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FAULT DETECTION AND PROTECTION

OF INDUCTION MOTOR USING PLC


ABSTRACT
Protection of an induction motor (IM) against possible problems, such as
overvoltage, over current, overload, and under voltage, occurring in the course of
its operation is very important, because it is used intensively in industry as an
actuator. IMs can be protected using some components, such as timers, contactors,
voltage, and current relays. This method is known as the classical method that is
very basic and involves mechanical dynamic parts. Computer and programmable
logic controller (PIC) based protection methods have eliminated most of the
mechanical components.

Now we are using the PLC , in this method, all contactors, timers, relays, and the
conversion card are eliminated. Experimental results show that the PLC-based
protection method developed costs less, provides higher accuracy as well as safe
and visual environment compared with the classical, the computer, and the PLC-
based protection systems.,

This system uses the PLC for detecting the fault in induction motor and according
to the fault , it provides protection to the IMs.
CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

Protection of an induction motor (IM) against possible faults, such as


overvoltage, over current, overload, and under voltage, occurring in the course of
its operation is very important, because it is used intensively in industry as an
actuator. IMs can be protected using some components, such as timers, contactors,
voltage, and current relays. This method is known as the classical method that is
very basic and involves mechanical dynamic parts. Computer and programmable
logic controller (PIC) based protection methods have eliminated most of the
mechanical components.

Now we are using the PLC , in this method, all contactors, timers, relays, and the
conversion card are eliminated. Experimental results show that the PLC-based
protection method developed costs less, provides higher accuracy as well as safe
and visual environment compared with the classical, the computer, and the PLC-
based protection systems.,

The proposed system is PLC for detecting the fault in induction motor and
according to the fault, it provides protection to the IMs.

1.1BLOCK DIAGRAM:
Potential
3 Phase Transform Rectifier Filter
Supply er
Control
Load
Unit
PLC

Current I/V
Rectifier
Transform Convert
& Filter
er er

1.2: PLC:
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), also referred to
as programmable controllers, are in the computer family. They
are used in commercial and industrial applications.

PLC consists of input modules or points, a central processing


unit(CPU) and output points.

Parts of PLC:

The CPU monitors the inputs and makes decisions based on


instructions held in the program memory PLC consists of input
modules or points, a central processing unit(CPU) and output
points.
1.3 CURRENT TRANSFORMER:

CHAPTER-2

LITERATURE REVIEW

The general consciousness of over voltage and under voltage in the


industry and international disputes over the environment, global safety,
and the quality of life, have created an opportunity for new efficient
less wasting of power and industry with advance technologies of
control robustness, and modularity.
This project on induction motor is one such effort to improve the
protection by controlling the voltage, current , and temperature.

Ramazan Bayindir , member of IEEE, Department of Electrical


Education,
He received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D.degrees in
electrical education from Gazi University,Ankara,
Turkey, in 1992, 1998, and 2002,respectively.
He present paper of power factor correction,
microcontroller,
programmable logic controller (PLC)
programming,
and automation systems.
The proposed PLC consist of battery , cpu input \
output section , and programming section where user
can program the PLC according to the output.
IBRAHIM SEFA, Member of IEEE ,Department of
Electrical Education. He received the B.Sc. degree from
the Department of Electrical Education Gazi University,
Ankara ,Turkey , in 1985, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D.
degrees
from the Department of Electrical Engineering, Erciyes
University , Kayseri, Turkey, in 1993 and
1997,respectively. He present paper of machine
control , power electronics, uninterruptible power
supplies, control systems, and alternating energy
sources. The spectral performance of the rectifier is
investigated. Analysis of conversion of 3 phase ac
supply into +5 volt dc supply . PLC works on +5 dc.
˙Ilhami Colak , Member of IEEE, Department of Electrical

Education.
He received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees from the
Department of Electrical Education, Gazi University ,
Ankara, Turkey, in 1985 and 1988, respectively ,the M.
Phil. degree in electrical and electronics engineering
from Birmingham University, Birmingham ,U.K., in 1991,
and the Ph.D. degree from the Department of Electrical
Engineering, Aston University Birmingham, in 1994.He
presents the paper on machine control, power
electronics, control systems , computer
programming, system modeling, and alternating
energy sources. To produce high quality output it
synthesizes a relay for controlling the induction motor.
Askin Bektas , Member of IEEE. He presents the
paper on Remote control And Programmable logic
controller (PLC) control systems and he stated that we
can program the PLC by Ladder logic. By giving the +5 v
dc voltage to PLC , it protect the 3 phase induction
motor by over voltage ang under voltage.

