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Jacques DERIUDA

LA DISSEMINATION

AI1CCEMI1HAUI15I

Editions du Seuil

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BOCnp0I13BO.D;I1M:«"HaCTORIll.ee" TaT':

»cypnane Critique (261-262), 1969.


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nOKa OHOHe nepettUCllum

na xaxou-mo euauea nesatotmoa noeepxuocmu nocneooeamenonoe cmonxnoeeuue


838e30ax

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K8)l(IJ.0e '1TeHMe (same, noxasaaa -

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pJlHO, U HUtteZO He nomepflHO, noennoosu,
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paccsas, monxoeanue, «omopoe ceKYHOHO U pa3 U «aeceeoa omscenstemcst eeo cyw.ecm808aHUJI ... C!>yHK4UoHup08aHue, HO nonnm» H0811eHUJlX C8Jl3U, 8 eeo omcymcmeuu 8 elO paseemenennou

porn ... » nonaeasc» Komopyto

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muene ... J» J1 TaK nanee - sem, see B 3TOM TeKCTe c}'MMapHo 0606~eHO. Pa3BR3bIBaHHe (xoropoe pa3)I(HMaeT 3y6bI pe'fH, 3y6~bI MalllHHbI, naer cnOBO nany, nprrraopaercs, 'fTO npencrasJUleT 3TO znruo cnepenn, nH~OM K JIH~y, TOr,D.aKaK na nene OHO O,D.HOBpeMeHHO BOBJIeKaeT ero B rrepexacnemre, C8fC3bIBaH ero, KaK BbI nOJ1MeTe, C ,D.peBOM'lHCen H rrepenneremrsrx xopaen) ory-raerca rOpa3,D.0 xame, na casrsrx MHOrO'fHcneHHbIX CTa3a'lacT)'lO CKa)I(eM 06 3TOM 3,D.eCb - B yrny6neHHH nexoero aexroro HeBH,D.HMOrO yrna, 0 KOTOPOM eute nonner pe-ts, BbI ,D.On)I(HbI6Y,D.eTepe3IOMHpOBaTb, H3MepHTb B CTaTH,D,HRX.

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«2.46 ... , ... To, umo omKpbl8allocb

npu nocpeocmee MeHJl, noo


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»ce 80 see 6011bUJeu 6e30naCHocmu, eeo, KaK 8CCMupHoe nepeunauueanue na nnocxocmu 8peMeHu »cueue

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C)KaBIllHCb

«Hacen»,

aa

lIH-

C5! H 'IHTaeTCH, CaM npencraanaer


HHe, npe,lJ,CTaBlIJIeT naer BbI'IeT HS ::nOll csoe

c06CTBeHHoe npencraanexae

HHH OTKPbITHJI/saKpbITHJI,

nocxonsxy

yron

O,lJ,HOBpeMeHHo H npOMe)KYTrrpOCTPaHCTB. TO eCTb

c06CTBeHHoe

aaxpsmaer B

orxpsraaer,

B Me)KnOBepXHocTHOM «qHClIaMHl)

nenpepsreaoa onepannn.H'rax,
B

xe HanOlIHeHHbIX

H rrpenrracamrsrx

snacsrsars «BOT eroro»

O,lJ,HOBpeMeHHO

BHe HX, aa KaMHe, KOTOPbIH )I()l:eT sac, TeKCTa, craryca

yrnsr «l.{HcelI», B HHX H sonpocsr, KacalO~HeCJI


K «l.{HClIaM», Hs06paSHTb Toro, ero Do«BOT erne

MeCTe CO'IlIeHeHHJI

O,lJ,HOHnOBepXHocTH He TO 'IT06bI HlIl1

C npyron, yron

O,lJ,HOrO BpeMeHH JlBlIJllICJI nexoen

C ,lJ,pyrHM.

CO'IlIeHeHHJI TeMoH.

ero OTHOIlleHHJI

OTCyTcTBylO~eH

HeBH,lJ,HMOH

'ITO OH npHTBopHO npencraaneane,

,lJ,06aBlIJleT K HHM, 'IT06b1 pe-npesexraumo

B «qI1ClIax»
CHCTeMbI

OH HaCTOWIHBO

Bbl,lJ,elIJleTCJI CHHbKOH, CI1HHM IJ;BeBOCCOS,lJ,aHHOH

H OT,lJ,aHHbIH OT'IeT. B caMHX y)Ke ce6e, HlIH

TOM, HeBH,lJ,HMbIM no U;BeTOB. 3TO

ry

CTOPOHY cneuaansao

CKOlIbKY, eClIH «l.{HclIa» 3TOT» TeKCT -

OT,lJ,aIOTce6e OT'leT

«HO'1o», KOTOpaJi «tiuna

He tteM UHblM,

KaK H nee, 'ITO ero

KaCaeTCJI -

JlBlIJleTCJI H «TeM caMbIM BaIOT H npHTBopHO CTaBlIeHHe, TaK B uenosr

TeKCT_OM». l1 KaK «l.{HclIa» caoe

BbIC'IHTbInpe,lJ,TO'IHO «BOT

oc~eCTBlIJlIOT BnHCbIBaIOT

c06CTBeHHoe B Hrpy, CTapHHKe

npHCYTCTBHe no

xce TO, 'ITO

HPOHH'IHO

HaSbIBalIOCb npencraaneane,

nacmouwueuu, CUHUM nepeXOOOM OOHOZOBpeMeHU B opyeoe, nanpuuep CKpyttUB(lHUeM, B xomopou nacmosuuee U UMnepifyeKm cootnuatomcn OPYi! C 0PYZOM, He omscewast opye opyea ... » (1.5). Haunt nooaaneaasre sanaca, ysneseaasre 3TOH HO'IblO,
KaK 3mUM

3THM»

TeKCTOM, Hs06pa)KaeT

KOMMeHTapHH, «l.{HcelI». KaK

sazca'rsre

B yrnax,

xoropsre

HanpHM)'IO

CBJlSbIBalOT

Tpl1

no-

HHTepnpeTaU;HIO, 0606~eHHbIH «snecs»

OT,lJ,aHHbIH OT'leT cHMylIJlKP, Me)l()l:y

HJIH ortacs xoropoe

BepXHOCTI1 HaCTOJl~erO,

HMnep<peKTa lIHIllb

C e,lJ,HHCTBeHHoH

noaepxnoc-rsso K c06CTBeHyrna, npyroa B BbIno-

3TO nHcbMO,

,lJ,BH)KeTCJI Me)K,lJ,y TaK ecrr, «MH-

nOBTopHO

OTMeTHT nepexon xsanpar

B npooene

,lJ,ByMJI BbIMbIClIaMH, Hero

HOM)' HaCTOJlHHlO, nOBTOpJlJl MbIClIe paS)KH)KaJl nHCbMa, CTporOCTb xoropoe

aaxpsrrnesr

HasbIBaeMbIM xasrepa, MHKH»,

nepBOHCTO'IHHKOM

KOMMeHTapHeM, aBTOp TOH caMOH

TeKCTa OTKpblTHeM erne

KaK cxasan «nnea»

6bI HC'Ie3alO~HH

BepXHOCTH saHHOH

,lJ,OlI)KHO npHHTH, HlIH nerem.aoro aortryroro, 'fTO

B paSBJIxpioxa yma

KOTOPOH, HeCOMHeHHO, TaKOH

He TO, BO 'ITO aepar, nnmocrpapyer (HS KOTOMe)K,ll.y xce-

Hrpe

xapnaaansnoro yrna -

'IHClIa

HO H He HlIlIIOCTpaU;HJI TOlIbKO poro

sepsr: «Cnena

(cardo).
SHa'IHTb,

DHCbMO

asrcrynarourero,
MbI erne

H,lJ,elO, a He HaCTOJl~ee

,lJ,eHCTBHe, B rnxrene HO CBJI~eHHOM,

OTpa)KeHHJI?

DOCKOlIbKY

He SHaeM,

3TO 6Y,lJ,eT

6epeTCJI H

Ipesa),

nOpO'IHOM,

BbI,lJ,BHHeM «BOT 3TO» nHCbMO BCH lIHHHJI 06paSOM, HSlIOMaHa. OTMe'IaeM, nner

KaK nOBmopHJ1O »cemy

lIaHHeM eM: sneer, llIlIOM, nrpa xorna

asmonnemre«,
onepeacas, TaM

coaepureaneza BcnOMHHaJl,

H BocnOMHHaHHB 6y,lJ,~eM, TaK neacrayer B npoMHM, HH'IHC-

Y21/a,

xorna

TaKHM 'ITeHl1e, npaaa

MbI

'ITO TO CTaTHCTH'leCKOe

B 1I0JICHOMHBlIeHUU
xoroporo

uacmosnueeo.
TaK

0 aaxane OT casroro

xoroporo eroro

pe-ts,

norryxar

aBTopCKHe

OrpaHH'lHBaeTCJI CTeKlIa:

nOCTOJlHHbIM OH saxpennaer

HaMeKOM, cpeny,

TeKCTa: «ql1clIa» ceoa B Ka'IeCTBe

C 1I106oH Tpe6yeMoH COBpeMeHHI1KOB 11

He pas6HBaJi

'IaCTOTOH )KHTelIeH

YTBep)K,lJ,aIOT

TYIO, BbIMbIClIa». 3epKaJIO 'fHTaIOTCJI TO sepxano, xoropoe sac YBH,lJ,HT, B KOTOPOM 6Y,lJ,eT pas6HTO, H aepaspstetrosr OAHaKO BbI-

«ZOpOOOB-

B «omopux

HeMble
3TOM

«Hncna», pasoneaae

HeCOMHeHHO,

OHO OTpa3HT MbIClIe. EClIH 60H,

B HeTpOHYTOM

10m wumam», paciuucppoeuearn»; scunam» - ... ». «MbI )KI1BeM B («Ilpasra» ).


qT06bI SaJlBHTb 06 ~eHCJI C C060H

suuuutcu omuune yMecwumamu, nucam» U ecnorepone (3TOH KHHre))

3TOH KHl1re

nOBTOpeHI1H, 'IT06bI MOMeHT

COOTHOCJI060SHa'II1Th 6y,lJ,eT B HeH

«BOT 3TOT»

MOMeHT

BbIMbIClIa

COOTHOCHTCJI C COBlIaCTH H crpe-

11OT ce6J1 ycsonsaarouten, KOTOpaJi B KaKOH-TO

aonpomaer

ce6J1 0 csoea

c06cTBeHHoH

cTpaHH)'IO

1I0rHKY,

tmr!I

)i(

a K )l,e p P '" A a.

.n.IoICCEMIoIHAl1"'Sl

cq>opMynHpoBaHa,

«naxoneu

na 3TOT pa3» 0603HaqaeT, TaKHM

B CHCTeMe :nOM CTpaHHOM paC'IeTHOH IIpaKTHKH rrOCJJe.u.HHM OTBeTCTBeHHbIM nllu,OM, e.u.HHCTBeHHbIM OTBeTqHKOM 6y.u.eT He KTO HHOM, KaK qHTaTenb H naxce aBTOp, KOTOPbIM BbI He CMO)l(eTe .u.aTbY1MeHa.«qMCJIa», B KOTOPbIX sanpeuiena 'ra caMaJI cnatiocrs, KOTopaH COCTOHTB HMeHOBaHllH, KOTOPbIM BbI 'rorn.xo 'ITO corpennonr, Ha3bIBaH aBTopOB H nponaseneuaa, llCXO.u.HOCTaBHT llMH nonrnrcasureroca B TeHb, «6 KOllOHHe nucell, UMeHa 6 menus

06pa30M, He TonbKO eAMHCTBeHHoe KOHeqHOe HCrrOJIHeHHe,HO If onpenenenaoe csrenienae H orrpeneneuasm paspsrs, OTKPbITyro CHCTeMY rrOBTopeHIDI paspsraoe. OTCIO)l,a 6epeTCH If HeB03MO)l(HOCTb BbI6paTh MeCTO

H, rJIaBHOe, HaMTH ceoa B 3TOM MeCTe. Ho MbI He TonbKO He npennaraexr ee cosepuamuo, MbI yzce He Y)],OBneTBopHeMCH H TeM, qT06bI rrpOCTO BbICKa3aTb TaK C06paHHyIO HeB03MO)l(HOCTb. OHa He 03ByqHBaeTcH B xa-recrne rrpOCTO meopescu, naace ecnn HHOM pa3 non Blf)l,OM rrOBTopHO BKnIOqeHHbIX B crrHCOK norHKO-MaTeMaTHqeCKHX BbICKa3blBaHHM (fHJIb6epT, <t>pere, BHTreHIIITeMH, Bypoaxn H T. n.) ee cxpsrroe rronozceaae rrpHOTKphIBaeTCH CKB03b orpOMHoe H nporcziaroe none HaIIIeM .u.OMaIIIHeM 6lf6nlfOTeKH (<<)J,ao-)J,3U,3HH», «30rap», MeKCHKaHCKHe, HHAMMcKHe H HCJIaMCKHe MHq,onorHH, 3Mrre.u.oKJI, HHKonaM KY3aHcKlfM, oPYHo, Mapxc, Hmuue, JleHllH, APTO, Mao IJ;33.u.YH,Baran II T. n.; II CKB03b npyroe none, (ionee snyrpeaaee lfJllf MeHee BYI.u.HMoe,creproe - nYKpeU,llM, )J,aHTe, Flacxans, neM6Hllu" Iererrs, Bonnep, PeM60 II nexoropsre npyrne), OHa npaxrmcyerca, KaK 06CTOHT nena C 3TOM npaxrnxoa? ECJIYI rrpOM3BO.u.llTb - 3TO BbIBO.u.llTb na CBeT, BbIHOCMTb non comrexmae JIyqll, OTKpbIBaTb, BbIHBnHTb, aaa-nrr, 3Ta «rrpaxrnxa» He nosonscrsyerca .u.enaHlleM Y1nH rrpOYl3Bo.u.CTBOM.OHa He rr03BOJIHeT MOTllBY llCTHHbI yrrpaBJIHTb C060M, MOTMBY llCTHHbI, roP1l30HT xoroporo OHa saxniouaem 6 PaMKY, rrOCKOllbKY OHa rro BceM CTporOCTH OTBeGaeT II sa He-rrp01l3Bo.u.CTBO, 3a orrepanna OTMeHbI, 3a BbIGeT II aa orrpenenemrsra TeKcryanbHbIM Hynb.

(4.52).

He orae-raer

60nee HH rrepe.u. KeM

'ra neonpaansrsaeeraa TeaTpallbHaH opraaasauaa, B KOTOPOM crapmnrsre npnapaxa, llMeHyeMble asropora, GllTaTeneM, noCTaHOBI.lJ,HKOM,pa60qHM cuenu, aKTepOM, CTaTHCTaMH, 3pl1'renesr H T. n., pacnonararor O)J.HHMMeCTOM, YHHKanbHbIM H sapaaee onpeneneansna (aanov, cuenavn, KynHcaMH H T. n.), Ha3HaqeHHbIM HMlf caMHMH caMH~ ce6e, - HO nHIIIb B TOM npencrasneaan, B KOTOPOM OHH HrpaIOT 3TH ponH H xoropoe HY)l(HO 06bHCHHTb. I1MeHHo snecs 6y.u.eT I1MeTb MeCTO, ecna y nee ecr s MeCTO, HCTOPHR,HMeHHO snecs KOe-l.{TO6y.u.eT rrpo)l(I1TO, paCCKa3aHO, BblBe.u.eHO B KaQeCTl3e CMbICna I1JIH npenCTaBHMOM OCHOBbI KHHrH. Ho «qHCJIa)) pa36HpaIOT 3TO npencraaneaue, pasonpa-

IOT ero TaK, KaK .u.eKOHCTpYHPyIOT HeKy1l1 MexaHH3M HllH KaK pasoonasaror YBepeHHOCTb TOM HnM I1HOM rrpeTeH3HH. Ho rrpx 3TOM B TOM »ce caMOM xcecre OHH Ha3HaqaIOT eMY orrpeneneauoe MeCTO, OTHOCHTenbHoe nonoaceaae B 06I.lJ,eM .u.BH)l(eHHH YCTpoMCTBa. ECllH rOBopHTb na KllaCCH"leCKOM H3bIxe, 3TO MeCTO nonxoro 6bITb MeCTOM 3a6ny)l(.u.eHI1H H HJIJIIO3HH, Toro caxioro 3a6nY)l(.u.eHHH H TOM caMOM I1llnI03HH, OTHOCHTenbHO KOTOPbIX Crnmoaa If KaHT, nYCTb HX rryTH H 6blJIH COBepIIIeHHO pa3nHGHbI, nOCTpOI1JIH .u.OKa3aTellbCTBO: He.u.OCTaTOqHOHX OC03HaTb, qT06bI OHI1 nepecrana .u.eMCTBOnar s, OC03HaHMe nHIIIb onpenenennsra cu,eHI1'-1eCKHl13q,q,eKT. Tlpn HeKOTopOH OCTOPO)l(HOCTI13Ty aaanormo MO)l(HO 6blno 6bI M rrponmrn., CKa3aB, '-ITO pe-n, H.u.eT 0 aeooxo.u.HMOMHnnJ03HH aocnpnrrraa, 0 crpyxrype QYBcTBeHHoro npencraanemta HllH »ce 0 TpaHcu,eH.u.eHTanbHoH HJIJII03H 11 , paasn-psmaroureaca B caMOM 3aKOHe KOHCTHTYHpoBaHHR 06beKTa, rrpencraaneaas BeI.lJ,11 KaK 06beKTa, KaK 6bITHH-HarrpOTHB-MeHH.

2. YCTpOHCTBO

llJIH

pasnca

Bce 3TH rHpH H MepbI, 3TH paMKH, 3TH MepH.n;HaHbI H HCKYCCTBeHHbIe ropH30HTbI Y)Ke B CHlIY caxroro csoero C03.n;aHHIl o61Ia.n;aIOTsceoonrea, a6COJIIOTHOMaTeMaTWIeCKOH HenpelIO)KHOCThIO.

m!H

)I(

,lJ, e p p

11 A

a.

AHCCEMI1HAL\I1~

pasucax

TeKCTa O,lJ,HaM3 CTOPOH xsanpara, 6y,IJ,eT

O,lJ,HaM3 no-

C06blTMM

CBoeM pesn,

MO)KeT pacnonararrTOr,lJ,a, xorna

JIMWb

MJIJII0311e:H:

BepXHOCTe:H: Ky6a 3a6JIY)K,lJ,eHMe,

npeocmaensm»

3TO He3MTIMpMqeCKOe MJIJII03MIO. ECJIM

rOCnO,lJ,CTBa. J1MeHHo

OH CqMTaeT,

6Y,lJ,TO PYKoeMY KTO

3TY

TpaHClJ,eH,lJ,eHTaJIbHyro

BO,lJ,MT ,lJ,eMCTBMHMM, B Ka)K,lI,Oe MrHOBeHMe caxrosry ero MeCTO BbI OTKPbITOCTb

M sonpexa

npOI.I.J:e, TO OHa 6Y,lJ,eT npOCTO KpbITMeM

npe,lI,CTaBJIHTb,

OHa 6Y,lJ,eT OTI1pe,lJ,CTaBJIflH B OC060M KaKHM-TO sep«C)Ka-

K HaCTOHI.I.J:eMY Toro, CqMTaeT cetia

KJIaCCMqeCKO:H:ClJ,eHbI npe,lJ,CTaBJIeHlUI. ero M 06'bHCHMT ero pe-rs

(nanpasrep, sari, «H»,

snecs,

ceaxac)

B CMJIax CKa«H qYBCJIy3aKOH. OTKPbIBbI

npe,lJ,CTaBJIeHMe, OHa OTpa3MT KaJIe. OHa TbIM BbICKa)KeT ero,

«H MbICJIIO», -

«H cyuiecrnyro», onpenenaerca

«H Bll)KY», B 6poCKe

BbJpa3MT 3aKpbITbIM

crsyro»,

«H rOBOpIO», xoroporo

xocren,

PTOM»,

«3a6BeHMeM,

paMKOM».

qaMHOCTb

3aTeM HeYMOJIMMO

passeprsrsaer
naepn, 0

BaM Hy)KHO

6Y,lJ,eT scerna BHMMaHMe

CqMTaTbC5I co CTPYKTYPHO:H: MJITOJIbKO aa TO, qTO OHa He no-

Pa36JC3bI6aHue:
BaHMe 60JIbWe par, HMK 3aMKa,

OTKpbITMe, BllCHqerO

B 06I.I.J:eM cay-rae 3aMKa, M KJIIOqaMll,

JII03Me:H:. 06paTMTe

KOTOPbIX

HBJIHeTCH KaK OIllM6Ka 3a6JIY)K)J,eHMe HanpOTMB, HO:H: MJIll

BocnpMHTMH,

KaK HeKOHTpOJIMpyeMo~ npeaparnocrr,lI,OJI)KHa 6bITb B ootnyro )KeJIaHMH. snncanoprannsaMeCT, qTo6bI OT Hero qM-

He ,lJ,OJI)KHbI saosiaart., BKJIIOqeHHOe OTKpbITMe )K,lI,eT aac,

pauxa:

BnMCbIBaHMe B

B KBa,lJ,-

KaK Kanp113HaH Heo6xo,lJ,MMOCTM MeCTe

TO ecrr,

M OTpa)KeHHOe B xsanpare, J1 erne

xersrpexyronsHenOHHTHoe ,lJ,BepbMM M

OHa no <na

OTKpbITMe, xoropoe

nexoe C ero

in situ

CBoeM

(nam.t>,

3epKaJIO, sepxanasra,

ropon

lJ,l1IO M npOCqMTbIBaeMOe rearp HaKOHelJ, nOJIyqMJI

CPYHKlJ,MOHMpOBaHMe

JIa6MpllHT:

)KeCTKoe o606I.I.J:eHMe, qTo6bI He-YMeCTHOCTb, TBopeHMH, qTo6bI MMpa,

He YCKOJIb3aJIa HMKaKafI c'roe scero nepnoaaxano 'roro,

HMKaKOe pe-ru,

(HaqaJIO

onsrra,
ECJIM

"ITO Boo6I.I.J:e npMCYTCTByeT) TOqKH

He Ha6JIIO,lJ,aJIO aa cueOTKpbITMH.

HO:H: C nenpacrynaoa BBe,lJ,eHHOe B paxucy, MeHT MJIM Co6bITMe

a6COJIIOTHOrO

TO, "ITO ,lJ,aeTCH KaK OTKpbIToe, OTKPbITllH, OTHbIHe 3cpcpeKTOM

KaK 3JIeTO-

HBJIJCeTCH JIMIllb OTKPbITMH,

nOJIOrMqeCKM

npertcxasyesrsn-r

3Haq}1T,

HMQTO He 6Y,lJ,eT MMeTb BOBHe. JII06aH

MeCTa, KpOMe B03BpaTa

MeCTa. K HeTpOHyTOM M co6-

nonsrrxa
ceoa

CTBeHHO:H: MHTMMHOCTM CTBMH ,lJ,JIHcasroro My

nexoero

npMCYTCTBMH

MJIM npMCYTI10TOscerna

passrrpsraaerca
caM 3TOT TepMllH, M nOTOMY,

B MJIJII03MM. MJIJII03MH

"ITO, KaK YKa3bIBaeT

HBJIHeTCH 3cpcpeKTOM TeaTpOM, B KOTOPOM

nrpsr;

"ITO OHa pacnozraraer ornomeno-

3aBH3bIBaeTCH

orrpenenenaoe

«1.17 .... M «a« HO'iblO nputinuscaeiuscx K oJICu8lleHHoMY COpooy, eoxpye «omopoeo KaK tiyomo nuweeo Hem, xa« eonea tipocxa xocmea OKa3I:J18aeUlI:JCJI8 oonoa U3 neyaaxnux «nemo-ce« satiumou UepI:JI, KaK KOM6UHatlUJI 8I:J16paHHI:J1X Hayeao U,u¢p omxpueaem my unu opyeylO 08epI:J ceu<fta - max U $I eepnyncs 8 C8010 coticmeennyio ¢OPMY, He CYMe8 npeoeuoems mo, «mo MCHJI OJICUOallO... PaMKY, 8 xomopou $I Otlymuncs; eCmeC1n8eHHO, 6I:J1ll0 He803MOJICHO 3anOllHUmI:J, ecnu mOllI:JKO HanOMHUmI:J 0 scunnuapoax paCCKa308, «omopue 20m0811/. 80m-80m paseepnymecs ... Munnuapoax CKa3aHHI:JIX, nepeOaHHI>IX unu MUMOJZemHO 3aOepJICa8UlUXCR 8 COJoaBaeMOM np0U38eoeHUU ¢paJ ... 3mo 6I:Jllla H08aR numxa 60 81nOpOU cmenenu, OHa oxeamueana scex JlCU8I:J1X otiumamenet; smoeo 8peMeHU, omxpueana 80JMOJICHOCmI:J UX 211a3 U
UX peueu..»

