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i\ i\l;\NUr\1, C F l i 'i ';\i '{l )r\IIU IZU D -i '81(f'l l N Ot,OC Y , 'fL'C l l l i '{IQU E S

AND SCCIIIN G S Y S 'II'T1 FOII S I,D IP S 'I)\C E S OF'IIU [1.\N S U IJJE C l S

Al l an Il ec hLs c hr ffen ar r d Anl honv Kal c s . ti tl i tor s

Ilr r i n l r r for ur ;r ti on Sc r v l c c ,/tJ r el n Il .es ea r c h l r r s l i tutc

U i r i v er s l l y oI C al i l or ni a

Los .,l ngei c s , C al i [or r r l a 90024

1968
R epri rrtcd l 97l
R eprl ntcd l !?:J

' llte IJr air t Ir tfor nr atlon Ser l 'l c e l s par l of l l r e N Il i l ) S N c ur ol ogi c l r l Infol r r r i r tl on N c Lr v or k
I

B R A IN IN ITORMA Tl ON S E IIV IC E

Ttre N atl onal l nsti tul e oI N eurol ogi cal D l seas es and B [i ndnes s , i n an el fort
to rel nforce and extend meal s of dl sseml natl ng { i ndi ngs atrd c onc epLsl n tl re
basl c neurol ogi cal scl ences, recentl y provl ded the means for the es tabl l s hment
of a D ral n Inl ormatl on servi ce at ttre uni versl ty of c al l forni a, I-os A ngel es ,
under contract D l l E w P IJ-43-66-59. It l s cMrged w l th the tas k of enc ouragi ng
the preparatl on of authorl tati ve summarl es of the s tate of l now l edge l n v ari ous
aspects of the basl c neurol og-i cal scl ences. One method of aftal nl ng thl s end l s
to brl ng together a gToup of l eacl i ng l nvesti gators l n a s pec l l i c res earc tr Il el d
i n i he hope that out of thetr dl scussl ons some tJ egree of agreement may emerge'
w hl ch car then be made know n to the scl endfl c publ i c . The pres ent Manual
orl gl nated l n such a meetl ng, ti re pl aml ng and c onduc t of w hi c h w e ow e
prl ncl pal l y to D rs, R echLschaffen and K al es. W e w i s h to ac l c row l edgeaLs o
the assi stance of carol Frumkes and Jul i ette v anc e l n the arrangement ot l he
conference and i n the preparatl on of thi s manu s eri pt.

V i c tor E . l l al l
P rofes s or of P hl s i ol ogY nnd
P ri nc i pal , B rai n l nformal i on
S erv i c e

C i l aLi on fornr: R eci tschdffen, A . and K al es , A . (E ds . ) ,


A l,lanual of Standardized TerninoloET,
Techni qttes and S ccri ng S y s ter for S l eep
S tages of H umanS i bj ec ts . B Is /B ru,
U C LA , Los A ngel es, ] 968.

IPr i nted i n l 96B as N Il l Publ i c ati on f 2 0 4 ; R e p ri n t e d by


the Br ai n Infor m aEi on Ser v i c e/Br ai !) R e s e a rc h I n s t i t u t e ,
l 97I; l 97l J
F o r c*' o r d

' f h e I n a u g u r a l [ l e etln g o I th e Ässo cla tlo n fo r th e Psychophysl ol ogl cal l ,arvrence J. i \'[onroe, P h. D , , D ep artment of P ay c hol ogy , U nl v ers l ty
S t udy o f S l e e p ( A P S S ) wa s co n ve n e d ln 1 9 6 0 [o r th e p u r l>osc oI adopl i ng a oI Il l l nol s C otl ege of ]\{edi cl ne , C tri c ago, l l l i nol e.
eLand a r de c o r l n g s y r t c m lo r sta g e s o f sle e p . ' fh e o p p o r tunl ty to dl scuss
ex per l r n e n L a l r e s u l t e d lve r te d th e se ch a r te r In e tn b e r g fr om thel r orl gi nal Ian Osw al d, i ![. D ., D epnrIment of P s y c ]rl atry , U nl v ers l l y of
purpo s e a n d , l n s t e a d , th e y d e cid e d to m e e t a n n u a lly th e reafl er to communl - E di nburgh, E di nburgh, S cotl i :Lnd.
c at e th e l r l a t e s t r e s e a r ch fln d ln g s..
A Il an l l echtschaIIen, P h.D ., D epartnrenLs of P s y c hl atry and
T ' i r e n e e d f o r a o t an d a r d a co lln g syBL e m r va s r e e n tp ltasl zed by l vtonroe'8 P sychol ogy, U ni versl ty ot C i l c ago, C hl c ago, Il U nol s .
at udy ( 1 9 6 ? ) w l r l c h r e ve r le d e cr lo u s u n r e lla b illty ln th e scorl ng oI cer-tal n
aleep e t a g e s . C o n c e r n o ve r lh lo u n r e lla b lllty lcd lo lh c l rtcl usl on of a specl al Il orvarrl P . R oIfrvarg, l vl . D ., A l bert trl ns tel n I\l c dl c al C entc r,
s es glo n o n e c o r l n g a t t h e Se vcn th r \n n u a l lle e tln g o { APSS hekl tl ut year. Ivl ontcfl ore l {ospttal , The IJro nx , N ew Y ork .
S ubs e q u e n t l y , a n a d h o c co m m lttce o f ln ve stlg a to r s wa s Iormed urtder the
aus pl c e a o t t h e U C L Ä B r a ltr ln fo r m a tlo n Se r vlce to d e ve lop a terrni nol ogy and Ikdrl ch R oth, M. D . , D epartment oI N eurol ogy , C harl es U nl v c rs tty
s c orln g B y B t e m t h a t m l g h t b e u se d u n lve r sa lly b y sle e p r c searcl ters, 'fhe Irl edl cal Facul ty, P rague, C zec hos l ov al da.
Com m l t t e e m e m b e r s m e t o n e e ve r a l e e p a r a te o cca slo n s and corresponded
ex t ene l v e l y l n t h e I n t e r ve n ln g p e r lo d s. ' I' h e Co m m ltto e was composed of the R l charcl D . w al ter, l vl . D , , D l vtsl o rr of N eurol ogy , D epartmc nt of
f ollow t n g m e m b e r s , a ll o ( wh o r n h a d co n sld e r a b le e xp e r lence i rt scorl ng sl eep fr{edi ci ne, U nl versi ty of C l Ll fo rnl a S c hool of l \[edtc l ne, Los
re c o rd e : ' A ngel es, C al l [orni a.

ll a l p h J . I l e r g e r , Ph .D., De p a r tm e n t o f Psych o lo g y , C row n C ol l egc, Thl s proposal w as prcpared by thc C ornml ttee w l Lh the c x pec taLl on that
U n l v e r o l l y o f Ca lifo r n la , Sa n ta Cr u z, Ca lllo r n la. the standardi zati on of recordi ng techn l quee and ec orl ng c rl terl a w oul d be
w l del y used and w oul cl markedl y l ncreas e the c omparabl l l ty of reeul tl
W t l l l a m C . D e m e n t, lvI.D., De p a r tm e n t o f Psych la try, S tanford reported by di fferent l nvcsti gal ors. A n ev al uati orr of how muc h euc h
U n l v e r o l t y S ch o o l o f lvle d lcln e , Pa lo Alto , Ca lllornl a' sl andardl zatl on contri butes to rel i abtl i ty o{ s c ori ng w i l l hav e to aw al t the
devel opment ol experl ence w l th l he sys tc m ard empl rl c al teetl ng.
A l l a n J a c o b a o n , M.D,, De p a r tm e n t o I An a lo m y, Un Ivcrsl ty oI
C a l l f o r n l a S c h o o l o I lvte d lcln e , l,o s An g e le s, Cal l fornl a.
A l l an R ec hts c hal fen and
A nthony K al es , C o-C l L1{ rmen
l,a v e r n e C . J o h n e o n , Ph . D., Na vy l\{ e d lca l Ne u r o p sychl atrl c
l l e s e a r c h U n l t, U.S. Na va l Ilo sp lL a l, Sa r Dle g o, C al l [ornl a.

M t c h e l J o u v e t , M . D. , l,a b o r a to lr e d e Nl6 d e cln e Experl mcnl al e,


F a c u l t 6 d e l t öd e cln e , L yo n , F r a n ce .

A n t h o n y K a l e s , M ,D., De p &r tm e n t o f Psyclila tr y, Ul rl vere tty o{


C a l l l o r n l a S c ho o l o f lvle d lcln e , L o e Ätr g e le s, CaLl fornl a.
fl '"-
.d

{ -

unl que featurcs of l hc phcnornena. For ex ampl e, l t l s rv ei l } qtotv ntl nt human


l nfanl s show combl natl ons of pol yn^ .phi c Ieatures w hl c h dc fy c l as s i fl c atl on by
the cri teri a proposed here. A strl ct adhc renc e to the propos ed s y s tem w oul d
not yi el d an adequate descri pti on of i nj ant s l eep.

T O P n O V I D E CONT T NttIl' Y r vlth ln lh e vcr y e xtensl vc researcl t on sl eep Terml nol otry
st a g c s r v h l c h h . e sbe cn p u b llsh e d ir r th e la st d e ca d t:, l t \vas the gul di ng prl ncl pl e E E C 'ferms
o ( t h e C o r n m l R c e to r e ta in , a s m u ch a s p o sslb lc, the termi nol ogy and crl terti r
w h l c h l r a v e h a d ( h e g r e a te sl u sc. In d e e d , lt [s te stlmony to thc accuracy and I'or the dcsi grl atl on of specl i l c E IG phenomena, the propos al of t]re
Ju d g r n c n t o f D e r n e n t a n d l( le itr n a n ( 1 9 5 ? ) r tb a t tlr e ll dcscrl ptl on of sl eep skrges 'Ierrnl nol ogy C ornrnl ttee oI the Internatl ohal Federatl on for E l ec troenc eph-
h a s p t o v c n u s e f u l ln a d e ca d c o f vo lu m ln o u s r e se lr clt by hurdrcds of l nvestl - al ography and C l i ni cal N europhysi o l ogy (13raz l er, C obb, Fl s c hgol d, Gas taut,
g a t o r € w l t l l o u t r e q u lr ln g m a lo r m o d lflcxtio n . In g e neral , the prescnt proposal C l oor, Il css, Jasper, l rceb, Irl agntu, P ampl gl i one, R emond, S torm v an
r e p r e s e n t s a r e a f flr r n a tlo n o f th e lr o r lg ln a l cr lte r ia f<l r the parLl tl on of sl ecp l ,eeurvcn and \V al ter, 196I) i s atJop[edex c ept w here s p€c l fl c al l y noted.
in t o s t a g e s , c o m bln e d wlL h tlr e r e vlslo u - s a n d e la b o r atl orrs w hl ch Inust l nevi l abl y S tmi l arl y, the Tcn Tvcnty E l ectrod e S y s tem o[ thc Inl ernatl onal Fedc raüon
( o l l o w t e n y e a r s o f e xp € r le n ce wlth th e lr syste r n .
(Jasper, 1958) l s adopted for desl g natl on of el ec trode pLac ements ,

R e s e a r c h u t l l lzln g th e De m e n l- l( le ltm a n cr lte r la for scorl ng sl ecp stagea S taK es


h e s I l r n r l y e s [ a b l lsh e d th e fa ct, Ilr st n o te d b y lo ornl s, Il arveyand l l obart
( 1 9 3 ? ) , t t L l r t e l e e p le n o t a ste a d y sla te a n d lh a t tl l e sl eep stages fol l orv a
A more detatl ed dl scusel on of sc orl ng c r.l l erl a w i l l be preoented l ater;
f a l r l y o r r J e r l y c y c llc p a tte r n . wb lle lcn o wle d g c o f thc stgnl fi cance of each for purposes of prel l mi nary l dentl flc atl on, the s tages ard thei r mos t prom-
s t a g e o I o l e e p l s ln co m p le te , e p e ciflc p ltyslo lo g ica l and behavi oral correl al es l nent features are:
o f t h e v a r l o u s s t a g e s h a ve b e e n fo u n d . T h e se a nd other correl atri s may
e v e n t u a l l y p r o v l d e m o r e m e a n in g lu l d e scr ip tlo n s of sl eep than the stages . S tage W (rvakeful ness) - 1'he EE C c onLal ns al pha ac tl v l ty and/or l ow
d c s c r l b e d l n ( h e f ollo r vln g se ctlo n r vh lch e n r p lta o izcs the E E C charrgee. vol Lage, ml xed frequcncy a c tl v i ty .

I{ovemcnt 1'1me (l \IT) - S col i ng epoc h durl ng w } i l c h the pol y graph


T h 6 t e r r n l n o l o g y a n d sco r ln g s) € te r u t p r o t) o se d l l ere arc not Intended as rccord l s obscured by rnov c menl .soI the s ubJ ec t.
re s t r l c t l o n s u p o n th e r e se a r ch e r wh o h :r s su b sta .ntl vc rcaso{ri r for usl ng
d l { I e r e n t t e r m s a n d cr lte r la . llo we vcr , lt ls str ongl y rccornrnended that S tage I - A rel ati vel y l orv vol ta ge, rnl x ed Irequenc y E E C w i thout
d e p a r t u r e s f r o m t h e g e te r m s a n d cr lte r la e h o u ld b e specl fl cd. S uch spcl fi - rapl d cye movernents (l tE M s ).
c n t l o n w o u l d a l d l n co r n p a r ln g th c r e su lts ln d llfe r e nt studl es. S tage 2 - I2-1.1 cycl es per seco nd (c ps ) s l eep s pl ndl es :i nd l (
compl exes on a backgroun d of rel atl v el y l ow v ol tagc , rnl x ed
A l t h o u g h t h e r e ls co m ld e r a b lc co r n p a r a b lllty o ( sl eep 6tage mani festa-
Irequency E E C acti vi ty.
t l o n s a m o n g v a r l o u s Bp € cle s, th e d lf( e r e n ce s a r e a ul fl ci enl l y great to requl re
a s e p a r a t e s c o r l n g s) € te m Io r m o st sp € cle s. T tr ls proposal l s desl gned {or S tage 3 - i y'l oderatesmounLs of i l gh ampl i tude, s l ow w av e ac tl v l ty .
a d u l t h u m a n s . E ve n a m o n g h u m a n su b Je cls, h o we ver, thcre r.re some l ndl -
S l age 4 - hl ge amoul ts of hi gh arnpl l tude, s l ow w av e ac ti v l ty .
v l d u a l s o r g r o u p € wh o se p o lyg r a p h r e co r d ln g s r n a y requl re further descrl pti on
o r e l a b o r a t l o n t b a n th a t p r o vld e d b y th e sta g e s p r o p osed herc. l n guch i n- S tagc N IIE I{ (non-R E i l l ) - S tag es l , 2, 3, and ,l c ombl ned.
st a n c e s , t h e e x l s te n ce o f e sta b llsh e d ca te g o r le s d o c e not free the l nvestl gator
S tage IIE N I - A rel ati vel y l orv v ol tage, ml x ed frc quenc y E E G l n
f r o m t i r e l a s k o f d e vlsln g a d e scr lp tlve s1 ttcm wh lch bettcr conrmul -l cates the
conJuncti on w 4ti repi sodl c IiE l v { s and l ow arnpLl tudeel ec tro-
myogram (E Mc).