CHAPTER-3

INDUCTION MOTOR

3.1 INTRODUCTION:
Operating Principles:

It has been pointed out previously that one: of the advantages of


a polyphase system (3<1>in particular) is that it can produce a
rotating magnetic field. This rotating field provides the basis of
operation for all a.c. machines. It is obtained by distributing a set
of three phase windings about the periphery of the motor core.
When three phase currents flow in these windings, the time and
space phase shifts resulting in an mmf wave which has the
appearance of rotating at a constant angular velocity in the air
gap between the rotor and stator. Having obtained this, there are
two basic means of using this rotating wave to produce rotational
motion. One method is to have the rotor travelling at the same
speed as the rotating field. This results in a "synchronous" motor
where the rotor is locked into step, or synchronized, with the field.
Since the speed of the rotating field is determined solely by the
input frequency and the geometry of the machine (i.e. number of
poles), this produces a constant speed motor. The other method
is to allow the rotor speed to be less than the speed of the
rotating field to produce a flux cutting, or transformer action. This
results in an "asynchronous" (or induction) motor where the rotor
operates at a "slip" speed. Slip ~defined as the difference
between rotor and field speeds divided by the field speed (the
field speed is called the synchronous speed). The induction motor
is an asynchronousmotor which has a speed which decreases
slightly as more load is applied.
3.2 THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

Construction Details for Induction Motors:


The induction motor comes in two forms:
1)the wound rotor version and
2)the cast, squirrel cage rotor
The wound rotor version has 3<1c>opper windings embedded in
the rotor with the same
pole structure as the stator. The winding terminals are accessible
through sliding contacts
on one end of the rotor (called slip rings). Wound rotor motors are
primarily used for speed control applications where the rotor
resistance is externally controlled, thus controlling the speed vs.
torque characteristic. Squirrel cage motors are by far the most
common induction motor because of their ruggedness and
constructional simplicity. A ring of short circuited bars parallel to
the rotor axis is made out of cast aluminum. (These bars look
very much like the exercise wheel used for small pet squirrels,
hamsters, etc.; hence its name). This cage will take on whatever
pole structure the stator windings present. Most squirrel cage
motors have a single fixed speed and operate under full load at
approximately 95% of synchronous speed.

3.3PROCEDURE:

3.3.1Machine Under Test:

The Lab Volt Wound Rotor Induction Motor may be started direct-
on-line from a 200 V,
60 Hz supply provided that you short-circuit the ammeter and
current coil of the wattmeter to protect them against the very
high starting current.

Open-Circuit Test:

With the rotor winding open-circuited, connect the stator to a 200


V, 60 Hz, 3-phase supply as shown in Figure I. Take readings of
the stator input current and input power, and the stand-still rotor
e.m.f / phase E2.

Locked-Rotor Test:
Use the locking device on the Induction Motor to lock the rotor.
Short circuit the rotor windings and increase VI very slowly until
II=1.3A, record VI, II' and input power
(WI x 3)

CHAPTER 4

DELTA PLC

4.1.1 INTRODUCTION TO PLC

Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), also referred to as


programmable controllers, are in the computer family. They are used
in commercial and industrial applications. It was called “Sequence
Controller” beforeIt was named “Programmable Logic Controller
(PLC)” by NEMA (National Electrical Manufacture Association) in
1978 and defined as electronic equipment. The operation of PLC is
in the following:

Step 1. Read the external input signal, such as the status of


keypad, sensor, switch and pulse.
Step 2. Using microprocessor to execute the calculations of logic,
sequence, timer, counter and formula according to the status and
the value of the input signal read in the step 1 and pre-write
programs saved inner to get the Corresponding output signal, such
as open or close of relay, operation of controlled machine or
procedure to control automatic machine or procedure of
manufacture. PLC also can be used to maintain and adjust of
production program by editing or modifying the peripheral
equipments (personal Computer/handheld programming panel). The
common program language of PLC is ladder diagram. There are
stronger functions in PLC with the development and application
requirements of electronic technology, such as position control,
network and etc. Output/Input signals are DI (Digital Input), AI
(Analog Input), PI (Pulse Input), DO (Digital Output), AO (Analog
Output) and PO (Pulse Output). Thus PLC plays an important role in
the feature industry.

