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SMITHSONIAN ANNALS OF FLIGHT

AIRCRAFT PROPULSION
C FAYETTE TAYLOR

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A Review of the Evolution of Aircraft Piston Engines

Volume 1, Number 4 (End of Volume)


NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM 0 / \ SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

NATIONAL AIR AND SPACE MUSEUM


SMITHSONIAN ANNALS OF FLIGHT
VOLUME 1 . NUMBER 4 . (END OF VOLUME)

AIRCRAFT PROPULSION
A Review of the Evolution
0£ Aircraft Piston Engines
C. F A Y E T T E T A Y L O R

Professor of Automotive Engineering Emeritus


Massachusetts Institute of Technology

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS


CITY OF WASHINGTON • 1971
Smithsonian Annals of Flight
Numbers 1-4 constitute volume one of Smithsonian Annals of Flight. Subsequent
numbers will not bear a volume designation, which has been dropped. T h e
following earlier numbers of Smithsonian Annals of Flight are available from the
Superintendent of Documents as indicated below:
1. The First Nonstop Coast-to-Coast Flight and the Historic T - 2 Airplane,
by Louis S. Casey, 1964. 90 pages, 43 figures, appendix, bibliography.
Price 60ff.
2. T h e First Airplane Diesel Engine: Packard Model DR-980 of 1928, by
Robert B. Meyer. 1964. 48 pages, 37 figures, appendix, bibliography.
Price 60^.
3. The Liberty Engine 1918-1942, by Philip S. Dickey. 1968. 110 pages,
20 figures, appendix, bibliography. Price 75jf.
The following numbers are in press:
5. The Wright Brothers Engines and Their Design, by Leonard S. Hobbs.
6. Langley's Aero Engine of 1903, by Robert B. Meyer.
7. The Curtiss D-12 Aero Engine, by Hugo Byttebier.

For sale by Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office


Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $1.75
Contents
Page
FOREWORD vn
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS vm
EARLY ATTEMPTS AT PROPULSION 1
EARLY INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES 8
Wright Brothers' Engine 1903 9
Langley Engines 1900-1903 15
ENGINES 1903-1909 19
ENGINES 1910-1918 27
PISTON ENGINES AFTER 1918 35
Liquid-Cooled Engines 35
Air-Cooled Engines 41
Air Versus Liquid Cooling 53
UNCONVENTIONAL ENGINES 57
Barrel- or Revolver-Type Engine 57
Fairchild-Caminez Engine 57
Sleeve-Valve Engines 57
Diesel Aircraft Engines 59
Two-Cycle Gasoline Engines 60
Unconventional Cylinder Arrangements 62
RELATED TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENTS 63
Valves and Valve Cooling 63
Fuels and Combustion 65
Altitude Performance and Superchargers 67
Vibration Control 73
Propellers 75
Reduction gears 78
Other Developments 79
Ignition Systems 79
Carburetion 81
Fuel Injection 81
Starting 81
Bearings and Lubrication 82
Engine Instruments 83
SUMMARY OF PISTON-ENGINE DEVELOPMENT 85
Table 1—Engines of Historical Importance 88
Table 2—Credits, by Country, for Engine Developments . 90
FOOTNOTES 91
APPENDIX—The Rotary Radial Engine 93
BIBLIOGRAPHY 95
(Expanded and arranged by Dr. Richard K. Smith,
from material furnished by C. Fayette Taylor)
Bibliographies and Indexes 95
History and Technology of Aircraft and Flight 96
(Publications primarily concerned with aircraft devel-
opment, but incidentally containing valuable material
on aircraft propulsion, or with theory and technological
practice)
Aircraft Powerplants 101
(Descriptions and technical data: under Engines, dates
refer to date of publication)
Aircraft Power Before 1900 101
Engines 1900-1913 101
Engines 1914-1919 103
Engines 1920-1924 104
Engines 1925-1929 106
Engines 1930-1934 108
Engines 1935-1939 109
Piston Engines 1940 and After 110
Steam Engines 112
Diesel Engines 112
Jet, Rocket, and Turbine Engines 113
Related Technical Developments 115
Altitude Performance and Supercharging 115
Cooling, Cowling, and Radiators 117
Carburetors, Carburetion, and Fuel Injection 118
Instruments and Accessories 119
(Engine instruments, fuel-supply and exhaust
systems, ignition systems and spark plugs, starters
and starting)
Fuels and Combustion, Lubrication 120
Propellers and Propeller Gearing 121
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Annual Reports . 123

VI
Foreword
This, the fourth number of Smithsonian Annals of Flight, was the Fourth Lester
B. Gardner Lecture, delivered at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
March 8, 1962, and at the Smithsonian Institution, October 5, 1962. Subse-
quently it was published in the General Appendix to the Annual Report . . . of
the Smithsonian Institution . . . for the Tear Ended June 30, 1962 (1963).
As presented here, the text has been revised, enlarged, and updated. Its 72
illustrations, many of them new, include a number of engines, aircraft, and the
materials in the collections of the National Air and Space Museum.
With it, for the first time, appears the bibliography which accompanied the
original manuscript and which, for lack of space, could not then (1963) be printed.
This has since been edited and expanded to approximately double its original
length by Dr. Richard K. Smith while he was serving on the Museum staff. Its
nearly 600 entries, most of them contemporary accounts, cover the whole range of
engine development and related activities from the early beginnings. This bibliog-
raphy should be a useful and welcome tool, both for the airplane enthusiast and
for the historian of aviation technology.
The active connection of the author, C. Fayette Taylor, with aircraft power
started with his appointment in 1917 as officer-in-charge of the (aircraft) Power
Plant Laboratory of the United States Navy, Washington, D.C. Here the engines
of World War I, both foreign and domestic, were tested and improved. From
1919 to 1923 he was engineer-in-charge of the Power Plant Laboratory of the
Army Air Service at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio. Pioneer work on engines and
fuels was done during this period. From 1923 to 1926 he was engineer-in-charge
of design, and for a short while chief engineer at Wright Aeronautical Corpora-
tion, Paterson, New Jersey, concentrating on the development of air-cooled
radial engines. Since 1926 he has been Professor of Automotive Engineering at
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, retiring from active duty there in 1965.
He is still an active consultant in the field of internal-combustion engines.
Professor Taylor is author, with Charles Chatfield and Shatswell Ober,
of The Airplane and Its Engine (McGraw Hill, 1928, 1932, 1936, 1940, 1948);
with E. S. Taylor, of The Internal Combustion Engine (International Textbook Co.,
1938, 1948, 1961); and of The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice
(M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 2 vols., 1960, 1968). He has also published
numerous papers and articles in professional journals.

S. PAUL JOHNSTON, Director


July 1, 1969 National Air and Space Museum

VII
Acknowledgments

This publication is based chiefly on the author's close personal connection


with the development of aircraft engines during the period 1917-1950. Im-
portant editorial assistance by members of the staff of the National Air and Space
Museum is gratefully acknowledged. Especial thanks are due to Mr. Robert B.
Meyer, Jr., Curator, Propulsion. The bibliography has been edited and arranged
by Dr. Richard K. Smith.
C. FAYETTE TAYLOR

VIII
AIRCRAFT PROPULSION
A Review of the Evolution
Of Aircraft Piston Engines
ctflfK
Figure 1.—Reproduction of Launoyand Bienvenue helicopter (NASM 1930-15), using bent-
bow propulsion, 1784. (Photo A-18232)

Figure 2.—Penaud's Planaphore (NASM 1930-17), using rubber-band propulsion, 1871.


(Photo A-19627)
Early Attempts at Propulsion

MAN'S MUSCLES, USUALLY ATTACHED TO FLAPPING WINGS, were the earliest


and most obvious source of power suggested for flight. In spite of innumer-
able attempts, there is no record of heavier-than-air sustained flight having
been made with this kind of power until 1961, when Derek Piggot, in
Hampshire, England, was reported to have flown 70 yards in a monoplane
that was powered by a pedal-driven propeller. 1 On the other hand, many
early balloons were equipped with oars or paddles, and at least two dirigible
balloons, that of Charles E. Ritchel at Hartford, Connecticut, in 1878
and that of deLome in Paris, 1863, were equipped with propellers driven
by pedals and a manned windlass, respectively. As late as 1907, Cromwell
Dixon of Seattle, Washington, demonstrated a dirigible-airship powered
by a pedal-driven propeller.
The first successful free flights by a man-made heavier-than-air con-
trivance seem to have been by model helicopters whose counter-rotating
propellers, usually made of bird feathers, were driven by a wooden or
whalebone bow (fig. 1). Charles H. Gibbs-Smith, in his excellent historical
account The Aeroplane, credits the Chinese with this invention, as early as
the 4th or 5th century, A.D. A French painting of such a device is dated
1460. Models of this type were flown by Launoy and Bienvenu in France
in 1784, and by Sir George Cayley, "Father of Aerial Navigation," in
1792. Alphonse Penaud (1851-1880) improved on Cayley's design by using
twisted rubber bands, both for model helicopters and for a near-conven-
tional model monoplane (fig. 2). This system of propulsion remains to this
day the most important source of power for small airplane and helicopter
models, and even today probably powers many more "airplanes" than
any other type of powerplant. It is of historical interest to note that in the
first detailed account of their pioneer flights the Wright Brothers attribute
their early interest in flying to toy helicopters powered by rubber bands.
The first successful flight by a model airplane powered by means other
than rubber bands is said to be that of Felix DuTemple in France, 1857—

N O T E : All footnotes are to be found on pages 91-92.

1
1858, using a clockwork motor. Steam power was later used by this same
inventor, but there is no authentic record of successful flight. A com-
pressed-air-driven model by Victor Tatin (France) made circular tethered
flights in 1879.
Odd sources of power that have been proposed included tethered
gryphons (birds were evidently considered inadequate), sails, and horses
on a treadmill (obviously at least 1,000 pounds per horsepower). Some of
these sources were even tried. The prize for ingenuity in the unconventional
category might go to Portuguese reports, published about the year 1700,
which described an aircraft sustained by magnets acting on electrified
amber and propelled by a hand-power bellows blowing on its sails. Sir
George Cayley built and tested a gunpowder engine in 1807, and in 1850
designed a model airplane powered by this means, but it was never built.
A model ornithopter with wings operated by gunpowder, built by Trouve,
is said to have risen from the ground in 1870.
There are records of two flights of dirigible airships using electric
motors with batteries, namely, that of Tissandier at Auteuil in October
1883, and that of Charles Renard and Arthur Krebs near Paris in August
1884. The latter machine was considered quite successful.
Rocket power, inspired by the Chinese invention of the ballistic rocket
in the 12th century, was suggested by Gerard in 1784. An English cartoon
of 1825 shows a proposed rocket, propelled by a steerable steam jet, in
flight to the moon. For man-carrying powered flight, the first use of rockets
was by Fritz von Opel (Germany) in 1928. The first jet-engined flight
was that of the Heinkel-178 airplane in Germany, 27 August 1939, powered
with the HeS-3B gas turbine engine of 1,100-lb thrust, developed by
Pabst von Ohain.
Steam power became a popular proposal for aerial navigation in the
early 19th century, soon after it had been successfully demonstrated in
ships, locomotives, and road vehicles. A model helicopter by W. H. Phillips
(England) rose from the ground under steam power in 1842. Steam jets
located in the wing tips were a remarkable anticipation of a modern appli-
cation of jet power.
Contrary to most historical statements, the steam-driven airplane models
of Henson and Stringfellow were apparently not capable of sustained
rising or level flight. In the short indoor flights of record, take-off was from
a horizontal wire somewhat higher than the landing point. Thus, these
flights were what may be called "powered glides." The powerplants used
are of interest, however, because of their advanced design. Gibbs-Smith
attributes the powerplant design to Henson, stating that Stringfellow was
r f
I.
-, i
M^MU^IJ

Figure 3.—Stringfellow engine and boiler (NASM 1889-1), 1868. (Photo A-20030)

more the skilled mechanic than the inventor. The 20-ft.-span model built
by Henson but never flown was said to include a well-designed steam plant,
but details are difficult to find. Stringfellow's "flying" model was a 10-ft-span
monoplane equipped with a double-acting steam engine of %x2-in. bore
and stroke driving two mid wing 16-in. propellers geared to turn at three
times engine speed. Its best powered glide was for about 120 ft indoors. A
Stringfellow engine and boiler of 1868, a multibulb affair, is now at the
National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution (fig. 3)-
A dirigible airship with a 3-hp steam plant weighing 351 lb was flown
by Henri Giffard from Paris to Trappes in 1852 (fig. 4). I have not found a
Figure 4.—Giffard airship, steam-engine powered, 1852. (Photo A-19889)

technical description of this single-cylinder vertical engine. In spite of


earlier and later designs for steam-driven dirigible balloons, that of Giffard
seems to be the only one which made successful flights. Alexander F.
Mozhaiski in Russia in 1884 and Clement Ader in 1890 both built and
tested full-scale steam-powered airplanes. At most, these machines made
short uncontrolled "hops," although Ader's machine seems to have had
the ability to lift itself without external assistance. No engine details seem
to be available. The "Chauve-Souris," Clement Ader's "Avion I I I " of
1897, on display at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, Paris,
France, is equipped with two 20-hp steam engines.
The best-known full-scale attempt at flight with steam was that of
Sir Hiram Maxim in 1894. Maxim was an experienced steam engineer,
and his powerplant was far more advanced than the aircraft to which it
was applied. Its two twin-cylinder compound engines (fig. 5) each drove a
pusher propeller. The powerplant was rated at 363 hp and weighed
complete, 1,800 lb, or 5 lb/hp, an extraordinarily light weight for its day'
The boiler, (fig. 6) was of the multiple water-tube type, very much like
!«tfSki U

Figure 5.—Sir H i r a m Maxim with his twin-cylinder c o m p o u n d steam engine, 1894. (Photo A-42378)

Figure 6.—Maxim's steam boiler, feed-water heater, and burner, 1894. (From Journal of the Society
of the Arts (30 November 1894), v o l . 4 3 , p. 22.)
modern marine steam boilers. Operation along rails indicated that this
engine could furnish the power necessary to lift even the monstrous con-
traption in which it was installed. Lack of success with this machine was
not the fault of the powerplant.
Any discussion of steam power for aircraft should include the work of
Dr. Samuel P. Langley, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, who
built and successfully flew unmanned steampowered models 2 of 14-ft span
in 1896. Fortunately, Langley's records are complete, and full technical
details are available. The most notable feature of Langley's steam power-
plants (fig. 7) was the use of "flash" boilers, that is, boilers consisting of
one or more long coiled tubes with water pumped in at one end and steam
issuing from the other. This type later was used successfully in the White
automobile and is probably the type which would be used today if no
alternative to steam power were available. Langley's steam plants weighed
in the neighborhood of 7 lb/hp. He was perhaps the first to grapple with
the problem of "flameout" in an aeronautical burner. A sentence from his
memoirs reads in part, "Unfortunately there is a limit to this process
[increasing the air flow through the burner] of increasing the air supply . . .
a certain speed of efflux cannot be exceeded without putting the flame
out." The early jet engines encountered this same problem.
Of course, steam ceased to be of importance for aircraft after flights
by the Wright brothers and others had demonstrated the superior qualities
of the internal-combustion engine, but it continued to have an emotional

Figure 7.—Steam engine used by Samuel P. Langley in his 14-ft-span Aerodrome No. 5 (NASM
1905-1), 1896. (Photo A-12555)
appeal to many people well into the 1930s. A Travelair biplane powered
with a steam engine designed by William Besler was actually flown by
the designer in California in 1932. A replica of this engine is in the Smith-
sonian's National Air and Space Museum (NASM 1965-253).
Steam was probably given the coup de grace by Commander Eugene
Wilson of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, a naval officer trained in
steam power for ships, who reported in 1926, "On the basis of these three
considerations [weight, economy, air resistance] they [steam powcrplants]
are absolutely impossible." My own opinion is not so extreme. If steam
power was without competitors, we would have successful steam aircraft
today, but at a considerable sacrifice in performance and perhaps also
in safety.
Early Internal-Combustion Engines

The earliest successful aeronautical application of the internal-combustion


engine appears to be in a dirigible-balloon flight by Paul Haenlein in
Germany in 1872. A 4-cylinder 5-hp (40 rpm) Lenoir engine using coal-gas
fuel was used. The Lenoir engine was the first commercial internal-com-
bustion engine. The cylinders drew in air for half the stroke and fired at
atmospheric pressure at midstroke. Efficiency was low—about 5 percent.
The relatively lightweight and relatively efficient "Otto-cycle" gasoline
engine began with developments in England and Germany in the 1880s,
stimulated by automobile development. Its application to aircraft came soon
after. The first flight with this type of engine was apparently that of a
dirigible airship designed by David Schwartz. The flight took place in
Germany in 1897.
Alberto Santos-Dumont, in Paris in 1898, flew a dirigible equipped
with a pair of "tricycle" engines in tandem, rated together at 3% h p a n d
weighing, it is said, 66 lb, or 19 lb/hp. These engines were probably fore-
runners of the 3-hp Clement engine used by Dumont for his one-man
dirigible airship flown during the summer of 1903. This engine was a 2-
cylinder V-type, air cooled, and weighed 8.8 lb/hp. It is on exhibit at the
Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum (NASM 1908-1).
The first successful heavier-than-air flight powered by a gasoline
engine was that of Langley's %-size model, which flew 350 ft on 18 June
1901, and 1,000 ft on 8 August 1903. The engine (fig. 8) was a 5-cylinder
air-cooled radial, designed and built by Stephen M. Balzer and redesigned
and rebuilt by Charles M. Manly. It produced 3.2 hp at 1800 rpm with a
weight of 7 lb (see table 1, p. 88, for other data). At 2.2 lb/hp, this engine
can legitimately be described as remarkable for its time. Figure 9 shows a
letter from Manly giving some data on this engine that were not published
in the Langley Memoir.
There is still some controversy, however academic and futile, about
who made the first man-carrying powered flight. If short straight-ahead
"hops" are counted as "flights," then the claims of Ader and Du Temple,
pre-date the well documented flights of the Wright brothers in 1903. These

8
Figure 8.—Gasoline engine used in Langley's quarter-size model aerodrome (NASM 1950-3); 3.2 hp
at 1800 rpm, 7 lb (without battery), 1901. (Photo A-23759)

were also short hops but they demonstrated good control and were followed
soon after by sustained flights. Certainly the Wright brothers developed
the first practical, controllable airplane; and their flights at Kitty Hawk,
North Carolina, on 17 December 1903, mark the beginning of this rev-
olutionary achievement. Also, the engine they used in 1903, and in their
subsequent flights, was their own design.
The Wright engine of 1903, and the Langley full-scale engine com-
pleted late in 1901, and tested in 1902, 1903, and 1904, may be taken as
the real beginning of the age of the reciprocating internal-combustion
engine in aeronautics. As such, these engines are worthy of some detailed
attention.

Wright Brothers' Engine, 1903


Little was known about the accomplishments of the Wright brothers
until some years after their flights of 17 December 1903. Figure 10 shows
a short and amusingly inaccurate report in The New York Times of 26
December 1903, which attracted little attention.
M A N L Y AND V E A L
CONSULTING ENGINEERS
2 5 0 WEST 54T" STREET
NEW YORK

April 2 7 , 1926.

Professor C. Fayette Taylor,


Aeronaut! cal Ds partuient ,
Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology,
Cambridge A, Massachusetts*
Dear Professor Taylor:-
I had forgotten that T had not included in the I&inolr the more d e -
t a i l e d information concern" nr the s i z e , weight and speed of the
sma?.l Manly " o t o r ,

Unfortunately, T cannot refer to J he o r i g i n a l records which were


returned for safe keeping t o the archives of the Smithsonian. How-
ever, my r e c o l l e c t i o n of the matter, I t h i n k , i s quite accurate and
i s as foil 'T,7s:

The bore was 2-1/16" diameter; t h e stroke 2-3/4 n ; the power developed
was 3 H.P, a t 1300 R.P.M. a>d the weight was j u s t t e n (10) l b s . , in*
eluding carbureter, ignition c o i l aad the small storage b a t t e r y that
had a l i f e of about five (5) minutes service in f i r i n g the engin< *
I do not r e c a l l that any photographs -/ere made of t h i s engine except
while i t was assembled in the frame of the q u a r t e r - s i z e model aad
believe t h a t the oictures shown in the Memoir are as good os arty
that T had of i t .

The cylinders of t h i s engine were irv.de of heavy s t e e l tubing turned


down to form thin i n t e g r a l r a d i a t i n g fins.with the cylinder b a r r e l
?nly l/o2" t h i c i at the bottom of the f i n s . Castiron l i n e r s .vere
shrunk into these cylinders and were bored out to le-^e them 1/32"
t h i c k . The cylinder heads were made from solid hind forglngsfmachined
out)v;hich were screw threaded and brazed to t h e s t e e l cylinder
b a r r e l s before the Tatter were finish machined. T e general olan
of construction of i t was similar t o that of tho large engine except
that Lt was air-cooled instead of water-cooled.

I will t r y to look up some personal memoranda that T have and see


i f I can give you more d e f i n i t e detailed data regarding the weight
of the'engine and i t s accessor!eSj b u t , I think the above information
i s f a i r l y accurate as t o general features*

Yours very t r u l y ,
CI104CB <3S*.>fyv->^^U-

Figure 9.—Letter from Charles M. Manly describing the small gasoline engine of figure 8. (Photo
A-51010)

10
\ AIRSHIP AFTER BUYER. /
Inventor* of North Carolina Box K i t e
Machine W a n t Government to
Purchase It.
Special io 7 hr New York T>mn.
W A S H I N G T O N , Dec 23—The I n v e n t o r s
of the a i r s h i p which Is said to h a v e m a d e
several ul flights In N o r t h C a r o -
lina, near Kitty H a w k , a r e a n x i o u s to v l l
the use of their device to the G o v e r n m e n t .
lalm t h a i they h a \ e solved the p r o b -
lem of aerial n a v i g a t i o n , nnd have never
m a d e a failure of a n y a t t e m p t to fly
T h e i r m a c h i n e In an a d a p t a t i o n of t h s box
kite Idea with a propeller w o r k i n g on a
p e r p e n d i c u l a r shaft to raise or lower the
craft, and a n o t h e r working on a h o r l s o n t a l
shaft to send It forward The m a c h i n e , It
Is Bald, can be rals> d or lowered with per-
,|, and can c a r r y a strong; g a s o -
line engine capable of m a k i n g a tpeed of
t> n miles an hour
T h e test mad.- In N'«rth Carolina will be
fully reported to Iht O r d n a n c e Board of tho
W a r D e p a r t m e n t , and If the m a c h i n e com-
m e n d s i f . if sufficiently, f u r t h e r tests will
be m a d e In the vicinity of W a s h i n g t o n , and
Figure 10.—Account of Wright brothers' first air- ange a sale of the de-
rnment. The use to which
plane in The New York Times, December 25, 1903.
J put It would be In
work, and possibly in
torpe.J. •

In spite of the fact that the flights near Dayton in 1904 and 1905
were witnessed by numerous people, the press ignored them. The first
eyewitness report published was a letter in Gleanings in Bee Culture, Medina,
Ohio, 1 January 1905, by its publisher, A. I. Root, under the title "What
God Hath Wrought." This article is reproduced by Gibbs-Smith in his
book The Aeroplane.
An early public report by the Wrights themselves appeared in the
September 1908 issue of Century Magazine, a publication similar in content
and format to Harpers and the Atlantic Monthly. I recall discovering this
article when our copy arrived at home, and I remember that my father,
in spite of the many photographs of the machine in flight, refused to be-
lieve that human flight had been achieved. This attitude, five years after
the Wright's first flight, was pretty general at the time, partly on account
of the great number of false claims of flight which had been made in the
past. These spurious claims also account for the seemingly incredible

11
absence of reports by the Dayton press, whose representatives, after wit-
nessing two unsuccessful attempts at flights made in 1904, failed to report
eyewitness accounts of the many flights made in 1904 and 1905, or even
to go eight miles out of town to see for themselves!
The Century article is extraordinary for its simple and beautiful exposi-
tory style, and for its evidence of the almost excessive modesty of the
brothers Wright, together with their rationality and persistence. I believe
that it should be rated as a classic in American scientific literature.
The 1903 Wright engine (fig. 11) was designed by the brothers and
built with the assistance of their faithful mechanic Charles E. Taylor (fig.
12; he is not related to the writer). This engine is especially well described
by Robert B. Meyer in the Annual Report of the . . . Smithsonian Institu-
tion . . .for the year ended June 30, 196 J. It was a 4-cy Under water-cooled,
horizontal engine of 200-cu-in. displacement, with automatic inlet valves.

Figure 11.—Engine from Wright brothers'1903 airplane (NASM 1961-48); 12 hp at 1090 rpm,
179 lb. (Photos A-38626-B)

12
Fuel was supplied by gravity from a small can on top of the engine. From
there it flowed through an adjustment valve to a surface carburetor in the
intake manifold, which was heated by the cylinder water jacket. Ignition
was by a low-tension magneto with k 'make-and-break" spark contacts in the
cylinders. The engine would give 16 hp for a minute or so, after which it
gave a steady 12 hp. Control, such as it was, was by the spark timing.
As shown in table 1, this engine was heavy and of low power compared
to the contemporary Langley engine, but it flew! This basic design
was later improved by the Wrights so that by 1910 it was delivering 30 hp
for a weight of 180 lb, or 6 lb/hp.
The first and subsequent engines followed contemporary automobile
practice in cylinder arrangement; however, crankcases were of cast alumi-
num, and the first engine had an en-bloc cast-aluminum water jacket.
These, in use for aircraft engines from the beginning, have just recently
come into use for some automobiles. After being in England for a number of
years, the first Wright engine, with some alterations made subsequent to
the 1903 flight, is now on display in the original airplane in the National
Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.

Figure 12.—Wright brothers' mechanic Charles E. Taylor (left), who helped to build Wright 1903
engine, with a later model Wright brothers' engine. (From Airway Age, vol. 9, no. 12 (December
1928), p. 38)

13
Figure 13.—Langley AerodromeA,engine (NASM 1918-1), 1903, in test stand; 52 hp at 950 rpm,
135 lb. A description of this engine appears in "Langley's Aero E'rjgiine of 1903," by R. B. Meyer
(Smithsonian Annals of Flight, no. 6, 1971). (Photo A-15864)

It was my good fortune to know Orville Wright, and to see him


frequently during the period from 1919 to 1923 when I was engineer-in-
charge of the aircraft-engine laboratory of the U.S. Army Air Service in
Dayton, Ohio. He had previously retired from active participation in
aeronautics, and had become a very modest, very quiet, much beloved
member of the Dayton community, and of the famous Dayton Engineers
Club.
14
Langley Engines, 1900-1903
Considering the state of the art at the turn of the century, the 52-hp 5-
cylinder water-cooled radial engine Langley used in his Aerodrome repre-
sents one of the most remarkable pieces of engine design and construction
ever achieved.
The history of this engine is interesting. In 1898 Samuel P. Langley,
then Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, had accepted a contract to
develop a flying machine for the United States Government, and on
June first of that year hired Charles M. Manly, a young graduate of Cornell
University, as his assistant to supervise the design and construction of his
Aerodrome. On 12 December, Langley contracted with a New York City
automobile builder, Stephen M. Balzer, for a 12-hp engine to be completed
in three months. Considering that even now, the development of a reliable
gasoline engine is a matter of at least two years, this contract must stand
as one of the most optimistic on record! Later, he contracted with Balzer
for a 1 /'i-hp engine to power a /1-size model Aerodrome.
Neither engine had been delivered by 1900, and the slow progress
led Langley and Manly to spend three months in Europe seeking even the
prospect of an engine to power the full-sized Aerodrome. The search was
unsuccessful and it was finally decided that Manly should join in the
further development of the Balzer engines, which had failed to produce
the power required.
These engines were of the rotating-radial type, but Manly, after
further consulting European builders, decided to use the stationary radial
principle. His choice was quickly justified. Whereas the full-scale rotary
engine had developed only 8 hp and the small engine 1 hp, the first non-
rotary versions produced 16 and 2 hp, respectively, an increase largely
attributed to better valve action in the absence of centrifugal force. Further
development resulted in the full-size engine of 1901, shown in figures 13
and 14, with specifications in table 1, and in the ^-size one of the same
year, described in Manly's letter of 27 April 1926 (fig. 9).
Both engines, described in detail in the Langley Memoir, are now
displayed in the Smithsonian, removed from their Aerodromes. Power
of the large engine was carefully measured on a dynamometer and, most
remarkably, sustained for three consecutive 10-hr tests. The specific weight,
2.58 lb./hp, 3 remained as a low record until the Liberty engine of 1918.
The figure 0.196-lb/cu in. displacement has never been closely approached.
The 5-in. bore cylinders, assembled by Manly himself, were built
up of steel lie in. thick, lined with l/16 in. of cast iron.4 The water jackets,
15
5" Cy/inder if Si '"• {ffrvkt jEhafnc.
Section through Cylinder tjfrum.

ENGINE OF AERODROME A. SECTION THROUGH CYLINDER AND DRUM

Figure 14.—Section through cylinder and crankcase of Langley Aerodrome A engine, 1903. (From
Langley Memoir, pi. 78)

16
of steel 0.020 in. thick, were brazed onto the cylinder, as were the cylinder
heads and valve ports. The difficulty of this operation is mentioned by
Manly and can well be imagined.
This engine somewhat anticipated modern large aircraft engines
in its use of the radial arrangement with a master connecting rod, its cam
and valve-gear arrangement, and its use of crankcase, cylinders, and other
parts machined all over to carefully controlled dimensions.
Manly's skill as an engineer and machinist was matched by his courage
in making two (unsuccessful) takeoffs from the top of a houseboat, without
previous instruction or experience as a pilot and in an airplane without
landing gear. His survival of two crashes into the icy waters of the Potomac
River testifies to his quick thinking and skill as a swimmer. In contrast to
the poor preparation for the Manly attempts, the Wright brothers, before
making their first powered flights, flew several hundred times in gliders of
a size and type quite similar to that of their first powered airplane. All
early Wright machines were equipped with landing skids.
Nowadays it is hard to appreciate the difficulties of these early aircraft-
engine builders. Although successful automobiles were in operation both
in Europe and in the United States, most of them were equipped with
engines far too heavy and too low in power for airplane use. Accessory
equipment such as spark plugs, carburetors, and magnetos was not available
on the open market and had to be obtained from reluctant automobile
builders or else built by hand. Worst of all, there was no established body
of good practice, and details of existing practice were either very difficult
to find or else held as closely guarded secrets. In view of these difficulties,
the accomplishments of the Wrights and the Langley group are all the
more remarkable.

17
Figure 15.—Antoinette monoplane with Levavasseur Antoinette engine, 1909. (Photo A-3099)

Figure 16.—Levavasseur Antoinette 8-cylinder engine, 1905-1907; 32 hp at 1400 rpm, 93 lb.


