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By LIDA M. WILLIAMS Primary Supervisor and Instructor of Methods, [Northern Normal and Industrial Schoo, & HALL & MCCREARY CoMPANY cutcaco FOREWORD Phonies is not 2 method of teaching reading, Dot itis 1 necetsury part of every gow, modert wiethon. Te is the key to word mastery, and Word mastery is ove of the ttst essentials in learaing (0 read. A kuowledge of the sounds of letiers, and of the elfeet of the position of the letter uy fon its sound, i an esgoatial means of mastering, the we cchaniee of reading, and of exubliog ehiklren to become in ependent realers. A Knowledge of phonics not oaly gives power (0 pro noonnce new words, bat it traf the ear, develops clear ar fieulation and correct enunciation, and aids. in. spelling tater, when diseritical marks ave introduced, ik aids in the aie of the dictiuary. The habit of attacking ad pro honneing words of entirely new forn, develop selfcont Hence im the ehild, aud the pleasure he experiences ia tring dificulties' without help, constantly leads to” new tort. ‘The little foreigner, greatly handleapped where red ing is taught by the word and sentence methods ons, be fins on a equal basis with his American neighbor, when the “Alphabet hy sound” is taught. Jn recent years only has the subject of phonies foand a. place on the daily school program; and there is perhaps, no ‘ther subject on the Primary program so vaguely optTived In the average teacher's mind and therefore taught with so litte system and defiaite purpose. ‘The preteat need fs a s¥stematte and comprehensive but imple method of phonies teaching thruout. tho primary grodee, that will enable any teacher, using any good text in vending, to anceessfutly teach the phonetic facts, care fully grading the diffeutties by ensy and conseentive steps thon preparing the papila for independent effort in thot setting, and opening for him the daor to the literary trea: sures of the ages. 1¢ is with the hope of aiding the earnest teacher in the sccomplishment of this purpose that “Tow To Tearh Phen: fog” ix published, LM. W. Cort 5 RSC LEARNING 70 READ [Bvory sound and potagoglnl method of teaching read ing wast ielude two basi prineiplen 4L Iteadlag mast begin In the life of the ebild, with eal thought content. Whether the thought unit bea wot, ‘sentee, oF a story, it must eeprseu some Iden OF Hage tant appa to the ellie Saterests and- joe itso is experience 2""Temust procesd with « mastery of not only wont bt of the soand apiibol of which words are eounpoee, "The elas Tove for the tory, hie desce to antafy con: scious need, given him an Smmedate and compellig ‘no. tive for mastering the aymbols, which in themelres are of Inderal aod eaboedinate interest, While f lara ig tm ead, he feels that he Is reading to tearm and “symbole are formed Into babi” TE the ehild je to understand from the beginning that reading Ie thot geting, we mest hein with the wentence, rhyme or other Tongtga anit. If a story te the Initial step, afew wll chosen sentences that tell the heart. of the Story wil eoatitate the fst Mack boas reading Teson "The next step in the anata of the sentence, or Uhe study and recognition of the Inflekdnal words thers, Finally the wor! i= erperated oto is elnentary soars, the atuy ofthe moan ave goog ont of the stock of words feared fest an parely sight worts ToMlowog this phoale analysis comes the Maal step, the Mending of these phonfe elements to proface new wont ‘Thos gradually tucrensig’ prominence ts given to the dl covery of now words br this taalvtioavnthetie ntocese, ant Test lime to sight word drills, anil thes are entinely omit ted, exeop! for the teaching of uaphonetie words. ‘There should be atleast two ten-ninate Tests in phon: Tea each day. These Test ave not reading lesone ant ‘houtd not trepase on the regslar reading perind, when {thot geting and thot siving are upoermont ‘While areator prominence ia even to the thot pha fh reading, the rehnical drill and sctive effort In mastering the mechanteat phase 12 of equal importance a nesesarS ‘preperation for good reading FIRST YEAR Bar training rom the BISt day a definite place on the program sould be given to phonice This period, at st very short il gradual ierease to ten, ten twenty mninates To enable pups to rerogniae wonds whe popaatedin- to thee elementary sound exeriss Iv “listening dd ing,” wilt "constitate the Art siep.in_phons.teacla Words are sounded slovly and ditinety by the teacher ant pronounced or ted out by the pupil ACTION GAME (First Day.) fineteh If at Brst childeén are not able to distinguish the words when seyarated this; stand, drink, blend the sound leas slowly thus: stand, de-ink, gradually Increasing the aieuley to stand, rink, and finally to the compete analysis, ‘These ear training exercises shoukt continue entil a “phonetic sense” is established, Not all children can readily blend sounds and ‘hear the word.” Patient deill for ‘weeks, even months, may he necessary before a nense of Phonetic values is attained. Faphazard and spasmodic work | fatal to progress; Imt a few minutes of