4.1.2 BASIC PLC OPERATION

PLC consists of input modules or points, a central processing unit


(CPU) and output points
Fig 1.BASIC COMPONENTS OF PLC
4.1.3 PARTS OF PLC

4.1.3.1. CPU

The central processing unit (CPU) is a microprocessor system which


contains the system memory and is the PLC’s decision making unit.
The CPU monitors the inputs and makes decisions based on
instructions held in the program memory. The CPU performs relay,
counting, timing, data comparison, and sequential operations
Figure 2. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
4.1.3.2. ANALOG INPUTS

An analog input is an input signal that has a continuous signal.


Typical analog inputs may vary from 0 to 20 milliamps, 4 to 20
milliamps, or 0 to 10 volts. In the following example, a level
transmitter monitors the level of liquid in a tank. Depending on the
level transmitter, the signal to the PLC can either increase or
decrease as the level increases or decreases.

FIG.3ANALOG INPUT

4.1.3.3. DIGITAL INPUTS

A discrete input, also referred to as a digital input, is an input that is


either in an
ON or OFF condition.
Fig 4 DIGITAL INPUT

4.1.3.4. DISCRETE OUTPUTS

A discrete output is an output that is either in an ON or OFF


condition. Solenoids, contactor coils, and lamps are examples of
actuator devices connected to discrete outputs. Discrete outputs
may also be referred to as digital outputs. In the following example,
a lamp can be turned on or off by the PLC output it is connected to.

Fig 5. DISCRETE OUTPUTS

4.1.3.5. ANALOG OUTPUTS

An analog output is an output signal that has a continuous signal.


The output may be as simple as a 0-10 VDC level that drives an
analog meter. Examples of analog meter outputs are speed, weight,
and temperature. The output signal may also be used on more
complex applications such as a current-to pneumatic transducer that
controls an air-operated flow-control valve.

