A.A. et al (2001).Entrepreneurship Development in Small Scale


Business. Lagos,
Ade Ola Printing Press Limited.

Martins, L.B. (1996). Marketing Concepts and Strategy: London, Macmillan


Press
Publishers Ltd.

Sanyaolu, T.U. (1999), Marketing Communication, Lagos, Fast Ventures.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 MARKETING CONCEPT

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The term marketing concept has been subjected to as many definitions as

there are authors who have variously written about marketing. A source

explains marketing “as the management process responsible for identifying,

anticipating and satisfying customers’ requirement profitably. In order to

accomplish this task of satisfying target customers, companies develop what is

called the marketing mix.

Marketing mix, according to Stanton, is the term that is used to describe the

combination of the four inputs that constitute the core of a company’s

marketing system: The Product, the price structures, the promotional activities

and the place or distribution system.

These four variables form the basic area of alteration as a business

organization attempts to satisfy its customer’s profitability. These mix need to

be properly blended for successful marketing activities.

2.2 PERSONAL SELLING

Personal selling can be described as a flexible interaction between the sales

person and the individual customer for the purpose of making sale and

purchases. Personal selling is also defined as interpersonal, face to face

interaction for the purpose of creating, modifying, exploiting or maintaining a

mutually beneficial exchange relationship with others. It is a promotional

technique aimed at selling effort involving persuasive face to face discussion

between the sales personnel and the prospective buyers for the purpose of

making sales. In a person to person communication process in contracts with

other forms of promotions, undoubtedly, personal selling is the most

persuasive and effective form of all the promotional system. As good as it may

8
be, it equally attracts the largest share of the communication promotion

budget. This results from the fact that the cost of reaching one person

the\rough personal selling is relatively higher than is the case with other

promotional system especially advertising.

The high cost of personal selling not withstanding, it is favoured than other

mode of promotions for the following reasons:

• It is more effective especially where a limited number of individual are

the target market.

• It allows for practical display or demonstration of the company’s product

with on-the-spot response of the potential buyers. Feedback can easily be

obtained, objection handled and orders quickly placed.

• Though advertising and other promotional system create awareness for a

company’s product, they may not be potent enough to motivate sales,

hence reliance on personal selling.

• Sales people assist in sensitizing and influencing customers to service old

account and obtain new ones.

• It is an avenue to advertise as well as to sell products and / or services.

2.3 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PERSONAL SELLING TO INDUSTRIAL

PRODUCTS.

From the discussions so far, it can be seen that personal selling much more

than any other promotion mix, is relevant and appropriate to industrial

products marketing than it is to consumer products. This arises from the

following reasons:

9
There is need for practical demonstration because of the high technical and

complex nature of before and after sales services that can only be performed

by sales person.

It is common practice to find the sales person visiting and inspecting the plants

and equipment of the industrial customers.

This vision sometimes leads to identification of more economical and modern

ways of producing products.

2.4 DISTINCTION BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL AND CONSUMER PRODUCTS

Industrial Products are those goods or services that are purchased for use in

making other products or use in the operation of an organization. While

consumer products on the other hand, are product destined for used by

ultimate consumers or households and in such form that they can be used

without further processing. The two definitions above summaries the

fundamental difference between industrial and consumer products. In a

nutshell, industrial goods are distinguished from consumer goods based on the

following attributes of industrial goods:

• Industrial goods are very expensive and of high value..

• The buyers and dealers are well defined and are very few.

• They are very complex in composition.

• Generally they are highly durable.

• The demand for these goods is not elastic, etc.

2.5 CLASSIFICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS

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Classification of product into either an industrial or a consumer product does

not follow a rigid procedure, as there is no clear line of demarcation between

these products. However, one useful means or gain about this is either through

the use into which the products are put or how they enter the production

process as well as their contribution to the structure of the industrial user.

The following are the main classes into which industrial products can be put:

 Heavy equipment

These include those major equipment that company employs in its productions

processes used to build road, building and machinery such as locomotives,

turbines machine tools etc.

A common feature of this class of equipment is that they are sometimes

designed to meet the needs of a particular customer.

 Light Equipment

Light equipment is cheaper in price when compared to heavy equipment. They

are usually available in standard sizes from several manufacturers. Purchased

on a more routine manner, involve less decision- making rigorous and less

negotiation and are sometimes used to operate the heavy equipments. These

equipment include tools, instruments, small motor etc.