brisk, lively Aeill, given regularly each day will accomplish wonders. ‘The exercises shold be varied from day to day to in. fare active interest and effort. Second Day: Touch soar n-o#e; tots your cheek: book; your chin; pencil; derk; Third Day: Plece a number of tops in a basket, Pops find ‘ux the tenchor sounds the name of exch, saying: “Find the top"; “the spools” “the do"; “the hora”; ts. Fourth Day: Sound the names of pupils in class; oF names of animals; color, fruity places, ete. ith Day: Teun to me, Clap your hands Wave the hag. Clowe the door, Fold your arms, Bering mea red ball Bounee the bal ‘Threw the ball to Fred. Wing the bell Hop to me Situ my hale Teun to the char Sing a song. Bering me the pointer Bow to me, Fly a kite Sweep the too. Rock the bay. Wesh sour face Devet the chalrs Shake the reg. Reed the bene Gall the chek. MITE the cov. Chop wd Row a bent, Blow the hora, ‘The pupll ahowld now begin sounding won for Him: olf, at frst, If noel he, repeating the sounds after the teacher, then being enconraged to attempt them alone, He will soon be able fo "spell by sound’ names of common ob- jects in tHe room, as well as cary aud familiar words die {ated by the teacher. UL. Teach the Single Consonant Sounie. sf by i by fay ay py 8 (as im 00), vy, Wy & (ard), ¢ (Iuard), and qu as in queer, ‘Teach but one sourid for enek letter at Mrst. Nothing need be sid at this Lime about the fact that some letters hhave more than one sound, When words like “ity” or “gen occur simply explain that sometimes “e" or “g” as thie sound, (giving the soft sound), but continue in the phonic drili to teach the sounds that will be need frst— those most often met in the early reading. The sounds of initial 8 and y are taoght first, rather than nal y and 53 4s taught with the w=-qu (as in quiet, queer, quick) mot 4 alone. ‘The sounds must be given distinctly and correctly by the teacher, and she should insist on perfect responses. Good reading is imposeible without clear and distinct articua ton, 1. Analyze Known Words in Teaching the Consonant Sounds, For the frst lesan teach perhaps two cousonant sounds, Suppose the words “tall” and “red” are chosen to he anlyzed ae words familar to the lags, (Relected from the reading leseons as the ones beat known and most easily remembered.) Write “Dall” on the board, and pointing to the separ. fated parts, sound slowly soveral times. Pupils repeat. ‘Teacher ay, "Show the letter that says? ‘The part that save fal) Weite “b” under *al!” eho ban > Pupil sound “0” several tes, as it is written elsewhere com the black board. Proceed with “red” in the stme way. Keep these two forme, » red ® . tefore te clam sabag Creaueny far the und enti ool sed nin or the sand lesson, review “hand “ead ite one or ins now sonnet Tt better fo have abort Fragen atta et fit than to reed omy woul one aeling i coutesom Sapp cet ito be tngit next andthe ip word hove ap” (0 ot amcntary to teach hone Sherine onder fo whic thy oa nthe spate it THI dapen rather synthe occuvens in the pene ofthe Tord chown fo type monds. Wt the wind “cap” Papa Toole Ie at ens na eight word, and Pronmuace: ie tote npsneting thoy eset the pple ake ‘Hort to 'nond te part son ny ty toned or then asking the te peat afer you, Poveda ith a and ed igre tht cach one ives fe sot Ta) After teaching “sey, Who can Sad word on th cnet eginaing ih thie saad?” "tn yout Bota?” “the let che papi snoding the Teter a he potas tot {ay Say, “Pm thinking of anutier wont Megiaing sim Se "SH smethingGremipn mem io wang (Cane) “Fm thinking af mmctng vet htt sou tes ceo" (cata) (Canty “08 fw thine of sma Tie Sihwc"“Cetara) ten) "4 Fite yellow iv [Cnean) Sow tink af wordesioney with that soar” "Ar ction tasotten 2 nen at Once Appling Knowledge of the Sounds Tamed “Stee” won ae met cntining nora sand, the pup ston apply tse taowindce teen For cumple if te wor atl” appar fan pape and “oh i eccer proneaneng att unto ee ot te wo a ets tebe pai ts these sae to ihe han ctcres tho Sey word fois I the nee Sond "xy they Bel rows fe fences set Serotonin zien hep sot Seat? oat: ter fester ne he et oe Mento sounds 3b." Combine “c” with “ab” in the same manner uatil by fhe Blending of the sounds the worl Is eoRaized. Only such help aboukl be given, as wil exable the pupil to help imal “Bal” “rea” and “eup” now become type worts with whieh “3 +o" and Me" are associated respeetivoly, and from Which the pupil gets his “cue” if he fails to give the sound Df the letter at sight. Thus all the consonants are taught, from suitable sight words which the child bas aiready leara sl ‘They need not howerer, be the once given here,—tor "amy be “baby,” “ball “hey,” ar “box,” bat Ie It be 42 word familiar to the class and cailly remembered. For “a” it may be “ol,” “day,” or “dog? for “3, “you”, “yeh low”, ete ‘The teacher should previously go through the text and select the words she wishos {0 use as type words in teaching, the consonant sonnds. 