^ T h e o e a co ri n g c r iter ta uer e f\tr Llr er eLabor uted by H .C , D em ent i t a


n a n u a l p re a e n te d Co üts Al' SS ncetir w itr 1' J62.
it
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:l
It ls r cco n r nrended tl urt the above B tagc desi gnatl ons be used i nsl ead of c x c ept l ns ol ar as c ertni n c ri ti c aI ty > es of ac l l v l ty , 1.e., al pha, v ertex
o th e r te r tn c. Some of tl rc tcrms w hl ch have been previ ousl l 'used and vrhl cl ,. s harp w av es , s l eep s pi ndl es , l ( c ompl ex es , and del La w av es arc adc quatul y
a r c n o lo n g e L co ns{dcl ed desl rabl e al e: regl s tc red. Furthc r, thc u4de us e of el ght c l ürutel el ec troc rrc ephal ographs
a nd a des l re (o max i mi z e data ac qui el tl on by runnl ng tw o s ul J J ec ts on eac h
F o t' Sta g e 1 : descendl ng S tage I, sl cep onset l , purc l , transl tl onal mi rc hi ne often l i mi ts thr. c hannc l s of l nformatl on Irorn c ac h aubJ ec t to (our.
slu e p , drow oy el eep, l ow vol urgc-fasl , S tage Il . For reas ons to be el aboratc d i n a l ater B ec tl on, tw o ey c mov emeni c harurel s
a nd one E [{ G c hannel arc c ons l dered ml nl mal ; E E G l nformatl on w oul d
I' o r Sta g e 2 : opl ndl e el eep, S l age C , l l ght el eep. a c c ortl i ngl y be Ll mi ted to one c hannel . It l s therefore nec es s ary to s pec l [y
the s i ngl c opti mal E E G deri v atl on w hl c h c an be c onJ l dc ntl y rec omrnenderl
F o r Sla g e 3 s nd/or S tege .l : trarrsl ti onal 6l eep, dcl ti l sl eep, 6l ow 6l eep, for s c ori ng s l eep otagc s unl c s s therc are c ompel l l ng rc naons Ior dol ng
Blo r v r vavc al cep, l l ght sl eep, deep sl eep, qui et sl eep, ol thosl cep, o l l l e rw i s e .
:A te lcn ccphal i c sl ccp, S tages D and E .
l W hc rr IE C l n[orrnatl on l s l i nrl ted to one derl v ati on. thc rec ornmended
T de rl v :rfl on l s C .l /A r or C 3/A z (t' tg. l ). E l th{ j r urc rl gl rr or l c ft s l di may be
;i F o r Sta g e IlE l rl : pl radoxi cal sl ccp, rhornbencephal i c sl ecp, S tage 1-
,a u s c d, s i nc e thu E E G pattc rns from homol ogous aroas arc gc neral l y s ;.nc hro-
IIEI\1 , a cti vatcd sl cep, fast ol ecp, l orv vol tage-Iast sl ecp, decp
,{ Ble e p , llght sl ecp, dcs;nchrorri zctl sl cep, D -statc, archi sl cep.
nous .
.d
p a r a o le ep, umcrgent S Li tgeI, ascendi ng S tagc I, S l agc 5.
J S l eep s pi ndl c s , K c ompl c x es , and v ertex s i rarp rv av es are c l c arl )'
Alth o r r g lr th c l rl rl sl ol ogl ci rl corrcl i rLus of bcl urvi oral sl cri p rumal n a con- re c orded from thc C 3 or C 4 pl ac emc nts , and hl gh v ol tage s l ow w av c s s l l ow
tln u ln g r csca r ch l saue, gcneral l y, sl eop has been pol l ,graphi cal l y defi ncd by mi L\i rnal or nc arl y ma.ri mal ampl i tude i f the referent max l ml z es l nl erc l c c -
Sta g cs 1 , 2 ,3 , ' 1, antl l l D l \1. 'I'he earrrc rvorhl ng defl ni ti on i s uerl herc. tr ode di s tanc c . A l though al pha rhy thrn i s bettc r rec orded Irom oc c i pi tel
areas , l l rc rc i s adequatc rc gi s trati on at C 3 or C 4 to permi t a prec l s e ev al -
Technl cl ucs ual i on o[ s l c ep ons c t ac c orrJ i ng to E E G c ri teri a.

As th e q u a llty and cl vrracteri sl i cs o( a pol ygraph traci ng depend ut)on the 1' l tc oppos i te ear or l nas l oi d (A l . A 2) i s prefc rrc d ov er s c al l r re[erenLs
te ch n lq u e s u se d , tl rc dcsl gnati on of crl tcri a for scori ng sl i l gcs oI sl ccp and bec aus e l hc c ar or mas toi (l 1:l ac c rnc nI i s al s o us c d ars Ihe rc c ommonded
wa kclu ln e ss lvo u ld be usel cgs w l thout B ol no B l andardi zatl on of tc'cl ul i que. rcfc rc nc e for c l c c Irodes l .l tat rc c ord c ),e mov c menl " l rotc nti al s . l n addi ti on.
tu s e oI thc ear or rnas l oi c l rc l erc nc c rni l x l mi z es l n[erel ec trodc c i i s tanc c and
EEC llcco r r lin 1 1 av oi ds mi x i ng ac ti v i tr frorn trv o di I(erc nl s c al p areas .

A m ln lm u m papcr speed oI 10 mnr/sec l s recommetrdcd as tl re sl orvest The adv anLagc s oI s tandrrdi z ati on fl re obv l ous . Lr t]rc c ol l ec ti v c ex per-
wh lch will p e r r n .l t cl ear vi sual resol uti on of al pha ancl sl cep spi ndl e Iretl uettcy. i e nc o o[ the C omnri ttec . s l eel ) s l .l l gus nrl r' l tc adc c l u;rtc l y s c orc c .l us l rrg !J E C
T ir r lc co n stjr n ts shortcr tl urrr 0.3 scc shoul tl not be Lrsed. S cl ecl .i vc fi l te ri ng i n forrrrati on obtai l rc ' d Irorn tl rc re c ornrnc ndc d del i v ati on. II mul ti p)c c hennel s
b e lo r v 2 0 cp s e lr oul d l :e rcportcd. A ml ni mal pcn defl ccl "i on of ?.5-i 0 mrn for oi E D C i nl ormal i on c an l ;c rc c ordc d, and s l .rc c i al s ttrdi c s mek c addi tl on;rl
5 0 m icr o vo l!s ( p V ) l s rccornrnendetJ;otl rcrsi sc l ow i rmpl i l .ude sl ucp sl l i ndl es de ri v ati ons dc s i r:rt:l c . the res ul l s Irom thc addl tl orral pl ac ernents s houl tj bc
m a y e sca p c d e tccl l on. E l cctl ode l esi stl nccs shoul d not cxcecd l 0l { ol rms aI comp:rrc d w i tl l thc res ul ts Irorn C 3/A 2 l or U /A l l and s ubs tenti a] < j l ffc renc es
tlr e b cg ln n ir r g o f t hc recordi rrg. rcportc d i f thc y c .\i s t. 1' l rerc i s no probl c m rc gardl ng Interl l boratory c ompf,-
r:rbi l i ty i n s c ori ng w l rc n nrul ti pl c E D G c l nnnc l s are av al l abl c . s l nc c C 4/A l
(o r C J /A 2) w i l l al * a1s be l nc l uded i n tl )c array . IIow ev er, w hen onl ; one
EEC l) a lte [n s, antl thel c(ore tho scol i ng oI sl ages, nl ay vi l ry accordl ng
!o p lr ccr n cn t a n d durl vati on. l deal l y, a stat)(l l fd array l ni gl )[ i ncl ude a l argc clurnrrc l i s rc c or-detJ . pres urnc d adv rnk rgc s of other pl c c ernents mus t. bc
n u r n b cr o f Ir la ce nrcnts rvhi ch rvoul d yl cl tJ cotrtpl ehcnsi vc regi onrtl i trforrnl ti on. cat' e[ul l y rv ei ghed agi l l ns t tl rc obv i ous adv antagc s oI a s l andal d E E G tec l uri quc
l[o wr :vt:r , r cg ir :n al di l fc:'errccs are not cri ti :l l Ior l i re scc,r'j i r.goI sl cr:p stl tgcs,
** *-*
1
;
3 l:
I

+ ' fllE E ec ci l l TE l l tA us e of a
whic h I n a x l m l z e s c o n r p Rr a b illty a n d r cp licll.r ility. movernetrts. such di ffer:entl atl on can be ac c ompl l s hed rv l th the I
I
Sllo u L D AI,\\,AYS 1 ]t] I]Ä S t]D oN TILA C IN C .S w hl cl t produces ln-phas e dc fl c c tl ons on the t\v o .l
F oR S C o T N G S L E E P ST ^ CES supranasl on reference' 'l
of these ei ec- thes e v c rtl c al
oI t T A I N E D F n O M C 4 / Äl OII C3 ,/A2 . A sch e tn a tlc illu str ati on recor,l i ng channel s fol verti C al eye movel nenLs ' l l ow ev er'
I

i
us e of a s upra-
t r< x le p l a c c t n e n l s l s g l v e n ln Iilg . l. cye movemcnts coul tj be confuseti w i th xrtlfac l B ' A l s o' the
E E C atgnal
nesl on rel ercnce coul d restl l t l l l the i ntroduc i l on of c ons l derabl e
traci tl gs. 'Ihese i rrr: r1' s w l th A C rec ordl ngs do not
E ] 'r l, l o v c ' t n c rtr R e c o r L l lltR l n the eyc nl ovcmetrt
ey e nrov e-
yi el d preci se l nforl tratl on about the di rectl on, s l z e and s peed of
cye
To e U m l n a l e c o n f u slo n b e tu ' ce n e yo m o ve m e llt p o L cn tl el s and otl rcr ,ncnts, e.g,, l arge pen defl ecl l ons coul ti rc s ul t from Large horl z orl Lal
of the ho rl z ontal l y and v ertJ c al l y l nduc ed
elgrral s r v h l c h r e g e t n b l e tlle n r .a tle a r !tlvo ch a lr n e lsa r e lle ce ssaryforre- ntovel nents or Ir'ol n a summatl on
e y c m o v e m e n L s ' T h e r e co in m e n d e d p r o ccd u r e ls to recortl on one poLentl al s l n certal n srnal l er obl i que eye m ov ements ' T)re rec ommendeo
above ancl s urv ey c y e
"coldt
hrnne l t h e p o l e n t i a l s fr o r n a n e le ctr o d e f,Pp r o xln la le ly I cm
ug array l s l ntcnded to provl dc an economic B l arr:rngement to
el eotrode on o[ the
eUgt rtl y l a l c r a l t o t h e o u te r ca n th u r o ( o n e e ye a lr d a r c[e rcl l ce movemel rLs per se for the scori ng of S lage R E l \1' N l eas uretnenLs
eye l rl ovement precl se charactcrl stl cs of these eye rnöve nrenLsc an orrl y be ac c ompLl ehed
et t lt er t h e l r o m o l a t e r a l esr lo b e o r n la sto ld . On th e s( jcond
I cm bel ow atrd
c hann c l a r e r e c o r r l c d th e p o te n lta la lr o m a n e lccL r o d e rvl th other tccl ul l qucs.
tr:rthc contra-
s llglrt l y l a t e r a l t o t l l e o u te r ca n tltu s o f th e o th e r e 1 ' e r cfe rrcd
1 .e ,, b o th e ycs a r e r cfe r r cd to tl l e aanl c ear or Wl rerc spcci {l c l tl [ormatl on about tl i rec tl on and ei z e of ey e
rnov on-rc nts
lat c ral e a r o r m a s t o l d '
g h o wl ln Ir lg ' l ' el ec trodes horl -
m a-s t o t de l e c t r o d e . ' l ' h 1 s a r r a n g cm e n t ls l s requl rerj , a four channel arrangement la eugges ted w here
c l ec trodes
zontal to the oul er canttü as rvcl l ae l rürao l ' bl tal and eupraorbl tal
bl nocul arl y a-nd ac c orded a
ll e c a u s e e ) ' e m o v e nr en ls in Sta g e REtr { a n d r vu kcfu L ress are are each pal red w i th the sarne ear or I nas tol d el ec trode
p r o clu ce s o u t- o f-phase dcIl ectl ons pos l tl on l s rc qul red'
s y uc itr o n o t r s , t l e s u g g e ste cla r r a n g e m e n t separaLe cl nrrneI. Where speci (l c l nl ornrx tl on about ey e
Äpparatus artl l aoLs
on t h,: t * o c h a n D e l s f or a lm o st a lL e ye m o ve ln e n ts. D C recordi ng ntu:;'"be l rtLl oduced'
o n onc cl tartneI ool yi
us uall y r e g t s t e r a a l n - p h a se d e lle ctlo n s o r d e Ile cL io n s
art llac t s f r o , n o n e o ( l h e o u te r ca n tllu s e le clr o tlcg r cg ls!er
as dcl l cctl ons on 'A nrl ni munl gal n of ?.5 rnrn {or 50 !V l s rec ommended for ey e tnov ement
tho
only o n e c h a n n e l ; a r t l f acL s fr o r n th e r e fe r e n t e lcctr o tle r egi stcr
as l rt-l l l tase recordi ngs. B ecatee l he detecl i on o( s l ow ey e mov ements l s hel pl ul l n
defl ectl ons pfo{l uccd -of nol l re us ed'
dellec i l o n s o n t h e t w o ch r n n e ls. 1 ' h tr s, th e o u t- o I- p lr a se l unal ys!s ,t r""orti , tl rnc consLanLsfaste r than 0' 3 s ec s houl d
by ey e n r o v e m e n t c a r e e a slly d lstlr r g u lsh e tj fr o r n a r tifa u L r '
E trIG R ecordl ng
di sadvantages '
f ' h e a b o v e a r r a y f o r cle te ctln g e ye m o vcm cll!s lu e some
fl:It tracl l l gs' as w hen 'Ihe recontl ng of E l t{C fronr muscl e l rc as on and beneath thc c hl n
Cert al n o b U q u e e y e m ove m e n tJ ca tl r e g u lI ln r e la !lve ly
n lo vement l s carrcel l ed by (menLal , submenl al ) l s e l rongl y recomrnended bec aus e o( l ts i rnportanc e
ln
a pole n t l a l f i o m t h e h o r lzo r r ta l co m p o n e n t o f lh e e ye
couvcrgent eye
ar'opp o e t t e p o t e n t l a l fr o r u tlr e ve r tlca l co m p o n e n [' ' \iso' the scori rtg of S tage R E N { w i Li ch w i l l be tli s c us s ed l ater'
a r r angement' Ii ow ever'
m ov em e n [ s g c n e r a t e t n- p h a se d e tle ctio n s lvlth t]r js
ubundant out-o[- l ow
borh o f t . h e s e s L t u a t l o ns a r e o f n r ln o r lm p o r ta llce b e ca use B ccause tonl c E i vl C acti vl ty cJurl ngsl eep may be at a rel at-i v el y
al ]ovt:
plus e c l c { l e c i l o t r sa r c usu a lly I) r e Be l) [a t Ih e sa m e tir n e ' Furthcr' the l evel , hl gh gal ns shoul d be userl , prefera bl y 20 ,Y /c m or hl gher'
A ml nl -
and vertl cal eyc ga-l ns
a. r" y , . l o " u n o t p e r n r l t a r y d lfle r e n tla tlo n o f h o r lzo ltL r l mum of t,i gl t frequency fi l tcri ng shoul d be us ed, al thougl l at v c ry hl gl i
oI
i t i s occasi onal l y necessat'y l o fi l ter out r\C artl fac !s ' f' l me c ons tants

iu e o in p o r to tt, iL i a adoi u.abLe to -Ti a \l i i äe" couLd al eo be uaed as a referenc e


f f ion a Bta)tdaila tvcond,
t i , , " -o r r b i n . t u i th b o th CJ o d Cl e - L e ctr o cle c utd A 1 anc! A 2 el ec- eLeatrotl e for E OC recorcl tng'o. The ua e of .onl y a s i ngl e eul ' Lob,e.or
o" r'" " ä i ' " n - m u y L a r eaotJetl ' I'l rts pr[or to one cLitticaL
in conttuot
t r' ; : i' " ', e u e u - t h l u g l , o n ly o n e p a ir o .f th e a e el ectrode
naetoi d re ference eLec tr oti e i s etqgeot etl
"",'itJ i' to e e b isa b o t' to l'o^ j o ü re d in pot'alleL'
; '; ; 27" ;" ; - ;".ia L h e .ch a n se 9')l pmcöi ce i t uhi cl t r efet'enc e eLec tt'o<1e s a t e
ai l cl tl 1u0 preserue
i; " : r" ' ; ; " ; : , : ' " ; i ; i ' i " i n " e u e n t tln t u t' tifctct d e a e L o p o'
'I rl

0 .1 o r fn s( cr sh o r rl d bc urcd to cl l ml nal e sl ow l )otcnU al s l rorn ol l )er aources.


S (i l , i c W

r vh ich a t th e r cco r nrncnded gi rl rrs, ntay causc anrpl l fl cr.bl ockl rrg. ,l 'he ty1reo( S trgu \V c orre ul orrrl s to tl rc * ak l r' ,i 1tttatc . l t l r c l Ä rac tc rl rc ü by rl gl ;r
cle c( r o d cs, th e ir ' lnsl l Jon and i l l rrr contact w i th the ski rr ar.c cri tl crrl focto16 actl.,,l ty arrtl ,/ora l orv v ol trgr, rnl x c d Irurl uc nc y tti ,C .
ln o b ta ln ln g g o o d [[1C rccordi ngs. One ntctl rod Is dcscrl bed by J:rcobson,
Klle s, l,ch r r r a n na nd l l octJernakcr (19{i -l ). l vl ore recentl y E },l C re corcl i ngs C c rtal n s ubJ ec ts (al phe pr< x l rtqc rs ) may hav e a v l rtual l y c onti nuous
r vlth ve r y Illtlc ÄC artl f:rct l uve bcön obLal rrcdfrorn l arge (l l n. dl arneter) al p) ur rec ord; ol .hc r s ubj ec l a rnry ohow l l ttl c or no al pl ur ac L[\' tty l n thc
flcxlb le le a d o r sL ai nl eee stcel ntesh el ectrodes rv[i ch are curved arourd the rvak l rrgrc c ord. l ' hi s 6tage l o us ual l y , [-rutnot nc c es s arl l y , ac c ornpanl c tl
Ja wb o n eo n b o th sldes of tl te chl n and eecurcd rvi th Iargc 6trl ps of acl hesl ve by a l el al l v el y hi gh tonl c Il l v l C , and oftc n ItE i ,ts end ey o bl i nk s arc pres c nt
ta p e ( Ile ch lsch a lle n, 1968). 8ee Irl gs. 1 and 22. i n tl i c Ii OG trec l ng.