HMe nerrpencraeasroro TOMY, "ITO TOTaJIbHOCTb CBOMX nyaKTOB BaH xsanparnyro

K npe,lJ,CTaBJIeHMIO. TeKCTa, KaK

J1 HaKOHelJ"

«Ilpasra»,

B Ka)K)J,OM M3 J1 qTo6bI BbI He TepHJIM HM CJIe,lJ, mosa, x HM CJIe,lJ, exoea n 3aCTe)KKM, K KOTOPOM BbI npMUlJJJ1, 3aCTe)KKM aa O,lJ,HMM «liep-

BOBJIeqeHa

B nrpy,

BceMM

CMJIaMM BbICTpaM-

ropM30HTaJIbHOCTb

4bl, usotipaxcatotuea
B TeaTpaJIbHOM

6peMJC»,

crpanausr, «iuatue-utu«ueeuauuou WaxMamHOU OOCKU»


xyoa. B npenenax aroro CpO«H» TOT, KTO rOBopMT

HblM

sepxanou»:
«3.15 .... T080pR
max:

06'beMe

nexoero

xa C MHOrOqMCJIeHHbIMM B HaCTOHI.I.J:eM npesrenn,

OCTaHOBKaMM

B TaK Ha3bIBaeMOM

nOJIO)KMTeJIbHOM

POK Oe8J1mI:JUJ HUX

"y 3aMKa omxpueatomcx

IlRmI:JOeCRm no

oeepea.

Co-

«emupesc cmoponau.

mJ

)I(

K ,D, P P H A e

a.

,D,HCCEMHHALI,Y1S1

Ilocneoun« oeep»
npunes«

He

uaxooumcx
xyoa

HU

na

OiJHOU U3

cmopou,
csoe

DOCJIe.n;Hee He TOJIbKO 06'bHCHJleTCH, 06'bJICHeHHe, xoropoe

OHO enie

H 'lHTaeT

HeU36ecmHO,

OHa,OmKpIJl6aemCil-

eeepx UlIU

He HBJIHeTCR pe-n-to,

npnmernuea .n;OJI)KHO -

6HU3 ••. Y scex oeepeu OiJUH U mom nee 3aMOK, iJAil KlI1O'ta ecm» monuxo netionmuoe omeepcmue, xomopoe omsteneno cneooi« KJl1O"ta •.:\,

CO CTOPOHbI, 6bIJIO Teneph 6bI

xo ropoe,

OCTaHhCH

OHO SHe TeKCTa,

Ha'IHHaTb,

HCTOJIKOBbIBaTl>" paCIllH<PPOBbIBaTb nOHHMaTb, nO'IeMY

BbI Ha'IHHaeTe

TeKCT JlBJIJIeTCJl Heacesr TeXHH'IeC-

moa nee HeOJICuiJaHHocmb1O 6b1J1oomspume, ernest U KaK smo YMe10m oenam» ••• »

«3.35.... U CH06a il naueen KlI1O"t, U KaJJCiJWUpaJ OiJHOU U KaK smo oena-

paCIllH<pPOBbIBaeMhIM, KHM cexperasr ero

TO eCTh 06Y'laTb J1JIH cooourarr, B03HHKaIOT,

pa60TbI

0 HHX. 06'bJlCHH-

.rerrsnsre
TOl'O, 'ITO,

pe-nr

peryJIHpHO

1I0pO)K.n;aIOTCJl B nocxaaaparype T011 CTO3peJIHI1~a,

JIe.n;OBaTeJIbHOCTHX, xoropsre

caMH rrpnnanzrexcar 'leTblpex

Hrax,

IDlJIlO3HJl

HHa'ie

rOBOpJl,

HCTHHa

TeKCTa, a HMeHHO pone, KOTOpaJl

O.n;HOMH3 ero

CTOPOH -

KaK Ka)KeTCJl, npe,D,CTaBJIJleTCJl seun.to

HanpOTHB

MeHJl, Be~1O CaMOB03PO)K-

Ka)KeTCH OTKPbiTOH MOMeHTY

BOCnpHJlTHIO c03HaHHJl, pe'IH,

B a6COnIOTHO «eCTeCTBeHHOlf>, H 6eCnpeCTaHHO ,D,alO~eMCJl OTKPbITOCTH JIHIllh 3<p<peKTOM 'roro, MOerO

OTKPbITOM

HaCTOJl~eMy

B3HpalO~ero TO ecrs, on-

JIHIJ,a HJIH CIJ,eHbI, OKa)KeTCJl

na CBOH npe.n;MeT, HHM

HaCToH~eMy

BpeMeHH

'ITO 'IaCTO Ha3bIBaIOT

(<<()ecpopMupYIOUiee, nocmosmno

paoomatotuee

«ycmpoucmeou» ycmpoacmeo»,

CJIOBOM, JIHIJ,y KaK BCTpe'Ie nOBepXHOCTH

JIlfIJ,OM K JIHIJ,y, paCCMaTpH3Ta CTopOHa -

BaeMOM

npHCYTCTBHJl. CIJ,eHbI>

frons
-

3.43).
«... 3mUM annapamou tiun can smy cppa3y». He TO 'IT06bI
HnH npJ1Ha,D,ne)KaJI eM, nanporns, CTO, TaK 'ITO «a» 3TOM opraHH3aIJ,I1H,

scenae

<CTeHa

B rJIy6HHe TaK)Ke

KJIaCCH'leCKOrO

.rearpa

s, smo

OH mOJlbKO «mo uanuKaKOM-TO caMOCTblO na Moe Me-

C03epIJ,aeTCJl 6e3YCJIOBHaJl eTCJl KaK

KaK H3HaQaJIbHaJl,

nenocpencrneanaa, 06'bJlCHJlnponyxr, ripenorpa-

OH 6bIn

OH nOCTaBJIeH

OTKPbITOCTb JIBJleHUJI, Ol~HaKO OHa BUOUMoe OTKpbITHe, KaK 06YCIIOBIIeHHbIH 3<p<peKT. 06'bJlCHeHHe epesseau»,

JIJ1Illh A11<p<pepeHIJ,HpOBaHHaJl CTpYKTypa CTpYKTypa a6COJIlOTHO eCTeCTBeHHaJl H

nOBepXHOCTHbI11 naraerca BaM

«HJIJII03HH» BO BpeMeHH

B «HaCTOJl~eM 06pa30M acerna

'IHCTO HCKYCCTBeHHaJl, CTpYKTypa pOBaHHaJl, 'IT06bI Y'IeCTb H B ce6e

,D,OCTaTO'IHO A11<P<pepeHIJ,HMOMeHT HJIH MeCTO aBTapKHcy6'beKTa. OHO 06'bJlCHJleTCJl, 'ITO 'ITO

)KeHH011 TaKHM CJl 'IaCTH'IHbIM,

«HJIJlI03HH»; Tpe6YIO~HM

H OHO scerna nonropnoro

OCTaeTHa'IHHa-

'IeCK011 HJIJIlO3lfH 3'r0

cynepenaoro
MO)KHO

HHJl, npo.n;OJI)KeHHJl, 'rex uie, TOJI'IKOB, 'IeM H3-3a

CBJl3bIBaHHjj;

OHO 60JIee

Ba)KHO

H3-3a

YCTPOHCTBO 06'bJlCHHeTCJl. 'ITO ero

KOTOPhIMH «HCTHHbI»,

OHO B03.n;e11cTByeT aa TeKCT Bo06KOTOpylO OHO npH3BaHO OTKPbIne-

He osaaxaer, 6bITb casro nOHHTO

06'bJlCHHTb,

OHO MO)KeT

HeKlfM

Ha6JIIO,D,aTeJIeM B

.OHO 06'bJlCHJleTCJl B03MO)KHOrO na-

aar s, OHO Ba)KHO <popMaIJ,HJlMH. IJ,eHTp

CBOHMH

HH<popMaIJ,HjjMH

H CBOHMH

C06011 H (BKJIIO'IaJI

ceria)

JIlO60ro

XOTJl 3TO 06'bRCHeHHe 06~eM HCTOPHH,

asrnaer

ce6H sa coop, otinanaer

6mo.n;aTeJIJl. OHO 3KCnJIHI.I,lfpyeTCJl,

MYlIbTHnJIHIJ,HpYJlCh,

«ceu-

c06HpaHHJl

OHO casro

6aJI u

paseuoan

KOpHU CBOUX MeJlb1iaUUmX 3HaKOB»


HMeHHO TaK BaIllHM YCHJIHeM npouapanarr., no H3BHe onpenenenaoro

(ibid.).

'IaCTHOH:: HCTopHeM, HY)KHO npocneznrrs

KaK xaxcnaa

H3 npyrax cnocooosr

nOBepXHOCTeH::. CBjj3bIBaHHH. <germe> nasaa ce-

«qHC1Ia»

06'bHCHJlIOTCJl

OTCIO.n;a'ra rpnxraca, npHBHTb rrpene-

aa ee OC06bIM <terrne>,

KOTOpaJl poxcnaercs KaKoe-TO

Ka)K.n;bIH:: TepMHH B xaacnoe 6Jl

Ka)K.n;bIH

saponsnu MecTa,

.n;onOJIHeHHe

K yrJIY,

MrHOBeHHe no.n;06HO

3aBHCHT JII060H

OT caoero HHOM

JIa, KOTOPbI11 He OrpaHH'IHBaeT HO, HanpOTHB, My crH6aHHlO TbIBaHlflO CTpYKType 06YCJIaBJIHBaeT HnH

nee nOTeHl.J,HH TeKCTa, orrpezrenennoCBep-

BOBJIe'Ib,

H3 neranen

MaIllHHbI, npe-

J1X 6JIaro.n;apJl yrny

B ynoPJl.n;O'IeHH)'IO 06pa30BaHHH, TOT J1JIH HHOH )KeHHJl.

cepmo

CMe~eHHH, .n;06aBJIjjlO~HX

np06}'KCOBOK,

BHYTpeHHeMY

nOBepXHOCTeM,

B03BpaTOB, 'IJIeH

HJIH y6HpalO~HX npenzro-

H pa3BepTbIBaHHlO YCTpo11CTBa.

B KOHe'IHOM/6eCKOHe'IHOM

xaxcnoro

npemuecrnyrouiero

I!I!m

)I( 8 K

p p 11 A 8.

,llHCCEMI1HAllI1S'1

I!l!U

,llHcCeMI<1HalJ,HS'I

3. Kymopa
... scerna 3TO lIOlIe,3Ta xymopa, CKPbITaJI 6e3MepHocTb ••• HeYlIOBHMaa

B IIOpR,ll,Ke pe'Ilf

OKa3bIBaeTCR KaK HlfKOr,ll,a Mlf<plf'IeCKoH.

HY)KHO nenan. KyrIIOPY, cpeaars, IIOTOMY 'ITO (HJIlf BCJIe,ll,CTBlfe 'roro, 'ITO - KaK BaM yronao) Ha'l:aJIO CKpbIBaeTCR If pasnenaeTCH,

cradaerca

K ce6e

If

YMHO)KaeTCH, Ha'IlfHaeT

C roro,

'ITO

On mnner. "Hnxorna np061IeMa


opramrsauaa

casra lIO ce6e •••06w;aJI

OHO Y)Ke MHOrO'lHCneHHO. «1.9 .... Hma«; 8 nauane tiuno mo, «mo Jl 06Jl3aH nasueam» "npbIJICKOM'; «yruopoa, no «omopou MOJICHO npoumu llUWb npbtJlCKaMU ... » B TOM, '!TO BbI aa IIpOTH)KeHlflf KaKorO-TO IIpOMe)KYTKa BpeMeHlf 6Y,ll,eTe Ha3bIBaTb aa OTCYTCTBlfeM npyroro Ha3BaHlfH 06meH IIOJUfCeMlfeH «Hacen», «KyrIIOpa» <coupure>, He-

<PYHKQHOHHpyeT TaK, 'H06bl HaM ee lIO)].HRTb•.:'

noraeurara

Ileacraeanoe

CBOpa'lHBaHHe KHHrH see )l(e OT KOTOPO06pe3bI CTa-

OT)].aeTCR )l(epTBOlIpHHOllJeHHlO, ro CO'lJ1JIHCb KPOBblO pblX TOMOB; anenenne noro

pueaemcst, saeuoaemcx ... »),

xpacasre

PYK" 11JIJ:[ lIepO'lI1HBO BlI3)].eHl1e.

COMHeHHO,OTMe'IaeT IIpepbIBaHlfe TeKCTa (<<KOi:Oa mexcm npea TaK)Ke IIPOlf3BOJI IIepO'IHHHOrO HO)Ka, KOTOPbIH MO)KeT OTKpbITb -rreane TO snecs, TO TaM, ocrpae IIlfCbMa, KOTopoe Ha'l:lfHaeT C 'ITeHlfH snecs HJIH TaM 06pe3aHHOH <ppa3bI, CJI}"laHHOe If He06xo,ll,HMOe noaropenae Y)Ke-6bIBlllero (npyroro) TeKCTa, neaane peurenna B u,eJIOM, peunrrensnoe peureaae, TO ec'rs peureane KaK nperepnenaeMoe, TaK If pelllaIOmee (<<3.11.... M 80m menep» na MeHJl otipyWUllOCb eenuxoe peiueuue; U cmpax cman epusm» Ka:JICOblU U3 3HaK08 ... »}, nepexon OT Hlf'ITO K «anecs», OT anecs K «TaM», «83pb18 U OCKOllKU, 8 «omopux menosc cmpensnom KaK cuapsOOM U3 omcymcmeux npOmJlJlCeHHOCmU», HaCHJIbCTBeHHoe pemenne, xoropoe 3aJIIIOM BbI6paCbIBaeT TeJIO-CHapH,ll" TeJIO He MeHee ocrpoe, 'IeM HOJIC(<<OHa cmonana, coopoeanacs, KaK 6yomo HOt.tb tiuna cmpyea U3 ee eopna, IWK 6yomo 6bt OHa YJICe He 6bllla 3mUM ucrneuenuesc HOt.tU, 8b/.X00 Oliff «omopoeo omxpum HOJICOM8 nepenonnennou 8~ecm8e nOCllenOllY0eHHOZO epeueHU, COXpaHJlH »my meunomy 80 pmy ... » ). Taxoe pellleHlfe HBJIHeTCH xacrpauaea IIO KpaHHeH Mepe

aoaca, )].a6bl BCTYII"Tb

HaCKOJIhKO 601Iee JIJ:['lHbIM 6blJl0 C03HaHHe

panee,
xorna rx,

)].0

OHO

aroro sapsapcxoro npnspaxa: cnenaer cetia yxacrmrxoer KHHKaK saranxa -

B3RTOH OTClO)].a,OTTY)].a, paCCbllIaHHOH

lIO B03)].YXY,paeransrsaessoa 11lIO'lTH

lIOJIHOCTblO 3aBepllJeHHOH

B ce6e

caMoH. CKJI3)].K11lIpO)].OlI)I(aT MeTy ••.


"ECTh HOM, 0 KOTOPOM II He aa6blBalO»

Orneznrre 0,ll,l{H IIplfMep, Be,ll,b BbI He MO)KeTe, na If He ,ll,OJDKHbI IIOHHMaTb 6eCKOHe'IHhll1: KOMMeHTapHl1:, KOTOPbIH B Ka)K,ll,bIH MOMeHT, KaK KlDKeTCR, ,ll,OJI)KeHCll,eIIJIRTbCR If cpa3y )Ke OTMeHRTbCR, TO ecrs B CBOIO oaepens nonnaaarnca IIpO'ITeHlfIO 'Iepe3 casro YCTPOHCTBO. ,D;aBaHTe)Ke 3aHMeMCR KyrIIOpOH, IIPOlf3BOJIbHOH If HaCHJIbCTBeHHOH, HaIIOMHlfB 0 TOM, 'ITO «qlfCJIa» IIpe,ll,IIlfCbIBaIOT KYIIIOPY, rrpennacsraaror, Bcerna BbIMbllIVIeHHoe
RCb

passrrpaaaon, IIPlfTBOPHOH, xacrpauaea oopeaaaas. Bcerna OCTaeTCH TaKlfM If HO)K, KOTOPbIH C HaBH3'lHBOH na,ll,epeBO «qlfCeJI», 3aTa'IlfBaeTCR KaK <paJIJIoca(y) aezn- IIOCJIe,ll,HlfH HBJIHeTCHlfHCTpYMeH-

'ITO OHlf ,ll,OJDKHbIC nee «Ha'IHHaThCR». Ha'IaJIO If xymopa, HlfCKOJIbKOHe RBJIRHaBR3aHa, ecna lfCKJIIO'IHTb J1JIJII03lfIO,

CTOift:IlfBOCTbIO rronpesaer yrposa

HeKHM yspemrrenev,

KOTOPyro cnenyer BbI'IeCTb, OTCYTCTBlfeM KaKOrO-JIlf60 peuraioutero Ha'IaJIa, 'lHCTOrO C06bITlfR, KOTopoe He pasnenaerCR, He IIOBTOpReTCR If y:a<e,He OTCbIJIaeT K ,ll,pyrOMY «aaxany», K ,ll,pyroMY «C06bITHIO», Be,ll,b e,ll,l{HWIHOCTb JII060ro C06bITHR

TOM yrP03bI, yrpozcarourea eMY caxrosry, «Onepauaa» 'ITeHlfH/ IIlfCbMa IIpOXO,ll,lfT IIO «1le38UIO KpaCHO(!O HOJICa». HY)KHO 'IlfTaTb TO, KaK saeneaaaa B lfrpy xacrpauna CMeunmaerca COB3PbIBOM HJIH C3aJIIIOM·CHapH,ll,a.Anmrrepapyrouras If IIpe06pa3YIOmaH accouaanna «mepMUHI3apOOblW»

IImm

)K a

J], e p P .., A a.

,lJ,I-1CCEMI-1HAl.(l-1S1

AHCC8MHHalJ,IMl

<terme/germe> <plus mort/plus

(2.46)
fort>

MnM «oonee

Mepm8blul6011ee

CUllbHbtU»

xomopoe He nOlly<tallOCb npou.mecmu


paeueas 3my nocneooeamenenocm», 00 moeo, 'InJ06bl

UlIU CXBamumb ... 3amR nonuuan, umo nocmo-

(4.92),

KOTOP)'lO Mbl Y)I(e OTMe'IanH, HO

seeH a6-

rna sanaer
comorao

He onn03HU;HlO,

aantiozree

BHYTpeHHlOlO

HHHO oCYUl,eCmBJlHJlOCb OOHo-eOUHcmBeHHoe ytiuacmeo, Mbl oouoiu 3mom

«mo

HeYCTpaHMM)'lO

HMIIJUlKau;HIO.

Yrposa

nepO'IMHHO-

eepuymucx

K HeMY «epes eec»

ro aoaca, OT xoroporo KPOBOTO'IHT xpacnsra epee, orxpsrsaer HnH BOJ],PY)I(aeT, OJ],HHM pOC'IepKOM 3a'IHHaeT peurenne
o CBoeM npHCYTCTBHM; TOnbKO non STOll yrP030M. 3y6b1 pa3:lKHMaIOTCH, a pOT paClIIHBaeTCJI:

01WJlbHblii. nymb ... » «... 2.14 .... Iloootinut;

menep» mOMY epaeepy, xomopua


KOloa eUJ,e

cmonemueu

panutae

UJo6pa3Ul1 Ka3Hb monopou,

He 6btJl U3l0mOBJleH MexaHUJM

JI

B CBOIOonepeo» MOl 6bl-

cmpo eepnymucst <<1.29. OOHa1WH nauien, umo Moe meno noxaneneno,


601 MOlIIU CKa3amb, wmo nnom» MaMU, a '1J1eH6blJl 3aKpblmblu U MHe

K srnou

cl1eHe

lllyi« MexaHU3Ma, xomoHe 6e3 mOlO,

pu« saznytuaem
3mOlO zOlloca, '1m06bl nompxcmu

eanoc 00 mOlO, Kale lIe3BUe oCB0600UnJ opean

tiuna u360poJICOeHa wpa-

ctipocue eeo

B KOP3UHY, -

sauium U noonxm KaK OKO'1eHeBWUU U tuun, U H cuompen na smom nepeua 06pa3f?:U,00


B meCHYIO 060JlO'lKY, «epes xomopyto

»moa lOJlOBOil KaK 00Ka3ameJIbCmBOM KOZPJl3HOlO O,mpe'1eHuR... YHuKallbHblu

naoenus;

saxpumui:

paBHblMu «omopouy

npOHUKaJlO COJlHl1e.. 3mom .

nepeuu paneuuu,

HO C tionee Bbl6btJl

paxcennmscu
H, H yeepeu,
Jl

nOJlOBblMU npUJHaKaMU 3K3eMnAHp ... 3mo

axm, scoeym tium» mOllbKO uaxoneu-mo PaJpeweHHble ytiuacmea C6HU{eHHUKOBUlIU ece ma »ce npoeynKa smote OCBeJKeBaHHOueonoeu Ha ocmpue nUKU CKB03b KpUleU -»

uiyucmeennoeo,

oseuaan

CBOUCOH H ...

masc

H BblWeJI U3 3eMJIU,

H eepnync« 06e306paJICeHHblM, HO lOBOPHUI,UM,OmJlY'1eHHblM, HO oocmamouno KOJICY«omopoeo 060JlO'lKa He HblU nnom» 6bIK ... » CUJlbHbLM, «moo», uomu 00 KOHl1a, B JlUl1o... menep» OBoe: mom, nemponymyto mom, '1bJl uspetuenenJlCUBYIO MOJICHO6blllO nOlW3amb U ObtpaMU,

Bsr

Ha'IHHaeTe

cnenoaarr-

aa

OTHOllleHHeM

nexoero

6pH-

EClIu mownee, Hac tiuno

U;aIOII.J;erO C060M. B03BhllIIeHHH HnH 06pe3aHHOrO B MaHHcpecTau;HH

H HeKOeM. OTpe3aHHOM.

rononsr

eceu,

CPaJ}' eusueana

yscac, u opyeou,

KynlOpbl,

npopessuu

npOHU3blBalOUI,UMU

ce6H znuns

B Hrpe, 3y6b1 BO

cnosa, aens 3HaMH HnH mnca nO,!J.HHMaIOTCH MMeH B03MO)l(HOCTh npeocmaeum» B caMOM csrexe, KOTOPblM. nOKa3bIBaeT 3aKynlOpbI. pOCT. npenCTJBHTb

BCIOB ccaounax

u noomexax;

OCBeJKeBaHHblUKaK

ocrpeansre
npJlMHThCH 3apaHee

ceos, TO ec'rs

Bbl-

sees 06'bHBnHeT

Taxoe asmpaxrzremre-ceoa
6ecnpeCTaHHO y6JtM.CTBO.

scerna

0 TOM, 'ITO

OCyII.J;eCTBAA-

Orpesanaas

ronosa:

«~cna»

nHlll)'TCH

B KpaCHOM

I.J;Be-

eTCH OnHO-eAHHCTBeHHoe

re nac'rynaroutea
(1.29), He TaK

peBOnlOU;HM.

«Mbl

manuyesc na eyntcane»
COCTOJlBlIIeMCH HaKaHY-

cxasan aa

O,!J.HOM6any,

«2.66 .... OHa, BbmpHMJIHHCb, -

CMex -

eytu«, useuoaemue 3y6bl ... BU(1HO, a HH c6UBalO ee H monxato ee

penomomra,
«\.{Hcnax»

repuor

Opneaacxnn xoporno Heanons.


u;HTaTY HY)I(HO conOCTaBHTb ronoC PHTMOM OTpe3aHHOM.

U lIOKa3btBalOUI,ue mo, «mo eumanxueaem

B
C

STY aHOHMMHyro

scmo

lOllOBa ompesaua, ttepme U

U OHa ee ynocum,

ynopanosemrsrsa

nanemress,

C monica,

CJlCUMalO ee, mOnttaCb

Ha wecme,

Bbl,

«onepanna»:
«1.5 .... Buno 3aHHbiU C 3XO UlIU, cxopee, naopes, UJlU, cxopee, cnao, CBHeOUHUl1eU "COeJIaHo": KPOBb He cpasy nana eOUHcmBeHHOM ClIOBe,
MOrO pur>

K ¢UHUWHOU
KaCTpaU;HH -

npmeato
-


H npHCYTCTBHe

B Be'IHOM. Hrpe

MH

ca-

smoa

ce6H

HaCTOHII.J;ero. \.{HCToe 6bInO 6b1 6bITb

npHcyTCTB)'lOII.J;ee

<le

present non-

wunaem 6YJlbKamb .. , JI BUOeJl ompe3aHHYlO, HO ece eUl,e JlCUByto lOllOBY, C

nonaorc

HH'IeM

He nOTpeBO)l(eHHOM.

pmou,

omxpumuw

HOT oa,

neBCTBeHHOM.

nerrpepi.rerroc'n.io

ae-xyrnopsr,

TOMOM,

I!I'l!J

)f( a K

e P P II

A a.