3. First Stope in Writing and Spelling. ‘As euch consonant aband is tanght its written form tmay be learned. On rowgh manila paper, using waxed crayons, make copies of the letters about ‘two iaches in hoight, for ench pupil. At his desk the child traces with his fore finger, going over the emooth path again aad ez thes developing paychomotar eoonlination, Bach time the letter is teed, the pup sounds it softly, and as scan as he Is sure of the form, rans to the hoard and writes i. ‘The writing at test may ho entirely at the blackboard, where the teacher's eony may be reproduced. For the slow (er ones who have difeulty with the form, a good practice Is to “write it in tho air,” the papil polating with index fn ager and following the teacher as abe wetes, also tracing the feacher's copy with pointer, using free, rapid movement. (Tracing with crayon ar pencil tends to alow, examped wail: Ing, and should uot bo encouraged.) Thue when the forms ‘of the Totters are learaed and aseoctated with the sound, the pupils are able to write phonetie words from dictation as well as to “spel! by sound.” © Consonant Dri FLV With aw rubber pen, a set of type, oF with Black crayole, and cardboard, a set of consonant cards may be made, one for each sound. On one sido of the eard is write fen of printed the type word with the consonant wound be- low om the other sid, the consonant alone, thus [oar >I Ibo} 1B ‘The umber of cards will increase exch day as new founds ate learned. Rapid ily drill with these cards it most valuable in associating instantly tho sound with its symbol aad should be continned until every ehikt” knows very sound. After the analysis the elde of the card con tainiug only the consonant should be used for the drill. But i the pupil fils to give the right soond, or is unable to give any sound at all, the card should be reversnd and he readily etn the right sound from the word, Other devices for teaching the consonants sre some: times used by sarcessfal teachers who do not use the type words and cals. For instance, the leter may he arsociated ‘with its sound in this way >—The elock says “1”; the angry cat, “P"; the cow says “im; ete. The diBicalty” here Is to find sultable symbols for each sound. Tf, for example, the rounds of "I"; “and “ah” are represented by a epinalag ‘whos, a buss sew, and a water wheel respectively, and it ‘he child is not familiar with thece eymbols, they will not call up a definite sound in his mind; but if “1” ia taught {rom “Uttlo;” “ feom “sheep,” and’ trom very”, (or other familiar words.) there ean he n0 uncertainty and no time need be spent by the ehild in laboring to retain and associate the sounds With unfamiliar symbols, ‘Not the method, but the motive, is the essential thing. ‘What we went is that every child should know the eonson- fante thorols. Get the motive, then use the method that brings tho beat results with ‘the Teaet expenditure of time and energy. 2) Por varity in reviewing and fixing the consonant foam ge rates ain ocr, ‘a. With all the consonants on the boar, the tesch- ‘er sounds any contoonnt, tho pupil finds and repeats the ound as te pointr it owt, AR the teacher points, pups ‘ound, oceagionaly in concort, and in individual recitation Of the cativ lit, Indleidgal work should pretominate, to hake sure that the pupil giving the correct round and potting forth independent efor. 1B. Pupils write sounds a9 teacher aletates. Ifa poril faite to recall Sail weite che form, the teacher may poo: fnoance the type word and ask the pupil to sound the in lial consonant {tell the frst sound in the word). To illus fratoy ‘Tho teaser pronownces “enp", pupils sound “e" hen write it If they have mastered the written forms ‘hey will enjoy this excrise ‘Ghildten soon eequlte the abfity and become possessed of tho desite to write whole words, Thon the (eacher Should direct thie effort, teaching ‘he child to visual (det a picture of the word a4 a Whole) ond write short, simple words 5. Blowing. ‘When # aumber of consonant sounds sxe mastered practice in blending may begin, When the need arin tren words ars abo which bein wth a combination of on fone th blends are tanh. eit 18 Trig bush. flat, flower, flower. ‘Koop a Separate eu at cards for theo bieade-—and drill pon them as the Sie grows 0, sot, wl, wm BL eh ty st ty ts, ep, a, ‘The teaehor mast pronoence the epllables thatthe chil dren have, a8 yet, wo power to master, e.g. With the word “grow, (1) the children will blond g end », ge; (2) foaehion pronounces “ow; (3) ebildrea blend “ge” aud “ow” until hey revogalae "geo." 7 ‘Teach also the digsaphs sh, cb, eh, why as they are mel in the common words in uso: when, they; chick, ete TIL, Peack the Short Vowels, ‘Since more than 60 per cent of the vowals are short, land siuce short vowels outnuzber long vowels by about four to one, chey are ugiht nt, Teach ona rowel RL a time by combining with the known conronants, And what fn itis, when shore “a” Is latroded, to blend ie with the consonants and listen to discover “word sounds” Hence forth the children will cake dolight in “unlocking” new worl, without the teacher's help. She will tee t0 it, of ‘course, that the works are siapls and pavely phonetic at fret; a8: ‘Whole “fomities” are discovered hy placing the vowel ‘with the ihitnt oF the fnal consonants, ‘The children will enjoy forming all the faites posi ‘ie with the Known soands, Short a” Families or Phonogrems, 2 2 ap and rang bank vit oan cup va fae Fao cima ea te bane ome ine tp de = Ae te re rae om rae Dax tay tae ‘ane Ag Na oe we we ae van ara ae rd moka as After a little Grillin analyzing the words of a family, (eounding the consonant and phonogrem separately) they ‘should De pronounced at sight, analyting the word only ‘when the pupil fails in pronunciation, ‘The teacher's chart of phonograms as she work for herself may be somothing like this, i oat oa * ° a = While this gives the teucher a working chart, it is nelther necessary nor advisable that the above order be al- wavs followed in teaching the phonograms and. sounding series of words, nor that they be systematically completed before other phonograms found In the words of the reading Tessons are taught. Such phovograms as “ound” trom “found”, “on” from “run”, “ight” from “bright”, “est from “nest”, “ask” from “lark, ete, may be taught’ an soon ne Phonograms these sight words are wade a part of the child's reading vo Dia al tek ae re wea tee wie = a le ta mit Pie nin as tint bu thin io tim ob ae ay iS Po tim Pg ro am 48 is aie iM ae tim i tae cam ag ain atta tae ah io tie An om pe @ in nae eae = iu =o wan = an one 2a Attention ia not called here to tho various vowel sounds, but the complete phonogram is taught at sight. Short “e” Phonograms. ea ben bond > eat fer a teat Short 0! Phonograms os el Ts ts 35 Cee i = 23 a: a - ea is ea ig ” From the beginning review dsily the phonograms taught ae ae ‘Thus by means of thee dally drills in pronunciation, a0 22 tue pupil gainn power in mastering new words, He cow es stantiy makes Intelligent and practizal application of the oe knowledge be has gait in pronouncing a etter or @ com {ce Dimation of letters tu a certain way, under cerain eondl ze tom. toa! Diacritisal Marks om ‘The child has no need of diacritical marks at this time; Beret indeed he has little need for them until the fourth year, Phonograms Containing Short u? when te uso of the dictionary is tanght. The new dic ve ne Tonavies greatly simplify the matter of mastering the dia- tier te ction! marks, and lesen (be number neaded, by reveling tae is Saphouetie words in simple phouete spelling, c= | Dring the Arve three years do not retard the child's an oe progress, aud weaken ie power to apply the Koowledge ee ie Thich Bis previous exyerince has given hin, by marking we use as words to aid him in pronunciation. At beet, the marks ae cc Arti and questlonate ads PHONIC PLAYS DMuch necessary drill can be made interesting by in fusing the spirit of play into an exercise that would other wise be formal, 1. “Hide and Seok” ‘fide and Seek" at once suggests a game, The teacher introduces it simply by saying: “We'll play these sounds fre hiding from us. Who ean find them?” Place the consonant cards on the blackboard ledge. ‘The teacher writes any consonant on the board and im tmoliately erases it A pupil dnds the cand containing the fame consonant, sounds it, and replaces the cand ‘Teachor writos several sounds on the board, then erases them. “Pupil finds corresponding sounds on cards. in the order written, BERSo awe 2 “Pishing” (Bish ia pond.) Cards plocod in a row oa black board ledge, (Catching fish.) Pupil takos as toany as he can sound correct. ‘Single and blended consonants, aud digraphs writlen ‘on eardboasd eut in form of ish, aad put into the mirror Take on the sand table, Children “eatch fish” in turn, 3. "Guess ‘A popil thinks of « word containing a known phono- gram, which is commsnicatod to tho teacher. ‘The child Ftandit before the class then says, “T'am thinking of a ‘word belonging to the “an” family.” "The word, we will say, Ee "fan.”” A ehild who is ealled On as, Ia ite an" ‘The fet enild replies, “Ie Sk not can.” Another asks, “Is It man?” ele, Until the correet word Is discovered. 4. “tun Home.” For reviewing phouograns and fing the vowel sounds fs well, the following gome ie used. ‘Draw pictazes of several houses on the board, writing 1 diflerent phonogram in each, explaining that these are the names of the familice Living there, a, ed,” “eg,” “est” ‘en;” ete. Distribute to the class eatés containing a word with one of these endings, and let “the ehildren ran home.” ‘Those holding the words ten, pen, men and hen, will run to the house where “en” Hives, ‘The children holding rest, best, rest, ete, will group themselves at the honse of “es.” “Aeuin let several children represent mothers and stand bofore the class holding phonograms. As Motler “ed” eal her children, those holding cards coutaining red, led, fed, Fred, and bed, will run (o her. Ifa child belonging to the “eat” family should come, she will end back the stray ehild, saying pleusantly, "You do aot belong in my family!” A Uitte voice drill ae practiced in the musie lesion may be fused here. ‘The mother calle “Children” on 1 and 8 of the seale (low and ‘igh do ths: 1-8 Ba cullen), he ieen repsing av hey come, “Were ‘For individual tenis tet the mother