S cori ni r C ri te ri a N {ov c mc nLTi rne (l i l T), B od\. i ' l ov ernen[s , and Il ov ernc nl A rorrs al

Sco r ln ß b y ljp o clu Tl rc s c ore "l v { T" l s as s i gned !o epoc } rs w hJ c h l mmedtal el y prec ede or
fol l orv s l eep s trges , but l n w hl c h the E E G and E OG trac l ngs are obs c ured
Är r e p o ch - b y- epoch approach l s strongl l 'rccommcndcd i n al l scorl ng l n morc tl ran l nLI the epoc h by mus c l e tens l on and/or ampl i fl er bl oc k i ng
1 ;r o ce d u r e s. Sp e clfl caIIy, a conven.i enttl mc i nterval shoul d be sel ccted arl l f.rc ts as s oc i al ed rv l th mov ement of the s ubj ec t. \\ftere the E E G s nd E OG
wltlch ls n o t so sh o rt as to makc scori ng prohl bi l .l vel y cuml tersornc, nor so l ecord c an be s een i n morc than l nl f the epoc h l n apl te of the arLl fac t.s , thc
lo n g a s to d o vlo lcn cc to tl re ocorl ng oI sbort-I.i ved stägc cl ui ngcs. A con- t'ec ord l s s c ored ac c orrl i ng to the prev al l l ng f E C and E OG patte rn. l tl ' I Is
ve n lcn t lr r tclva l Io l'most i nve$ti gi rto16 rvoul d be onc page oI rccord, w ]ri ch not c ounted w i tl r el tl rc r s l eep or w ak 1.)tl me bul s c ored as a 6c l ):Iral e c al .egory
ls 3 0 0 n r n r ln th e r nost conrrnonl y used p;r1rcrsl zes. T[i s l ntcrval rvoul d unl c s s []rc i nv es t.l gator s pc c l l l c s ol l rc rrv l ec , N ot c nough l s k now n abouI t]rc
r e su lt ln e p o ch d u r atJons of 30 and 20 sec respccti vel y for thc recommencl ccl be)rav i or' :rlc orre' l a[c s o( i \1T to c l as s l fy l t unambl guous l y as c i ther s ]eep or
p a p e r sp ce d s o f 1 0 and l 5 l nm/eec. B ecause tl l e use of rnucl ) l ongcr epocl rs w ake[ul nes s . \\' herc an c poc h i s obs c urc c i by mus c l e tc rrs l on and/or ampl i -
ccu id p r o d u ce a b las agal nst the scori ngoIshort-l i ved stage changes, l l i s fi er bl oc k i ng arti fac ts but i s i rnmedi atel y prec eded and fol l ow c d by S tage \V ,
Bu g g e ste d tlr a t, ,,vhcncpoch l engths gr-er.tcr tl nn 30 sec trc r"rscd.the i nvcstl - thc c l )oc l l i s s c ored S l agc \V r;rthel than I\1' 1.
g a to r r e p o r t th e n r epcci i l cal l y.
It' l T s houl d nol " be c on[us c d rv i th thc s c ori ng of dl s c retc body mov emc nts
1 ' h c e p o ch - b y- epoch rpproach recornnrencj cdhere docs not trnpl y ti ul t each w hi c h rnay bc of rel al l v ei l , s hort durrtl on- l l od_yrnov enrents c .l n be detec tc d
e p o ch ls co n sld cr e d l n l sol al l on. 'I'here arc many l nstances, w i rl ch w i l l l >e by s o ml ny dev l c es . antl Lhc y c arr bc dc { i ned i n s uc h a l arge v ari ety of rv al ' s
d lscu e se d ln la tcr eectl orur, w herc the score assl grred to a partl cul al epoch acco |di ng to thc Inv es l .i gator' 6 l ntc res t, that l t l s l eft to eac h l nv es tl gal .or to
d e p cn d s ln p a r ! o n the pol ygrapl ri c feal ures oI precedi ng and succccdl ng deslgntIc hl s orv n c ri teri x (c .g., R ec hts c hal fc n, \V ol l x ]rt, D ement, I' l l l c l rei l
e p o clr s. T h e r n a ln Ical ul cs of the epoch B l stern recommcnded here are that and Fi s her, 1963). B ody mov emc nts are not to be c ons i dered epoc h s c ores
th c p o lyg r a p h r e co rd l s ri l vl ded l nto consecuti ve segments oI ecl ual si ze and l n the s ame s ens e as I{ T. B ody nl ov ernents s horrl d be c ons i dered s pec l fi c
e a ch o e g ln cr r l ls a o si gncd a sl ngl e ecorc. Once an e1>ochduratl on.i s sel ected physi ol ogi c al c v ents w hi c h c an oc c ur durl ng A IT or durl ng 6!ages .
It sh o u ld b e r n a in tal ned Iol the durati on oI tl re rccordi ng. Fol enmJrl e, i I a
3 0 se c e p o ch ls se lc ctcd, the chart i s dl vi decl l nl o consecul l vc 30 sec pcrl ods B otl t IrIT and bo< J 1' nl o\' omc tl tsarc to bc dts ti ngtri s hc d from mov c rnent
fr o m th e 6 ta r ! o I tlrc rccordi ng t<.r(he end. E ac)r epoc]r l s assi gncd a si ngl e arous al s . w hi c h rv i l l as s umc s omc j ml )ol ' Ll rrc c i n t[c s c orl l l g of s tages to be
sta g e Bco r e ; p o r tlo rrs oI tw o epochs may nol be combi nccj to creal c a new di scus s ed l al er. A l nov rntent nrous al w i l l bc defl ned as an1' l nc reas c l n
e p o ch . Wh e r c m o r 'o tl urn oi l e B ti rg0 l s prescnt i n an epoch, tl rc onc rvhi cl r E i \{G on an5,c l nnnc l . rrhi c l r l s ac c ornpanl c d b1' a c hange l n pattern on any
ta kcs u 1 .rtllc g r e a te st pol 'ti on of the epoch shoul tj be scorcd as tl re stagc of addl tl onal c l rannc l . For E i l l C c hannc l s , thc c l rangc l n pattern may c ons l s t
th :r t e p o ch . of e l thc r an l nc rc as e l n arnpl [!Lrdeof the E fv l C 6l $ral or an ampl l fl er bl oc k i ng

---r'{"rg
t\
ii
J 5

art ilt c t . F o r E O G c h a n ne ls, th e clu r n g c o I p a ttcr n n r :r y consl st of el l her the movement arousal s. S i rrri l arl y, the cri teri a for body mov ements w l l t uoul l l y
oc c urren c e o ( E N I G a c I l vlty, a r n p Ulle r b lo ckln g a r - li( a cts, or bl i nk arLl [acts. sati sfy the ral her nl i ni mal requi rements for mov ement arous al . Il orv ev er,
For EEG c l u r m e l s , t - h ech a n g e o f p a tte :n m a y co n slst o f e tthcr o decre ase [he converse oI these strternents need not be true. IJ ody mov emenl s may be
ln arnpll t u d e , a n l n c r e a s e ln a lp lu a ctlvity, ir p r r o xystn a l burst oI l L.i gl rvol t- of rel eti vel l 'short duml l on and Ial l far short of the c rl terl a for i \l T, Iv l ov e-
age ac t l v l t y , ( h e p r e o e n c e o f ENC a ctivlty, o r a r n p lifie r b l ocki ttg artl facts. rncnt arousal nced i ndi crte onl y some l ncrcas e l n mus c l e ac ttv i ty and does
illov em e n t a r o u s a l s a r e no t we d a s e p o ch e co r e s, n o r n c( jd they be tal Li cd not necessarl l y i nvol ve the substantl al spatl a l dl s pl ac ement oI the body w hl c h
and repo r t e d , T I r e m a J o r p u r p o se ln d e iln in g r n g ve m cn t a rous:tl l s to i ti d i n i s l rnpl i ed by body rnovement. Movement ar ous al c oul d res ul t from an
t he s c or l n g o I s t a g c s b y slg n a llln g tlte p o sslb tltty o f sta g e cl urngcs. For l sol xted snral l muscl e contr:rctl on, a vi gorous bl l nk , or a fnc l al grl rni rc c ,
ex ample , t h e l n t e r p r e l a t lo n o f r sh o r t ln !e r va l o f r e la tlve ly l otv vol l ege,
nrlx ed f r e q u e n c y E E G r v ir lclt ( o llo r vs Sta g e 2 r vill d e p o n d o n w l tcthcr the S trße I
lnt erv al f o ü o r v a a m o v e m e n t a r o r r - sa l. Wh e r e llte r e is a m ovel nenI arousa[,
t here ls g r e a t e r c o n f l d e nce tln t th e e u b se q u e n t ln te r va l r e l)resenLs a pi \rti al S tagc I l s dcfl ncd by a rcl ati vel y l orv y6191g", ml x c d [rc quenc y E IC
" arous a l " t o S t a g e I r a t h e r tlu n a s lr n p lc tr a n s le r tt Ia lxe of s 1>i ndl es . rvi th a prorni nence of actl vi ty l n the 2-7 ctx range.r The fas ter frequc nc l c s
arc mosl l y o[ l orvcr votl age l han l he 2-? cp ac U v i ty . S tx gc I oc c urs nl os t
I n su m m o r y , a o c o r e o f i\lT ls u se d to a cco r u r ! fo r cln c l rs rvhi ch are oftcn l n the transi l l on frorn rvl kel uhess to l h e ol her s [eep s tages or fol l ow -
mos t ly o b s c u r e d b y m o ve r n e n t a r tifftcL s, Bo d Y m o v{ .]m c nts arc not con- i ng body movemcnLs durl ng ol eep. D uri ng o oc l urnal s l eep, S täge I tends to
s ldered e p o c h s c o r e o ; t hcy a r e co n sld e r e d d lscr e tc p h ysl ol ogi cal evenLs be rcl ati vel y sl :ort, rangi ng from about I Io 7 rnl n. The l tl ghes t v ol l age 2-7
whlc h occ u r d u r l n g e p o c hs. ' I' lte cr ite r la fo r d e fin tn g b r xly move mcn[s are cP s acl i vi ty (about50-?5 uV ) tcnds to occur i n i rregul arl y s pac ed burs ts
lef t enli r e l y t o t h e l n d l v ld u a l ln ve s llg lto r . l"[o vcm e tl itLorusal , w h-i ch 1s nrostl y tl uri ng the Iatl er I)orU ons of l he sl -age. Ä l s o durl ng l he l atter portl orr3
ex pllc lt l y d e ( l n e d l n I t r l s p r o p o sa l, ls n o t we d a s a n cp o ch scot'e as l s N IT, o{ thc stage, vcrtex sMrp w aves may app ex r, often l n c onJ u.nc tl onw l t-h the
nor ls l! l n t e n c i e d p r l m a r l ly a s :r ln e a su r o o f b o d y d lsp la cenrent as l s body l ri gl r ampl i tude 2-7 cl ß acl tvi ty. 'fhe ampl l lude oI the v erte,x s l urp rv av e l s
rnov ern e n t . [ l o v e m e n t ar o u :r I ls ln te n d cd p r lr n lr lly a s an ai d l n the occ:si onal l y as hi gh as 200 !V . S corl ng of S tage I requl res an abs ol ute
s c orlng o f o t a g e s l n a s m uch a g tn lttcr clr se ln r n u sclc a ctlvl ty durl ng sl eep abscnce oI cl carl y defi ncd l ( cornl :l exes and s l eep s pi ndl es . Trac es of l orv
rals c s t h e p o s e l b t l i t y t h a t th e co n tln u lty o f th e p r cva llln g sl ccp ctagc l us vol l :rgc actl vl ty tL 12-l /L cps may begtn to r l )pc l r as the trans l tl on to S tage
bc en dls t u r l ; e d l n o o m e t va y. 2 approaches, but thi s actl vl ty i s not to be dc fl ned as s l eep s pl ndl es urtl l the
rhytl rmtc bursLs rre cl earl y vi sl bl c for at l eas t 0,5 eec , at w hl c h l l me they
Dc c a u s e I \ l T l n v o l v es m o r e th a n h a l{ a n e p o ch o f movement artl fact, deftne the presence of S tage 2 (see bel ol ). S tage l , es pec l al l y fol l orv l ng
and hen c o r e l a d v e l y l a r g c m o vcm e n ls ln m o st ca se s, lhe crl terl a for w akeful ness, i s characterl zed by the presen c e of s l ow ey e mov emenLs , eac h
oc orlng l i l T r v l l l u s u a l l y Ba tlsfy th e cr lte r ia fo r b o d y m ovements and oI ceveral seconds durati on, w hi ch are w ual l y mos t prornl nen! durl ng the

a T h e t e t rn Lott voLtage, nir ed EEC " i s pr efer r ed Ti re@ord" i s re;ec ted, ,rpg 6nLy bec aus e i t
" re L a ti u e L y fr equency
o r ", e g he r te tma p re u i o uaLy uoed to deecr ibe the EEC pattent dr i dr io i a rej ected by t)rc IntemaLi otraL Fedcrw ti on, but aLs o bec aus e tl rc E E C
c h a t ' a r : t e ri a ti c o f S L a 4 e 1 and Stuge RtM, I' le tenn t' Stc ge 1 EEC " i s of S tages I and R tl 4 contatrre a coüei detub Le onount of aati v i ty i n tl rc
to be auoided, b e ca u o e tlr c patter n attto occur o in Stage R l i r l atr c I i L 2-7 ape bancl , I'he most popul ar tern heretofore us ed Lo deac rtbe the
c o u l d c o ye e co n fi i o i o n to opeak about "a Stoge 1 tEC in Stage SEi l t'. E E C of S cageo ) od R E t'!l tas been "Lou vol to4e, random", Thi a term i e
T h e t e r m " L o u u o l ta g e recor d" ahould not be ueed, beadus e i t doee nol nou rej ected beccntse, accordi ng to the tettni noLogy of the Intetmati orw l
aecut'ately d e e cri b e th e EEG of Stage I or REll, Accor di ng to the tenn- tetl erati 9n, "randan" ne4ns I'l ,scprri ng at i nc onotant ti ne i nterv aLo' ,,
i n o l o < 1 y o f th a fn te ma ti o mL Feder ation, tlis tettn det nteo a r ec or ti tntl ter tl vtn denoti ng a ni rture of frequen c i ea.
ttith "N o t,h ytl mi c a cti u i ty aboüe 10 sV, no actiuitlJ ahov e 20 eV't.
l l c v t y o f th s o e rte E o h a rp uaues of Staga 7 qr <l many of the oau- tootl t
u a u e e o f S tü Je R E i 'l e tce ed 20 yV.

i 1

t
-}

e a r ly p o r tlo n s o f the stage. R apttl eye movernents are absent. Tonl c E IIIG prec l s e
vol [;rge s l orv w av es oc c urrl ng parox y s mal l y w l r]c h do not l raV e the
le ve ls a r e u ,su a lly bel ow those oI rel axed rvakcful ness.l n rorphol ogy oI the I( c ompl ex arc al s o frequentl y oeen durl ng S trge 2'