.D.HCCEMIIHA~1-11l

I!JD
CBHTKa

.D.I-1CCeMI-1Ha~1-11l

KOTOPbIH nHCbMa

B CHlIY

'roro,

qTO OH He npeACTaBHlI

nepO'lMHHOMYHO)l(Y'lMTaTeJHI, OCTaJIClI 6bI

npOCTO He 6bIJI 6bI OAHaKO

csoero eure

OHO .rerreps CTOHW;HM»

MO)l(eT HMeHOBaTbCH JIHWb B

«npHCYTCTByroW;HM», B KaBbIqKaX

«aa-

nenpasron pe-ru,
OHO npOHHKaeT 3TOT

U;HTaTbI, 6JIarOAaY)I(e no-

aarracan,

naxanyne nrpsr.

nepo,

eCJIH BbI

paccxaaa,

BbIMblCJIa.

B H3bIK JIHWb

npocnenyere sa HHM AO xonua, CTaHeT HO)l(OM. DpHCYTCTByrouree npe.u,CTaBJIHeTCH caMHM C060H TOJIbKO OTHOCHCb K ce6e, OHO rOBopHTCH KaK TaKoBoe, u;eJIHT B cetis KaK B .raxoaoe, JIHWb pa3AeJIlIHCb, craoascs K ce6e nOA yrJIOM, B pa3JIOMe <brisure> (pa3JIOM <brisure>: «TpeW;HHa» <faille> H «COqJIeHeHHe» <articulation>, urapanpaoe coenanenne B MexaHH3Me 3aMxa, - JIHTTpe). B pa3BH3bIBaHHH. DpHCYTcTBHe HHKorAa He
npHCYTCTByeT. B03MO)l(HOCTb HJIH CHJIa npeAeJIOM, HlIH npHCYTCTBYero ero BHYTpeH6eCCHlIHH

pa

OC060MY

paxourery,
cpeACTBOM,

pnxourer,

craauma

CTOHHHbIM

HaAeJIHeT TaK

KOCBeHHOCTH, CTBeHHble

yrna ace

orcrynnenaa, aaaeraaesrsre npocrsre H ecre3HaqeHHeM npHCYTCTBHH. Y)I(e KaBbIqKaMH «MOIO )l(H3Hb»,

OqeBHAHOCTH OrpaHHqHBaJIa «MOIO

c06CTBeHHoro TaKHMH

«Ilparaa»
MOJIqaHHe MeCTe: )l(H3Hb

«B )l(H3HH»,

)l(H3Hb

AO Moero

pO)l(AeHHH»;

«xparxoe
HB

"H )l(HBY, ThI )l(HBeWb, ::lTO 3HaqHT K HeMY

MbI )l(HBeM"»; AeJIaTb TaK ... »; H

iourero
HeH

HBJI.IIeTClI

ero

c06CTBeHHbIM

", npaxonsuraa
-

«")I(HTb"

-repes ~ rpacansr, Hepes


6bI

npyrosr eure: «"Ero xacaioura60JIee npoHe

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«omcmynnenue», Koropoe HY){(HO nOHHMaTh H KaK OTBe,lJ.eHHePYKH C orHeM, H KaK B03MO){(HOCTb pa3Bn3bIBaHI1H. KaK 11see nOClIe,lJ.OBaTelIhHOCTHC lJ,H<PPOH4, Ta, 'ITO BhI TOlIhKO 'ITO npOqJIH, pacnonaraerca Me){(,lJ.Y,lJ.BYXCK060K, ee BpeMn - aacroauree, OHa oopauraercn K «BaM». 06pa3YfI O,lJ.Hy H3 CTOPOH 25 ,lJ.Ba){(,lJ.bI npoayvepoeaaasrx xsanparos - nepHO,lJ.WIeCKI1C 1 ,lJ.04 H B parry C 1 ,lJ.0 100, - OHa f1BlIHeTCn OTpe3aHHhIM BbIXO,lJ.OM,BhIllOlIHHMhIM B <popMe nerrocpenCTBeHHO Ha6lIIO,lJ.aeMOH ClJ,eHbI, otipauraromeaca K sprrremoqHTaTemo - K «BaM». 1.fHTan aac, Baaa sac. Iosopa C BaMH. «1.fHclIa», qHTaH eac, BI1,lJ.H eac, rOBopn C BaMl1, B npouecce qTeHHn, Bl1,lJ.eHHn,rosopeaaa: «B npouecce» <en train> osaaxaer snecs «B MOMeHT, xorna B nacroaniee spesra» BbI qHTaeTe, BH,lJ.HTe,rosopare H T. n, BhI ){(I1BeTe B HaCTOJUlJ,eM,B «TOM, 'ITO Ha3hIBaIOT HaCTonW;HM>>-, C03HaHHH, BhI npl1CYTCTByere npH B TOM, 'ITO, KaK xazcerca, npencraaneao HanpHMYIO BaM, npH TOM, 'ITO asrcrynaer Bnepe,lJ., asmpaseraercn nepen BaMH, no HanpaBlIeHHIO K BaM, npH TOM, 'ITO BhlqJIeHneTCn na caMOM ropH30HTe MHpa, nasnetcaerca H3 <pOHa, ooperaer 061IHK nepe,lJ.BaMH, TaK 'ITO B Hero MO){(HO ynepersca BallIHMH rrrasaMH, BaIllHM norrysaere 1I60M, BaIllHMH HlIH norurepxoraaere ry6aMH, BallIHMH PYKaMH. BhI pe% B <poporrpenenernryto

ysnytinsuomcs,

npexcae

'IeM 06'bJf.8UmbCH, eepnyetuuc»

na MepmBYIO noeepx-

uocme, na «omopoa 81>1 ux euoumc ...»


3Ta xyrnopa, 3Ta OTKPhITOCTh, 3Ta 'IHCTafi Ka){(ltMOCTh HBlIeHHH, 61IarO,lJ.apn KOTOPOH HaCTOHw;ee, KaK K3){(eTCH, OCBO60){(,lJ.aeTCH TeKcTyalIbHoH MaIIIHHhi ( «HCTOPI1H»,'IHCelI, TOOT nOJIOrHH, ,lJ.HCCeMI1HaIJ,HH T. n.), - na nene see 3TO B xaacnoe H MrHOBeHHe pa3061Ia'IaeTcH.

Onepauna

soaspauiaer

«HJIJIIO-

3HIO» B Hrpy KaK 3<p<peKT HlIH rrpO,lJ.YKT.0pHCYTcTBHe ltlIH rrpOH3BO,lJ.CTBO- 3TO lIHIllh nponyxr, OPOH3BO,lJ.HOeapmpMeTH'IeCKOH orrepauan. 51BHa51nerrocpencraenaocrr, Toro, 'ITO, KaK K3){(eTCH, naerca nacroauiexry BocnpHHTHIO B CBoeH nepsona-ransaon narore, B CBOCHnpapone, y){(e BhIIIa,lJ.aeTKaK

riIliJ

)f(

JJ. e

p p ~A

a.

AI'ICCEMI'tHAUI't51

3<p<peKT - nOA YAapOM MaUHnIHOH CTPYKTypbI, KOTOPM He nOMaeTCJI HaCTOJlrn:eMY,sens nOCJIeAHee He HMeeT C HeH HH-

HOCTH, 3aCTaBMeT

Hac seprrrs

B narrexoroe

OCHOBaHHe nep-

xero oouiero.
1160 HMnep<peKT, BpeMJI rpex APyrHX cepnn nOCJIeAOBaTeJIbHOCTeH (1,.2, 3), He AOJI)I(eR npO'IHTbIBaTbCJI KaK aexoe

BOHa'IalIbHOro AapeHHJI CMbIClIa, BbI BHAHTe, KaK paaoonasaeTCJI3Ta MJIJII03JfJIH KaK OHa B03Bparn:aeTOI B ABH)I(eHHe nOA YAapaMH KHYTa H3 «CTalIbHbIX BepeBOK». OAHaKO 3TO pa306naxenne HMeeT MeCTO B nOCJIeAOBaTelIbHocTH, xoropaa casta narmcana B HaCTOJlrn:eM. KaK 06CTOHT neno C 3THM HOBbIM HaCTOJlrn:HM? TIO'IeMY, KaK 'IeTBepTaJi nocnenosarezrsnocrr, OKa3bIBaeTCJI OOH08peMeHHO «npencraaneaaesr» H, eCJIHyrOAHO, KpHTH'IeCKHM AHCKYPCOM, sanpocora, oopauiemrsn« K BaM OTHOCHTelIbHO 3TOro npeACTaBJIeHHH? TIO'IeMY 3Ta aanpaurasaxuuas mrrepnpeTall,HJI, 6ecnpepbIBHO OTCbIJIaIOrn:aJl K HMnep<peKTY, caxra OCTaeTCJI B HaCTOJlrn:eM? 11 KaKOBO ee OTHOIlleHHe K HMnep<PeKTY, KOTOPblH naer ABH)I(eHHe? .

opyeoe

HaCTOHIU:ee,KaK MOAH<PHI.I,HpOBaHHoe nacroamee,

KaK

rrponreznnee nacroamee, pacnorroacennoe na xaxon-ro APYrOH nOBepXHOCTH, KOTOPyro nexorna MbI MOrJIH BHAeTb nOARHMruorn:eHCJI aerrocpencraemro nepen HaMM H KOTOPyro ace erne MO)l(HO rAe-TO YBHAeTb, BepRYBIllHCb K naxazry rearpansHOH nOCTaHOBKH HJIH )l(e 060HM xpyrosr naxorrs, rearp naMJlTH (B nnOTROM TeKCTe «qHCeJI» CTOHJIO6bI BbIAeJIHTb CJIOH OTJIO)l(eHHH scex MHeMOHH'IeCKHX HCKYCCTB, scex «TeaTpOB naMJlTH», scex nnanon, xoropsre AM HHX 6bIJIH COCTaBJIeHbIOT Ad

Herennium"

AO Ars memoriae Fludd>,

<<<l1cKyccTBo naMJlTH»> a Me)l(,!l;YHHMH ,lJ;)I(YJIHO

P06epTa <l>JIYMa <Robert

Bsrn, MO)l(eT, pe'Ib MAeT 0 KaKOM-TO HeH3BeCTHOM 3epxane. BbI Ha'IHHaeTe acnsrrsraari, )l(ap npH npH6JIH)I(eHHH
K 3TOMY crexzry H K KJIIOqy OT KaKOH-TO 3aCTe)l(KH. 3TO HOBoe nacroautee JIyqIlle nOHHMaeTCJI H3 YBepTIOpbI «,lJ;paMbI». Ee paCCKa3, nO-8UOUMOMY, 6blJl narmcan B HaCTOHIU:eM.KOHe'IHO. Ho TeM CaMbIM 06HapY)I(HBaeTCJI, 'ITO OH nOBTopHO npHKpenlIeH,npHBHT, nOBTopHO npOll,HTHpOBaH B oonee 06llIHPHOM aHcaM6JIe H 60lIee CJIO)l(HOHrexrnopansHOCTH «qHCeJI» - CO BceMH TeMH 3<p<peKTaMH rexcryansHOH rpancrpopsraujra, xo

KaMMJIJIO <Giulio Camillo>, ,lJ;)I(opAaHo .oPYHo M T. A.). CJIeAOBaTeJIbHO, HMnep<peKT - 3TO He npyroe nacroamee, no3TOMY Y Hero HeT Cyrn:HOCTH. BOT nO'IeMY OH «oaem UM 08U»cenue u HeOOCmUJlCUMOe oeounoe OHO».

Hacromuee npeACTaBJIJleTCJI HOBbI. Ilpourenuree BpeMR, xoropoe


roe nac'roanree,

B Ka'IeCTBe npocror.sr OCOTMe'IalIO 6bI JIHIllb APYYTBep)l(AalIOCb 6bI aa npocrosr oCHOBaHHJf,

CKPbITOM 3a nOBepXHoCTbIO npacyrcrnyroniea B HaCTOJlrn:eM Ka)l(HMOCTH. Ho ABoHHoe AHO HMnep<peKTa - no KpaHHeH Mepe, snecs - YKa3bIBaeT na BpeMJI 6e3 OCHOBaHHJI H 6e3 rrpenena, BpeMJI, xoropoe, eCJIH roaopnrs B uerroxi, Y)I(e He 6bIlIO 6hI «OAHHM H3» spesrea, BpeMH 6e3 nacroamero, B KOTOPOM nOlIHbIH C'IeT nauraer KBaApaT OCHOBaHHJI, nOABeI.IIJfBM ero B B03Ayxe. KaK TOlIbKO nOJIBlIJleTCJI ABOHHoe AHO, 60lIbIlle HeT aceotimero AHa O<popMlIeHHJI KaK raxosoro, M 3TOT 3aKOH 6YAeT HaXOAHTb see 60lIbIlle H 60lIbIlle nOATBep)l(AeHHH. I1Mnep<peKT 6YAeT npHBOAHTb B ABJf)I(eHHe. qTO )l(e AO MJIJII03HJf nacrosmero, KOTOpaJl, nrpas na MepTBOH nosepx* Rhetorica
ad

ropsre

3THM nOApa3YMeBaIOTCJI.

Y nac eute 6YAeT B03MO)l(HOCTb y6eAHTbCJI B 3TOM. OAHaKO


nacroantee «,lJ;paMbI» HHKorAa He 6bIJIO npOCTbIM. B CTPYKType «11 ll,3HH», Ha IllaxMaTHOH AOCKe, Me)l(AY HaCTOJlrn:MM BHe KaBbI'IeK H HaCTOJlrn:HM roro, 'ITO «OHO 3anHCbIBaeT», BHeApJleTCJI paspsrs, ABOHCTBeHHOCTb, B KOTOPOH nponanaer ocnoaononaraiouiee aacrosuree, TO, 'ITO Ha3bIBaIOT HaCTOJlrn:HM. B COOTBeTCTBHHC 3TOH «AyaJIbHOCTbIO, pa3BJl3aHHOH nHCbMOM» na TOH )l(e caMOH crpanaue Y)I(e cymecrsyer rrpocroe aacrosmee, 3<p<peKT, npOH3BeAeHHbIH TeM, 'ITO naer ABH)I(eHHe, H nacroatuee, xoropoe asrpaxcaer HJIH pa306JIaxaer ero OTHOIlleHMe K ApyrHM BpeMeHaM B «Ha)"fHOH» pe'IH, B pe'IH «HaY'IHOrO» AOKJIaAa, nporoaapaaaroruero B HaCTOJlrn:eM HCTHHY (HCTHHbI KaK nananoro aacroanrero). KaK B 'IeTBepTOH nOCJIeAOBaTeJIbHOCTH «qHCeJI».

Herennium

(<<PHTOPHKa

Iepemuo»), - crapeamas
puropuxe.

H3

co-

xpanueunrxcn

naTlIHCKHX KHHf, nOCBllu.\ellBblX

8l!lil

>K a K )J,e p p ~ A a. ,IJ,~CCEM~HAl.(~)I

31'0

nOJIHOe

H )J,H<p<pepeH~HpOBaHHoe,

)J,BYCMbICJIeHHOe HeJIb3H HM nana-

camraa narnrcano, sarracaao

H3)J,aBHa, 6eJIaH 6JIaro)J,apJI

6JIaro)J,apJI CTHpaHHIO

3a6BcHHIO TeKCTa, aa

roro, <poHe

'ITO 6bIJIO KOToporo )J,eJIe 3TO

HaCTOH:w;ee, KOTOpOe, CJIe,n;OBaTeJIbHO, HH B KOeM cay-rae C6JIH)I(aTb C npOCTbIM 06pa30M HaCTOH:W;HM, B Hrpy; B03Bpa:w;aeMhIM

see, <ITO nmnerca. 3TO MO)l(eT

J1, O)J,HaKO, HH'ITO H3MeHHTbCH )J,OJIro

na caMOM MOMeHT, (HY)I(HO

CHJIbCTBeHHhlM CTOH:w;ee 6e3 oxaarsisaer

3TO CTPyKTYpHpOBaHHOe C )J,BOHHhIM

He nanncano, see 6bI erne nnca'n,

B JII060:H pa3

OCHOBbI, CBJI3aHHOe

)J,HOM, KOTOpOe HM, -

H 6ecnpe)J,eJIbHO "B

nepasra
CHona

6bIJIO BH)J,HyJIH~bI, TO, 'ITO

HaCTOH:w;ee H B TO xce BpeMJI B

He HBJIHeTOI

nepasra

pas"). paa -

(OH

BH)J,HT ceos B KOHIle

3TO HaCTOH:w;ee

«Ilpasre»

HMeHyeTcH

«60JIee-'leM-HaCTOH-

:W;HM Mope nnxaxoro

B nepasia Bne'IaTJIeHHH. OHO cpa3y 06'hHCHeHHe

'ITO-TO

cepoe

:W;HM» <plus-que-present>. XOTJI OHO H He HBJIHeTCH, crporo TOM «qHCeJI», seproro npyroe: rosopa, HH HMllep<peKHaCTOH:W;HM 'IeTH TO H

3aTeM

eMY nOK<13aJIOCb JIHlllb CBO:H lllYM

aa

6epery

xce npe)J,CTaBJIHJIO ropH30HTa,

H, CJIe)J,oH

HlI ,lJ,BO:HHbIM HJIH )J,HaJIOrOBbIM 60JIee-'IeM-HaCTOH:w;ee HeKoeMY 6Y)J,ym;eMY

BaTeJIbHO,

KOTOPbI:H sa )J,eJIo -

cymecrnyer OH oopanra-

sanpoca, 6JIarO,Ll.apH

nO)J,rOTOBHT

He cymecrayer.) eTCH K npOCTO:H oT)J,eJIbHO:H pe<IH ,Ll.HHaTaMH,

BOT KaK OH 6epeTcH B03MO)l(HOCTH B TO:H crpane oopasa,

npemtrecreyionresry B TOM caMOM «nOBTopHO

K npenurecrnyiornen KOOp'ITO OH

OHO YMeCTHTCH H B TOM H B )J,pyrOM 06MeHe,

HJIH, cxopee,

C .Heonpe)J,eJIeHHbIMH HBJIHeTCH Me'ITaJI, 6e3 TeM,

B KOTOPOM OHH KaK pa3 H )J,OJI)I(HbI 6bIJIH )J,pyr npyra.

KOTopaH

O,Ll.HOBpeMeHHo

OTMe'laTb»

Taxoe

6y)J,ym;ee

npenurecrayionree, O)J,HH TeKCT TeM, 'ITO OHO HM-

RH,ll.HT, ,Ll.YMaeT, 'ITO OH BH)J.eJI HJIH 0 'IeM 6bI

'ITO OH Mor rpaaan, HC-

eCJIH OHO H 3aCTaBJIReT B npyroa, RBJUleTCH neprpexra, 6bIJIO HCKJIIO'laeT 6y)J,ym;HM

6ecnpeCTaHHO JI106yro

nepexomrn,

nO,Ll.YMaTh HJIH YBH,Ll.eTb H T. n., B crpane C03,Ll.aIO:w;e:H :1KpaH». 3TO:H IlI1TaTe, 3TOMY Monmy

3CXaTOJIOrHIO

yxce

3aHHTO:H crpane,

npemnecrayiounea npOlllJIOrO,

6eC'lHCJIeHHOrO xoropoe

Bnaronaps
ntecrnyer

H3 «.il:paMbI»

RbI

HeOnpe,Ll.eJIeHHOrO

HHKor)J,a He

TOJIbKO <ITO nOJIyqHJI.l1

BH,ll. aa

3TOT «ropH30HT,

KOTOPbl:H cy-

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H He cyrnecrayer», npOHHKJIH HY)I(HO B Hero.

a 3aTeM

H na KaKO:H-TO «3KPaH».

CJIe)J,yro:W;aJI

«Ilpasrsr»,

npenurecraysac no)J,y-

BbI

nO'ITI1 J1TaK,

IO:W;aJI nO)J,TBep)KJJ,eHHHM MaTb 0 He:H:

CK060K,

3aCTaBHT

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«T<1KO:HropH30HT,

KOTO-

pbI:H aa CTopOHe 3TO "pe-n," OH OTKpbIBaeT 6e3 OTCYTCTBHe KOH~a, 3TO

0603Ha'IaJI

nenpexpamaroureeca,
J1306pecTH aroro

6eC'IHCJIeHHOe». 3HaK)J.JIH aroro npe-

«... Ho
npe)J,eJIOB MO)l(eT

J1306pecTH,

KOHe<IHO, B HHTepBaJIe.

MO)l(eT 6e3

onHCbIBaTbCH KOH~a B npouecce

«(isrraa-n-rrponecce»,
pBaHHoro KOTopaH,

,Ll.BH)I(eHHH, O,Ll.HOBpeMeHHO )J.JIa

onacsraarsca
"H 6bI 6bIJIO

caMOOIIHcaHHH CMelllHbIM; 6bI

H H3JIOMaHHOro, O,Ll.HaKO, He MO)l(eT

nenpepsranocra
no

pa3pbIBOB, nOBepXHOCTH H3bIK scerna CTa-

H T. )J,. (3HaK HY)l(HO

T. )J,:' 3)J,eCb, snpo-rexr, H306peCTH

BbIrJIJI)J,HT

paCIIJIaCTaTbCH

TaKO:H, KOTOPbI:H 'ITO-TO

0603Ha'laJI

O'IeBH)J.HOrO 6epeT

H O,Ll.HOpO,Ll.HOrOH<1CTOH:w;ero.

Ham

nenpexpauraroureeca, JIeHHOrO

6eC'lHCJIeHHOe,

BpO)J,e BCTaB-

3TO ,Ll.BH)I(eHl1e B <popMe

CTaHOBJIeHHH-HaCTOH:W;HM: B CTaHOBJIeHHH,

B 06:W;H:H CJIOBapb ornraxo,

coxpamenaa
B JII060:H

rOJIOBoKpY)l(eHllH.) MOMeHT nOJIY'laTb <PHryp, CTOpOHhI. TBOPHHO na na-

HOBJIeHHe-HaCTOJIlIlee, HHe

HaCTOHlI~ee

CTaHOBJIe-

Ero
JIH~

MeTo)J"

n03BOJIHeT

nacrosmero,
-

nonpaBKa

,Ll.BH)I(eHHH nrrCbMa HaCTOJIlIleM no

BO BpeMeHH 6e3 CJIe,Ll.a.

nocryn -

K COBoKynHOCTH TO ecrs, MbICJIH.B nanexc. CKa)l(eM

CKJIOHeHH:H, cooTBeTCTBH:H, TaK, 6paTb HX C TbIJIbHO:H

«)I(.l1BO:H» pe-nt

B TaK Ha3bIBaeMOM

CJIe,Ll.OBaTeJIbHO, HY)I(HO Ule20 H3bIKa, <IT06bI Ty

6bIJIO 06paTHTbCH

Ty CTOPOHY

na-

PaCCKa3 TeJIbHbl:H CTpaHH~e,

CJIOBax H Ha060pOT. 8TO npOHCXO)J,HT

A6COJI1OTHhI:H He BO BpeMeHH, apexrena.