(Photo courtesy Science Museum, London)

18
Engines 1903-1909
After the Wrights had demonstrated the actuality of airplane flight, a
period of nearly three years elapsed before anyone else flew in a heavier-
than-air craft. Meanwhile the Wrights increased their duration of flight
to more than half an hour and their distance to nearly 25 miles, both
records accomplished in their flight of 5 October 1905. In 1906 the Hun-
garian Trajan Vuia, the Dane J. C. H. Ellehammer, and the Brazilian
Alberto Santos-Dumont accomplished flights, hardly more than short
"hops," in airplanes with unconvincing control systems. Not until 9 No-
vember 1907, did anyone but the Wright brothers stay in the air for as long
as a minute or fly a distance of over a thousand feet. On that date Henri
Farman in a Voisin biplane flew 3,368 ft in 1 min 14 sec, with a 50-hp
Antoinette engine, apparently under good control.
Antoinette engines (figs. 15 and 16) were built in Paris by Levavasseur
as early as 1905 and were to become very important powerplants for Euro-
pean aviation in the next few years. Santos-Dumont used one rated at
24 hp for his "hop" of 772 ft in November 1906. The engines of Farman
and Santos-Dumont were 8-cylinder V types rated at 50 and 24 hp, re-
spectively. Farman's engine weighed 3 lb, hp, a remarkable figure at that
time (see table 1).
Antoinette engines had machined-steel cylinders with brass water
jackets. All were water-cooled V types and were later built in 16- and
32-cylinder models. Together with the engines of Glenn Curtiss and the
French ENV (fr., en V) of 1909, they pioneered the use of the water-
cooled V-type engine in aeronautics. Other noteworthy details of the
Antoinette included inlet port fuel injection, and evaporative cooling.
Louis Bleriot also used the 50-hp Antoinette engine in his first tractor
monoplane, No. VII, which flew in December 1907. The first helicopter
to lift a man off the ground (Paul Cornu, 13 November 1907) was also
powered with an Antoinette engine. Cody made the first airplane flight
in England on 16 October 1908 with an airplane somewhat resembling the
Wright in design, powered by the 50-hp Antoinette.
The year 1908 was memorable for the rapid development of increas-
ingly successful airplanes and engines. Two important new engines ap-
19
peared—the 35-hp Renault 8-cylinder air-cooled V-type (an 80-hp example
is shown in fig. 17) and the Curtiss air-cooled V-type 8-cylinder (fig. 18)
which powered a flight of 1 min 43 sec in the June Bug on 4 July. And, ex-
cept for Wright airplanes (which had flown for over an hour), the longest
flight had been by Farman in a Voisin, 44 min on 2 October, until that day
in 1908 that Wilbur Wright flew for 2 hr 20 min and 23 sec at Auvours,
France. It was, according to a French commentator, "un des plus passionants
spectacles qu'ait presents Vhistoire des sciences appliques.'1''
Glenn Curtiss was building and racing motorcycle engines soon after
1900. In 1902 Thomas Baldwin engaged him to supply an engine for
Baldwin's dirigible airship, which flew successfully in 1904. In 1907 Curtiss
joined the Aerial Experiment Association headed by Alexander Graham
Bell, and thus began his distinguished career as designer and builder of
both airplanes and engines and as an airplane pilot. 5

Figure 17.—Renault 80-hp V-8 engine (NASM 1932-125), about 1916, with geared propeller drive
(rating of the 1908 version was 35 hp at 1400 rpm, 242 lb). One of the earliest geared engines, it
used long hold-down studs on the cylinders, a practice widely followed in later aircraft engines.
(Photo A-42316-B)

20
Figure 18.—(Above) Glenn H. Curtiss in his airplane June Bug, showing its 8-cylinder air-cooled
engine installed, 1908. (Below) The June Bug at Hammondsport, New York. (Photos A-3100,
A-3101)

21
Curtiss's earliest engines were air-cooled, including the V-8 engine
used in the famous June Bug. Late in 1908, however, he settled on a water-
cooled V-8 engine similar to the Antoinette of Lavavasseur except that
the cylinders were of cast iron, with monel-metal water jackets.
Next to the Wright brothers, Glenn Curtiss was certainly the most
important figure in early American aviation, both in engine and in air-
plane design. The most noteworthy engine which developed from his
early work was the famous OX-5, to be described later. Engines bearing
his name have an important place in aviation to this day.
The year 1909 has been called the "year of practical powered flying,"
because in that year flight began to be convincingly demonstrated by
others than the Wright brothers. Four types of airplane—Wright,
Antoinette, Farman, and Bleriot—had made flights of more than an
hour's duration.
Bleriot made his famous cross-channel flight (37 min, 23.5 miles) on
25 July 1909. His tractor monoplane was equipped with a 24.5-hp 3-cylinder
Anzani fan-type air-cooled engine (fig. 19). Later Anzani built 1- and
2-row radial air-cooled engines that were used in a number of airplanes
prior to and soon after World War I. Another fan-type engine of this
period was the REP of Robert Esnault-Pelterie, installed in an unsuccessful
airplane in 1907. His subsequent R E P fan-type engines were used in
several successful airplanes.
An outstanding engine to appear in 1909 was the 50-hp 7-cylinder
Gnome rotary-radial, first flown in Henri Farman's No. Ill biplane.
Rotary types had been built for automobiles by Stephen Balzer and Adams-
Farwell in the United States before the turn of the century, and this type
had been originally planned and built for the Langley Aerodrome, but
it was first adapted to flying in the Gnome. This engine (figs. 20 and 21,
table 2, p. 90) was a masterpiece for its time and deserves special attention
here.
The design of the Gnome was by Laurent Seguin. Made entirely from
steel forgings machined all over, with integrally machined cooling fins
and a modern master-rod system, it anticipated many features of the
latest large air-cooled radials. The rotary feature was used in order to
eliminate the flywheel, which had been previously thought essential, and
also to assist in cooling. It frequently used a cowling with central air intake,
something like that later developed for static radials by the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (see p. 90). Unlike the NACA cowling,
however, the cowling used here had its opening for outlet air at the bottom,
rather than around the rear edge. Its primary purpose was, probably, to

22
Figure 19.—Anzani 3-cylinder fan-type engine, 1909. The type used in Bleriot's crossing of the
English Channel, its rating was 24.5 hp at 1600 rpm, 145 lb. (Photo A-49846-E)

encourage discharge of exhaust gases and oil under the airplane, away from
the pilot. The fact that it also greatly reduced engine "drag" as compared
with uncowled engines, may not have been understood at that time. This
seven-cylinder model, and subsequent larger and more powerful versions,
became perhaps the most popular aircraft engines up to World War I
and were used widely by both sides through that war.
I had the pleasure of flying with a Gnome engine in 1920 and found
it exceptionally free of vibration and also relatively quiet. 6 The only
disagreeable feature was the castor-oil fumes discharged from the exhaust.
Lubrication was achieved by pumping castor oil into the crankshaft at a

23
Figure 20.—Gnome 7-cylinder Monosoupape rotary-radial engine, 1910; 50 hp at 1150 rpm, 165 lb.
In this longitudinal section note inlet valve in piston to admit fuel-air mixture from crankcase.
(From Aerosphere 1939, p. 341)

24
21.—Gnome 50-hp 7-cylinder
engine, 1910, as installed in
er Canard pusher biplane.
A-50895)

fixed rate, and oil which was not burned eventually found its way out of
the exhaust ports and, despite the cowling, much of it settled on the
airplane (and on the pilot!). One of my first assignments in aviation (1917)
was to make tests to show that mineral oil could be used in aero engines.
Previous to that time castor oil had been considered as indispensable for
aero engines as it was for young children.
Another interesting feature of the Gnome engine was its method of
control. No carburetor was used; the fuel and air were introduced through
the hollow crankshaft, by means of separate valves controlled by the pilot.
Because of the great inertia of the rotating engine, it was possible to adjust
to the appropriate mixture by trial, without danger of stalling the engine.
With a known setting of the valves for idling, after the engine had been
started the air throttle was opened wide, at which time firing ceased but
rotation continued. The fuel valve was then opened until firing restarted and
maximum propeller speed was attained. Because the reverse process was
difficult, throttling down was accomplished by temporarily cutting the
ignition, and the engine was kept going by short bursts of power. Oddly
enough this technique was easy to learn and pilots seemed to like it.

25
Important engines of 1909 included the following (see also table 1,
p. 88).
Wright 4- and 6-cylinder vertical, water cooled
Curtiss 8-cylinder V-type, water cooled
Antoinette 8-and 16-cylinder V-type, water cooled
ENV 8-cylinder V-type, water cooled
Darracq 2-cylinder opposed, water cooled
Gnome 7-cylinder rotary, air cooled
Renault 8-cylinder V-type, air cooled
REP 7-cylinder fan, air cooled
Anzani 3-cylinder fan, air cooled
These engines accounted for nearly all important flights in 1909, including
the winners of the first official aviation contests at Rheims.
The Darracq engine, used by Santos-Dumont, was important for
being one of the first aircraft engines to use mechanically operated inlet
valves. The JAP (J. A. Prestwich Co.) motorcycle engine used by A. V. Roe
in his early airplane appears to have been the only other one using such
valves. All other aircraft of the period used automatic inlet valves, opened
by suction. Since automobile engines had been using mechanically operated
valves for many years before 1909, it is hard to understand, why this
important feature was so late in coming into use for aircraft engines.

26
Engines 1910-1918

The period 1910-1918, which included World War I, saw such rapid
developments of aircraft engines that only the important ones can be
described here. By "important" I mean those which pioneered successful
new design features or which were particularly notable in service.
Early in this period the Gnome air-cooled rotary engine was dom-
inant and was built in many countries and in several modified designs,
including models by LeRhone and Clerget (French) the Bentley BR-1
and BR-2 (British) and the Oberiirsel and Siemens (German). It reached
its maximum development early in the war and was definitely obsolescent
by 1918. Reasons for its demise were chiefly a limitation on speed due to
centrifugal stress, the considerable windage losses, design limitations
imposed by rotation of all parts but the crankshaft, and a rather strong
gyroscopic effect on the airplane during turns. It set a pattern, however,
for the later development of the modern air-cooled radial engine. It was
a forged-and-machined-all-over engine, and it was radial and air-cooled,
features which are now characteristic of most large aircraft piston engines.
Other rotary engines were built at this time, but none achieved the
importance or success of the Gnome and its descendants.
As the rotary engines became obsolete, the water-cooled V-type
engine became dominant. In the United States the Curtiss O X - 5 engine
(fig. 22 and table 1, p. 88) led the field until 1917, when the Liberty and
Hispano-Suiza engines were introduced.
The O X - 5 , a water-cooled V-8, had an aluminum crankcase, cast-
iron cylinders (see fig. 34a) with sheet monel-metal water jackets brazed
onto the barrels, and overhead valves, push-rod operated. Used by both
Army and Navy, it powered practically all United States and Canadian
training airplanes and was probably responsible for training more pilots
for World War I than any other engine. The best-known trainer, the
Curtiss J N - 4 , affectionately known as the Jenny, is shown in figure 23.
My first airplane ride (1917) was in a single-float seaplane with the O X X - 2 ,
the Navy version of this engine.7

27
Figure 22.—Curtiss OX-5 water-cooled V-8 engine (NASM 1920-8), 1917; 90 hp at 1400 rpm, 320 lb
(see also fig. 34a). (Photo A-1832)

Figure 23.—Curtiss JN-4 Jenny airplane with OX-5 engine, 1915. (Photo courtesy Harrah's Auto-
motive Museum, Reno, Nevada)
Figure 24.—Mercedes 6-cylinder engine, 1 9 1 5 ; 180 hp at 1500 r p m , 618 lb. This engine pioneered
welded-steel cylinder c o n s t r u c t i o n . (From [ B r i t i s h ] Ministry of Munitions, Report on the 180-H.P.
Mercedes Engine, March 1918)

Figure 25.—Rolls-Royce Eagle V - 1 2 engine, 1 9 1 7 ; 3 6 0 hp at 1800 r p m , 9 0 0 lb. Its cylinder con-


struction is similar to t h a t of the Mercedes in figure 2 4 . (Photo A-487)
The O X - 5 engine was considered very reliable for its day, but few
pilots completed the training course (very short) without at least one
forced landing. Its weaknesses included single ignition, a rather flimsy
valve-operating gear including "pull-rods" for the inlet valves, and a
tendency to leak water from the water pump down onto the low-slung
carburetor. In freezing weather the latter defect accounted for many
forced landings
A very important new style in liquid-cooled cylinder design appeared
in 1915 on the German 6-cylinder 180-hp Mercedes engine (fig. 24 and
table 1, p. 88). This was the built-up welded-steel cylinder construction
widely used for a long time thereafter in most water-cooled engines. It was
copied by such famous makes as the Rolls-Royce Eagle (fig. 25), Liberty,
FIAT (Fabrica Italiana Automobili Torino), Renault, Salmson, and
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke), but finally gave way to the cast-
aluminum en bloc construction, to be discussed later (p. 33).
Among the engines built in this style, an important one was the United
States Liberty (figs. 26, 27, and 34b), which was developed under extraor-
dinary circumstances. 8 After a decision on 29 May 1917 (only 7 weeks
after the United States entered the war), by the War Production Board
to build an airplane engine more powerful than any in use up to that
time, J. G. Vincent, Chief Engineer of Packard, and Elbert J. Hall, of the
Hall-Scott Motor Co., started to design such an engine in the Willard
Hotel, Washington, D . O On 31 May preliminary layouts were approved by
the WPB and some extra help was called in. Complete layouts were ap-
proved 4 June, all drafting was completed by 15 June, the first 8-cylinder
engine was delivered to the Bureau of Standards for test 3 July, and the
first 12-cylinder engine completed the official 50-hr test 25 August 1917.
The first "production" engine was delivered to the Army Air Service in
Dayton on Thanksgiving Day 1917, just 6 months after Vincent and Hall
had started their layout. I believe this record has never been equaled,
before or since, except perhaps by the first Pratt & Whitney Wasp, de-
scribed later. 9
The design was based on the welded-cylinder construction pioneered
by Mercedes. It had no radical features, but was an excellent synthesis
of the state of the art of its time. Its principal weaknesses were cracking
of the cylinder-head water jackets, burning of exhaust valves, and breaking
of accessory gears. These faults were gradually reduced as time went on,
and it came to be considered a reliable engine. Early production engines
had a 50-percent chance of passing the government 50-hr endurance test.
In later modification a bar was welded between the ports to reduce cylinder
30
Figure 26.—Liberty V-12 engine,
1 9 1 8 ; 4 2 0 hp at 1700 r p m , 8 5 6 lb.
It has Mercedes-type cylinder con-
struction (see also f i g . 34b). (Photo
A-691)

Figure 27.—Liberty 12A, V-12 engine,


transverse section viewed f r o m rear,
1918. (From Aerosphere 1939, p. 467)
Figure 28.—Wright Aeronautical Corp.
Hispano-Suiza Model E V-8 engine,
magneto end, 1 9 2 0 ; 180 hp at 1700
rpm, 4 7 0 lb. The French-built model
was rated at 150 hp (see also f i g . 34c).
(P/?ofoA-5i0iJ)

Figure 29.—Hispano-Suiza V-8 en-


gine, transverse section, viewed f r o m
rear. (From The French Hispano-Suiza
Aero Engine, Instruction Book, p. 25)
distortion and jacket cracking, and heavier teeth were used in the gears.
The only major weakness remaining was in the exhaust valves, which served
well most of the time.
Large quantities of the Liberty-12 engine were produced by the auto-
mobile companies, including Packard, Ford, Lincoln, and some General
Motors divisions. It was used by the British in military airplanes as well
as by the United States Army Air Service and Naval Flying Corps. Liberty
engine production was far ahead of airplane production in this country,
and at the end of the war many thousands of these engines were on hand.
Many were sold at low prices to "rum runners" and were very successfully
used in running liquor through the Coast Guard blockade along the Atlantic
and Pacific coasts during the Prohibition Era. During these years the Coast
Guard had no "requirements" for a light and powerful marine engine, and
their motor boats were far outclassed by the Liberty-equipped bootleggers'
craft.
The Liberty engine remained important in United States Army and
Navy aviation well into the 1930s. This engine was used in the NC flying
boats with a special economical carburetor setting developed at the Wash-
ington Navy Yard. The NC-4 was, of course, the first aircraft to cross the
Atlantic, 16-27 May 1919.10 The Liberty was also the first engine to fly
nonstop across the American Continent (in the Fokker T-2, 2-3 May 1923,
piloted by Kelly and McCready). 11 Also, in a turbo-supercharged version,
it held the world's altitude records in 1920, 1921, and 1922, and in 1924
it powered the flight of several Army airplanes around the world.
From a technical viewpoint, the outstanding airplane engine during
World War I was undoubtedly the Hispano-Suiza V-8 (figs. 28, 29, and
34c, and table 1, p. 88), built first in Barcelona by a Swiss engineer, Marc
Birkigt. It was adopted for French fighters in 1915 and used in the Spad
(Societe pour Aviation et ses Derives) 7 and 13, perhaps the best fighters
of World War I (see fig. 30).
The basic contribution of Birkigt to engine design was the en bloc
cylinder construction with a cast-aluminum water jacket containing steel
cylinder barrels and with enclosed and lubricated valves and valve gear.12
The success of this engine started a revolution in liquid-cooled engine
design which culminated in the Rolls-Royce Kestrel and Merlin, via the
Curtiss K-12, C-12, and D-12 engines. It was also the prototype for the
Mercedes and Junkers engines which were the backbone of the 1940-45
German Luftwaffe, together with en-bloc Russian, Japanese, and Italian
designs. By 1917 Hispano-Suiza engines were being built in England and
the United States, as well as in France.

33
Figure 30.—An Hispano-Suiza V-8 powered this Spad 7 airplane, used by 27th Squadron, AEF, World
War I, 1917-1918, (Photo A-44832-C)

The only weakness in the early Hispano-Suiza engines, by standards


of the time, was a tendency toward exhaust-valve burning. This was due
to the fact that the steel cylinder heads were "dry," that is, they did not
come directly into contact with the cooling water (see figs. 29 and 34c).
The flat steel head had a tendency to warp and lose contact with the
aluminum jacket, which reduced valve cooling and also distorted the
valve seats, causing exhaust valves to leak and burn under conditions of
severe operation.
The development of this engine was continued in the United States
after World War I by the Wright-Martin Company, which in 1919 became
the Wright Aeronautical Corporation. One of the most important changes
made was to eliminate the steel cylinder head and to seat the valves in
bronze inserts pressed into the aluminum heads. This basic improvement
set a pattern for the most successful subsequent liquid-cooled engines.
In contrast to the all-forged construction of the Gnome and the modern
large radial engines, the Hispano-Suiza engine and its descendants were
essentially cast-aluminum engines except for the moving parts and the
cylinder barrels.

34
Piston Engines After 1918

In the period after 1918 hundreds of new engine types appeared. From the
technical point of view, the period is marked by the following significant
developments:

Further development of the liquid-cooled engine of the all-cast type,


chiefly for military purposes
The development of the air-cooled radial engine to a place of dominance
in all but fighter-type military and small civilian aircraft
The advent of 4-cylinder vertical in-line, and later, opposed-cylinder,
horizontal, air-cooled engines for light aircraft

Liquid-Cooled Engines
By 1920 the success of the Hispano-Suiza engines, then built in both the
original and a larger (300 hp) size had convinced most designers that the
welded-cylinder construction was obsolescent.
The Curtiss Company in the United States took up the cast-aluminum
engine, generally based on the Hispano-Suiza, with successive 12-cylinder
designs known as the K-12, 13 C-12, D-12 (fig. 31), and V-1400 models.
These were all of the 12-cylinder V-type, with 4 valves per cylinder,
instead of 2 as in the Hispano-Suiza. The two early models had steel
cylinder heads like that of the original Hispano-Suiza, but cooling was
greatly assisted by an integral stud, in the center between the valves, by
means of which the head was held tightly against the water-jacket casting
(fig. 34d). In the D-12 the steel head was abandoned, and the valve seats
were bedded directly in the aluminum head, as in the Wright version of the
Hispano-Suiza.
The great success of the Curtiss engines in racing (first to exceed 200
mph in the Mitchell 14 Trophy race, Detroit, 1922, and winner of the
Schneider trophy in 1923 and 1925) led the Rolls-Royce company to
develop aluminum V-12 engines of similar type. The first was the Kestrel
35
Figure 31.—Curtiss D-12 V-12 engine; 325 hp at 1800 rpm, 704 lb. This engine was the first to
fly more than 200 mph, in the Mitchell Trophy race, Detroit, 1922; and for the race, engine speed was
increased so that it probably developed about 400 hp. (Photo A-3109)

Figure 32.—Rolls-Royce Merlin 61 V-12 engine with 2-stage supercharger, about 1944; 2000 hp
at 3000 rpm, about 1700 lb. (Photo A-3110)

f
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Germany's Leading In-line Engine
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CRANKSHAFT

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Part-sectional drawing of the liquid-cooled D.B.601N of 33.9 litres, bore and stroke 150 x 160 m m . Features of the
engine are the twelve plunger in-line direct injection pump, and the fluid coupling which provides an infinitely variable gear for
the supercharger drive. B.H.P. at 2,600 r.p.m. is 1,270, which for a weight of 1,540 lb. = 1.20 Ib./h.p.

Figure 33.—Daimler-Benz, DB-601-N V-12, Germany's leading World War II engine (see also fig.
34h). Roller bearings are used on the crankpins. (From Flight, vol. 4 1 , p. 367, April 16, 1942.)

of 1927 soon followed by the racing, or R, type which attained theretofore


unheard of power output in proportion to its size and weight and won the
Schneider trophy in 1929 and 1931. The Kestrel was followed by the
Rolls-Royce Merlin (fig. 32), winner of the Battle of Britain, and also by
the Allison V-1710 (a fairly faithful copy of the Merlin), and the German
Daimler-Benz (fig. 33) and Junkers V-12 liquid-cooled engines, all des-
cendants of the Hispano-Suiza and Curtiss. In all these engines the valves
were seated in inserts embedded in the aluminum head, and thus had
better valve cooling than the original Hispano-Suiza design. In every case
the basic structure consisted of cast aluminum crankcase with en bloc
water jackets and cylinder heads, also of cast aluminum. Cylinder barrels
were uniformly of steel. Design details varied, especially in the method of
taking the cylinder-head-to-crankcase load. This was successfully done as
follows (fig. 34 illustrates the evolution of liquid-cooled cylinder construc-
tion) :

37
Through the cylinder barrels—Liberty (fig. 34b), Hispano-Suiza (fig.
34c), Packard (fig. 34e), and Daimler-Benz (fig. 34h)
Through the aluminum water-jacket structure—Curtiss (fig. 34d and f)
and Junkers V-12 gasoline engine
By long bolts from cylinder heads to crankcase—Curtis OX-5 (fig. 34a),
Rolls-Royce (fig. 34g) and Allison
T h e i m p r o v e m e n t in performance of liquid-cooled engines since 1918
has been astonishing. T h e following figures for two engines of nearly the
same piston displacement a n d representing design ideas 30 years a p a r t illus-
trate this d e v e l o p m e n t :
1918 1948
Engine Liberty Packard
Merlin
Number of cylinders 12 12
Bore and stroke, in 5x7 5. 4x6
Maximum hp 420 2, 250
Rpm 1,700 3,000
Brake mean effective pressure, psi . . . . . . 118 360
Mean piston speed, ft-min 1, 985 3, 000
H p per sq in. piston area 1. 78 8.2
Weight, lb, per hp, dry (without water, oil,
radiators) 2.04 0. 78

Figure 34.—Liquid-cooled cylinder development:

Year Name Barrel Jacket Load by


a 1914 Curtiss OX-5 Cast iron Monel sheet Studs
b 1917 Liberty Steel Steel, welded Barrel
c 1915 Hispano-Suiza Cast a l u m i n u m //
// it
d 1921 Curtiss K-12 ' Jacket
e 1922 Packard V - 1 2 -' Steel, welded Barrel
f 1923 Curtiss C-12 3 Cast a l u m i n u m Jacket
9 1934 Rolls-Royce Merlin // // Studs
h 1935 Daimler-Benz 4 // ;/ Barrel
1
Water jacket is cast integral with crankcase.
2
Aluminum casting containing valve ports and camshaft was continuous over 6 separate steel
cylinders.
3
Improvement on K-12 by bolting separate water-jacket casting to crankcase for easier assembly
and disassembly.
4
Unique fastening of cylinder barrels to crankcase by means of a ring nut.

39
These improvements are attributable not only to improved detail design,
but also to important developments in fuel, supercharging, and cooling
fluid, which will be discussed later.

sgs»

Figure 35.—British air-cooled cylinder d e v e l o p m e n t : Left, ABC steel cylinder with f i n n e d a l u m i -


n u m cap, 1 9 1 7 ; this cylinder had poor head and valve cooling ( f r o m Journal of the American
Society of Naval Engineers, vol. 38, no. 4, p. 8 7 2 , 1926). Right, Cylinder developed by Dr. A. H.
Gibson at Royal Aircraft Establishment, 1918, anticipated the essential features of m o d e r n air-
cooled aircraft-engine cylinders—that is, a l u m i n u m head, with hard valve-seat inserts, screwed
over steel b a r r e l ; applied f i n n i n g on barrel is typical of many m o d e r n engines ( f r o m [ B r i t i s h ]
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Report I.E.C. 260, p. 2 6 8 , f i g . 1 1 , January 1919).

40
Air-Cooled Engines
The Gnome and its rotary descendants (LeRhone, Clerget, Bentley B. R.,
Oberiirsel, and others) were obsolescent by 1918. Also obsolescent were
air-cooled engines using cast-iron cylinders with integral heads and fins.
These included the radial Anzani, and the Renault V-type with its de-
scendants, the RAF (Royal Aircraft Factory), and FIAT.
During the first World War it had become evident that the simple
cast-iron cylinder 15 had reached its limit, and the Royal Aircraft Factory
of Great Britain had employed Prof. A. H. Gibson, assisted by Samuel D.
Heron, to develop more effective air-cooled cylinders. By 1918 they had
constructed and tested steel cylinders with cast-aluminum heads screwed
onto them, that were capable of higher specific outputs than any cast-iron
cylinder (fig. 35, right). However, the practical use of the aluminum-head
cylinder in England was seriously delayed by a parallel development,
starting in 1917, of air-cooled radials with steel flat-head cylinders capped
by a bolted-on valve-port assembly of cast-iron or cast aluminum (fig. 35,
left). This cylinder design suffered from the same trouble as the early
Hispano-Suiza engines, namely, poor exhaust-valve cooling because of
poor contact between the head and the separate cooling element; however,
the first radial engine using this cylinder type, the ABC (All British Engine
Company) Wasp of 4/^-in. bore, was successful enough to gain the support
of the British government for its development in a larger version, the
Dragonfly of 5%-in. bore. The fact that cooling problems increase with
increased cylinder size evidently was not realized at the time.
This development finally became, through several changes in owner-
ship, the Bristol Jupiter engine (fig. 37), which was built and used in
considerable quantities in England and in Europe, chiefly for military
purposes. It was never a really satisfactory aircraft engine, because of poor
exhaust-valve cooling (S. D. Heron said that its consumption should be
given in terms of pounds of exhaust valves, rather than in pounds of fuel,
per horsepower-hour!). Finally realizing this fact, Bristol changed from
steel heads to Aluminum heads with the Jupiter F, about 1930.
Meanwhile the Gibson-Heron type cylinders had been further de-
veloped by Armstrong-Siddeley, and were used on the Jaguar 2-row
radial (fig. 38) which passed its type test in 1922, ten years after Gibson
started his work.
A parallel development of air-cooled engines with aluminum cylinders
having steel liners was begun about 1916 by Charles L. Lawrance. Starting
with a 2-cylinder opposed engine, he built a 3-cylinder engine in 1919, and

41
a

vV,
Figure 36.—Development of air-cooled cylinders in the United States: a, Lawrence J - l (1922) and
Wright Aeronautical J-3 (1923) used cast aluminum structure with thin steel liner, b, Wright J-4
(1924) used flanged steel barrel with screwed-on head and jacket casting, c, Wright J-4A (1924-5)
similar to J-4. d, Wright J-4B (1925-6) similar to J-4A but with air passage and fins between the
ports, e, Wright J-5 (1926-7) designed by Heron; barrel carries integral steel fins, f, Wright
Turbo-Cyclone cylinder of 1948, with forged and machined aluminum head, forged-steel barrel
with rolled-on aluminum fins, and sodium-cooled exhaust valves, stellite-faced, has more than 100
square inches of fin area for each square inch of piston area, (a-e, from Transactions of the Society
of Automotive Engineers, vol. 2 1 , pt. 2, p. 872, 1926; f, courtesy Wright Aeronautical Corporation.)

finally a 9-cylinder 200-hp radial in 1921. This was the J - l (fig. 39), which
was supported by an order for 200 engines from the United States Navy. In
1922 Lawrance's company was absorbed by the Wright Aeronautical
Corporation 16 and, with Navy support, the 9-cylinder engine was built in
improved models known as the Wright J - 3 , J - 4 , and J-4b, all with essen-
tially the Lawrance cylinder design (see fig. 36a-d).
During the same period, 1918-1926, S. D. Heron had left England
and had been employed by the United States Army Air Service at McCook
Field, Dayton, Ohio, to assist in the development of large radial engines.17
Heron was a devoted worker and an able engineer, and by 1921 had devel-
oped successful air-cooled cylinders of nearly 6-in. bore, based on his work
with Gibson plus his own improvements worked out at McCook Field.
Against considerable resistance from their chief engineers, who at the
time were thoroughly committed to water cooling, the Curtiss Aeroplane
Company and Wright Aeronautical accepted contracts from the Army
Air Corps to build prototype radial engines with Heron-designed cylinders.
Some engines were built, but in very small numbers.
The Lawrance and Heron developments were brought together when
Heron in 1926 joined Wright Aeronautical Corporation, of which Lawrance
was president. The first result, the Wright J - 5 , was essentially a Lawrance-
type engine with Heron-type cylinders (figs. 36e and 40). This was a
successful engine of the 200-hp class, as evidenced by its use in Lindbergh's
New York-Paris flight, 20-21 May 1927, in many other pioneering flights,
and in a number of early transport airplanes. It won the Robert J. Collier
trophy, this country's most sought after aviation award, in 1927. Wright
Aeronautical had also been experimenting with air-cooled radial engines

43
Figure 37.—Bristol Jupiter 9-cylinder engine,
1922; 400 hp at 1650 rpm, 700 lb. This example
was built by Cosmos Engineering Co., Ltd. Cylin-
der design is similar to that of ABC cylinder in
figure 35, left. (Photo A-3104)

Figure 38.—Armstrong-Siddeley Jaguar


14-cylinder 2-row radial engine, about
1922; 360 hp at 2000 rpm, 910 lb. First
successful British radial engine with
aluminum-head cylinders and gear-
driven supercharger. Cylinder design is
similar to that of Gibson cylinder in
figure 35, right (Photo A-3111)

Figure 39.—Lawrance J - l air-cooled


radial engine, 1922. The first American-
designed 9-cylinder radial to be put into
general use, its rating was 200 hp at
1800 rpm, 476 lb. The cast-aluminum
cylinder head and internally cooled
exhaust valves have been retained in
modern practice. Cylinder section is
shown in figure 36a. (Photo A-3086)
Figure 40.—Wright Whirlwind J-5 engine (NASM 121) of 1927; 220 hp at 1800 rpm, 510 lb. This is
the type used in transoceanic flights by Lindbergh, Chamberlin, Byrd, and others. Cylinder section
is shown in figure 36e. (Photo A-44092)

having cylinders larger than those of the J - 5 , the bore of which was 4.5 in.,
but the first really successful engine of the larger type was the Pratt and
Whitney 425-hp Wasp of 1927. "
Subsequent to the merger of Wright and Lawrance, a considerable
fraction of the Wright Aeronautical staff, headed by the chief engineer
George J. Mead, resigned to join Frederick B. Rentschler in forming the

45
Pratt & W h i t n e y Aircraft C o m p a n y of Hartford, Connecticut. In a time
almost as short as t h a t for the Liberty engine, this new g r o u p p r o d u c e d
the W a s p (shown in fig. 41), the first large radial air-cooled engine of w h a t
m a y be called " m o d e r n " design. T h e notable features of this engine
included:

Rating, 425 hp at 1,800 rpm


9 cylinders, 5.75x5.75 in. bore and stroke
Built-in geared centrifugal supercharger
Fully enclosed valve gear, with rocker boxes integral with cylinder head
(fig. 41)
Forged and machined crankcase (fig. 42)
Domed-head, 2-valve cylinders, basically of the Heron design
Divided crankpin (fig. 43) with one-piece master rod

While most of these features h a d appeared previously, their combination


here was an eminently rational and successful one, and set a high standard
for future development of radial engines.
T h e only i m p o r t a n t basic improvements to be developed later for
radial air-cooled engines w e r e :

The forged and machined aluminum cylinder head, pioneered by


Bristol in England and Wright Aeronautical in the United States
about 1940 (Gnome had pioneered the forged and machined steel
head for air-cooled engines)
The automatically lubricated (by engine oil) valve gear, pioneered by
Pratt & Whitney in 1932 (first used in water-cooled aero engines
by Hispano-Suiza, ca. 1914)
The vibration-absorbing counterweight, introduced by Wright Aero-
nautical in 1935, which will be discussed later
Second-order balancing weights, to reduce unbalanced forces

T h e basic features of the W a s p , with the addition of the above improve-


ments, are used in all m o d e r n large air-cooled radial engines. This type,
of course, has dominated transport and m u c h of military aviation until
the recent advent of the j e t a n d turbine engine. Figures 44-47 show the
outstanding modern air-cooled radial engines which are basically de-
scendants of the G n o m e , b u t with greatly improved detail design, in-
cluding the composite steel and a l u m i n u m cylinder construction pioneered
by Gibson, H e r o n , and L a w r a n c e . Figure 36 shows the evolution of W r i g h t
cylinders from a b o u t 1920 to 1930, in comparison with the cylinder used
on the W r i g h t t u r b o - c o m p o u n d engine, the most highly developed air-
cooled radial.