Fig 6. ANALOG OUTPUT

4.1.2 BASIC INNER EQUIPMENTS OF THE PLC

TABLE 1:- BASIC INNER EQUIPMENTS OF THE PLC

Input Input relay is the basic storage unit of


internal memory that corresponds to
relay
external input point (it is the terminal that
used to connect to external input switch and
receive external input signal). Input signal
from external will decide it to display 0 or 1.
You couldn’t change the state of input relay
by program design or forced ON/OFF via
HPP. The contacts (contact a, b) can be
used unlimitedly. If there is no input signal,
the corresponding input relay could be
empty and can’t beused with other
functions.
Equipment indication method: X0, X1,…X7,
X10, X11,…. The symbol of equipment is X
and the number uses octal. There are
numeric indications of input point on MPU
and expansion unit.
Output Output relay is the basic storage unit of
relay internal memory that corresponds to
external output point (it is used to connect
to external load). It can be driven by input
relay contact, the contact of other internal
equipment and itself contact. It uses a
normally open contact to connect to
external load and other contacts can be
used unlimitedly as input contacts. It doesn’t
have the corresponding output relay, if
need, it can be used as internal relay.
Equipment indication: Y0, Y1,…Y7, Y10,
Y11,…. . The symbol of equipment is Y and
the number uses octal. There are numeric
indications of output point on MPU and
expansion unit.
Internal The internal relay doesn’t connect directly to
outside. It is an auxiliary relay in PLC. Its
relay
function is the same as the auxiliary relay in
electric control circuit. Each auxiliary relay
has the corresponding basic unit. It can be
driven by the contact of input relay, output
relay or other internal equipment. Its
contacts can be used unlimitedly. Internal
auxiliary relay can’t output directly, it should
output with output point.
Equipment indication: M0, M1,…, M4, M5.
The symbol of equipment is M and the
number uses decimal number system.
STEP DVP PLC provides input method for
controlling program of step actions. It is very
easy to write control program by using the
conversion of control step S of command
STL. If there is no step program in the
program, step point S could be used as
internal relay M or alarm point.
Equipment indication: S0, S1,…S1023. The
symbol of equipment is S and the number
uses decimal.
Timer Timer is used to control time. There are coil,
contact and timer storage. When coil is ON,
its contact will act (contact a is close,
contact b is open) when attaining desired
time. The time value of timer is set by
settings and each timer has its regular
period. User sets the timer value and each
timer has its timing period. Once the coil is
OFF, the contact won’t act (contact a is
open and contact b is close) and the timer
will be set to zero.
Equipment indication: T0, T1,…,T255. The
symbol of equipment is T and the number
uses decimal system. The different number
range corresponds with the different timing
period.
Counter Counter is used to count. It needs to set
counter before using counter (i.e. the pulse
of counter). There are coil, contacts and
storage unit of counter in counter. When coil
is form OFF to ON, that means input a
pulse in counter and the counter should add
1. There are 16-bit, 32-bit and high-speed
counter for user to use.
Equipment indication: C0, C1,…,C255. The
symbol of equipment is C and the number
uses decimal.
Data PLC needs to handle data and operation
when controlling each order, timer value
register
and counter value. The data register is used
to store data or parameters. It stores 16-bit
binary number, i.e. a word, in each register.
It uses two continuous number of data
register to store double words
Equipment indication: D0, D1,…,D9,999.
The symbol of equipment is D and the
number uses decimal..
File The file register can be used to store data
or parameter when the register that PLC
register
needs is not enough during handling data
and parameter. It can store 16-bit binary
number, i.e. a word, in each file register. It
uses two continuous number of file register
to handle double word. There are 1600 file
registers for SA/SX/SC series and 10000
file registers for EH series. There is not the
real equipment number for file register, thus
it needs to execute READ/WRITE of file
Register via commands API148 MEMR,
API149 MEMW or the peripheral equipment
HPP and WPLSoft.
Equipment indication: K0~K9,999. There is
no equipment symbol and uses decimal
number for number.
Index Index register E and F are 16-bit data
register just the same as general data
register
register. It can be wrote and read freely and
has the function of index indication to use
for character device, bit device and
constants.
Equipment indication: E0~E7, F0~F7. The
symbols of equipment are E, F and the
number uses decimal.

4.1.5 PLC SCAN

Fig7. PLC SCAN CYCLE


4.1.5.1 READING INPUT – Reads input and updates process input.
The input can be either in analog or digital form

4.1.5.2. EXECUTE PROGRAM – executes user program once. The


program is in the form of ladder logic diagram

4.1.5.3. CHECKS COMMUNICATION – Takes care of the system


processes (such as communication with other PLC’s)

4.1.5.4. UPDATES OUTPUT – The PLC updates the output according to the
execution of the program

CHAPTER-5
3.1.6 THE WORKING PRINCIPLE OF LADDER DIAGRAM

Ladder diagram is an automatic control diagram language


that developed during World War II. At first, it just has basic
components, such as A contact (normally open), B contact (normally
close), output coil, timer, counter and etc. (The power panel is made
up of these basic components) It has more functions, differential
contact, latched coil and the application commands, add, minus,
multiply and divide calculation, that traditional power panel can’t
make since PLC is developed. The working principles of the
traditional Ladder Diagram and the PLC Ladder Diagram are similar
to each other; the only difference is that the symbols for the
traditional ladder diagram are expressed in the format that are close
to its original substance, while those for the PLC ladder diagram
employ the symbols that are more explicit when being used in
computers or data sheets. In the Ladder Diagram Logics, it could be
divided into the Combination Logics and the Sequential Logics, and
is described as follows:

3.1.6.1. Combination Logics:

The following example is the combination logics that show in


traditional diagram and PLC ladder diagram separately.
Fig9.PLC ladder diagram

3.1.6.2. Sequential logics:

The sequential logics are a type of circuit that possesses the “Draw-
Back” structure, which is to draw back the circuit’s output result and
has it serve as the input condition. Thus, under the same input
condition, different output results will be generated in accordance
with previous conditions and motions with different orders.
The following example is the sequential logics that show in
traditional diagram and PLC ladder diagram separately
Table 1: BASIC INSTRUCTIONS OF DELTA PLC
.
CHAPTER-6

FAULT DETECTION IN INDUCTION MOTOR

SINGLE PHASE FAULT

• 3HP induction motor.