0603Ha'Il1Tb CTOPOHY

3TO 6ecnpeCTaHHoe KaK maK080U

BHe-Ha-

CTOH:w;ee. J1 no CKHX CHMBOJIa

pe-rn
na

• .il:Ba KHTa:H-

na KOTOPO:H paCCTaBJIHIOT B 60JIee-'IeM-HaCTOH:w;eM. noraxm" BeJIaH

CTpaHHIle,

yKa3bIBaIOT

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nocmosuno

OJICU811Jle,Ll.BH)I(e-

XOM:w;eHCJI HO non

"ITpOlllJIOe CTpaHH~a,

He 3a HaMH, XOTH H acnn-

Moe U necnoxoauoe
HHe

Vi> (1.37),

3TO 6ecnpecTaHHoe

HalllHMH

«tiumux

8 npouecce; a UMeHHO

(2.62).

l!I!I!I

)K

a K ,D, p p 11A a. e

AI1CCEMI1HALlI1R

CJIe,D,OBaTenbHO, 60JIee-'1eM-HaCTOHrn;ee xernepron nocne,D,OBaTenbHOCTJ{O,WIOBpeMeHHO 06BOnaKHBaeT nacrosuree (<<nepe)f(J1Toe» AJU! BaC B «HJIJII03HH» TOrO, KTO )KHBeT, '1HTaer, rOBOpJ1T B HaCTOHrn;eM, npHKOBaB B3rJIHA K KnaCC}fqeCKOH

HeHHO, HeT HHKoro, OAHaKO ponn MeHHIOTCHAPyr aa Apyra ... », BOT noxesry ApyrHe rnnta npeAcTaBnHIOTcH, CKa)I(eM TaK, B <pac, aa HHX MO)KHO nooaorpers B ynop, HX MO)KHO nOAC'II·uaTh H nepexacmrrs: a «Mhl» HHKorAa He npeACTaBJIHeTCH B <pac 3TO HMnep<peKT J1JIJ1 60nee-'1eM-npHCYTCTByrorn;ee: «1.... 00HaKO

cueae) a ero HaCJ1JIbCTBeHHoenepermcsmaaae


'1ecKofi H TeaTpaJIbHOH MaWHHe: B «qHcnax»,

B apmpMeTH'1HTaIOrn;J1Xsac,

uuenocs

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3mo

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a «1.IHcJIa», rrOJI6blTb npo-nrraKaK nexoe 3THX 'Iep,lJ,ep)l(J1T BH,!1;H-

«no-emu 38e30Hb1X ucmOK08»,

«2.70.... 06H3aHHblll, cneooeameneno, CHOBa pasopeams no«pueano U CHOBa noamu B amaxy na nnan cnoeuoenua, BHOBb paspueas 3lCpaH, pastiuean septcano, 3a6J1YJlCOeHue.•• » «3.79.... Hmax, oua 6blJla 06H3aHa ucxam» noooepxcumo oenano ee ew,e OOHOU cmouuocmmo cpeou ocmanunmx, HepBOM nocmOHIiHOU cernu, BblHYJlCOalOUI,UM nocmOHHHO IC n03HaHUIO, olia 6b111a BblHYJlCOeHa npooaeam» B OOHOU U3 mouex C80U pumu, CBOU »cecmu B noucxax sepxana, no ueotixoouuocmu BbI3b1BaH npomUBOnOJlOJ/Cuocmu rnoeo, «mo yscupano BO ecex sepxanax .•• »
ICy B mOM, BbI sart, He na-mere, HHKor,!1;a He CYMeB 3aKOH'IHTb, CXBaTbIKaK

HbI, na TaK HMeHHO acrporpadnrsecsoe HHJI oopaayer rrpo MaR sarrac

OHH CKOPO H 6Y,!1;YT 'IHTaTbCR, C03Be3,!1;He). PTYTb, aMaJIbraMa H cKpbIBaeT. ozmonpexreuno

3KpaH.

OH

naer

rrpHIOT -

H noxaasmaer. na

9KpaH

rrOBepXHOCTb, He naer

KOTOPYJO rrpoeU;HpYJOTCR

KapTHHKH, 'ra-

H TO, 'ITO xoro

YBH,!1;eTb

npyryio

CTOPOHY. CTPYKTypa

3epKaJIa-3KpaHa,

3TOM axransraxrsr,

«080tmOU
-

sanymauKaK TO, 'ITO ,!1;OCTHr-

HOU U3HaHKu

U3 »cemana»
pa36HTo,

KaJIO rrpe,!1;CT4).BJIReTCR,!1;OJI)I(HO 6bIJIO

(4.100), npennonaraer, H 3TO aeno «qHCeJI»


'Iepe3 'ITO HY)I(HO

'ITO 3TO sep-

rrpOHTH,

asnuerrpasenemryio

OTCbIJIKY K «CTOHMOCTH» HHa'Ie,

I!lllll

)K 8 K

A e p p ~A

8.

,lJ,~CCEM~HAU~1'I

B TOM sepxane,

B KOTOPOM MbI B CBOIO oxepens

lJ,HTHpyeM BbI Y)I(e

OT-

«CpeACTBaMH» )I(eHHe

AJIH

«npOH3BeAeHHR». H cpeACTB» 'ITO

Taxoe

«B3aHMHoe

sapa-

PblBOK H3 «l.{HCeJI». 'IJIH,

Flepen

rryHKTOM

3.79,

3.67,

npo-

npOH3BeAeHHH TeJIO Toro,

OTpaBJIReT

BHYTpeHHee,

nanpmaep,

CJle)J,yIOI.U;ee: JIo «

npuuune

cmOUMocmHOZO om-

c06CTBeHHoe

Ha3bIBalOT

«npOH3BeAeHHeM»,

HOtUeHUH ecmecmeenuax ¢OPMa moeapa B cmanoeumcs ¢opMOU cmouuocmu moeapa A, unu xce meno B CmaH08UmCR OM

H TaK)I(e OHO OTpaBJIReT TeKCTbI, B CTe, Hoii

A sepxanosc eeo cmouuocmu ... ».

mrrarax coonpaesrsre BMexoropsre XOTeJIOCb 6bI ynepacars OT TaKoii HaCHJIbCTBeH3KcnaTpHalJ,HH, OT TaKoii znrrnaronrea xopnen a6CTpaKHX OT 6e30naCHOCTH «l.{HCJIa» HaCTaHBalOT HX

HH 0,lJ.MHaTOM
BpaTOB MM Y)I(e

«l.{nceJl»

He YCKOllb3aeT OT :noii

nrpsr

B03-

lJ,HH, KOTOPaR OTpbIBaeT

oparnnansRAe. PTYTb HaHMeHOBa-

noransraaessca

06 3TOM, H MbI MO)I(eM no-

noro

KOHTeKCTa. -

HTaK,

na

rrysars see
60JIee A06HO CTblO,

HOBbIe H HOBbIe nOATBep)I(,lI,eHlUl HH

sroro

<paKTa,

ace

HX aMaJIbraMbI HHe, 'IaCTOe THTb:

3TO HA. OH

norryxaer

ocoooe

TO'IHbIe.

OAHO CY)I(,ll.eHHe He MO)I(eT CKPbITbCR, no<PeTHlllY,

yrroscoraaae xoroporo

BbI CaMJ.f MOrJIH 6bI

sasre-

KaKOMY-TO

ronapy

C BJIO)I(eHHOii

CTOHMO-

rrycrs

H Ha,n;eJIeHHOMY

«naysaoa»
ABHraTbCR

lJ,eHHOCTblO, OT

'rex

3epKaJIbHbIX

3<p<peKTOB, 6JIarOAapR

KOTOPbIM

TeKCT lJ,HTHpYrpa-

«cYXOU RO», «tionee mOl-tKUU RO)}, «MemOOUtteC1CUU RO», «6ollee maunas, 60llee ROOBUmaR npooenxa», «RO, xomopua R sauemun 8 C80UX »cunax», «n03801lR1OU<UU eepnymscx npomuBOnOllOJICHocmu scemanna; «esey-mo ompaBlIeHHOMY U 3an030aBtUeMY», «eocmox ... npeotipasoeannuu 3anaOOM U npu 3mOM He

er,

lJ,HTHpyeT

ceoa,

Ha'IHHaeT

B 0606I.U;eHHOii

<pHKe, IOCR

paasrrpsrsaromea

JII06yIO

AOCTOBepHOCTb, OllHpaIOI.U;YCTOHMOCTH H He-CTOHMOCTH, HCTHHHorq H H JIO)I(HOrO, BbIH

na

npOTHBOnOJIO)I(HOCTb H He-)'Ba)I(aeMOrO, BHyTpeHHero

)'Ba)I(aeMOrO

ocmaeueuiuu nocneoueeo B uenocmu u coxpaunocmu, npocawueaxnuuacx B neeo u ompaensuouiua eeo B eeo ¢pa3e» H T. A.
CJIeAoBaTeJIbHO, MH TepMHHaMH, Mil OTHOIlleHHe Me)I(AY npOTHBOnOJIO)I(HbIMe)I(AY npOTHBOnOJIO)I(HbIMH

coxoro
TH.

H HH3Koro,

saeumero, uezroro
Y)I(e npOCTbIM· TepMHH

xac-

Bee

3TH Onn03HlJ,HH

«HMeHHR-MeCTa»

napynreasr sepxarra. Ka)I(AbIii


H 60JIee MepTBbIM, H3

<paKTOM

aaponsnuaMO-

3aXBaTbIBaeT CTaHOBHT8)1eMeHT

3TO flAOBHTaH

axransraxra,
H3'bRTHIO

113BecTHO, 'ITO MeTaJIJlbI

npyroa

H HCKJIIO'IaeTCR H3 Hero, CHJlbHbIM

KroK)I,bll

aaponsuu
'IeM OH

ryr

6hITb

«RAOBHTbIMH»,

HX TaK H Ha3bIBaIOT. TeKcTyanbHoro He 'ITO HHoe, To 'IJIeHa H3

CR 60JIee

car-r.

ConpOTHBJIeHHe KOrO-JIH60 YKpbITbCR KOHTeKCTa

xa-

'roro, 'ITO OH OXBaTbIBaeT. MHp BKJIIO'IaeT B ce6R sepxano, xoropoe 3aXBaTbIBaeT ero, H Ha060pOT. Bcesr TeM, 'ITO OHa 3aXBaTbIBaeT, nOCKOJIbKY OHa MOOXBaTbIBaeT H BbI'lHTaeTCR )I(eT CXBaTHTb

oaaaxaer

KaK )I(eJIaHHe

OT AeiicTBHR

sroro

RAa nHCbMa.

ecrs

3TO )I(e-

JIaHHe JII060ii H BHYTpeHHHM

see,

Ka)I(,ll.aH 'IaCTb caMoii

B TO )I(e BpeMR OHa MeHbille HOCTb OKa3bIBaeTCR TeM He MeHee

sepxana 601Ibille uezroro H ceria. l.{eTBepTaR nonepxB

uenoa coxpamrrs rpaanuy aexoero KOHTeKCTa. 8TO


B TO, 'ITO

Me)I(,ll.Y BHeIllHHM 3aKOHHoe

npaana-

HHe OTHOCHTeJIbHOii I.U;eHHOe C sepoa

He3aBHCl1MOCTH Ka)I(AOrO TeKCTa, COBMe-

napamm-ron

OTHOIlleHHR, -

xoropoe

OHa

JII06aR

CHCTeMa nHCbMa BHYTpeHHero K

CyI.U;eCT~Yce6e, 3TO

3<p<peKT

casta H BKJIIO'IeHa uezroro, KaK HaCTORI.U;ee,

KaK OTCBe'IHBalOI.U;Hii

er B ce6e,

RBJIHeTCR OTHOIlleHHeM

casrosry

OHa

pecpopsnrpyer

B He-

ocooemro xorna
HanO)I(eHHe cTyaJIbHOCTb. HH3Ma. HTaK, To

3TO «HaCTOJII.U;aR» CI1CTeMa. KJIaCCH'leCKHX pa3pbIB npeAeJIOB

onpeAeJIeHHOCTH

601Iee-'IeM-HaCTOHI.U;erO

ace

Ae<poPMar(HH.

crporo

11 na

rJIaBHOe,

06I.U;yIO TeK-

«3.35 .... JIOCKOllbKY mexcm soec» 6blll pacxamau no nliOCKOemu, U B KaJlCObtU MOMeHm ece MOZllO 6blmb HUJlCe KaJlCOOU U3

ecrs

COnpOTI1BJIeHHR H npOTeKlJ,HO-

ezo «acmea ... »


ITOCKOJIbKY )I(e HH'lTO CKOJIbKY see nacre, Ha'IHHaeTCR He npeAIlleCTBOBaJIO B CKJIa,n;Ke lJ,HTaTbI 3epKaJIY, no(n03)I(e BbI Y3-

see

«Ha'IHHaeTCR»

C lJ,HTaTbI, B JIO)I(HbIX CKJIaAKax 6JIeCTRI.U;erO 3KpaHa.

aexoero
caxr
He

nOKpbIBaJIa,

nexoero
H cren,

Oopaseu
crpoeMaIllJ.fHbI

asmanaer

H3 npamrrra.

Hanpanep,
06I.U;eii

B onncamm

KaK npoxecrs 6bITb BHe

3TO CJlOBO), BHYTpeHHee ero, B TOM, 'ITO, KaK

TeKCTa ncerna CJIY)I(HT

HHR 3epKaJI, B «l.{HCJIax»,

3KpaHOB

CTPYKTypbI

AOJI)I(HO

Ka)I(eTCR,

MbI Y)I(e HaxOAHMCR

B lJ,HTaTe HJIH npemracaaan

I!liBI

)!(

Ae

p p >1 A

a.

.o.>1CCE:M>1HALlH51

npyron

«KHHHi»,

KOTOpa51 npH

3TOM nOBTopHO

BIUiCbIBaeTC5I

K(l)I(eTC5I, 51nHIllY aa H sepxano. BaH PYKa rnnuer THB, 'ITO C roro, O'IeBHp;Ha, HbIM

TaK, 'ITO 3TO MO)l(HO 6Y,ll,eT eCJIH TbI rnnueun, HHqyTb He MeHbllIe,

npo-recrsr)

CTe-

B «'{HCJIa»,

He n03BOJI5I5I HM 3aMKH)'TbC5I 3epKaJIO

na CBoeM c06CTBeHpaCCMOTpHM B nanon-

(A

B03JIe CTeKJIa, TB051 rrpa'IeM JIeBaR, 'ITO nanpo-

HOM npO,ll,OJI)KeHHH. OITHCaHHe, xoropoe

sepxana, Ilasanre
B «,npaMe», CTOJI6bI oenoro IT03)1(e BbI Y)I(e

Y)I(e 6bIJIO nanpmaep 3aBO,ll,aMH.

H OTMeTHM AbIMa,

'ITO rrpH'IHHa

TaKOrO Y,ll,HBHTeJIbHOrO 3<p<peKTa ,ll,eHCTBOBaTh na

M5ITH see 3TH nerana, HHMaIOI..U;HeCH nan

OH nponozracaer

Te6H

C HerrOHJIT-

npoxaraere: H HHqerO He

,ll,JIJI Te61l casroro ,ll,OrrYCTHJIH 6bI Ha'IepHO

H Ka)l(,ll,bIH 0IlIH6KY,

pa3 HOBbIM peums, 'ITO

On03,ll,aHHeM.)) MaTpHIIa «qH-

«3,ll,eCb CKpbIBaeTOI

cnoxoacrsae

JIO)l(HbIX

, BbI cen»

3HaqaI..U;HX CJIOB, aacrsrsnree BpaI..U;eHHe, B KOTOPOM KaK BO CHe 51 npO)l(HBaIO B<110poe csoe HCqe3HOBeHHe MoeH (H 51 CO)l(aJIeIO, P)'KHi 51 HaCTaHKOTO-

JIHllib

aaopocaaa ,nOH

B «,npaMe» «CHCTCMOH

3THM

«3KpaHOM», 11 3a-

3THMH

«,ll,HarOHaAAMH», B paMKY,

orpaacemor

nOJIHOe

pa3JIO)l(eHHe a6COJIIOTHO

pa3JIO)l(eHHe,

KJIIOqeHHll OCTaJIhHOe «rrp5lMbIM

KOTOpa51 3aCTaBJ15IeT CyI..U;eCTBOBaTb see ero na BOJIe, nOBTopRH 3TI1M cetia», 3THM

OKa3bIBaeTC5I

CHMMeTpW!HbIM

pa3JIO)l(eHHIO BbIJIe3IIlliH nocpezra 3aBOaa Ma-

11 OCTaBJI5IeT yrJIOM», 3TOH

TBOHX rJIa3 H MOHX). Ha H3 aasona, KOTOPbIH

CTpaHHIJ;e •.. DeJIbIH 3KpaH,

«cTeHOH»,

«3epKaJIOM)>;" 3THM peunm, 'ITO OHa «B nepape-

HaxO,ll,HTC5I B,ll,aJIH OT ropona, Ka)l(,ll,bIH (MbI ron rrbIJIaIOT

«onosnaaaesa». naopocaaa BhIH pa3»:

BbI zrorrycrrcra B «,npaMe» saaasec

6bI 0IlIH6KY,

zreca, B KOTOPOM no-rm

noxcapsr,
6bICTPO,

TOJIbKO

TOJlbKO O,ll,HH pa3, OH otiperaer

zra C y;u.YllIaIOI..U;HM AbIMOM IlIHHe, 3aKpbIB OKHa), sasona,

npoeaacaesa oopaayer

«Torna

nO,ll,HHMaCTOI,

KOTOPbIH neca ...

BOKPyr

ce651 cepyio

HHe, yoeraer, poe

CMOTPHT,

KaK OH 60peTC5I

CO 3peJIHI..U;eM, KOTO-

TeppHTOpHIO,

P5l,ll;OM C KOTOPbIM nO)l(ap

npesparnnacs K BOpOB xaorrycrrarro-

HH BH)'TPH,

HH CHapY)I(H. TeaTp -

Torna
xorzta

OH B

rrepasra
IlIJIa

pa3

BbIXOB Y)I(e

B HaCT05lI..U;yIO 6YMary TaM ropona, cyxoa

Hnorna

noncryrraer

,ll,HT na CIIeH)'.

I1 BOT

see CHOBa Ha'IHHaeTCJI». pe'Ib

,ll,eHb nepecraer rpose,

6bITb

,ll,HeM, JIIO,ll,H )l(HBYT nenerr, cny-ranao 06PbIBOK

IIHTHpOBaBI.lIeMC5I npenurecrayiouien pase»,

orpsrsxe,

0 «cTpaHI1IIe, H 0 «nepaosr «BOT KaK B03MO)l(B TOH

Koif-TO

Me,ZJ,JIeHHO nanaer

B 60JIee-qeM-HaCT05lI..U;eM» Y)I(e sanacan. OH otipautaerca

K<UI B TapeJIKY pOTHHKa,

KaKOH-HH6Y,ll,b

nonacapennsra
B CJIOBe ...

MeTO,ll, 6bIJI TaK)I(e 3a neno -

HarroMHHM: K npocron

npanecennsra B xpacnsre se-repa ... Bee 3TO


TOJIbKO rrpaBHJIbHO KaK xce npocnezarrs p;HarOHaJIbHbIMH H rrpHCYTCTBHe

ropo,ll, ecrs

BeTpOM ... qepHbIe

nOJI,ZJ,HH, eCJIH B qeM:

OH 6epeTC5I

0 HeM nozryxrart. sa TOJI~aMH, rrpOCMOTpaMH

"nanoporaax" I1 npofineraa BOT


-

HOCTH oopasa, crpaae C

K npeznnecrnyiourea

OT,ll,eJIbHOH peqH

aeonpezreneaasnaa
Me'lTaJI, 'ITO

KOOp,ll,I1HaTaMH,

KOTOpa51 O,ll;HO-

06paII.J;eHHHMH, ("rrarropOTHHK" KOBep

6bICTpbIMH 3TO erne na-

BpeMeHHo

JlBJI5IeTC5I TeM, 'ITO OH BH,ll,HT, ,ll,YMaeT, 'ITO OH BHOH Mor 6hI norryxrarr, crpaae, HJIH YSHC03,ll,aIO-

,ll,eJI HJIH 0 qeM ners H T.

CKpbITOrO

COJIHIIa,

H3 COJIHeqHbIX cpasy),

zt.,

B crpane

6e3 rpaHHII,

He3aH5ITOH

TeH, aa KOTOPOM OTrreqaTbIBaIOTC5I rrOCpe,ll,CTBOM B paMKY, TaKOH CHCTeMbI

Bee ocena

eCJIH He

I..U;eif 3KpaH». 3KpaH, 6e3 xoroporo He 6bIJIO 6hI rrHCbMa, B caMOM JlBJI5IeTCH Me-

OTpa)l(eHI151

11 3aKJIIOqeHHJI OCTaJIbHOe ce651?

KOTOpa51 3aCTaBJI5IeT ero na

CyI..U;eCTBOBaTb ace

TO,ll,OM, cpencrnosi, rrHCbMa orpaacea

orracannsna
B HanHcaHHOM. «BpeMeHHbIH

rrHCbMe.

Me-ron

11 OCTaBJIHeT DbITb

BOJIe, rrOBTOpH5I

ce651 11 3aKpbIB<UI

MO)l(eT, rrOCpe,ll,CTBOM TaKOH CHCTeMbI: "rrOCJIe,ll,OBaTeJIh3TOM non scerna rrapaJIJIeJIbHbIX yrJIOM". '-ITo

,nPyroH «onepaitaa»,

3KpaH,

3KpaH»,

,ll,Pyra51 MaTpHIIa OTCBeT zto

HOCTb rrepeCeKaIOI..U;I1XC5I 11 npa

3aKJIIO'IeHHaH ,ll,pyraH IIHTaTa,

B npyron KOTOpyIO

TeKcTyaJIbHbIH UbI npoxrere )l(HBeT

JII1HI1H, B03BpaI..U;aIOI..U;HXCR K ce6e onpenezraer 11 O,ll,HOBpeMeHHO

rrp5lMbIM

«Ilpasna»,

BnJIOTb

orxpsraaer

Ka)l(,Ll.yIO H3 <ppeaaomoHJIH,

IIHTHpoBaHHJI B 3TOM repone ure qeM-TO

npyroro

sepxana:

«On
60JIee

B 3TOM crpaae, 'ITO OH ace 60JIbHO'IbIO,

COK, OT,ll,eJIJleT ee, rr03BOJIJleT ,ll,aeMOH H B TO »ce BpeMH cxopee, HarrOMHHaeT

eH HMeTb

MeCTO H 6bITb

... ITO,ll,H5IB JIHIIO, OH 'IYBCTsyeT, 3aMeI..U;aeTC5I, CTaTb Bee

orpamr-raaae'r

ee, OTMeH5IeT

paCIlIHpHeTC51

0 ee rrpOHCXO)l(,Ll.eHHH H ee KOHIIe ... (MHe

OH nbITaeTC5I

ee --3epKaJIOM

H HenOCpe,ll,CTBeHHbIM

ImD

)K a

pp

1-1

A a.