eall oot all her chikives from the other familie, the children coming to her as she calls shir card sauien KENDIE STOKES Jonliven the plonie drills cesasionally by otigiuating lise rhymes, using the words of the series to be reviewed Write tie words on the board in columns, or upow cards As the teacher repeata a line of the Jingle she pases for the chitaren 0 supply the rhsme words. Grandma was taling 2 cozy nap. Heer baud ware folded in her (ap) Wn sho wakened the heard (tap) Ta the maple cree that full of (sap ) She son spied the tapper—be wore & red (exp) White vest and black eoat, and is wings gave-a (tp) Aa he hopped about with « rapatap- (tap) What did he want—was he looking for (eup) ? Ab no, but for grubs, which hie ate quick as (snap) ‘Can you name this gry drwinmcr who wears a red (cap) n, ‘As soon a possible introduce & number of phoograms Ingo the same story. Thave'a little pet ‘Who fe as Dlaok as (et) Sho sits pon e mot And watthes for a (rat.) Hier coat is wmooth ae silk, She Hikes to drink sweet (ullk) She grows s0 fast and fat ‘That soon shell be a (cat) Can't you guess?” Now what n pity "Mis the dearest litte) SPELLING BY SOUND ‘An easy step now, shich the childsen will enjoy is the writing of the worda of given familicn at @ dicttion exer cle, followed by nentences as coon as the use of the capital And’ period have been teaght. Such senteneer ax the fl: loving may bo given ater 4 uamber Of short “3” phono fru age aster. “he eats 08 8 mut Nan tava fan The cai at Th ea ca ace the pan. The san has Ba Dan has 8 bat au tg bat and cap. ‘Pho bagi nthe cab, Tie phoangrams containing the other short yowele are knwa, words way be proubunead neeDaneously from Meant coven or fair my" cap pt, Tem Py top, Collowed by setences made up of rscllaneon wor, a8 need tea” “San be a fa “Get the bat pin “Ned an epi to” “Net et the ep” Sack run tack aad get the sack.” tas tam got fn th hae” Canam get the at ‘ONE ALPHABRE AND ORAL SPELLIN ‘he sanes of leer aboot orally taught 4 ete sounds ate thoroly Seed ind; older the Stance so sods wil te confiad." Pupils who Bela by ‘fava teeta? wi xd pling at word eg over the eer) toner fo amive at te ponte Gein Attention mst be foci 0a the soinds only, at feat "yyten the coumonant sound are metered very eke ofthe can, and Oey have gained nme graceney Sofrseanclng eons by Mesding tee wh the sort ant "ag vowel am the tae he tan ay Do te the abet committed so menor a one lle asa els snot cide tear the marty of te letters aly the endo ie ft ear, afien Bape ‘pens shat some roman igaoraut of the alphabetical onder un Ul they come to use the dictionary, and are greatly Bandl capped. Lo Associate the Name of the Letter With Its Sound, (1) The teacher names the leer ae ehe poi to i and the children give the comssponding soand; (2) AS the feacher sounds the letter, pupils name the letter sounded, (8) Repeat with the feiers erased from the board. Oral spelling may begin after the sounds have ‘rst le mastered-—and aK soon ax the anmer of the laters fare tanght. “Spell only the phonetic words at first, ‘The liste of families of words which have bien written from die: tation may now be spelled orally. ‘The spelling recitation may be both oral and written, Dut wriiten spoling should predominate the frst year, Un phonetic words should be taught by vitualiing —geiting the form of the word as a Whole. The teacher wstes the word ‘on the board in froo vapid hand, puplla observe for @ mo- ment, getting @ mental picture of the form; the word Ts erased by the teacher, and reproduced on the board by the pupil ‘While oral spelling aids the “éarminded” pupil and variety In the recitation, written spelling should pre dominate for the reasons that (2) In praetieal life, apelling Js uned almost wholly in expressing thongkt in writing; (2) the eye and haod should be trained equally with the ear. It is often true that good oral spellers will fall i writing the same words for want of practica (3) Tn the written ree tation each papil ean spell a greater number of words and in less time than is possible in oral spelling. SPAT WwoRK 1. Distribuce pagos from magazines or od readers and Jet pupils underline words beginning with @ certain con. ouant (the one being taught). If diferent colored: peuells are used, the same pagee can be ned a number of times, ‘When the “a” sound fs being taught le all words begining with that sound be marked with Black; at another seat work perod, wore tegoning with “U" ate marked with green? and nga, words begining. wth Ht" sound are are with ive peel te, delve digrphs’ ended consonant, and. phone rane 2 The tcher writes & phonngram on the toast and telow ira the cousouant round from which words ay Be bile Papi write the entve worae 3 Phozograms are written on the boards pols sup ply consonants and write out the words. ae ; 4 Have « miner of plonograns and three or oor sets of contongnts in envelopes ive an eaveloe to each Child Tet hi boil the words hie dak. Tuptcte topics cant mad on a hestgraph, ono tet for sah ean then if one envelope from each seth peered tose mi celiteoon Tasos canbe. weal in