46
Figure 41.—Pratt & Whitney
Wasp air-cooled radial engine,
1 9 2 6 ; 425 hp at 1900 r p m , 6 5 0
lb. The first such United States
engine of over 4 0 0 hp to go
into general service, it pio-
neered many technical features
which became standard prac-
tice for this type. Cylinder
design was similar to that of
the Wright J-5 (fig. 36e) except
that rocker-arm supports and
housing were cast integral
with the cylinder head—an
i m p o r t a n t innovation. (Photo
A-3087)

Figure 42.—Forged a l u m i n u m crankcase of


Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine. Left, complete
Figure 43.—Divided crankshaft, from Pratt &
crankcase. Right, forging of one half before
Whitney Wasp engine. The Gnome (see f i g . 20)
m a c h i n i n g . (Photo A-3105)
pioneered this design for radial aircraft en-
gines. (Photo A-3106)

47
Figure 44.—Pratt & Whtney
Double Wasp R - 2 8 0 0 - C B - 1 6
18-cylinder air-cooled 2-row
radial engine, 1 9 4 6 ; 2 8 0 0 hp
at 2800 r p m , 2 3 2 7 lb. Earlier
models were extensively used
in World War I I , and t h i s model
was widely used in commercial
and military aircraft. (Photo
A-3103)

Figure 45.—Pratt & Whitney Wasp Major R-4360 28-cylinder 4-row radial engine, 1948 (cutaway);
3 5 0 0 hp at 2 9 0 0 r p m , 3842 lb. A post-World War II military and commercial engine. (Photo A-4132)

48
Figure 46.—Wright Cyclone R-1820
1425-hp9-cylinderengine, 1953. When
this engine first came into use in 1933,
it was rated at 525 hp at 1900 rpm. It
was used in the Douglas DC-3 and
Boeing B-17, among others. (Photo
A-3090)

Figure 47.—Wright Turbo-Cyclone R-3350 18-cylinder 2-row radial engine, 1955 (cutaway); 3700
hp at 2900 rpm, about 3000 lb. This post-war engine had three exhaust-driven turbines geared to
the crankshaft, and it was the latest and most highly developed piston type to be widely used in
large military and commercial airplanes. (Photo A-3089)

rV>

.JH m
The following comparison illustrates the development of air-cooled
engines from 1922 to the present time:
1922 1955
Engine . . .,..'.'. Lawrance J - l Wright Turbo-
Compound
Number of cylinders 9 18
Bore and stroke, in 4.5x5.5 6.125x6.3125
Maximum hp 200 3, 700
Rpm . . 1,800 2,900
Brake mean effective pressure,
psi . . 112 302
Mean piston speed, ft/min . . . 1, 650 3, 070
Hp per sq in. piston area . . ... . 1.4 7. 0
Weight, lb, per hp, dry (with-
out oil and oil radiators) . . 2.38 0.96

As had been true of liquid-cooled engines, improvements in fuels, super-


charging, and cooling systems as well as great improvements in detail
design, were important factors in this development.
The subject of the air-cooled engine should not be left without mention
of the remarkable development of the light-airplane engine, beginning
with the small British 4-cylinder vertical Cirrus and DeHavilland Gypsy
engines of 1927, and of the 4-cylinder Continental A-40 (fig. 48). Intro-
duced in 1931, this 38-hp engine used cast-iron L-head cylinders. It was
the forerunner of contemporary horizontal-opposed light-plane engines.
Later models use composite aluminum and steel cylinders similar to the
J - 5 cylinder of figure 36e. Engines of this type built by Continental Motors
Corporation and by others, including principally the Lycoming Division
of Avco Corporation, have developed to a remarkable degree of reliability
and performance. In 1961, a license to build Continental engines of this
type was acquired by Rolls-Royce, a real compliment to the high quality
of these small powerplants.
Another interesting category of air-cooled engines comprises those
built for installation in model airplanes. These are usually 1-cylinder 2-cycle
engines of less than 1-in. bore and stroke (fig. 49). Some are rated up to 1
hp at speeds of 15,000 rpm or more. Originating in the United States about
1930, these engines were produced in very large quantities between 1945
and 1950. It is claimed that there were 180 manufacturers of model engines
in the United States during that period, and their total production, in
number of engines, probably exceeded that of all other aircraft engines
combined. The popularity of engine-powered model airplanes fell off about

50
Figure 48.—Continental A - 4 0 air-cooled horizontal-
opposed 4-cylinder engine, 1 9 3 1 ; 40 hp at 2 5 0 0 r p m ,
145 lb. This engine was the f o r e r u n n e r of contemporary
horizontal-opposed light-plane engines. (Photo A-
50897)

Figure 49.—Model airplane engine,


Super Cyclone (NASM 1 9 4 4 - 2 0 ) , about
1 9 5 0 ; about 1/10 hp at 10,000 r p m , 5
ounces. This typical single-cylinder, 2-
cycle, air-cooled model engine uses
special fuel with hot-wire ignition.
(Photo A-36625)
Figure 50.—Frontal coolant ra-
diator for Liberty engine on
DeHavilland DH-4 (NASM
1 9 1 9 - 5 1 ) , 1918. This position
for the radiator required a
large cooling surface and con-
t r i b u t e d heavily to airplane
drag. (Photo A-9850-D).

Figure 51.—Completely ex-


posed Lawrance J - l radial
engine on Curtiss F4-C1, about
1924. Below, Partially exposed
Wright J-5 engine on Ryan NYP
airplane Spirit of St. Louis
(NASM 1928-21), after return
from Europe, 1927. (Photos
A-47190.A-1193-B).

Figure 52.—Radial engine with


NACA-type cowling on Frank
Hawks' Lockheed Air Express,
1929. (Photo A-33428-E)
1950, but has revived during the past decade. During 1966 one manufacturer
alone produced a million model aero engines.

Air Versus Liquid Cooling


The classic and often emotionally charged argument over the relative
merits of liquid and air cooling started with the early days of flying
(Antoinette vs. Gnome, for example) and persisted to the end of World
War II, when the advent of jets and turbo props diverted attention elsewhere.
As we have seen, water cooling was dominant through World War I,
except for the rotaries, which at its close were obsolescent. European
military aviation remained generally committed to water cooling up to and
through World War II, although some air-cooled engines were used in
bombers and transports, and there was one excellent air-cooled European
fighter, the Focke-Wulf with the BMW 2-row radial, developed from a
Pratt & Whitney license. Japanese fighter aircraft also used air-cooled
radials copied from Wright and Pratt & Whitney designs. Their other
military aircraft used these and copies of the German Daimler-Benz liquid-
cooled engine (fig. 33).
In the United States, the Navy made a commitment to air cooling in
1921 which has held for reciprocating engines to this day. It was chiefly
Navy support that underwrote early Pratt & Whitney and Wright air-
cooling developments. The reason for this choice lay in the limitations of
the aircraft carrier, which imposed such design criteria as short takeoff,
compact size, and minimum maintenance. Commander Bruce Leighton
was probably the individual most responsible for this well-considered
decision.
The most intense controversy on this subject took place in the United
States Army Air Service, whose support for air-cooled engine development
in the 1920s and 1930s was never as enthusiastic as that of the Navy, because
of the assumed larger frontal area and greater drag of air-cooled radials,
especially for use in fighter airplanes. That cooling drag was a real problem
in the early days is illustrated by figures 50 and 51, showing typical
installations of the 1920s.
The drag of air-cooled engines was greatly reduced by the advent of
the very effective cowling and cylinder baffing developed at Langley Field
by NACA, starting in 1929 (figs. 52 and 53). Further reductions in cooling
drag were achieved by increased cooling-fin area, which reduced the air
velocity required for cooling (compare figs. 36a-e and 36f. These develop-

53
tPtu'ilion of
"flap"when
\.-aoseo/

Figure 53.—Cooling-air flow in tractor


installation of a cowled radial engine. Only
the upper half of the installation is shown.

Figure 54.—Installation of radial engine on a


Douglas DC-6, 1949, showing modern cowling
for radial engine, with controllable outlet flaps.
(Photo A-50822)

Figure 55.—Comparison of radiator installations for water (left) and for ethylene glycol cooling, on
Curtiss Falcon airplanes, 1930. (From The Project Engineer, vol. 13, no. 10, p. 9, 1954, publ. by
the Thermix Corp.)
Figure 56.—Liquid-cooled fighter, North American P-51 Mustang of World War II. Coolant radiator
is housed under fuselage, below the star insignia. Inlet and outlet ducts are designed to minimize
drag. (Photo A-45801)

ments put the air-cooled radial virtually on a par with the water-cooled
engines with regard to cooling drag, until the advent of high-temperature
liquid cooling with glycol-water mixtures. Figure 54 show's modern cowling
for the air-cooled radial engines.
The use of high-boiling liquids (mixtures of water and ethylene
glycol) for engines formerly water-cooled was an important forward step
in reducing the heat-transfer area, and thereby the drag, of radiators for
liquid-cooled engines. At the suggestion of S. D. Heron, a 1-cylinder engine
was tested at McCook Field in 1923 with a mixture of water and ethylene
glycol at a high coolant temperature, probably near 300° F During 1928-
1929 further tests were made at McCook Field with a Curtiss D-12 engine.
After considerable development work to avoid leaks and to overcome other
troubles encountered, the use of this method of cooling was adopted for
Curtiss liquid-cooled engines by 1932, and used soon afterward by Allison
and Rolls-Royce. This change, which allowed operation of the coolant

55
at 250° F, reduced the radiator area required by about 50 percent (fig.55).
This improvement, together with better radiator design and radiator
cowling (fig. 56) brought the drag of liquid-cooled engines well below that
of air-cooled radials of equal power. Their installed weight, which had
been greater than that of air-cooled radials, also came down to more
comparable figures. Schlaifer gives the weight per horsepower of the best
liquid-cooled fighter installation in relation to a comparable air-cooled
installation as 30 percent more at sea level and about the same at 25,000 ft.18
The fact that the Battle of Britain was won by liquid-cooled engines
(the Rolls-Royce Merlin) gave a great impetus to the Army prejudice
in favor of water-cooled fighters.19 Actually, both types were used, and it
was found that the air-cooled fighter was better at low altitude both because
of its lighter specific weight and its lesser vulnerability to small-arms fire.
For commercial uses, however, the elimination of the weight, compli-
cation, and maintenance requirements that characterize liquid-cooling
has been a chief reason for the popularity of air-cooling for air-transport
purposes since about 1932; and with few exceptions, commercial air trans-
ports all over the world have used air-cooled engines, mostly of American
manufacture, from the early beginnings in the late 1920s up to the present.
Although today (1969) jet and turbine engines are standard for large
military and commercial airplanes, there are still many more planes powered
by air-cooled piston engines, because of their use in planes of smaller size,
than by all other types combined.

56
Unconventional Engines

Hundreds of unconventional types of aircraft engines have been proposed,


built, and tested. Among these the following may be mentioned.
BARREL- OR REVOLVER-TYPE ENGINES. In this type the cylinders were
positioned around the crankshaft with their axes parallel to it. Its advantage
was its compactness, which provided a small frontal area and allowed
good streamling. Perhaps the best known was the Almen engine of 1921.
None were successful—although during 1929 there were brief demonstrations
of the Swiss Statex and British Redrup types, and an example of the latter,
the Fury powered a Simmonds Spartan biplane in flight. The methods of
linking the pistons to the driveshaft caused lubrication and mechanical
problems that were never solved.
FAIRCHILD-CAMINEZ ENGINE. This was a 4-cylinder radial engine (fig. 57)
with rollers in the pistons operating on a 2-lobe cam. Its advantages were
its small diameter and a propeller shaft running at half engine speed
without the usual reduction gearing. The only crankless reciprocating
engine to reach the stage of official approval, it received in June 1927
United States Department of Commerce Approved-Type Certificate No. 1.
During 1926-28 it was flown experimentally, but it proved impractical
because of excessive vibration resulting from torque variation.
SLEEVE-VALVE ENGINES. The earliest development of a sleeve-valve
aircraft engine that I recall was that of the Belgian Minerva, a Knight-
type, or double-sleeve, engine which appeared in the 1920s, but never
got beyond the experimental stage. The single-sleeve, or Burt-McCollum,
type, was exploited chiefly in England and finally became operational in
the Bristol line of aircraft radial engines, including the Hercules (fig. 58),
Perseus, and Centaurus. These were used by the Royal Air Force during
World War II. The Napier Sabre, also using the single-sleeve valve, was a
24-cylinder, liquid-cooled, 2-crankshaft H-type engine used in British
fighters toward the end of World War II. The Rolls-Royce Eagle (not to
be confused with the 12-cylinder Eagle of World War I), a 24-cylinder
H-type engine with sleeve valves, was very similar to the Napier Sabre.

57
Figure 57.—Fairchild-Caminez
engine, transverse section; 135
hp at 1000 r p m , 3 6 0 lb. The
only crankless reciprocating
eingine to reach the stage of
official approval, it was later
found to be impractical be-
cause of severe torque varia-
tion. (From Page, Modern
Aviation Engines, 1929, vol.
2, p.1112, f i g . 535).

Figure 58.—Bristol Hercules


759 14-cylinder sleeve-valve
engine, 1 9 5 6 ; 2 0 0 0 hp at 2 8 0 0
r p m , 2 0 6 0 lb. Earlier models
were used in British bombers
during World War I I . (From
W i l k i n s o n , Aircraft Engines of
the World, 1954, p. 244)

58
It was developed after the war, too late to compete with the rapidly de-
veloping jet and turbine engines.
DIESEL AIRCRAFT ENGINES. Diesel engines built by Beardmorc and May-
bach were used experimentally in some rigid airships during the 1920s.
Those used operationally aboard the Hindenburg and its little-known
sister ship, the Graf ^eppelin II, were of Daimler-Benz manufacture. The
first diesel engine to power an airplane was a Packard air-cooled radial
(fig. 59) designed by L. M. Woolson, who was killed in a crash (due en-
tirely to bad weather) of an airplane powered with one of these engines
before the development was completed. The Packard diesel received from
the Civil Aeronautics Administration a CAB Approved-Type Certificate
43 on 6 March 1930. It set the world's nonrefueling duration record for
heavier-than-air craft 25-28 May 1931, a record that still stands. This

Figure 59.—Packard 4-stroke-cycle 9-cylinder radial air-cooled diesel engine (NASM 1932-7), 1928;
225 hp at 1950 rpm, 510 lb. Although diesel engines had been used earlier in lighter-than-air craft,
this was the first to power an airplane. (Photo A-2388)
engine and its designer and manufacturer were the recipient of the Robert
J. Collier trophy for 1931; however, it never became an important airplane
powerplant. The Guiberson air-cooled radial diesel engine appeared about
three years after the Packard, receiving a CAB Approved-Type Certificate
79, but was never widely used.
The most successful diesel airplane engine was the Junkers Jumo a
6-cylinder, opposed-piston, water-cooled engine (fig. 60), the development
of which was started about 1920. This engine was used to a limited extent
in German military airplanes and in German air transport, in the late
1930s. A model fitted with a turbo supercharger powered a high-altitude
photographic reconnaissance airplane of World War II, the Junkers J u -
86P, but by that time the engine was obsolescent.
NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, later the
National Aeronautics and Space Agency, NASA, Washington, D.C.) con-
ducted exhaustive research directed toward the development of aircraft
Diesel engines during the decade 1930-1940. This work was centered on
injection-system development and combustion-chamber design. No multi-
cylinder engines were built. For reference to this research see Index of
NACA Technical Publications listed in the first section of the bibliography
(p. 96), and also that on diesel engines (p. 112).
The Napier Nomad engine, a 2-cycle diesel compound powerplant was
designed after World War II for exceptionally high specific output, but it
was made obsolete by the gas turbines before full development.
Numerous other aircraft diesels were built and test flown, mostly in
Europe, but by the beginning of World War II, and with the general use
of high octane fuels, it became evident that the diesel engine could not
compete with the conventional spark-ignition type, and its development
terminated. The research work of the NACA on diesel engines for aircraft
during the late 1920s and early 1930s was extensive and outstanding, but
it found no practical application.
TWO-CYCLE GASOLINE ENGINES. The earliest 2-cycle aircraft engine
flown successfully was built in England by the New Engine Company, Ltd.
(NEC), in 1909. It was used in a British-Wright airplane of that period.
The cylinders were cross-scavenged with a Roots-type scavenging pump.
From 1909 to 1912 both air-cooled and water-cooled NEC engines were
built having 2 to 6 cylinders and 20 to 90 horsepower.
A great many 2-cycle gasoline aircraft engines have been proposed,
and many were built experimentally. Most of these were of the crankcase-
compressor type, now common in outboard marine engines. The attraction
of this type of engine lies in its mechanical simplicity and low cost, but it
60
has serious drawbacks for aircraft use, principal among which are its high
fuel consumption when used with a carburetor, and its tendency toward
misfiring and stalling at light loads. Most of the proposals have been for
small, low-cost engines, but so far none has been developed with the char-
acteristics necessary for a truly successful full-scale aircraft engine.
On the other hand, nearly all engines used for model airplanes are
2-cycle and crankcase scavenged, for the sake of mechanical simplicity.
In 1966 an engine of this type became available for small target aircraft.
The Junkers diesel engine described above stands as the only 2-cycle air-
craft engine ever to be used in considerable numbers for military and trans-
port aircraft.

Figure 60.—Junkers J u m o 2 0 7 - D 2-stroke-cycle 6-cylinder opposed-piston diesel engine (NASM


1 9 6 6 - 1 3 ) ; 1200 hp at 3 0 0 0 r p m , 1430 lb. Photograph shows engine equipped w i t h exhaust-driven
turbo-supercharger as used in high-altitude German reconnaissance airplane in World War I I .
Earlier unsupercharged versions (rated 7 5 0 hp at 1800 r p m , 1650 lb) were used in pre-war com-
mercial airplanes. (Photo A-3112)
Figure 61.—Napier Lion 12-cylinder W-type liquid-cooled engine, the only W-type ever widely u s e d ;
4 5 0 hp at 2 3 5 0 r p m , 985 lb. A racing version, of 8 0 0 hp, powered t h e 1927 winner of the Schneider
Trophy, the Supermarine S-5 seaplane, which flew at 281.65 m p h . (Photo A-3098)

UNCONVENTIONAL CYLINDER Finally there should be


ARRANGEMENTS.
mentioned some engines with unconventional cylinder arrangements.-"
The first is the Napier Lion (fig. 61), the only W-type engine to see exten-
.sive service. This engine was liquid-cooled with its 12 cylinders arranged
in 3 rows of 4 each. Brought out in 1918, it was quite widely used in British
military and commercial aircraft, and won the Schneider Trophy, a race
for seaplanes, in 1927. A second engine in this category is the Pratt &
Whitney R-4360, 28-cylinder air-cooled radial with 4 rows of 7 cylinders
each (fig. 45). This is the largest (but not the most powerful) successful
piston-type aircraft engine ever to reach the service stage. It has been used
in many large military aircraft and in the Boeing 377 Stratocruiser.
Besides the large number of cylinders and their unusual arrangement in
"staggered" radial formation, unusual features include machined-all-over
cylinder heads of novel shape and an ingenious arrangement of the push-
rod valve gear. This engine would undoubtedly have been more fully
developed had it not been for the advent of turbo-jet and turbo-prop
engines.
The Rolls-Royce Eagle (the second line with that name) and the
Napier Sabre, both using the double-crankshaft H arrangement, have
already been mentioned (p. 57).

62
Related Technical Developments

Fully as important as the historical development of actual engines, has been


progress in engine research, leading to improved understanding of the
basic phenomena involved. Especial attention under this heading should
be given to the improvement in the structural design of aircraft engines
made possible by the development of experimental stress analysis;21 however,
a history of research in the field of internal-combustion engines is beyond
the scope of this paper. Various sections of the bibliography contain
selected references to some of the important contributions in this area.
While this list is by no means complete, it should serve as a convenient
introduction to the subject. Most of the items listed contain relevant
bibliographies.
Interesting related historical developments have also occurred in
fuel systems, exhaust systems, control systems, fire extinguisher systems,
and many of the other elements comprising the aircraft powerplant. To
treat all of these in detail is beyond the scope of this work, but a few are of
sufficient importance to deserve mention here.

Valves and Valve Cooling


As previously mentioned, the poppet exhaust valve has always been a
critical item because it is subjected to such high gas temperature (up to
3000° F) and high gas velocity, with small areas available (stem and seat
only) for heat dissipation to the coolant. One method of attack on this
problem has been through the use of improved materials. By 1918 the
ordinary steels used at first had given way to high-speed tool steel which
has a high degree of strength at elevated temperatures. Tungsten is the
chief alloying element in such steel. Unfortunately, this type of steel burns
readily at the seat of a leaking valve. Since about 1920 austenitic (high-
chromium) steels have been successfully used in various forms, with several
other alloying elements, including principally silicon, nickel, and cobalt.
A further important improvement, about 1934, was the use of Stellite
facing on both valve seats and seat inserts. This development occurred

63
Figure 62.—Evolution of exhaust valves used in Wright radial engines. In all but the first (upper left)
the interior space was half filled with sodium to promote heat flow from head to stem and thus to
assist in cooling the valve. (From S.A.E. Journal, vol. 46, no. 4, p. 150, fig. 9, 1940)

jointly in the United States and abroad (chiefly in Britain), with the
manufacturers of poppet valves playing an important part.
Another, and very important, contribution to exhaust-valve life and
reliability has been the use of a hollow valve partially filled with liquid for
the purpose of improving the conductivity of heat from head to stem.
Heron and Gibson tried water in 1913, but the high steam pressure ex-
ploded the valve stem. Mercury was next tried, with more success, since
its vapor pressure is lower. But mercury will not wet steel. A method of
coating the internal valve surface with wettable material was developed by
Midgeley and Kettering in 1917, and the Lawrance J - l 9-cylinder radial
of 1921 (fig. 39), used mercury-filled valves with some success, although
with trouble from mercury leakage.
64
When S. D. Heron came to McCook Field in 1919, he continued his
work on valve coolants and soon used successfully the mixture of sodium
and potassium nitrate previously used for heat treating of steel. This ma-
terial has the necessary low vapor pressure, but its density is low. Con-
tinuing his work, Heron by 1928 had adopted liquid sodium as the in-
ternal coolant, now used in large aircraft exhaust valves and in many
non-aircraft engines.
Figure 62 shows a sequence of development in exhaust-valve design.
Much ingenuity has been displayed by valve manufacturers in fabricat'ng
the modern hollow-head with hollow-stem valve, and filling it (partially)
with metallic sodium.
The automatic lubrication of valves by engine oil, introduced to liquid-
cooled engines by Hispano-Suiza (1914) and to air-cooled engines by
Pratt & Whitney (1932) has also been an important contribution to the
present long life and reliabil ty of aircraft-engine valves.
Another method of attack on the valve-cooling problems was to eliminate
the poppet valve in favor of some-form of sliding valve. As already men-
tioned, the Bristol Aeroplane Company developed its single-sleeve-valve
air-cooled radial in the 1930s to the point where it was used in World War
II, and the Napier Sabre and the second Rolls-Royce Eagle also had sleeve
valves.

Fuels and Combustion


One of the most important developments in aircraft propulsion has been
the improvement in, and control of, aviation gasoline. This development
is a long and complex story, and only a bare outline can be given here.
For successful use in spark-ignition engines, gasoline must have the
proper volatility range, and the highest possible resistance to "knock" or
"detonation." Control of volatility seems never to have been a serious
problem, and development work in aircraft fuels has centered around in-
creasing their antiknock value. Earliest work on the relation of detonation
to fuel composition seems to have been by Harry R. Ricardo in England
and by Charles F. Kettering in the United States. Intensive work, under
Kettering's direction, was started by Thomas Midgeley and Thomas A.
Boyd in Dayton, Ohio, in 1917. During the course of this work it was
discovered that some substances, notably iodine, had a strong antiknock
effect even in very small concentrations. This discovery led to an intensive
search for powerful antiknock agents.

65
WITH wmft'

Figure 63.—Increase in aviation fuel performance number with respect to t i m e . The i m p r o v e m e n t


was due both to additions of tetraethyl lead (T.E.L.) and to improved refining methods. Performance
number is ratio of knock-limited power to that with pure iso-octane (xlOO).

Midgeley's work was done on a small 1-cylinder engine in an old


Dayton kitchen, and when a promising substance was found there, he would
bring it to the McCook Field engine laboratory for test in an aircraft
engine. I was closely associated with his work during my administration
of that laboratory, 1919-1923. By 1920 toluene and its related compounds
appeared promising as an additive and were used in flight tests, notably
by Schroeder for the 1920 altitude record with a turbo-supercharged
Liberty engine. By 1921 the extreme antiknock effects of metallo-organic
compounds was evident, and in 1922 Midgeley brought the first samples
of tetraethyl lead, Pb(C 2 H 5 ) 4 , to McCook Field for tests in 1-cylinder and
full-scale aircraft engines. Experimental work with leaded fuel continued
thereafter at a rapid pace. It was officially adopted for use in aviation
gasoline by the United States Navy in 1926 and by the Army in 1933,
and has since become universally accepted as an additive for gasoline.
Another important contribution was Graham Edgar's work, about
1926, in determining the effect of fuel structure on antiknock quality and,

66
specifically, discovering the high antiknock properties of the branched-
chain parafins such as iso-octane.
Specifications and laboratory tests for antiknock quality of aviation
fuels were sponsored by the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee in 1933,
and led to good control of this quality in United States aviation fuels soon
after. S. D. Heron was also an important contributor to this result. The
"performance number" of a fuel, used from about 1942, is the ratio of
knock-limited indicated mean effective pressure (klimep) with that fuel,
to the klimep in the same engine using iso-octane." Figure 63 shows the
improvement in the performance number achieved both by the use of
tetraethyl lead and the control of fuel composition.
The powerful effect of water or water-alcohol injection is also illus-
trated in figure 63. This development seems to have been started at Pratt &
Whitney about 1940, and was continued by them, by the Army Air Corps
at Wright Field, and by the NACA laboratories. By 1946, water-alcohol
injection was generally used for takeoff by both military and transport air-
planes. The high consumption of the auxiliary fluid (about 50 percent of
the fuel flow) limits its use to short periods and to engines with sufficient
supercharging to take advantage of the increased knock limit.

Altitude Performance and Superchargers


The fact that, as altitude increases, reduced air density reduces engine power
must have been realized before it became obvious in 1909, when airplanes
began to try for high-altitude flight. The advantage of altitude in military
work became very apparent in World War I, but the only attempt at
improved altitude performance used in World War I was embodied in the
German BMW and Maybach engines, which were designed to be partly
throttled near sea level, the throttle to be fully opened only above about 5,000
feet. Both engines were designed to be lighter in weight than would have
been required for full-throttle operation at sea level, and the BMW also
had higher compression ratios than could be used with full throttle at sea
level without detonation. The advantage in altitude performance over an
engine capable of full-throttle operation at sea level, however, was quite
small.
Measurement of engine performance at altitude was first seriously
undertaken when the United States Bureau of Standards completed its
altitude test chamber in 1918. Subsequently a considerable literature on this
subject developed (see bibliography).
67
The Swiss engineer A. J. Buchi suggested the turbo-supercharger for
aircraft in 1914. This type was then developed in France by Rateau, and
experimental models were tested during the war, but none was put into
service use. Laboratory work on gear-driven superchargers was conducted
during the war by the RAF at Farnborough, England. Intensive develop-
ment of supercharging equipment began both in England and the United
States in 1918.

VERTICAL
H
R.-R. MERLIN "SIXTY-ONE" ™ COOLINC
FINS
PASSAGES

INLET BRANCH
O F INTERCOOLER

BOOST
CONTROL
UNIT

Perspective drawing of the new two-stage FULL GEAR TWO-SPEED


two-speed supercharger of the Rolls-Royce CLUTCH & CEAR CHANCE
DRIVE
Merlin 61 engine. The twin rotors are OPERATINC.
PUMP
mounted on a single shaft. Change of
speed of the supercharger drive is effected AMAL
by a hydraulic pump. FUEL PRESSURE
REDUCING VALVE

Figure 64.—A two-stage two-speed geared supercharger with intercooler and aftercooler, as installed
on the Rolls-Royce Merlin 61 engine of 1942, the first of its kind to be used in service. (From Flight,
vol. 42, p. 656, Dec. 17, 1942)

68
Many types of compressors have been considered, but only one,
the centrifugal type, ever got beyond the experimental stage. The Royal
Aircraft Factory had Armstrong-Siddeley construct a radial engine with
a built-in geared centrifugal supercharger in 1916, but the design was
unsuccessful, probably because of torsional vibration in the drive system.
Siddeley did not produce a successful geared supercharger until that used
in 1926 in the Jaguar (see fig. 38).
Geared superchargers were built experimentally by Curtiss and by
Wright Aeronautical Corporation in 1925, but the first United States produc-
tion engine to be so equipped was the Pratt & Whitney Wasp of 1927,
a year later than the Jaguar. After 1930 all military and transport engines
were equipped with geared centrifugal superchargers, and in all cases some
kind of flexible coupling was introduced in the gear train to prevent
critical torsional vibration. The culmination of the geared centrifugal type
is represented by the 2-stage, 2-speed supercharger of the Rolls-Royce
Merlin (fig. 64).
In 1918 the Engineering Division of the Army Air Service contracted
with the General Electric Company to develop turbo-superchargers of the
Rateau type. The man in charge of this development for GE was Dr.
Sanford A. Moss, who remained in this position for over twenty years.
Experimental models applied to the Liberty engine were tested at the
top of Pikes Peak in 1918, and in flight at McCook Field in 1919.
Figure 65 shows an installation of this early type of General Electric
supercharger on a Liberty engine. A Le Pere airplane with this equipment
held the world's altitude record for the years 1920, 1921, and 1922. Super-
charging was hard on an engine not originally designed for it, and I re-
member when Major Schroeder, who made the 1920 record, returned
from a flight with the Liberty engine and its nacelle cut in two by a failed
connecting rod at the third crank from the front end. The only elements
holding the four forward cylinders and the propeller in place were the
crankshaft and the two camshaft housings. In spite of this condition, and
the loss of all its cooling water, the Liberty engine was still running!
A serious difficulty with the supercharger shown in figure 65 was the
failure of turbine blades due to inadequate cooling of the turbine. In 1922
Ernest T. Jones, in charge of superchargers under Major G. E. A. Hallett,
chief of the power plant section at McCook Field, was asked to redesign
the General Electric supercharger to overcome this difficulty. In a con-
ference with Jones over the design board, I suggested placement of the
turbine wheel on the nacelle surface, using an overhung turbine wheel as
in figure 66. This suggestion was adopted for the new design. Turbine
69
Figure 65.—a, General Electric turbo-supercharger installed on Liberty engine (NASM 1966-43)
of the type which held the world's altitude record for 1920, 1921, 1922. Tubes conveying air from
compressor to carburetor serve as an aftercooler. b, Night view of turbo-supercharger in operation.
The exhaust manifolds and the nozzle box are white hot (about 1500° F) and the turbine, operating
at over 20,000 rpm, is surrounded by hot exhaust gas. (Photo A-3092, A-3193)
wheels of this type have been used on all subsequent installations of turbo-
superchargers in the United States, including the Martin biplane bombers u>a
of the 1920s and the B-17 and B-24 bombers and P-38 and P-47 fighters
of World War II. The Boeing Stratocruiser and the B-29 and B-50 bombers
used essentially the same system, although in these airplanes the turbine
was located inside the nacelle and the overhung wheel was cooled by air
piped in from outside. Beginning with the B-17 the engines were also
equipped with gear-driven superchargers acting as the second stage.

Figure 66.—Side-type turbo-supercharger installed on Curtiss D-12F 460-hp engine in Curtiss P-5
Hawk, 1927. This exposed position of the turbine wheel was effective in reducing the blade tempera-
ture as compared to the earlier arrangement shown in figure 65. (Photos A-3094)
Figure 67.—NACA Roots-type supercharger, coupled to Pratt & Whitney Model A Wasp engine, 1 9 2 7 .
Bypass valve, lower right, controls inlet pressure. A w o r l d ' s altitude record was established in 1927
with t h i s installation in a Wright Apache a i r p l a n e . (Photo courtesy Pratt & Whitney)

The only service use of turbo-superchargers on foreign-built airplanes


appears to be that of the German Junkers diesel-engine high-altitude
photographic plane shown in figure 60. It is remarkable that this very effec-
tive device received so little development outside of the United States.
In 1927 the official world's altitude record was taken by Lieutenant
C. C. Champion, Jr., USN, with a Pratt & Whitney Wasp equipped with
a NACA Roots-type supercharger acting as first stage to the engine's own
72
geared centrifugal equipment (fig. 67). This is the only important use of a
noncentrifugal supercharger in aircraft.24
Aftercoolers,25 that is, devices to cool the air after leaving the super-
charger, have been generally used with turbo-superchargers, and with 2-
stage geared types. Such coolers are shown in figures 64 and 65. The Merlin
engine (fig. 64) used a water-cooled aftercoolcr with its own separate
radiator and circulation system.
The culmination of the supercharger art is represented by the Wright
Turbo-cyclone R-3350 engine shown in figure 47. This engine, introduced
about 1946, has three exhaust-driven turbines geared into the power
system, as well as a 2-speed centrifugal geared supercharger. It is standard
on the Douglas DC-7 and the Lockheed Super Constellation, the last
large piston-engine passenger-transport planes built in the United States.