,lJ,I-1CCEMHHAUI1Sl

,lJ,I1CCeMHHal.(I1Sl

orpaxcenaesr ... MeAJIeHHO

rvrasa CHOBa Ha"UmaIOT )l(I1Tb CBO-

rare»

casryro Morn;HylO, casryro apI1TMOJIOr11'IeCKyIO MhICJIh,

eH )l(113HhlO 11,KaK 6YATO HarrOJIHJUICb CJIe3aMI1, 3aCTaBJIRlOT POAI1TbCR, rrpOH3BOART rrpOTR)I(eHHOCTb, nepexon K HeM 11 B nee 6eCCJIeAHbIM, 6e3rpaH11'IHblM I1CTe'leHl1eM ... OAHaKO, 3peH11e He nocrpanano, OHO OCTaJIOCbTaKI1M)I(e )l(I1BbIM, TO'lHbIM (ace zrysrne 11zrysure pa3JIH'lalOrn;I1M nocen 3Be3A, KaK 6YATO yseJIH'lI1BaR ero, AOBOAR ero AO XOJIOAHOrO KaJIeHI1R, AO I1C'lI1CJIeHI1R, 3aKOHbI 11 rrpl1H~l1rrbI KOToporo 6bIJI11 eMY HeI13BeCTHbI), HO .renepr, OHO BbIAeJIReT CBOIO c06CTBeHHYlO cpeAY, B KOTOPOH paCCTORHHR ypaBHI1BaIOTCR, TepRIOTCR B KOTOPOM OAHOBpeMeHHO 06HaPY)l(J1BaeTCR 11 CXBaTblBaeTCR OTCYTCTBHe HarrpaBJIeHI1R (CMbICJIa) ... OH B HO'lI1, KOTOpas OH caM 11ecrs. OH Aep)l(11T ee B cBoe06pa3HOM MI1HHMYMe, nepen rJIa3aM11 - HO OH casr B HeM I1C'le3 (B ~eJIOM, OH rrOATBep)I(AaeT, 'ITO "cy6'heKTa" He cyutecrnyer - KaK 11:,lTOM crpanmn,r). TaK, CTOR nopon 6e3 ABl1)1(eHHH nepen JIeHTOH )l(eJITOrO netia, xoropoe OBern;eCTBJIReT ropl130HT, OH TO'lHO ourymaer csoe norroacenne, CBOH npenen. CaMaR YAaJIeHHaR TO'lKa, KOTOPyIO OH cnocotien YBHAeTh HJII1 Bo06pa311Tb, cosnaztaer C caMoH "rJIy611HHOH" (Bl1pTyaJIbHOe npocrpaacrso, xoropoe rrpeACTaBJIReT TaK)I(e 11oyzryuree), - a Me)l(AY HI1MI1 HaxoAI1TCR 3TOT BpeMeHHbIH 3KpaH, onepauaa KOToporo 3aBI1CI1T... IToABellIeHHaR, cB060AHaR c<l>epa rrpeotipaayercs B MOJI'laHl1e, -repes KOTopoe ee HarrOJIOBI1HY BI1AHO... CJIOBO, xoropoe OH MO)l(eT snecs rrp0I13HeCTH, TaK)I(e OKa)I(eTCR caMOH AaJIeKOH neunao, a CaMaR 6JIH3KaR senn, 6YAeT CJIOBOM HO OTCYTCTByIOrn;I1M "KpOMe 'roro, JIlO6aR ... cy6cTaH~I1R nonoona BceMY Ml1py 11 3epKaJIY ncero YHI1aepcysra, KOTOPbIH OHa nsrpazcaer Ka)l(AaR rrO-CBoeMY, rrpl1MepHO TaK )l(e, KaK ropon rrpeACTaBJIReTCR no-paanosry B 3aBI1CI1MOCTI1 pa3JIH'lHbIX rrOJIO)l(eHI1H 'roro, KTO ero Ha6JIIOOT

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Cocmoum JIH OHO sooome, eCJIH B nonevemra OHO TaK pasneJIReTcH? qTO 3Ha'IHT CTaBl1TbCRna cuene AJIH 'roro, 'ITO He COCTOHTeJIbHOB ce6e? 110Ka OHa rrpHTBopHeTCH, 6YATO rOBopHT C BaMH, orrexae r aac, npoxonauiee «H», OCTaBaRCb He3aHHToM rronepxHOCTbIO caMoG:TH, car-to 06JIaAaeT norpeoaoc'rsro 6b1Th AOrrOJIHeHHbIM B CHMYJIHKpe caM oro aroro nonexemra. Ona XHTpHT H noncrpexaer K )KeCTOKOM 3KcrrpOrrpHall,HH, nocpeACTBOM KOTOPOM BbI 6YAeTe BOBJIe'IeHbl B rrHCbMO xpacaoro paccxasa. 110ArOTaBJIHBaH HOBbIe OTHoweHHH AJIH xpacnoro MOMeHTa (<<3.83 .... 5I, oouaxo, 6blll mast, H ObJUWll
8

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pa3BR3bIBaeT paccxas H YAep)KHBaeT ero pa3BHTHe; HO 3TO TaK)Ke, 'ITO rJIaBHOe, CHMYJIRKP - HY)KHO rrOHRTh, 'ITO CHMyJIRKP RBJIReTCR orrpenenemroa CHJIOM, 6ecrrpeCTaHHO csreuraesroro, paaoarrn-raaesroro TO»<AeCTBa,OTChlJIaeMOrO sa ero c06CTBeHHhle npenerrsr He 'IeM HHbIM, KaK HaCHJIbCTBeHHbIM rrHCbMOM. «3.47 .... 11.0"fl'; ece tionsiue
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U OCma11.a811U8aeMOe 8 yZllY mexcma, tionsiue HU'teM, "pOMe npOXO:JICOeHUJl., MeHJl, 11.0 lIUUlI:>
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see eU{e n08ClOOY U 80 ecet« ucnblmbl8alOU{ee 00 npeoena, eUlIbl ... » 3a xomopeoc ece mesoteno

TeMHaR KOMHaTa 3TOM CJ1JIbIIIJ1ChMa, B KOTOPOMMbI pasBHBaJIH 06pa3bI, rrpOCTbIMH HeraTJ1BaMH KOTOPbIX scerna 6yAYT OCTaBaTbCR «R» H «BbI». I1TaK, CHMYJIRKP rronexenaa )KeJIaeT, '!T06bI pess OT «H» (onexarouiaa BaC H rrpHCYTCTByroutaa npn BaIIIeM rrorrexenan) 6b1JIa B CBoeM 3arrHCH OTJIH'IHOM OT 'roro, '!eM OHa na c06CTBeHHhIX CJIOBax HBJIReTCR- Ha3bIBaR ceos «HCTHHHOH», BMeCTO Toro, '!T06b1 BbICKa3hIBaTb HCTHHY rrpOAOJI)KaIOrn;erOCH paccxasa, OHa CHMYJIJIPyeT H 06MaHbIBaeT «BaC», IIpHTBOPJUlCb, 6YATO B Ka»<AOM IIyHKTe npeoopasyer HMrrep<peKT B nacromuee nocpencraosr ortepauna, o HeB03MO)KHOCTH KOTOPOMeM H3BeCTHO (4.48). B 3TOH ABOHCTBeHHOCTH,pa3BH3aHHOM IIJ1CbMOM, OHa rrpHTBopHeTCH, 6YATO naer BaM OT'IeT B TOM, 'ITO BhI BHAHTe, H 06'hRCHHeT BaM 3TO BHAHMOe BaMH, OHa AeJIaeT BHA, 6y.n.TOBblCKa3bIBaeT BaM rrpHCYTCTBHe saurero nacroaurero, 'rorna KaK na AeJIe ee rrpHTBOPCTBO HBJIReTCHCOCTaBHOM'IaCTbIO npouecca rracssra. To

er nexyro cyocrannmo, ourynraesryro B Ka'IeCTBe BpeAOHOCHOM, - HeKHM HA - Bce 60JIblile H 60JIbWe OKpaIIIHBaIOrn;HM paCCKa3 B xpacnoe, BOBJIeKaIOrn;HMsac B ero 3KcrrporrpHHpYIOuiee ,lJ;BJ1)J(eHHe rrHcbMa, noxa He 6YAeT ,nOCTHrHYT IIyHKT C11MyJIHKpa, B KOTOPOM OH CMO)KeT OAHOBpeMeHHO OKpaCHTb TKaHh H rrpHTBopHTbCH, 6YATO rOBopHT BaM 06 3TOM rro rrpasne, COrJIaCHO<popMe nonexeaaa J1Jll.{, COOTBeTCTBeHHO,<popMe 6e3paCCYAHO rp03HOM npoaoxauan, YHWITO)KeHHH. 110'!HTaHTe erue, Ka)J()J;brnpa3 06paII~aH BHHMaHHe na TO, 'ITO Y)Ke 3aCTaBJIHeT sac rroaepny'rs rOJIOBY,na TO, 'ITO Ka)KAbIM <pparMeHT CTaHOBHTCH 'IHTaeMbIM TOJIbKO B paCC'IHTaHHOM Hrpe BeChMa MHorO'!IiCJIeHHbIX B03Bparn;eHHM H 6eC'!HCJIeHHOM rrOJIHCeMHH. B AaHHOM cry-rae MO)KHO, nanpaxrep, rOBOpHTh no KpaHHeM Mepe 0 rex B03Bp~eHHHX H rrOJIHCeMHH, KOTOphIe aarparaaaror CJIOBa«KOJIOHHa»,«xanpsr», «YAap», «OTPaBJIeHHbIM», «rrpOAYKTbI», «KBMpaTbI», «KpaCHbIH» H T. A. H KOTopbIe na BceM rrpOTH)KeHHH «t.IHceJI» TpaHC<POPMHpyroT 3TH CJIOBa HaH60JIee He06xOAHMblM Ii OAHOBpeMeHHO HaH60JIee 06ecKypa)KHBaIOrn;HM, caMbIM YAHBHTeJIbHbIM H caMbIM HaBH3'IJ1BbIM 06pa30M. I1TaK, Bbl BHAHTe, K3K uarnpyerca «AaHHbIM» OTPbIBOK, KaK eCJIH 6bI OH OTCbInaJI TOJIbKO K caMOMY ce6e:

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xy, rra TpaHCnJIaHTau;HIO, rra 3M<pMTeB3MC*, BaM HY)l(HO aapanee nporryxrars, KaK 6yp,eT BhlrnHp,eTb nO'IKOBaHMe, 'ITO npoM30Hp,eT n03)1(e M B npyrosr MeCTe. HeT HM'IerO no TeKCTa, He CyIIJ;eCTByeT npennora <pretexte>, KOTOPhIH yace He 6hIJI 6bI TeKCTOM.TI03TOMy B MOMeHT, xorna nOBpC)l(.D,aeTCH nosepxnocrs nOne'IeHMH, xorna OTKPhIBaeTCH yaepriopa M npencraanaercs npencraanenne, cneaa yxce 6bIna. B MMnep<peKTe. Y)I(e 6hIna B MeCTe, XOTH M HeBMp,MMOM B HaCTOHIIJ;eM,6bIna B patiore, He naaas aa ce6H nOCMOTpeTb, He nasas ceris BhICKa3aTb KaKMM 6bI TO HM 6bInO HaCTOHIIJ;MM BbICKa3bIBaHMeM, 6b1na no casroro «rrepsoro» axra, «31'0 6hInO/ asmrennree M3 3Be3,n;/'IMCJIO» Hrax, «Hncna» He MMeIOT c06. CTBeHHoro MCTO'IHMKa, MCTO'IHHKa e.D,HHOrOM npMcyTcTByroutero; HMKTO He MO)l(eT 6e3 MaCKM H.JIMcMMynHKpa nexoero secsraa nosxoro nceanoamaa npHCBOHTh ce6e TMTyn nnanensu;a H.JIMaBTOpCKOe npaso ... ABTOPCTBO M Bna,n;eHMeOCTaIOTCH cBoe06pa3HbIMM npeTeH3MHMM pe-nr nOne'IeHMH Ii 3<p<peKTaMM MepTBOH nOBepXHOCTM. XOTH, ecnn yxecrs ztse 3M6neMbI, c06CTBeHHoe MMH anropa, nOCTOHHHO MC'Ie3aIOIIJ;erO B p,BYCMbrcneHHoM p,BM)I(eHMM CMepTM H cnaceana, BOCKpellIeHHH, 'ronsxo M nenaer, 'ITO npH'IeTCH, CKPhlBaHCb aa axpaHOM, 3a «YMHOJICelmeM 3KpaH08 KaK 3M611eM 3mOlO H080l0 npaeuna» (1.25), H.JIMcoxpaaaacs, He nepecrasaa 6nMCTaTb, KaK nO'IKa 6e3 sosnyxa B rny6MHe KHMfM, 3aCTe)I(KOH,zrapuoxr, 6na-

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1. 'ITO (npHCYTCTByroIIJ;aH B HaCTOHIIJ;eM) pe'Ib npereanyer aa He'ITO, 'ITO BHe TeKCTa, aa npepsrsamre (HaIrnCaHHOro) paccxasa rrpHMOTOH OTKpOBeHHoro CJIOsa M pa3'bHCHeHMeM ycnOBHoCTeH, KaK ecmr 6bI pe-ts, KOTOPyro p,ep)l(aT B HaCTOHIIJ;eM, He p,OlI)I(Ha 6bIna 6bI ornasarr, aaxaxoro OT'IeTa B CBoeM aenocpencrseanosr JI060BOM B03HMKHOBeHHM, yp,ep)l(J{BaHCb cassa C060H M casra no ce6e B C03HaHHM 6e30 BCJIKOH MCTOPMM;

2. 'ITO TeM He MeHee OHa 06paIIJ;aeTCH K nMCbMY, 'ITO no


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C06cTBeHHoe HMH, TO ecrt, TaKOe HMH, xoropoe 6bIJIO natipocano B TeaTpe, «scerna rOTOBoe crrOXBaTHTbCR. HeTpOHYTaH HeC'IaCTbeM nparouenaocrs». ,I:(mI 6pOCKa sroro KaMHH BaM 6y,IJ;eT ,Il;OCTaTO'IHO npoarn qyTb nansnre, 3aHTH aa lI,HTaTY COJIHe'IHOrO CBeTHlIa (COJIHlI,e = csreprr, = 3epKaJIO), 'IT06bI 3asrerrrn, rrepcreas C H,Il;OM.A 3aTeM H rrpOTHBo1I,IU1e,KJIlO'I. KoTopbIe He OTJIH'IaIOTCH npyr OT ,Il;pyra. To, 'ITO Y)Ke Ha'IaJIOCb K JIlO60MY MOMeHTY BpeMeHH paasrrpsrsarsca B nsmeprpexre (HlIH B nexoroposr a-opncre", B nexoen 6ecrrpe,Il;eJIbHOCTH, B KOTOPOH TepHeTCH caxr ropn30HT, KOTOPaJI CMeUIHBaeTCH C 6Y,Il;yIlI,J1M,a-opncre, KOTOPbIH HHKOr,Il;aHe 6Y,Il;eTHaCTOHllI,HM - «2.26 .... KaK 6yomo 6bl Jl CM02 8 «axou-mo MOMeHm cxearnum» ceti« U3 nycmoeo, tiesepanuu11.0206yoyU{e20 (0), Kale 6yomo 6bl l1beca, manna, H.e60, 3aKJIIOtteHH.ble menepb 8 HaCm051UJ,eM «a« U Jl 8 H.eM npUXOoUJIU U3 llPOUl.Jl020, «omopoe MH.e eU{e npeocmostno npoumu ... »), TO, 'ITO 6y,IJ;eT snacano, 'ITO nepeaner H3 6Y,Il;yIlI,ero npeznuecrsyiomero HlIH 6Y,Il;yIlI,ero nponrnoro npezuuecreyrourero B «He,Il;OCTH)KJ1MOe ,Il;BOHHOe,Il;HO»,xoropoe casro He RBJIHeTCH HH nponrnsna, HH 6Y,Il;yIlI,HM, HH npemuecrayrounoa, HH nocne.n:yIOllI,J1M,TO, 'ITO 6eCrrpeCTaHHO aoaspauiaerca K aroxry HMneprpexry, ne npunaanescum. Ho He rrOTOMY, 'ITO OHO 6bIJIO oropsano OT KaKorO-TO rrpHcYTcTBHH HJIH nepmrsaon npnHa,IIlIe)KHOCTH. Pe-ts snecs He H,Il;eT0 'IeM-TO - «peaJIbHOCTH» I1JIH «CMbIClIe», - 'ITO rrpOCTO nocryrrarro 6bI K 3arrHCH xepea rrOCpe,Il;HHKOB,nocne csoero nepsoaaxazrsaoro rrpOH3BO,Il;CTBa H nocaenyromero aoanexeaaa B TOBapo060pOT. TaKaJI ae-npnHa,IIlIe)KHOCTb - TO eCTb caMa TeKcTyaJIbHOCTb - BMellIHBaeTCH,TO ecrs npepsrsaer C casr oro «nepsoro» cnena, KOTOPbIH Y)Ke OTMe'IeH Y,Il;BOeHHeM, 3XOM, 3epKaJIOM, KOTOPbIH Y)Ke B KaKOM-TO OTHOllIeHHH rrpe,Il;CTaBJIHeTCHB Ka'IeCTBe «CJIe,Il;a csoero OTp3)KeHHH» (<<,1J;paMa»), scerna crpynrmposaaaoro rro MeHhllIeH Mepe H3 ztsyx 'IaCTeH, Ka)K,Il;aHH3 KOTOPbIX 601IbllIe

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11 T. rr. no

Ty CTOPOHY OT 3TI1X orrrr0311U;11i1: I1JI11 MeJICoy HO He B CMeWeHI1H.

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...Bo

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scerna
rrpOCTO 3TOT pa3

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C l.JI1CJIaMI1. orrrr0311U;HI1, cpa3y )l(e

nepsoro pasa <I'avant-premiere fois>


BOIKOM

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HI1 B xoess

apl1<pMeTI1'IeCKI1M

CJIYl.Jae He 6Y,ll;yql1 11M, HO aa

CTepTbIMI1, yzce KaK

cnysae, «mo-mo weeo-mo


nOAYMaJIa ecna

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a He KO

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y6I1JI,3TO JICHO... «Ax HeT! JI He noroponmocs, eJI


B

npaaana

HrpbI.

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OTrrel.JaTbIBaeTCR TO ecrs

AJIl1ea, BHe3anHO nOAnpblrHYB,

rorna, xorna
ero

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K ,ll;pyrOMY,

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ero

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-tepes

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rrapx!»

pl1aU;1111 H11Kor)J,a He rrp0I13BO,ll;I1TCR TOJIbKO B I1CKa)l(eHI1I1 He 3<p<peKTOB aa

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aosapauraerecs sac BrJIy6b

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napxa,

cnenasr. BbI nzrere,


-

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cnensr
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yrJIOM

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no-

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sy,
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(<<4.52 .... Bern" JaKOH


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MeCTaM. -racrs

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C OCTpbIM

nexara

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H

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JIapMe

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xoropsre
rrpocToro 11 rroBTOpeHI1R,

oxpaaner
ce6e 3TO

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c06CTBeHHOCTb,

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Horo sroporo

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rr03TOMY

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11 rrp0I13BO,ll;HOrO,

11T. ,ll;., TepHIOT CBOIO 3Hal.JI1MOCTb, eCJII1 see «Hal.JI1Hal.JTO czrenyer oCTaBweMYcR

3aCTaBJIReT

eTCR» C roro,

cneny,

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onpe-

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non

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,[I e

p p 101A a.

AHCCEMHHALlHS1

peBOJIJOIVUi. [hrChMO 06Ha)KaeT TO, 'ITO «YMupaem U CHOBa OJICUBaemB MbICllU, KOmOpaJl C CaM020 nauana na CaMOM oene HUKOMY He npuuaonescum» (4 H 4.100), BH,[IOH3MeHReT 3KC-

npOCTO csieruarsca

C HCi1. Be3 :~KpaHa, 6e3 nOKphIBaJIa MJIH aa

xopomen asram-raxre. Ho csreprs aroro npencraanarouiero ronoca, aroro Y)Ke MepTBoro ronoca, He npHBOAHT K a6COJIIOTHOMY MOJI'laHHIO, C03.l1.aIOl'-\eMYHaKoHcu,-TO MeCTO )J,JIJ'l HeKOeH MI1<pH'leCKOH 'lHCTOTbI nHChMa,,lI.JIR KaKOH-TO B KOHe<IHOM cxere eAHHcTBeHHoH rparpesrsr,

nponpaanmo, nonropser ee, ynOpRAO'leHHhIM 06pa30M ee csreuraer, neycrauno nepe-mcnaer ee, «... U Jl 6blJl scemou

cpeou opyeux seem... [... J


mo, K020,

Ho HUKmo 6011bUle He 6blll MHOU,

Cxopee, OHa nae'r MeCTO ro-

umo OOllJICHO tiuno npousoumu, He npoUCXOOUllO HU an» timna nuui» sma nocneooeamenenocm» U,uifJp, cocnummeatouias, peeucmpupytouian U OmMeHJlIOUI,aJl Bee eneiunee -» (3.7).

JIOCY 6e3 aBTopa, <pOHH'leCKOMY npo-rep-ncaaaaro, xoropoe B CBoeH '!YBCTBeHHOH xexaaxe He nOKphIBaeTClI 6e3 OCTaTxa HHKaKHM H,[IeaJIhHhIM 03HaQaeMhIM, HHKaKOH «MhICJIhIO». MHO)Kal'-\aRCR AP06b rron-mnaer B03.l1.eHCTBI1IO csoero PMTMa see npeACTaBJI5'lIOl'-\He npOlIBJIeHHlI; casra xce OHa ynoPHAO'lHBaeTCR npaBMJIhHhIM, )KeCTOKHM pa3BepThIBaHHeM, TeaTpaJIhHOH apHTMorpa<pHeH nexoero TeKCTa, KOTOPhIH «HanHCaH» He B 60JIbIlleH CTeneHH, '!eM «nporosopea» - B CMhICJIe «omnune cmaBLUe20 on» Hac BemXUM antpaeuma» (2.22). I1c'!e3HoBeHHe «asropcxoro rozroca» (<<TeKcT B HeM rOBopHT caM OT ceos H 6e3 asropcxoro ronoca», KaK 6hIJIO noaepeno BepJIeHY) pa3BlI3hIBaeT cany BnHchIBaHl1lI, HO Y)Ke He nepoansnyro, a <pOHH'leCKyro. ilOJIH<pOHH'leCKYIO. 3Ha'!eHHR BOKaJIhnoro onpOCTpaHCTBOBaHHJI B TaKOM CJIY'lae 3a,[\aIOTCRnopsnKOM aroro rOJIOca 6e3 aMaJIhraMhI, HO He aBTopHTeTOM CJTOBa HJTH nOHRTHHHoro 03HaqaeMOrO, KOTOPhIM TeKCT B KOHeQHOM CQeTe He rrpesonrer HHIO. BOCnOJIh30BaThCR no CBoeMY YCMOTpeeCJIH CJIeAOBaTh «BapaaunH nporaaono-

Ilpyrne COJIH,-\a,ApyraR peBOJIJO,-\HR,ApyraR apmpMeTHxa: «'ITO-TO C'IHTaeT BO MHe, npH6aBJUleT 1, .lI.OCTHraeT KpHTH'leCKOrO 'lHCJIa, xoroporo )K,lI.YTKOJIeCHH,-\hICOlTH,-\a,'lT06hI
nortxnartrn, c6pyro. H3MepeHHH ... ».

51 saaro,

'ITO

6hIJI CKOHCTpYHpOBaH

)J,JIJ'l

3KcnponpHa,-\HlI OTMe'laeTCR He TOJIhKO '-\H<PPOH 'lHCJIa, 'lhR He-<pOHeTH'leCKaR orrepauaa, nOABeIllHBaIOl'-\aR roJIOC, pacnra'rsraaer 6JTH30CTh C C060H, )KHBOe npHCYTCTBHe, xoropoe CJThIIllHT casroro ceoa B npeACTaBJIeHHH pexsro. CorJIaCHO «MY3hIKe H CJIOBeCHOCTH», «6YKBeHHa1J sanncs MeJIO.lJ.HH y6HBaeT» - 3TO HaCHJlhCTBeHHaR CMepTh 'D1TaIOl'-\ero HJTH nmrryurero cy6'heKTa B HeMOM 3aMel'-\eHHH «qHCeJI», B rpese JfX 3aCTe)KKH, B JfX TIfXOM napue. To ecrs B eamesr. (<<1.5 .... Sampaeueax smy nocneooeamenenocm», Jl nouuuan, wmo nOCmOJlHHOocytuecmensoioc» oouo-eouncmeennoe ytiuucmeo, wmo Mbl OOLUllU 00 m020, «motiu eepnymucn K HeMY «epes eecu sm om oxonenui; nymb ... ») Ho 6yKBeHHan sarmcs lIBJUleTCJI MeJIOAH'-IeCKOH,rreane OT'leKaHHBaeT TaKTaMH see MeThI «qHCeJI». 3TO PHTM, BO scex CMhICJIaX aroro CJIOBa, H eMY BhI ,ll;OJT)KHbI renosars. o «OAa y6HTa» B «MHMHKe», HO 3TO oaaaxaer JlHIllh KOH'lHHY onpenerreanoro ronoca, 'laCTHOH <PYHKU;HHpe-nr, npenCTaBJIeHHJI, rOJIOca 'lHTaTeJIJI HJTH anropa, KOTOPhIH oonapy)KHBaeT ce6JI JIHIllh AJIR roro, <IT06hI rtpencraaart, CIO)KeT B ero BHYTpeHHeM 3aMblCJTe,'lT06hI paaxrs HCTHHY ro, 'lTo6bI orpasars
HJTH

BY.lI.Y'lH «HeMOH n03MOH»,

RM na TeMY» (<<Bee eTaHOBHTCR nOABeCOM, <pparMeHTapHhIM

pacnOJIO)KeHHeM, COQeTaIOl'-\HM o-repenaocrs

eTaBJIeHHe, ysacrayrourasr B 06l'-\eM pHTMe, KOTOPhIM KaK pas H AOJI)KHa CTaTh HeMaR n03Ma, 1l03Ma B npotienax»), «qHCJIa» TaK)Ke RBJIRIOTCJI H oxens rposaxon n03MoH. Flonpooysrre eaMH. OHH '!.l1TaIOTCR B HaeTORl'-\eM rpoxore, ryrrKOM H ynpaBJIReMOM, CAep)KaHHOM, nanopxcrosr H ApO)Kal'-\eM uryxre, B neHHH, BhIBOARIlI,eM na cneay rrracnyro, H apTHKYJIR,-\HH, npemuecrsyrouiee 3XO KOTOPOH ortipacsraaercs neHHeM aa nOBepXHocTH CTeH, OTpa)K3JICh OT onnoro sxpana K ApyrOMY, npH crryxae OTCKaKHBaR 11nOBTOpJIJICh no COTHe pa3. Ka)KAhIH pa3 B KaKOM-TO ApyrOM MeTaJIJIe, CKYJIhnType H3 npyron )KHAKOCTH, neperrpaae xepea HeCJIhIXaHHyro

yxasars,

BhICKa3aTh, BbI-

npHcYTcTBMe - HeKoero 03Ha'iaeMOee B BepHOM sepxane, 'lT06hI nars eH B03npoHHKHoBeHHR HJIH )Ke

MO)KHOCTb 6ecnpennTCTBeHHoro

Em

)f(

Ae

p p 11 A a. AI1CCEMI1HALlI1f1

MaTepmo. nenae

[OJIOC 6e3 asropa, rOJIOca:

nHCbMO CHJIbHOrO AbIXaHHJI,

AO norepa

'lac naxnaoueaemcs nexoe nocmonnnoe KOJle6aHUe, wmo-mo nbRHO UlamalOU1eecR, cmpescumenunoe ... » (3.55). BbI JIerKO
onpenemrre pHTM H BO BTOPOM sapaarrre ssmanenae nepBoHeKOnOMeTxpaanero