review fora long tine, cach cid wing a diferent set each tine Write en the Doin Ke of words ending in var our phonograns and Wt the chen Tews thea, arn tng ln eoamne aesording to. phonon “Write tanto from memory, ORNERAL SUGOESTIONS 1._At lene two dally periods should be given to phox tem ‘The frst ees Will be short, but ater some advance am boas ma ex to teen snes shoald be given 2 Ax far a ponila let the wocds for phone del be ‘one eat wl occur inthe new readiag Tess ‘Constantly reriw all familias founds, phonograns Auge, bend, ley when met la new wor, snd teach pupil te apply telr knowlaige of phones 4. Monching then to‘pastomtne” the snds—ropre seating them mately by movement of tho lp fonge mud palate wil athe islent tay at ther ale By th ond of the frat yen the pupils phonetic noweage, combined with his vootblary of sight words and Ls power to discover new word, either phonetically or by {he Context. ought to enable Minto ead fopendently any primer, ond to reed during the year from eight to twelve for more primers and frst readers. 6, in reading, pupils should be taught co get the mean- ing chietiy by context™-by the parts which preceds or fo: Tow the diffeuit word and are s0 assoclated with it a8 t0 ‘row light upon its meaning. 7. When a word caanot be pronounced phonetically, the teacher should assist by giving the sound needed, bit the papil will soon discover that by sing his wits in phon- fog ain other thingy he eam get the new word for hime by the seuse of what he ie reading, e. g, in the sentence; "phe farmer came into the Bold” he meats tho new word ‘jeld” Naturally a socoid year pupll, who has learued the reasons for sounding will apply the long sound of “1;"—as the reads it dows not make $250, 20 ho trios shart “4.” Stil ite sentence is meaningless, o he tries again with “” and fends sentence Which sulites him, becanse the meaning ‘lear, é tho frst year pupil pronounces the word “coat” as coat (recognizing the 1axt combination as a meuber of the Sgu” family) the teacher will underline and eall bis atten tion to the digeaph “oa” which ke bas alrendy Jearned t9 pronounce as long “o.” Most pupils however, meating the Wrord in a sentenee—as, The eaterpllar's cont is green" (would, Hf reading thotfally recognign the word by the eon: text, ‘3. Drill on obscure sounds should be omitted the frst year. Unphonetic words should be taught ae sight words: ‘ae: one, many, been, said, they, ought, elght. ‘9. Begin to combing words aod spliables into longer words na seon as possible: doorstep, indeed, handsome, be- fore, hammering, Innocent, forgetful, carpenter, side walk, mistake 10. Give time increasingly to analytiempathetie word stndys e g-“oight” and rain” are taught as sight words Analysis Spates: ARTICULATION Exercises to conrect faulty articulation and eecure flexibility should be given frequently. Constant vigilance is novostary in overeoming the comuou errore shown in the folowing examples “will eat you,” auld the tell. (not “echew" Dear little baby, close your eye, (not “eloshute eye") “ST will den," sald ed Hen, and she did. (not *aa’ she aia”) Pat your right hand tn, (not “ut ehue") you, and sou, aud you. (an’ Tew.) Wather will meet you (meat chew) a€ the station. ‘The leaves turned to red and gold, (red Lan gold) “No matter what you heat, "(what chew) no metter hat you by Tagaviag, don't yon move” (dont chew) Tender flowers come forth to greet er (greeter) I ie not at all (eal) Uke the mother bird Have the popils practice such exerlsee at:— Did you? Don't you? Would yon? Shold yoo? Could you? (Nat “ald Jew,” “don't chew ete.) Whore shall T meet you? (not meat chow) When shall T meet you? ‘Sho sells tea sella, Puplla usually have ditteulty with words ending in at, ‘th, pth. Lists of such words should be drilled apen:— ‘Nests, vests, posts, hosts, boasts, fet, mists, trots, length, breadth, depth Ee thruste bis fata against the posts, ‘And atl fate he een the ght” (IE necessary show the pupils bow to adjust the voeat organs to make the afferent sounds.) 1, 2 (nae) Bs wm (lips) Fv Clip and teeth) 6,8 % 0 (tongue and hart palate.) 3, eh, (tongue and han palacebusk) Eg) ng (tongue end soft palate $51 (Congue, tard palate and soft palate.) BB, 4, 5, by bg, ch (nomentary) ww, fv 8 123, thy sh (continuous) ‘The uaajorty of ebildnen learn the sounds by iitation ‘and repetition "The above ix to help the teacher in giving the sounds corrects. SECOND YEAR 1. Review Single ané Blended Consonants, Digraphs, Short ‘and Long Vowels, and AN Phonograms. 