• At fault conditions, Y phase cutoff from the supply,this is achieved by
using ideal switch.
• Input current=20-30A.
• Losses nearly 500 W.
• Output power=1.75KW.

UNDER VOLTAGE FAULT

• 3HP induction motor.


• Input voltage=115V.
• Torque is continuosly varied.
• Motor not tends to rotate.
• This type of motor destroy the drive application.

UNBALANCED FAULT

• 3HP induction motor.


• Input voltage is varied continuously.
• Torque & speed is also varied continuously.
• This type of faults totally destroys the drive application at all.
BLOCKED ROTOR FAULT

• In blocked rotor conditions, the speed of the induction motor is zero.


• It simply acts as a secondary short-circuited transformer.
• The whole power is utilised to produce the losses.
• Here, the output power is wattles (useless).

OVER VOLTAGE FAULT

• Input voltage>230V.
• Input current is high.
• Both the stator & rotor losses is high.
• Torque is plenty, due to high starting torque , there is an advantage in
starting, but there is always high amount of losses.
• Output power is so much reduced.
POWER SUPPLY UNIT

5v Power Supply
1

C O N 1 D 1
LM 7805 +5v
1 4 - + 2 1 3
1 2 IN U 1 O U T
2 D B 106
R 1
A C In p u t
GND
C 9 330E
3

C 11
2

4 7 0 u F /2 5 V C 1 0 0 .1 u F
D 2
100uF/16V

LE D

Almost all the electronic devices and circuits require a


D.C, source for all the operation. One form of D.C. source is batteries. But they are
costly and require frequent replacement. The easily available and most economical
source is A.C. into a suitable D.C. such a device is called power supply. The power
supply consists of the following the three sub divisions
1. Rectifier

2. Filter
3. Voltage regulator

CHAPTER 7

RECTIFIER

A rectifier is a device which offers a low resistance to the current in one direction
and a high resistance in the opposite direction. Such a device is

capable of converting A.C. voltage into a pulsating D.C. voltage. The rectifier
employs one or more diodes. It may be either a vacuum diode or a semiconductor
diode.
There are two types
1. Half wave rectifier

2. Full wave rectifier

3. Bridge rectifier

BRIDGE RECTIFIER

Bridge rectifier is a full wave rectifier. It consists of four


diodes , arranged in the form of a bridge . it utilizes the advantages of the full
wave rectifier and at the same time it eliminates the need for a centre tapped
transformer. The supply input and the rectified output are the two diagonally
opposite terminals of the bridge.
During the positive half cycle, the secondary terminal A is
positive w.r.t. terminal B. now the diodes D1 and D3 are forward biased and hence
do not conduct. The current flows from terminal A to terminal B through D1, load
resistance RL and the diode D3 and then through the secondary of the transformer.
During the negative half cycle, terminal B is positive
w.r.t point A. now diodes D2 and D4 are forward biased and hence conduct.
Diode D1 and D3 are reversed biased and hence do not conduct. The current flows
from terminal B to terminal A through diode D2, the load resistance RL and diode
D4 and then through the secondary of the transformer.
On both positive and negative half cycles of the A.C.
input, the current flows through the load resistance RL in the same direction. The
polarity of the voltage developed across RL is such that the end connected to the
junction of the diodes D1 and D2 will be positive.

ADVANTAGES

1. Centre tapped transformer is not necessary.

2. D.C. saturation of the transformer does not take place since the two
currents flow in the opposite direction through transformer secondary.

3. Transformer utilization factor is increased.

4. PIV rating across each diode is Vm.


DISADVANTAGES

1. The circuit requires a four diodes and hence additional voltage drop that
reduce the output voltage through the transformer secondary.