«3 .... U lOIWC t080PUlI cxopee; KaK R

menepu 3mo, smo 6blJl U 8 CaMOM oene 8UaeHUJl UlIU, MOa eonoc, apyt

I,

«nocneonea

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nocuorpers, npensecrae

MOU eonoc, nOaHUMa10UiUUCR U3 t{8em080eo U3 eopsnueeo cpOHa ~8em08,

ro aapaanra; ero

H B 3TOM BbI MomH 'IT06bI

6bI pa3mJlAeTb, eCJIH TOJIbKaK pas nepen

xomopua,
C8J13bltc mexaeu-

KO BbI noaepnerecs, KOH, cornacao TOM cornacayro.

cnuiuan,

naneean

HeY'108UMoe, HaCmORmeJIbHOe 3a3a opyeoi«, Ka3allOCb, npunaeanuce

paC'IJIeHeHHJI, csepnraromeroca KOTOPOH. pran o

KlIUHaHUe, 8 KomOpOM cneooeanu 8aJlUCb cmy

«uoeeo eonoca MeHR nOKUOaJl».

enacuue, «omopue,

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IH Ho

T. A•••• O'IeBHAHO, HeJIb3J1Ha.u,eJIHTbnnepaase He O'IeBHAHO, 'ITO Ka)l()1,aJIH3 HHX, 06JIa.u,aeT CBOHM OC06hrM AHHaC ABHraTeJIeM, KOTOPbIH.B OA-

Cm806aJla

nenocpeocmeenuo na KaJKaylO nOaP06HOCmb, omtipacueana 8PIVICae6Hble sneuenmu, 06PaJ08bl8aJla pumcnexmp, c06upa8IUUU u pacnpe-

'ITO Ka)l(AaR 6)'1<Ba Bo06~e 30M, 'ITO ee MO)l(HO cpasaarr,

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MutteCKJIO l{enOttKY, nexui; oOHOa cpueype

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cpeou

opyeux,

HRmblM, 6pOlUeHHblM 3epHOM... 8Cma811eHHblX 8 omoenennyto ocma8allaCb

OM nee R 6bll1 npocmo npunooBoxansnoe eubeneuue 6YK8,


sanuc», «omopas 6e3 HUX nonepaaaudieueopauueax 6blll 11, U311Y11 nepe-

D,

"AeJIbTa': no CBHAeTeJIbCTBY nJIaTOHa, JlBJIJleTCJInepson

H CaMOM: cOBepWeHHOM: H3 scex 6)'1<B aJI<paBHTa,TOH.6)'1<BOM:, H3 KOTOPOH PO)l(AaIOTCR see OCTaJIbHbIe, nOCKOJIbKY OHa COCTaBJIeHa H3 paBHbIX JIHHHM:H yrJIOB. Bep)l()1,aeTCJI, 'ITO, cornacao roro, HaA I». TaKHM 06pa30M, nocpencraoss 3KcnpOnpHalJ,HJI AeH.CTByeT He TOJIbKO xoropoe paCCTaBJIJleT B HeM lJ,H<PPOBoro nOABeWHBaHHJI rOJIOca, nocpezinpOBOAHT xepea Hero H no

6bl HenOa8UJICHOU, nenpospaunou, aeJlmeJIbHOCmb smux

poeueaeuoa;

amOM08, xomopue

Erne

B 3TOH. KHHre YTHe AJIJI

380JlJlllU MHe maKUM 06pa30M eueusuearmcx, HaU3HaHKY onepauuto, 'IeHUe U npoexuuto, uanpaeun
8 noneme;

3aKoHY, CnaCHTeJIb npmnen

06'beKmOM «omopou

'IT06bI YAaJIHTb 3T)' TO'IKy, anexc, KOTOPbIH.pacnonozcea

aUCKpemHYIO CUllY xomopux see smo

omxpmeano

oan», 8Heumeemate: nsstno

U 11CH08a 8UJICY,KaK 38YKU npoxoosun He60 8 cauue i?lla3a. CPopMYlIa scoena

CK803b cpU07lem080e naxna-

6b1 eupascamncs
wmo-mo

CTBOM onpocTpaHCT,BOBaHHJI,

I-O-U-I-A-I
abl6aemCR aall ... [ ... J»

npu YClI08UU, umo

na Nee momwac

3HaKH npenHHaHHJI HlIH, cxopee, lJ,HeM: ronoce. 8

nexoe nocmosnnoe

xanetianue,

HeM)' CBOIO'IepTY; OHa JlBJIJleTCJI O BceMY npO'IeMY H onepaK [JIaBHOe, 'ITO MbICJIb H3Ha'IaJIbHO HHKOMY He H3Ha'IaJIbHO HMeHHO nonpHHaAJIe)l(J{T, a «06e3JIH'IHBaHHe»

lUamalOU{eeCR ... [ ... J-

11 80m

'WK MOa ZOliOCMeHJI nOKU-

TOM)', 'ITO TeKCT HHKorAa He Ha'IHHaeTCJI. )l;eJIO He B TOM, 'ITO

Florepa

rOJIOCa nOeTCJI H B ApyrHX

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30BaHHOM B03Bpa~eHHH HOCTH, nOBTOpJlJl

OAHOM:H ToM: )l(e nOCJIeAOBaTeJIb-

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«cmeuxy

waemcs, «motiu cnanum» xpyiuenueu, smom MOMeHm, xomopmu nepexooum


nacmoxmenenoe 3aKJlUHaHUe, 8 xomopou OPyeOM,06MeHU8aJlUCb enaeuue; ifwpMYJla, eupascamecs: J-O-U-J-A npu YCll08UU,

800b/», «coJlH4e, xomopoe 1tOOHUeZO», «u 6blJl smom MOMeHm nepeo


6 nenue:

B HeM HHKorAa He JlBJIRIOTCJI epBOHa'IaJIaMH, n TeKeT. CJIeAOBaTeJIbHO, C roro

OHH Ka)I()1,bIM: pa3 6ePYTeJl, 'IT06bI npeznnecrayrouran ra, C xaxoro

ClIe008aJlU

opye

3a

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moena 6bl nee mom-

«qHCJIa» Ha'IHHaIOT 'IHTaTbCJI, JII06afl HX apxeo-

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«DOCJIe,Ll,HHJI» TpaHMlI,a «J~paMbI»: C «,Ll,YMa.H, 'ITO OH eute ,Ll,OJI)J(CH 6Y,Ll,eT mrcars: MbI ,Ll,OJI)J(HbI 06paTMTb BHMMaHMe aa TO, 'ITO KHMra rep-

rropascemre

snecs -

(ropnr)

(CTMpaeTCJI) (B MbICJIM, "60JIee MHOrO'IMCJIeHM3 scex, ornr-

'IeCKaJI TeJIeOJIOrHJI. 3anpeT

«Hoemu mexcrn
spepas-

Y KOTOPOH HeT nOCJIe,Ll,HeH MbICJIM, HOH, 'IeM rpasa"

6e3 uanana

U KOHt(a»

(3.99)

He n03BOJUleT nOMep)J(MBaTb HJIM 3aKJIlO'IMTbCJI B paMBpeMeHM». C e,Ll,MHMlI,bI (1)

"JIOBKOH, CaMOH 6bICTpoiI

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paromerrca

na cepnue")
-

-».

DMCbMO, orons, JIeHHOe, rpasa

CTHpaHMe, «6e3 KOHlI,a», «'IMCJIO», 6eC'IMC-

see 3TO lI,MTaTbI M

npousrrnpoaarrasre

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roro,

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11 nanee: «3.11. ...51 npoCHYllclf mazda, Kazda umo-mo

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8. KOJIOHHa
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orposnrsre

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HJlMM YXOAHT B 3H-CO<p, TYPY BO acex ee rrynxrax

xopnea»:

3TY CTPYK-

He; JI CKa3aJI 3TO B naxane. 3YlIbTaTe nOHMMalI CTBMJI». TaK)I(e BepHYTbCJI coaepurenno 6bl nOJIy-qMlIOCb

ECJIM J1X YMHO)KMTb

aa ABa, B peXOPOlliO AeA-

MO)l(HO 06HapY)I(HTb

MB

«Hncnax»,

'1eThlpe ... HO JI He o-reas aror-o

11 3TO
BMBOK,

lIMllib

OAHa H3 MHOrO'lMClIeHHblX KOTOPblX -

nocpeACTBOM

rexcryansnsrx npnKaotiana OTne'laTbIBaeTCJI


MHO)l(eCTBeHyrropanoHomHOM nOA peMepHblX, na «nonnosc

He06xOAHMOCTb

apH<pMeTH'leCKOrO

B HI1X; MHOrO'lMClIeHHblX HbIX, paCCeJlHHbIX, a raxace

OAHOBpeMeHHO PI1TMM'IHblX,

OTAeJIbHOe

'1TeHHe

MOrJIO 6bl

pa3-

B TeKCTOBbIX nposaescyrxax

HlIM naparpasasrarrrMCTpe61IeHMJI, BCTpe(<<roPJlIIJ;aJl OrHJIM orcas eIIJ;e Heorne YCT-

'leHHbIX,

BbIC'lMTaHHbIX,

OTMe'leHHblX no TaKTaM,

'leCKOI1 CeTM, KOTOpaJi OCBeIIJ;aeT orons 'laeMbl11 nOBclOP,Y MB

cmane» (2.74),

OTnanalOIIJ;MX

KaKfOlIOBbl

«Ilpasre»,
«6YMaza

M B «l.JMClIax» zopena»

3aKOM, KaK 6eCKOHe'lHM

sanncs

ronocos,

B «Ncn008UJlCNOM

CBOAKa» ropona MM

M KHMrM,

M T. A.), orons noxa

naoenuu nucen» (1.33). Mapunrpyromas KOlIOHHa,


sepxano, B03AYlllHbBi

Topsr,
-

paCnalIJIJI 6elIbII1

J1X Apyr

zrpyrora;

'1epHblH

KOlIOHHa

'lMCelI,

KOlIOHHaKO-

6elIbll1

orom.,

TeKCT, HanMCaHHbl11

CT01I6, PTYTHbIJi

CT01I6MK,

sonomas

BMAMMbIMM HOI1

6YKBaMM, KOTOpaJi

npOqMTblBaeTCJI BnOcJIeACTBHM

B '1epHOM

1I0HHa: CMHTeTM'leCKOe 301I0TO, cnnas BelIMKOlIerrHbl11 30JIOTblX nsopen nocrpoen M3

ssrcurea

MapKM.

«MoA

Topsr,

na-nmae'r

BbIllHCbIBaTb

cepeopansrx
onycroureamua

CTeH, M3 ce6e <palI-

B HeM

KOlIOHH ...

KOlIOHHa

3TO HH'lTO, KaK

caM a no

OHa He HMeeT JIOC,

anxaxoro

CMbIClIa.

COrJIaCHble M npOCTaBlIJlTb nYHKTyaU;MIO rnacm-rx: «3.43. / ... Tlponem «epnoeo OZHH, zoe 51. ZOpClI na 6ClIOM OZ-HC ». ... 11 XOTJI CTOlIbKO oraen 6pollieHo, cnpoeunposaao TeKCTOM, B BHAe CCbllIKM HH aa xaxoe «peansnoe» MO)l(acex OT OA-

orpeaaansra
r

OT casroro

ce6J1 M otiesrrraaneam.nr

(i),

OHa M

CaM OH He CAelIaH HCTpe61IeHMe,0

otiecne-raaae

6eC'IMClIeHHble

nepexonsr
OHa nMCbMOM,

AHcceMMHaU;MM HMKorAa xoropoe

KOHe"'IHOM AOCTM)KeHMI1 oxara nOCJIe MC'lepnaHMH

xoroporo

paasrrpsrsaesroe
eTCJI caMoA

CMeIIJ;eHMe nonen.

He JlBlIJI6eCKOHe'lee nepM

HO 6bIlIO 6bI MeqTaTb TeKCTOB. OrOHb noro TeKCTa K -

M nepepacranns

C06011, HO lIMllib

3TO HMqTO BHe TaKOrO «nepenoca» 3TO Aa)l(e He «MOlIqaIIJ;Hl1 oruesr (OTHOllleHMe

HO MeHJleT ee na nee casry, pa3ABaMBaJi noro B03BeAeHMJI: «)J,Be

ee C MOMeHTa

npyrosry,

npensrer»,
CMepTM

onopsr, xoropsre

6b1lIO HeClIO)l(HO

ITpO)KMraHHe,

MCTpe61IeHMe

IJmJ

)j(

KA

p p 14 A

a.

AHCCEM14HAlI14H

K COJIHU;Y, 0 KOTOPOM

60JIee

«OAHoro

pa3a»

IllJIa

pe-n.)

[ ... J ... ECJII1

rrepernrury

TaKOH

OTPbIBOK: MHp 6blJI

"rerreps

H B03BpaKO-

u;eJII1KOM 11rrOJIHOCThIO, cTyaJIhHhlM BpeMH Ho (<<KHHra

KaK H AI1CCeMI1HaU;I1H, HBJIHeTCH TeK-

II.J;aIOCb K TOMY

spesseaa, xorna
11306proKaeT

COBceM HOBbIM,

OTMeHHeT

rrenna»).
TeM caMbIM He CBOAI1TCH (K CBoeMY

fAa 3eMJIH 6bIJIa eII.J;errOAaTJII1Boti:" •••»}, rrepBM HOCTb «Ql1ceJI» MH<poJIorl1l1. He'lTO BpOAe

rrOCJIeAOBaTeJIb-

KOCMOrOHH'leCKOH rrpHCYTCTBI1JJ He-

HCTpe6JIeHl1e

rrerrrry), aaocopor, rrOA)Kl1raeTCJJ aanra MbICJIb 0 TeKCTe. H XOTH 'raxoe HCTpe6JIeHl1e, rnnneanoe csoero npenensnoro perpepeura, «peansnoro» perpeperrra, KOTOPbIH npa 3TOM YAep)KHBaJI 6bI orons aa 6e30rraCHOM paCCTOHHl1l1, KaK npenCTaBJIJIeTCH, noxorpaer JIHIllb CJIeAbI, nenen, He OCBeII.J;M HI1xero, 'ITO 6hIJIO 6hl HaCTOHII.J;I1M, 3TO He MeIllaeT eMY ropers.
K TOMY )Ke HY)KHO 3HaTb, 'ITO 3Ha'll1T

3TO

nosropeaae

a6COJIIOTHOrO

nepaouaxazra, HO He B H)'JIe xeraepToro rrpeAl1CJIOBI1H, aexoero nootipaxcaesroro rryHKTa 0.4, a Y)Ke B (1.): «6yMa?a eopena» Y)Ke B aa-rane Ml1pa.
,IJ,J{<p<pepeHU;l1pOBaHHOrO MeCTY, xo ropoe aro op<PI1'leCKOe ynenaer TO'lKe, B03AYXY 11T. A., OHO TaK)Ke orraCbIBaeT aHaJIOr nneposcu, Toro I1CXOAHOro rrpOCTpaHCTBa, rrHeBMaTH'leCKOrO CJIOH (mexupy <tehiru»), B KOTOPOM oCYHTaK, 6JIarOAapH 06'bHCHeHl1e II.J;eCTBJIHeTCH «U;I1MU;yM» Ma Bora», B KOTOPOH

«roperr,».

qTO

.raxoe

orom- «a« maxoeout 113 «,IJ,paMbI»: «HI1'lTO He OTJIH'laeT nnaMH OT orna, orons HH'leM He 60JIbIlle IlJIaMeHl1, TO ecrs pe-nHAeT 0 CMbICJIe CJIOB, a He 0 BeII.J;ax B CJIOBax. BeCCMbICJIeHHO ce6e KaKOH-TO TO, BI1«pe-

-czimzum>,
BbIXOAI1T

Kpl13l1C 113

B Bore,

«npa-

Bor

casroro
TO'lKY,

ceoa
3TO

11 nozry-

orcas, KaKOe-TO rrJIaMH 'ITO OHI1 ecrr., He I1MeeT HH'lerO oonrero C TeM, 'ITO MbI AliM». KaK 11npecrynnenae, I1cTpe6JIeH11e He HMeeT MeCTa
rrpeACTaBJIHTh aJIbHO». eM, OHO YAep)KHBaeTCH MeJlCOY)KeJIaHl1eM 3TO

xae'r onpenenenne.
mre,
sa KOTOPbIM

3TO

C)KaTl1e B oAH)'

orcrynne-

11 BbirrOJIHeHI1-

coaepurenaexr
ABOHCTBeHHO

11 BOCrrOMHHaHl1eM. I1MeHyeTcH

TO, 'ITO B «MI1MlI-

xe»
'ITO

rI1MeHOM,

«rropo-msnr,
aKT

HO

CBJlII.J;eHHbIM»;

rrpOHI1KHOBeHl1e,

OCyII.J;eCTBJIeHHbIH

roro,

exobum, cxorraer 11 YCTaHaBJII1BaeT csrenreaae MeJICoy naprnepasra: HO 3TO TaK)Ke, B 06paTHOM 11 TOM )Ke caMOM
HeOCyII.J;eCTBJIeHHbI:H 3KpaH rl1MeHa, 6paK, BarHHaJIbHM YAep)KI1BaeTCH CTeHKa, KOTOPblH

ABI1)KeHI1I1,

AeBCTBeHHbIH

MeJIC-

ceria, 113Be'lHOrO ~<pl1pa, HeCOMHeHHO, OTCbIJIaeT K MI1<pOJIOrl1l1 JIYPbU <Louria>, HO rrOCJIeAHHH MO)KeT TaK)Ke 0603Ha'laTbCH I1MeHaMI1 «Ierezra», «Besre» 11 T. A. (<<2.54 •••• "OH cosoan npocmyto mouxy, xomopall npeepamunac» a wucn», U a smou MblClIU OH cosoan 6ecC'1emHOe xonuuecmeo naiipocxoe U euepaeupoean 6eCC'1emHOe «onunecmeo epaeiop. Sameu OH eutiun pesuosc UCKPy, U OHa 6bllla uauanot« cYU1ecmaYIOU1e?o U HeCYU1ecmaYIOU1e?o npouseeoeuux, nauanosc enytioxo cxpumio« U nenosuasaescusc a ceoeM UMeHU.. .':.. »).
CJIeAyeT BhIXOA BHe )KJ1BaeT

oy

HapY)KHbIM

11 BHYTpeHHI1M,

)KeJIaHl1eM

11 BblIlOJIHeHl1eM, «nOCTOHHHoro CBOEil )f{EHhI

cosepnremresr
aaxrexa»
(MI1M

11 BOCrrOMI1HaHl1eM. 3TOT nhEPO,

Ilonsec
AO

Hrpa oceMeHeHI1H (HJIH rrpl1BI1BKa), XOTH OHa 11 nonnepsee 3TH 1136paHHbIe TeKCThl, aa AeJIe paspyuraer uearp rerexronaa, nonpsmaer KaK HX' eAI1HCTBO, TaK 11 aBTOpHTeT.
Harrpasrep,
K CBoeH Ka66aJIa, CBeAeHHaH a6COJIIOTHO K HeKoeMY He K CBoeH TeKcTyaJIbHOCTl1, MHOr03Ha'lOHa, Heee Heo6'bHTHOH,

KaK

YBl1illJ,A

rrorepa 3peHI1H). Ka66aJIa U;I1THpyeTcH He TOJIbKO AJIjJ 'roro, 'lTo6bI npenCTaTb B xaxecrae apI1TMOCO<P1111 HJII1 HaYKI1 6YKBeHHblX npeBpaII.J;eHI1H (<<2.42 •••• OH ympoun netio, yoeoun JeMllIO u onepcs na '1UClIa»; «3.95 •••• HaYKa KOM6urlUpoaaHull -cucen - smo nayxa euauea enympenuea 1I0?UKU / ... »), OHa TaK)Ke ysacrayB 3TOM rl1MeHe er B op<PI1'leCKOM 06'bHCHeHI1I1 3eMJII1. nOAo6HO

Mapreprrrra

pacceannon
6blTb, TO

HOCTI1, B03BpaII.J;aeTCH COMHeHHO, HI1KOrAa

aTel13MY, KOTOPblM

nepecrasarra
06pa30M,

eCJII1 TOJIbKO

npo-nrrarr. onpenenennsrxr
TaTb: BaIllI1

ecrs npocro npo-nrrrOBepHJII1

«... 'lI1CJIO,
TaK «qI1CJIa»,

eAI1HCTBeHHall

BeII.J;b, B KOTOPyro

«Ilpasre»
3KpaHbI. ••

aaasrnaexrsre

aTeI1CTbI •••». B KOTOPOH BpeMeHHO,

(<<B TeM

naxane

Ka66aJIl1CTl1Ka, JII1Illb

rrpotierrsr
OTKpbITM

ncerna

see rrpl1CYTCTByeT, C03AaeT

HO HH'lerO

He CyII.J;eCTByeT. 3a-

6YAYT

3arrOJIHHTbCH

rrOCKOJIbKY

ncerna
I1rpe

C03epU;aHl1e

CBOI1 rrOCJIeAOBaTeJIbHbIe

OCTaeTCH rryCTOH

OAHa CTopOHa

HJII1 KJIeTKa,

m!BI

;+:: a K

Ae

p p '" A a. ,D.I-ICCEMI-IHAlJ.I-ISl

npe06pa30BaHHH, CTBe TaKOBbIX, HaBeKH,

np06eJIbI, (no-rm)

ensa-enaa

aasseseansre
MeCCHaHCKoro JIHlllb

B xaxe'lHCTOe ocyniexanne

B03,lJ.YX, B KOTOPbIH ronoca

3aKJIKV-leH

KBa)J.paT MHpa (BHA <air»

(4.24),

,lJ.bI-

'lHCTOe

onpOCTpaHCTBOBaHHe,

(4.32),

BH,lJ.HMOCTb

HaCTOHllI,erO

a He B Q)KH,lJ.aHHH KaKorO-TO OnpOCTpaHCTBOBaHHe, KaK H3BeCTHO,

CTBJIeHHR.

xoropoe CHCTeMa

onexaerca.

Bens cymccrsycr,
npotiena, HaR c

mrreprrperanaa
CBR3aH«HOBOH TOPbI»,

(<<4.8 ( ... 3ma "temBepmaJ! noeepxnocm» B KaKOM-mo ocucne nooeeiueua B B030yxe, OHa noseonstem CllOBaM 6!J1mb ycnuiuauHblMU, mellaM - 6blmb 8UOUMbtMU, cneooeamenuno, 0 Heu neeKO satiueatom, B '1eM IWK pas u cocmoum
MeJIO,lJ.HH. eCJIH OH 3aKJIIO'IeH cpenoa, B KOJIOHHy, He RB-

TeKcTyaJIbHOrO [JOJIHCeMHR

nopO)l(,lJ.eHHR -

H nOJIHCeMHH,

Ullll103UJt unu oiuuti-

Topon.

3TO B03MO)KHOCTb

KOTopaH «Pa66H

MO)l(eT BbIH:TH H3 npyron JIeBH-l1caaK H3

(<<Topa H30H,n;eT H3 MeHH»). "BOT B "lJeM neno: 6epYTcH 6eJIH3H3 6YKB, Bo

Ka...)), C03,lJ.aeT pHTM «SellblU B030YX» MeTCH JIH OH TaK)l(e H cpenon 3aBO,lJ.a rryCTOTOH B uenrpe ,lJ.bIMe» H roBOPHTCH

Bepnn-resa:
B paanon

pa60'leH KaK

cpe,lJ.OH KaK CTl1XJ1iiHOH

na, np06eJIbI HO Mbi apesteaa ,IVIH Hac

B pOJIH TOpbI 'IHTaTb

CTeneHH

,lJ.OMeHHOH

He MO)l(eM MecCHH cea-rac

HX TaK »ce, KaK 6eJIH3Hy BOT na

=repasre

6YKBbi.

(ssr

MO)l(eTe

BCnOMHHTb

ne-rsro, pa3MellI,eHHOH 0 «pasrraratouieraca

Bor

OTKPblJI

TOPbI,

6YKBbI

KOTOPOH na-

«6enOM
B

expane,

BblJIe3111eM H3 3aBO,lJ.a», 0 KOTOPbIX 'llHCJIa: «3.75 .•..

HeBH,lJ.HMbI,

KaKHe

C006pa)l(eHHH

«Ilpasre»)!