 Raw and Processed Material

These are the basic or processed materials of the land and sea. Under this

category are logs, cotton, iron ore, crude oil, fishing net, chemicals etc. A

common feature of processed materials is their undifferentiated nature and

there are usually competition on the services rendered, such as quick delivery,

application assistance and available range of sizes.

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 Maintenance Repair and Operation (MRO) Supplies.

These are used by an organization as part of its normal operation and they do

not become part of the finished product. Their marketing and distribution

channels are similar to those of the consumer products. Their prices are low

and purchased frequently. Examples are cleaning, supplies, grinding wheels,

paper products, office supplies, lubrication etc.

Services

By services, we mean all intangibles that are acquired by an organization to aid

it in its operation process. They include insurance, banking, consulting and

shipping. Their qualities, which are usually difficult to measure, largely depend

on those who tender them, such as the technical salesmen that offer before

and after sales services.

2.6 METHODS OF MARKETING

The methods by which industrial and consumer products are marketed as a

basis for distinction can best be elaborated through analysis of the place as

they relate to each product category.

• Product:

To successfully market an industrial product, a lot of consideration needs to be

given to those attributes that make up the product. There is need to ensure

that the product composition including the package for protection can

satisfactorily meet the needs of the industrial buyers. Other components of the

industrial product mix are the emphasis placed on both before and after sales

services, on time delivery of equipment parts and components.

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• Price:

Though both industrial and consumer product purchases are sensitive to price

the greater sensitivity is with the ultimate consumer, for the industrial buyer

places higher emphasis on product quality and availability than price. He is

therefore less prone to price elasticity of demand than the consumer goods

buyers. He is not likely to change the quality he buys as a result of changes in

the price as would his consumer counter part. Discount in freight payment and

other price oriented variable are the main areas where industrial buyers solicit

price cuts rather than outright bargaining for on-the-spot cut in price that is

common with consumer goods buyers.

• Promotion

As mentioned earlier, industrial goods are mostly promoted and marketed

through personal selling while advertising and sales promotion are much more

rampant with consumer products. The major relevance of advertising to

industrial marketing is in creating product awareness while the onus is on

personal selling. On the other hand, personal selling of consumer goods is

most rampant with consumer durables. Generally, the market for industrial

goods is somewhat fixed, easily identifiable, concentrated in an area and less

susceptible to promotional activities than the consumer goods.

• Place: (Distribution)

There is an appreciable difference in the mode of distribution of both industrial

and consumer goods. While the former are mostly marketed or sold directly to

the user by the manufacturers, the distribution of consumer goods takes the

13
conventional channel; that, is from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, to the

retailer and then to the final user, consumer.

2.7 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERSONAL

SELLING

There are some factors that influence hoe effectively a company’s sales force

would be able to discharge its duties and responsibilities. These factors among

others include the following:

• Recruitment and selection of the sales force

• Training the sales force

• Remunerating and motivating the sales force.

• Controlling and evaluating sales force performance.

2.8 PERSONAL SELLING OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS IN NIGERIA

TODAY

The economic realities of the present day in Nigeria are gradually moving the

country away from a seller’s market to a buyer’s market. This is because with

the Nigerian economy which has been subjected to a severe battering, a

rational buyer would seek the best bargain in order to get the best value for his

scare resources- money! Industrial products which can be safely regarded as

the mother of all other products attract an appreciable attention in the

marketing scene in Nigeria today. Attesting to the place of personal selling in

the present setting of marketing activities in Nigeria, Onauga opined that many

14
more goods will unfortunately; have to chase relatively few buyers. Sales

promotion and personal selling effort must be intensified.

It is worthy of note that marketing practitioners especially manufacturers and

distributors of industrial products have accepted the challenges posed by the

present economy. They have been searing for the best ways to turn these

challenges to opportunities, hence, so many approaches have been evolved by

so many industrial manufacturers will the centre of attention being predicated

on personal selling intensification.

The CAP in order to meet these challenges and intensive competition has

developed a highly skilled and well e quipped sale force for all its industrial

products all over the country.

The regional sales manager of Berger paints, Ikeja, disclosed one efficacious

strategy adopted by his company is the caliber of its sales force. He explained

that since the company appreciated the highly technical skill required to sell

industrial paint, it has spread it net far and wide in its bid to bring skilled

personnel to its sales force. The result of these efforts, he concluded is sound

personal selling with appreciable high sales figure.