11, Continue Pronouncing Beercees, Teoching New Phono- ‘grams. Cantinne word study by the enalyticxynthetie pro: cost, Those phonie drills will deat largely with the new words thet ocear in the daily ending leo IIL, Syltadicotion. In mastering the pronunciation of oew words, pu ‘thould aoyuire the habit of analyzing them Into sllsbles ‘The ett must be trainod to hear syllables, they shonld be separately pronounced, and clearly imeged. ‘This makes for ‘Hective apelling later, Moat of the dldiculiea In spelling fre removed when the babit of bresking up a complex word fing ite lemeats Se aequlre. re mem ber ‘thor mom e ter sep # rate {in de pen deace flan de Hion mul tf pl ca tlon bona th al re frig er a tor IV, Teach the Long Vowel Sounds, ‘We have found that the short vow predominate in the Bnpliah lengoage. The long vowel sounds come next in frequency. When the cild: haw masterod the letters and combinations representing These two sounds, he is able to recognize a large majority of the phonetic words in ent Fenguage ‘Phonetic words follow deuita rules of proaunciation Thee rales exe uot to be formally iavght inthe Gone and ‘second years, but pointed out by exaanpts, so that the visual ‘und auditory image may te associated. "To illustrate: When Uhre are two oF more vowels in ‘word of ono ayllable the fret vowel ie long, and the last silent, as: came, lef, coat, rain, "When there i ono vowel In the word and iti the las, 18 te ongy” as: me, hy Ay ‘All Yowels are sore nice mode! by position Have the chilires notice the effet ot nal "" upon some of teir hort vowel words, These lit will furs food pronunciation dil, Call attention to the vowel digraphs in the sane way ey aio, a ce eas ‘While there are exooptions, ax i the words “head” aad “bread” the digraph ‘ea’ hax the sound of Jong "0" in nearly ihree-fourths of the words in whieh it warurs. and ‘ould be so taught. ‘The visual image “es” should cal a" Wi sagas the she auditory image of long “e."When the ella mots scoptons the context smut be relied ua to aid hin. Tkowtae inthe following let the new fact to bo taught iste ageaph a" toring te long soond of a." ‘Bnding i he. pupil pr: the initial and final contonants with this, the opi ounces the new Tist of words without further aid, oa Sila pais ine it tae By ren sa it on ma all ‘The digraph “oa” and “ay” may be taught with equal cease the first year. There is no reason for deferring them they should be taught as soon as the children have need for them. cn font eon! Soaet ouch peach ny ad me say i any LONG VOWEL PHONOGRAMS (These Lists are for rapid prouuneiation deills.) ¢ ane fate ace ax spe 1 ame ace ape rane P 200 mao name > ace ae fam vr nee fate ‘ame Gr ace as bi sme DI soe Bate fame fo te Kate a ame ‘ce © ase bake ale 1 ae pee oaks bale Pate peo rare take Paw erate is a ase mane tale erie = ware aes so ale i ate mare take st ne mk ate as ‘ake wh ns it ate aa pa eae nee ae ine oe Lane ake ape one mane ‘on ake 1 abe Dave D ane ‘hake ot 8p rare at aye wae ke scr ape one plane tr ae eee ae ‘lave rne tent taht at tant xa teat 1 tke aie > tke 2 ike ike wp tke pie m fe oe "a oa fle 4 sme ‘ime ca toe ime br ime BUSTERS scuba, Beene rH ripe D ibe 3 tbe ‘ie a tbe ‘The Diphthongs oi, 07, 0%, ow. DIGRAPES (Wor rapid pronunciation dill.) chika wa eh erey oh toe te ose Sager thee Te per ‘THIRD YEAR 1. Rates or Reasons for Sounds. (The efect of the posivion of the letter upoa Its wound.) U1, fect of *” Upon Vowels UL. Bowivetonts, IP. Teach Vows! Sounds Other Than Long and Short Sounds, by Analysing Knows Word? ond Phone orem. Pupils know tho phonogram “27k,” learned whon the following list of words was prooanced: bark, dark, tari, lark, mark, park, shark, ete. Attention is now called to the Jong Tella” sound (two dota above) and other lists pro nonneed as, farm, bars, sharp, charm. Bread “a” (tre dota below) is taught by recalling the familiar phonograsn “all and the series: ball fall, call, tall, small, ete, pronounced, Alo other liste containing thie sound: as, walk, at, enught, ‘chalk, haul, claw, cause. (tho rales for sonnds apply to the individual sptlables In words of more thax one syllable as well ax to monosrle bes) HOW 10 DISTINGUISH BETWEEN VOWELS AND CONSONANTS: Before the rules for the sounds are taken up, it will be necesaary that the pupils Enow how to distingutsh the vowels from the consonants ‘Have the vowels on the board, also Wats of words, and ‘rit om finding the vowels in the lista The teacher says, "mene letters are called rowele”” “Flow many vowels are there” “Pind 4 vowel in this word” pointing to one of fhe worda in tho lists. As the pupil finds it he says, “This |a'a vowel” Find the vowels in all the words ia the Hats, PRONICS AND LANGUAGE When the vowels and contonants can be diatingaiehed, pupils can be taught the use of the artiles a” and “an”. “an” in aoed before words besinning with vowels; “a” before words beginning with consonants, Teta of words fre placed on the board to bo copied, and the proper article supplied. rose Bower te ae Use the article “the” with the same list of words in oral expression, pronouncing “the” with the loog sound of e before words beginning with vowels, as “The apple” “The ink-stand.” ‘The apple is on the table ‘The peach is ripe. ‘The flower and the orange are for you, ‘The owl has bright eyes. {The ice ia smooth snd bard. Grandfather sta in the arm chai, 1s the envelope sealed? ‘The old man Teana on the cane. RULES OR REASONS FOR SOUNDS ‘The real didiculty in phonics lios in the fact tet the pronunciation of the Knglish language abounds in incox- fisteucien, Tis letters have ao fixed values and represent different sounds in different words While there