2. It’s rarely used with thermionic diode value because of heater supply
problem.

FILTER

Output from the rectifier unit having harmonic contents , so we


can provided the filter circuit, filter circuit is used to reduce the harmonics. Here
we can use the pi filter .pi filter consists of capacitance and inductance (i.e. two
capacitance in parallel and one inductance in series). These eliminates the
harmonics from both voltage and current signals.

VOLTAGE REGULATOR

Voltage regulator is used to maintain the constant voltage with


the variation of the supply voltage and the load current, mainly we can use the two
types of voltage regulator they are
1. series voltage regulator
2. zener diode voltage regulator

RELAY INTRODUCTION

The first relay was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. The name relay derives
from the french noun relais that indicates the horse exchange place of the
postman. Generally a relay is an electrical hardware device having an input and
output gate. The output gate consists in a one or more electrical contacts that
switch when the input gate is electrically excited. It can implement a decoupler, a
router or braker for the electrical power, a negation, and, on the base of the wiring,
complicated logical functions containing and, or, and flip-flop. In the past relays
had a wide use, for instance the telephone switching or the railway routing and
crossing systems. In spite of electronic progresses (as programmable devices),
relays are still used in applications where ruggedness, simplicity, long life and high
reliability are important factors (for instance in safety applications)

RELAY DRIVER CIRCUIT


+12V

D1 NO
AC LOAD

1N4007
NC

1K
M C P o rt P i n Q1
2N 2222

Relays are components which allow a low-power


circuit to switch a relatively high current on and off, or to control signals
that must be electrically isolated from the controlling circuit itself.
Newcomers to electronics

CHAPTER-8
Current transformer & Voltage transformer

3.4.1General Description

A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is


designed to provide a current in its secondary which is accurately
proportional to the current flowing in its primary.

Current transformers are designed to produce either an alternating current


or alternating voltage proportional to the current being measured. The
current transformers used with the Watt node transducers produce a 333
mV alternating voltage when the rated current is measured (either 30A, or
50A). The OSI power transducers employ CT's that produce 5V output at
rated value.

Current transformers measure power flow and provide electrical inputs to


power transformers and instruments. Current transformers produce either
an alternating current or alternating voltage that is proportional to the
measured current. There are two basic types of current transformers:
wound and toroidal. Wound current transformers consist of an integral
primary winding that is inserted in series with the conductor that carries the
measured current. Toroidal or donut-shaped current transformers do not
contain a primary winding. Instead, the wire that carries the current is
threaded through a window in the toroidal transformer.

Current transformers have many performance specifications, including


primary current, secondary current, insulation voltage, accuracy, and
burden. Primary current, the load of the current transformer, is the
measured current. Secondary current is the range of current outputs.
Insulation voltage represents the maximum insulation that current
transformers provide when connected to a power source. Accuracy is the
degree of certainty with which the measured current agrees with the ideal
value. Burden is the maximum load that devices can support while
operating within their accuracy ratings. Typically, burden is expressed in
volt-amperes (VA), the product of the voltage applied to a circuit and the
current.
3.4.1.1.Accuracy:

he accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of factors


including:

• Burden
• Burden class/saturation class
• Rating factor
• Load
• External electromagnetic fields
• Temperature and
• Physical configuration.
• The selected tap, for multi-ratio CT's
3.4Voltage Transformer:

Voltage transformers (VT) or potential transformers (PT) are


another type of instrument transformer, used for metering and
protection in high-voltage circuits. They are designed to present
negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a
precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so
that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at
a lower potential. Typically the secondary of a voltage
transformer is rated for 69 V or 120 V at rated primary voltage,
to match the input ratings of protection relays.

The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are


typically labeled as H1, H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally
grounded) and X1, X2 and sometimes an X3 tap may be present.
Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1, Y2, Y3) may also be
available on the same voltage transformer. The high side
(primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase.
The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.

The terminal identifications (H1, X1, Y1, etc.) are often referred to
as polarity. This applies to current transformers as well. At any
instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same
polarity and phase. Correct identification of terminals and wiring
is essential for proper operation of metering and protection
relays.