REFERENCE

Aderika, E.O., et al (1996). “Principle and Practice of Marketing Enugu,


Jomoe Enterprises
Nigeria.

15
Charles, Rueben (1982). Marketing: concepts and Applications. 1st Edition,
New
York: McGraw Hill Book Company.

Cole, A.A. (1999). “Basic Principal of Marketing” Lagos, Beyus Consults,


marketing Consultation
and analysis.

Kotler Phillips (1980). Marketing Management Analysis, Planning,


Control.London: Prentice
hall international Incorporated.

Lawal A.A. et al (2001). Entrepreneurship Development in Small Scale


Business, Lagos, Ade Ola
Printing Press Limited.

Martins, L.B. (1996). Marketing Concepts and Strategy: London Macmillan


Press Publishers Ltd.

Sanyaolu, T.U. (1999). Marketing Communication, Lagos, Fast Ventures.

Shubin (1991). “Business management” Barus and noble Press, 1st edition.

16
CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1: INTRODUCTION

The objective of this chapter is to examine the various methods employed in

both the collection and analysis of the relevant data in the course of this

research study. In order to achieve this objective, the following areas were

emphasized; the research design, data collection source, the population plan,

questionnaire design and administration.

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN

For this research work, the exploratory design was used which involves the

acquisition of fundamental information that would uncover the true nature of

the problem under investigation. Both the primary and secondary types of

exploratory research methods were used. Casual research was also used which

deals mainly with establishing the effect which one variable have over the

other. Therefore those factors that affect the effectiveness of the sale force

performances such as training are examined.

3.3: SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION

Two basic sources of data collection were used in the course of this research

work. These are primary (Field research) and the secondary (desk research)

source.

Primary Sources: These involve gathering fresh information that will help in

solving problem at hand. Series of discussions and interviews with people were

17
employed in this research work. Such people include sales and marketing

officers, sales representatives and customers of CAP, Bergers Paints and

International paint. Questionnaires were also administered to gathered

information.

Secondary Sources: This is where information were gathered from existing

sources such as textbooks, journals. Newspapers, magazines and through the

internet.

3.4 THE POPULATION PLAN

The population of a research work refers to the total number of people and

item about which research is carried out and from where conclusion is drawn.

In a situation where the population is very large, for instance running into

hundreds, a sample of the total population which can be reliably regarded as a

true representation of the population will be used to gather the required

information. However, where the population is not large enough, say hundred

and below, then the whole population can be used. This is called complete

enumerate. For the purpose of this research work, complete enumeration was

used in gathering information from members of sale force since their

population is not all that large, while a sample size of ten (10) of the customer

was interview.

3.5 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN

A questionnaire is a formulated schedule for collection of data from

respondents. The questionnaire designed for this work took the following

18
format. A letter of introduction explaining the purposes of this research work

and soliciting the assistance of respondents occupied the front page of the

questionnaire. Then followed by questions on respondents’ demography, such

as their names (optional), years of experience, educational background, sex,

age, marital status. This is contained in question 1-7.

The last of the questions (9-24) probed into the respondents’ characteristics,

level of knowledge, attitudes and so on that are related to the topic. In all,

there were 24 questions phrased to help test the hypotheses of this study.

3.6 QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION

Administering the questions was not an easy task. At a time, it would appear as

if there has been an agreement among manufacturers of industrial paints not

to offer information either in form of questionnaire completing or granting

personal interview to researchers. This is explained by the non-cooperative

attitudes of the respondents. Nevertheless, success was recorded in serving

the questionnaires meant for the sales force members of CAP Plc through the

assistance of marketing officers and that of Berger paints were administered

and collected through the assistance of the company’s training manager.

19
REFERENCE

Boniface G.N. (1991). Educational Research Basic Issues and Methodogy,


Ibadan. Wisdom publishers Limited,

Shokan O.O. (1993). Research Methodology and Seminar all discipline,


Shokan
Lagos. Investment Company Ltd.

Fagbohungbe O. B. (2000). Research Methods for Nigerian Tertiary


institutions,

Lagos. Kotleb Publishers Ltd.,

Imoisili, C .I. (1996), Social Research Methods for Nigerian Students,


Institute of

Personnel Management of Nigeria, Lagos.

Nnamdi, Asika, (1999), Research Methodology in the Behavioural Science,

Lagos. Longman Nigeria Plc.

20
OJIkutu, R.K. (1992), Statistics, Problems and Solution, Lagos.

Multhouse Press Limited.

