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Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, Chapter 18 Problems: 5, 7, 10, 18, 21, 23, 31, 41, 43, 44, 46, 48

18.5 At what temperature is the Fahrenheit scale reading equal to (a) twice that of the Celcius scale and (b) half

that of the Celcius scale?

TF − 32◦

TF = 2TC → TF = 2 → 0.9TF = TF − 32◦

1.8

(b) Fahrenheit half the Celsius reading:

TF − 32◦

2TF = TC → 2TF = → TF = −12.3◦ and TC = −24.6◦

1.8

18.7 Suppose that on a linear scale X, water boils at −53.5◦ X and freezes at −170◦ X. What is a temperature of 340

K on the X scale? (Approximate water’s boiling point as 373 K.)

The difference between boiling and freezing points on this scale:

116.5◦ X

(67 K) = 78.1◦ X above freezing

100 K

18.10 An aluminum flagpole is 33 m high. By how much does its length increase as the temperature increases by

15◦ C?

The length is initially 33 m and the temperature increases 15◦ C. The new length is

18.18 At 20◦ C, a rod is exactly 20.05 cm long on a steel ruler. Both the rod and the ruler are placed in an oven at

270◦ C, where the rod now measures 20.11 cm on the same ruler. What is the coefficient of linear expansion for

the material of which the rod is made of?

Both the rod and the ruler will expand but not necessarily at the same rate. The original length of the rod is

L = 20.05 cm. The length of the rod after a 250◦ C increase in temperature is equal to a 20.11 cm length of

steel after the steel has also expanded. The expanded length of the steel is:

Lsteel + ∆Lsteel = Lsteel (1 + αsteel ∆T ) = (20.11 cm) 1 + (11 × 10−6 /◦ C)(250◦ C) = 20.165 cm

∆L 0.115 cm

∆L = Lα∆T → α= = = 23 × 10−6 /◦ C

L∆T (20.05 cm)(250◦ C)

1

Lsteel +∆Lsteel = Lsteel (1 + αsteel ∆T ) = (20.11 cm) 1 + (11 × 10 / C)(250 C) = 20.165 cm

∆L 0.115 cm −6 ◦

18.21 As a result∆L

of a=temperature

Lα∆T →of 32◦ C,

rise α a=bar with = a crack at its center buckles

◦

23 × 10(Fig.

= upward / 18-31).

C If the

L∆T

fixed distance L0 is 3.77 m and the coefficient of (20.05 cm)(250

linear expansion of the bar C)

is 25 × 10−6 /◦ C, find the rise x of

the center.

The rod is likely made of aluminum.

The original, unbent length and the buckled beam make two right triangles with x.

HRW 18.21 The original, unbent length and the buckled beam make two right triangles with x.

L/2

x

L0/2

! "2

! "22 2

2 L0

x =+ L

L0 2

=

L

Wetoneed

x + 2 2 We need findto Lfind to find

to Lfind x. x.

2 2

L = L0 (1 + α∆T ) = %(3.77 m) 1 + (25 −6 ◦ &◦ C) = 3.773 m

−6×◦10 / C)(32 ◦

L = L0 (1 + α∆T ) = (3.77

q m) 1 + (25 × 10 / C)(32 C) = 3.773 m

' x = 1 L2 −' 2 1p

m)2 − (3.77 m)2 = 0.075 m

1 2 2 2 1 L0 = 2 (3.773 2

x= L − L0 = (3.773 m)( 3.77 m)2 = 0.075 m

2 2

18.23 A small electric immersion heater is used to heat 100 g of water for a cup of instant coffee. The heater is

labeled “200 watts” (it converts electrical energy to thermal energy at this rate). calculate the time required

1

to bring all this water from 23.0◦ C to 100◦ C, ignoring any heat losses.

Ignoring heat losses makes this easier. First, I’ll calculate the energy required to raise the temperature of 100

g of water 77.0◦ C.

Q = mc∆T = (100 g) (4.190 J/g ·◦ C) (77.0◦ C) = 3.226 × 104 J

A 200 watt heater is putting out 200 J every second (ignoring heat losses!).

Q Q 3.226 × 104 J

P = → ∆t = = = 161 s

∆t P 200 J/s

18.31 What mass of steam at 100◦ C must be mixed with 150 g of ice at its melting point, in a thermally insulated

container, to produce liquid water at 50◦ C?

The mass of steam, ms , is at Ts0 =◦ C and the mass of ice, mi = 150 g, is at Ti0 = 0◦ C. The heat lost by the

steam will be equivalent to the heat gained by the ice.

ms LV + ms c (Ts0 − T ) = mi LF + mi c (T − Ti0 )

where T = 50◦ C is the final temperature, LV = 2256 J/g is the heat of vaporization, LF = 333 J/g is the heat

of fusion, and c = 1.00 cal/g ·◦ C is the specific heat (all of water). Solve for ms :

LF + c (T − Ti0 )

ms = mi = (150 g)

LV + c (Ts0 − T ) 539 cal/g + (1.00 cal/g ·◦ C)(100◦ C − 50.0◦ C)

ms = 33 g

18.41 (a) Two 50 g ice cubes are dropped into 200 g of water in a thermally insulated container. If the water is

initially at 25◦ C, and the ice comes directly from a freezer at −15◦ C, what is the final temperature of the

equilibrium? (b) What is the final temperature if only one ice cube is used?

(a) The total change of energy of the system (water plus ice) is zero. The question is “Will all the ice melt?” I

think for the two ice cube case, this is not likely. To raise the temperature of the ice to 0◦ C requires an amount

of heat equal to

2

and to melt the ice it requires

Lowering the temperature of the water from by 25◦ C releases an amount of heat equal to

Thus, cooling the water to 0◦ C is enough to raise the temperature of the ice up to 0◦ C and to melt part of the

ice. How much ice is melted?