Vibration Control
Powerplant vibration presents two kinds of problems in aircraft. One is
external vibration, or vibration of the power plant with relation to the air-
plane itself. The other is internal vibration, that is vibration of parts within
the powerplant. Considerable external vibration from engine and propeller
was accepted as normal in the early days of aviation. In my experience it
became of concern first in 1920, with the Hispano-Suiza V-8 300-hp engine,
a larger version of the original model. This engine, like all V-8s up to that
time, had cranks at 180°, which gave a strong second-order horizontal
vibration. It also had an unusually large torque variation, due to its large
cylinders and high mean effective pressure. Pilots complained of discom-
fort with this engine.
About 1921 the Wright Aeronautical Corporation, which produced
the 300-hp Hispano engine, built one with counterbalanced cranks at
90°, thus eliminating the horizontal shake. Vibration-measurement at
that time was in a crude state, and the improvement obtained was demon-
strated on the test stand by the fact that, with the 90° shaft, a penny
would remain on the crankcase, whereas with the 180° shaft the penny
would quickly bounce off.
The next test was to mount two engines in similar Thomas-Morse
fighters, one with the 180° shaft and one with the 90° shaft. A number of
engineers ran these engines on the ground, and a number of pilots flew
them. The consensus was that there was no noticeable difference in vibra-
tion of the airplane. Probably, the engine torque variation was so large in
both cases as to obscure the improvement in sidewise shake. In any case,

73
the 90° shaft was not approved, although it soon became standard on V - 8
engines for nonaircraft use. Such was the state of vibration analysis in 1922!
Reduction of engine vibration became essential in the early days
of commercial aviation when passenger comfort became important. In
this case, radial engines were used. Charles S. Draper and George Bentley
made a serious study of the shaking forces and movements of radial engines
in 1937-1938. One solution lay in flexible engine mounts to reduce the
transmission of vibration to the airplane structure. This involved a problem
of Ct droop" due to gravity when the engine was mounted at its rear, as in
the case of radials.
There was also the problem of decoupling the several modes of vibration
in order to avoid numerous critical speeds. This problem was solved by the
mount patented by Edward S. Taylor and K. Browne, which has been
widely used since. The principle employed is an arrangement of links which
have the effect of supporting the engine at its center of gravity, although
the actual flexible mounts are at the rear. Otto C. Koppen has used very
flexible decoupled engine mounts in light airplanes with good effect since
about 1939. Another contribution to reduction of engine vibration was
the adoption by Wright and Pratt & Whitney, in the late 1930s, of second-
order rotating weights to balance the second-order shaking component
characteristic of the master-rod system in radial engines.
Internal vibration of reciprocating engines has been most serious
in the propeller-crankshaft system. This type of vibration originates chiefly
from the torque variation inherent in piston engines and may be destructive
when resonance is involved. The Liberty engine of 1917 had a torsional
resonant speed of 1900 rpm with the usual propeller. Its rating at 1700
rpm was close enough to cause accessory-gear breakage, as previously
mentioned (p. 30). Serious trouble with torsional vibration was experienced
in the 1920s in dirigible airships using long shafts between engine and
propeller. This type of vibration also held back the development of metal
propellers, to be discussed later (p. 77).
A very critical case of crankshaft-propeller vibration appeared with
the introduction of the geared version of the Wright 9-cylinder 1820-cu-in.
radial engine in 1935. This problem was quickly and brilliantly solved by
E. S. Taylor and R. Chilton, who developed the pendulous counterweight,
which effectively counteracted the principal torque components of the
engine and prevented breakages in the drive system. The basic concept
was that of E. S. Taylor, for which he received the Reed Award in 1936.
Chilton contributed the mechanical embodiment. This type of device has
been used in large radial aircraft engines ever since, and also in many

74
non-aircraft powerplants. After the first engines so equipped had been
tested, it was found that these inventions had been anticipated in France,
but the credit for practical application should go to Taylor and Chilton.
It should also be mentioned that the Packard Diesel engine of 1928 (see
p. 59) was equipped with spring-loaded pivoted counterweights designed
to reduce torsional vibration. These, however, could be effective only at
one speed, whereas the Taylor-Chilton design was effective over the entire
speed range.
Another important torsional vibration problem was that caused by
the gear-driven supercharger rotor. Various types of flexible coupling have
been used in the gear train to avoid serious trouble.
Further consideration of vibration problems is included under the
heading, Propellers, below.

Propellers
Gibbs-Smith credits the Chinese with first use of the air propeller, on toy
helicopters. A helical screw is shown on a DaVinci helicopter drawing of
about 1500, and screw propellers were used on dirigible balloons as early
as 1784. An early Langley propeller is shown in figure 68a.
The success of the Wright brothers was in no small degree due to the
excellent performance of their two counter-rotating airfoil-section propellers,
chain driven at 8/23 engine speed, or about 380 rpm. They gave serious
attention to propeller design. Apparently they could get no useful data
from marine engineers and had to develop their own theory. In doing so,
they often argued each other into a reversal of opinion, but finally arrived
at a design which Frank W. Caldwell says ran at near optimum ratio of
forward speed to tip speed, and had an efficiency of about 0.70.
The Wright propellers were of 3-ply laminated wood, very light in
weight. It should, perhaps, have served as a warning to future propeller
designers that the first fatal accident—the crash of Orville Wright and
Lieutenant Thomas E. Selfridge in 1908, resulting in the death of Selfridge—
was caused by a propeller failure. A broken blade set up sufficient vibration
to cause the propeller to cut a rudder-bracing wire, upon which the tail
came askew and all control was lost.
Wooden propellers were universally used from the time of the Wrights'
first flight until well after World War I. They were very reliable for the
needs of that time, and were superseded only when the requirements for
power and tip speed exceeded the limits within which a wooden propeller
would safely operate.

75
Figure 68.—Propeller development: a, Langley wood
propeller (NASM 1938-56E) of 1893, used on Aero-
drome No. 4. b, Curtiss-Reed twisted-duraluminum
propeller (D-6), 1925. c, Hamilton-Standard 2B20
constant-speed propeller, 1946. d, Hamilton-Stand-
ard Hydramatic full-feathering propeller of 1947.
For typical wooden propeller of the period 1910 to
present, see figure 50. (Photos, respectively, A-287,
A-51875, A-3096, A-3097)

76
Materials superior to wood were actively sought after World W a r I.
F r a n k Caldwell, head of the propeller section at M c C o o k Field (1918-1930)
a n d later chief engineer at H a m i l t o n S t a n d a r d , was a leader in this field,
a n d has given excellent accounts of propeller developments. H e r e there is
space for only the briefest review.
M i c a r t a (canvas laminated with bakelite) was successfully used as a
wood substitute by 1920. I n 1921 Caldwell tested a steel-bladed propeller
on his electric whirling m a c h i n e to twice its rated power. H e then, very
innocently, presented it to m e for a " r o u t i n e " test on a Hispano-Suiza
300-hp engine. After a few minutes at rated power, a blade broke off, c a m e
t h r o u g h the control b o a r d between the heads of two operators, climbed a
wooden staircase, a n d went through the roof. T h e engine was reduced to
junk.
T h e above incident was an early warning of the i m p o r t a n c e of vibra-
tion a n d fatigue in propeller operation. At m y insistence, further " r o u t i n e "
propeller tests on experimental propellers were m a d e in a specially con-
structed "bombproof" shelter. All metal propellers of t h a t time (1921-1922)
failed, with m u r d e r o u s results to the engine. I n one case the whole assembly
of crankshaft, rods, and pistons was pulled out and t h r o w n 20 feet from w h a t
remained of the engine and stand.
Subsequent metal propeller development involved careful attention to
vibration problems. T h e R e e d type, using a twisted a l u m i n u m plate as
a base (fig. 68b), was one of the early successful designs. Later, the
manufacturers of metal propellers developed elaborate e q u i p m e n t and
procedures for the measurement and suppression of blade vibration.
A n excellent historical record of the development of variable-pitch
propellers is given by K . M . Molson. T h e idea started with m a r i n e pro-
pellers as early as 1816. T h e need for pitch control in airplane propellers
was realized as early as 1912. Various designs of controllable-pitch
propellers were tested, usually with disastrous results because of mechanical
weaknesses. V a r i a b l e pitch became essential with the advent of the high-
performance airplane, the Boeing 247 and the Douglas D C - 3 being early
examples. I m p o r t a n t propeller developments, with a p p r o x i m a t e dates
are:
1921 Aluminum blades, fixed pitch (Reed)
1923 Aluminum blades, adjustable pitch
1931 Hollow steel blades
1929 Controllable pitch, 2-position
1935 Automatic, constant speed
1938 Feathering
1945 Reversible and feathering

77
The above dates indicate general use in at least some airplanes. Among
the first flights with controllable pitch were those at McCook Field with
the Heath propeller about 1921. The first application of the constant-
speed variable-pitch propeller was by Hele-Shaw and Beacham for a test
flight in England in 1928. Both hydraulic and electric pitch control
were used until after World War II. Now hydraulic control and aluminum
blades are standard on piston engines, with a few exceptions. Figure 68
shows examples.

Reduction Gears
The Wrights, with their chain drive, were evidently aware that the optimum
speed for engines is not usually that for propellers. Even before the Wrights,
most experimental airplanes (Stringfellow, Maxim, Langley, and others)
had belt- or gear-driven propellers, although the drive ratio for steam
engines was usually up rather than down.
Direct propeller drive, with the propeller mounted on the crankshaft,
is attractive for its simplicity and reliability, and was used by most of the
early fliers after The Wright's and up to the start of World War I. An
exception was the early Renault air-cooled V-8 (fig. 17, p. 20), the propeller
shaft of which was an extension of the camshaft (or vice-versa) and ran at
half crankshaft speed—a ratio which has been widely used since.
Other geared engines which appeared for use in World War I included
the RAF (a copy of the Renault), the 8-cylinder-in-line Mercedes, and the
220-hp Hispano-Suiza. These were soon followed by the Rolls-Royce Eagle,
with planetary gears.
The need for propeller gearing results from the fact that the propeller
speed for optimum propeller efficiency is usually lower than the speed at
which the engine gives its best performance. Without gearing, the speed
for the engine-propeller combination is chosen as a compromise—too high
for best propeller efficiency and too low for maximum engine power. As
improved engine design called for higher engine speeds, this compromise
became more unsatisfactory. By 1920 most large European engines were
geared. In the United States, however, the general use of reduction gears
came much later. For that matter, in 1924 gearing was actually eliminated
from the Curtiss D-12 engine in order to save 25 pounds of weight! Never-
theless, by 1930 it was evident that large engines should be geared to allow
of optimum performance. Pratt & Whitney used an internal gear in 1931,
and both Wright Aeronautical and Pratt & Whitney adopted the Farman
planetary gear for use in the DC-3 in 1933 (fig. 69). From that time on,

78
Figure 69.—Bevel planetary
reduction gear system as used
on Farman engines, after World
War I. This type was also used
by some American engine
>///////;//M////w/»/},
builders under license from
Farman. Below, Spur-type
planetary reduction gear sys-
tem which superseded the
bevel type.

propeller reduction gears became an integral part of all large airplane en-
gines, spur type planetary gears being standard for most radials and plain
2-element spur gears for V-type engines (fig. 70). The plain spur gears
used by the Rolls-Royce Merlin of 1945 carried 2,200 takeoff horsepower
satisfactorily on a face 2-in. wide, a remarkable achievement in gear design.

Other Developments
Only brief mention can be made here of the numerous secondary, though
often very important, problems encountered and solved in the develop-
ment of reciprocating aircraft engines. Among these, however, should be
mentioned the following:
IGNITION SYSTEMS. As mentioned previously, the Wright Brothers' engine
of 1903 used "make-and-break" ignition. This system involved a pair of
contacts within the cylinder, one insulated and connected to a battery
79
Figure 70.—Two-element spur reduction gear as used on
Renault Type 12-Kh liquid-cooled engine. This type of
gear has been generally used in V-type and in-line
engines since about 1930. (From Aerosphere 1939, p.
649)

and coil system and one operated by a shaft protruding through the cylinder
wall. This shaft was operated from the camshaft so as to "break" the contact
points apart at the moment of ignition. The low voltage arc so formed
was an effective igniter. However, the mechanical complication involved,
and the difficulty of cooling the contact levers within the cylinder made
it impractical for any but very low-output engines. This system was soon
displaced by the "high-tension" system with spark plugs which was used
in all other successful airplane engines, and, in its essentials, is accepted
practice to date for all spark-ignition engines.
80
Ceramic-insulated spark plugs were generally used in the United States
before 1921. Both mica and ceramic plugs were used in Europe. From
about 1921 to 1940 m'ca plugs were generally used. The development
of new ceramic materials about 1940 caused a universal change to this
material.
CARBURETION. At the time of the Wright brothers' first flight, little was
known about carburetion, and various devices were used to introduce
fuel to air. As mentioned earlier (p. 13), the Wright brothers used grav-
ity fuel feed from a small can to a heated surface in the inlet pipe. Manly
used a large sheet-metal box filled with porous wooden blocks, a scheme
originally conceived by Balzer. These blocks were saturated with fuel,
and the engine air was drawn past them, in the hope that a combustible
mixture would result. The Antoinette engine and all of the Wright
brothers' engines produced during 1907-1912 used a small pump to inject
fuel into the inlet ports. The carburetion system used for the Gnome
rotary engine has already been described (p. 25). All these systems
required experimental adjustment, good for only one engine speed.
Meanwhile, float-type carburetors were being developed for auto-
mobile use, and these were used by most aircraft engines after the Gnome
and Antoinette. Float-type carburetors were used by the Wright brothers
on their later engines, and were generally used for aircraft engines up to
about 1935. A floatless carburetor was introduced by the Chandler-
Groves Corporation in 1935, and the Stromberg floatless injection-type
carburetor became operational about 1938. Since that time most mili-
tary and transport engines have used floatless-type carburetors, many of
the injection type. Light-plane engines have, generally, continued to use
float-type carburetors, although injection systems are available for this
type.
FUEL INJECTION. Direct injection into the individual cylinders was used
in gasoline engines for a short time on some Pratt & Whitney Wasps in
1931-1932. This method was developed to service use in World War II in
German military engines. It was adopted by Wright Aeronautical Corpo-
ration for their R-3350 engine in 1944.
Injection through nozzles located at each inlet port, first used on the
Antoinette engine of 1906, has been used to a limited extent in light-aircraft
engines since about 1946.
STARTING. Hand starting by the propeller was standard before 1920.
Subsequent development included simple hand cranks, hand cranks with
inertia flywheel, cartridge starters, air starters, and finally the present
electric starter with storage battery.
81
BEARINGS AND LUBRICATION. Most radial engines, even as early as the
Gnome (fig. 20), used ball or roller bearings for the crankshaft. This prac-
tice has been continued with few exceptions, of which figures 44 and 45 show
examples. Ball or roller bearings occasionally have been used for crankpins
(see figs. 20 and 33). Thrust bearings generally have been of the ball type.
Most aircraft engines have used plain journal bearings for the crankpin,
and, with the exceptions noted above, for the main crankshaft bearings.
Before about 1930 such bearings were made of the lead-tin-antimony
alloy babbit. This material is excellent for bearings in all respects except
in structural strength, which is low.
After about 1930 the increases in power and speed, resulting in
increased bearing loads, began to cause serious fatigue failure of plain
babbit bearings. Meanwhile a subsidiary of the General Motors Corporation
had developed a bearing material consisting of a copper matrix filled in
with lead. These "copper-lead" bearings were found to have excellent
load carrying ability as compared to babbit, and were soon adopted as
standard for all high-output aircraft engines.
During World War II, U.S. radial engines started to have crankpin-
bearing failures when overspeeded in combat dives. A bearing consisting
of a steel shell lined with a thin layer of cadmium, with a very thin overlay
of silver was developed to solve this problem. Variations on this bearing
have been used in large radial-engines crankpins since that time. Copper-
lead bearings, when improved with a very thin overlay of tin, have gen-
erally been found adequate for V-type engine crankshafts and crankpins.
These bearing developments have been an important factor in the
up-rating of airplane engines illustrated by figure 71.
Improvements in lubrication systems have included the use of full
pressure feed to bearings, rather than gravity or splash feed, or such "total
loss" systems as that already described for the Gnome engine (see p. 23).
Another important improvement has been the installation of adequate oil
filtering elements within the engine's oil-circulation system. As size and
power of engines has increased, it has become necessary to limit oil tem-
perature by circulating the lubricant through oil radiators, usually air
cooled.
The use of castor oil as a lubricant for most, if not all, aircraft, engines
previous to 1918, has already been mentioned (p. 25). When fresh, this
type of oil is an excellent lubricant, but has the disadvantages of rapid
breakdown to gummy deposits in the engine, and a very limited supply
base. Work to explore the possibilities of petroleum oils for aircraft-engine
lubrication was started at the United States Navy Aero-Engine Laboratory

82
at Washington, D . O , in 1917, and within a few months a number of
proprietary mineral oils were found satisfactory and approved for use
in all except rotary engines. Since that time, development of mineral oils
suitable for aircraft engines has been energetically carried on by the oil
industry. The resulting improved quality of lubricants has been an im-
portant factor in increasing the reliability, and the running time between
overhauls, of aircraft piston engines.
ENGINE INSTRUMENTS. The development of engine instruments has been
concurrent with that of the engines themselves. The earliest flights were
made without any engine instruments at all. Early instruments were chiefly
for the purpose of indicating whether or not the engine was performing
satisfactorily (in fact this is still the purpose of most engine instruments
carried in aircraft). First to come into use was some sort of tachometer for
observing engine speed. It was followed, in the approximate order of use,
by sight glasses or gauges to indicate oil flow or oil pressure, remote-reading
temperature gauges for oil and coolant, and thermocouples for indicating
the temperature of air-cooled cylinders at some critical point. As flight
duration increased, fuel-supply indicators, usually showing fuel-level in
tanks, were found important. The introduction of supercharging required
manifold-pressure indicators. A late development in engine instruments
is the engine "analyzer," an electronic system which observes the ignition-
voltage versus time curve of any cylinder on a cathode-ray screen and which
requires the services of a flight engineer. Used in most large multi-engine
airplanes, it enables a trained observer to detect and anticipate many forms
of engine trouble or incipient failure by observing these curves for each
cylinder in turn.
A detailed account of instrument history and technology is beyond
the scope of this volume. Chatfield, Taylor, and Ober in the various
editions of The Airplane and its Engine (1928-1948) give descriptions of in-
struments as they appeared at the time of publication. Other relevant
publications will be found in the bibliography.

83
400
o
LO
en
Ui
0_
LO 300
GO

LO
LO
LU LU
Q£ Q_

>
O

X
<
GO DO
cr.
LU
o_
LO
GO

1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960


Figure 7 1 . — Engine d e v e l o p m e n t curves. Typical performance characteristics of m i l i t a r y and
large c o m m e r c i a l airplane piston engines, 1 9 0 3 - 1 9 6 0 . From 1930 on these curves apply to
supercharged e n g i n e s ; unsupercharged engines, except as regards overhaul period, remain
at a p p r o x i m a t e l y the 1930 levels.

84
Summary of Piston-Engine Development

Figure 71 shows performance parameters for piston aircraft engines since


1903.
Brake mean effective pressure (bmep) is a measure of an engines'
ability to withstand high cylinder pressures and to produce power with a
given speed and size. Starting at 62 psi (Langley, 1902), it rose to 130 by
1925, which is near maximum for unsupercharged engines. With the
introduction of supercharging and improved fuels in the 1930s, bmep was
increased to takeoff values up to 360 psi (Rolls-Royce Merlin) and 300
psi (large radial engines in the United States), where it has remained since
the advent of jets and turbines.
Mean piston speed (mps) at takeoff rose steadily from 750 ft/min in
1903 to a maximum of 3,000 ft/min in 1935, where it has remained.
Specific fuel consumption has been reduced from nearly 1 lb/hp-hr
to current minimum values of less than 0.40. This improvement has been
achieved partly through improved design and partly because improved
fuels have allowed higher compression ratios (from about 4.0 in 1903 to
present values, up to 8.0.
Best weight per horsepower in 1903 was that of the Manly engine,
at 2.6 lb/hp. This figure was reduced to 1 in 1935 and has gone slightly
below that since (see table 1).
One of the most remarkable improvements has been in reliability and
reduced maintenance. The very early aircraft engines were overhauled
after every flight. The approved overhaul period for the best modern
transport piston engines is now as high as 2,600 hours.
Further improvements in piston engines would have been made had it
not been for the introduction of turboprop and turbojet engines, which
virtually put an end to intensive development of the large piston engine.
Jet engines are also used for certain categories of small aircraft.
Figure 72 shows the piston-engine family as it has developed, finally
culminating in the V-12 liquid-cooled engines as represented by the
Rolls-Royce and Packard Merlin, and the 18-cylinder air-cooled radials,
by the Pratt & Whitney R-2800 and the Wright 3350, of which the
85
AIRCRAFT ENGINE
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NOTES
1950 ONLY SIGNIFICANT EN&IUES IMCLUP»D
DATE5 BEFORE ig 10 ARE Fon. R U T SUCCESSFUL. rufiuT
AFTER 1)10 PATE l i S C H i H L , UiK OH T Y . F S - T E I T COMPLETION
PATKS AMP 0HT>»R I N oavCS , A P P R O T U K A T C
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I'JS'S' PARCMTHIiSlS = X>ID HOT FLY

C.KTAYLOR FEB.ig*2

19^0 Ff'aure 7 2

86
FAMILY TREE
IGNITION
All? COOLED

IN LINE OPPOSED ROTARV r*AN


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( BALZER')
(LANtLtX)
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RENAULTv-a G N O M E (ESNAULT- PELTEEle")

ANZANKtcYL)
ANZANI I9J0
RADIALS

LE R.HOUE
CLSHET
R A F *-» OOEAURSEL
SIEM KM!
STEEL HEADS
ABC'WASP*
B.&. MERCURV
DIESEL
COSMOS J U P I T E R 1920
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87
TABLE 1.—Engines of Historical Importance

c
Weight Piston
No. Bore Stroke Displ. Horse- Bmep speed
Engine Tear ° Type cyl. (in.) (in.) (cu. in.) power b Rpm lb lb/hp (psi) (fl/min)

Water-cooled
Langley 1901 radial 5 5 5.5 687 52 950 135 2.6 63 870
Wright 1903 horizontal 4 4 4 200 d 16 1,090 179 11.2 58 725
Antoinette 1906 V 8 3. 15 3. 15 196 32 1,400 93 2.9 91 735
Darracq 1909 opposed 2 5.2 4.72 194 24 1,500 121 5.04 65 1, 180
Curtiss O X - 5 1910 V 8 * 4 5 503 90 1,400 320 3.55 101 1, 170
Mercedes 1915 vertical 6 5.51 6.3 901 160 1,400 618 3.86 100 1,470
Hispano-Suiza 1915 V 8 4.72 5. 11 718 150 1,450 467 3. 1 114 1,235
Liberty 1917 V 12 5 7 1,650 420 1,700 856 2.04 118 1,985
Curtiss D - 1 2 1922 V 12 4.5 6 1, 145 325 1,800 704 2. 16 125 1,800
Rolls R o y c e Kestrel 1930 V 12 5 5. 5 1,296 560 2,500 992 1.77 137 2,290
VI.
Rolls R o y c e Merlin I 1936 V 12 5.4 6 1,650 1,030 3,000 1,320 1.28 165 3,000
Packard-Merlin 1945 V 12 5.4 6 1,650 2,250 3,000 1,740 .78 360 3,000

Air-cooled
Langley (model) 1901 radial 5 2.06 2.75 46.5 3.2 1,800 7 2.2 30 825
Anzani 1909 fan 3 4. 13 5. 12 206 24.5 1,600 145 5.9 59 1,360
Renault 1908 V 8 2.76 4.72 226 35 1,400 242 6.9 88 1, 100
Gnome 1909 rotary 7 3.93 3.93 335 50 1, 150 165 3.3 103 753
Jupiter 1920 radial 9 5.75 7.5 1,753 400 1,650 700 1.75 109 2,060
Jaguar 1922 2-row-radial 14 5 5.5 1,512 360 2,000 910 2.53 94 1,830
Lawrance J - l 1922 radial 9 4.5 5.5 787 200 1,800 476 2.38 112 1,650
Pratt & Whitney 1926 radial 9 5.75 5.75 1,344 425 1,900 650 1.53 132 1,820
Wasp.
f 1930 radial 9 6. 13 6.88 1,823 575 1,900 940 1.64 2, 180
W r i g h t 1820
i 1945 radial 9 6. 13 6.88 1,823 1,525 2,750 1,376 .90 245 3, 150
Continental A - 6 5 1938 opposed 4 3.88 3.63 171 65 2,350 155 2.38 128 1,420
Pratt & W h i t n e y ' 1940 2-row-radial 18 5.75 6.0 2,804 2,000 2,700 2,300 1. 15 209 2,700
2800. 1945 2-row-radial 18 5.75 6.0 2,804 2,800 2,800 2,327 .83 305 2,800
Pratt & Whitney 1948 4-row-radial 28 5.75 6.0 4,363 3,500 2, 700 3,470 .99 235 2,700
4360.
[ 1941 2-row-radial 18 6. 13 6.31 3,347 2,000 2,400 2,848 1.43 197 2,550
W r i g h t 3350
1955 2-row-radial 18 6. 13 6.31 3,347 3,700 2,900 3,560 .96 302 3,070

d
» Refers to year of first general use (except for Langley Dropped to 12 hp after 1 min.
engine). Where two dates are given, they refer to typical early All liquid-cooled engines later than Curtiss D-12 are
and late models of the same basic engine. supercharged.
* Maximum rated, or takeoff power. All air-cooled engines later than Lawrence J - l , except
c
Radiator, cowling, and coolant arc not included in the Continental, are supercharged.
weight of liquid-cooled engines Cowling is not included for
air-cooled engines.

88
latter two remain in air-transport service, as do also the Pratt & Whitney
R-1830 and Wright R-1820 (in the D C - 3 airplane). There are also some
Pratt & Whitney 9-cylinder Wasp and Wasp Jr. engines in service in
medium-powered airplanes, especially in Canada, and a few remain in
service in the old Ford trimotors dating from about 1930. A few Pratt &
Whitney R-4360 28-cylinder engines also remain in service.
Where the piston engine continues to reign supreme is with the popular
light plane. Literally tens of thousands of air-cooled, horizontally opposed
piston engines manufactured by Continental, Lycoming, and Franklin
power American light planes; and they have their counterparts in lesser
quantities in Europe. Although by no means as dramatic as the power-
plants that count their horsepower in four digits, these modest prime movers
have enjoyed greater quantity production than any other type of aero
engine except those for model airplanes.
Figure 72 also includes a family tree for rocket, turbo-jet, and turbo-
prop engines. The history of these developments is so recent and so well
covered in the literature (particularly by Schlaifer and Gibbs-Smith) that
no attempt will be made to cover it here. There could well be a paper as
long as this one, or even a whole volume, devoted to this important and
revolutionary development in aircraft propulsion.
It is interesting to review the contributions of the various nations in
the field of aircraft propulsion. Table 2 summarizes this subject. It is
evident that the United States and France have been the principal con-
tributors to early engine development, while England has made significant
contributions in late piston and early turbine engines, and Germany was
the first to fly rocket and jet engines, although German and British turbojet
development was concurrent.
If the art and science of aircraft propulsion develop as fast in the next
50 years as they have since the Wright brothers' initial flight, the following
prophecy of Lester D. Gardner in Aviation (vol 1, no. 1, August 1916),
will be as meaningful today as it was then:
Now many of the most distinguished scientists in all countries are giving
aeronautics close and careful study. From the work of these men aero-
nautics will derive the information upon which progress, such as has never
been thought possible, will be achieved.

89
T A B L E 2.—Credits, b y C o u n t r y , for E n g i n e D e v e l o p m e n t s

First manned flight Engine Aircraft Tear

AUSTRIA

Internal combustion engine Lenoir gas engine Haenlein (dirigible) 1872

DENMARK

Fixed radial engine air-cooled Ellehammer Ellehammer 1906

ENGLAND

With gear-driven centrifugal Armstrong Siddeley Armstrong Siddeley 1917


supercharger
Transatlantic nonstop Rolls-Royce Eagle Vickers Vimy 1919
Automatic constant-speed pro- Bristol Jupiter Gloster Grebe 1928
peller
Turbo-propeller engine Rolls-Royce Trent Meteor 1945

FRANCE

Steam engine Steam Giffard (dirigible) 1852


Electric motor Electric motor Tissandier (dirigible) 1883
Air-cooled Otto-cycle engine Tricycle engine Santos-Dumont (dirigible) 1898
Helicopter Antoinette V - 8 Cornu helicopter 1907
Rotary radial engine Seguin Gnome Voisin 1909
More than 8 cylinders Levavasseur Antoinette 16- Antoinette 1910
cylinder
Propeller reduction gear Renault V - 8 Farman 1910
Inlet-port fuel injection Antoinette Antoinette 1906
Seaplane (floats) Gnome Heurig Fabre 1910
Turbosupercharger Rateau R.A.F. 4D 1918

GERMANY

Rocket engine von Opel Opel-Sander Rak-1 1929


Diesel engine in commercial Junkers 2-cycle opposed piston Junkers G—38 ca. 1936
transport
Jet engine von Ohain Heinkel He-178 1939
Axial flow jet engine Junkers Ju-004 Messerschmitt 262 1944
Rocket engine in military service Walter Messerschmitt 163 1944

SPAIN-SWITZERLAND

Aluminum cylinder structure Hispano-Suiza Spad 7 1914

90
UNITED STATES

First manned flight Engine Aircraft Tear

Airplane Wright Wright 1903


Seaplane (flying boat) Curtiss Curtiss 1912
Over 400 hp Liberty DeHavilland-4 1918
Transatlantic with 2 stops 4 Liberties Navy-Curtiss N C - 4 1919
With fuel antiknock Liberty D H - 4 (McCook Field) 1921
Metal propeller Reed Standard J - l 1921
Controllable-pitch propeller Hispano-Suiza Curtiss J N - 4 (McCook Field) ca. 1921
Over 200 mph Curtiss D-12 Curtiss racer (Detroit) 1922
Crankless engine Caminez Fairchild 1926
Roots supercharger* Liberty D H - 4 (NACA) 1927
Diesel engine Packard Stinson Detroiter Monoplane 1928
Cylinder fuel injection with spark Pratt and Whitney Ford or Fokker 1931
ignition
With pendulum-type vibration Wright 1820 Wright Experimental 1935
absorber

*As stated (p. 60), the British two-cycle NEC engine used a Roots-type scavenger blower, but this was
not a supercharger in the sense that it was used for altitude compensation

Footnotes
1
The plane had a wing span of 80 ft, a wing area of 300 sq ft, a fuselage length of 25 ft,
and weighed 130 lb. The pilot was required to develop 0.4 hp. in order to fly the plane,
which had a cruising speed of 21 and a stalling speed of 16 mph. Details of its tests are
contained in the catalog of the Shuttleworth Collection, the British museum where it is
exhibited. (See " Southampton University Man Powered Aircraft (I960)" In The Shuttle-
worth Collection of Historic Aeroplanes, . . . Described by Wing Commander T. E. Guttery,
. . . Old Warden Aerodrome, Biggleswade, Bedfordshire, 1969, pp. 70-71. In May of
the following year, according to the Christian Science Monitor (May 18, 1962, p. 21), the
Puffin, a specially built monoplane of 84-ft span, weighing 115 lb, with the propeller
behind the tail, was flown under pedal power a distance of half a mile by John Wimpenny
at St. Albans, also in England.
2
These models, Aerodromes 5 and 6, are in the Smithsonian's National Air and Space
Museum (NASM 1905-1 and 1905-2).
3
Without water or flywheels, but with ignition battery. This condition is the same as
for the weights quoted for other liquid-cooled engines.
4
Later development shows this to have been unnecessary. Steel cylinder bores have
been used since the Gnome engines of 1909.
5
Also in 1907 Curtiss broke the World's motorcycle speed record (137 mph) with a
40-hp V - 8 air-cooled engine.
6
See Appendix A for a description of the unique working of the rotary engine.
7
The Navy version was a slight modification having dual ignition and a 100-hp
rating.

91
8
T h e details of this feat are related in Smithsonian Annals of Flight, vol. 1, no. 3, " T h e
Liberty Engine, 1918-1942," by Philip S. Dickey I I I , Lt. Col. USAF, Ret.
9
The Wasp, however, did not go into real quantity production nearly as quickly
as did the Liberty.
10
The first nonstop Atlantic crossing was by Alcock and Brown, about a month
later, 14-15 June 1919, using two Rolls-Royce Eagle engines (see fig. 25), also with welded-
cylinder construction.
11
T h e story of this flight is related in Smithsonian Annals of Flight, vol. 1, no. 1, " T h e
First Nonstop Coast-to-Coast Flight and the Historic T - 2 Airplane," by Louis S. Casey.
12
It will be recalled that the Wright brothers also used crude aluminum en bloc
water-jacket construction on their first engine. Subsequent engines, however, had separate
cylinders.
13
The K was for Charles B. Kirkham, who conceived the basic design for this series
and was also consulted in the design of the earlier Liberty engine (see p. 30).
14
Named for the brother of General William (Billy) Mitchell.
15
The chief limitations on the cast-iron cylinder are poor heat conductivity as com-
pared with aluminum, and low strength as compared with steel.
16
See previous remarks, page 33, regarding the Hispano-Suiza engine.
17
The author was in charge of the engine laboratory at McCook Field, and was
closely associated with Heron and his work during this period.
18
Owing to the fact that radiator area can be designed large enough for any altitude,
while fin area on an air-cooled cylinder has a practical limit; the power of air-cooled
engines above a certain altitude is therefore limited by cooling.
19
On one occasion I asked a high-ranking officer: "Does the Army want liquid-
cooled fighters even if better fighters can be built around air-cooled engines?" He answered
in the affirmative!
20
Obviously, the sleeve-valve Napier Sabre and the Junkers Diesel also had uncon-
ventional cylinder arrangements.
21
An important contribution to this art in the United States was the development of
Stresscoat by E. S. Taylor and Greer Ellis in 1938. This method of showing stress patterns
by means of a brittle lacquer coating had been used by the Germans earlier, but was not
used in this country until the work of the above-mentioned persons. Experimental stress
analysis, using strain gages and photoelastic techniques as well as Stresscoat, has been
generally used in aircraft-engine development since about 1940.
22
For official definitions of fuel terms, including performance number, see fuel hand-
books published by the American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
23
A squadron of Martin bombers was the first combat group ever equipped with
turbo-superchargers (1923-1924).
24
The NEC 2-cycle engines of 1909-1912 were equipped with Roots-type scavenging
blowers, but these were not superchargers in the sense that they were used for altitude
compensation.
25
When the cooler is used between stages of supercharging, it is called an intercooler,
when it is used between the supercharger and the engine, it is called an aftercooler.