While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240
V primary, modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most
secondary service voltages. VTs are typically used in circuits
where the system voltage level is above 600 V. Modern meters
eliminate the need of VT's since the voltage remains constant
and it is measured in the incoming supply. This is mostly used in
H.V.
RMS TO DC CONVERSION (AD536A):

The AD536A is a complete monolithic integrated circuit


that performs true rms-to-dc conversion. It offers
performance comparable or superior to that of hybrid or
modular units costing much more. The AD536A directly
computes the true rms value of any complex input
waveform containing ac and dc components. A crest
factor compensation scheme allows measurements with
1% error at crest factors up to 7. The wide bandwidth of
the device extends the measurement capability to 300
kHz with less than 3 dB errors for signal levels greater
than 100 mV.
An important feature of the AD536A, not previously
available in rms converters, is an auxiliary dB output
pin. The logarithm of the rms output signal is brought
out to a separate pin to allow the dB conversion, with a
useful dynamic range of 60 dB. Using an externally
supplied reference current, the 0 dB level can be
conveniently set to correspond to any input level from
0.1 V to 2 V rms.
The AD536A is laser trimmed to minimize input and
output offset voltage, to optimize positive and negative
waveform symmetry (dc reversal error), and to provide
full-scale accuracy at 7 V rms. As a result, no external
trims are required to achieve the rated unit accuracy.
The input and output pins are fully protected. The input
circuitry can take overload voltages well beyond the
supply levels. Loss of supply voltage with the input
connected to external circuitry does not cause the
device.

The AD536A is available in two accuracy grades (J and


K) for commercial temperature range (0°C to 70°C)
applications, and one grade (S) rated for the −55°C to
+125°C extended range. The AD536AK offers a
maximum total error of ±2 mV ± 0.2% of reading, while
the AD536AJ and AD536AS have maximum errors of ±5
mV ± 0.5% of reading. All three versions are available in
a hermetically sealed 14-lead DIP or a 10-pin TO-100
metal header package. The AD536AS is also available in
a 20-terminal leadless hermetically sealed ceramic chip
carrier.
The AD536A computes the true root-mean-square level
of a complex ac (or ac plus dc) input signal and provides
an eluvia-lent dc output level. The true rms value of a
waveform is a more useful quantity than the average
rectified value because it relates directly to the power of
the signal. The rms value of a statistical signal also
relates to its standard deviation.
An external capacitor is required to perform
measurements to the fully specified accuracy. The value
of this capacitor deter-mines the low frequency ac
accuracy, ripple amplitude, and settling time.
The AD536A operates equally well from split supplies or
a single supply with total supply levels from 5 V to 36 V.
With 1 mA quiescent supply current, the device is well
suited for a wide variety of remote controllers and
battery-powered instruments.
sometimes want to use a relay for this type of application, but are unsure about the
details of doing so. Here’s a quick rundown. To make a relay operate, you have to
pass a suitable .pull-in. and .holding current (DC) through its energizing coil.

3.8 RS-232 DETAILS

3.8.1 SERIAL COMMUNICATION

3.8.1.1. INTRODUCTION:
In computing, a serial port is a serial communication
physical interface through which information transfers in or
out one bit at a time (contrast parallel port). Throughout most
of the history of personal computers, data transfer through
serial ports connected the computer to devices such as
terminals or modems. Mice, keyboards, and other peripheral
devices also connected in this way.

While such interfaces as Ethernet, FireWire, and USB


all send data as a serial stream, the term "serial port" usually
identifies hardware more or less compliant to the RS-232
standard, intended to interface with a modem or with a similar
communication device.
(Fig18 RS 232 PORT)

3.8.2 HOW RS232 WORKS

This section describes how RS232 works in general without


describing complex handshake methods - only the simplest system
is described - this it the most useful and the most likely to work
Data is transmitted serially in one direction over a pair of
wires. Data going out is labeled TX (indicating transmission) while
data coming in is labeled Rx (indicating reception). To create a two
way communication system a minimum of three wires are needed
TX, RX and GND (ground). Crossing over TX & RX between the two
systems lets each unit talk to the opposite one.
Each byte can be transmitted at any time (as long as the
previous byte has been transmitted). The transmitted byte is not
synchronized to the receiver - it is an asynchronous protocol i.e.
there is no clock signal. For this reason software at each end of the
communication link must be set up exactly the same so that each
serial decoder chip can decode the serial data stream.
CHAPTER-9

PROTECTION OF INDUCTION MOTOR

INTRODUCTION:

AC INDUCTION MOTORS (IMs) are used as actuators in many industrial


processes [1]. Although IMs are reliable, they are subjected to some undesirable
stresses, causing faults resulting in failure. Monitoring of an IM is a fast emerging
technology for the detection of initial faults. It avoids unexpected failure of an
industrial process. Monitoring techniques can be classified as the conventional and
the digital techniques.