OyMaJ! 0 KOHKpcm-

BO,lJ.HT TepMHH

{(HOBaH Topa»"». acerna 6Y,lJ.eT B03MO)l(eH CTPYKTYPY neJIH3Ha KOJIOHHbi HOBbIH

3,lJ.eCb »ce, Ha060pOT, TeKCT, nOCKOJIbKY JIeHHO 'lHCTOH pacceaanon 6YMarH np06eJI

OTKpbIBaeT

neonpene,lJ.eBCTBeHHo He mpbI

rpaacdiopsrauna. HJIH npoapasnoa

HOU U JlCeCmOKOu paoome, npou3BoOUMOU nocneonuu YCUllUCM B nycmome, U UMeHHO n03moMY tionee «ontcpemnou U YHUBCPcansuou, 6C3 moeo ceema, 6e3 OZpaHU'1CHuJt,6e3 npU3BaHUJl ... "3atJOobl U scocmoeue, «omopue 8bl euoume na smux cmpauu-

OTKpbIBaeT

CTOJIbKO HeHTpaJIbHOCTb HJIH Hrpy npOCTpaHCTBa,

cpensr,

CKOJIbKO npOCTpaHCTBO

B KOTOPbIX OpraHH3YIOTCH

3TH TpaHC-

<pOPMal(HH HX B03,lJ.yX,

H BbICKa3bIBaIOTCH

3TH nOCJIe,lJ.OBaTeJIbHOCTH. 3T0

l1ax, uoeym tium» CP08HeHbi c 3CMllCU, cmontiu tienoeo oblMa uoeym nepecmam» nooHUMambCJl8 Hc60, HOHeJlb3Jl3axBamUmb zocnoacmeo nao 3mUM nopmou" / "monmco napoo stenstemcs: aemopou eceotiuieu ucmopuu" / ... ».
Ho npexcre 'leM nO,lJ.06HbIM 06pa30M CTaTb paooxea cpe,lJ.OHH Cpe,lJ.OH npOH3BO,lJ.CTBa KaK npotcnaoueanun nyrnu (1.24; 3.43), B03,lJ.YX HBJIReTCn. «HaneBOM» <air>, TO ecri, «ll.HTaTOH:». Hanproaep, «Ilpasrsr»: « ... KaK 6Y,lJ.TO 6bI OH ,lJ.YMaJI HJIH Me'lTaJI 0 KaKoH-To (CJIOBa, llI,eHHeM <ppa3bI, KHHre •.. KHHre, B KOTOPOH: Ka)l(,lJ.bIH: 3JIeMeHT 6bI CKpbITblM Bpa-

«Bensm

B03.IzyX» 3<pHp,

(4.36).
C casroro naxana opra-

B03,lJ.YX <air>: HH3yeTcH HnH

B KOTOPOM

B03BbIlllaeTCH

<<1••• »:
no

«1 ....

B030yX

.., B030yx
nyxa

11// .. ».
de 3TO raxace,

I '"

B030yX

1/

B03,lJ.yx

BH,lJ.HMOCTH (3TO casr

BH,lJ. B03MH-

<I'air

I'air>,

B03,lJ.YX B xaanpare:

1,2,4 -reprsi},

crpaaausr)
'ITO MbI nexoen

O)l(HBJIRJlCR ObI penrann,

<pH"lJeCKH, He,lJ.H<p<pepeHll.HpOBaHHaR KaK Ka)l(eTCH, cTBYIOllI,ee, HOCTH, ynJIOTHHeTcH Ha'laJIO

arxiocdiepa,

B KOTOPOH, npHcyT,lJ.OCTOBepnacroauiero»:

TaKHM,

6Y,lJ.TO Ha6JIIO,lJ.aeM

HJIH BbI,lJ.eJIHeTCH nepBoe MHpa

sa

oopanieaaew

MHO)l(eCTBeHHoH He 'ITO

crpepsr. ..
I(HTall.HOHHYIO

113 ra-

aexoe

mm qyscTBeHHoii
HBJIeHHH

KOH KHHrH MOrJIH «cdiep», 6bI

BbICB060)l(,lJ.aeTCH TaKHM nYTeM

I1HOe, KaK B03,lJ.YX».

Bsr

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BOCCTaHOBHTb

cers

«spamenna»
TeKCTa KaK

H T. ,lJ. .... 3TO nYCTaR 3TO unrara

«1.... liMeHHo

e smou

mouxe

6011bUle Hem scecma OM Macpena

B03,lJ.YX, CJIe,lJ.OBaTeJIbHO, He TOJIbKO «urrrara», 0606llI,eHHOrO l(HTl1pOBaHHR, B ee

neiaueeo cnoea. Cpasy wyecmeyeiu» porn - nonnuu; meuHblii, e mpaeoii U ZllUHOU, mm euympu ceo«, Becnonesno 80pouiume, otiopascueamucn nasao. Bee sanonueno U saeeptueno, HUKaKUX npo6eJ108, unmepeanoe, U1eJ1eu.A oallbUle?

unrarsr,
3TOT 3HH»

ee 6bITHe-npOll.HTHPOBaHHOH

npnserae,
aa "lJeT-

cnepxonpenenennsra
ncerna ecrr,

B03,lJ.YX (O,lJ.HaKO BHe «HJIJIIOpacnOJIO)l(eHHOH

H3Ha'IaJIbHOrO CTopOHe,

npHCYTCTBHR,

3mo

30eCb. liHa'1e? 30eCb».

BepTOH

TOJIbKO CBepXOnpe,lJ.eJIeHHOCTb)

mJ

)K

a K .0. e P P H A a. .lJ,I-ICCEMHHAlII1R

nopozcnaer

B ce6e, B TeX JiJUI HHbIX CBOHX yxacrxax;

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MO)l(HO OTMeTHTb, 'ITO

Anaxcarop

H 3Mne.o.OKlI

«¢H3HKY» Iererra, TO ecrs BClO <pHJIOC0<PHlO,BCe TeKCTbI .0.0COKpaTH'IeCKHX KOCMOrOHHH. KOCMOrOHHlO AHaKCHMaH.o.pa.

CHCTeMaTH'IeCKH CBR3bIBalIH HX npyr C .o.pyrOM. «B03.o.yX H 3<pHP 3aHHMalIH see, nOCKOlIbKY 06a OHH 6b1lIH 6eCKOHe'lHbIMH; H60 cpenn scex seurea 3TH nae onepaoraaior Bepx CBOHM 'IHClIOM H 06'beMOM ... Bo scex COCTaBHbIX TeJIax CYr.u;eCTByIOT MHOrO'IHClIeHHble H pasaooopasnsre 'IaCTH, ceMeHa (spermata) uaera H sanaxa acex aeuren, rrpencraansroume <P0PMbI, xaxcnoro H3 BH.o.OB». «Pasnenenne», BBO.o.R-

H OC06eHHO KOCMOrOHHlO AHaKCHMeHa, KOTOpaR orrpenenaer HCXO.o.HbIHapeiron (oecnpenezrenoe, aOpHCT, TO ecrr., B neJIOM, HMrrep<peKT) KaK 8030yX, paspezceaae KOTOpOrO .o.OJI)l(HO .o.aTb pO)J(,lJ;eHHeOrHlO. H 3eMJIR, KOTOpaR rrOKOHTCR aa sosnyxe, passe He RBJIReTCR OHa ,!VIR AHaKCHMaH.o.pa «OCHOBaHHeM KOJIOHHbI», «~JiJUlH.o.pH'{eCKOfi KOJIOHHOH» C BbIC'IHTbIBaeMbIMH rrporropnaasor (.o.HaMeTp OCHOBaHHR panen TpeTH BbICOTbI), sepxaee OKOH'IaHHe xoropoa pacnmpeno H aa HeM MbI KaK pas H )l(HBeM? «qHCJIa»: «2.6. '" Toeoa Jl 6blJl noumu na eeputuue I1UJlUHOpa, pacuiupeuuesc xomopoeo Jl He ynpaenxn, nOCKOllbKY e20 OCH08aHue yxopenxemcs 8 cascux II pononacenae ::lTOHrrOCJIe.o.OBaTeJIbHOCTH npHTBopReTCR ormcamrexr onaoa H3 «PafiCKHX C~eH»

uree pa31IH'IHe B «COBoKynHoe uenoe», 3aCTaBlIReT xaaczryro seurs «RBHTbCR» aa CBeT. .IJ:0 aroro, «8 CMetueHUU 00 sepxalla» (3.31), «HMeJIOCb 601Ibwoe KOlIH'IeCTBO 3eMlIH H cexrena B 6eC'IHClIeHHoM KOlIH'IeCTBe, HH'IeM He rroxoaore .o.pyr aa .o.pyra». HY)I(HO JIH enre nanoxneaart, BaM, 'ITO 'IJIeHbI III1<paropeacxoa

cexrsr, xoropsre

TaK:>KeBepHJIH B TO, 'ITO B03.o.yX

msocenux scemannax ... »,

COCTaBlIReT cpe.o.y MHpa, KlIRlIHCb TeTpaKTHCOM (1 + 2 + 3 + + 4) H npe.o.CTaBlIRJIH 'lHClIa TO'lKaMH, BbI6HTbIMI1 na HeKI1X KOCTRIliKax .o.OMHHO?Bcxope BbI Y3HaeTe 06 3TOM - B HJIlIlO3HH aroro 6y.o.yr.u;ero npernnecreyiourero, B xoropoe BbI B nacroanree BpeMR, see BpeMJI PHCKYJI npOBaJIHTbCR, 6ecnpecranno YKJIOHReTecb.

Bocxa, xoropsre
(Palazzo Ducale)

pasxreurenaern
CR

BbI MOrJIH 6bI YBH.o.eTb BO .IJ:Bop~e .IJ:O)l(eH B BeHe~HH; OHO 3aCTaBJIRe~ «6eJIbIfi xpyr», B aepxaea rrpasoa 'IaCTH KapTHHbI, OTKPbITb«.IJ:ao-.IJ:3~3HH» (<<TU2ellb, 3a800, na

B HarrpaBJIeHHH IIyTH

Mbl eupatiamueanuce OPY2no omnouienuto K OPY2Y, ua CaMOM bene 8 mo »ce CaMoe epeu« 6blll HanOMUHaHueM U paseumuesc nexoeu gJ0PMYllbl, npeoeapumeneuo enucanuou 8 6ellbiU KPY2, «omopua 6blll nymeu. Ttyms unu, tium« MO»cem, uaotiopom, eeeoeuue H080U mpaccu, moa »ce CaMOU, HO eeoyuiet; xansnot;
8 06pamHOM nanpaeneuuu, moa »ce CaMOU, HO sepunu, cxopee, MeHJlIOUfeu 8 sepxane moeo, xmo mons-

xomopou

9. Ilepexpecrox «6bITMJI» <Le carrefour de l' "est">


... na BOCTOK <Est>? KapTbI? MOCTbi clIoMaHbI? 6bIllO 6bI HeT

KO umo nonyuun scecmo; no xomopoa Mbl ece eU{e MeOlleHHO KPY:»CUllUCb,OKa3a8tuUCb no my cmopony om m020, wmo HeK020a Ha3b18allOCb ompanceuuesc UllU sepxanoi« ... »), rrOCKOJIbKy see «qHclIa», TaKHM 06pa30M, 0603Ha'IalOT caon BbIMbIllllIeHHblfi rrYHKT OTIIpaBJIeHHR B rornne aroro MHO)l(eCTBeHnoro TeKCTa, cr-reuraaaroutero TeJIOrrHCbMa CrrHCbMOM MH<pa, CHOBH.o.eHHR,KapTHHbI, CO crpannon aMalIbraMOH MbI yxce He CMO)l(eM Ha3BaTb 3epKaJIOM. 'roro, 'ITO

.. AOCTaTO'lHO

OP:HOH

OII1I16KH nponaaoureaaa - H BOT,ropa? BbI ynpouiaere, 3TO necepseaao. Ho BOCTOK? 51 crrpanmaaio aac, KaK HATH na BOCTOK? Orxyzta 3TH neonpenenemn,re 11aesaaepnrenHbIe )KeCTbI? BOCTOK <Est>? E.S.n B 06Il1,eM, crtpasa na KapTI1He. He CTOI1T TpYP:OB BMena OP:HOH 11TOH )Ke KapnepenaCBep:eHI1R. CTe ororipaacarscn sart, p:pyr p:pyry

BYKBaJIbHbIH B03.o.yX (r) HeB03MO)l(HO OT.o.elIHTb OT 'IHCJIa (::meMeHTapHOH rpadion xoroporo OH RBlIHeTcR) HJIH OT

TI1He, eCJII1 JIIOP:H OTKa3bIBalOTCR

crrepsrsr (repscm/saponsnn),

KOTOPOH OH naer XO.o.H MeCTO.

DliJ

)K

A e p P .., A a.

Aj,1CCEMj,1HA~j,151

Ilepexpecmo«
«UMeIO~Jiti

<carrefour>,

OT quadrifurcus,

KaK tiyomo 61:Jt pooyocaaxnuasc« n

U3 8blCttUmaHHOZO CHa... Ha

'IeTblpe

OTBeTBJIeHWI» ...

B ott-

HOM JIaTJiHCKO-¢paHlJ,y3CKOM

rnoccapan nepeBOll.l1TCR

XII aexa

CJIOBO «theatrum.

KaK «carrefourc».

lIHITpe

sanaoe - onycmouieuue KpaCHOU 3eMJIU, satiumou noo mOHHaMU cmanu u »cenesa. [... J ... Ha sanaoe - monna; Ha eocmoxe - uapoo. Ha sanabe - 06pa3; na 80cmOKe - clieHa. [ ... ) ...He8UOUMaJl CUlla nontcux npeepatueuuu, npOUCXOOfiW,UX6e3 ocmamxa, «eabpamuoe nUCbMO, «omopoe compscaem caMYIO meepbyio nOt.t8Y »); ...

qTO

>Ke BbT

reneps

6Y,ll,eTe

nenars

C 3THMl1

HeCKOJIbKHMH

npaner

4.

HaKOHeu;,

xsanpar

3eMJ111 Hllli

MHpa.

11 HHKTO

He

soasmo

rrpaBHBKll? BbI CJIbIWHTe, KaK 'faCTO BaM rOBOpJIT: 3TO ecmu TO; a 3aTeM H 3TO, H ewe BOT 3TO. B03,ll,YX ecrs apeiron ztocoxpaTH'IeCKOH: <pIDCHOJIOrHll, tehiru Ka66aJIbI, B03MO>KHOCTh rtpxMepaMH rrOllliCeMWleCKOH:

nporpasesrur

II TeKCTYaJIbHOH:

B 3TOT TeaTp,

eCJnI OH He YMeeT

TOqHO H3MepJITb

3eMIIID.

«<4.24. (... Keaopam,


3eMllR, HO eeo
8

xomopuu

30eCI:JMbl nepecexaeu, 30eCb, xomopua

«emupe sanonuennue noeepxuocmu omcunatom


He naxooumcsi He uoem

K u,eHmpy, xomopeui

CYTCTBllJI,

BH,ll,l1MOCTl1,

JIBHOCTl1,

rOJIOca

H T. ,ll,. «B03,ll,YX» MbI Morllli 6bI

osnauaem
CKa3aTb:

xeaopam ecrs
«)J;paMbI»,

3TO, a 3aTeM ewe

H 3TO, H T.

n. TaK>Ke

cuem, max «mo nonnast

¢uzypa

1. BYMara
HaJI

B KJIeTO'lKy

Hllli

peurerxa «Flapxa», uraxvar«Ql1cem>,

nocxa

l.U1<pep6JIaT

a-raroxe

TeTpaJIOB HHX

rH'IeCKaJI

KOH<pHrypaU;l1JI, «JIorl1K»

KOTOPaJI <popMllpyeTCJI

ysacrna
U;Hti HX KOTOpaJI

II qeThlpe)!(,ll,bI

npn -rersrpex (N x 4) nponosaTeTpaJIOrl1JI, B

x
X
(X)
etououaem
8

«Ilporpasoasr»:
casra

«nana

MHO>KeCTBeHHaJI

rrapaJIJIeJIhHO

pa3BOpaqHBaeTCJI

rrorrropno

na-

qHHaIDWl1HCJI KaK 3aKOH -

U;HKJI JIeT, C'IHTame,'ITO IIOqTH TaK!»;

ee TeKCT Herrorpewl1M

2.
TH'IHhIH

«qeThlpe

KOPHJI

ncex

Beweti»

3Mrre,ll,OKJIa

l1Jll1

xernepITHChMa

xopeas

(4.32);
rmcsxro»,
KOTOpaJI <popMa KHTaJ1cKoro

3. «Ksarrparnoe
II TOM ll,ll,eorpaMMbI,

«osna-rae-r» «rtxcarr,»

«<3.23.
nycmylO KllemKY OllJl Mm08eHUR, «omopoe JlCpe6UR... H ece-maxu He803MOJICHOnpoxcum», fi YZlly611JllOCb

OOHaKo HYJICHO tiuno 8bt6upamb MeJICoy80cmOKOM U sanabou, ace 6bJ.1l0max, xax 6yomo HYJlCHO 6btJlo petuumncn na npouoioe JlOJICHI:JIM 0611UKOM6yoy~ao unu Ha 6yoy~ee, YJlCenpeona«epmaunoe a npouoiou ... C OOHOU cmopouu, Heno08UJtCHaJl, pa311uH08aWlaJl 6e3zpaHUttHOcmb, no «omopoa npotieeatom 8011Hbl U otipasu, Ha xomopoa «epnoe u tienoe He otinaoasom.
C

»mom natiupuum scepmeeuoe. [...J Mt« xpymuucs, npeotipa-

OOHUMU meu »ce 3 na-cenueu,

a non U non pasaeneuu,

omcmy-

8 3mOM 6e38030YUlHOM natiupuume, npotiumou 8 8030yxe ... ») 11 3aTeM: «1.77 .... "OHU nposenstom UX, nonssync» OZHeM (eucomou, He60M), na HUJlCHeU«eaopamnou nacmu (sesoie) nanuupst" 1... », TaK 'ITO xsanpar ITI1ChMa O,ll,HOBpeMeHHO 06pa3yeT KJIeTKH

»cascs,

nU8 opye om opyea ... C opyeca eueepnymax HaU3HaHKY unucmast 3eMJlJl, npeepamueiuaxcx 8 meJleCHYIO nepasnunennyto MHOJICeCm8eHHocmb, Z080pJlw,aJl U 800pYJICeHHaJl seuns,

sanomremrsre
I1Jlli

rrpOMe}KYTKI1 ]II1CTa,

ITI1ChMa 11 npotiensr 113 Hero

::nOH He-

rrycroro

KOTOPbIH

nonyxaer

xoe

ceMJI

IBl!J

)I(

.n. e p P .., A a.

,D,"'CCEMHHALlH5I

25-~ OTCYTCTBYJOUUH~ nHCT H JI npeACTaBnJlIOUUH~CJI 25-M H 6epYUUl1ft 24 Me)f(,lJ,YKOTOPbIMI1 JI YCTaHaBJIJ1BaJOonpenezrennoe OTHOllleHHe H xoropsre JI CBJl3bIBalO B OMH TOM na KOTOPOM pa3BepHYT 3TOT OTCYTCTBYJOUUH~ nl1CTOK CeaHCbI l1,l1;YT no 4 4 H TaK 06Pa3YJOT uenoe

a, Ha060pOT,

ocyuiecranaer

nepexon

K nepeKpeUUHBaHHIO

CMblcnOB. KBaApaT pa3MHO)KaeTCR. Ho pe-n, 3AeCb He HAeT 0 TOM, qT06bI BOCCTaHOBI1TbKaKYJO-TO MHCTHKY HnH n03THKY '!Hcna. MbI 60JIbllle He sanaeMCJI BonpOCOM «xaxon n03T CnO)KHT necns 3TOMY naarnr<paropeH3My,3Toft CHHTeTHqeCKoft apH<pMeTHKe, KOTOpaJi Ha'lHHaeT C roro, 'ITO naer nlO60MY CYUUeMYero qeTblpe MepbI, ero qHCnO H3 xer stpex ~H<pp ... », nOBCIOAY npecnenyn mempaepasosy, KaK npyrne - mempatpapwaxon. 3AeCb 60nbllle HeT HHKaKoft rny6HHbI CMbICna. BCAb ecmr BbI rosopsrre «::lTO ecm» TO» HnH «"::no" 03Haxaer "TO"» (He 6y.rr.eM 60nbllle oopanrars BHHMaHHe aa aaiu npHMep; KBaApaT, KaK 3TO HH napa.n.OKeanbHO, - znrun, OAHH H3 TaKHX nproaepoa, TO ecri, OAI1H H3 3neMeHTOB, KaKOBbIM Mor 6bI CTaTb H JlI060H npyron H3 TepMHHoB TeKCTa, nOCKOJIbKy CBO~CTBO «t{Hcell» 3aBHCl1T OT nonoonon Cl1nbI aassemeHHJI H <popManH3YJOuue~ a6cTpaKIIHH), caxra <popMa sauiero npe)J.J10)KeHI1J1, «6bITHe», npHB513aHHoe K «)KenaHHIO-CKa3aTb», accenuaamraapyer TeKCT, cyocraauaaznraapyer ero, 06e3ABH)KHBaeT. B 3TOM cnyxae see ero ABH)KeHHe CBOMTCJI K cepHH OTAellbHbIX OCTaHOBOK,aero nl1CbMO - K TeMaTH'IeCKOMy ynpa:>KHeHHIO. I1TaK, HY)KHO BbI611paTb Me)f(,lJ,yTeKCTOM H TeMoft. HeAOCTaTOqHO YCTaHOBI1Tb MHOr03HaQHOCTb TeMaTHKH, qT06hI OTKpbITh 6ecnpeAenhHoe ABH)KeHl1e nacsera. ITocnenaee He npOCTO YBJl3hIBaeT MHO)KeCTBO HHTe~ B OAHOMeAHHCTBeHHOM TepMI1He, KaK eCJlI1 6hl, nOTJlHYB aa 3TH HHTH, MhI MornH 6hI B KOHeqHOM cxere BbITaIllHTh see ero «COAep)KaHHJI». BOT nO'IeMY, ecnn roaopurr, co seen crporocrsro, peQh ITo3AeCh He HAeT 0 nOJIHTeMaTI1qeCKOM I1nH nomrcexrmr.

«mempa, OTMeqalOuuaJl ABO~HYJO nOnJipHOCTb, BbIJlBnJleTCJI B "x"

excepte

<ncxmo-reaaoro>,

feux

<orHJI>,

a TaK)Ke

B Kpyre COUlaC1-IOmaKOMY HaKllOHY no nanoeocmu, HO erne 60nee OTQeTnHBO B oopase Bozn.iuoa MeABeAHIIbI, nocKonbKY mem <tI~t> na CaMOM nene ssrpaacaer pe3YJIbTaT COe)l;HHeHHJI xpecra C xpyrosr, KOTOPbI~ JlBnJleTCJI CYUUHOCTblO <ppa3bIsaronosxa H ABO~HO~ nOJIJlpHOCTH: "TeT" <tet> [cocari. < teter> ... ronOBaCTHK

<tetard> ... JlHqKO

<testicule>

1-

ne-

BJiTaH 6YKBa espeacxoro anrpasxra, COOTBeTCTBYJOUUaJl <ppaHIIY3CKO~ t, npOH3HOCHMO~ C BbIAelleHHeM; (ee CaMaH ApeBHJIJI <popMa, 06HapY)KHBaeMaJi B <pHHHKHflcKOM an<paBHTe, - 3TO <popMa xpyra, ormcsmarontero KpeCT. 3TO npOTOTHn rpeqeCKO~ TeTbI. Ilpennonaraercs, 'ITO paHbllle cnOBO "teth" 060anasrano "3MeIO")" (H06b1U JJJrpycc). «MAeJi COCTOHT B "Be3necyurea JIHHHI1, coezurnsromen Ka)f(,lJ,YJO TOqKY npocrpanCTBa C ll1060~ npyron" (648), B "asree Ipexonaneana, cesrena (MneqHOrO nYTH), xoropoe cspysnsaercs cnapansro, KaK 3Meft Ka66anbI, BeqHO B03BpauuaIOUUl1HCJI K ce6e, TaK xce KaK HAeorpaMMa, KOMeTa, XBOCT, xpasas H3MeHeHl1ft; H3rH6aeTCJI K CBoeH ronoae Icaoesry na-razry), TO ecri, K nasany ITO::lMbl.

Ilocnezrana
nsnu

OPOCOK

Kocren -

aro

noremnransnsm nepnsm

aapo-

Kocrea?»,

(eeMJI) acen ITO::lMbI, OH npHHHMaeT

Bpocox

cneAHRR scerna npennaraer CBOH MHO)KeCTBa, CBOH BapHaIIHH B nexoexr ropH30HTe, KOTOPhII1 no MeHhllleft Mepe JIBnJleTCJI ropH30HTOM nonnoro H He conepacaniero HHKaKoro a6COJIJOTaoro paspsraa npOqTeHHJI, npOQTeHHJI 6e3 neocsu-rcnenaoro saaopa, TO ecrs ropH30HTOM KOHeqHOH: napYCHH CMhIcna CMhIClla HaKOHe~-TO pacunnppoaaauoro, orxpsrroro, CTaButero onpenenemra. npHCYTCTBYIOUUHM B HaKonneHHOM 60raTCTBe CBOHX Kaxoe 6hI BHHM,lHHe HM HH YAMJlTh H KaKOe 6hI

MTaK, cnOBO «KBaApaT» - 3TO nexoe xaanparnoe cnOBO, cnoso-nepexpecrox. OJIarOAapJl caoea rrycron xnerxe HnH CBOeft OTKPbITOft cropone, BbfqTeHHOMY JIHIIy, OH He saxpsmaer,

em

)K

epp

1<1

A a.