T h c tr a n sltio n l rom a l ow vol tage w aki ng record to S Lage I l s charac- IJ ec aw e s l eep s pi ndl es and K c ompl ex es are trans l ent phenomena,
te r lze d b y a g e r r eraU zed sl ow i ng oI the E E G. Tbc transl tl on from an al pha r el attv el y l ong perl otl s may l nterv ene betrv een tl tes e ev enl g w l t} tout the
r e co r d to Sta g e I i s characterl zed by a decrease i n tl re arnount, ampl ttude, o c c urrel l c e of a etage c h3nge. II l es s than 3 rnl n of rec ord w hi c h rv oul d
a r d fr e q u e n cy o f ol phi i actl vl ty. When the amount of record characteri zed o rdl nari l y meet the requl remc nl s for S tage I i nterv ene betw een s l eep
b y a lp h a a ctlvity c ombl ned rvl th l orv vol tage acl l vl ty drops to l ess than 50'A spi nc l l es and/or K c ompl ex es , thes e l nterv enl ng epoc hs are to be s c ored
o f th e e p o ch a n d ls repl aced by rel at-l vel y l ow vol [agc, nüxed frequcncy Stagc 2l f there l s no l ndl c ati on o( mov ement arous al or pronouc ed l nc rea3e
a ctlvlty, th e e p o ch l s ecored as S tage 1. ln mus c l e tone duri ng the l nterv al In queetl on. { u the l nterv al n.' l thoutel eep
spi ntl l es or l ( c ompl e-x es l as ts 3 ml n or l onger, the l nterv al l e s c ored a6
Sta ß e 2 Stx ge 1, ev en i f i t c on[al ns no mov ement arous al ' If rnov ement arous al s or
inc reas es l n mus c l e tone do oc c ur durl rl g the l nterv al l n ques tl on, the P or-
T h ls o ta g e le dcfl ned by the preeence of sl eep spl ndl es and/or l ( com- t i on of the rec ord prl or to thc rn s houl d be s c ored as S tagc 2' The porti on
p le xco a n d th e r b sence of guffl cl ent l i l gh ampl i tude, sl ow actl vl ty to dcftne o f thc rc c ord rv hi c hfol l ow s s houl d bc s c ored as s tage 1 urtl l thc nex ts l c c p
th e p r e se n ce o [ Stages 3 and 4 (see bcl ou). spi ndl c or K c ompl c x oc c urs , prov l ded, of c ours e, that the epoc l t requl re-
t nc nts and c rl tc ri a for S l agc I are other* ' l s e met'
T h e p r e se n cc of a el eep spi ndl e shoul d not be del i rrerl unl ess i t i s oI at
le a st 0 .5 se c d u r ati on, i .e., one shoul d bc abl e to coun[ 6 or 7 di sti nct Stat(e 3
wa vr :e r viIlü n th e haU -secorrrl ucrl od.2
- S tagc 3 j s defi neti by an E E G rec ord l n w hi c h al l eas t 20% but ttol more
I( co m p lcxe a are dcfi ned as E E C rvave forrn:; havi ng a ucl l del i ncated t han 5016oI t]rc epoc h c ons i s ts o{ rv av c s oi 2 c ps or s l ow er rv l tj c i r haV e arnp-
n e g a tlve o h a r p wave w hl ch.l e I*.1:9i .tl S l y !9l l ow e,d.by..a_
posi ti vc component. ll tudc s grc atc r tl Ll rn?5 pV from pc ak to peak (the dl fferenc e betw een the
flitlö a il- d ü - r iitlb n of ah; comptei -Ä noutä ci """?-0. s secl Wää!-of L2-r't m os t nc gati v e and pos i l i v c tl ol nLs of thc w av e). The i l gures "20?" ^nd "50r4"
cp s m a y o r n r a y not corstl tute a part of tne coäFi ä]l The K compl ex i s r efc r epec i ti c al l y to the U mc oc c upted by the l l i gh arüpl i tude, s l orv rv av c s ard
g e n e r a lly m a xlm a l over vertcx regi ons. I( cornpl exes cl rn occur as a res- r l o not l nc l ude l nterv al s of hl ghc r frequenc y and l os ' er ampU tude ac ttv i ty
p o n se to e u d d e n o tl muU , but thcy al so frequcntl y occur i n the absence oI:rny b etw een tl res c w av es .5 In ac tual s c orl ng P rac t.l c e, l ! w i l l be nec es s al y to
d e te cta b lc stim u li (Jol urson and K arpam, 1968). Other pol yphasl c hl gh mak e w av e by rv av e mei rs urements onl y for epoc hs w l th borderl l ne amourLs

' fo r a n o te d e .tai l ed, di f!'erenti ated descri pti on of E tC cl nnges i tr the ' I' he s eLec ti ott of a J mi n i nterual D as arbi trv ry . ft uas bas ed upo,r
ttytr tsitio n fr o n uakeful nes; to eLeep, the reader i s rcferred to R oLh o ur j udgnerrt i l tat i nter-6pi nc l l e i trterual s of tl at Length mi gl tt oc mr
(1961). u i thout a s tage c hage al Lhough euc h oc c as i ons uoul d be ture.
2
Be ca u a e L h e te \m "al eep epi ndl s6" )ras been ai del y usad i n sl eep 5In
c i eterntni no ti te perc entage of an epoc l r uhi c h c outai ns uav es ol '
z' e te a p clr , th is tc nn ui l L Le petai neLl - The tertn sl toul d be y6s1l 6nl y
to cjcscr ib e a ctiui ty 0 ,5 s ec or s l out.r artd greater t.han ?5 y V , a c ertai n onoutrt of un-
betueert 72 arvl J4 cps.
r eLi abtl i tv ui l l be i nLrodttc ed bec auee i t i s eooz Li nes di l fi c uLt to
1...,
o' l' hia definttton d el ' i ne a uav e b:' ui s ual i ns pec ti on, For ez c tnpLe, i t i s not al uay s
of K c c r npLer i a aL uar i attc e ui t) t the defi r r i ti - on of
cl ear ul retl rc r tc c c onLi gttoue potenti al s of the aute pol attty repre-
the T' etnittology C onr ntttee of tl r c IttLer tr ati otv l F eder aLi oti ul i c i r i s as
t' Com bittati on settt a s i ttgl e s to;' uaue ui th a anal l uaoe of oppoai te poLoti ty
fctLLo"ts : of v er Ler s l tnt'p uauc s antl s i gna par ox y s t\,
sup-eri tpos ed, or theLl rc r ti rey repres ent tüo s eparate fas ter uaues .
occur tir q sponLaneous Ly and es pec i c tl Ly tn r es pons e Lo s uc i i ,:tt s tünul i
T o es ti nnte ti te rrrreLi dti Li ty i trLroduc ed by auc h orngi bui ti es , tl trc e
dtLt,ing sLeep, "
n enbers ol .Lhe C o,rni ttc e s c ot,e< l 28 s el ec ted epoc ha of 30 s ea
".d9

.7

of hi g h a r n p l l t u d e , E l o w wa ve o ctlvlty, 1 .e ., a b o u l 2 Q' Jo tnti 501/o. For most


uV peak to pcak. ,ttttrougtr onl y sl i ghtl y more th-antnl f of an epoc h may
epoc ) u , J u d g m e n t s a b o u t Sta g cs 3 a n d .{ ca n [.r em e d e b ;'compar.l son rvi th the actual l y contai n hl gh ampl i tude, sl o..' r av es w tri c h meet the abov e s pec l fl _
t rac i n g s s h o w n l n F l g s. 2 - 5 . F lg s.2 a n d 4 p r e scn t EEG tracl ngs rvhi ch are crti ons, most S [age ,l epochs have !]re appearanc e of bei ng c ornpl etr:l y
J t Lsi b e l o r v a n d J u s t a b o ve th e th r e sh o ld fo r d lffe r e n tll ti rr6 S tages 2 and 3. dornl natec.lby thi s actl vl ty. Intcrval s o f l ow c r ampi l tude, fas ter ac uv l ty
F lgs . 3 a n d 5 p r e s e nt EEG tr a cln g s r vh lch a r e Ju st L r el orvand Jrßt above the rrrel y persl st [or rnore tl urn a few scconds 1n S tage 4, but are us ual l y prom_
t hre s h o l d f o r d l f l e r e nlla tln g Sta g e s 3 a n d 4 . i nent i n S tage 3 epochs.

A s n o l e d l n t h e or lg ln a l De r n cn t- Kle itm a n cr ilcr :ta , an attempt shoul d be S l cep spi ndl es m& y or may not be p res ent l n S tage 4, +
m ade [ o d l s t l n g u l s h b e twe e n sp o r r ta tr e o u sI( co m p lc,< c s ard del ta w avcs, al -
t hou g h t h l s d l e t l n c t l o n ls n o t a lwa ys ca sy, Slce p sp lr id l es tnay or.may not be S tage R E l vl
ples c n t l n S l a g e 3 .
S tege R Ii M i s defi ned by the conco ml tanl appearanc e o( reLatl v el y l ow
S t ag o 4 vol tage, ml xed frequency E E G acti vi ty ar)d epl s odl c R E l v l g. The E E G pattern
rcsembl es the one descri bed for S tage l , ex c ept that v ertex s Mrp w av es
S t a g e 4 l s d e f i n e d b y a n EEC r cco r d ln r vh lch m o r e than S 0fi of the epoch are not proml nent l n S tage R trI,1. A ls o, In S tage R E N { c l l s tl nc tl v e ,' s aw -
c onsl s t s o l r v a v e s o [ 2 cp € o r slo r ve r r vh :lchh a ve a m p l ]tudcs greatcr than ?5 tooth" w xves (B erger, Ol l ey and Osrval d, 1962) frequeni l y , but noi ahv a;rs ,

Lo2tr:o ta _cqr Cintetl ULe L tl i st'tace. Tl te vari snae i ntrod.uced i n the anount of S tageo J ord 4 by
-l\'on
theae'fectorl ui LL be ni ntni zed by aLodardi z ati on,
durw t i o t t e a c h f o r , a yte r ce n ta g a o l th a e p o ch u h tch aontai ned t,uaceptabLe,'
eLc ü u a ü e a . I n t h e te a t slr p le u a e d , th e a e p e tte n Lages rangeL! fron Qther potenti .al deberni nottu of L't:Gunpl i tutl e s udt as ek i n reuts toße
ubou L J 5 7 t o 8 0 7 ; a b o u t tu o - th tr d s o f th e e p o ch o feLL trr ühe nat'rouer and i ndi ui duaL di fferences i n sl oa üdüe foc i are di ffi c uLt to euahtate.
t ange b e t u e e n 4 0 i l o d 6 0 /., i.e ,, th e ta n g e in u h tcl t rel i abl e di fferen- l l aseoer, sone i npl i ci t arpl i tude cti terta are aLuay a i nuol ued i n the
t iaLio t r o f S ö a g e a 3 o r d ' l is wo t d if ficu lt. I' h e rr.nk order cort'el ati oi l e ui sual di .scrüni nati otr of speci fi c t) E C ac ti utty , V hen the uaue fotw i a
bet ue e n p a i r a - o f a c o r e r a o n q n o u tlt o f h ig h cn tp lttu de al at acti ui by uere' co,npl ex atd )i ghl y cl nractertsti e, a s i n the eLeep api ndLe, orpl t,tude
. 94, . 9 ! , m d , 9 1 , Ap o a r e n t,L y, th a a n b ig u itie e in v oLved i n the aLasure- prl se cant14butes Li töLe to the deteeöi on proc eas , i .e.,
nent o f E E C u a u e l a le n o t, Bo g r e a t o r p r e va L e n t a s to i nterfere ul ttr s i gnaL to
notse rati o. fn t)te case of sLoü uaoe ac ti v i ty drc re L)aue fom i e
re-Lia b l e a c o r i l g . o f th e o n o ttn t o f e r e p o ch 6 h ich cl ntai no the speci fted t.econc{u'y, the naj or factor for easy detec ti on, as i de
alot s u a o e a c t i u i t y . T h e o b o u e r e lia b iL ity co e lfie ienta, houeuer, shoul d fron l requenc y ,
i s anpl i tude. Tl tus, for purpol es of ec ori ng and parti Lul ar-Ly i on
not b e c o n f \ e e d u i t h th e r e lio b ility o f a co r in g Stagea J ond 4. fn reLi abi Li ty of acori ng,. tl etec,L.i on.a n(:lrot;,q of s l ou r,ttu" ac -ti ui ty
ac t ua . L p r a c , t i c . e , , a fa iL u t.,e to Bco r e u a u e b y u a u e in doubtftrl caoeo nuat requi re an erpl i ci t anpl i tude a rtteri on. ?herefore, the quei ti on
c ould r e e u l t i n l q , se r r e lio ) :ilttie a fo r a ta g e e co ri ng, en the otl ter of speci fyi ng t)rT@l i se 6cori ,tg parme\ery of S tagee J arr< !4 i a the
hut <l , a c t u a l r e c o r d s o J' ,co r r tin u o u e a le e p n a g n o t. be i o heavi Ly bi aeed
mj or probLen, or<l -Ti Ä [er of fäc'tora entered. i nto the dec ts i on of the
at t h e t e a t . s d n p l e e u ith e p o ch a o f a b o u t S0 I "a cceptabLe,, aLou uave
C onni ttee.
ac t ivi t y , a n d t h e y e lia b .iL ily o f o co r in g SL o g e a J i :ad 4 coul d fi s hi gher
t hc u t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s cite d d to ve , < le p e id i,q - o n the core ortl preci oi on H vth regctrd Lo the onpLi tLl .l e cri teri on, tl rere uas no ques ti orr tl nt, aL_
of t h e a c o r e r o . though the reeul to of neasures of eLa,t üaL)eac ti oi tu i hi c h etreee' t;te
oWLi tude patw nel et and thoee uhi ch ni nüni z e i t at,c hi gtrl y c orrel ated,
^ 'I ' he r e ü a s c o n a i d e t ah le d ie cu o a io n in th e Ca r d tte e abottL the ui adcm of tlrere are acme tlifferetrces ühich natLe a drcice nore thän äcatlernic.
apply i n g a n a n p l i t u d e ct4 te r io n in a cltlicio tr to a frequency cri Leri on fbr
t he o c o r i n g o f S t a g ee 3 a n < l 4 , tu r p L i.tu d a ia in flu enced by seuerw L The fol l txti ng aw nnari zes the reasoni ng of t]rc C dmi Ltee' s c hoi c e to
udria b L e B a p a r b f r o n ce r e b r u L a ctiu ity, ' Ih e e e in cLude: eLectrode uti l i ae a tel ati vel y htgh anpl i tude c ri teri on for ,l el ta ac ti v i ty in
reaia t r t r c e , t ü n e c o n a ta n ts, e L e ctr o d e p la ce n e n t, r tnd i nteteLectrode the acot,i ng of S tagss 3 atd 4,
I
,l

a p p e xr ln vcr tcx and front:rl regi ons i n conj unctl on w j l h bursts oI l tE IvI. s c v oral s ec onds . For purpos c s of s tage s c orl ng, thc s e tranel enl . c l urngc s
Alp lia a ctlvlly ls ueual l y gornervhat rnorc proml ncnt duri ng S tagc Il D N { than rnay be di s rc garded.
d u lln g Sl.a g el, and thc frcquency i s generai l y l -2 cps el orver than durl ng
,I wa ke fu ln e ss ( Jo hl sorr, N ute, A ustl n and Lubi n, 196?). A s $'i th thc E E G of J tl i x tures of S l age R E l i l and s l eep s pl ndl es
Sta g e l, th e r e 16 an absol ul e c.bsenceoI si cep spi ndl es and K compl excs.