2.095 × 104 J − 3.33 × 103 J

mmelt LF = Q3 − Q1 → mmelt = = 43 g

333 J/g

The final temperature is 0◦ C with 57 g of ice and 243 g of water.

(b) Now we only have one ice cube, mi = 50 g. The heat required to raise the temperature of the ice and to

melt the ice will be half of what they were for part (a):

Q01 = 1.665 × 103 J Q02 = 1.665 × 104 J and Q01 + Q02 < Q3

The last relation tells us that there will be some energy left over after raising the temperature of the ice and

melting the ice. There will be m0 = m + mi = 250 g of water at the end at a temperature of

2.635 × 103 J

m0 cT = Q3 − Q01 − Q02 = 2.635 × 103 J → T = = 2.5◦ C

(250 g)(4.190 J/g ·◦ C)

HRW 18.43 In Fig. 18-36, a gas sample expands from V0 to 4.0V0 while its pressure decreases from p0 to p0 /4.0.

If V0 = 1.0 m3 and p0 = 40P a, how much work is done by the gas if its pressure changes with volume via (a)

path A, (b) path B, and (c) path C?

The work done is just the “area” under the curve in a P − V diagram.

(a) All the work done at the higher pressure,

1 1

WB = (P1 + P2 )∆V = (40 N/m2 + 10 N/m2 )(4.0 m3 − 1.0 m3 ) = 75 J

2 2

(a) All the work done at the lower pressure,

HRW 18.44 A thermodynamic system is taken from state A to state B to state C, and then back to A, as shown

in the p-V diagram of Fig. 18-37a. The vertical scale is set by Vs = 4.0 m3 . (a)−(g) Complete the table in

Fig. 18-37b by inserting a plus sign, minus sig, or a zero in each indicated cell. (h) What is the net work done

by the system as it moves once through the cycle ABCA?

(a) Here is the chart filled out, followed by the reasoning for each choice.:

(a) Here is the chart filled out, followed by the reasoning for each choice.:

Q W Eint

A B + + +

B C + 0 +

C A ! ! !

Since ∆Eint > 0 and W > 0, we must have Q > 0.

A→B Since ∆V > 0, the system is doing positive work, so W > 0.

Since ∆Eint > 0 and W > 0, we must have Q > 0.

B→C Since ∆V = 0, the system is not doing work, so W = 0.

Since Q > 0 and W = 0, we must have ∆Eint > 0.

C→A Since ∆V < 0, work is done on the system (or the system is doing negative work), so W < 0.

For the whole cycle we must have ∆Eint = 0 so we must have ∆Eint < 0 here.

Since ∆Eint < 0 and W < 0, we must have Q < 0.

(b) The work done by the system is equal to the area under the curve but negative here because the loop is

CCW.

1

W = − ∆P ∆V = −20 J

2

HRW 18.46 Suppose 200 J of work is done on a system and 70.0 cal is extracted from the system as heat. In the

sens of the first law of thermodynamics, what are the values (including algebraic signs) of (a) W , (b) Q, and

(c) ∆Eint ?

(a) Since work is done on the system, this implies, W , which is the work done by the system, must be negative,

W = −200 J. (b) Heat is extracted from the system so Q = −70.0 cal = −293 J. (c) Finally, the change in

internal energy will be

∆Eint = Q − W = −293 J − (−200 J) = −93 J

HRW 18.48 Gas held within a chamber passes through the cycle shown in Fig. 18-40. Determine the energy

transferred by the system as heat during process CA if the energy added as heat QAB during process AB is

20.0 J, no energy is transferred as heat during process BC, and the net work done during the cycle is 15.0 J.

We are given QAB = 20.0 J, QBC = 0 (so BC is an adiabat), and WABCA = 15.0 J.

We want the heat transfer dring CA. Knowing the internal energy change must be zero in a closed cycle,

∆Eint = 0 → QAB + QBC + QCA − WABCA = 0

QCA = WABCA − QAB − QBC = 15.0 J − 20.0 J = −5.0 J

So 5.0 J of heat were removed from the system during process CA.

18.E1 An energetic athlete can use up all the energy from a diet of 4000 Cal/day. If he were to use this energy up

at a steady rate, how would his rate of energy use compare with the power of a 100 W bulb? (The power of

100 W is the rate at which the bulb converts electrical energy to heat and the energy of visible light.)

We just need to convert this to Joules per second (i.e., Watts) keeping in mind that this is 4000 food calories

or 4000 kcal:

1 day

4000 kcal/day × (4.180 J/cal) = 194J/s = 194 W

86400 s

So the athlete uses up energy at a rate of roughly two 100 W bulbs.

18.E2 A chef, on finding his stove out of order, decides to boil the water for his wife’s coffee by shaking it in a

thermos flask. Suppose that he uses tap water at 15◦ C and the water falls 30 cm each shake, the chef making

30 shakes each minute. Neglecting any loss of thermal energy by the flask, how long must he shake the flask

until the water reaches 100◦ C?

The energy gained in one 30 cm drop (assuming no losses) is mg∆h. The energy required to raise the temper-

ature is mc∆T . We can find the number of shakes, N :

c∆T (4180 J/kg ·◦ C)(85◦ C)

N mg∆h = mc∆T → N= = = 1.2 × 105

g∆h (9.80 N/kg)(0.30 m)

The time for this number of shakes is

1.2 × 105 shakes

∆t = = 4.0 × 103 min

30 shakes/min

It would take about 2.8 days of shaking.

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