are but twenty-six letens in the Kngtish alphabet thero are forty-four elementary sounds in the Eng. Sieh language Thus far bot one sound for each consonant has boon taught and emphasized. Incidentally the fect that some of the letters have tore than one sound Bas been discovered, ase in elty, g in gentle —bat now definite tearktog Is given concerning them. The mew sound in taught with its dla- cviteal mark and the reasnn given, . g. "e bofore ej, oF ¥ ieeott” When a reason or rule for marking is given, Usts of words illastrating the rale sbonld. be sounded end. pro rnonnced, ‘The tencher marke fhe ward ax the reason Is five. Lista of words may he marked by the pupile ae Uiceation exercise ‘Tae above use of diacriticel marks doos not apply ‘he pemicious practice of marking words to ald (% pro auneiation, but to show the purpose of marks, which ix torely to indicate the sound. ‘Teach thet the sound of the letter dopende upon its position in the word, and not upon the digoritioad marke. REASONS FOR SOUNDS 4. When there the tt, Hee fone vowel in the word and it 8 at 2 One vowel im the word, not atthe lat, is short; as, mat, nest, pond (Bofer to short rowel lists to tet this rule) 5. When thero are ono oF more vowels In a gyllable, or ‘a word of one apilable the frst vowel is loog, snd the last fare alleat; na: mate, snceas, day. (Teachor manok the Yong fand silent vowels as the reason for the sonnd fs given.) Children mark those words and give reasou: gum, ki rake, coat, meat, walt ter rules {1 to 3) are clearly developed, apply there by marking and pronouneing these words and giving reasons. Rae 4 ‘Whoa dowble consonants ocr, the last Is silent: tll, ack, Soe ine oe Iter ere Rate 'T before ch is silent: este. toate fete ta Reale 6 1 before g, the sound of ng (1) : sing, sls n before k~ g—ink, Rule 7, Rule & Initial w before ¢ is ellent sete, vr wren vn reat Boles. Initial g before a Is silent—ynaw. at auc aa Rule 10, © botore 6, § or y in soft—comt,elty, eypreas ise an tice sce i sce Grace ice cree crinder ‘raane (Hard ¢ is found efore 8,0, and w of a consonant.) Rule 11, Defore o {or y is sot—gentle, giant, gypsy. (Get and give are common exceptions.) tee ea Erm pase a erate nes ‘Roger me Exereise—Pronouuce and mark the following words, fand tell whether they contain the eoft or hard sounds of g. ‘Note effet of final © on bard g. ne fase te tase Bole 12. 1 before gh-—i fs long and gh silent—night. hese ieht ‘eit sigs mete gt ee Nee eke aie teh fig tisk Se leat tate 23, inal y in words of more than one syllblo is ehort,— cherry. leate 14, Pinal © i» words of more than: one aylable is sl gentle, Nel Rule 16 Blfec of + upon vowel OTMER EQUIVALENTS, how slow front brown row flower froma eee walk cant Tell ore aray—borgeaaughty tak ore soon cou ‘08 wwovla tom Shostd too ‘ronan howe thook’| fom room ervok oop roost ook rook ook courte boueat sougne raw ew foot food vend pelt Deen FOURTH YEAR 1. teview and continue to apy the prineples of po nuueation, with & more complete mastery of the vowel 8nd ‘ousongnt sound es fosad fn Webster's tietonary. "Teach the dlacitienl wank fouod inthe dictionary lw tg us. "The marks needed will be found at the foot of ‘teh poge of the distloanry. TTL Teach the ase of the dictionary (1) See that every bid owns, if pomsle, ome of the ‘ew dictionaries, Ja wich unphonetle words tre resell Dhometically (2) Ben that all know the alphabet i order (8) Pups practice nding maswes im the telephone di reciony, ents, reference book, ele (4) Practice arranging iss of words tw alpbateticat ‘order, agin the following dictation exerci. tevritetheco words In the gnloy im which they woald cour in the dictionary Also Usts like these:—a step more dificult, stor ‘bey ‘After teaching the alphabetical order, with dictlouary ia hand, have the pupil trace the word to its letter, then {0 its page, ‘Having found bis way to the word, he wust now learn to read whut the dictionary has to tell him about it, His attention i called to syllabifcation as wall as to dacritical aris, (Those found at the foot of the page will furnish the key to provunciation.) Hre finds that his dictionary is a weane of leavaing not only the pronunciation of words, but their meaning: and spelling, Later, as soon as the parte of specch are kuown, hie should learn the various uses of wordi—their gramati al uses, derivation, ete, and ome to regard the dietionary 48 one of his commonest tools, as necetsiry as othor books of reference, ut here the teacher's task is not done, Provided with the key to the mastery of symbols, her pupils may stil {ail to ue this key to unlock the vast literary treasures im tore for them. ‘They must be tanght whut 10 read, ag well 1 how to read. ‘They must be introduced to the schoo! Ii brary and if possible to the public Horary. Dr, Elliot has i4: “The uplifting of the demoeratie masses depends up: * ‘the implanting at echool of the taste for good reading.” Moreover that teacher does her pupile the most im: portant and lasting servive who derotops in them not only an appreciation of good literature, but the habit of reading i.