il Sta g c RElll shoul d not bc scored i n l hc presence of a rel ati vel y el evatcd
L o n lc n r e n te l- su brnental E N IC (Ikrger', l 96l ; Jacobson, IC rl es, Lehrnann and
. ' Iherc are oc c as l ons ,. rnos tl y durl ng the fl ret R E I' 1 perl od oI ti re ntght,
rv l rc n s l eep s pl ndl es are l nters pe rs c d w i l h R E [l s and the E l v l G rernal ns at
thc S tage R E N t Iev el throLrghout. ' I' he ec orl ng l n thes c s l !uatl ons l s bas ed
llo e d cr n ike r , 1 96.1). l 'he term "rel ati vel y el evated" requi res expl anaLi on. u pon the fol l ow i ng trv o pl l nc l pl es .
At th e h ig h g a lr Lsrrscd for E IrIC l ecordi ng dtrri ng sl ecp, usi ng surface el ec-
l. A ny s ec [i on oI r' ec ord c ont.i guouew i th S tage IIE I{ l n rv hj c h the
tr o d e s tt 1 s d lfllcu.l t to del i ne the absencc of tonl c E l v-l Gac[i vi t1'; even w l ton
E E G s ho$t rel ati v c l y l orv v ol Lage, ml x ed Irequenc y 1s ec orc d
th e EtvlG tla cln g l s of very l ow ampl i tude, there l s al rnost al rvay; sonrc
S tage ITE N I regardl es s of w hether ItE l r' 1sare pre6ent, prov l di ng
r e sld u a l la st a ctl vi ty rvl i i ch coul d represent ei ther E i t{C acti vi ty or noi sc.
E i \1C l s at the S üage R E r\l l ev c l md there are no l nterv enl ng
Ne lth e r ls lt p ossl bl e to defi ne absol utc E N C ampl i tudc i n a trseful w ay,
mov ement arol rs al -s . (S i tuatl ons w hl c h Irrv ol v e mov ement
b e ca u se a r n p L ftude val l es cor)sl derabl y from subj ect to stl bj ecl and \vi th
arous al s rv i l l bc dl s c w s c d l ater, )
e le ctr o d e p o sition. l l orvever, for any gi vcn rccordl ng scssi on rri th any
g lve n 6 u b jL - ct, tonl c E N l C rvl l l sl tow corsi dcrabl e vari a[i on about w l ri ch j t 2- A n l nterv al of rc l ati v c l l ' l ow v ol tage, ml x ed Irequc nc y E IG
is u se lu l to n lake ootne rel l tl ve sta(crnents. S l tcci fi cal l y, duri ng S tagc rec ord bc trv eerltw o s l s c p s pi ndl es or I( c ompl ex es l s c on-
REM th e to n lc nerrLrl -submcntal D l rl C l racl ng i s not hl ghcr than thc l cvcl s i dorc d S tage 2 rc gardl c s s of E i \l G )ev el , i f tl )ere arc no
d u r !.n g th c p | ccc tl i ng ol ccp stage. It al nrost al $'41's t.eaches l ts l oN 'est nE l \l s or nrov c rnc rrI arous al s durl ng the l nterv al and l f thc
le ve ls d u r ln g Stagc l l .E l rl . 'l 'l tese l otv l evel s may of tnay not bc reacl l cd i ntc rv c l l s Ic s s l l rarr 3 mi n l ong. (Thl s l e s l rnpl l a rei tc ra-
d u r ln g th e o th o r ol ecp strl ges, but tl rcy arc reacl tcd dttri ng unatnbi gttous Li on oI [l )c rul c s for s c ori ng S tagc 2. )
REIr { p e r lo d s. 1'l tercfore, n l ow ampl l ttrdo trl vtC contrl buLes l l ftl c to ti l e
e co r ln g o f u ) ce p B tagi j s, but the presertcc oI a "rel atl vcl y el cvated" toni c E x ampl c s of appl l c rIi on of thc s e rul es arc gl v c n bel ow and l l l us trated
EIr IC co n tr ib u tcs to scori rg l nformatl on by precl udi ng tl re scol i ng of S tage sc l rc maL.i c al l l ' l n ti ' i g. 0. l ' ho l c tter dc s i gnat-l ons oI tl re l l l us tra!i ons c orras -
n EI\t, ' l.h cr c a rc l nfrcqucnt occasl ons dul i ng S Lage R E l \1, especi al l y i n pond to the l ettc r dc s i grx ti ous o[ thc tex t.
&sg o cla tio n wlth vl goroLrs burets of R E l rl s, r|hcn thc E i \l G l rxcl ng rnal 'shorv
a BUg h t tr iu r cle nt l ncre:rse i tt tol tl c acti vi l y or bursLs oI pl tasi c acti vi l y for A. Ä ei ngl e s l c ep s pi ndl c ' oc c urs In an c poc h duri ng w h.l c h E l rl C
l s al the S Iagc Il l !l \l l c v ul . Thc prc c c d{ ng and s uc c c edl rrg
t oo tn o t e _c on L inu e d
Jroy ZaLe L
a) ALLhoug h tc nte ettr a- c er ebr al tl etenni nants of anpLi tude s tanc J N ;uW i ünt neas ut,es of tl out u;aue ac Li ui tv
aa poter tti aL 0aur c es of uar i anc e i n neas ur es dti c i t enp) tas tz e uhi c h ntni ni z e anpLi --ui e ni g)t:. y i eLd the s one enpi rtc aL ,"l agi s trs l ti ps
r tnplituLle, <ts obtotda\t y ,es ear c h i 6s s l pu,t, thi s uar i u',r c e it as Lhe neas ttre c l tos e,i bt ti re C onrni ttee. A l s o, i t i s poas i bLe that
tr ot ao gt,eat as to pt'ec Luti e r eLati ons hi ps betüeen s uc l l aLtenuti ue nees ut' es oi s l ou taue ac Li ui ty ni ght hal € a us eJ l tLnes s a,;,i
m easut,es and oLher enpi r i c al uar i abl es . enpi ri aaL ei gni fi c anc i : ' 161 s t;,' otc d bL the neas ure c i :os e,t. 1' herc fore,
the aeLec ti on of ti t€ C ;:i .-;:r. s i touL,.j'.:ot dai el i rrr' ;;ti ga:ors f)' oa;
b) A Latge r nj or i ty of t) te C c tm i ttez fc Lt Ll tat ti te s L€eL1 L:EC tts i ng neas ttres of s L",t; ü)üi ' a:ai oi Lt' oi ;:er t' tan ti rt o,te E ugges tei i tc r;.
uottlcl ttot be adtquateLy deuc r tb;l by a oc or i ,g s y s Lei n uhtc l r '
ttrtteuer, t i s t\c c or:' i t-ri i u.i l i r;t depar' ttLres frorn tl re c ri ter;a s pec i f i ,:i
did not attend ta the i r nr k ed or r ,.Li tl de v ai ati o,ti uni c l r ar e l ere be reported i n i .tai L.
6tte 6f i Ls m os L pt'ontnent fc ütu) '.:s ,
^ K aonpl ez es c a,i 5e s :r3;ri tuted for s i eep api ndLes i n aLL of thes e
c) l' !ost pu bLi :;l r c J EL'C s Leep r - es ear ',- j : ]tas uti .Ltz ec l r ur a.npl ttude i l Lust tv ti ons .
cr lter ion i tt the s r :or i ng ol Sta;es J atü 4; r 'etenti oi t of s uc h
a cr tLer i on pr oui i es s ane c onti ,:ti ty ui ü t,/r i s l c s a.z t'c j r .
I

u l l o c l l s i l r c Sta g e IIEI\l ;tttd co tr tlir t r to slccp s 1;i ndl cs. The r.rpoch uhi ch rrc uscd to rl cfi ne S tl gc R Ii [[ rnrry or nray not c ]l angc al mul hrnc ous l y .
c o n t r i u i n g th c sle e p sp in d le ls sco lcd Stn g c II.H I\fbccl rruc nl I of '[o;ri d l n tl rc detccrni nati on of S tagc l l t i l U ons et and Iermi natl oo i n l ns tanc c a
t [ c c p o c h p r e ce d ltlg a n tJ fo llo wln g tlr c slce p s pi ndl e i s consi dercd rvhcre l hc Lhl cc i rtti i ca[ors do not change s i mul Laneow l y , the fol l ow l ng
S l a g e R . U i \ l u n d cr r u le fl I a b o vc. scori ng probl crns are prescnted togcl h er w i th the s c ori ng rec omrnentl ;rtl ons ,

I n a 3 0 s e c e p o ch . sle cp sp in d le s o ccu r tt tlre 10th ancl 20th l. S tert of S teK e Il tj A l


s e c c i ä d 3 l . -T h e p fe ccd in g ln d su ccce d ir r g e p o cl u w ere S tagc Il E l rI.
T h e f l r s t a n d h st l0 scc o f th e cp o ch co n tiln i ng the sl eep S chcmati c i l l ustrati ons o f l he rul es Ior s tarti ng S tage R E II{
s p l n d l e s a r e co n sld cr cd Stilg e IIEllt u n d cr r u l e dl . Tl rc ni i ddl tr l re preserrted i n Fi g. ?. 'I'h e l c tter des l gnrti ons of thc i l l us tra-
l 0 s e c l s c on sld cr e cl Sta g o 2 u ld cr r u le /1 2 . Il ccnuse trro-thi .rds ti ons corrcspond to the l etter des i gnatl ons of the tex ü bel ow .
( m o r e t l u n h a lf) o f th e e p o ch is Sta g e REI{ , thc epoch i s scor.ud
n s S l . r g e R E[l ( F tg . 0 , lllu str a tlo n I]r ) . If, l n thc abovc si tua[l on, A. S l cep spi ndl es nnd K corn pl ex es s top and the E E C c hangc s
t h e s l e e p s pln d lcs h a d o ccu r r e d a t ( h d 5 th a n d 25th seconds, then to rel ati vel y l orv vol Lrge, ml x ed frequenc y for one or more
t w o - t h l r d s of th e e p o ch r r o u ld b e co n sld cr e d Stuge 2, trrtl thc cpochs before R E l tl s star t. S c ore al l the rc c ord from thc
e p o c h r v o u ld b e sco r e d Sta g e 2 ( l"lg . 6 , lllu "stratl on I)r). l ast sl eep spl ndl e or K co mpl ex as S täge R E Iv I tf the E N IG
duri ng the epoc[s beforc R E N Is l s at l he s al ne [ev el as
C. T h e r e a r e th r e e su cccssivc e p o ch s d u r ln g r vhi ch thc E X IC l s xt af ter R E N Is l l d i f thcre h a-sbeen no i nl erv enl ng mov e-
t h e S t a g e I I E ItI lcve l; e xce p t fo r th e sle e p sp lndl es to bc noted ment arousal . S core the rec ord up to the l as t s l eep
b c l o r v , t h e E[C ls r clir tive ly lo \v vo lta g c, m l.rr.l dIrequency. spi ndl e or K compl ex a.s S tage 2 i rres pec tl v e of E Itl O
R E I I s o c c u r d u r ln g lh c fir st 5 se c o [ th e ftr st epoch end duri ng Ievel . In rl rc i nsLanoes w here there l s a prog-res s l c rn
t h e l a s t 5 s cc o ( th e th lr d e p o ch . Slce p sp ln <i l es occur rt the , from S trge 3 or 4 to S tage R E ttl , a paral l el rul e appU es ,
2 0 t h s e c o f th c flr st e p o ch a n d d u r ln g th c 2 Ot h scc of thc thl rd cxccpt tl l at sl ow w ave actl v l ty i s s ubs tl tuted [or s l eep
c J r o c h . T h e r e a r o n o IlElls o r slccp sp ln d le s l n l he ntl ddl e spl ndl cs and l ( compl cxcs .
epoch.
B. S l eep sptndl es and l ( conrpl ex es s top and the E E G c l L:l nges
T h c f l r st e p o ch ls sco r e d Sta g e ItEtr f b e c ausc thc fl rst to rcl atl vel y l ow vol tagc, rni x ed frequenc y [or an l nterv al
2 0 s e c o f t h e e p o ch , 1 .c., u n tlI th e sle e p sp indl e, l s con- of one or more epochs be fore R E Iv l s s tarti E ,\[C remal rLg
s l d e r e d S t a g e REIT Iu n d e r r u le d t. at a rel xti vel y hl gh l cvel for s ome portl on oI thl s l ntc rv al
before l t drop.s to the S ta ge R E M l c v el . S c ore S tage R E M
T t e m l d d le e p o ch ls sco r e d Sta g c 2 , e vcn though l t from tl re poi nt rvhcre the U tl tC amp[i tude dropped, prov l d{ ng
c o n t a l n s n o slce p sp ln d lcs, b e ca u se tu r d e r r u l e l f2 al l of R tl l l s occur I:c[ore any addi l l onal s l eep s pi ndl es or K
t h e r e c o r d b e tu ,ce n th e two Ble e p sp in d le s ls c onsl tl cred compl excs appcar, The portl on of the rec ord fol l ow i ng
Stage 2. the l ast sl eep spi ndl e or K c ompl ex and prl or to the E tU C
droJ: i s cor\si dcred as par t of the prec edl og s Ll ge (us ual l y
T h e t h l rd e p o ch ls sco r cd SL a g e 2 b e ca u sc thc fl rst S tago 2) unl css i t i s 3 rni n or l onger, i n w hl c h c as e l t l s
2 0 s c c o f t h e cp o ch is co n sld e r cd SL n g c 2 u n d er rul e f2. scored stxgc l .

S t rr l . a n d E n d o f S t a RE} I C. S l eep spl ndl es and K com pl ex es s top and the E tl G c harrges
to rel rti vel y l orv vol i age, mi x ed frequenc y for one or rnore
' f h e m a J o r p r o b le m ln sco r in g Sta g e REI\t is !h e d cterrni nati on of thc epoehs before l l E N Is start ; drrrl ng thes e epoc hs there l s a
prec l s e p o l n L s a t r v h l ch REI\l p e r lo d s b e g ln a n d e n d . ' l 'hl s probl cnr l ri ses moycment arousal . S corc S ti l ge-nE I\l at the poi nt tol l ow l ng
prirn a r l l y f r o n r t h e f act tlu t th r e c ln d lccto r s, L - EC, EOC , a.nd Ii U C aci l vl l y, thc movernent arougal at w hl c h the E N { O trx c i ng l s reduc ed
.{ j
. lrr
.
. ' lil
_r. __
-t . ,

')"t'-'lttl!n
> ' u, .\ lr
^
.
. -' .-. \ : l\ 1, .
-! . rjl.

-' : ; " ' I


. 3 ,r:1l ' l

to th c S l agc IIE Ä { l cvel pl ov.i dl ng Ihr.:rcl s no l ndi cal i on oI Later i n thc Interv al . S c ore S LageR E III up to t} te pol nt of :.,.,.i

n ch a nge [o S tagc 1 (see cl l scussl on undcr L]rd o( S tagc E MG augmentaLi on. S c ore S tage I from the pol nt of E l r{ G .;.:
,- I
|
RIiNl, eecl l on C , page 1I). Ii thc l nterval bol w cen the augrnentaLi onu,rtl l there l g eome B ubs equent l ndl c atl on of ..''
cca sa tl on oI sl ccp epl ndl es and l ( contpl exes and tl i c o s tage c l urnge, w hl c h l s uB utl l y c l ther e reB umptl on o{
m o vcment arousal l s l ess than 3 mi n, i t l s scored R E l rl s (Fi g. 8, l l l us tratl on B r) or tl i e oc c urrenc e of ol eep
Sta g e 2 (I'l g. 7, l l l ustratl on C 1). If the i ntcrval i s 3 s pl ndl es nnd/or l ( c ompl ex es ' 1Fl g. 8, l l l w tratl on B 4).
tn ln o l l onger, l t l s scol ed S tl .ge ItE l tl (Ii i g. ?, l l l us-
tr a tlo n C r). A s pec i al c os e frequentl y arl s es w here a mov ement arous al
i nterrupLs the c onti nui ty of S tage R E M, the mental -s ubmental
D. Sle e p s pl ndl es and I( compl exes stop and the E E C changes E )\' l Gqul c k l y rev erLg to tbe S tage R E III l e v el fol l ow i ng the
to r e latl vcl y l ow vol Lage, nri xed frequency for an l nterval mov ement arous al , the E E G remdno rel atl v el y l ow v ol tage,
o I o r te or more el ochs beforo IIE Ä {s sl i rrt. D url ng t}}i s ml x c d frequenc y , and there l e a res umptl on of R E l v 1s9r
in te r val , there l s a movenl ent arousal , and toni c Il l tl G c hange to S tage 2 one or more epoc l rs fol l ow i ng the mov e-
r e r n lln s el evated fcl r one or more epoe[s fol l ow i ng thc ment arous al . The probl em l s w hether to s c ore the
r n o ve mer)t arousal bel ore droppi rrg to S Li ge Il l l i tl l evel . l nterv al fol l ow l rrg the mov ement arous al and the res ump[on
Sco r e S tage I for those epocl u Iol l orvl ng the movcmcnt of I(E t!{ s or c l uuge !o S l äge 2 as S l age I or S l age R E i !{ .
a r o u sal duri ng w hi ch E I\1Gl s rel ;rti vel l el evatcd. S core ' Ihere i s argurnc nt for S Lage I l nas muc h as a c Mnge to a
St^ g c RE l vl u,hen l he l i l \IG drops to the S trgo IIE I\l l cvcl rel l tl v el y l ow v ol l age, rnl x c d frequc nc y pattern l egul arl y
Io llo r ving tl )e movcment arousal . Thc cy>cLs of rcl atl vel l . fol l orv s many mov emenl arous al s w hl c h i nterrupl S l ages
lo w vo ltagc, rni xccl frcquency E IG w hi ch prccede t]rc 2, 3, and.{ ; there l s no reas on to as s ume tl ut l ntc rruptl ons
!r o vcr ncnt arousal arc scored l j trßc 2 or S tage nE i \1 of S l agc R Fl l \1w oul d bc l mmune to s uc h c hanges to S tage I.
a cco r dl rrg to Lhc 3 rtri rr rul e cl tctl under'"C " (abovc). On tl l c otl ror h:rnd, the genc ral pri nc l pl e remal ns that x
rehti v el y l ow v ol Lrge, ml x c d frequenc y E E G c ontl guous
Iin d o f Sta gc ItIl tl w i th S tagc Il E i \l l s to be s c ored as S tage R E I' I . A l though
the dec l s i on i s dl ffi c ul t, there are dl fferenc es bc l w een
Sch e m al .l c l l l usl .rrtl ons of the rul cs l or cndi ng S tage R E l l S tagc I al d S tage nE i U , apart from the pres enc e or ab-
a r c p r e se n tcd l n Irl g- B . l 'he l e l ter dcsl gnatl oru of thc l l l rsl ra- s enc e of R E l rl s , v rhl c h c an bc us ed to mak e a dl s c rl l nhati on
tlo n s co r r e spond to the l ctter dcsl gnati ons of the text br:l orv. betw een the tw o. The C omml Ftee thought l t bes t to U s t
general gul del l nes for dl s ti ngul ehi ng bebw eenS tage I and
A, A p e r iod o[ rel atl vel y l ow vol !age, mi xed frequcncy S tagc R E i \l and Ic av e l t l o the 6c orer l o x P pl y thes e gui de-
EEG, but w l thouI eye movcmenLs fol l ow s conti gLroLrsl y l .i nes J udgnrc ntal l y .
Ir o m an unambl guons S tage Il E l \{. S core as S tage
REI\,I, regardl ess of durati on, provi di ng Lhc E Ä l G In general , the s c ori ng ot S tage 1 l s fav orec l l n
tr a clr r g remal rrs l rt the S tagc l l l l l vl l evel and tl rcrc are proporti on to l he s l z o and duratl on oI the rnov c mc nt
n o ln tervcni ng sl cup spl ndl es, l ( compl cxcs, or rnovc- . arous rl . ' I' hl s l s bas c d on thc fac t tha(, rv hc n mov enl ent
m cn t it'ou5ar!5. aroLs al s i nterrLl pt ol her 6trges , the durati < rn oI thc
pos t-mov omc nt S t-rge 1 l s genc ral l y propor[l onx l to
IJ. Är t ln terval of rcl ;rti vcl y l orv vol trgc. nrl xcd Ireqrrency the magrri tudc of tl l c mov c mc nt.
EEC, but w i thout l l r*l l l s, fol l oss conti guousl y (no
in tcr ve rri ng sl cep spi ndl es, K cornpl cxcs, or rnovcmcnl A mos t i rnportant i ndi c atl on of S tage I i s the
a r o u slrl s) from an unumbi guous S t;rl .cR E l l . 'I'oni c E i \l C pres c rrc e of s l orv ey e nrov emenLs , A l though s l otv
is in ilial l y at thc S l .rge l l Il '1 l cvcl buI l ]ccomes cl üv.rted e)' e mov ernenLs aru s ometl mc s pres ent durl ng s tage
' t : n d o f S r n K o n EiU