92
Appendix
The Rotary Radial Engine

The radial engine has been built in two essentially different configura-
tions: the static radial, which still enjoys widespread use; and the rotary
(rotating) radial, which passed out of use soon after 1918. The former
may be considered a "conventional" engine, in which the pistons, recipro-
cate inside the cylinders of an engine firmly attached to the airframe.
In the rotary radial, however, the anti-propeller end of the crankshaft
is attached to the airframe, and the cylinders and crankcase, to which
of necessity the propeller is fixed, rotate around the crankshaft (see figs. 20
and 21). The rotary engine functions internally in exactly the same manner
as the conventional radial engine, but because of this arrangement the
pistons do not reciprocate relative to the mounting structure, and therefore
no unbalanced forces result. Thus, in operation, the rotary engine is ex-
ceptionally free from vibration. As mentioned in the text (p. 25), the large
flywheel effect of the rotating cylinders was important in relation to the
type of control system used at the time.
The rotary radial engine shares with the conventional radial the
advantages of compactness, short crankshaft, and adaptability to air cooling.
On the other hand it has the following inherent disadvantages:

1. Severe limitations on rpm, resulting from high centrifugal forces


created within the revolving engine and wind drag caused
by the rotating cylinders.
2. Design limitations imposed by the rotation of all parts except the
crankshaft.
3. An undesirable gyroscopic effect on the airplane during turns.
4. Limitations on the lubrication system, which, owing to the
design of the engine, resulted in high oil consumption and the
throwing out of excess oil with the exhaust, as mentioned in
the text.
5. Difficulty of providing a closed exhaust system.
93
In spite of these disadvantages, however, the rotary engine was an excellent
design for the state of the art during the two decades after 1900. It was
produced in large quantities during 1914-1918, and powered many success-
ful fighter planes.

94
Bibliography
Expanded and Arranged by Dr. Richard K. Smith
From Material Furnished by G. Fayette Taylor
This bibliography is limited to material, mostly in the English language,
which the author considers important in connection with the history of
aircraft propulsion, and with which he is familiar. An exhaustive bibliog-
raphy including all important foreign references would be a desirable
project for some future historian.
The first section of the bibliography contains books and periodical
articles in which the emphasis is on the historical aspects of engine develop-
ment. The second and third sections, comprised mainly of references to
topical articles in the periodical literature, is arranged chronologically by
date of publication. This was done on the assumption that anyone using
this bibliography is more likely to be familiar with the time period in which
a development has occurred that with an author's name.
NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics—later the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, Washington,
D.C.) carried out, and also sponsored, exhaustive and important research
in airplane engine technology. For a complete list of its publications in
this field, see the index of NACA publications, listed in the first section
of this bibliography. Especially relevant NACA reports are included on
pages 123 to 134, and are referenced under the appropriate headings.

Bibliographies and Indexes


BROCKET, PAUL, ed. Bibliography of aeronautics of the National Advisory Committee for Aero-
nautics [now NASA]. Washington, D . C : U.S. Government Printing Office.
Published during the years 1910 through 1932, when further work on it was un-
fortunately abandoned, this valuable source had its inception when the editor was
assistant librarian at the Smithsonian Institution, and the first volume appeared as
volume 35 of the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.
GAMBLE, WILLIAM BURT, ed. History of aeronautics. A selected list of references to material in
the New York Public Library, 1938. New York Public Library publication, 1938.
325 pp. Originally published as a series in the New York Public Library Bulletin
(January 1936 to September 1937). See especially "Engines," 122-128.

95
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Index of NACA technical publications,
1915-1949. 1950. 605 pp. See also bibliography of NACA Reports, p . 123.

History and Technology of Aircraft and Flight


Certain aspects of the history of aircraft propulsion are also treated in publications listed
under Aircraft Powerplants: Aircraft Power Before 1900 (VILLENEUVE, 1868-1869). Engines
1900-1913 ("Airship After Buyer," 1903; " T h e Failure of Langley's Aerodrome," 1903;
SANTOS-DUMONT, 1904; "Samuel Pierpont Langley," 1906; " T h e White Flyer," 1906;
" T h e Wright Aeroplane ," 1906; HOWLAND, 1908; "Types of Recent Foreign
Flying Machines," 1908; WRIGHT, 1908; " T h e Aero Exhibition," 1909; " T h e Paris
Aviation Exhibition," 1909). Engines 1914-1919 (DOUGLAS, 1919). Engines 1920-1924
(BAUMAN, 1920). Engines 1925-1929 (LEIGHTON, 1929).
Certain aspects of theory and technological practice are also treated in publications
listed under Aircraft Powerplants: Engines 1914-1919 (DURAND, 1918; UPTON, 1918).
Engines 1920-1924 (LOENING, 1920; SPARROW, 1921). Engines 1925-1929 ( M C C O R D ,
1925; CLEMENTS, 1928; FOKKER, 1928; BROOKS, 1929). Engines 1930-1934 (LYON, 1930;
DIETRICH and LEHR, 1932; TAYLOR, 1933). Engines 1935-1939 (LOMBARD, 1937; KAMPER,
1939). Engines 1940 and After (DEFOREST and ELLIS, 1940). Also under NACA Reports:
1st, 1915 (LUCKE); 2d, 1916 ("Nomenclature for Aeronautics"); 4th, 1918 ( T I C E ) ; 6th,
1920 (DICKINSON and N E W E L L ) ; 10th, 1924 ( S P A R R O W ) ; 12th, 1926 ( W A R E ) ; 13th, 1927
(GARDINER and SCHEY); 17th, 1931 (MARVIN and B E S T ) ; 24th, 1938 (GERRISH and Voss).

ABBOT, C. G. T h e 1914 tests of the Langley Aerodrome. Journal of the Aeronautical


Sciences, vol. 10, no. 1 (January 1943), pp. 31-35, drgs., footnote refs.
ANGLE, GLENN D., ed. Airplane engine encyclopedia; an alphabetically arranged compilation of
all available data on the world's airplane engines. Dayton, Ohio: Otterbein Press,
1921. Illustrations and data on successful and unsuccessful engines to 1920;
includes several fine fold-out drawings.
., ed. Aerosphere; including modern aircraft, modern aircraft engines, and aircraft statistics
and buyer's guide. New York: Aircraft Publications, annually, 1939-1943. An
encyclopedic work of Jane's format. The engine section was sometimes published as
a separate volume, Aerosphere''s modern aircraft engines.
The aviation industry. Lubrication, vol. 38, no. 4 (April 1952), pp. 37-52, illus., historical
tab. data, bibl. of 9 items.
BANE, THURMAN H. Recent advances in aviation. SAE Transactions, vol. 15, pt. 2,
1920, pp. 63-86, illus. Bane was chief of the U.S. Army Air Service's Engineer-
ing Division at McCook Field, Ohio.
BANKS, F. R. T h e aviation engine. Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers,
vol. 162 (1950), pp. 433-445. General article on progress and development in
engines and accessories, 1920-1950.
BONNEY, WALTER T. The heritage of Kitty Hawk. New York: W. W. Norton, 1962.
211 pp., illus.

96
CHATFIELD, CHARLES H U G H , and TAYLOR, CHARLES FAYETTE. The airplane and its engine.
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., editions 1928, 1932, 1936, 1940, and 1949.
Textbook discussions of the subject; each edition outlines the status of airplane
propulsion as of its respective date.
DAVY, M . J . B., and RICHARDS, G. TILGHMAN. Aeronautics; A handbook of the collections
illustrating aeronautics; Volume 3, The propulsion of aircraft. London: His Majesty's
Stationery Office, 1930. 104 pp., illus. Divided into historical and technical
surveys, and a catalog of exhibits as of 1930. Includes 2 pp. of bibl.
DICKEY, PHILIP S. T h e Liberty engine, 1918-1942. Smithsonian Annals of Flight, vol. 1,
no. 3, 1968, 110 pp. Generously illustrated; graph and tab. data.
DRIGGS, IVAN H., and LANCASTER, OTIS E. Gas turbines for aircraft. New York: Ronald
Press, 1955. 349 pp., illus., drgs., diagrs. Chapter 11 is devoted to the history
of this type.
DRYDEN, HUGH. O u r heritage from Wilbur and Orville Wright. Journal of the Aero-
nautical Sciences, vol. 30, no. 12 (December 1953), pp. 803-804.
Ellehammer: A Danish pioneer who first flew 50 years ago. Esso Air World, vol. 8, no. 4
(July-August 1966), p p . 16-19, illus. Although his "flights," 1906-1908, were
inconsequential short hops, Ellenhammer's engine was unusual in its low wt/hp
ratio at this early date.
FAUROTE, FAY L., Airplane types. SAE Transactions, 1918 pt. 2, pp. 137-202, illus. Air-
planes up to 1918, including history starting with Wright brothers.
FROESCH, CHARLES. A review of commercial air transport from its beginning—its future
and problems. SAE Transactions, vol. 71, 1963, p p . 272-280, 292, illus. Brief
article, useful in recognizing engines used and their approximate dates of intro-
duction to commercial flying.
GEISSE, J . H. Twenty-five years of engine design. Aviation, vol. 25, no. 23 (December 1,
1928), p p . 1720-1723, illus. Special issue, 25th anniversary of flight at Kitty
Hawk; also includes, pp. 1727-1765, a very useful series of brief histories of aero-
nautical manufacturers.
GIBBS-SMITH, CHARLES H . The aeroplane; an historical survey of its origins and development.
London: Her Majesty's Stationry Office, 1960. 375 pp., illus. with 22 pp. photos.
A scholarly and well documented history of heavier-than-air flight that includes
10 pp. of chronology, a 5 p . glossary, and 4 p p . of bibliography. This book is
perhaps the most authentic and well-documented work available in its field, and
includes much valuable material on power plants.
. The invention of the aeroplane, 1799-1909. New York: Taplinger Publishing Co.,
Inc., 1966. 360 pp., illus. with photos, drawings, and sketches. Complete and
authentic, with emphasis on technical details rather than historical events. Lists all
engines flown, 1903-1909.
GODDARD, ESTHER C , and PENDRAY, GEORGE EDWARD, eds. Rocket development; liquid
fuel rocket research, 1929-1941. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1961. 222 p p .
History of the pioneer work of Robert H. Goddard in rocket development, as
edited from Goddard's notes and memoranda.
HARPER, HARRY. " T h e first air display: A veteran aviation journalist recalls the Rheims
meeting 40 years ago. Flight, vol. 56, no. 2121 (August 18, 1949), pp. 188-190,
illus. Account of first European air meet, Rheims, 1909; speed contest won by
Curtiss at 47 mph.

97
HAYWARD, CHARLES B. Practical aviation; an understandable presentation of interesting and
essential facts in aeronautical science. Chicago: American Technical Society, 1919.
784 pp., illus., drgs., diagrs. An 88-p. section treats engines; glossary of 15 p p .
HERON, SAMUEL D. History of the aircraft piston engine; a brief outline. Detroit: Ethyl
Corporation, 1961. 130 pp. Chiefly history in U.S., including engines and fuels
by an engineer actively engaged in aircraft engine development since 1915.
HOBBS, LEONARD S. T h e aircraft engine. The Bee Hive, vol. 24, no. 4 (fall 1954), p p .
3-10, illus. Author was chief engineer of Pratt and Whitney.
HODGSON, J . E. The History of aeronautics in Great Britain from earliest times to the latter half
of the \9th century. Oxford University Press, 1924. 436 pp., illus., drgs. T h e
appendices, pp. 373-418, include a chronology and an excellent annotated bibl.
keyed to the text's chapters. The text includes good accounts of work of Stringfellow
and Henson.
HOLZER, HEINRICH. Die Berechnung der Drehschwingungen und ihre Anwendung im Maschi-
nenbau. Berlin: Julius Springer & Co., 1921. 199 pp., illus., diagrs. Reprinted
by Edwards Brothers, Inc., Ann Arbor, Mich., in 1948. A classic work on engine
vibration.
HOURWICH, ISKANDER, and FOSTER, W. J. Air Service engine handbook. Dayton, Ohio:
Engineering Division, McCook Field, U.S. Air Service, 1925. 738 pp., illus.,
diagrs., drgs., extensive graph and tab. data. Exhaustive data on engines of that
period.
HUNSAKER, JEROME C. Aeronautics. Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 253, no. 1
(January 1951), pp. 48-57. Historical survey of its technological aspects.
Aeronautics at the mid-century. Hew Haven: Yale University Press. 1952. 116 pp.,
illus.
. Forty years of aeronautical research. Annual Report. . . of the Smithsonian
Institution . . .for the year ended June 30,1955, pp. 241-271, 1956.
Jane's all the world's aircraft. Published annually since 1909, except 1915 and 1921; its
editors and publishers vary over the years.
KELLY, FRED C. The Wright brothers; a biography authorized by Orville Wright. New York:
Harcourt Brace and Co., 1943. 340 pp.
—•——, ed. Miracle at Kitty Hawk; the letters of Wilbur and Orville Wright. New York:
Farrar, Straus, and Young, 1951. 482 pp., illus.
LAHM, FRANK P. T h e Wright brothers as I knew them. Sperryscope, vol. 8, no. 10 (April
1939), 1-5, illus.
LANGLEY, SAMUEL PIERPONT, and MANLY, CHARLES M . Langley memoir on mechanical
flight. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, vol. 27, no. 3, 1911, pp. 1-309,
generously illus., with photos, drgs., and diagrs. Ch. 3 and 4 of pt. 1 treat with
early engines; pt/2, by Manly describes the full-scale radial engine and the attempts
at flight.
LAWRANCE, CHARLES L. Air cooled engine development. SAE Transactions, vol. 17,
pt. 1, 1922, pp. 431-477, illus., drgs.. graph data. T h e United States pioneer of the
air-cooled radial engine.
LEY, WILLY. Rockets, missiles and space travel. New York: Viking Press, 1961. 436
pp., illus., drgs., diagrs., tab. data. Includes some historical material on rocket
engines; has 18 pp. of very useful bibl.
98
Lindbergh's Wright Whirlwind a result of seven years' development; work begun on
Feb. 28, 1920, and since that time seven successive models of air-cooled engines
have been produced. Aviation, vol. 22, no. 25 (June 20, 1927), pp. 1358-1359,
1396, illus., drgs.
LOENING, GROVER. Fifty years of flying progress. Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol.
256, no. 6 (December 1953), pp. 493-521, illus. Author was noted airplane de-
signer 1918-1940.
LOUGHEED, VICTOR. Vehicles of the air: A popular exposition of modern aeronautics with working
drawings. Chicago: T h e Reilly & Britton Co., 1909. 514 pp., illus., drgs., diagrs.,
tab. data. Work of Penaud, Ader, Wright, Santos-Dumont, Voisin, Maxim,
Langley, et al. Well illustrated. T h e author, who subsequently changed his name
to "Lockheed" was one of the brothers who founded the Lockheed Aircraft Co.
MAGOUN, FREDERICK ALEXANDER, and HODGINS, ERIC. A history of aircraft. New York:
Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1931. 495 pp., illus. Includes a
5-p. bibl., and 25 pp. of chronology; text is documented throughout. An excellent
survey to its date of publication.
, and . Sky high: The story of aviation. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.,
1935. 414 pp., illus. A somewhat more popularized edition of their A history of
aircraft (1931).
MARKS, LIONEL S. The airplane engine. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1922. 454
pp., illus., drgs., diagrs. A textbook with technical data on engines up to 1921.
MCFARLAND, MARVIN C , ed. The papers of Wilbur and Orville Wright. 2 vols. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1953. Letters of the Wright Brothers, including many
of their own drgs., diagrs., etc.
MCMAHON, JOHN ROBERT. The Wright brothers, fathers of flight. Boston: Little, Brown
and Co., 1930. 308 pp., illus.
MCSURELY, ALEXANDER. T h e horsepower at Kitty Hawk. The Bee Hive, vol. 28, no. 1
(January 1953), pp. 7-11, illus.
MEAD, GEORGE J . The development of fixed, radial air-cooled engines. SAE Trans-
actions, vol. 24, 1929, p p . 418-422, illus. Emphasis is historical.
• —. Historical development of air-cooled engines. Aero Digest, vol. 14 (February
1929), pp. 42-44, 224, 226-228.
—. Some aspects of aircraft engine development. SAE Transactions, vol. 20, pt. 2,
1925, pp. 809-851, illus. This article covers development of the improved Hispano-
Suiza engines, and of the large liquid-cooled V-12s and Lawrance-type radials
developed by Wright Aeronautical Corporation. It was written just before Mead
left Wright to become one of the founders of Pratt and Whitney and its first chief
engineer.
MEYER, ROBERT B., J r . Three famous early aero engines. Annual Report of the . . .
Smithsonian Institution for the Tear Ended June 30, 1961, pp. 357-372, illus., 1962.
Good descriptions of the first Wright brothers' engine, the Langley-Manly-Balzer
radial, and the Clement engine used briefly by Santos-Dumont.
On a great pioneer. The Aeroplane, vol. 22, no. 13 (March 29, 1922), pp. 221-222. Obit-
uary on Levavasseur, designer of the Antoinette airplane and engine.
PRATT, P. W. Aircraft propulsion systems in evolution. Astronautics and Aeronautics, vol.
3, no. 3 (March 1965), pp. 60-66.

99
REBER, SAMUEL, L T . COL., USA. Recent progress in military aeronautics. Journal of
the Franklin Institute, vol. 180, no. 4 (October 1915), pp. 437-448.
RICARDO, SIR HARRY RALPH. Engines of high output; thermodynamic considerations. London:
Macdonald and Evans, 1926. 110 pp., illus., diagrs.
. The development and progress of the aero engine. Journal of the Royal Aero-
nautical Society (December 1930), vol. 34, pp. 1000-1015, graph data.
SCHLAIFER, ROBERT, and HERON, S.D. Development of aircraft engines and aviation fuels;
two studies of relations between government and business. Boston: Harvard University
Press, 1950. 754 pp. Text documented. Pp. 1-544 by Schlaifer, on engines;
547-662 by Heron, on fuels; 665-705, technical appendices.
Search of archives reveals interesting engine histories. The Bee Hive, vol. 12, no. 4 (April
1938), pp. 2-5. Pratt & Whitney development history.
SMITH, G. GEOFFREY. Gas turbines and jet propulsion for aircraft. London: Flight Publish-
ing Co., 1942. 79 pp., illus., drgs., diagrs. An unusually fine survey, and at this
early date it is strong on historical development.
SQUIER, GEORGE O., MAJOR, USA. The present status of military aeronautics. ASME,
Transactions, vol. 30, 1908, paper 1210, pp. 639-721, illus. An excellent survey.
, BRIG. GEN., USA. Aeronautics in the United States. SAE Journal, vol. 5, no. 6
(December 1919), pp. 402-414. An excellent survey.
TAYLOR, C. FAYETTE. History of the aeronautical engine; basic features almost unchanged
through development years. Aviation, vol. 21 (August 16, 1926), pp. 284-286,
illus.
TRUE, WEBSTER P. Operation Homecoming. Sperryscope, vol. 11, no. 8 (winter 1949),
pp. 1-2, illus. Return of the Wright airplane from England to the U.S.
The two R's—A commemorative history of Rolls-Royce aero engines. Flight, vol. 65,
no. 2363 (May 7, 1954), pp. 571-583, illus. An outstanding survey.
VEAL, C. B. Manly, the engineer. SAE Transactions, vol. 34, 1939, pp. 145-153, illus.
Historical, with footnote documentation.
VINCENT, J. G. The trend of aviation development. SAE Transactions, vol. 17, pt. 1,
1922, pp. 881-898. Vincent was a principal designer of the Liberty engine and was
chief engineer of the Packard Motor Car Company.
WILKINSON, PAUL H. Aircraft diesels. New York: Pittman Publishing Corp., 1940.
275 pp. Illus., drgs., diagrs., extensive tab. data. Short history and description
of some 15 different makes.
• . Aircraft engines of the world. New York: Paul H. Wilkinson, an annual publica-
tion, 1944—1959. Average of 280 pp. per vol. A combination encyclopedia and
catalog of current types.
WALCOTT, CHARLES D. Samuel Pierpont Langley and modern aviation. Proceedings
of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 65, no. 2, 1926, pp. 79-82. Account of
flight of reconstructed airdrome with arguments for the machine as the "first one
capable of sustained free flight carrying a man."

100
Aircraft Powerplants
Classification in this section is by date of publication. Many entries contain data on earlier
engines. For articles dealing with unconventional engines, see also under Engines 1925-
1929 (DENHAM, 1926; " T h e Fairchild-Caminez Engine," 1926; " C a m Engine Passes
Fifty Hour Test," 1927; " T h e Continental Single Sleeve Valve Engine," 1927; "Per-
formance of Fairchild Airplane Engine Improved," 1927). Engines 1930-1934 (HALL,
1930). Engines 1935-1939 ("Perseus Production," 1938; " T h e First Sleeve Valve Engine
in Production," 1938). Engines 1940 and After (HERRMANN, 1945; "Napier Nomad,"
1954). Also under NACA Reports: 12th, 1926 (PATON and KEMPER).

Aircraft Power Before 1900


VILLENEUVE, A. HUREAU. Rapport sur 1'Exposition Aeronautique de 1868. UAero-
nautique, vol. 1, no. 7 (July 1868), pp. 51-53; no. 8 (August 1868), pp. 67-75; no. 9
(September 1868), pp. 83-88; no. 10 (October 1868), pp. 99-105; no. 11 (November
1868) pp. 115-120; no. 12 (December 1868), pp. 131-135; vol. 2, no. 1 (January
1869), pp. 3-6; no. 2 (February 1869), pp. 19-22; no. 3 (March 1869), pp. 35-39;
no. 4 (April 1869), pp. 51-55; no. 6 (June 1869), pp. 83-88; no. 8 (August 1869).
pp. 115-118. Covers the aero exposition at London, 1868.
PENAUD, ALPHONSE. Aeroplane automoteur. UAeronaute, vol. 5, no. 1 (January 1872),
pp. 2-9. Use of india rubber for model propulsion.
HAENLIEN, PAUL. Ueber den Treibapparat bei Luftschiffen. £«7.rcArj/iJ fur Luftfahrt,
vol. 1, no. 8, 1882, pp. 240-244. Author made world's first flight with an internal
combustion engine (dirigible balloon).
TISSANDIER, GASTON. Propulseur dynamo-electrique pour aerostat elonge. If Aero-
nautique, vol. 16, no. 5 (May 1883), pp. 83-88. Electric motor with bichromate
of potassium battery. Used in flight of dirigible airship.
GOUPIL, ALEXANDRE L. La Locomotion aerienne. Charleville, France: Impr. d e A . Pouillard,
1884. 112 pp., illus., incl. foldout diagrs.
DEGRAFFIGNY, HENRI. Les moteurs legers; applicable a la navigation aerienne.
L'Aerophile, vol. 2, no. 6-7 (June-July 1894), pp. 128-134. Contemporary steam,
gas, electric, and compressed-air engines.

Engines 1900-1913
Airship after buyer; inventors of North Carolina box kite machine want government to
purchase it. The New York Times (Saturday, December 26, 1903), p. 1, col. 7.
Brief notice of Wright Brothers' 1903 flights. A 4-inch item, at the top of the
page, which refers to the great day at Kitty Hawk. (Reproduced here, fig. 10.)
The failure of Langley's Aerodrome. Scientific American, vol. 89, no. 16 (October 17, 1903),
p. 272, illus.
By motor through the air. The Automobile (London, November 28, 1903), vol. 1, pp. 80-84.
HARRIMAN, J. EINERY, J R . Mechanical flight. Journal of the Association of Engineering
Societies, vol. 33, no. 2 (August 1904), pp. 43-53, illus.

101
SANTOS-DUMONT, ALBERTO. The future of the airship. Outlook, vol 77, no. 1 (May 7,
1904), pp. 52-53. In this item he remarks, "Abandon the balloon and build a
flying machine, never!" Later, he did!
Eight-cylinder "Antionette" motor for aeroplane. Engineering, vol. 82 (November 30,
1906), p. 703, illus., drg.
Light-weight gasoline motors for aeronautical work. Scientific American Supplement, Vol. 62,
no. 1612 (November 24, 1906), pp. 25-33, illus. Levavasseur's Antionette V,
liquid-cooled engine.
Samuel Pierpont Langley. Scientific American, vol. 94, no. 10 (March 10, 1906), pp. 207,
211. Obituary.
The White Flyer—the motor driven aeroplane of the brothers Wright. Automotor Journal,
vol. 11, no. 1 (January 1906), pp. 17-20, illus. An early account based on visits
to Dayton by representatives of L'Auto of France. Discusses the question of secrecy
by the Wrights. No mention of wing warping.
The Wright aeroplane and its performances. Scientific American, vol. 94, no. 14 (April 7,
1906), p. 291, illus.
Gasoline motors for aeronautical work. Scientific American Supplement, vol. 65, no. 1672
(January 11, 1908), pp. 28-30. Illus., drg. Survey of French engines: Dufaux,
Farcot, R.E.P., Renault, Dutheil & Chalmers, and others.
HOWLAND, HAROLD J. The sons of Daedalus. Outlook, vol. 90, no. 3 (September 26,
1908), pp. 153-169. Illus. Summary of air navigation to date. Mentions Wright
Brothers' first flight and first flight of Wilbur at Le Mans, August 11, 1908.
Types of recent foreign flying machines. Scientific American Supplement, vol. 65, no. 1680
(March 14, 1908), pp. 172-174, illus.
WRIGHT, ORVILLE and WILBUR. The Wright brothers' aeroplane. Century, vol. 76,
no. 5 (September 1908), pp. 641-650, illus. First public account by the Wright
brothers; illustrated with photos of gliding and power flights.
The Aero Exhibition. Engineering, vol. 87 (March 26, 1909), pp. 413^115, 418, drgs.
Olympia aero show of 1909.
DANTIN, C. Moteurs thermiques: Les Moteurs a. explosion legers pour dirigibles et aero-
planes. Genie Civil, vol. 55, no. 1408 (June 5, 1909), pp. 111-114; no. 1409 (June
12, 1909), pp. 125-129; and no. 1410 (June 19, 1909), pp. 150-156, illus., diagrs.,
finely done drawings, and footnote references in the text.
FOURNIER, L. Le Moteur d'aviation Clement-Bayard. Cosmos (Paris), vol. 58, no.
1259 (March 13, 1909), pp. 284-287. Illus. Describes the Clement-Bayard
engine.
NESFIELD, ALBERT C. The design of engines for aeroplanes. Aeronautics, vol. 2, no. 3
(March 1909), pp. 22-23; no. 4 (April 1909), pp. 38-40; no. 5 (May 1909), pp.
49-50; no. 6 (June 1909), pp. 60-61. Illus., drgs.
The Paris Aviation Exhibition. Engineering (October 1, 1909), vol. 88, pp. 452, 456-458,
illus., tab. data.
RUMPLER, E. Motoren fur Luftfahrzeuge. Vereines Deutsche J^eitschrift des Ingenieure, vol.
53, no. 12 (March 20, 1909), pp. 441-448; no. 13 (March 27, 1909), pp. 487-492;
no. 14 (April 3, 1909), pp. 532-538; and no. 15 (April 10, 1909), pp. 578-584.
Illus; many excellent drgs.
102
VORREITER, A. VON. Neue Flugmotore. ^eitschrift fur Flugtechnik und Motorluftschriffarlet,
Heft 3 und 4, 1910, pp. 41-44. Panhard, Wunderlich, Esnault Pelterie, Clement-
Bayard, Miese, Bertin engines.
Alexandre Anzani. L'Aerophile, vol. 19, no. 1 (January 1, 1911), p. 5. Anzani fan,
radial, air-cooled engine.
Le Moteur Renault. L'Aerophile, vol. 19, no. 6 (March 15, 1911), pp. 128-129, illus.,
drgs.
Le Nouveau Moteur R.E.P. L'Aerophile, vol. 19, No. 8 (April 15, 1911), pp. 177-179,
illus.
Louis Seguin. L'Aerophile, vol. 20, no. 4 (February 15, 1912), p. 73. Relates to Gnome
rotary, air-cooled engine of which Seguin was the designer.
Les Moteurs a l'Exposition. L'Aerophile, vol. 20, no. 22 (November 1, 1912), pp. 512-
517, illus., drgs. Paris air show, 1912.
See also under History and Technology ("Ellehammer," 1966; MCSURELY, 1953; MEYER,
1961; " O n a Great Pioneer," 1922; VEAL, 1939).

Engines 1914-1919
MACCOULL, NEIL. Aeroplane engines. Aerial Age Weekly, vol. 1, no. 14 (June 21, 1915)
pp. 322-323; no. 15 (June 28, 1915), pp. 346-347; no. 16 (July 5, 1915), pp.
372-373; no. 17 (July 12, 1915), pp. 406-^07; no. 18 (July 19, 1915), pp. 426-
427; no. 19 (July 26, 1915), pp. 450-451; no. 20 (August 2, 1915), p. 475; and no.
21 (August 9, 1915), pp. 498-499. Illus., drgs., tab. data.
. Sturtevant motors. Aerial Age Weekly, vol. 1, no. 2 (March 29, 1915), pp.
33-34; and no. 7 (May 3, 1915), pp. 154-155. Illus., drgs., graph data.
. American aeronautical engines; an important parallel between the develop-
ment of the engines of the automobile and the airplane. Aerial Age Weekly, vol. 1,
no. 1 (March 22, 1915), p. 7. T a b . data on 12 engines.
GRIFFITH, LEIGH M. Some notes on high-pressure aviation engines. SAE Transactions,
vol. 12, pt. 1, 1917, 180-193. Includes discussion by Manly, Vincent, Maxim,
Stout, and others.
LESCARBOURA, AUSTIN C. Bringing the Gnome engine to America; how this most intricate
of aviation engines is being successfully manufactured in our country. Scientific
American, vol. 16, no. 14 (April 7, 1917), pp. 374—375, illus., diagr.
PAGE, VICTOR W. Development of aviation engines. Scientific American, vol. 117, no. 14
(October 6, 1917), pp. 247, 258-259, illus., tab. data.
. Aviation engines. 589 pp. illus. New York: Norman W. Henley Publishing
Co., 1917. A good description of aircraft engine practice up to 1917. Details
of some important early engines.
SHERBONDY, E. H. Aviation engine development. SAE Transactions, vol. 12, pt. 2, 1917,
pp. 274—302, illus., drgs., tab. and graph data.
CHASE, HERBERT. Modern aeronautic engines. SAE Transactions, vol. 13, pt. 2, 1918,
pp. 241-266, illus. A survey, heavily illustrated.
. Aeronautic engines. SAE Journal, vol. 3, no. 2 (August 1918), pp. 147-152;
and no. 3 (September 1918), pp. 205-208. Lavishly illustrated.
103
DURAND, WILLIAM F. Outstanding aeronautic problems. SAE Journal, vol. 3, no. 3
(September 1918), pp. 213-219; no. 4 (October 1918), pp. 280-284. Excellent
general discussion.
Evolution of the aircraft engine. Scientific American, vol. 119, no. 14 (October 5, 1918),
p. 270, tab. data.
How the Hispano-Suiza engine came to the forefront of aviation. Scientific American, vol.
118, no. 1 (January 6, 1918), pp. 7, 20.
KETTERING, CHARLES F. The future of the airplane business. SAE Transactions, 1918,
pt. 2, pp. 363-379. Interesting predictions by an eminent engineer of that time.
LAY, DONALD MCLEOD. The Hispano-Suiza aircraft engine. SAE Transactions, vol. 13,
pt. 2, 1918, 475-491. Illus. Also SAE Journal, vol. 3, no. 6 (December 1918),
pp. 367-372.
The Liberty motor; Its checkered career and details of its construction. Scientific American,
vol. 119, no. 23 (December 7, 1918), pp. 455, 466, illus., drg.
The true story of the Liberty motor. Scientific American, vol. 118, no. 22 (June 1, 1918),
pp. 500, 515.
UPTON, G. B. Airplane performance determined by engine performance. SAE Journal,
vol. 3, no. 4 (October 1918), pp. 275-279.
COLVIN, FRED H. HOW Ford built Liberty motors. American Machinist, vol. 51, no. 23
(December 18, 1919), pp. 1037-1041, illus.
DOUGLAS, DONALD W. The airplane as a commercial possibility. SAE Transactions,
vol. 14, pt. 2, 1919, pp. 444-462. Strong emphasis on need for engine development.
A German view of the Liberty engine. The Aeroplane, vol. 17, no. 14 (October 1, 1919),
Aeronautical Engineering Supplement, p. 1266.
The 200 h.p. Mercedes engine. SAE Journal, vol. 5, no. 2 (August 1919), p. 191.
The 450 h.p. Napier "Lion" engine. SAE Journal, vol. 5, no. 6 (December 1919), pp.
430-432. Includes 2 fine cross-sectional drawings.
SAYERS, W. H. Aerial propulsion. The Aeroplane, vol. 17, August 13, 1919, pp. 593-594,
and August 27, 1919, pp. 809-810.
SMITH, JOHN W. Fixed radial cylinder engines. SAE Transactions, vol. 14, pt. 1, 1919,
pp. 294—303. The Smith 10-cyl 400-hp, radial, air-cooled engine.
VINCENT, J. G. The Liberty aircraft engine. SAE Transactions, vol. 14, pt. 1 (1919),
pp. 385-432, illus., drgs. in text and large fold-out drg., tab. and graph data.
WARDROP, G. DOUGLAS. The Liberty engine. The Aeroplane, vol. 16, January 29, 1919,
pp. 480-482, 499-500; February 5, 1919, pp. 582, 599; and February 12, 1919,
pp. 676-678, 680, 697. Illus.
See also under History and Technology (ANGLE, 1921; DICKEY, 1968). Under Engines
1920-1924 (HELLER, 1920). Engines 1930-1934 ("The Hispano-Suiza Aero En-
gines," 1934). Also under NACA Reports: 8th, 1923 (SPARROW).

Engines 1920-1924
ABELL, C. F. Airship machinery, past experience and future requirements. Journal of
the Royal Aeronautical Society, vol. 24 no. 113 (May 1920), pp. 250-268.
BAUMAN, A. Progress made in the construction of giant airplanes in Germany during the
war. NACA Technical Note, no. 29, 1920, 11 pp., tab. data.