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1: INTRODUCTION

For any research study involving the use of questionnaires, personal interviews

and hypotheses, there is always the need to analyse the raw data collected,

the result of the interviews as well as testing the hypotheses developed for the

study and interpret the findings. These are the scope of this chapter.

4.2: ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE

In all 25 questionnaires were administered on the members of the staff of the

company out of the questionnaires distributed 23 were dully filled and

returned.

The following are the analysis of the data obtained through these

questionnaires. Analysis of the questions on demography of the respondents

(questions 1-7) was omitted since they have little or no impact on the

interpretation or finding of this study.

21
Table 1 (question 8) Personal Selling is the most appropriate for selling

insuranceproducts.

Responses No. of % of Response

Respondent
Strongly Agree 15 65.21
Agree 6 26.09
Indifferent 2 8.70
Disagree - -
Strongly Disagree - -
Total 23 100
Source: Field survey, June 2010

From the above table, it can be seen that 15 of the 23 respondents,

representing about 65.21% strongly agreed that personal selling is the most

appropriate for selling industrial products; 26.09% agreed and 8.7% neither

agreed nor disagreed- indifferent

Table 2: (Question 9) salesmarketers are born not made.

Responses No. of Respondent % of Response


Strongly Agree 2 8.7
Agree 6 26.1
Indifferent 8 34.8
Disagree 6 26.1
Strongly Disagree 1 04.3
Total 23 100
Source: Field survey, June 2010

Table two above shows that 34.8% of the respondents believed that salesmen

are born and not made. While 30.4% of the respondents believed that

salesmen are made, 34.8 are indifferent to view whether salesmarketers are

born or made.

Table 3: (Question 10): Sound recruitment and selection procedure aid

effective personal selling.

Responses No. of Respondent % of Response


Strongly Agree 13 56.5
Agree 1 4.4
Indifferent 7 30.4

22
Disagree 2 8.7
Strongly Disagree - -
Total 23 100
Source: Field survey, June 2010

Table 3 above shows that 13 respondents about 56.5% strongly agree that

sound recruitment and selection procedure aid effective personal selling; 7, i.e.

30.4% agreed; 2 i.e. 8.7% disagreed with the notion.

Table 4: (Question 11) How adequate are the recruitment and selection

procedure in this company?

Responses No. of Respondent % of Response


Very adequate 7 30.4
Adequate 9 39.2
Fair 7 30.4
Inadequate - -
Very inadequate - -
Total 23 100
Source: Field survey, June 2010

The above table shows that 9 respondents, representing about 39.2% agreed

that the recruitment and selection procedure of their companies are adequate;

7 respondents felt that it is very adequate while 7 felt it is fair.

Table 5: (Question 12) Do you agree that sales training programme improves the

efficiency of the sales force?

Responses No. of Respondent % of Response


Strongly Agree 17 73.9
Agree - -
Indifferent 5 21.7
Disagree 1 4.4
Strongly Disagree - -
Total 23 100
Source: Field survey, June 2010

From the above table, 17 respondents i.e. 73.9% strongly agree that sales

training programme improves the efficiency of the sales force; 21.7% agreed

and 4.4% neither agreed nor disagreed.

23
Table 6: (Question 13): Adequate incentives as motivational tools improve the

effectiveness of personal selling.

Responses No. of Respondent % of Response


Strongly Agree 15 65.2
Agree - -
Indifferent 6 26.1
Disagree 2 8.7
Strongly Disagree - -
Total 23 100
Source: Field survey, June 2010

The table above indicates that 15 respondents, about 65.2% strongly agreed

that adequate incentives as motivational tool improve the effectiveness of

personal selling; 26.1% of the respondents agreed with the same notion, while

8.7% neither agreed nor disagreed.

Table 7 (Question 14): Adequate supervision of sales force improves the efficiency

of personal selling.

Responses No. of Respondent % of Response


Strongly Agree 10 43.5
Agree 3 13
Indifferent 6 26.1
Disagree 4 17.4
Strongly Disagree - -
Total 23 100
Source: Field survey, June 2010

From the table above, 43.5% of the respondents strongly agreed that adequate

supervision of sale force improves the efficiency of personal selling; 26.1%

agreed; 13% disagreed while 17.4 were indifferent.

4.3 TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

4.3.1: Testing of Hypothesis One

24
The hypotheses that: Personal selling is the most appropriate channel for

selling insurace products’.