If the epoch fol l orvrrrgtl re arous al l s s c ored as


C, (Cont.lnucd)
S l age I then the remal nder oi the rec ord i s s c ored
as S tage I u:rti l the reappearanc e of R E Iv IS(Fl g. 8,
i t E M , t b e y d o n o t a p p r o a ch th e a b u ld a n ce , mxgnl tude,
a n d p e n d u la r p a tte r n o f th e slo w e ye m o ve m cnts duri ng l l l ustratl on C .) or untl l the appc aranc e of the f(rs t
Shge l. A a lo n g a s th e r e a :e p r o m ln e n t slow eye sl eep spl ndl e br K compl ex (Ii l g. 8, i l tus tratl on C r).
m o y e m e n t s fo llo wln g th e m o ve m e n t a r o u sa l, the l nvesü-
g a l o r c a n fe e l co n Jld cn t a b o u t scr .r r ln gSta g e I. Gi ven the above sl tuaLi on, but w i thout any or w l th onl y
very ml nl mal sl gns of S ta ge I fol l ol l ng the mov ement
A l t b o r r g h th e EEC o f Sta g e I a n d Sta g e R E i \I aro arousal (l arge movement, s l ow ey e mov ements , i nl tl al
v e r y s l m l l a r , th e r e a r e so m e d lfle r e n ce s wir.tchmay abrmdance of al pha, verte x s pi k es , l nc l pl ent s l eep
b e u s e f u l i y n o te d . St4 g e I sco r ln g ie fa vo r e d l n pro- spi ndl es and K compl exeo ) thc ac orl ng s houl d be c on-
p o r t l o n t o th e a m o u r t o f a lp h a a cUvlty lm m edl atcl y ti nued as S tage R E I\I (Ftg . 8, l l l w tratl on D ,) untl l the
f o l l o w i n g t h e m o ve m e n t a r o u sa l; th lo g u id e ls l rr accord next l ndl catl on of a stage c hangc (Fl g. 8, l l fus tratl on
w l t h a g e n e r a l co n ce p tlo n o f th e p o st- m o ve m ert S tage D ^).
I a s a t r a n sillo n b a ck to u n a m b lg u o w sle e p fol l orri ng a
c h a n g e l n sta te wh lch a p p r o a ch e d wa ke fu ln e ss. The
p r e s e n c e of we ll Io r m e d ve r te x e p lke s fa vors l he
e c o r l n g o f Sta g e l, wh e r e a e th e a p p e a r a n ce of rvel l
f o r m e d e a w- to o tb wa ve a ln d lca le s Sta g e REi\I.

l n c l p l e n t o lg n s o f o lo e p sp ln d le o a n d K compl exes
m a y a l a o b e u se fu l ln m a ld o g th o d lfllcu lf d lecrl rD l na-
l l o n b e t w e e n Sta g e I a n d Sta g e R!llt{ fo llo r vln g movement
a r o u s a l a . T h e p o ln t h e r e ls b e st ln d lca te d b y consl der-
l n g t h e t y p l ca l tr a a sltlo n fr o m Sta g e I to Sta ge 2 at the
b e g { n n L o g of e le e p . Ju st b e fo r e wcll fo r m ed ol ccp
e p l n d l e e a nd K co m p le xe s a p p ca r 1 u L h c r cco rd, one
c a n u o u a l l y d e te ct ln clp lcn t o lg n e o f ttr ls a ctlv l ty. For
e x a m p l e , t he r e m a y b e tr a ce e o f ve ly lo r v vol l age 12-14
c p s a c t l v l t y g ca tte r e d [n th e r cco r d wh lch d o not perol st
f o r t h e f u l l h a ll se co n d r cq u lr e d to m e e t th e defl nl tl on
o f a e l e e p sp ln d le ; th e r e m a y b e wa ye fo r m s w l rl ch begi n
t o a p p r o a c h th e m o r p h o lo g y o f lh e K co r n p le x, but do not
f u l J l l l t h e r e q r r lr e m e n t. Wh e n e u ch "ln clp lcn t" cl eep ta r ' .
-'1
s'(.'" l,^
s p l n d l e s a nd K co m p le xe s a p p e a r ln a r e la tlvel y l orv .t..
'c
)Ct^
c
-t)
-.U
v o l t a g e , m lxe cl fr e q u e n cy r e co r d wtr lch Io llo ws a S tage ..., ry
'i,.'
R E M l n t e r r up lln g m o ve m e n t a r o u sa l, th cy m ay be takon
a s B u p p o r t ln g e vkle n ce tln t th o ln te r va l b e tween l hc
a r o u s a l a n d th e In clp le n t e lg n h a s b e e n Sta g e 1.
I

p l ' es enl atl on. I! l s 6ugges ted tl ut i n hl etograms , w bl l e repreeent w ak el uLres s ,


Pu b llca tio n Sty l c
cl i agonal Ll nes repres e,t s l eep, c ros s -l uLc hl ng repres ent S l age N R E l rt, and
II n r r a b b r evl aLi on for IIE Ir'{l s used i n a l anguage oLIrcr tl utn E ngl l sh, i t b l ac k repres ent s tage R E l v l. w i rere l t l s dc s l rabl e to repres ent the l nc II,,ri dual
ls r cco n tn r cn d ed tl ut ItE trl bc added at the cnd l n parentheses. Iror di scur- NIl E i v l s tages oc paratel y , l t l s l c ft to thc l nv eaugator,s l ngenuJ ty to des l gr
slve p o r tio n s oI tl re tcxt, the terrn '1tU i \l 6l cep" may be used i nstcad oI di i l c rent c ros s -hatc h.i ngs or s i l pU ng eIIec Ls { or eac n s l i rge.
Sta g e RI:' 1 1a r d the tcrnt "l {l l U N { sl ccp" may be used l nstcad of S tage N Il E l vl .
Sta g e RIilr l p cr i ods rnay be tl es.l gnatedol mpl y as R E l l l peri ods. 'I'he abbrev- W here 6tages are repres ented by dl fferent ordl nal l ev el s , as i n Il gl res
,t ia lio n "llDI!1 ", i n a:rd of i Lsel f, shoul d be taken to mean "rrpl d eyc movenr.l nt". w h.i c h s horv the s equenc e oI s l eep s t-agesw l th ti rnc (w hl c h l s demarc ated on
fi peri ods the abs c i s s a), the s tages s boul d be ac c ordec l the fol l ow l ng ordl nal pos l ti ons
*F F o r e x::.r p lc, "'Ihe subJect had 100 mi nul cs of S tage R E I{, four 11E N I (Ii s ted from top to bottom): W , R E I\I, l , Z, 3, ,I . The prac ti c e of as s l gni ng
wlth a n a ve r a g e oi cl ght R E IU s p€r rnl nutc. "
S Lrge I and S tage R E ,\l to tbc aame orc l l nal Iev eI l e not rec ommended bec aus e
So r n e u n lforml ty i s nceded i n thc abbrevi ati ons used l o l ndi cate quanti ti es i t i nc reas es the pos s i bi Li ty of c onfus l on betw een the t.w os tl ges . V ertl c al
o f sle e p r .cco r di ng, It l s 6uggested that üre l etter ''T" at the begl nni ng of an mark s may be us ed to des i grate mov emenLs . Tbl s ordi nal arrangernent of
a b b r e via llo n a lrvays represent 'total " and th:rt percentage al rvays be repre- 6 tages w as s el ec l ed bec arue l t l s c onv enl ent, not bec aus e tt h:s any addi i l onal
se n te d b y th e e l gn '(7o"at the begl nni ng of an abbrevi ati on, The l etter "S '' s l gnl fl c anc e, s uc h as a repres c ntr.i l on of s l c ep depth. l t l s now w el l k no\!r
ln th e se co n d posi t.l onshoul d al w ayrsdesl gnate 'S l agc, " and the tl i l rd Ietter tl nt s l eep s tages c annot be graded r.urambl guous l yon a general l z etl depth of
o r n u r n L :cr sh o ul d l ndl catc thc specl fl c stage l rr qucsti on' A ccordi ng to thi s sl c ep di mens l on (e.g., R ec hts c ha{ fen, Ii aurl and Zel tLl n, 1966).
8 !€ tcm , q u a n titl es ol sl ecpatages are gl vcn i n thc form l ndi cated by thc
W hen thc pol y graph trac i ngs l herns c l v es are pres ented, l t l s s uges tc d
e xa m p le s g ive n bel ow :
thl t trac l ngs be arranged from Lop to bottom i n the fol l ow i ng order: e1,e
' IS II - Total S t:tge R Ii [l m ov c mc nLs , E i \IG, E E G, and othc r pol y graphl c trac l ngs s uc h as E C C and
res pi ratl on.
tS Il - P ercerrLegeS tage Il ti l t'l
' IIi N - Total S tagc N Il trN I
C oncIudi C om ments
? 'S f{ - P ercenl tge S tage N IIE I\l
' ll i I - Total S trge I
TIri s manual for a s l andard termi nol ogy and s c ori ng s y s tem refl eets the
' LS l - I,e rce ntagc S tage I
1 S2 - ToLrl S tage 2 c ons c ns us of a group of Inv es tl g-rtors eac h bav i ng many y ears of ex peri c nc e
? oS 2- P cl ccrttage S tage 2 l n the s c ori ng c ' i pol y graphl c s l eep rec ords . Inl Ll al di s c us s l on rev eal ed r
number of l s s ues that needed to be res ol v ed. 1' he dev el opment of l l te tnanuai
Wh e r e p e r centages or fractl ong are used, l t l s l mporti l nt [o i ndi cate re qul red ex tens i v e dl s c us s l on, c orres pondenc e and rev l s l ott unti l eac h oI
cle a r ly lh e sp c cl fl c ntl rncl al or and denomi n:rtor. thes e i s s ues rv as res ol v ed to the s ati s fac tl on oI the erl tl re C omml ttee. Ti Li s
l undbook s houl d be v i erv ed as a rv ork l ng l ns trument rather than a 5(atute,
F o r th o d e sl gnati ort oI psycl rophysl oL:gi cal mci sures, the tcrrn nol ncn- l \ l any oI tl re dec l s i ons made arc bas ed upon an u.nderl l ng c onc eptl on of t]re
cIa tu r e a tr tl a b brevi ati ons oI thc j ournaI P svchopl rvsi ol oßt'are recomrnendcd. organl z ati on of s l eep s tagc s w hl c h ful ure res earc h may prov e rv rong.
Ex peri enc e w i th the nrl nu;rl may s uggc s t pos s tbl e rc v l s l ons . \\?rc n thc s e
T h c a b o ve l l stl ng oi abbrevi ati ons shoul d not bc i nterpretcd as nccess- su ggc s ti ons ac c umul ate apprec i abl y , i t w oul d s eem l n order [o hare a
a r lly ln tlica lin g l l urt xbl )rcvl ati ons are cnccl uraged, but si nrl l l l ' suggcsts x re v i erv of the manual -
sta n cla r d iza L lortoI abbl cvi al i ons In tl l ose i ttsl arccs w l rere l i tcy arc used.

Ju st a s th ere i s s;rvi ng i n "decodi ng" ti mc w hcn tl tc same al l l l l evi ati ons


a r e u se d ln d ilfcrcnt arti cl os, so therc i s sornu easc oI vi sual recogni tl on to
b c g a in cd b y r r si ng a corntnon format for thc l nost frcrl rrcnt ki nds of graphi c
ILLU S TITA TION S

F IGURE T .. Placemen[ of E E G, E frl C and E OG el ectrodes.

F IGURE 2 . Comparl sorr of E E G tracl ngs l n S tages 2 and 3.

F'IGTIRE3. Comparl son of E E G traci ngs Ln S tages 3 and 4.

T IGUNE 4 . Compari sou of E E G tracl ngs l n S tages 2 and 3.

F IGURE 5 . Comparl son oI E E O traci ngs l n S tages 3 and '1.

F IGUNE 6 . Sc hcrnatl c l l l ustratl ons of rul es for scorl ng S tage


REIV Irni xed w i th sl eep spi ndl es.,

F ICUNE 7 . Sc hematl c l l l w trati ons of rul es for scorl ng the


start of S trg< IIE M.

I.ICURE 8 . Sc hemaüc l l l ustratl ons of rul es (or scorl ng the


e nd of S tage IIE M.

F IGUn ES 9 - 2 2 . Epocl x from varl oug gLages of a 19 year ol cl , normal ,


m al e subJect.

F rc u R E s2 3 -3 2 . Epochs froru varl oug stages of a 2l year ol d, normal ,


Eool esubj ect.

f IqUIIE JJJTU. Dpoctrs frorn varl ous stages of a 25 year ol d, normal ,


m al e subl cct.
{jffi,
:. ;.:i ' i
:.
..j':'i.'

. . .'.',
B l bl l ofra phy

Be r g e r ' , ll. J. Tonus of extrl nsl c l aryrgeal muscl es duri ng sl eep and Iv Ionroc , L.J . Inter-rater rel l abtl i ty of s c orl ng E E G s l eep rec ords . P ap€r
d leami ng. S ci encc, t34: 8{0, I961. read at the A s s oc i atl on for P s y c hophy s l ol ogi c al S tudy of S l eep
Iv l eetl ng, S anta Monl c a, C aU fornl a, A prl l , 1967. Ä bs trrc t l n
Ile r g e r , Il.J., Ol l ey, P . and Osw al d, L The E E C , eyo movements and P s y c hophl s i ol ., .l : 3?0-37I, 1968.
d reanrs of the bl i nd. Quart. J. D xp. P sychol ., l .l : 183-186, 1962.
R c c hts c hafl c n, r\. P c l s onal c omnrunl c aU on. 1968.
Br a zle r , IU . A .8., C obb, \\t.A . , Fi schgol d, l l . , C asti .rut, l t., Gl oor, P .,
llcss, R ., Jasper, H ., Loeb, C ., Ir{agnus, O., P ampl gl i onc, G., R ec hl s c haffen, A ., l l auri , P ., and Zel tIl n, M, A udi tory arv ak enl ng thrc s -
. Remond, A ., S torrn van Leeurvcn, W. and Wal ter, W, G. P rcl l m- hol ds i n Il E l tl and N R E Iv I al eep s ts ges . P erc ept. l v l otor S k i l l s , 22:
ln ary proposal for an E E C terrni nol ogy by tl re Termi nol ogy 92?-942. 1966.
Commi ttee of thc Internatl onal Fedcrati on for E l ectroenccphal ography
a nd C l l nl cal N europhysl ol ogy. E l ectroencepl r. cl i n. N eur-ophysi ol .. R ec hts c haffc n, A ., W ol pert, E ,A ., D ement, W . C ., It{ i tc hel l , S .A ., and
I3 :6.16-650, 196I. Fi s her, C . N oc turnal s l eep of narc ol eptl c 6. E l eetl oenc etrh.
c Ii n. N c urophrs i ol ., 15: 599-609, 1963.
Br o wn , C. C. A proposed stmdard nornencl ature for psl ,chophl si ol ogi c
n reasurcs. P svcl roph-vsi ol ., 4: 200-264, 196?. noth, B . Thc c Li ni c al and tl reoretl c al i rnportl nc e oI E E G rhy thrns
c o r rc s 1> ondi ngto s tatc s of l orv ered v l gi Lanc e. E l ec troenc epl t.
De m cr r t, \\'., and l (l ei trnan, N . C ycl i c vari atl ons i n E E C duri ng sl ecp and c l j n. N r.uronh i ol ., 13: 395-399, 1961.
th el r rcl tti on to cyc movel ncnts, body motl l i ty, and dreami ng,
Dlectrocnccpl r, cl l n. N europht,si ol ., 9; 6?3-690, 195?.

Ja co b so n ,4 ., K al es, A ., Lehmann, D ., and l l oedemaker, F.S . Il {uscl e


to nu6 l n hurnan subj ects durl rrg sl cep and drearni ng. E xp. N eurol .,
l0 :,1r8-42{. 196.1.

Ja sp cr , ll.l {. (C omrnl ttee C hal rman). 'l 'he ten tw enty el ectrode system of
th e l nte.natl onal !'ederati on. E l cctroenccph. cl i n. N europhl si ol .,
I 0: 3? 1-3 ?5, 1958.

Jo lu r so n , L . C . and K arpam, W. E . A utonomi c correl ates of the spontaneous


K- cornpl ex. P svchophysi ol ., 4: 386, 1968. (^bstract- A rti cl c l n press .)

Jo h n so n , 1 ,. C . , N utc, C . , A usti n, Irl .'f . and Lubi rr, A . S pecIral ai l al ysi s of


th e E E C duri ng w aki ng and sl ecpi ng, E l ectroencgph. cl i n, N curo-
p hvsi ol ., 23: 80, 196?.

l,o o m is, A. L., l l arvcy, E . N ., and l l oburt, G.A . C erebral statcs durl ng
slecp :re stutl i etl b1' humrrn brui rr l l otcrrtl :rl s. J. tl xtl . I)sj chol .,
2 1: 127-1.1.1, 193?.