104
LOENING, GROVER C. Engine shape as affecting airplane operation. SAE Transactions,
vol. 15, pt. 1, 1920, pp. 577-590, illus., drgs., tab. and graph data.
NOACK, W. G. Tests of the Daimler D - I V a engine at a high altitude test bench.
NACA Technical Note, no. 15, 1920, 20 pp., extensive graph and tab. data.
SCHWAGER, OTTO. Development of German aircraft engines. Aviation, vol. 9, October 1,
1920, pp. 161-164, and October 15, 1920, pp. 186-189.
. Recent efforts and experiments in the construction of aviation engines. NACA
Technical Note, no. 12, 1920, 18 pp., graph and tab. data.
CHORLTON, ALAN E. L. Aero engines. Journal of the Royal Society of Arts [London], vol.
69, no. 3589 (September 2, 1921), pp. 689-705; no. 3590 (September 9, 1921),
pp. 707-724; and no. 3591 (September 16, 1921), pp. 725-740. Well illus., by
many fine drawings.
Development of an American pursuit engine. Aviation, vol. 11, no. 26 (December 26,
1921), pp. 735-738. T h e Hispano-Suiza as developed under license in the U.S.A.
HELLER, A. T h e 300 h.p. Benz aircraft engine. Transl. from ^eitschrift des Vereines
Deutsche Ingenieure (1920). NACA Technical Note, no. 34, 1921, 17 pp. Includes
cross-sectional and several detail drgs.
SPARROW, S. W. High thermal efficiency in airplane service. NACA Technical Note,
no. 39, 1921, 7 pp., drgs.
Tests of the 450 h.p. Bristol Jupiter engine. Aviation, vol. 11, no. 24 (December 12,
1921), pp. 685-686, graph and tab. data.
W A R E , MARSDEN. Effect of the reversal of air flow upon die discharge coefficient of
Durley orifices. NACA Technical Note, no. 40, 1921, 14 pp., diagrs., graph data.
HERON, S. D . Air cooled cylinder design. SAE Transactions, vol. 17, pt. 1, 1922, pp.
347^130, illus., drgs., graph and tab. data. Contains history and detail design.
Navy changes in Liberty motor responsible for improvement in Navy plane operations.
Aerial Age, vol. 15, no. 18 (September 1922), pp. 455, 478.
TAYLOR, C. FAYETTE. Recent aircraft engine developments. SAE Transaction, vol. 17,
Pt. 1, 1922, pp. 872-881, illus.
CHRISTIANSEN, O. C. Test of Armstrong Siddeley "Jaguar" 14-cylinder radial aviation
engine rated at 320 h.p. at 1500 r.p.m. U.S. Army Air Service (Engineering
Division, McCook Field), Report, no. 2218, July 16, 1923. 53 pp., illus., diagrs.,
graph data.
HERON, SAMUEL D. Exhaust valves and guides for aircraft engines. U.S. Army Air
Service (Engineering Division, McCook Field), Report, no. 2328, September 4,
1923. 28 pp., Illus., diagrs., graph data. Record of early development work on
internal cooling through the use of "salts," sodium and potassium nitrate mixture.
LEIGHTON, BRUCE G., L T . , USN. Recent developments in aircraft and engines in the
Navy. SAE Transactions, vol. 18, Pt. 1, 1923, pp. 862-887, illus., drgs., graph
data.
M O F F E T , WILLIAM A., R A D M . , USN. T h e aeronautical engine: Some differences be-
tween the airship and airplane power plant. U.S. Air Services, vol. 8, no. 3 (March
1923), pp. 13-15.
ANGLE, GLENN D. Progress Toward 1000 hp. aircraft engines. Aviation (February 25,
1924), vol. 16, pp. 198-200, illus. Author was in charge of engine design, U.S.
Army Air Service.

105
MEAD, GEORGE J. Airplane Engine Designing for Reliability. SAE Transactions, vol.
19, Pt. 1, 1924, pp. 695-717, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data.
See also under History and Technology (HOURWICH and FOSTER, 1925; LAWRANCE, 1922;
Vincent, 1922).

Engines 1925-1929
BOEDECKER, K. J. The economy of air cooling. Aviation, vol. 18, no. 18 (May 4, 1925),
pp. 492-493. Mostly about the Wright J series.
M C C O R D , CHARLES G., L T . , USN. Aeronautical Engine Laboratory, Naval Aircraft
Factory, Philadelphia. Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers (May
1925), vol. 37, pp. 275-305.
The makers of Napier engines. Aviation, vol. 19, no. 17 (October 26, 1925), pp. 586-588
illus. Napier Lion and the Schneider Cup.
The new Packard aircraft engines; detailed description of the latest aircraft engines pro-
duced by the Packard Motor Car Co. Aviation, vol. 18, no. 19 (May 11, 1925),
pp. 517-520, illus.
Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Co. formed to manufacture aircraft engines. Aviation, vol. 19,
no. 5 (August 3, 1925), p. 121.
TAYLOR, C. FAYETTE. The design of air-cooled cylinders. Aviation, vol. 18, no. 23 (June 8,
1925), pp. 634-636; no. 24 (June 15, 1925), pp. 664-667. Drgs., illus., tab. data.
WILSON, EUGENE E., CDR., USN. Aircraft engine design. NACA Technical Note, no. 211,
1925. 30 pp., illus., diagrs., graph data. A good survey, as of 1924.
Armstrong-Siddeley in field with light air-cooled aircraft engine. Automotive Industries,
vol. 55, no. 18 (October 28, 1926), p . 746. Graph data on Armstrong-Siddeley
65-hp Genet.
DENHAM, ATHEL F. Cam is used instead of crank train in radial airplane engine. Auto-
motive Industries, vol. 54, no. 21 (May 27, 1926), pp. 891-893, illus., drgs. The
Fairchild Caminez engine.
DINGER, H. C , CAPT., USN. The development of the Wright air-cooled aviation engine.
Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers, vol. 38, no. 4 (November 1926),
pp. 856-878, illus.
The Fairchild-Caminez engine; an airplane engine designed along new lines and embodying
entirely new principles successfully tested in flight. Aviation, vol. 20, no. 21 (May 24,
1926), pp. 788-791, illus., drgs.
JONES, E. T. The development of the Wright Whirlwind, type J - 5 , aircraft engine.
SAE Transactions, vol. 21, pt. 2, 1926, pp. 847-866, illus., drgs., graph data.
MEAD, GEORGE J . Wasp and Hornet radial air-cooled aeronautic engines. SAE Trans-
actions, vol. 21, pt. 2 (1926), pp. 867-886, illus.
NUTT, ARTHUR. Progress in aircraft engine design. SAE Transactions, vol. 21, pt. 2
(1926), pp. 887-910, illus., graph data.
Pratt & Whitney anniversary; two high powered radial engines successfully produced
within the year. Aviation, vol. 21, no. 6 (August 9, 1926), pp. 246-249.
WILSON, EUGENE E., CDR., USN. Air-cooled engines in naval aircraft. SAE Transac-
tions, vol. 21, pt. 2 (1926), pp. 812-846.
The trend of aircraft engine development. Journal of the American Society of Naval Engineers
(February 1926), vol. 38, pp. 130-143, illus.

106
Cam engine passes fifty hour test; Fairchild-Caminez Engine Corp. Development an-
nounced as an approved type. Aviation, vol. 23, no. 1 (July 4, 1927), pp. 20-21,
illus.
CARTER, B. C. Dynamic forces in aircraft engines. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical
Society (April 1927), vol. 31, pp. 277-328, illus., drgs., graph data.
The Continental single sleeve valve engine. Aviation, vol. 22, no. 17 (April 25, 1927),
p. 826.
Engines at the Paris aero show. Aviation, vol. 22, no. 3 (January 17, 1927), pp. 122-129,
illus., tab. data.
Performance of Fairchild airplane engine improved. Automotive Industries, vol. 57, no. 5
(July 30, 1927), p. 160. Fairchild Caminez engine.
WILSON, EUGENE E., CDR., USX. American air-cooled aircraft engines. Journal of the
American Society of Naval Engineers (August 1927), vol. 39, pp. 533-543, illus.
BOURDON, M. W. Huge air-cooled airplane engine develops nearly 800 B.H.P. Auto-
motive Industries, vol. 58, no. 24 (June 16, 1928), pp. 920-921, illus., graph data.
Armstrong-Siddeley radial, air-cooled engine.
CLEMENTS, BISHOP. T h e metallurgy of aircraft engines. ASME, Transactions, vol. 50,
1928, pp. 1-2.
FOKKER, A. H. G. Single-engine versus multi-engine airplanes. SAE Transactions, vol.
23, 1928, pp. 223-227.
MEAD, GEORGE J. The "Wasp" series B engine. Aviation (June 11, 1928), vol. 24, pp.
1678-1679, 1703-1704, illus.
WOOLSON, L. M. The Packard X, 24-cylinder 1500 h.p. water-cooled aircraft engine.
SAE Transactions, vol. 23, 1928, pp. 493-504, illus., drgs., diagrs.
Wright "Whirlwind" Engine. Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 206, no. 5 (November
1928), report 2890, pp. 681-687, illus.
BROOKS, DONALD B. Horsepower correction for atmospheric humidity. SAE Trans-
actions, vol. 24, 1929, pp. 273-279, graph data.
Continental 7-cylinder aircraft engine develops 150 H.P. Automotive Industries, vol. 60,
no. 10 (March 9, 1929), pp. 404-406, illus., sectional drg.
HERON, S. D. T h e in-line air-cooled engine. SAE Transactions, vol. 24, 1929, pp. 4 2 3 -
434, illus., drgs., diagrs. Especially the air-cooled Liberty variant, the Wright
V-1460, among others.
LEIGHTON, BRUCE G. Races—the test-block for aviation. Aviation, vol. 27, no. 8 (Au-
gust 24, 1929), pp. 393-394.
Lycoming develops aero engine of radial type in two models. Automotive Industries, vol.
61, no. 9 (August 31, 1929), pp. 295-297, illus., tab. data. The 9-cylinder R-645
and 7-cylinder R-500.
STOUT, R. CHEYNE. T h e development of the Cirrus engine. U.S. Air Services, vol. 14,
no. 4 (April 1929), pp. 53-54.
TAYLOR, C. FAYETTE. A study of the engines exhibited at the Olympia aero show.
Aviation (August 31, 1929), vol. 27, pp. 456-463, illus., tab. data.
PAGE, VICTOR W. Modern Aviation Engines, 1908 pp., 2 vol., illus. New York: Norman W.
Henley Publishing Co., 1929.
See also under History and Technology (GEISSE, 1928; "Lindbergh's Wright Whirl-
wind . , " 1927; M E A D , 1925 and 1929; RICARDO, 1930; TAYLOR, 1926).

107
Engines 1930-1934
HALL, E. S. Engines having the cylinders parallel to the shaft. SAE Journal, vol. 46,
no. 4 (October 1930), pp. 408-412, 476. Traces historical development, including
drgs. from several patents.
LOTT, E. P., and SMITH, W. L. The operator's airplane and engine requirements. SAE
Journal, vol. 46, no. 4 (October 1930), pp. 393-402, 407.
LYON, A. J . Aluminum alloys of aircraft engine piston and cylinder heads.
ASME, Transactions, vol. 52, 1930, pp. 257-269, illus., diagrs.
SETTLE, T . G. W., LT., USN. Airship engines. U.S. Naval Institute, Proceedings, vol. 56,
no. 8 (August 1930), pp. 745-747.
BANKS, F. ROD WELL. The evolution of a Schneider engine. The Aeroplane (October 7,
1931), vol. 41, pp. 864, 866, 868, 870, 782, illus. Rolls-Royce model R.
CHILTON, ROLAND. Air-cooled cylinder-head design. SAE Transactions, vol. 26, 1931, pp.
542-545.
New crankcase reduces weight of Continental aircraft engine. Automotive Industries,
vol. 64, no. 12 (March 21, 1931), p . 483. Model A-70 radial.
Rolls-Royce, Ltd.; D . Napier & Son, Ltd. The Aeroplane (September 9, 1931), vol. 41,
pp. 632, 634, 636. British Schneider racers' power plants.
TAYLOR, PHILIP B. Increasing the thrust horsepower from radial air-cooled engines.
SAE Transactions, vol. 26, 1931, p p . 531-541, illus., diagrs. At this time Taylor
was chief engineer at Wright Aero.
DIETRICH, OTTO, and LEHR, ERNST. Das Dehnungslinienverfahren ein Mittel zur
Bestimmung der fur die Bruchsichereit bei Wechselbeanspruchung massgebenden
Spannungsverteilung. £eitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure, vol. 76, no. 41
(October 8, 1932), pp. 973-982, illus. This article introduced the very important
method of exploring stresses in engine parts by the brittle-lacquer technique. I t
has had a profoundly beneficial effect on engine development since that time.
LOWES, JOSEPH E. The Pratt & Whitney twin Wasp J r . engine. Journal of the American
Society of Naval Engineers, vol. 44, no. 3 (August 1932), pp. 371-373.
ANGLE, GLENN D. Developments in high-powered aircraft engines. Aero Digest, vol. 23,
no. 4 (October 1933), p p . 41-44, and no. 5 (November 1933), p p . 46-47, illus.
Emphasis is upon liquid-cooled engines.
Comparison of recent European and American military aircraft engines. Interavia,
no. 41 (August 24, 1933), pp. 1-2, and no. 42 (August 28, 1933), pp. 1-2.
FEDDEN, A. H . R . Next decade's aero engines will be advanced but not radical. SAE
Transactions, vol. 28, 1933, pp. 377-401, illus., drgs., diagrs. Draws heavily upon
Bristol's experience. Fedden was chief engineer for the engines of the Bristol
Aeroplane Company.
High-output engines: A British point of view and an American one. Aviation, vol. 32,
no. 10 (October 1933), pp. 321-323.
HILL, HENRY C. 400-hour endurance test of the Wright Whirlwind R - 7 6 0 E - 1 . Aero
Digest, vol. 23, no. 3 (September 1933), pp. 50-51.
Pratt & Whitney two-row engine development. Aviation Engineering, vol. 8, no. 4 (April
1933), pp. 17-18, 27, illus.
TAYLOR, E. S. Radial engines: Their power and frontal area. Aviation, vol. 32, no. 7
(July 1933), pp. 201-202.

108
The Hispano-Suiza aero engines. Interavia, no. 166 (November 8, 1934), pp. 1-6.
TAYLOR, C. FAYETTE. Power plants in 1933. Aviation, vol. 34, no. 1 (January 1934),
pp. 19-20.
See also under History and Technology (DAVY and RICHARDS, 1930).

Engines 1935-1939
Pratt & Whitney E Hornet, 750 h.p. engine. Aero Digest, vol. 26, no. 1 (January 1935),
pp. 42-43.
CHATFIELD, CHARLES H. Pratt & Whitney's development of the two-row radial air-
craft engine. Aero Digest, vol. 26, no. 4 (April 1935), pp. 32-34, illus.
Wright series F-50 Cyclone engines. Aero Digest, vol. 26, no. 6 (June 1935), pp. 30, 32,
36, illus.
Bristol Pegasus Engine. Automobile Engineer, vol. 26, no. 346 (June 1936), pp. 221-224.
Bristol poppet-valve engine with aluminum heads. Successor to the "Jupiter."
LURENBAUM, KARL. Vibration of crankshaft-propeller Systems. SAE Transactions, vol.
31, 1936, pp. 469-472.
TAYLOR, E. S. Eliminating crankshaft torsional vibration in radial aircraft engines.
SAE Transactions, vol. 31, 1936, pp. 81-89. Theory and practice of tuned absorbers.
WOOD, H. Liquid-cooled aero engines. SAE Transactions, vol. 31, 1936, pp. 267-287,
400, 424, illus., tab. and graph data. Relates chiefly to the Rolls-Royce Kestral
engine.
1,000 h.p. Wright Cyclone. Aero Digest, vol. 29, no. 3 (September 1936), pp. 32, 35, illus.
YOUNG, RAYMOND W. Air-cooled radial aircraft engine performance possibilities. SAE
Transactions, vol. 31, 1936, pp. 234—256, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data. Relates
chiefly to Wright Aero's models.
Accent on the aspirate; some glimpses of Napier 'H'-shaped engines in production. Flight,
vol. 31, no. 1485 (June 10, 1937), Engineering Supplement, pp. a, b, c.
Allison 1,000 h.p. chemically-cooled model 1710 engine. Aero Digest, vol. 30, no. 6
(June 1937), pp. 50, 88-89. This engine was a close copy of the Rolls-Royce
Merlin.
FEDDEN,' A. H . R. Trend of air-cooled aero engines—the next five years. SAE Trans-
actions, vol. 32, 1937, pp. 437-454, 467, illus., drgs., graph and tab. data. Refer-
ences are mostly to British and Bristol developments.
GREGORY, A. T. Features of the in-line air-cooled aircraft engine. SAE Transactions,
vol. 32, 1937, pp. 473-482, illus., drgs., tab. and graph data. Fairchild SGV-770
Ranger engine. Gregory was chief engineer of Ranger.
LOMBARD, A. E., J r . How many engines? The question of power plant sub-division
can't be solved by the old eenie, meenie, meinie moe formula. Aviation, vol. 36,
no. 7 (July 1937), pp. 30-31, 63-64, 67-68. Includes footnote references.
MEAD, GEORGE J . Aircraft power plant trends. SAE Transactions, vol. 32, 1937, pp. 455-
467, illus., drgs., graph data. More on Pratt and Whitney engines.
The coming of the sleeve valve. Aircraft Engineering, vol. 9, no. 102 (August 1937), pp. 203-
204. Bristol sleeve-valve engine.
How the sleeve valve works. The Aeroplane, vol. 52, no. 1362 (June 30, 1937), p. 816, illus.
Bristol sleeve-valve engine.

109
CARRY, WILLIAM J. Latest twelve cylinder Ranger engines. Aero Digest, vol. 32, no. 4
(April 1938), pp. 46, 48, 90-91, illus., graph data. Ranger vertical and V,air-cooled
engine.
A new air-cooled motor. The Aeroplane, vol. 54, no. 1413 (June 22, 1938), pp. 776-778,
illus., drgs., phantom view. DeHavilland 525-hp Gypsy 4-cylinder vertical for
light planes.
DRAPER, C. S. Gas pressure torque in radial engines. Journal of the Aeonautical Sciences,
vol. 6, no. 1 (November 1938), pp. 1-6, graph data, footnote refs.
FEDDEN, A. H. R. The single sleeve as a valve mechanism for the aircraft engine. SAE
Transactions, vol. 33, 1938, pp. 349-365, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data.
HAZEN, R. M., and MONTEITH, O. V. Torsional vibration of in-line aircraft engines.
SAE Transactions, vol. 33, 1938, pp. 335-341, graph data. The Allison V-1710
engine.
Seven cylinder Lycoming; new R-530-D series supplements established line of nine
cylinder engines. Aviation, vol. 37, no. 1 (January 1938), P. 38, illus., specs.
Perseus production. The Aeroplane, vol. 44, no. 1412 (June 15, 1938), pp. 751-752, illus.,
drgs.
The first sleeve valve engine in production. The Aeroplane, vol.44, no. 1403 (April 13,1938),
p. 453, illus. Bristol Perseus X I I .
TAYLOR, E. S., and BROWNE, K. A. Vibration isolation of aircraft power plants. Journal
of the Aeronautical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 2 (December 1938), pp. 43-49, diagrs., drgs.,
graph data, footnote refs.
BENTLEY, G. P. Vibration of radial aircraft engines. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences,
vol. 6, no. 7 (May 1939), pp. 278-283, and no. 8 (June 1939), pp. 333-341, diagrs.,
tab., and graph data, footnote refs.
BROWNE, K. A. Dynamic suspension—a method of aircraft-engine mounting. SAE
Transactions, vol. 34, 1939, pp. 185-192. Describes 6-degree rubber mounting
for radial engines.
KAMPER, CARLTON. Aircraft engine research of the National Adivsory Committee for
Aeronautics. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 12 (October 1939),
pp. 479-484, illus., diagrs., graph data, footnote refs.
See also under History and Technology ("Search of Archives Reveals Interesting Engine
Histories," 1938).

Piston Engines 1940 and After


COLWELL, A. T. Modern aircraft valves. SAE Transactions, vol. 35, 1940, pp. 147-152.
Comprehensive description of current practice.
DEFOREST, A. V., and ELLIS, GREER. Brittle lacquers as an aid to stress analysis. Journal
of the Aeronautical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 5 (March 1940), pp. 205-208, illus., footnote
refs. Adaptation of Diedrick and Lehr work in the United States.
The development of sodium cooling of exhaust valves. Automotive Industries, vol. 82, no. 9
(May 1, 1940), pp. 417-418, diagrs. R.A.E. trials of water and mercury in 1913.
Midgeley and Kettering patent on causing wetting of steel surface by mercury,
1917. Salt cooling by Heron, 1923, first used in Wright J - 5 engine, 1926. Metal-
lic sodium followed.

110
Lycoming geared 75 h.p. engine. Aviation, vol. 39, no. 1 (January 1940), p . 50, illus.,
specs. Four-cylinder-opposed geared engine for light airplanes.
Lycoming 12-cylinder horizontally opposed engine. Aviation, vol. 30, no. 6 (June 1940),
p. 114. A very brief item.
MOREHOUSE, HAROLD E. Light aircraft engine developments. Journal of the Aeronautical
Sciences, vol. 8, no. 10 (August 1941), pp. 393-400, illus., diagrs., exploded views,
graph data. Includes some very small engines, never widely used.
BROWNBACK, HENRY L. Development of the radial engine for military uses. Auto-
motive Industries, vol. 84, no. 4 (February 15, 1941), 156-160, illus., degs. Historical
account of Anzani fan and radial air-cooled engines. Brownback built small engines
in the United States, based on Anzani practices.
HAZEN, R. M . T h e Allison aircraft engine development. SAE Transactions, vol. 36,
1941, pp. 488-500, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph and tab. data.
YOUNG, RAYMOND W. Mercedes-Benz DB-601A aircraft engine: Design features and
performance characteristics. SAE Transactions, vol. 36, 1941, pp. 409-431, illus.,
drgs., graph data. Three excellent British phantom view drgs. from The Aeroplane.
The B.M.W. 801 aero-engine. Aircraft Engineering, vol. 14, no. 162 (August 1942), pp.
223-227, illus., schematic drgs.
German B M W 801 Engine. Automotive Industries, vol. 89, no. 3 (August 1, 1943), p. 44.
Phantom view drawing from The Aeroplane.
CAVE, MYLES V. Design details of the BMW-801A engine. Aviation, vol. 42, no. 11
(November 1942), pp. 228-229, 291-294, 296, and no. 12 (December 1942), pp.
256-257, 259, illus. Accompanied by excellent British drawings from Flight
magazine.
OLDBERG, SIDNEY, and BALL, THOMAS M . Design features of the Junkers 21 IB aircraft
engine. SAE Transactions, vol. 50, 1942, pp. 465-483, illus., diagrs., graph and
extensive tab. data.
OVEYS, W. G. Some notes on design features of the Mitsubishi Kinsei engine. SAE
Transactions, vol. 50, 1942, pp. 253-266, illus.
SHEFFIELD, F. C. T h e B.M.W. 801A; details of Germany's latest twin-row radial power
plant. Flight, vol. 42, no. 1755 (August 13, 1942), pp. 169-173, and no. 1756
(August 20, 1942), pp. 201-202, illus., drgs., phantom view, exploded views.
YOSHIKAWA, HARUO. Japan's Power Units. Flight, vol. 42, no. 1751 (July 16, 1942),
pp. 70-72, illus. Author was Japanese naval attache, Berlin. His article is trans-
lated from Luftwissen.
CARTER, B. C , and FORSHAW, J . R. Torsiograph observations on a Merlin I I engine,
using a serrated condenser pick-up with five different pitch settings of the propeller
blades. Reports and Memoranda, Aero Research Committee, no. 1983, July 1943.
Lycoming "packaged power" unit. Automotive Industries, vol. 89, no. 10 (November 15,
1943), p . 23, illus. A 775-lb, 162-hp, horizontally opposed model.
ELLOR, J . E. T h e development of the Merlin engine. SAE Transactions, vol. 52 (1944),
pp. 385-392.
FEDDEN, A. H . R. Aircraft power plant—past and future. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical
Society (October 1944), vol. 48, pp. 397-459, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data.
This was the 32nd Wilbur Wright memorial lecture. Also in Flight, vol. 45, no.
1849 (June 1, 1944), pp. 578-583, and no. 1850 (June 8, 1944), pp. 611-615,
illus., drgs., phantom views, graph data.

Ill
GERDAN, DIMITRIUS. Late developments of the Allison aircraft engine. SAE Transactions,
vol. 53, 1945, pp. 95-102, illus., drgs., graph data.
HERRMANN, KARL L. Cam engines for aircraft. Aero Digest, vol. 48, no. 1 (January 1945),
pp. 100-101, illus.
New Continental aircraft engines. Automotive Industries, vol. 93, no. 12 (December 15,
1945), pp. 31, 92, 94, illus., tab. data. Models A-100, C-115, and C-125.
Ranger air-cooled, in-line engine. Aero Digest, vol. 49, no. 5 (June 1, 1915), pp. 72-76,
136, 138, illus., drgs., phantom view.
ANDERSON, R. G. Improving engine parts by direct measurement of strain. SAE Trans-
actions, vol. 54, 1946, pp. 466-475. Extensive graph data.
LOVESAY, A. C. Development of the Rolls-Royce Merlin from 1939 to 1945. Aircraft
Engineering, vol. 18, no. 209 (July 1946), pp. 218-226. Brilliantly illustrated with
numerous cross-sections, schematics, and phantom view drawings.
BANKS, F. R. The art of the aviation engine. Flight, vol. 53, no. 2055 (May 13, 1948),
pp. 530-531, 534, illus. Discussion of development time of various types of air-
craft engines. Summary of the first Louis Bleriot lecture, given before the A.F.I.T. A.
in Paris.
Napier Nomad: An engine of outstanding efficiency. Flight, vol. 65, no. 2362 (April 30,
1954), pp. 543-551, illus., drgs., fold-out phantom view, graph data.
See also under History and Technology (ANGLE, ed., Aerosphere, 1939-1943; " T h e Aviation
Industry," 1952; BANKS, 1950; HERON, 1961; HOBBS, 1954; SCHLAIFER and HERON,
1950; " T h e Two R's Rolls Royce Aero Engines," 1954; WILKINSON, 1944-).

Steam Engines
Flying machine work and the % I.H.P. steam motor weighing 3% lbs. Journal of the
Royal Society of New South Wales, 1892, p. 170.
WILSON, EUGENE E., CDR., USN. Steam power plants in aircraft. NACA Technical Note,
no. 239, 1926, 32 pp., fold-out diagr., bibl. of 4 items. Discusses the general
findings of the Navy's Bureau of Steam Engineering's Committee on Experimental
Power, ca. 1922.
CADDELL, ALFRED M. Steam power for aircraft. Aero News and Mechanics (June—fuly
1930), pp. 26-27, 76, 79, 96, illus.
POLESINE, JOTTI DA BADIA. II motore a vapore ed il suo impiego in aeronautica. L'Aero-
technica, vol. 11, no. 12 (December 1931), pp. 1555-1564. 19th-century experi-
ments with steam engines for aircraft.
A steam driven airplane engine. Scientific American, vol. 149, no. 3 (September 1933),
pp. 124—125, illus., diagr. Besler's steam engine in a Travelair airplane.
GRUBERG, V. L. Steam in the air; early attempts to use steam power in aircraft. Flight,
vol. 42, no. 1753 (July 30, 1942), pp. 115-118, illus., drgs., diagrs.
MURPHY, FRANK L. Sir Hiram's steam-powered winged machines. The Bee Hive, vol.
33, no. 3 (summer 1958), pp. 7-11, illus.

Diesel Engines
WOOLSON, L. M. Diesel engines for aircraft. SAE Transactions, vol. 24, 1929, pp. 435-
444. Packard diesel. First diesel to fly in heavier-than-air craft.

112
GASTERSTADT, J . Development of the Junkers diesel aircraft engine. A paper read be-
fore the Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fur Luftfahrt, trans, from Automobiltechnische
Zeitschrift (January 10 and 20, 1930). NACA Technical Memorandum, no. 565,
1930, 25 pp., illus., drgs., diagrs. T h e most successful airplane diesel.
HEINZE, EDWIN P. A. Junkers develops diesel engine for aircraft use. Automotive Indus-
tries, vol. 62, no. 4 (January 25, 1930), pp. 121-122, illus.
WARNER, EDWARD P. T h e Packard aircraft diesel. Aviation, vol. 28, no. 14 (April 5,
1930), pp. 684-691, illus.
WOOLSON, L. M . T h e Packard diesel aircraft engine. SAE Transactions, vol. 25, 1930,
pp. 236-248, illus. drgs.
Beardmore compression-ignition engines. The Aeroplane (April 29, 1931), vol. 40, p. 792.
Guiberson Diesel Engine. Aviation, vol. 31, no. 4 (April 1932), p. 195, drg.
MELCHIOR, FREDERICK. T h e Junkers " J u m o 4 " heavy oil aircraft engine. Journal of
the American Society of Naval Engineers (February 1932), vol. 44, pp. 104-109, illus.
WEBB, L. D., LCDR., USN. T h e diesels take the air. U.S. Air Services, vol. 17, no. 3
(March 1932), pp. 20-23.
T h e heavy oil aero engine in England. Interavia, no. 34 (July 31, 1933), pp. 1-3.
The progress of the heavy oil engine in France. Interavia, no. 18 (June 6, 1933), pp. 1-3,
and no. 19 (June 8, 1933), pp. 1-2.
1200 h.p. diesel. Aviation, vol. 33, no. 8 (August 1934), pp. 271-272.
KENNEDY, JOHN B. A history of diesel engines. Flying and Popular Aviation, vol. 20, no.
3 (March 1937), pp. 36-38, 65.
Schwerolmotoren im Ozeanverkehr; Nordatlantikfluge der Deutschen Lufthansa.
Junkers-Nachrichten, vol. 9, no. 11 (November 1938), pp. 281-285, illus. Use of the
Junkers diesel engine in commercial airplanes.
VOGT, RICHARD. A family of motor mountings. The Aeroplane, vol. 44, no. 1414 (June 29,
1938), pp. 813-815, illus., drgs. Junkers J u m o diesel.
SAMMONS, HERBERT, and CHATTERTON, ERNEST. Napier Nomad aircraft diesel engine.
SAE Transactions, vol. 63, 1955, pp. 107-131, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data.
Includes a phantom view of the engine. An experimental 24-cylinder 2-cycle
turbo-compound diesel engine, the last try at this type.
MEYER, ROBERT B., J r . T h efirstairplane diesel engine: Packard model DR-980 of 1928.
Smithsonian Annals of Flight, vol. 1, no. 2, 1964, 48 pp., illus., drgs., tab. data.
BLACKALL, T . E. Aircraft oil engines. Air Pictorial, vol. 28, no. 8 (August 1966), p p .
282-284, illus.
See also under History and Technology (WILKINSON, 1940). Under Engines 1930-1934
(SETTLE, 1930). And under NACA Reports: 12th, 1926 (GARDINER); 14th, 1929
(JOACHIM and K E M P E R ) ; 17th, 1931 (ROTHROCK); 18th, 1932 ( R O T H R O C K ) ; 20th,
1935 (SPANOGLE and WHITNEY) ; 22nd, 1936 (ROTHROCK and WALDRON, FOSTER) ;
23rd, 1937 ( M O O R E and COLLINS).

Jet, Rocket, and Turbine Engines


KOLEROFF, B. T . Possibility of reactive propulsion in air. Aviation, vol. 10, no. 21 (May 16,
1921), pp. 624-625.
Jet Propulsion in France. The Aeroplane (February 27, 1924), vol. 26, p. 176. T h e
Melot engine.