To test this hypothesis, the following null and alternative hypotheses are used.

HO: Personal selling is the most appropriate channel for selling industrial

products’.

Hi: Personal selling is not appropriate channel for selling industrial products’.

Critical value of t [x =95%, dt=n-1=23-1=22] =2.07.

Respondents X X2
1 4 16
2 5 25
3 5 25
4 4 16
5 5 25
6 5 25
7 3 9
8 5 25
9 5 25
10 5 25
11 5 25
12 5 25
13 3 9
14 4 16
15 5 25
16 5 25
17 4 16
18 5 25
19 5 25
20 4 16
21 4 16
22 5 25
23 5 25
105 489

Ex = 105; Ex2 =489 n= 23

Ex = 105 = 4. 565

n = 23

25
S = Ex2 n(x)2 n-1

= 489 -23(4.565)2 23-1

= 489-23 (20.839) 22

S = 0.66.39

U = X + tn – S.n

= 4.565 + (2.074)(0.6639)23

4.565 + 0.2871 = 4.852

4.565 – 0.2871 = 4.278

to get the value of U, we choose any value within 4.852 and 4.278,

Therefore choosing 4.50,

That is U= 4.50

Using t = [ x-u] n
s

t = [ 4.565-4.50] 23
0.6639
23

t1 = 0.065 = 0.479

= 0.138.

Since the computed value t1 is less than the table value of t, i.e. t1 = 0.471,

U = 2.074. we therefore accept the null hypothesis that: Personal Selling is the

most appropriate for selling industrial products at 95% confidence level while

the alternative hypothesis is rejected.

4.3.2: TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS TWO

26
Hypothesis that: Effective recruitment, Selection and training of the sales force

enhance effective personal selling.

To test this hypothesis, the following null and alternative hypothesis were used.

 HO: Effective recruitment, Selection and training of the sales force

enhance effective personal selling.

 Hi: Effective recruitment, Selection and training of the sales force do not

enhance effective personal selling.

Critical value of t [x = 95%, dt = n-1 = 23-1 = 22] = 2.07.

Respondents X X2
1 16 256
2 16 256
3 17 289
4 18 324
5 17 289
6 17 289
7 15 225
8 14 196
9 17 289
10 16 256
11 18 324
12 20 400
13 19 361
14 20 400
15 20 400
16 17 289
17 18 324
18 20 400
19 16 256
20 14 196
21 17 289
22 18 324
23 15 225
395 6857

Ex = 395; Ex2 = 6857 n= 23

Ex = 105

27
n = 23 = 4. 565

S = Ex2 - n(x)2
n-1

= 6857-6780.6
22

= 3.473

= 1.864

U = ( 17.17 + 2.074) 1.864

23

= 17.17 – 0.805 = 16.37

To get the value of U, we choose any value within 17.98 and 16.47, Therefore

17 is chosen

Using t = [ x-u]
s
n

t = 17.17-17.00
1.864
23

t = 0.17
1.864
4.796 = 0.17

= 0.389 = 0.437
t1 = 0.437

tt = 2.074

Since the computed value of t is less than the table value of t, i.e. t1 = 0.45,

tt=2.0.74, we therefore accept the null hypothesis that: Effective recruitment,

28
Selection and training of the sales force enhance effective personal selling With

95% confidence level while the alternative hypothesis is rejected.

4.4 INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

Discussion of findings is based on the result of the hypothesis tested and the

responses of the respondents shown in the questionnaire.

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter gives the summary, conclusion, recommendations and possible

suggestions for future research.

5.2 SUMMARY

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Our belief I the place of personal selling as a prominent feature in marketing

generally and of industrial product in particular engineered the choice of

the topic of this research work. The study set out to specifically highlight

how this concept (personal selling) is being handled by marketers of

industrial products. It also tries to find out level of successes and failures of

personal selling, those factors contributing to them and to come up with

remedies in any lapses.

Data were collected from primary sources which included personal

interviews with knowledgeable people: both sales force members and

customers, questionnaire administration and observation of sales force

performance on the field, a well as secondary sources, mainly related

literature. These data were analysed and statistically tested to either accept

or reject the hypotheses formulated for this study.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

The following recommendations are made which are based on the findings from

the study having analysed and statistically tested the information collected.

1. that personal selling has been generally accepted as the most

appropriate means of selling industrial products, nevertheless, we would

recommend that other promotional mix variables, especially advertising

and trade exhibitions should no be neglected. These will essentially help

30
to creating awareness for the product thereby preparing ground for

successful personal selling activities.