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FIGU I(E I
1 ' h l s e l ro c h i l l u s t ra t c s t l l o o r)s e t o I S t a g e
ptr gc s 2- 'l ) '
rnd A 2 cl cctrodcs s tr ges ' ( Sec tc x !' [ i E G ' REi\ts and
th e p la ce m e n t of E I' E 2' Ä l ' ut'l t t ' g " mi x c d f re q u c n c y
U p p e r d r a wln g lllu str a to s for rccordi tg Loni c l l Et\I. N ote r c l ;r tl v ety 'otu
a tr d a lso sh ow s tw o nl etl rods i n Lhc toni c El l C '

ffi ior cletectlon o I e 1 ' e n lo vcm e ttls tl te s l utr p dc c l ur s e


r n "so lc r r crs l 'ow er dt-rtw i ngl l l ustrates
E i v l C f r o m m e n la l a n cl ' ";;;;i for E E G recordi ng of sl ccp
p l a c e n l e n t o f C3 ' C4 '
^ ' ' ' "tl' n ' e le clr o tJe s

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16.3

l se c

T'IC U R I] 2

Co m p :r r is ou oI E IC l raci ngs (C 3, r\2 dcri vl rti orrs) i n S tl rgcs 2 antl l J. x m l ) l i t u d (' , s I o \ \ ' \ \ i l l r i t c t i v i t ). rv as l rl rnos t, bi l ( nol . qui tc enougl r, to qrrc l i ft
T r :r clr r g s fr o r n di [[crcrrt l )orti ons oI u sl ct,l l Lecorri ucrc scl cc(c(l rrs rrn oi rl i r s S t rg c 3 . Th c l )c rc q n t i r{ f o f uc c c l )tx l )l c , l ri gh ampl l tudc , s l orv rr' :tv c x c ti ri t-\
in tlr e d iscr lr n lnoti on of thc tw o stagcs. 'l 'l tc [our tt.:l ci ni {s on tl ri s pagc ar.r i n c. a c h t ra c i n g i s l i s t c c l o n i l rc ri gl rt hrntl s i de oI thc rc c ordi ngs .
SL tg c 2 . T h cy rverc del i bcratol l 'sel uct(.(l l tcci rusu thc pcr.cent:rgcof hi gh
L (_

l so c

FlGUllE 2 ( C onti nued)

T he f o u r t r a c l n g s o n lh ls p a g e we r e se le ctcd l) cca u se they shorv l rrj t enouK h Iri gh anrpl i tude. sl ow w :rvc ;rcl i vi tl '. |.a., 2 c ps or s l orv er and g-reater
hlg h a m p t i t u d e . s l o w wa ve a cllvity to q u a lify [o r Stxg c 3. In l l orderl l ne tl un 75 yV l )erl ( [o pcak. Thcse i l l ustraLl orw de pi c t 30 s ec epoc hs rec orded
I ns t a n c e g w h e r e t h e r e [s a q u e stlo n o f r vh o th cr to sco r e S tage 2 or S l age 3, on a B eckm;rn Ti .pe It D ynogrnph $'i th a prper s peed of l 0 mm/s ec , a tl me
a c o m p a r l s o n o f t h e r e co r d ln q u e stlo n wilh th cse tr a c l ngs may faci l i Late a constant of 0.3 sec l nd n cul i brauon o[50 uV /c m. (For Fi gs . 2-5, s ec tex t,
dec l s l o n . ' I h e u l d e rlln e d p o r tlo r r s o f e a ch tr a cin g r vcre consi dered "accel l tabl e" pages 6-7.)
) 7.1

l 'l c ul tl i J

ct ccl. b: : : : : : , i: : [ : : "i""1] Xt t ?, : : : t -
r cr c dclir r cr r r cll- scle
sr . r ge 3. 1'lr cv
SLl r gt's 3l r tr r l {' r r "'ralm
s ost 'bul t t otqut t
Contpr tli s on of ELI( ;
tr r c i ngs ( C 3' A2 tl c t'i tr r Ii tl r ts ) i n
r r t:t'c s ul uc tetl as r tt r tl tl
iii, li. . . r "" r r r r 'cr r ct ivit l
ot r 'uc ottl
Tt' :r citr gs It' om t]l l l c r c r r r S t i rg , e ' I .
" 'l * " 1' foul tr l c i r ]3s ol l l l l i s l ) r ''{c x r c
oI l"l ;;:;i
r c t* 'o s l egc s ' T l l c
" ';;
in thc disct' i nr i n:r l i on
I rac
FIGU N E 3 ( C ontl nued )
2 cps 6r glqssp and
hl gh am l l l l tude' el or v w a v e a c l l v l L y ' l ' e "
cnotl ßh " ac c epl abl e" c l e plct 30 soc epochs
p a g e r vcr e se lo cte d - b cca u se thcy show l ust peak ' T he s c t . l l u e t ra l l o n s
T h e ( o u r t r x c l n g ! o n tttls to r Sla ge 't l n borderl l ne
gr c al er than ?5 v V Ou" n'o
w t t h a p a p e r s p e c d o i I 0 mm/ s e c '
tV to q u a llty i '0" n D y nog ra p h
h l s h a m ö t l t u d e e l o w wa ve ' n "' tiu f g core S tage 3 or S ti rge 4' r ec or tl etl on a s c c k ;;
o i 5 0 rrV / c m'
a q u e stto n o i r vh cth e .rlo unO a c al l l lrrL l o n
ln s l l n c e s w h e r e l he r e ls may faci l l tate a ti m e c ons tar r t of o'i
ln q u cstlo n wlth th e se tr i l ci ngs ""
a c o m p a r l s o n o t t he r e co r tl
o f e a ch tr xcln g rverc consl dered
a d e c l s l o n . T h e u n d e r ttn e - d - p o "to n t
30.0

2 sec
I;IGU ITL i .I

ol rv rv c a c t i v i t ; ' a n d q u rl i [ l ils Slagc 3. Tl l e t ra c l n g s d e p l c t 2 0 s c c e P o c l l s


Tllc tol) tlu-c c tfac i ngs i l r c s Lx go 2 atl ( l c onti l i n l l l c Lt'l r s i ttg i x i r c c nti r gc s u ' i l h i t l )i l p c r s P c c d
Icco[tlucl o n a G ra s s )l o c l c l l V -C e l c c t ro c n c c p h a l o g ra p h
ar nplitut) e s l or v w i l v c r c tl v i tJ ' but not c tr ou;i l l to qui r l i [.t [or Shr gc 3 ' T l tc
lr Jgh , o f 5 { ) p V / c m'
s l o\! o l l 5 rn m/ s e c . a t i me conslitnI o f 0 ' 3 s c c a n c l a c a i i b ra l i o n
l
botl.r ,r nr llr r ce tr ac tl l gs c otttai n i l tc r ei i s i ttg l ) c r c c nl l l gc s of hi gh;r nr l l l i l u( l c '
j

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I,'ICU IIE 5

uave actl vi ty arl cl qual i fy xs S tage 4 Thc l rl c l ng: dc pl c t 20 s c c epoc i l l


l rtct e esi ng pcrcenLagcs of
T h e t o p t l l r e e tr xcln g s a !' u SL lg c 3 a ttL lco ltt:r ln \ri th a px l )er s peed
to qual i fy [or S tage 4 'i 'l re rccortl ed on a Grass !1odsl l V -C cl ec troc nc epl tal ograph
h i g h a m p l t f u d e , s lo w r va vc a ctIvlty, b u ! n o t cr lo u g lr o[ 50 uV /c m'
ln cr e a sln g p l:fce n tf,g ca of hi gh al npl l tudc' sl otv o[ 15 rnm/sec, a ti rne co{l stant o[ 0'3 s ec and a c al l breti on
boltom !hree traclngs co n tlr ln
E POCH:

toG

TMG
A t tG

S IA GT

toG

TMG

T EG

SIAG T

toG

TMG

T EG

ST AG E

toG

TMG

ttG

5TA GT

l 'l GL!1i l . (i

Sc l r c nr r r ti r i l l r r s l t':r l i r r r r s ol l 'ül c s l ur s I o I i rrg S l rr3 t : l l l i \ l n ri \ (' L l N i (l r s l r' (' l )


s pi r tr l l r 's . Sr 'u l t,r t- pi r ü( ' x . Iot t x pl r r l :tti o t t .
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ol
S c hc meti c l l l us trx tl ons
for s c orl rtg tl rc s l art
rul c s
S ee tex t'
ot S tage R E \t
px ge 9, for ex P l anatton'

Eo o

TMG
c, ItG

5TAGE

EOG

EMC
D ItG

5 IAGT
j
I
I

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I
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FIC U IIE I (C ontl nued)


UFI iYE- A2

FIGU R E 9
I se c

S l agc \\" N ol c
S Lxgc \\'. T'h.i sepocl r i l l ustl atc s an u' nambi guotrs
aod thc l tE IIs '
thc rehti vel y conl i nuous rl pl l a ac tl v i ty

FICU R E S 9-22
'I'itne
c h a n n c l s c a l i b ra l l o n rv a s 5 0 v V ' l c rn .
'I'he s ul ) J c c t Fo r l h c e )' o n ] o v e n l c n t a rl d E D G was 0' 03 sec'
of s ul l i c c L l ) t'c s e nted '
l ar c t h u I l rn c c o n s t a n t
Epoc l r s Ir or n tht': v ar i oug s tagc s c o n s l l t rl l rra s 0 . 3 s e c Fo l t h e Eitlc clnnnel,
s tuc l unl Al l tl l c tr ac i ngs l r r c fr om ' rv i rs o n l v i -r0 u V / c m i n o rt l t ' r
r vr r s r I9 y ol r ol d, ttor nr i tl , m r r l J c ol l c ge t' ir., * r. t h e E i \ l C c h a n n e l
l l D \nogr f,l ) h' Eac h I n Fi g s . 9 - l 3 , t h e c a l i l l rrt l i o n t rrs l 0 v V l c r
ott:t Bc c k r tr :tn T y pc t h c E N l C c rl i l ; rl t i o n
thc sur no ni ght anti w er c r c c or ti c d t o rn i n i n ri z c i n k s p l e t t c l i rt g '
ln , . r-t t '
l L l s pec r l oI l {) m m /s c o'
I'ec or c l c d l)lll)cr
tr ir cing t'opr c ael l ts a 30 s c c c poc l t
_A2
RIGI{TEYE

lsorv
I so c
[-IGU R E IO

Stage l. T l ü s lllu 3 tr a le s th e tr a n sitlo n fr o r n Stage \V to S tage I w l thi n a end of the epoch, a R el l and a burst of al pha ac tl v l ty s l gnal a rc turn to S l x ge
s l n g l e e p o c h ; R E i l Is a n d a lp h a a ctlvlty a t th e sk\r t o f thc epoch are l ol l ow cd by W, but sl i ghtl y more thar hrl l the epoc h l s S tage I, arrd the epoc h l s s c ored
s l o w e y e ' m o v e m e nL sa n d th e typ lca l r e L a tivcly lo r v vol tage, ml xcd frcquency accordl ngl y. 1he rel ati vel y el evated EMC Is mal ntai ned l n the trans l tl on Irom
E D G o f S t a g e I ( m u ch a ctlvlty a t 3 - 4 c1 x) la te r ln th e epoch.' There are no S tage W to S l age l .
v e r t e x s l n r p w a v e o , r vNch ls typ lca I o f th e e a r ly m inutes of S tagc l . A t thc
L[FI-IYE- A2

RIGHTEYE- A2

Itouu
I S6C

I'IC U R E II

Stugc l. 'f [i s epoc h i s t_r 1i c :r I of t]r c c r l l S' p o rt i o n o[ Stagt' l. J ' l rc l e a rc


s l or l c l 'e m ov c m c nts and n r c l ati v c l y l o w v o l t rg c ' . mi s t ' t l [ re q u c n c y
El i G thr or r gl r ouL tl r c ( 'l 'oc l l . 'Ioni c E A I C i s ml ri n t rri n c t l . Th c re l s

onl l ' onc p<.r s s i l r l c r r 'r l c x s l utr l r r r' : rv c (u n d c t ' l l n c rl ).


J

LIFTTYT- A2

TYE- A2

FIC U ItI l 2

I w i th very
Sta g c l. T h ls epoch i l l ustrates a l ater portl on of S tage
p r o rn-tnent vertex sharp w aves (more proml nent tl ran l n most
su b J ecLs)'
LEN'EYI- A2

riA^
^
-t lq
r{

R IGHIY
I T- 4 2

EMG

;i

! i,rril\4^4x\,,1A\'{
tlI

il I

FIC IJII E
l so r v
sta ß e l' .t,Js cpocrr i l l ustrates trru bcgrrrni ng oI transi ton
IJ
l<rc
ll
from sLrge l epoch. l l orv ev c r, thc s c orc r rroul d ns rr.l l c pr-c par.c d
to Stxg c 2 . Äs is o ftcn thc case l n l .tcr for unambl guous s l c ep
l )orti ons ot.S t^g" l , sl ou, o1.u n.,Juo_
m e n L 6 6 to p ' ve r tcx shar'w .vcs are vc.y promi ,'l t spi ndl cs rv hl c l r q.l l l fol l ou. 5l :61.111.
i n s ul )s c quc nt c poc hs , In s uc h trans l ti on
;l
(mol .c so i n [,.i s sur;j ecr. l ccords , thc di [Ierqrrti atro. r)c r\10c n' ertc x s hl rp rr.av e,g.
tln n In m o st' su b Jccts). I. ,rc mrdrl l c oI thc cpocrr. anrr r( c ompl c x c s
thcrc i s a burst of acti vi ty nray be di f{ i c ul l .: c ons ery i U s rn l rr tl rc l nterpretaU on
ln th c l2 - l' 1 cp s r :ln gc (turdcrri ncd), but i t rJocs
a n d th e r e lo r o c:r n n o t qual i fy as a sl eep spl rrt.l l c
ror. l :rsr.for a Iul r hl r[ seconrJ,
for.ptrrposcs of scori ng tl rc
suggcst ed tt thi s pol l rt. bc c aus t,.s har.prr,1y gac l .l v i ty
:U rd unfl mbi guous S Lagr 2 hts not
.r.c trppc nred.
of K c ompl ex es l s
l s s o obv l ous l ),prc s c nL, lr
ll
I

l"
_t

LYL - A.

Itor.,u

Fl C U R E 1"I

2 sl th rel ati vel y el evated tonl c


Str se 2. Thl s l tl ustrates S L.rge
i uc' rtt" ptt""nJu of si ecp sptndl es l s unambi guous'
IIFT EYt- A2

E MG
F -r..-r r.rf-r-lF|itJ- r' fw.'.a.t||-iJr- r*.a^t r' lb Y,*TJ'y- fr

c 3-A ?

u
Iuo^,
I Ee c

TIC U l TU 15

S tage 2. Thi s i tl ustrntes S trge 2 rvi th t oni c E [1G at thc l o\\' c s l


Icvel attai rted cl uri ng tl rc rccordi ng s es s l on.
*-=s

l'onu
ITIC U IIE I6

stl ge 3 ' r\cceptal l l e


stu
:- - 3.
:5sc Ti rl s e1rcchl Ll ustral es an unaml ;tguous
nLgtt sl orv w ave acti vi ty occupl es one-thi rd of tl te
"-pti tua", ernphasi s i n thi s and al l thc
record. It l s urderl i necl for
S tege 3 anrl S tage 4 epochs w h'i ch {ol }ow '
-__:*_

E\
X'

ai
ir
t:
ir
rl
MI
F

^
l i,

b
i
il
lt
U

F
F
R
E

ts
&t

tl

E
n
u

s
Il
FIC U N E 17 luoou
S tafc 3. Thi s cpoch i l l ustrates thc f:]ct tl ut N IIE [{ s tagc s ma) or mr]' not bc
I Bo c
I
rccompanl ed b1, rel ati vcl y decrcased E ül C . S hortl y bel ore the nrl ddl c
of thc epoch there i s a movcmcnt arou s al rv hl c h di s rupl s the 1:rev ai l i ng
stage onl y momcntarl l l '. Toni c E )l C i s rel ati v el y l orl l .rc fore the
t]
movcmcnt arousal and rcl uti vel y hi gl r fol l ow i ng i t, y et the rec ord l s p
S tagc 3 tl rroughoul .. &i
ft

g
t
_)

LTFTEYE- A2

RIGHT
TYi- A2

L /Yl lr

i^^,,,,
|"""'
I so c

FIC I.IITE 18

Sta g c .l . Thl s represenl s a typi cal S tage 4 epoch.