113
ROY, MAURICE. Propulsion by reaction. Transl. from La Technique Aeronautique (Jan-
uary 15, 1930). NACA Technical Memorandum, no. 571, 1930, 22 pp., drgs., graph
data. Discusses solid and liquid-fueled rockets.
An internal combustion turbine. The Aeroplane (May 27, 1931), vol. 40, pp. 980, 982, 984,
illus. The French Bertin engine.
RICHARDSON, E. G. J e t propulsion for aircraft. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society
(January 1931), vol. 35, pp. 29-36. Drgs. Emphasis is on rocket power.
Heizloftstrahltriebwerke. Flugsport, vol. 31, no. 1 (January 4, 1939), p p . 1-5; no. 2
(January 18, 1939), pp. 31-36; no. 3 (February 1, 1939), pp. 70-75; no. 4 (February
15, 1939), pp. 100-104. Illus., drgs. J e t propulsion, mostly historical.
SMITH, G. GEOFFREY. Possibilities of jet propulsion. Flight, vol. 40, September 11, 1941,
pp. 155-158; September 25, 1941, pp. 190-192, 201; October 9, 1941, pp. 239-242.
Illus. An excellent historical survey.
Thermal-air jet-propulsion. Aircraft Engineering, vol. 14, no. 156 (February 1942), pp.
32-39, illus., drgs. A translation of the Flugsport (1939) article.
STEMMER, J . The development of jet or rocket propulsion. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical
Society (December 1943), vol. 47, pp. 500-518.
WHITTLE, SIR FRANK. The early history of the Whittle jet-propulsion gas turbine. The
Aeroplane, vol. 69, October 19, 1945, pp. 445-452; November 2, 1945, pp. 503-507;
November 9, 1945, pp. 543-546. Illus. photos, diagrs., tab. data. Whittle developed
and promoted the first successful jet engine with a centrifugal compressor. Con-
currently, jets with axial compressors were developed in Germany.
FLAGLE, CHARLES D., and GODSEY, FRANK W., J R . Gas turbine-propeller, jet drive and
reciprocating engines. Aero Digest, vol. 50, no. 3 (August 1, 1945), p p . 60-63,
134, 137, graph data.
ZUCROW, M. J . The rocket power plant. SAE Transactions, vol. 54, 1946, pp. 375-388,
illus., diagrs., drgs., graph data. Aerojet's J A T O motors.
The B.M.W. 003 jet propulsion engine. Aircraft Engineering, vol. 18, no. 204 (February
1946), pp. 43-49, 62, illus., diagrs., drgs., graph and t a b . data, and one large
fold-out drg.
Notes on the Westinghouse jet engine; some particulars of one of the first successful Amer-
ican axial compressor engines. Aircraft Engineering, vol. 18, no. 210 (August 1946),
pp. 254-258, illus., drgs., diagrs., tab. data.
LUNDQUIST, W. G., and COLE, R. W. BMW-003 turbo-jet engine compared with the
J u m o 004. SAE Transactions, vol. 54, 1946, pp. 503-510, illus., graph data.
Notes on the Bristol Theseus heat-exchanger propeller turbine. Aircraft Engineering, vol.
18, no. 213 (November 1946), pp. 366-371, illus., drgs., diagrs., phantom view,
graph and tab. data.
BOXTER, A. D. Aircraft rocket motors, with special reference to German developments
with hydrogen peroxide. Aircraft Engineering, vol. 19, no. 222 (August 1947), pp.
249-257, illus., diagrs., graph data.
MAGUIRE, D. R. Enemy jet history. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (January
1948), vol. 52, pp. 75-84, illus., drgs., diagrs., bibl.
The development of turbine engines in France. Aircraft Engineering, vol. 21, no. 246
(August 1949), pp. 244-247; no. 247 (September 1949), pp. 293-296; and no. 248
(October 1949), pp. 328-330. Illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data.

114
Proteus and coupled-Proteus turbines. The Aeroplane, vol. 77, no. 2009 (December 9,
1949), pp. 783-787, illus., diagrs., graph data, and phantom view drg.
J e t controversy. Interavia, vol. 7, no. 9, 1952, pp. 502-503. Whittle and Heinkel.
DRIGGS, I. H., and LANCASTER, O. E. Gas turbine development: Aviation. ASME,
Transactions, vol. 75 (1953), pp. 217-234, illus., diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl.
of 10 items.
TAYLOR, P. B. T h e first 100 years of aircraft powerplants. SAE Journal, vol. 63, no. 2
(February 1955), pp. 89-92. Past and future "history" to the year 2005. Includes
material on early jet engines.
MARTIN, JAMES A. T h e record-setting research airplanes. Aerospace Engineering, vol. 21,
no. 12 (December 1962), pp. 49-54, illus., tab. and graph data, bibl. From Bell
X - l to North American X - 1 5 , including data on their engines.
ELTIS, E. M., and MORLEY, F. W. The engine's contribution to economic short-haul
jet transport. SAE Transactions, vol. 73, 1965, pp. 609-620, illus. chart, graph
and tab. data.
See also under History and Technology (DRIGGS and LANCASTER, 1955; GODDARD and
PENDRAY, 1961; L E Y , 1961; PRATT, 1965; SMITH, 1942). And under NACA
Reports, 9th, 1923 (BUCKINGHAM).

Related Technical Developments


For articles containing information on engine vibration and its control see under History
and Technology (HOLZER, 1921). Also under Aircraft Powerplants, Engines 1925-1929
(CARTER, 1927). Engines 1935-1939 (LURENBAUM, 1936; TAYLOR, 1936; DRAPER, 1938;
HAZEN and MONTIETH, 1938; TAYLOR and BROWNE, 1938; BENTLEY, 1939; BROWNE,
1939). Piston Engines 1940 and after (CARTER and FORSHAW, 1943).
For articles containing information on valves see under Aircraft Powerplants, Engines
1920-1924 (HERON, 1922). Engines 1935-1939 ("The Coming of the Sleeve Valve" 1937;
How the Sleeve Valve Works," 1937; FEDDEN, 1938). Piston Engines 1940 and After
(COLWELL, 1940, " T h e Development of Sodium Cooling of Exhaust Valves," 1940).

Altitude Performance and Supercharging


American engine tests under high altitude conditions. The Aeroplane, vol. 17, August 27,
1919, pp. 835-838, and September 3, 1919, pp. 921-924. Graph data.
HALLETT, E. A. Superchargers and supercharging engines. SAE Journal, vol. 5, no. 5
(November 1919), pp. 371-375. Sherbondy (1918) with the U.S. Rateau-Bateau
Smoot Co.; three examples built (1919); poor cooling. G.E. machine tested at
Pike's Peak (1918); new G.E. type under test in flight (1919).
GAGE, V. R. Some factors of engine performance. SAE Transactions, vol. 15, pt. 1, 1920,
pp. 963-982. Analysis of Bureau of Standards altitude chamber tests.
SPARROW, S. W. Flying an airplane engine on the ground. SAE Transactions, vol. 15,
pt. 1, 1920, pp. 608-624. Considerable graph data; relates to laboratory and test
stand work.
DEBOTHEZAT, GEORGE. Airplane performance as influenced by the supercharged engine.
NACA Technical Note, no. 2, 1920, 7 pp.

115
DEVILLERS, RENE. The problem of the turbo-compressor. NACA Technical Note, no. 11,
1920, 28 pp.
SCHWAGER, OTTO. Notes on the design of supercharged and over-dimensioned aircraft
motors. Transl. from Technische Berichte, vol. 3. NACA Technical Note, no. 7, 1920,
6 pp.
MCCREADY, JOHN A. Functioning of supercharger in altitude flight. Aviation, vol. 12,
no. 2 (January 9, 1922), p. 51. McCready, as pilot of the LePere airplane with a
turbo-supercharged Liberty engine made the world's high-altitude record in 1921.
GREGG, DAVID. Superchargers. Aviation, vol. 19, no. 4 (July 27, 1925), pp. 90-92,
illus., drgs.
GARDNER, ARTHUR W. A Roots-type engine supercharger. SAE Transactions, vol. 21,
pt. 2 (1926), pp. 911-943, illus., drgs., graph data.
SHORT, C. R. Supercharging internal-combustion engines. SAE Transactions, vol. 21,
pt. 1, 1926, pp. 235-274, illus., drgs. History as of 1925. First G.E. model, May
1918, on Liberty engine; first flight, spring of 1919.
FEDDEN, A. H. R. The supercharging of aircraft and motor-vehicle engines. Journal
of the Royal Aeronautical Society (September 1927), vol. 31, pp. 933-972, illus., drgs.,
diagrs., graph data.
KORVIN-KROUKOVSKY, B. V. The high altitude airplane; engineering problems in the
design of an airplane to navigate in the stratosphere. Aviation, vol. 26, no. 16
(April 20, 1929), Aeronautical Engineering Section, pp. LIV-LXI; and no. 20
(May 18, 1929), pp. LXXVIII-LXXXIV.
Roots supercharger on Soucek plane proves efficiency of blower type. Automotive Indus-
tries, vol. 60, no. 24 (June 15, 1929), pp. 911-913, illus. Comments on the 1929
world's altitude record with this equipment.
JOHNSTON, S. PAUL. The present status of aircraft engine superchargers. Aviation, vol.
29, no. 6 (December 1930), pp. 358-359.
BERGER, A. L., and Chenoweth, Opie. The turbo supercharger. SAE Transactions, vol.
26, 1931, pp. 592-607, illus., graph data. Emphasis is historical.
SCHEY, OSCAR W. Superchargers and supercharging. SAE Transactions, vol. 26, 1931,
pp. 581-591, illus., graph data.
CUMMINGS, H. K., and GARLOCK, E. A. Altitude laboratory tests of aircraft engines.
ASME, Transactions, vol. 54, 1932, pp. 53-60, illus.
RAGAZZI, PAOLO. The power of aircraft engines at altitude. NACA Technical Memo-
randum, no. 895, 1939, 38 pp., illus., diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 5 items.
GASTERSTADT, J. Junkers diesel motors and supercharging. The Aeroplane, vol. 42, no.
1342 (February 10, 1937), pp. 165-169, illus., drgs., graph data. A Lilienthal
Gesellschaft lecture. German application of the turbo-supercharger.
SARRACINO, MARCELLO. New method of calculating the power at altitude of aircraft
engines equipped with superchargers on the basis of tests made under sea-
level conditions. NACA Technical Memorandum, no. 981, 1941, 32 pp., graph
data, bibl. of 6 items.
KENDRICK, JAMES B. Ground versus flight tests of airplane engine installations. SAE
Transactions, vol. 50, 1942, pp. 241-251, illus., diagrs., graph data, and a 7-item
bibliography.

116
Above the dark blue weather; airplanes that are to fly in the stratosphere. Aviation, vol.
31, no. 5 (May 1932), pp. 225-226, illus., drgs.
DROEGMULLER, E. A., and HERSEY, D. S. T h e relation of intake-charge cooling to engine
performance. SAE Transactions, vol. 52, 1944, pp. 614-620, graph data.
CAMPBELL, KENNETH, and TALBERT, JOHN E. Some advantages and limitations of cen-
trifugal and axial aircraft superchargers. SAE Transactions, vol. 53, 1945, pp.
607-618, illus., graph data.
A pioneer passes. The Aeroplane (November 22, 1946), vol. 71, p. 611. Obituary, Dr.
Sanford Moss.
Also see articles in the following NACA Reports: 1st, 1915; 3d, 1917; 4th, 1918; 6th, 1920;
11th, 1925; 13th, 1927; 14th, 1928; 16th, 1930; 17th, 1931.

Cooling, Cowling, and Radiators


BLACK, ARCHIBALD. Aircraft radiators. SAE Transactions, vol. 14, pt. 1, 1919, pp. 534—
577. Complete and well documented, from early Wright machine to date; in-
cludes a 43-item bibl.
PARSONS, SAMUEL R. Design factors for airplane radiators. SAE Transactions, vol. 15,
pt. 1, 1920, pp. 591-608.
The Lamblin Radiator. The Aeroplane (January 19, 1921), vol. 20, p. 66, illus.
Clark plane and Low-Drag Cowl. Aviation, vol. 26, no. 12 (March 23, 1929), p . 898.
Anticipation of NACA cowling in 1921.
WEICK, FRED E. T h e new NACA low drag cowling. Aviation, vol. 25, no. 21 (November
17, 1928), pp. 1556-1557, 1586, 1588, 1590, illus.
BRIDGMAN, LEONARD, and JAMES, THURSTAN. T h e cowling of air-cooled engines. The
Aeroplane (January 30, 1929), vol. 36, pp. 1 6 0 A - 1 6 4 A , illus.
ANGLE, GLENN D. Radial vs. in-line engines. ASME, Transactions, vol. 51, 1929, pp.
189-196. Part of the air- versus liquid-cooling controversy.
FRANK, G. W. High temperature liquid cooling. SAE Transactions, vol. 24, 1929, pp.
445^-59. illus., graph data. Relates to use of engine coolants other than water.
More about the cowling of air-cooled engines. The Aeroplane (April 24, 1929), vol. 36,
pp. 653-654, 656, illus.
SWAN, ANDREW. Recent developments in cooling aero-engines. Journal of the Royal
Aeronautical Society (March 1931), vol. 35, pp. 179-206. Summarized in The
Aeroplane (November 26, 1930), vol. 34, pp. 1240-1244.
TOWNEND, H . C. H . T h e Townend ring. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (October
1930), vol. 34, pp. 813-848, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data.
BOYD, PAUL M . Engine cowl rings. ASME, Transactions, vol. 54, 1932, pp. 93-101.
Historical point of view.
HIGGINBOTHAM, R. R. Engine cooling problems with venturi cowling. SAE, Trans-
actions, vol. 27, 1932, 84-92, illus., diagrs., tab. data. Cowling of radial engines;
experince of Stearman Aircraft Co.
BEISEL, R E X B., MACCLAIN, A. L., and THOMAS, F. M. T h e cowling and cooling of radial
engines. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (July 1934), vol. 38, pp. 613-650,
illus., diagrs., graph data. Orginally given as a paper before ASME 1934 annual
meeting.

117
KEMPER, C. Fin and baffle design for air-cooled engines. SAE Transactions, vol. 29,
1934, pp. 370-376. Summary of work by NACA.
NORTH, J . D. Engine cowling. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (July 1934), vol. 38,
pp. 566-612, illus., diagrs., graph data. Broad historical treatment.
SHOEMAKER, J . M., RHINES, T . B., and SARGENT, H. H., J R . Further progress in controlled
cooling of radial engines. SAE Transactions, vol. 30, 1935, pp. 349-360, illus.,
diagrs., graph data. Relates to cowl flaps.
Ducted radiators for aero-engines. Interavia, no. 357 (September 3, 1936), pp. 1-3.
ANDERSON, P. A. Air-cooled radial aircraft engine installation. SAE Transactions, vol.
31, 1936, pp. 341-350, illus., drgs., diagrs.
WOOD, DONALD H. Engine nacelles and propellers and airplane performance. SAE
Transactions, vol. 38, 1936, pp. 148-160, illus., drgs., diagrs., tab. and graph data.
BEISEL, R E X B. Why use cowl flaps? Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 5 (May
1937), pp. 185-191, illus.
CAMPBELL, KENNETH. Cylinder cooling and drag of radial engine installations. SAE
Transactions, vol. 33, 1938, p p . 515-528, illus., drgs., graph data. Relates to
cowlings, cowl flaps, and baffle designs.
LEE, JOHN G. Air-cooled vs. liquid-cooled aircraft. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences,
vol. 8, no. 6 (April 1941), pp. 219-229, illus., diagrs., graph data.
RICKERT, P., and HELD, A. Heat transfer in geometrically similar cylinders. NACA
Technical Memorandum, no. 977, 1941, 11 pp., graph data, bibl. of 3 items.
Also see articles in the following NACA Reports: 4th, 1918; 5th, 1919; 6th, 1920; 13th,
1927; 15th, 1929; 21st, 1935; 23rd, 1937; 24th, 1938; 25th, 1939.

Carburetors, Carburetion, and Fuel Injection


Development of Stromberg carburetors. Aviation, vol. 23, no. 5 (August 1, 1927), p. 247.
WILLGOOS, A. V. D. Pratt and Whitney fuel injection system. U.S. Air Services, vol.
17, No. 2 (February 1932), pp. 35-36.
CLOTHIER, W. C. Ice formation in carburetors. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society
(September 1935), vol. 39, pp. 761-806, diagrs., graph data.
Pratt & Whitney automatic power and mixture control. Aero Digest, vol. 26, no. 1
(July 1935), pp. 38-40, 42.
Automatic mixture: New Pratt & Whitney carburetor control gets long workout on first
Pan American flight. Aviation, vol. 34, no. 6 (June 1935), pp. 35-36.
BEARDSLEY, GUY E. An automatic power and mixture control for aircraft engines.
SAE Transactions, vol. 37, 1935, pp. 301-306, illus., diagrs., graph data.
Automatic power and mixture control. TheAeroplane,\o\. 52 (May 5, 1937), p p . 540-541,
diagrs.
KITTLER, M. J . A non-icing fully maneuverable aircraft carburetor. SAE Transactions,
vol. 34, 1939, pp. 357-364, illus., graph data.
The Stromberg injection type aircraft carburetor. Automotive Industries, vol. 84, no. 12
(June 15, 1941), pp. 620-624.
Three German engine fuel systems. Aircraft Engineering, vol. 15, no. 175 (September
1943), pp. 248-253, and no. 176 (October 1943), pp. 293-302. Brilliantly illus-
trated. These fuel-injection systems are from the BMW 132, the Bramo-Fafhir
323P, and the BMW 801.

118
WEIGAND, F. J . Carburetion for the aircraft engine. SAE Transactions, vol. 51 (1943),
pp. 294-303, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data.
THORNER, ROBERT H . Aircraft carburetion. New York: John Wiley, 1946. 393 pp.,
illus., diagrs. The book is an outgrowth of a series of lectures given at the Uni-
versity of Michigan during 1942.
LANGE, GEORGE M. Fuel injection for low-horsepower aircraft engines. SAE Journal
(April 1947), vol. 55, pp. 48-52, illus., drgs.
REID, R. A. S. Aero-engine injection carburetors. Aircraft Engineering, vol. 19, no. 216
(February 1947), pp. 38-42, diagrs. and phantom view.
Improved fuel-injection system for Mercedes-Benz engine. Automotive Industries, vol. 119,
no. 8 (October 15, 1958), p. 63, illus., diagrs.
WISEMAN, William A. Continental's fuel injection for business aircraft. Automotive
Industries, vol. 118, no. 8 (April 15, 1958), pp. 55-60, 154—155, diagrs.
Also see articles in the following NACA Reports: 2d, 1916; 4th, 1920; 19th, 1933.

Instruments and Accessories


MACHOL, MORRIS R. Spark gaps in series with spark plugs. Aviation, vol. 2, no. 11
(July 1, 1917), p. 498. Condensation of a paper given at 10th annual convention
of the National Gas Engine Assn., J u n e 7, 1917.
BLACK, ARCHIBALD. Exhaust headers and mufflers for airplane engines. SAE Transac-
tions, vol. 13, pt. 2, 1918, pp. 292-306, illus., drgs., bibl.
HEALD, R. H . Performance of a vane-driven gear pump. NACA Technical Note, no. 6 1 ,
1921, 20 pp., diagrs., graph data.
The aeromarine starter. Aviation, vol. 19, no. 13 (September 28, 1925), pp. 391-392.
First inertia type.
The Heywood injector starter. Aviation, vol. 23, no. 24 (December 12, 1927), pp. 1408-
1409. A combined air and gasoline type.
ROBERTSON, E. A., and HULL, L. M. Suppressing ignition-interference on radio-equipped
aircraft. SAE Transactions, vol. 25, 1930, pp. 260-266, illus., diagrs.
History of the scintilla magneto. Aviation Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1 (January 1933), p. 27.
STUNKEL, REAGAN C. Aircraft accessories: Spark plugs. Southwestern Aviation, vol. 2,
no. 3 (September 1934), pp. 14-15.
BOYNTON, H. G. Autosyn remote indicating system. Aero Digest, vol. 28, no. 5 (May
1936), pp. 48, 50. Remote-reading instruments for engines in very large aircraft.
GRAY, HAROLD E. Radio shielding on air transports. SAE Transactions, vol. 32, 1937,
pp. 527-530. At this date Gray was a captain with Pan American Airways;
later became president of the organization.
Hydraulic starter for aircraft engine. Automotive Industries, vol. 76, no. 17 (April 24,
1937), p. 622, illus., diagr.
CRONSTEDT, V A L . Shortcomings of mica insulation for aviation spark plugs. SAE
Journal, vol. 46, no. 6 (June 1940), pp. 233-235.
RIDDLE, FRANK H. Ceramic insulators for spark plugs. SAE Journal, vol. 46, no. 6
(June 1940), pp. 236-242.
HOLLIDAY, T. B., L T . COL., USAAF. Aircraft accessory systems. SAE Transactions, vol.
51, 1943, pp. 234-240, 247, illus., diagrs., graph data.

119
Spark plugs for internal-combustion engines. Lubrication, vol. 35, no. 6 (June 1949),
pp. 61-72, illus., drgs. Traces some historical development.
Also see articles in the following NACA Reports: 2d, 1916; 5th, 1919; 7th, 1921; 10th,
1924; 12th, 1926; 16th, 1930; 19th, 1933.

Fuels and Combustion, Lubrication


KETTERING, CHARLES F. More efficient utilization of fuel. SAE Transactions, vol. 14,
pt. 1, 1919, pp. 201-219. Discussion of engine "knocking" and' its relation to
fuel structure; indicator cards from optical indicator. Cyclohexane did not
knock in Liberty cylinder with 200-lb compression; "best" gasoline 125 lb.
MIDGLEY, THOMAS, J R . The combustion of fuels in the internal-combustion engine.
SAE Transactions, vol. 15, pt. 2, 1920, pp. 659-696. Discussion of fuel structure
and its relation to engine behavior; optical indicator shows pressure waves due to
detonation; theory of "knock"; mentions iodine and analin as knock suppressors.
KUTZBACH, K. The problem of fuel for aviation engines. NACA Technical Note, no.
62, 1921, 22 pp., graph and tab. data. A lecture given at the Aldershof Aero
Lab., Germany.
WYMAN, W. W. Effect of low grade gasoline on engines. Aviation, vol. 11, no. 20 (No-
vember 14, 1921), pp. 575-576.
CAUTLEY, R. B. Fuel and oil consumption important factors in long distance flights;
good results obtained by Charles A. Lindbergh with a Whirlwind air-cooled
engine. Aviation, vol. 22, no. 23 (June 6, 1927), pp. 1214-1215, 1243.
JONES, E. T. Fuel for the Wright "Whirlwind." Aviation, vol. 23, no. "20 (November
14, 1927), pp. 1170-1172.
STALEY, F. R. Some pertinent facts about aviation engine oils. Aviation, vol. 27, no. 6
(August 10, 1929), pp. 304-305, illus.
CUMMINGS, H. K. Gasoline requirements of commercial aircraft engines. SAE Trans-
actions, vol. 25, 1930, pp. 161-163.
DOOLITTLE, JAMES H. Volatility requirements of aircraft fuels. SAE Transactions, vol.
25, 1930, pp. 170-172.
HERON, S. D. Fuel requirements of the gasoline aircraft engine. SAE Transactions, vol. 25,
1930, pp. 164-169.
. High performance gasoline aircraft engine: Its problems of fuel, oil, and materials
of cylinder construction. ASME, Transactions, vol. 52 (1930), pp. 233-253.
NEVILLE, LESLIE E. The S.A.E. discusses fuel. Aviation, vol. 29, no. 5 (November 1930),
pp. 273-277, diagrs., tab. data.
BANKS, F. R. Fuels for aircraft engines Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society (February
1932), vol. 36, pp. 127-140, graph data.
WARD, B. P., and SINCLAIR, W. P. Testing of naval aviation gasoline. Journal of the
American Society of Naval Engineers, vol. 44, no. 3 (August 1932), pp. 285-297.
What is an octane number? The Aeroplane (March 9, 1932), vol. 42, pp. 436-437.
BANKS, F. R. Ethyl: Some information on the use and advantages gained by the Employ-
ment of tetraethyl lead in fuels for aviation engines. Journal of the Royal Aeronautical
Society (April 1934), vol. 38, pp. 309-372, graph data.
KLEIN, F. D. Aircraft engine performance with 100 octane fuel. Journal of the American
Institute of Aeronautical Sciences (March 1935), vol. 2, pp. 43-47.

120
NuTT, ARTHUR. Aircraft engines and their lubrication. SAE Transactions, vol. 34, 1939,
pp. 501-512, illus., drgs., diagrs.
Synthetic oils for aircraft gas turbine lubrication. Lubrication, vol. 40, no. 4 (April 1954),
pp. 45-56, illus., diagrs., schematic views.
Also see articles in the following NACA Reports: 11th, 1925; 13th, 1927; 15th, 1929; 20th,
1934; 21st, 1935; 24th, 1938; 25th, 1939.

Propellers and Propeller Gearing


PILLET, L. Experiences practiques sur le rendiment de differentes helices aerienne.
VAeronaute, vol. 3, no. 3 (March 1870), pp. 33-43, tabular data.
FROUDE, W. On the Elementary Relation Between Pitch, Slip, and Propulsive Efficiency.
Transactions, Institution of Naval Architects [British], vol. 19, 1878, pp. 47-65.
ARSON, —. Etude sur le Propulseur pour 1'Aviation. Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de
France, Memoires, vol. 32, 1879, pp. 342-365.
AMANS, P. C. Perfectionnement des helices aeriennes. L'Aeronaute, vol. 25, no. 10 (Octo-
ber 1892), pp. 219-231, diagrs.
CALDWELL, F. W. Conventional propeller calculations. SAE Transactions, vol. 13, pt. 2,
1918, pp. 307-333, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data.
EIFFEL, GUSTAVE. Etudes sur I'helice aerienne fades au laboratoire d'Aureil; les nouvelles recherches
sur les helices aerienne. Paris: E. Chiron, 1921. 304 pp., illus.
Description of the Curtiss-Reed metal propeller. Aviation, vol. 15, no. 21 (November 19,
1923), p. 630.
The Paragon adjustable and reversible propeller. Aviation, vol. 14, no. 1 (January 1,
1923), p. 19.
The Leitner-Watts metal propeller; uses hollow steel blades set in adjustable hub. Aviation,
vol. 19, no. 9 (August 31, 1925), pp. 244-245, illus.
WRIGHT, THEODORE P. T h e durability of metal propellers. Aviation, vol. 21, no. 17
(October 25, 1926), p. 706; no. 22 (November 29, 1926), pp. 913-914; and no. 26
(December 27, 1926), pp. 1082-1083.
MCCAULEY, E. G. Metal propeller development; extensive test work responsible for
present efficiency. Aviation, vol. 22, no. 22 (May 30, 1927), pp. 1127-1130, 1444,
illus.
MOCK, RICHARD M. Geared down propellers and the efficiency of commercial airplanes.
Aviation, vol. 22, no. 22 (May 30, 1927), pp. 1137-1140, illus., graphs and tab.
data.
HAVILL, CLINTON H., L C D R . , USN. Development of aircraft propellers. Aviation, vol.
25, no. 16 (October 13, 1928), pp. 1190, 1206-1208. An excellent survey.
Success of new variable pitch propeller indicated by British company's experiments.
Aviation, vol. 24, no. 26 (June 25, 1928), p. 1856. Gloster's Dr. Hele-Shaw and
T. E. Beacham.
The Turnbull variable pitch propeller. Aviation, vol. 24, no. 8 (February 20, .1928), pp
446-448, illus.
HELE-SHAW, H. S., and BEACHAM, T. E. The variable pitch airscrew. Journal of the
Royal Aeronautical Society (July 1928), vol. 32, pp. 525-554, illus., drgs., diagrs.
121
CALDWELL, FRANK W. Variable pitch propellers. SAE Transactions, vol. 24 (1929),
pp. 467-477, drgs., diagrs., graph data. Caldwell was chief engineer of the Stand-
ard Propeller Co.
WRIGHT, THEODORE P., and TURNBULL, W. R. Controllable pitch propeller. SAE
Transactions, vol. 24, 1929, pp. 478-485, 497, graph data.
, and JOHNSON, R. E. Gearing of aircraft propellers. SAE Transactions, vol. 24,
1929, pp. 486-491.
WARNER, EDWARD P. T h e S.A.E. propeller and power plant sessions. Aviation, vol. 27,
no. 9 (August 31, 1929), pp. 469-473, illus.
DICKY, D. A., and COOK, O. R. Controllable and automatic aircraft propellers. SAE
Transactions, vol. 27, 1932, pp. 105-111, illus. Descriptions of early types.
CHATFIELD, CHARLES HUGH. Controllable pitch propellers in transport service. Avia-
tion, vol. 32, no. 6 (June 1933), p p . 180-181.
Effect of controllable pitch on airplane performance. Aviation Engineering, vol. 8, no. 3
(March 1933), pp. 14-15, 25, illus., diagrs.
LOMBARD, A. E., and WRIGHT, THEODORE P. Pitch control. Aviation, vol. 32, no 12
(December 1933), pp. 376-378, illus., graphs, and tab. data.
CALDWELL, F. W. Aircraft propeller development and testing summarized. SAE
Transactions, vol. 29, 1934, pp. 297-303 (part 2) and 349-354 (part 2).
CARROLL, GEORGE. Not too technical: T h e function of propellers. Southwestern Avia-
tion, vol. 2, no. 4 (October 1934), pp. 21-22, and no. 5 (November 1934), pp. 17,
29. Diagrs.
Operating principles of the constant speed propeller. Aero Digest, vol. 29, no. 3 (Sep-
tember 1936), pp. 36-37, 84, illus.
Propeller governor. Aviation, vol. 35, no. 9 (September 1936), pp. 36-37, illus. Hamilton-
Standard constant speed model.
CALDWELL, F. W., MARTIN, E., and RHINES, T. B. T h e constant speed propeller: Per-
formance and control. SAE Transactions, vol. 32, 1937, pp. 28-44, illus., drgs.,
diagrs., graph data.
Curtiss controllable: An electric constant speed, full-feathering propeller. Aviation, vol.
36, no. 5 (May 1937), pp. 38-39, 73, illus.
Curtiss electric constant speed propeller. Aero Digest, vol. 30, no. 5 (May 1937), pp. 48,
50, illus.
A fully feathering airscrew; details of the Curtiss-Wright 120-degree angular range elec-
trical operation. Flight, vol. 14, no. 5 (May 27, 1937), Engineering Supplement,
pp. 29-31, illus.
JABLONSKY, BRUNO. Airscrews at the Paris aero show. The Aeroplane, vol. 52 (February 3,
1937), pp. 139-141, and vol. 52 (February 17, 1937), pp. 193-195, illus., diagrs.
BAKER, CARL F. Propeller problems imposed by substratosphere flight. SAE Trans-
actions, vol. 33, 1938, pp. 285-288, 300.
LAMPTON, G. T. Propeller factors tending to limit aircraft engine powers. SAE Trans-
actions, vol. 33, 1938, pp. 289-292, graph data.
MCSURELY, ALEXANDER. The Wrights and the propeller. The Bee Hive, vol. 28, no. 2
(Spring 1953), pp. 20-24, illus.
MOLSON, K. M. Some historial notes on the development of the variable pitch propeller.
Canadian Aeronautics and Space Journal (June 1965), vol. 11, pp. 177-183, illus., bibli-
ography of 25 items.

122
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
Annual Reports, 1915-1939
1st Annual Report, 1915
MARVIN, CHARLES F. Preliminary report on the problem of the atmosphere in relation
to aeronautics. Report 4 in First Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics, 1915 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1916),* pp. 129-130.
LUCKE, CHARLES E. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion
engines for aircraft: Part I, Review of the development of engines suitable for
Aeronautic service; Part I I , Aero engines analyzed with reference to elements of
Process or function. Report 7 in NACA, 1st Annual Report, 1915 (1916), p p .
186-303. Extensive tab. data. An excellent source of information about engines
of that time.
2d Annual Report, 1916
General specifications covering requirements of aeronautic instruments. Report 8 in
NACA, 2d Annual Report, 1916 (1917), pp. 25-28.
Nomenclature for aeronautics. Report 9 in NACA, 2d Annual Report, 1916 (1917), p p .
31-37.
DIEDERICHS, H., and UPTON, G. B., Mufflers for aeronautic engines. Report 10 in
NACA, 2d Annual Report, 1916 (1917), pp. 41-49, drgs., tab. data. In spite of
such work, mufflers have seldom been used on aircraft engines.
LUCKE, CHARLES EDWARD, and W I L L H O F F T , FRIEDRICH O T T O . Carburetor design—
a preliminary study of the state of the art. Report 11 in NACA, 2d Annual Report,
1916 (1917), p p . 53-552. Structured in seven chapters, this report is profusely
illustrated with drgs. from patents, accompanied by extensive discussions. An
outstanding source of information on carburetor design in 1916.
3d Annual Report, 1917
DICKINSON, H . C. Aeronautic power plant investigations: 1. Performance of aeronautic
engines at high altitudes; 2, Radiator design; 3, Spark plugs. Report 23 in NACA,
3d Annual Report, 1917 (1918), p p . 479-495, drgs., diagrs.
4th Annual Report, 1918
PARIS, AUGUST J E A N , J R . , and PARIS, W. FRANCKLYN. A new process for the production
of aircraft engine fuels. Report 42 in NACA, 4th Annual Report (1918), pp. 473-476.
Graph data.
DICKINSON, H . C , and KLEINSCHMIDT, R. V. Synopsis of Aeronautic Radiator Investiga-
tions for Years 1917 and 1918. Report 43 in NACA, 4th Annual Report, 1918
(1920), p p . 477-482.
, and BOUTELL, H . G. The altitude laboratory for the testing of aircraft engines.
Report 44 in NACA, 4th Annual Report, 1918 (1920), pp. 483-498, drgs., diagrs.
, JAMES, W. S., and ANDERSON, G. V. Effect of compression ratio, pressure,
temperature, and humidity on power. Report 45 in NACA, 4th Annual Report,
1918 (1920), p p . 499-524, gTaph data.
*Hereafter, title abbreviated as in next entry.

123
GAGE, VICTOR R. A study of airplane engine tests. Report 46 in NACA, 4th Annual
Report, 1918 (1920), pp. 525-559, extensive graph and tab. data.
DICKINSON, H. C , and others. Power characteristics of fuels for aircraft engines. Report
47, pts. 1, 2, and 3, in NACA, 4th Annual Report, 1918 (1920), pp. 560-589, graph
and tab. data.
TICE, PERCIVAL S. Carbureting conditions characteristic of aircraft engines. Report
48 in NACA, 4th Annual Report, 1918 (1920), pp. 590-595.
. Metering characteristics of carburetors. Report 49, in NACA, 4th Annual Report,
1918 (1920), pp. 596-643, drgs., diagrs., graph and tab. data.
KEMBLE, E. C. Calculation of low-pressure indicator diagrams. Report 50, in NACA,
4th Annual Report, 1918 (1920), pp. 644-654, graph data.