2. On the issue of the procedure for recruiting and selecting the individual

product sales force, although both the questionnaire analysis and the

hypotheses tested indicated that the procedures are appropriate, we

would still recommend that industrial product makers focus their

recruitment exercise more on those candidates with science subjects

background in addition to degrees, diplomas and certificates in

management course. This will facilitate and ease the training exercises of

the sales force staff.

3. Concerning training, we would recommend that each company should

establish their training school. This will facilitate imbibing the specific

knowledge which is unique to their products into their salesmen.

4. As regards industrial products’ price, in line with cost and price reduction

measures, industrial manufacturers should embark on local sourcing for

their raw materials to reduce, if not totally replace the costly imported

ones.

5.4 CONCLUSION OF THE STUDY

Personal Selling has been widely accepted ns the most appropriate for selling

industrial products compared with other promotional mix variable like

advertising, sale promotion, trade exhibition and publicity. The respondents

31
study shows that this fact also been acknowledge by manufacturer / marketers

of industrial products, especially industrial pants.

Some of the reasons advanced for this enviable position of personal selling are

that the industrial products, in view of their highly technical and specialized

nature and characteristics, require a lot of personal contact to market them to

allow for reassurance of the consumers’ confidence in the product. This is

enhanced by offering practical demonstration of some of these products where

necessary, deliver them where required, offer after sales services such as

maintenance and repairs, training the consumer firm’s personnel on the

operation of the product, obtain feedback from customers and so on.

As a result of these onerous tasks that the sales force handling industrial

products are expected to perform, the processes of recruiting, selecting and

training them are more complex than is the case with their consumer

counterparts. Also needing special emphasis are the methods of remunerating

and motivating the sales force which have direct influence on their moral and

consequently their performances. Therefore the management of the sales

forces of the company, especially one dealing with industrial products must be

alive to these crucial factors collectively for successful selling exercises.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

32
Aderika, E.O., et al (1996). “Principle and Practice of Marketing Enugu,
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Boniface G.N. (1991). Educational Research Basic Issues and Methodogy


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New

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Shokan

APPENDIX 1

QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Respondents,

We are final year students of the Department of Business Studies, Lagos State

Polytechnic, Isolo campus. Currently we are conducting a research on: “Personal

selling as a panacea to marketing of industrial products” This questionnaire is

therefore distributed to gather information most especially your experience about the

study under investigation.

Kindly assist by completing this questionnaire, be rest assured that whatever

information given shall be treated with strict confidence for the purpose of this study

Thank for your co-operation.

Yours faithfully.

• Tyuiyh

• Yutred

• Mkjhgpo

• jhgf

34
Appendix 2

SECTION A

PERSONAL DATA

Please tick ( ) or comment on the space provided where necessary.

(1) AGE: 18-25yrs 26-40 yrs 40-50yrs 50 and


above

(2) GENDER: Male Female

(3) STATUS: Single Married

(4) EDUCATION: SSCE/GCE OND/NCE H ND/Bsc MSc.


Professional

(5) HOW LONG HAVE BEEN IN THIS ORGANIZATION:


1-5yrs 6-10yrs Above 10 years

35
SECTION B.

Analysis of Data According to Research Questionnaires.

1. Personal Selling is the most appropriate for selling insurancel products.

Strongly agreed Agreed Indifferent

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

2. Salesmarketers are born not made.

Strongly agreed Agreed Indifferent

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

3. Sound recruitment and selection procedure aid effective personal selling.

Strongly agreed Agreed Indifferent

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

4. Do you agree that sales training programme improves the efficiency of the sales force?

Strongly agreed Agreed Indifferent

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

5. Adequate incentives as motivational tools improve the effectiveness of personal selling.

Strongly agreed Agreed Indifferent

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

36
6 Adequate supervision of sales force improves the efficiency of personal selling.

Strongly agreed Agreed Indifferent

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

7. Personal selling is an important tool to remain in a competitive environment.

Strongly agreed Agreed Indifferent

Disagreed Strongly Disagree

8. Advertising do mislead people to buy what they do not plan to buy unlike personal

selling

Strongly agreed Agreed Indifferent

Disagreed Strongly Disagreed

9. Personal selling contributes to the growth of an organization through increase in

profitability.

Strongly agreed Agreed Indifferent

Disagreed Strongly disagreed

37