N ote t.hat
sl eep spl ndl es n.raybe presenl ,i n S l age
4.
)

tf FT

RIGHTEYE- 42

rloulu'i 11,

Str r HcltUll. Tl ti s cJrochi l l usl .r'l l .c's n tr:rnsi ti ort l )ct\r('cn S t:rgc 2 antl S tagc tl rr rt not i l l l tl l (. s i r$' -too(h tr' :rrc s l x tl c thc tl l s ti nc tl v c notc hed np;x :rrrl nc c . )
IlEi\l ' lh e r cco rd l utrl bccn S tl gu 2 for somc [i mc l tri or to thi s upoch, Just S tl gc l l l i l l i s c ons i dc l t' tl to hl v c bc gur l mmr:di rrtel l al tr:r thc c n< l of thc K
b clo lc th c m id p o i nt of l l rr: cl l och. Iherc i s l l cl car sl t.ep sl ri rrdl t'l ol l orvc<l l rt ;r compl t' s , :rn(l to (' orrti l l ut' l or l l rc rertr:ri rrdc rol tl l c c poc h. Thc l ntc rv nl r:f
l( co r n ;tlt' s. l"o llow i ng l l tc N corrrpl cs l tt'c cl t';rr s:rrr-tool l r rl rrvt's (Lrrtrl crl i trt'tl ). S t:rgc l (l )\l uc (' ul l i (' s j rrs t orr.r l r0' , o[ tl rc t' ;rc c h: hc nc c thc entl rc upoc l t i s
wh icl, lr cij:rld th c rrP l rc:rr';rncu ol l l l ,:i \Is tl uri ng l ,l rt.l :rst thi rrl oI tl l (.r.txrcl r. (N otc cu ns i tl t' r' r.dS t:rgt' Itl )\l . l i l l c i s l t Ll rc l orrqs t l ev c l of thc rc c ordl ttg s es s i ott
I

;
ail
tl

LE FITYE. A 2

rt
iJ
-
Jl
t
il
'l /-
J

l
,
TMG
I

C] AI

l.ouu
I se c

Fi C U R E 20

SL a g c IlEl,l. Thl s i s an unambi guous S tnge R eM w i th rcl atl vel t.


l ow vol tage, mi xcd frequcnct.E E C , nE l ts, ancl E i rfC
at the l orvest l eveI o[ the recordl ng sessl on. N ote tl urt
saw -tooth rvaves mry or rnaJ.not accompa.nl ,R E IvIs.
?\
{ (
tr
f
:!
Ij
ä

I,
i/'/l

c 3-A 2
F IC U IT Ij 3 I tGc

11- f . Al tl r ougl r thc r e i s c l c ar hi gl r a rn l rl i t u d c , s l o rv rr' ; t r-c n c t i l i t l '


nc :.tc Ihc c ntl of the el r oc l t, t l rc g rc a t c s t J )o l ' t i o n o f I l )(' c l )o c l )
i s ol r s c ttL'c tl L.1'tl l c m ov c m c nt n rt i f x c t i rn c l i s t l rc rc { o L c s c o rc t l
i l s l l 'f r l tl tc r than ;r s ;tn\. s t J H 3 .

.i
)
ii
*
:
1
LIn [Yt - A2

RIGHTEYT- 42

FIC U R E 22

T hls c l r c c h i l l u s t r a t c s :l tcst fo r 6 0 c1 ' clo ilr - tllu ct. Du llrrg Lhr: l ottcr porti on \\'( ,fc us t;( 1. T l tc l i \l C l r :t.or tJ l ng \r .i l s pt:l ( l u rrt rr g l ri t r 9 l l 0 y \ . / q 1 n ; 1 1 1 c 11 1
o [ t lrc c po c h , t h e P r l r c c s | c cd ls ch u n g cd fr .o r n l0 n tm ,/scc t.o l .()0rnrn,/scc. r\t
ti r r r c c o^s tar r t ol U .0;J s c c . T hc r .. \v i l s tr o Ii lt c ri t rg o I t l ru U l t C t . c c o rd
thc lat t c r p a l x ' r s ; l c c d . r i { , cl) s n r tif:r ct wo u ltl slr o u u p r r s ü r .cr.1.rr:gul :rr. si nusoi rl ol ( un tl r c l l uc k m r r n 'l '1.1r cl l , thc c oul l l c r . Ii l tc r . p o s i t l o n rr. i l s r l .
i rn d t l rc
\10\ ' t 's pe r c n 1 : s u c l l n c l . l v il.J' is vir tr r a lly lr b scn t In { .h c r .cco |ri . Tl rl s l l l ustr-:rtcs
l r r nl r l i l i er s r \c fc Iun u'i th tl r c hi ghs i n) . or r i n i t i u l e { c c t r. rx l c : rD p l l c ; r(i o n ,
tlut mc nta [ - s u b m c n t r l ! ] l l c c;r n llc le co r d cd a t h ig h g lln s u .i thout artttect i f Ihe i ntc r <l c c tr ods r c s i s tr nc c ftj r U r t U ]l C e l e c t r. o t l e s ru rs i 0 (] o h ms .
l rrollc r c lc c t r o t l c l r l t l r c l r r n u n tis r r scr l. L u r g c ( l ir r . clir r n e te r-1l e:rtl el ectrodcs
\-
I
I

TMG

C 3 -A 2
,d'n7l",rn\ühn^Äüü14{^r/ryfi
y,ü'1l\, ,t\lpt'4tmt
4ffru*ry'ü*1,{,fl,'-rrt\r,l^
i ;IC U IIE 2i J
Iso"u
I se c
staFe \\'. 'I'l ri s i s an unnrnbi grrousstaB o \\' w i tl r rc l l rti v er.r' c o' ti rtrrrrrs
l l l l )l l t. rnuscl c l cnsi orr ar.Li fuc l .s ,anrl Il l j i \l s

FI C U II I'S 9 'l

ii;xr ch s lr o r n thc vnri ous st.ges of .surrj cct2 rr.c . 'Irre srrl ,,j cct
l rr.cscrrturr F o r t l t c e 1 ' L ' mo \ ' o m(rt l rn c l I l l i c c l ra n n c l s c a l i l rra ri o n *as i0 yV/cm
r ' r ,s:r 2 l .r .r r r o ld , normrl . m.l c col l cgc s(u(rcrrt. A l r trrr.tr.rrci ngs n n c l t l r.
l i m c c o n s t a l n t \ ri t s 0 . : j s c c - I : o r l l rc E \ t C c l t l rn n t , l . t h c t i mc constnnt \ i rs
th c s:r m c r r ig lr t a ncl w crc l ccol dutl orr :r Il t.ckrnrr.'l 'r'pc l l D -rrrogrrrpl^r.r.l rom
r. l .i rrt.l r 0.0 : l s o c . I rr l : i g s . l J -: l ? t h c c l l i l rra t i o n f o r. l . h e E \ l G
tt' ttt' lttg t' t' .g scn t s a J0 sr"'c:cpOt.I rt.t.o1t]r.ri;rt rr l ri r1;ut.sl )c(.dol l 0 n1111/5,,.. c h a n rrt : l \ ra s t () uV/,cm
Ir r Fi g s . ! s -: ; ? . t l l (' l l \ l Q 1 . . , 1 ; 1 , ' ' . , ,o n rri rs l (t u V / c m.
RIGHTTYE- A2

Ito"u
I s6 c

FIC U IIE 24

the dev el opm c nt o I u a ml : i g u o u s S t a g c L ' 1 ' h l s e 1 rc c h


[ew m i nutes befor c
W ln th a t more than hai l the epoch
S t a g e \ V , T h e r e co r cl ls cle a r ly Sta g e the fi r s t of a s er i eg o[ 3 co n s e c u l i v e e p o c h s
w ] rl c h c o mp a c t l y
th e o ccu r r ence oI sl ow ' pendul ar cye c ongi l tutes
t " o " i f f i u A - U y a l p h:l a cttvtty' Ho we ve r ' tl l us tr ate the ty pi c al tr ar s i tl on fr oIn S t a g e W t o S t a g e I '
h e r a ld s the l mpendtng aP pearance
m o v e m e n L s l n t h e se co n o h a tt o f th e e p o ch
tlp ica lly a p p ear several seconds to a
of S t a g e 1 . T h e s l o lv e ye m o ve m e n ts
[Yt - A2

Iuo'u

FIC U R tr 26

acti vl ty
Sta se l. Sta ge I l s now l l rnrl y cstabti shed and al pha
neär
ls al most absenl . V ertex sharp w xves appeur
' th e end of the eP och'
li

*-)

RlGl-rTtYt - A2

TMG

I sec

FIC U R E 2 7

Sta ( e 2 , In S txgc 2 epochs rvhi ch fol l orv soon aftcr.stngc l , as thi s one oocs, and by tl rc i r nronoph:rs l cl l )l )c ar:l nc c . The c mc rgenc c of hl gl r ampl l tude,
vcr tcx sh n l.p lvxves may bc vcry al :undrnt. Tl rcsc vcrIex sharJr rvnvcs sl roul d not s l on' rl i rv c x c Ii v i l .\' l s us ual l l ' ac c ompanl ed l l 1' c n otc ri rl l Inc reas e i n bac k -
b e co ^ fu scd wlth the hi gh nmpl l tudc ;l ctl vl ty of S trgc 3. Thc shrrgr ui .rvcs cl r' guound rmpl l tudc . r\l s o note thut mos t of the hl gh ampl l tudc i rc tl v l l l . l n
u su n lll' b c tllstlngul sl rcd rl l th c:tsc t)J'thci r fastcr.l rcrl ucnc)., tl tci r l rr.omi ncrrcc tl ri s s i rrnpl c i s not s l orv c nougl t to mec t the 2 c ps c rl tc rl on for ac c eptabl u
tt th o vcr tcx ( n ot possl bl c herr.l bccrrusc onl l 'onc cl urrrncl of l l E C rr':rsyucor(l c(l ), Iti gl r ampl i tudc ac ti ri tl ,i rr thc s c orl ng of S tagc s 3 nnd { . Tl rc proml nc nt
b Y th c fr ct th a t thcl 'stnnd out aß:l i nst rt bnckgl ourrd of mucl r Iorrcr. vol tl rgc acti yi t-r.. s l ol c l ,c l nov c rnc nl s pc fs i s t from the prec edi ng S tagc l .
--.'
I

tYi - A2

TYE- A2

FIC U R E 2B

Str r e 2 , T h ls e poch l s al most borderl .i ne betrveen S tages 2 and 3;


' a p p r o xlrnatcl y l 5'fi of the epoctr ts occupLer.l
by accepLrbl c
h Jg h a mptl tude, sl ow rvave actl vl ty'
"T
'i.11
LIF'[EYI_A2

R I G Hl

/\l
e#

!-IGU R E 29

S t'rge 3 epooh'
S teFc 3. Thl g l s cl mambl guous
LIFI tYt- A2

EYI- A2

FIC U R E 3 O

4 c .poc h'
S tagc .l . Thi s i s an utl ambi guottsS tage
LIFI TYE- A2

R I G HIEYI- A2

LI YI U

I scc

t 'l c r J R E3 l

S t lß e 2 . T h l e e J r o chlllu str a tcs a cle a r tr a n - sltlo n tr e trvccnS tage 2 and S l age fol l ow c d
by r udi m entar y s tw - t.ooth r v av es l n d n s l n g l c R E I \ I . Th c p a rt o t
I I E\ { . T h e s l e e p s p l n d l e s a n d K co m p lcxcs sh o r tly Io llo wing thc ml ddl e of the Ihe epoc h w hl c h w oul d eatl s fy thc r equl r em e n t s o f S t a g e I I E N I b c g l ru a t l h e
c poc h ln d l c a t e S L a g e2 . (T h e p r e ce d ln g e p o ch r va s a L so Stagc 2, ) 'I'orvard the end pol nt of thc E&l C dc c r eas e. l nas m uc h r s l h l s c o n s t i t u t e s l c s e t l u n o n o -h a U
of t he ep o c l r t h e r e i s a c l c a r d e cr e a se o f Eü lG, wh .ich th e n reaches the l orvesl the epoc h, the entl r e epoc h l s s c or ed Stag e 2 .
I ev el at ta l n e d d u r l n g t h e r cco r d ln g se Bslo n . T lte E\1 G d e c rcase i s shortl y
LIFTEYE-A2

C)-A2

*J ro^,u
l 66C

FIC U R E 32

Sta g e REfr { , T ' hi s l s an tutambl guous S tage IIE II.


The fl uctuatl ons
o f the E MG basel l ne probabty rcpresent j aw movemenLg
a sB ocl ated w l th respl rati on.
.*J

&
4
ry
ry
ry
t0
ry
ry
AV

ry
- AI

ry
02 ry
ry
,T

^l

Sla g e W.
'
FIGU R E 33

Thl s epoch l l l ustrates an unambl guous S tage W. N ute the


R E N Is, hl gh E i \IG and rel atl vel y contl nuous al pl ut acti vi ty
a 3B C

ry
ry
FIC U R E S 33 - .IO HII
E p o c h s f r . o m t h e va r lo u s sta g e s o f su ltJe cl 3 a r c presented. The oubJect
wae a 2 5 y e a r o l d , n o r m a l, r n a le co lle g e stu d cn t. All the t.ractngs are frorn
lhe s a m e n l g h t a n d we r e r e co r d e d o n a Cr xss lvlo d e t I V -C el ectroencephl l o-
0.3 sec; the crl i brati on w as 50 uV l crn. For the E MG c hanne[, thc ttme
constant w as 0.03 eec and the catl bratl on rv as 1.0 t!/c nt. A , c ornparl eon
may bc made betrveen the tracl ngs l rom t he S tandard C { -A I derl v ai l on
MI

4
gra p h . E a c h t r s c l n g r e p r e scn L s a 2 0 se c e p o ch r e co rded ot a paper speed of w hl ch l s ueed for ocorl ng purposes and th e F4-A l , 02-A l dertv atl ons .
15 m m / s e c . F o r t h e e ye m o !' e m e n t a n d DEC ch a n n e lg the Ll me consl ant w a6

d
I
.'.'o .'.- .."'"'\::...? J:.1 '4 .:/.l '1 Jl .'- ,''.+'? l :'f5 J'&.''d .'':\''l w .* '!:ä +.<+- ;'- j 4 ;'se i $ sJ+.i fs:"* J+i "u * * * l ,r 6 * ++'q '
+ -:.'.- t .r :.-+:. -.i":'** Lr

__) )

LIFI'IY I - A 2

07 A1

l .'l cU Il E 34

p rc s c l l t l n t l r h i g h f l l \ 1 O i s ma l n t a l n e d t h ro u g h o u t A re P e t i t l v c
Ir 'otn Sl egc \\'to Sl ngo I nr ov c nr c r l t s a rc
StaKc l 1' lr ls epoc h l l l us tr ates thc tr l ns i ti on
:r r ti l x c t i s l l rc s c t l t i n t l rc F' l -A l d c ri v rt i o n
the epoc h' tl ten s l or v c r l r c -
Note lhc continuous alpl l a x t the begi nni ng of
l ow v ol tage nc ti v i t) Sl ow el c
quencies r ppeür with as s oc i :r tc tl r el ati v c l y
i
ry
\
3
(

] uFi EYE
ry
'r
t'i

ry
:/'
RIGHITYi - A2

ry
T to
ry
ffi i
1,r,v
ffi
T o.t
t""
l,nv
w
Hd
ffit

ry
F---*----i
2 sac
ry
ry
ry
ry
FIC U N E 35

Sh F e l . Thi s eprochi l l ustrates the l ater pori l on oI S tage I

ry
w i th few er oi orv e1,emovemenLs and some \.ertex
s tärp w avos 1n C .l _A l .

ry
4
_ t.}
t
I
1

RIGI'ITiYE

Tro
lpv

T so
Irtv

FIGU ITE 3O

2
S t:rH e2. Thi s epoch l l l us tral 'cs rn ma mbl guots S l agc
J. _p

L[FI'iYE- A2

RIGHTTYE

J-r n
I
lr V

T<o
t"-
I.p v

2 sec

T.IC U ItE 37

S tago 3. Tl üs epoch .i l l ustrrtcs a S tagc 3 r c co rd w i t l r ; rp p ro ri rn l t c 1 1 ,


28,,{.acceptabl e. [i gl r ampti tLrtl c. s l o s ' w a v e t c t i v i t \
.
&
_) _)
-,;
t:
I
L'
I
I

lf t r Tl rL tvL r
sr
_
^,
ilL

z se c

FIC U I],tr 3B

S LeK c,1. 1')rJscpoch i i l tLst.ral es l rrr uxrmbi guous S tago 4.


J _P

RIGHT

T so
IIV

i
I
I

I T IC U IT E 39

2 to
S tnge l l D U . T hi s c poc h depi c Ls tl r e tr atts i tio n f ro m S l a g e
StaKe R EU r v l th s l r v - tooth r v :rv c s (u n d c rl i n e d )' REI\'ls

ar r r l c l ec r eas e i n toni c EN l G, I I E Ms a rc a l s o re c o rd e d
on F - l - Al dc r i v atl oh' ( Sl c c p s p i n d l e s w c rc p re s c n t

J us l pr i of to thi s ePoc h. )
':-
, IY

-_s
l\
It

F____{
2 sec

FIC U }IE 4O

SL a ß e REM ... flo te phasl c t',vl tchl ng i n the E IvIC as rvel l as Il E l \{s,
lo w tonl c E MG and rel at_tvel y l ow vol tage E E C .

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