It is well known that IM monitoring has been studied by many researchers and
reviewed in a number of works. Reviews about various stator faults and their
causes, and detection techniques, latest trends, and diagnosis methods supported
by the artificial intelligence, the microprocessor, the computer, and other
techniques in monitoring and protection technologies have been presented. In other
works, ball bearing failures, speed ripple effect, air gap eccentricity, broken rotor
bars, shaft speed oscillation, damaged bearings, unbalanced voltage , inter turn
faults .

Nowadays, the most widely used area of programmable logic controller (PLC) is
the control circuits of industrial automation systems. The PLC systems are
equipped with special I/O units appropriate for direct usage in industrial
automation systems . The input components, such as the pressure, the level, and
the temperature sensors, can be directly connected to the input. The driver
components of the control circuit such as contactors and solenoid valves can
directly be connected to the output. Many factories use PLC in automation
processes to diminish production cost and to increase quality and reliability [16].
There are a few papers published about the control of IMs with PLC.
One of them is about power factor controller for a three-phase IM that utilizes a
PLC to improve the power factor and to keep its voltage-to-frequency ratio
constant over the entire control range. The other paper deals with monitoring
control system of the induction motor driven by an inverter and controlled by a
PLC providing its high accuracy in speed regulation at constantspeed– variable-
load operation [16].Despite the simplicity of the speed control method used, this
system presents constant speed for changes in load torque, full torque available
over a wider speed range, a very good accuracy in closed-loop speed control
scheme.
CHAPTER-11

CONCLUSION

In this project, a novel protection system for three phase IMs designed and
implemented. A 1500RPM 0.5HP three-phase IM has been connected to
the protection system through the measuring components.

The induction motor is connected to the kit and by using PLC we protected
the motor from several faults like voltage variation. If any fault is observed
during online operation of the motor, a warning message appears on
computer and then the motor is stopped.
REFERENCE
[1] M. Peltola, “Slip of ac induction motors and how to minimize
it,” ABB
Drives Press Releases Techical Paper, ABB, New Berlin, 2003, pp.
1–7.

[2] ˙I. Colak, H. Celik, ˙I. Sefa, and S. Demirbas, “On line
protection system for
induction motors,” Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 46, no. 17, pp.
2773–
2786, 2005.

[3] A. Siddique, G. S. Yadava, and B. Singh, “A review of stator


fault monitoring
techniques of induction motors,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers.,
vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 106–114, Mar. 2005.

[4] Y. Zhongming and W. Bin, “A review on induction motor online


fault
diagnosis,” in 3rd Int. Power Electron. Motion Control Conf.
(PIEMC
2000), vol. 3, pp. 1353–1358.

[5] M. E. H. Benbouzid, “Bibliography on induction motors faults


detection
and diagnosis,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 14, no. 4, pp.
1065–
1074, Dec. 1999.

[6] N. Tandon, G. S. Yadava, and K. M. Ramakrishna, “A


comparison of some
condition monitoring techniques for the detection of defect in
induction
motor ball bearings,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process., vol. 21, no. 1,
pp. 244–
256, Jan. 2007.

[7] F. Filippetti, G. Franceschini, C. Tassoni, and P. Vas, “AI


techniques in
induction machines diagnosis including the speed ripple effect,”
IEEE
Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 98–108, Jan./Feb. 1998.

[8] W. T. Thomson, D. Rankin, andD.G.Dorrell, “On-line current


monitoring
to diagnose airgap eccentricity in large three-phase induction
motors—
In this project, the fault can be described and found by the operator. The
test has been found successful in detecting the faults and in recovering
them.