5th Annual Report, 1919


SILSBEE, F. B. Causes of failure of spark plugs. Report 51, pt. 1, in NACA, 5th Annual
Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 43-52, illus.
LOEB, L. B., SAWYER. L. G., and FONESCA, E. L. Gas leakage in spark plugs. Report
51, pt. 2, in NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 53-62, diagr., graph and
tab. data.
DICKINSON, H. C , SILSBEE, F. B., and AGNEW, A. G. Methods for testing spark plugs.
Report 51, pt. 3, in NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 63-70, diagrs.
CRAGOE, C. S. Temperatures in spark plugs having steel and brass shells. Report 52 in
NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 73-76, diagrs., graph data.
SILSBEE, F. B., and others. Properties and preparation of ceramic insulators for spark
plugs. Report 53, pts. 1-4, in NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 79-111,
drgs., diagrs., graph and tab. data.
LOEB, L. B., and SILSBEE, F. B. Effect of temperature and pressure on the sparking
voltage. Report 54 in NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 115-121, diagrs.,
graph data.
UPTON, G. B., and GAGE, V. R. Investigation of the muffling problem for airplane engines.
Report 55 in NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 125-160, illus., drgs.,
graph and tab. data.
SILSBEE, F. B., LOEB, L. B., and FONESCA, E. L. Method of measuring heat energy of
ignition sparks. Report 56 in NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 163-176,
diagrs., graph data.
GORTON, W. S. The subsidiary gap as a means for improving ignition. Report 57 in
NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 179-190.
SILSBEE, F. B. Characteristics of high-tension magnetos. Report 58 in NACA, 5th
Annual Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 193-213, diagrs., graph data.
DICKINSON, H. C , JAMES, W. S., and KLEINSCHMIDT, R. V. General analysis of airplane
radiator problems. Report 59 in NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 217—
221.
, JAMES, W. S., and BROWN, W. B. General discussion of test methods for radiators.
Report 60 in NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), p p . 225-244, diagrs, tab. data.
KLEINSCHMIDT, R. B., and PARSONS, S. R. Head resistance due to radiators. Report
61 in NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), pp. 247-264, graph data.
JAMES, W. S., and PARSONS, S. R. Effect of altitude on radiator performance. Report
62 in NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), p p . 267-275, graph data.

124
DICKINSON, H . O , JAMES, W. C , and KLEINSCHMTOT, R . V. Results of tests on radiators
for aircraft engines. Report 63 in NACA, 5th Annual Report, 1919 (1920), p p .
279-316, illus., drgs., tab. data.
6th Annual Report, 1920
PARSONS, S. R . Properties of special types of radiators. Report 86 in NACA, 6th Annual
Report, 1920 (1921), pp. 133-147, illus., graph and tab. data.
, and KLEINSCHMIDT, R. V. Effects of nature of cooling surface on radiator per-
formance. Report 87 in NACA, 6th Annual Report, 1920 (1921), p p . 151-159,
graph data.
. Pressure drop in radiator air tubes. Report 88 in NACA, 6th Annual Report,
1920 (1921), p p . 163-169, graph and tab. data.
GAGE, VICTOR R., SPARROW, STANWOOD W., a n d H A R P E R , D . R. Comparison of AlcoGas
aviation fuel with export aviation gasoline. Report 89 in NACA, 6th Annual Report,
1920 (1921), p p 173-184, extensive graph data.
DICKINSON, H . C, GAGE, Victor R., and SPARROW, STANWOOD W . Comparison of
hecter fuel with export aviation gasoline. Report 90 in NACA, 6th Annual Report,
1920 (1921), p p . 187-194, graph data.
SPARROW, STANWOOD W., and W H I T E , H . S. Performance of a Liberty 12 airplane
engine. Report 102 in NACA, 6th Annual Report, 1920 (1921), p p . 561-578,
extensive graph and tab. data on tests in the Bureau of Standards altitude chamber,
the first facility of its kind.
, and WHITE, H . S. Performance of a 300-horsepower Hispano-Suiza airplane
engine. Report 103 in NACA, 6th Annual Report, 1920 (1921), p p . 581-600,
extensive graph and tab. data. Tests in Bureau of Standards altitude chamber.
PARSONS, S. R. Turbulence in the air tubes of radiators for aircraft engines. Report
106 in NACA, 6th Annual Report, 1920 (1921), p p . 623-633, diagrs., graph and tab.
data.
DICKINSON, H . C , and NEWELL, F . B. A high-speed engine pressure indicator of the
balanced diaphragm type. Report 107 in NACA, 6th Annual Report, 1920 (1921),
pp. 637-648, illus., drgs. diagrs., graph and tab. data. T h e development of the
indicator by the Bureau of Standards was an important contribution to the future
development of aircraft engines.
GAGE, Victor R. Some factors of airplane engine performance. Report 108 in NACA,
6th Annual Report, 1920 (1921), p p 651-677, extensive graph and tab. data.
7th Annual Report, 1921
SILSBEE, F.B. Simplified theory of the magneto. Report 123 in NACA, 1th Annual Report,
1921 (1923), p p . 405-419, diagrs., graph data.
WASHBURN, G. E., SYLVANDER, R. C , MUELLER, E. F., WILHELM, R. M . , EATON, H . N.,
and WARNER, J o h n A. C. Power plant instruments. Report 129 in NACA,
7th Annual Report, 1921 (1923), pp. 667-637, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph and tab.
data; includes "keyed" photographs. A very informative item.

8th Annual Report, 1922


SPARROW, STANWOOD W . Performance of Maybach 300-horsepower airplane engine.
Report 132 in NACA, 8th Annual Report, 1922 (1923), p p . 91-99, graph data. Sea-
level and altitude tests.

125
. Performance of B.M.W. 185-horsepower airplane engine. Report 135 in
NACA, 8th Annual Report, 1922 (1923), pp. 103-110, graph data. Sea-level and
altitude tests.
HARPER, D . R., and BROWN, W. B. Mathematical equations for heat conduction in the
fins of air-cooled engines. Report 158 in NACA, 8th Annual Report, 1922 (1923),
pp.679-708.
9th Annual Report, 1923
BUCKINGHAM, EDGAR. Jet propulsion for airplanes. Report 159 in NACA, 9th Annual
Report, 1923 (1924), pp. 75-90. Graph and tab. data. It is not very optimistic.

10th Annual Report, 1924


RANDOLPH, D . W., and SILSBEE, F. B. Flame speed and spark intensity. Report 187 in
NACA, 10th Annual Report, 1924 (1925), p p . 81-92, illus., drgs., t a b . data.
SPARROW, STANWOOD W. Relation of fuel-air ratio to engine performance. Report
189 in NACA, 10th Annual Report, 1924 (1925), pp. 109-122, graph data and bibl.
of 14 items.
. Correcting horsepower measurements to standard temperature. Report 190 in
NACA, 10th Annual Report, 1924 (1925), pp. 125-138, graph data and bibl. of 13
items.
SILSBEE, FRANCIS B. T h e sparking voltage of spark plugs. Report 202 in NACA, 10th
Annual Report, 1924 (1925), p p . 357-370, graph data and bibl. of 71 items.
SPARROW, STANWOOD W. T h e effect of changes in compression ratio upon engine
performance. Report 205 in NACA, 10th Annual Report, 1924 (1925), pp. 399-518,
graph data; bibl. of 12 items.
MILLER, HAROLD E., and BEARDSLEY, EDWARD G. Spray penetration with a simple fuel
injection nozzle. Report 222 in NACA, 11th Annual Report, 1925 (1926), pp. 3 2 1 -
326, diagrs., graph data.
JOACHIM, W. F. An investigation of the coefficient of discharge of liquids through small
round orifices. Report 224 in NACA, 11th Annual Report, 1925 (1926), pp. 371-378,
illus., graph data.

11th Annual Report, 1925


WARE, MARSDEN. Description and laboratory tests of a Roots type aircraft engine super-
charger. Report 230 in NACA, 11th Annual Report, 1925 (1926), pp. 451-561, illus.,
diagrs., graph data.
SPARROW, STANWOOD W. Fuels for high-compression engines. Report 232 in NACA,
11th Annual Report, 1925 (1926), pp. 483-500, graph data. Partly historical,
very descriptive; includes bibl. of 36 items.

12th Annual Report, 1926


PATON, C. R., and KEMPER, CARLTON. Power output and air requirements of a two-
stroke cycle engine for aeronautical use. Report 239 in NACA, 12th Annual Report,
1926 (1927), pp 181-189, graph data, bibl. of 8 items.
BRODE, R. B., RANDOLPH, D. W., and SILSBEE, F. B. Electrical characteristics of spark
generators for automotive ignition. Report 241 in NACA, 12th Annual Report,
1926 (1927), pp. 269-293, graph data, bibl. of 17 items.

126
GARDINER, ARTHUR W . A preliminary study of fuel injection and compression ignition
as applied to an aircraft cylinder. Report 243 in NACA, 12th Annual Report
1926 (1927), p p . 313-326, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data, bibl. of 4 items.
W A R E , MARSDEN. Description of the N.A.C.A. universal test engine and some test results.
Report 250 in NACA, 12th Antdial Report, 1926(1927), pp. 469-481, illus., drgs., graph
data, bibl. of 4 items. Equipment for single-cylinder research.
GOVE, W . D., and GREEN, M . W . T h e direct measurement of engine power on an air-
plane in flight with a hug-type dynamometer. Report 252 in NACA, 12th Annual
Report, 1926 (1927), p p . 505-513, illus., drgs., graph data, bibl. of 4 items.
Early attempt to measure engine torque in flight. Some late radial engines have
torque meters incorporated in their reduction gear.
13th Annual Report, 1927
SMITH, R. H . Resistance and cooling power of various radiators. Report 261 in NACA,
13th Annual Report, 1927 (1928), pp. 163-176, illus., graph and tab. data. bibl. of
4 items.
JOACHIM, W. F., and BEARDSLEY, E. G. Factors in the design of centrifugal type injection
valves for oil engines. Report 268 in NACA, 13th Annual Report, 1927 (1928), p p .
267-279, illus., graph data, bibl. of 8 items.
GARDINER, ARTHUR W., and WHEDON, WILLIAM E. T h e relative performance obtained
with several methods of control of an over-compressed engine using gasoline.
Report 272 in NACA, 13th Annual Report, 1927 (1928), pp. 329-339, drgs., diagrs.,
graph data, bibl. of 10 items. T h e German B M W and Maybach engines of 1917
were overcompressed engines, that is, the compression ratio was too high for full-
throttle operation a t sea level.
MARVIN, CHARLES F., J R . Combustion time in the engine cylinder and its effect on engine
performance. Report 276 in NACA, 13th Annual Report, 1927 (1928), p p . 393-406,
graph data.
GARDINER, ARTHUR W., and SCHEY, OSCAR W. T h e comparative performance of an
aviation engine at normal and high inlet air temperatures. Report 277 in NACA,
13th Annual Report, 1927 (1928), pp. 409^-25, graph data, bibl. of 15 items.
JOACHIM, WILLIAM F., and BEARDSLEY, EDWARD G. T h e effects of fuel and cylinder gas
densities on the characteristics of fuel sprays for oil engines. Report 281 in NACA,
13th Annual Report, 1927 (1928), p p . 491-497, graph data, bibl. of 8 items.

14th Annual Report, 1928


JOACHIM, WILLIAM F., and KEMPER, CARLETON. T h e performance of several combustion
chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. Report 282 in NACA, 14th Annual
Report, 1927 (1928), p p . 501-510, illus., drgs., graph data, bibl. of 8 items.
W A R E , MARSDEN, and SCHEY, OSCAR W . A Preliminary investigation of supercharging
an air-cooled engine in flight. Report 283 in NACA, 14th Annual Report, 1928
(1929), p p . 83-91, illus., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 5 items. Aircraft used was
a Navy Vought V O - 1 with a Wrright Aero J - 4 engine.
, and WILSON, ERNEST E. T h e comparative performance of Roots type aircraft
engine superchargers as affected by charge in impeller speed and displacement.
Report 284 in NACA, 14th Annual Report, 1928 (1929), pp. 95-106, graph and tab.
data.

127
HICKS, CHESTER W. T h e measurement of maximum cylinder pressures. Report 294
in NACA, 14th Annual Report, 1928 (1929), pp. 311-319, drgs., diagrs., graph data,
bibl. of 11 items.
SCHEY, OSCAR W., and WILSON, ERNEST E. O n investigation of the-use of discharge
valves and an intake control for improving the performance of N.A.C.A. Roots
type supercharger. Report 303 in NACA, 14th Annual Report, 1928 (1929), pp. 4 7 9 -
485, drgs., graph data, bibl. of 4 items.
STEVENS, F. W. T h e gaseous explosive reaction—A study of the kinetics of composite
fuels. Report 305 in NACA, 14th Annual Report, 1928 (1929), p p . 503-518, graph
and tab. data, bibl. of 18 items.

15th Annual Report, 1929


WEICK, FRED E. Drag and cooling with various forms of cowling for a "Whirlwind"
radial air-cooled engine. Reports 313 and 314 in NACA, 15th Annual Report,
1929 (1930), pp. 165-210, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 5 items.
Basic data about the development of the NACA cowling.
JOACHIM, WILLIAM F., and ROTHROCK, A. M . Fuel vapor pressures and the relation of
vapor pressure to the preparation of fuel for combustion in fuel injection engines.
Report 321 in NACA, 15th Annual Report, 1929 (1930), p p . 385-395, illus., drgs.,
graph and tab. data, bibl. of 11 items.
SCHEY, O. W., and GOVE, W. D. T h e effect of supercharger capacity on engine and
airplane performance. Report 327 in NACA, 15th Annual Report, 1929 (1930),
pp. 519-529, graph data.
GELALLES, A. G., and ROTHROCK, A. M . Experimental and analytical determination
of the motion of hydraulically operated valve stems in oil engine injection systems.
Report 330 in NACA, 15th Annual Report, 1929 (1930), pp. 571-588, diagrs., graph
data, bibl. of 5 items.
SCHEY, OSCAR W., and BIERMANN, ARNOLD E. The effect of cowling on cylinder tempera-
tures and performance of a Wright J - 5 engine. Report 332 in NACA, 15th Annual
Report, 1929 (1930), pp. 637-656, illus., drgs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 9 items.

16th Annual Report, 1930


STEVENS, F. W. T h e gaseous explosive reaction at constant pressure—the reaction order
and reaction rate. Report 337 in NACA, 16th Annual Report, 1930 (1931), pp. 6 7 -
82, extensive graph and tab. data.
JOACHIM, WILLIAM F., HICKS, CHESTER W., and FOSTER, HAMPTON H . T h e design and
development of an automatic injection valve with an annular orifice of varying
area. Report 341 in NACA, 16th Annual Report, 1930 (1931), pp. 137-144, diagrs.,
bibl. of 9 items.
SCHEY, OSCAR W., and YOUNG, ALFRED W. Comparative flight performance with a
N.A.C.A. Roots supercharger and a turbo-centrifugal supercharger. Report 355
in NACA, 16th Annual Report, 1930 (1931), pp. 503-514, illus., graph and tab. data,
bibl. of 8 items. Flight tests with a D H - 4 M 2 .
PETERS, MELVILLE F., SUMMERVILLE, WAYNE L., and DAVIS, M E R L I N . An investigation
of the effectiveness of ignition sparks. Report 359 in NACA, 16th Annual Report,
1930 (1931), pp. 575-585, diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 10 items.

128
ROTHROCK, A. M . Pressure fluctuations in a common-rail fuel injection system. Report
363 in NACA, 16th Annual Report, 1930 (1931), pp. 671-684, diagrs., graph data,
bibl. of 9 items.

17th Annual Report, 1931


STEVENS, F. W . T h e gaseous explosive reaction—The effect of pressure on the rate of
propagation of the reaction zone and upon the rate of molecular transformation.
Report 372 in NACA, 17th Annual Report, 1931 (1932), pp. 175-191, illus., diagrs.,
graph data, bibl. of 27 items.
GELALLES, A. G. Coefficients of discharge of fuel injection nozzles for compression-
ignition engines. Report 373 in NACA, 17th Annual Report, 1931 (1932), pp. 193-
209, diagrs., graph data, bibl. of 9 items.
DARNELL, T . H . T h e automotive ignition coil. Report 374 in NACA, 17th Annual
Report, 1931 (1932), pp. 211-236, diagrs., extensive graph data, bibl. of 12 items.
SCHEY, OSCAR W . T h e comparative performance of superchargers. Report 384 in
NACA, 17th Annual Report, 1931 (1932), pp. 425-437, graph and tab. data, bibl. of
10 items. Lobe, vane, and centrifugal type compressors.
, and BIERMANN, ARNOLD E. T h e effect of valve timing upon the performance of a
supercharged engine at altitude and an unsupercharged engine at sea level. Report
390 in NACA, 17th Annual Report, 1931 (1932), p p . 533-543, illus., graph data,
bibl. of 8 items.
ROTHROCK, A. M . Hydraulics of fuel injection pumps for compression-ignition engines.
Report 396 in NACA, 17th Annual Report, 1931 (1932), p p . 621-664, diagrs., ex-
tensive graph and tab. data, bibl. of 33 items. Early analysis of injection-pump
characteristics.
MARVIN, CHARLES F., J R . , and BEST, ROBERT D . Flame movement and pressure develop-
ment in an engine cylinder. Report 399 in NACA, 17th Annual Report, 1931
(1932), p p . 697-706, diagrs., graph data, bibl. of 5 items. Observation of flame
motion by means of multiple small windows in a cylinder head.

18th Annual Report, 1932


ROTHROCK, A. M . Combustion in a high-speed compression-ignition engine. Report
401 in NACA, 18th Annual Report, 1932, (1933), pp. 63-77, graph data, bibl. of 27
items.
GELALLES, A. G. Effect of orifice length-diameter ratio on fuel sprays for compression-
ignition engines. Report 402 in NACA, 18th Annual Report, 1932 (1933), p p .
79-90, illus., diagr., graph data, bibl. of 19 items.
SCHEY, OSCAR W., and ROLLIN, VERN G. T h e effect of increased carburetor pressure on
engine performance at several compression ratios. Report 404 in NACA, 18th
Annual Report, 1932 (1933), pp. 113-122, illus., graph data, bibl. of 10 items.
THEODORSEN, THEODORE, and FREEMAN, IRA M . T h e elimination of fire hazard due to
back fires. Report 409 in NACA, 18th Annual Report, 1932 (1933), p p . 211-217,
illus., graph data, bibl. of 10 items.
M C A V O Y , WILLIAM H., SCHEY, OSCAR W., and YOUNG, ALFRED W. T h e effect on airplane
performance of the factors that must be considered in applying low-drag cowling

129
to radial engines. Report 414 in NACA, 18th Annual Report, 1932 (1933), p p .
259-275, many photos and diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 10 items. Tests
using a Curtiss X F 7 C - 1 ; discussion of other types.
WOOD, DONALD H . Tests of nacelle-propeller combinations in various positions with
reference to wings: Thick wing, N.A.C.A. cowled nacelle, tractor propeller. Re-
ports 415 and 436 in NACA, 18th Annual Report, 1932 (1933), pp. 277-304, 6 5 3 -
692, illus., diagrs., extensive graph and tab. data., bibl. of 5 items.
LEE, DANA W. T h e effect of nozzle design and operating conditions on the. atomization
and distribution of fuel sprays. Report 425 in NACA, 18th Annual Report, 1932
(1933), pp. 505-521, diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 20 items.
ROTHROCK, A. M . T h e N.A.C.A. apparatus for studying the formation and combustion
of fuel sprays and the results from preliminary tests. Report 429 in NACA, 18th
Annual Report, 1932 (1933), pp. 549-565, illus., diagrs., drgs., graph and tab. data,
bibl. of 19 items. This apparatus provides a wealth of basic information regarding
injection and combustion in diesel engines. See NACA Index for the large number
of test results obtained with it.
GELALLES, A. G., and MARSH, E. T . Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of
fuel-ignition systems for internal-combustion engines. Report 433 in NACA, 18th
Annual Report, 1932 (1933), pp. 607-619, diagrs., graph data, bibl. of 10 items.
ROTHROCK, A. M., and WALDRON, C. D. Fuel vaporization and its effect on combustion
in a high-speed compression-ignition engine. Report 435 in NACA, 18th Annual
Report, 1932 (1933), pp. 629-651, illus., drg., graph data, bibl. of 14 items.
LEE, DANA W. Experiments on the distribution of fuel in fuel sprays. Report 438 in
NACA, 18th Annual Report, 1932 (1933), pp. 703-717, illus., bibl. of 10 items.
CASTLEMAN, R. A., J R . T h e mechanism of atomization accompanying solid injection.
Report 440 in NACA, 18th Annual Report, 1932 (1933), pp. 735-744, illus., bibl. of
22 items.

19th Annual Report, 1933


LEE, DANA W., and SPENCER, ROBERT C. Photomicrographic studies of fuel sprays.
Report 454 in NACA, 19th Annual Report, 1933 (1934), pp. 215-239, illus., bibl. of
12 items.
ROTHROCK, A. M., and MARSH, E. T. Penetration and duration of fuel sprays from a
pump injection system. Report 455 in NACA, 19th Annual Report, 1933 (1934),
pp. 241-248, illus., graph data, bibl. of 5 items.
SONTAG, HARCOURT, and BROMBACHER, W. G. Aircraft power plant instruments. Report
466 in NACA, 19th Annual Report, 1933 (1934), pp. 447-499, numerous photos,
drgs., and diagrs., bibl. of 59 items.
SPANOGLE, J . A., HICKS, C. W., and FOSTER, H. H. Increasing the air charge and
scavenging the clearance volume of a compression-ignition engine. Report 469
in NACA, 19th Annual Report, 1933 (1934), pp. 525-534. diagrs., graph data,
bibl. of 11 items.
SCHEY, OSCAR W., and YOUNG, ALFRED W. Performance of a fuel-injection, spark-
ignition engine, using a hydrogenated safety fuel. Report 471 in NACA, 19th
Annual Report, 1933 (1934), pp. 557-565, diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 5
items.

130
20th Annual Report, 1934
GERRISH, HAROLD C , and TESSMANN, ARTHUR M. Relation of hydrogen and methane
to carbon monoxide in exhaust gases from internal combustion engines. Report
476 in NACA, 20th Annual Report, 1934 (1935), pp. 53-61, graph data, bibl. of 23
items.
ROTHROCK, A. M., and MARSH, E. G. Effect of viscosity on fuel leakage between lapped
plungers and sleeves, and on the discharge from a pump-injection system. Report
477 in NACA, 20th Annual Report, 1934 (1935), pp. 63-77, diagrs., graph and tab.
data, bibl. of 8 items.
, and SPENCER, R. C. Effect of moderate air flow on the distribution of fuel sprays
after injection cut-off. Report 483 in NACA, 20th Annual Report, 1934 (1935),
pp. 163-183, illus., graph data, bibl. of 17 items.
MARVIN, CHARLES F., J R . , CALDWELL, FRANK R., and STEELE, SYDNEY. Infra-red
radiation from explosions in a spark-ignition engine. Report 486 in NACA,
20th Annual Report, 1934 (1935), pp. 223-234, diagrs., graph data, bibl. of 23 items.
BIERMANN, ARNOLD E., and PINKEL, BENJAMIN. Heat transfer from finned metal cylinders
in an air stream. Report 488 in NACA, 20th Annual Report, 1934 (1935), pp. 2 5 1 -
270, illus., extensive graph data, bibl. of 18 items.
THEODORSEN, THEODORE, and GALALLES, A. G. Vibration response of airplane structures.
Report 491 in NACA, 20th Annual Report, 1934 (1935), pp. 319-337, illus., diagrs.,
graph and tab. data, bibl. of 6 items. Curtiss P W - 9 and Consolidated N2Y
biplanes were used in the tests.
DRAPER, C. S. T h e physical effects of detonation in a closed cylindrical chamber. Report
493 in NACA, 20th Annual Report, 1934 (1935), pp. 361-379, diagrs., graph data,
bibl. of 20 items. Pioneer basic research at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
on the phenomenon of detonation in spark-ignition engines.
SPANOGLE, J . A., and WHITNEY, E. G. A description and test results of a spark-ignition
and a compression-ignition 2-stroke-cycle engine. Report 495 in NACA, 20th
Annual Report, 1934 (1935), pp. 395-411, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data, bibl. of
6 items. Single-cylinder comparative tests.
CLAY, WILLIAM C. Improved airplane windshields to provide vision in stormy weather.
Report 498 in NACA, 20th Annual Report, 1934 (1935), pp. 445-461, illus., drgs.,
diagrs., bibl. of 5 items.

21st Annual Report, 1935


SCHEY, OSCAR W., and ROLLIN, VERN G. T h e effect of baffles on the temperature distribu-
tion and heat-transfer coefficients of finned cylinders. Report 511 in NACA,
21st Annual Report, 1935 (1936), pp. 111-123, drgs., diagrs., bibl. of 5 items.
ROTHROCK, A. M., and COHN, MILDRED. Some factors affecting combustion in an
internal-combustion engine. Report 512 in NACA, 21st Annual Report, 1935
(1936), pp. 125-141, graph and tab. data, bibl. of 15 items.
LEE, DANA, W. A comparison of fuel sprays from several types of injection nozzles.
Report 520 in NACA, 21st Annual Report, 1935 (1936), pp. 251-288, extensive series
of photos and diagrs., bibl. of 35 items.

131
ROTHROCK, A. M., and WALDRON, C. D. Some effects of injection advance angle, engine
jacket temperature, and speed on combustion in a compression-ignition engine.
Report 525 in NACA, 21st Annual Report, 1935 (1936), pp. 343-357, illus., diagrs.,
graph data, bibl. of 13 items.
FIOCK, ERNEST F., and KING, H. KENDALL. T h e effect of water vapor on flame velocity
in equivalent C O - O z mixtures. Report 531 in NACA, 21st Annual Report, 1935
(1936), pp. 445-450, bibl. of 4 items.
— , and ROEDER, Carl H. T h e soap-bubble method of studying the combustion of
mixtures of C O and 0 2 . Report 532 in NACA, 21st Annual Report, 1935 (1936),
pp. 451-464, illus., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 4 items.
ROTHROCK, A. M., and MARSH, E. T. Distribution and regularity of injection from a
multi-cylinder fuel-injection pump. Report 533 in NACA, 21st Annual Report,
1935 (1936), pp. 465-476, drgs., diagrs., graph data, bibl. of 10 items.
GERRISH, HAROLD C , and FOSTER, HAMPTON H. Hydrogen as an auxiliary fuel in com-
pression-ignition engines. Report 535 in NACA, 21st Annual Report, 7935(1936),
pp. 495-510, illus., drgs., graph data, bibl. of 8 items.
22nd Annual Report, 1936
COHN, MILDREN, and SPENCER, ROBERT C. Combustion in a bomb with a fuel-injection
system. Report 544 in NACA, 22nd Annual Report, 1936 (1937), pp. 107-118, illus.,
diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 19 items.
ROTHROCK, A. M., and WALDRON, C. D. Effects of air-fuel ratio on fuel spray and
flame formation in a compression-ignition engine. Report 545 in NACA, 22nd
Annual Report, 1936 (1937), pp. 119-127, illus., diagrs., graph data, bibl. of 9 items.
SCHEY, OSCAR W., and ROLLIN, VERN G. Cooling characteristics of a 2-row radial engine.
Report 550 in NACA, 22nd Annual Report, 1936 (1937), pp. 177-186, illus., diagrs.,
graph data, bibl. of 3 items.
FIOCK, ERNEST F., and ROEDER, CARL H. Some effects of argon and helium upon ex-
plosions of carbon monoxide and oxygen. Report 553 in NACA, 22nd Annual
Report, 1936 (1937), pp. 213-222, graph data, bibl. of 4 items.
BREVOORT, M . J., and ROLLIN, VERN G. Air flow around finned cylinders. Report
555 in NACA, 22nd Annual Report, 1936 (1937), p p 237-249, illus., drgs., graph and
tab. data, bibl. of 10 items.
MARVIN, CHARLES F., J R . , WHARTON, ARMISTEAD, and ROEDER, CARL H. Further
studies of flame movement and pressure development in an engine cylinder. Report
556 in NACA, 22nd Annual Report, 1936 (1937), pp. 251-263, illus., diagrs., graph
data, bibl. of 11 items.
ROTHROCK, A. M., and WALDRON, C. D. Effect of nozzle design on fuel spray and flame
formation in a high-speed compression-ignition engine. Report 561 in NACA,
22nd Annual Report, 1936 (1937), pp. 327-338, illus., diagrs,, graph data, bibl. of
12 items.
LEE, DANA W. Measurements of fuel distribution within sprays for fuel-injection
engines. Report 565 in NACA, 22nd Annual Report, 1936 (1937), pp. 389-403,
diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 13 items.
FOSTER, H. H. T h e quiescent-chamber type compression-ignition engine. Report 568
in NACA, 22nd Annual Report, 1936 (1937), pp. 429-448, illus., drgs., diagrs.,
graph and tab. data, bibl. of 16 items.

132
23rd Annual Report, 1937
M O O R E , CHARLES S., and COLLINS, J O H N H., J R . Pre-chamber compression-ignition en-
gine performance. Report 577 in NACA, 23rd Annual Report, 1937 (1938), pp. 49-68,
graph and tab. data, bibl. of 18 items.
SELDEN, ROBERT F., and SPENCER, ROBERT C. Heat transfer to fuel sprays into heated
gases. Report 580 in NACA, 23rd Annual Report, 1937 (1938), pp. 91-107, illus.,
diagrs., extensive graph and tab. data, bibl. of 30 items.
SCHEY, OSCAR W., and ELLERBROCK, HERMAN H., J R . Blower cooling of finned cylinders.
Report 587 in NACA, 23rd Annual Report, 1937 (1938), pp. 269-280, drgs., diagr.,
graph and tab. data, bibl. of 8 items.
ROTHROCK, A. M., and WALDRON, C. D. Fuel spray and flame formation in a compression-
ignition engine employing air flow. Report 588 in NACA, 23rd Annual Report,
1937 (1938), p p . 281-295, illus., drgs., diagrs., bibl. of 14 items.
THEODORSEN, THEODORE, BREVOORT, M . J., and STICKLE, GEORGE W . Full-scale tests of
N.A.C.A. cowlings. Report 592 in NACA, 23rd Annual Report, 1937 (1938),
pp. 361-390, illus., diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 10 items.
, , and Cooling of airplane engines at low air speeds. Report
593 in NACA, 23rd Annual Report, 1937 (1938), p p . 391-400, illus., diagrs., graph
and tab. data, bibl. of 3 items.
, , , and GOUGH, M . N . Full-scale tests of a new type in N.A.C.A.
nose-slot cowling. Report 595 in NACA, 23rd Annual Report, 1937 (1938), p p .
439-447, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 3 items. Airplane used
was a Curtiss B F C - l fighter with a Wright SGR-1510 twin-row, 14-cylinder
engine.
BREVOORT, M . J., STICKLE, GEORGE W., and ELLERBROCK, HERMAN H., J R . Cooling
tests of a single-row radial engine with several N.A.C.A. cowlings. Report 596
in NACA, 23rd Annual Report, 1937 (1938), p p . 449-458, illus., diagrs., graph and
tab. data, bibl. of 6 items.

24th Annual Report, 1938


PINKEL, BENJAMIN. Heat-transfer processes in air-cooled engine cylinders. Report 612
in NACA, 24th Annual Report, 1938 (1939), p p . 49-64, diagrs., graph data, bibl. of 7
items.
GERRISH, HAROLD C , and Voss, FRED. Inter-relation of exhaust-gas constituents.
Report 616 in NACA, 24th Annual Report, 1938 (1939), pp. 139-146, graph data,
bibl. of 9 items.
SELDEN, ROBERT F. Auto-ignition and combustion of diesel fuel in a constant-volume
bomb. Report 617 in NACA, 24th Annual Report, 1938 (1939), p p . 147-159,
illus., drgs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 30 items.
ROTHROCK, A. M., and SPENCER, R. C. A photographic study of combustion and knock
in a spark-ignition engine. Report 622 in NACA, 24th Annual Report, 1938 (1939),
pp. 213-233, many photos, diagrs., bibl. of 22 items. Based on very high speed
moving pictures through transparent windows in cylinder head. A pioneering work.

25th Annual Report, 1939


SCHEY, OSCAR W., PINKEL, BENJAMIN, and ELLERBROCK, HERMAN H., J R . Correction of
temperatures of air-cooled engine cylinders for variation in engine and cooling

133
conditions. Report 645 in NACA, 25th Annual Report, 1939 (1940), pp. 49-72,
illus., diagrs., graph and tab. data, bibl. of 7 items.
LEE, DANA W. A study of air flow in an engine cylinder. Report 653 in NACA, 25th
Annual Report, 1939 (1940), pp. 227-239, illus., drgs., diagrs., graph data, bibl. of
3 items.
ROTHROCK, A. M., and BIERMANN, ARNOLD E. T h e knocking characteristics of fuels in
relation to maximum permissible performance of aircraft engines. Report 655
in NACA, 25th Annual Report, 1939 (1940), p p . 267-288, graph data, bibl. of 20
items. Important contribution.
, and SPENCER, R. C. T h e influence of directed air flow on combustion in a
spark-ignition engine. Report 657 in NACA, 25th Annual Report, 1939 (1940),
pp. 313-326, illus., diagrs., bibl. of 15 items.
STICKLE, GEORGE W. Design of N.A.C.A. cowlings for radial air-cooled engines.
Report 662 in NACA, 25th Annual Report, 1939 (1940), pp. 383-393, illus., drgs.,
diagrs., bibl. of 8 items,

134
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1970 0-31S-338
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