,ll,,,CCEMI<1HAlIl<1S1

DB
MHOr03HaqHOCTb, H HCTOPHH, HHTepKOTOpaH

,ll,HcCeMI<1HaL\HS1

anaxeane nperauaa, B HeH

sa HHMH KOTOpaH

HH npnsuaaara, eio

MO:>KHO 3aKJIlOqHTb, H3 06'bHCHeHHR OHO

'ITO

1I0HRTHe

nOJIHceMHH

6epeTCH

3aTpe60BaHa,

YMHO)KeHHH

CMbICJIa B HaCTOHI.lJ.eM BpeMeHH. Ero CTHJIb 31'0 CTHJIb 06paMpe"tJH H «He-

OTJIaraeTCH,

BCe paBHO

nepeJICU8a1OmCJf

KaK 06XO,n:Hble CTpaCTH, 0 HeKOeH

OTHOCHTCH K peqH

nonexenna.

MaHeBpbI, 3HaqHMOrO npOllIJIOH

060raI.lJ.alOI.lJ.He MyqeHHqeCTBa, HJIH 6y.n.~eH

H BpeMeHHble

MaHeBpbI

npe,n:CTaBHTeJIbHOH JIeHHe ero ropH30HTa.

nOBepXHOCTH. Pa3JIH'Iy!e -

B HeM 3a6bIBaeTCR Me:>KAY nOJIHCeMHeH 31'0 H ecrs

CBH,n:eTeJIbCTByroI.lJ.erO HCTHHe, 0 HeKOeM

CMbICJIe, npHcyTMOMeHTbI no-

TeKcTyaJIbHOH YMOJIHMoe

,n:HcceMHHau.HeH OHO, (BOT

pa3JIH'IHe,

CTBHe KOTOpOrO JIHCeMHH TaMH

npennaseprano

3ara,lJ:KOH. Bce

pa3JIH'IHe». CMbICJIa

HeCOMHeHHO, nO'IeMY

He06xo,n:HMO

AlIR
H

HBJIHIOTCH, KaK YKa3bIBaeT

CaM 31'01' TepMHH,

MOMeH-

npOH3Bo,n:CTBa ,n:HcceMHHau.HeH

Me:>K,n:y nOJIHCeMHeH MaJIO),

CMbICJIa. CTaJIO 6bITb, «qHCJIa», 6y,n:yqH qHCJIaMH, He HMelOT cpencraa He 06JIa,n:alOT HHCMbICJIa, nYCTb numeraire>, npnBnJIOTb H

pa3JIH'IHe

HaCTOJIbKO

HO CMbICJI, no-

CKOJIbKY

OH rrpe,n:CTaBJIHeTCH, snecs, CTHpaeT

c06HpaeTCH, paana-nre

BbICKa3bIBaeTCH, ero,

KaKHM

CMbICJIOM, OHH nonpocry «,IJ,eHe)KHbie

y,n:ep)KlfBaeTCR YCJIOBHeM crpyxrypa,

HJIH OnaJIKHBaeT

MHOr03HaqHOro. 60p

<le

ceMaHTHqeCKOrO HO car-to cesrennoe H naxorna no

HBJ1HeTCH (AH<P<pepeHu.HaJIbHaH) ce6e, B eerie, OHO He CTPYKTYPHO. HHKOr,!l.a He 6bIBaR K ce6e. ca-

Y)KaCHOH TOqHOCTH, csoero

npospa-msm

AlIH C03Ham,lH,

no nOTepl1 (nl1CbMO pea

CMbICJIa ... » B CBoeM MHHYCOBOM nHCbMO nHCbMa, xoropoe

,n:BH)KeHHH

11 HanpOTHB,
MHM C060H

pacceusaerca,

nxsanpare,
CTOPOHbI <plurivoque>

npOXOAJ1T xeMHoro-

He B03BpaI.lJ.aHCb B c06CTBeHHoe YCTaHaBJIHBaeT OHO

Ero
KaK

BOBJIe'-le-

xerr-rpe

H He HBJIHeTCH MHOe03Ha1f.HbIM, B Y)l(e no TOH npH'IHHe,

HHe B pasnerrenae, nree K norepe

TO ecrs

YMHO:>KeHHe, senyero TaKOBoe, B Hero,

rOJIOCbIM c~eCTBY, HHKaKHM eM. My

'ITO OHO, no He 06JIa,lJ:alOT conepacannBOT noxe-

H CMepTH,

He nOKOHTCH

vox,

B CJIOBe) «qHCJIa» HJIH 03HaqeHHhiM perpepesrrosr.

B :>KHBOM pa3MHO:>KeHHH. KOHe'IHO, BJIO:>KeHO H

C~eCT13yeT

B qHCJIe.

npHCYTCTBYIOI.lJ.HM HHKaKHM

cesraarn-recxoe,
t.IeTBepTaH CMepTH, KaK

nOCKOJIbKY

OHO TaK)Ke 31'0,

A fortiori

a6COJIlOTHhlM

HMeeT OTHOllIeHHe HeCOMHeHHO, CMepTH. npacsoenne npH

K CMepTH.

nOBepXHOCTb

OHH HHqerO

He nOKa3bIBalOT, HHqerO

HHqerO

He paccxaasiaaror,

nOBepXHOCTb

MepTBaH

nOBepXHOCTb

HHqerO

He npe,n:CTaBJIHlOT, MOMeHT

He XOTHT CKa3aTb

(3.31).

CeMaHTHqeCKOe, ceMeHH

MOMeHT

:>KeJIaHHH,03HaqaeT cesrennoro 3TOM ynepna

ECJIH TOqHee, :>KaHHe» )l(eHHOe pbIH

npHcYTcTBYIOI.lJ.erO

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H TO )l(e CJIOBO.CKa3 senra B03BpallIeH I1pRBHBKa He npRMelllHBaeTC1I pone aenra. Beurs cymecrsyer JIH opHrHHaJlbHblfi TeKCT. I103TOMY Bee rexcryam.nste

xoropsre

paasre-

'IaIOl' «qHCJIa», He C03,n:aIOTMeCTa, KaK Bbl MOrJIH 6bl pelllHTb, AJl1I «lI,HTaT», ,n:JI1I«KOJIJIa)l(eH» HJIH naxce AJl1I «HJIJIIOCTpalI,HH». OHH He npHKpenJI1IIOTe1l K nOBepXHOCTH H He BeTaBJI1IIOTC1IB npOMe)l(YTKH TeKCTa, I\OTOPblH Y)l(e cym.eCTBOBaJI 6bI 6e3 HHX. OHH caMH 'IHTaIDTC1I TOJlbKO B onepauaa csoero nonropaoro BnHCblBaHH1I, B CBoeH npHBHBKe. CHOPOBHcroe H CKpOMHoe HaCHJIHe HeBH,n:HMoro nanpeaa B TOJIllIe TeKCTa, paCC'IHTaHHOe ocexrexenae pa3paCTaIOllIHMC1I HHOPO,n:HbIMTeJIOM, 6JIaro,n:ap1l KaKOBOMY pa3paCTaHHIO nsa TeKCTa TpaHC<PoPMHpyroTC1I, ,n:e<popMHpyroTC1I ,n:pyr nocpenCTBOM npyra, sapaacarcr ,n:pyr npyra CBOHM co,n:ep)l(aHHeM, nopon nblTaIOTC1I OT6poCHTb npyr ztpyra, 3JIJIHnTH'IeCKR nepexonar npyr B npyra R CHoBa nOpO)l(,n:aIOTC1IO,n:HHB ,n:pyrOM B nOBTopeHHH, aa KpaIO nepeKUOHOZO WBa. Ka)l(,n:blH npnBHTbrn TeKCT npo,n:OJl)l(aeT nepexornrrs Ha MeCTO caoero nasrMaHH1I, HO H rrpeotipasyer ero, 3axBaTbIBaH HOBblH yxacrox.

rna,

'llnO Bbl

nONUMaemenoo "npupooou" .....) -

»,

10. ITPHBHBKH)

B03BpameHHe

K rrepeKJ1,II;HOM)' lIIBy <surjet>


Inaaaoe npHBHBKy, 3aCTaBHTb neCHIO

OH onpe,n:eJleH (MbICJIHM) B onepamur, H o,n:HoBpeMeHHO OH 1IBJI1IeTC1I npe,n:eJI1IIOllIHM (MbICJI1I1lIHM) no OTHOllleHHIO o K npasnny H CJIe,n:cTBHIO onepamra. Hanpasiep, no o raoure-

nrpari,

KaK

HHIO K <POHYH <popMe: «1.33 .... ("cJ>OHU ¢opMa

a He KaK CMbICJI, np0l13Be.n.eHHe

HJIH CneKTaKJIb.

«JlonUG1.»

«06paTHM

)l(e aannr

rnasa, no,n:06HO Ha6o)l(HOH )l(HTeJlbHHlI,e

XaJI,n:eH, K a6COJIIOTHOMY neoy, aa KOTOPOM CBeTHlIa B sanyTaHHOM 'IHCJIe COCTaBJfJlHname CBH,n:eTeJIbCTBO pO)I(,ZJ:eHHH 0 H nepacar npHBHBKy nannrx ,n:OrOBOpOBH aaunrx KJI1ITB. Ho B OTCYTCTBHenOJmpHOH 3Be3,n:hI,HY)l(HOH, qT06bl onpenemrrs

U3MeHUllUCb, noctconmcy U3MeHUllUCbYCllOBUJlU menep» HUKmo He CMO)ICem oam» nuueeo, KpOMe csoeeo mpyaa") ... - » HJIH no orrroureHHIO K 3JIJIHIICy: «2.98 .... "Eeo paseumue, xomopoe nopcocoaem moeap KaK oByxcmopoHHlOlO Be~b, KaK nompeoumenvcxyio cmouuocm» U MeHOBYlO,He YHUf.lmO)ICaem smu npomueopewux, a C030aem ¢OPMY, 8 «omopou OHU uoeym OBUcambCJl. Bnpoueu, smo eOUHcmBeHHblUMemoo OJlJlpaspeuienus peallbHblX npomueopewuu. Hanpuscep, uMeemCJl I1pomUBOpe'lUe B mOM, «mo nexoe meno nOCmOJlHHOnaoaem na apycoe meno

U B mo »ce epeu« nocmosnuo om nezo omoannemcn. 3JIlJlmc smo OOHa U3 cfi0PM OBUJlCeHUJl, ocpeocmeosc tcomopmx smo n npomueopeuue OOHOBpeMeHHO paspeuiaemcx U BonlloU-{aemCfl" / », Bonsme He 3a6bIBaJ:lTe 06 snznmce, Tpancnnarrranjra MHO)KeCTBeHHa. « ... DpH'HlHa HHKorna He 6bIBaeT TOH xce caMOH, HO orrepamra OCYI.QeCTBlIJIeTCR KaK 6bI HaJJ;CYMMOH, KOTopaR B03paCTaeT ... » «... 51 6pO)KY, BbIAeprHBaR TO TaM, TO 3AeCb HpaBRII.I.HeCR MHe BbICKa3bIBaHHR H3 KHHr, HO He ,!.VUI 'roro, 'fT06bI l1X xpamrrs, HeT Y MeHR HHKaKHX xpannzornr, a 'fT06bI

HO B03AeH:CTBOBaTb na Toro, KTO He 3HaKOM C rrpaBHlIaMHHX <PYHKlI.HOHHpOBaHHR. Ho 3AeCb orrepalI.HR COCTOHT COBceM B APyrOM. TJIra K 3K30THKe B HeM HHKaK He 3aAeHCTBOBaHa. TeKCT nponsaerCR HHa'fe, OH H3BlIeKaeT APyryro CHlIY H3 rpadiaa, saxaarsreaJOII.I.eHero, 6epYI.QeH ero B paMKY B CBoeM yrropano-rennosr, HaBR3'fHBOM, nee 601Iee H 601Iee MaCCOBOM, HeOTBpaTHMOM, rrpHXOARII.I.HM H3BHe - C Bocmoxa <de l'est> - AeHcTBuH, AeHcTByroII.I.eH B CaMOH TaK Ha3bIBaeMOH <poHeTH'feCKOH: noClIeAOBaTeJIbHOCTH, 06pa6aTblBaJOII.I.eH ee, rrepeBOARII.I.eHCR B nee eII.I.e AO MOMeHTa csoero rrORBlIeHHR, AO MOMeHTa CBOero rrOCJIeAYJOII.I.erOrrpH3HaHHR, B MOMeHT, xorna OHa asnranaer B KOHlI.OBKY TeKCTa, KaK OCTaTOK HlIH 3aKlIJO'feHHe. Ee AeHCTBeHHbIH nepeaon 6bIlI BTaH:He sacean, OHa H3AaBHa nonpsrsana oprannaxr H HCTOPHlO sanrero nosraumero 'rexcra, eClIH OHa 0603HaQaeT ero KOHelI. TO'lKOH:, rroA06HOH OCT3BlIeHHOH MeTKe sasepurenaa pa60TbI, scerna, onnaxo »ce, rrpoAOlI)KaJOII.I.eH:CRH CHlIa aroro TpYAa CBH3aHa He CTOlIhKO C OTAelIbHbIM CHMBOlIOM, CKOlIbKO C «rppasasrn», TO ecrs Y)Ke C HeKHM TeKCTOM, C nexoen lI.HTaToH. HHKorAa lI.HTaTa He CMO)KeT CTOlIb RBHO 0603Ha'IHTb rr06Y)KAeHHC K ABH)KCHHJO(<ppeKBeHTaTHB-

nepeaecrn

l1X B 3TY KHHry, rne

OHH aa CaMOM nezre 6YAYT MOHMH He B 601IbIlleH: Mepe, 'feM aa CBoeM HCXOAHOM MeCTe». IlpHBHBaeMbIH K pa3HLIM MecTaM, H3MeHReMbIH: KIDKAbIH pas B pesynsrare nepenoca, xepeHOK B rrrore rrpHBHBaeTCR caM na ce6JI. CTaHoBHTcR AepeBOM, Y xoroporo B KOHe'fHOM cxere HeT KOpHeH:. Ho B TaKOM nepese 'fHCelI H xsanparnsrx KOpHeH: B TO )Ke BpeMR ace JIBMeTCR xopnesr, rrOCKOlIbKY rrpHBOH caMH rro ce6e COCTaBlIRIOT nee c06CTBeHHoe reno, nee nepeso, xoropoe Ha3bIBalOT HaCTORII.I.HM, - JIO)Ke CJO)KeTa. 9TO B03MO)KHO TOlIbKO B YAalIeHHH, xoropoe oTAelIReT TeKCT OT Hero castoro, OCYI.QeCTBlIReT KyrrJOpy HJIH Ae3apTHKYlIRlI.l1JO MOJI'faII.I.l1X MOMeHTOB orrpOCTpaHCTBOBaHHR (rro1I0C,-repr, rnpe, lI.H<PP, TO'feK, CK060K, rrpotienos H T. A.). Pa3HOPOAHOCTb rrHCbMa - 3TO casio mrcsxro, rrpHBHBKa. OHO HCXOAHO MHO)KeCTBeHHO, HJlli ero rrpOCTO HeT. HMeHHO rro3TOMY <pOHeTl1'IeCKOe rrHCbMO «Hncen», KaK 06HapY)KHBaeTCR, rrpHBHBaeTCR K rrHCbMeHHOCTRM He<pOHeTH'feCKOrO rnna. B oc06eHHOCTH K TKaHH TaK naasmaesrsrx KHTaHCKJiX HAeorpaMM. KOTOPblMH OHO KaK rrapaarrr rrHTaeTCR. )];0 cero MOMeHTa naenemre KHTaHCKHX rpadnrsecxax <POPM - OCO6eHHO HY)KHO y-recrs «$YHT» <Pound> MOrlIO rrprrnoAHTb, ecnn BbIABHHYTb XYAIllYiO BepCHJO, K YKpaIlleHHJO TeKCTa l1JIU cHa6)KeHHJO CTpaHHlI.bI AorrOlIHHTelIbHbIM c061Ia3HJIJOII.I.HMB03AeHCTBHeM, HaMepeHHOMY ee 3arpOMO)KAeHHJO, OCB060)KAaJOII.I.eMY rr03THKY OT OrpaH}1qeHIIH KOHKpeTHOH: CHCTeMbi lIHHrBHCTH'feCKOrO npencraaaeans, HlIH »ce, COrlIaCHO lIY'filleH BepCHH, K BBeAeHHIO B Hrpy CHlI pHCYHKa HMeHHO B TOH: <popMe, B KaKOH OHH MOryT aerrocpencraen-

ciere <rr06Y)KAaTb, BOlIHOBaTb», 3aBOAR pe-n, 0 rrOTpRceHHH HeKOeH: KYlIbTyphl HJlli HCTOPHH
HyJO <POPMY ,ll,BH)KeHHR -

B l1X <PYHAaMeHTalIbHOM TeKCTC,0 COTpRCeHlli1, TO ecrs 0 ABH)KeHHH, OT xoroporo TpRceTCR see cpaay, TaKHM 06pa30M, 'roznna TeKCTa OTKpblBaeTCR na TY CTOpoay nezroro, na HH'lTO HlIH BHeIllHHH: a6COlIJOT. Bzraronapa 'leMY ero rny6HHa OKa3bIBaeTCR OAHOBpeMeHHO HH'lTO)KHOH H 6eCKOHe'fHOH. EeCKOHe'fHOH nOTOMY, 'ITO Ka)K,ll,bIH:ero CJIOH CKpbIBaeT rron C060H eII.I.e OAMH ClIOH:.l.JTeHHe B TaKOM CJIY'lae HarrOMHHaeT pannorpadnuo, KOTopaR non BHeIllHHM CJIOeM nocnennero CJIORKpaCKH 06HapY)KHBaeT npyryio, CKpbITYJO KapTHHy - HeBa)KHO, 'roro )Ke XYAO)KHHKa HlIH npyroro, KOTOPbIH: sa HeAOCTaTKOM MaTepHalIOB HlIH B noncxax nosoro 3<p<peKTa ncrronssosan B xaxecrae HCXOAHoro MaTepHalIa CTapoe rrOlIOTHO HlIH )Ke COXpaHJ.1lI<pparMeHT rrepBoro 3CKH3a.

..

non 3THM CJIOeM -

npyron

cnOH: H T. A. Y'fHTbIBM,

'ITO,

15-6705

IBID

)f(

Ae

P P HA

a.

AI<1CCEMHHALII'I5I

eCJlH:rrorepers

3TY 'rexcryansnyro

MaTeprno, KOTOpaH, KaK xa-

)KeTCH,CAeJIaHa B AaHHOM orysae H3 Ha.IlHCaHHhIX HJIH nporoBopeHHbIX CJIOB, BbI HaMAeTe BO MHorHX CJI)"faHX orracanne KapTHHhI, asmaaurea H3 CBoeM PaMKH, 3aKJIIO'IeHHOH B APYryro PaMKY, 3aCYUYTOH rrOCJIecsoero noxnnrenaa B HeKHfr xeTbIpexyrOJIhHHK, KOTOPhIM B CBOIO oxepens TO)Ke paaopsaa
C

HHCTpYMeHT, KOTOPbIM noxassraaer BpeMH AHH nerrocpenCTBeHHO rrpH rrOMOI.IJ;HTeHH, oropacsraaesroa OT npyra, napaJIJIeJlhHOrO aeMHOH OCH H HOCHI.IJ;erO Ha3BaHHe "yKa3aTeJIH"

<style>». -

nHTTpe).BhI

6Y)l.CTe6ecKoHe~IHo )l.OJIrOKPYTHTbcn

BOKPyr Hero, B rOJIOBOKpY)KeHHH, ncerna oT6paChIBaHCh BOBHe CHJIOMOTCbIJIKH. Ho BhI He 6Y)l.eTe BhICTaBJIeHbI BOBHe, noCKOJIbKY a6COJIlOTHOe aneumee He HBJIHeTCH BHeIllHHM, OHO KaK TaKOBoe He06HTaeMO; BbI 6YAeTe nHIllb rrOCTOHHHO H3seprarsca, scerna HaxO)l.HThCH non )l.efiCTBHeM H3Bep)KeHHH, BhI6poca BHe 3TOM CBeTOBOJ1KonOHHbI nocpencrsosr CHJIhI BpaI.IJ;eHHH,rrpH 3TOM eio )Ke BbI 6Y)l.eTe H 3a)l.ep)KHBaTbCH. Bnaronapa OTKPhITOCTH '1eTBepTOM CTOPOHhI HJIH 6narO)l.apH nyCTOM xnerxe B uearpe xersrpex KBa)l.paTOB BbI 6Y)l.eTe npnBne'IeHbI K euie He3aKOH'IeHHOHI He3aBepIllHMOH paoore, Bb! 6Y)l.eTe npnunrrsr K HeM rrepeKH)l.HhIM IllBOM. Ksanpar HJIH, eCJIH BaM yronno, Ky6 He aaMKHeTCH caM na ceria. HY)KHO 6yner rrOCTOHHHO oopeaars "v" «rronpesarr, rrepraxrenrnsre 60PO)l.,bI»HJIH oopesara no <IeTblpexyronbHHKa, «4.100. ([ ... J s«. OOUOR 00 KaMHR, xomopua He sensemcn KaMHeM, 00 nonepeuHOU MHOJICeCm6el-mOCmu, np0'1.UmaHHOU, sanonneunoa, cmepmoil, ceopeeiuea U OmKa3bI8aI-OUl,eUCR sauuxamec» 8 C80eM Ky6e U 8 C80eu 211y6uHe) -

xparo,

B Hero 3aKJIIO'IeHa sea Bep6aJIbHaH TKaHh H BhI BMeCTe C HeA. BhI pacyere, BhI nanrere, '1HTan, BhI B KapTHHe. «CJIeAOBaTeJIbHO, DHCaTeJIh, KaK H TKa'l, paooraer C H3HaHKH». «(4.36. (... Tenep» 8bt nepCOHaJIC 8 xapmune, xomopua cuompum 8 eny6UHY xapmuuu, - max «mo tionmue Hem HU cnuuu; HU, e06cm8eHHO, llU4a, 8b1 nOUMaHbl "nonomnou"; HO ecnu 8bt nonpo6yeme ommernum» smo, eepnemcs ZOll060KpYJICeHUe, uepnoe epatueuue, «omopoe oC8ew,aem omcymcmeue 20pu30Hma U MOpR ... ) -

»,

3TOMy rrocToHHHOMY ABH)KeHrno 3aMeHhI coAep)KaHHH 06HapY)KHBaeTCH, 'ITO 06paMlIeHHe KapTHHhI 3TO He TO, xepea <ITOHe<ITO npennarano 6hI ce6H AJIH BHAeHHH, rrpeAcTaBJIeHIDI, OrrHCaHIDI, rroxasa, BbIJIa pasnca, KOTOPaH co6HpaeTcH H pa36HpaeTCH, BOT H ace, TIpH 3TOM naace He noxa3hIBaHCh TaKOM, KaKOM OHa ecrs, B rrOCJIe,l\OBaTeJIhHOCTH3aMeI.IJ;eHHM OHa OcpopMJIHeTCH H TpaHccpopMHpyeTCH. VI 3Ta onepauna, KOTOPaH HanOMHHaeT BaM - B 60JIee-'1eM-HaCTOmu,eM, - 'ITO 6hIJIa pasoca C 3THM ABOMHhIM ,!\HOM, 'ITO OHa OTKphIBaJIaCh, TO ecrs 3aKphIBaJIaCh na 3epKaJIO, - BOT TO, 'ITO HeYMOJIHMO 6YAeT nepzcarr, aac HaCTOpO)Ke. Ha KpaIO. HaCTOpO)Ke aa caMOM xpaio, Bo BHHMaHHH K xparo BpaI.IJ;aIOI.IJ;erOCH ll,Hcpep6JIaTa BbI 6YAeTe nepscarscn na KpaIO rOJIOBOKpY)KeHIDI, rrOTOMY 'ITO, CMOTPH «B rny6HHY KapTHHhI», na KOTOPOM BhI caMH pacrronossensr, BhI Y3HaeTe, 'ITO ee 6eCKOHe'lHaH rny6HHa K TOMY )Ke 6hIJIa eI.IJ;eH 6e3)l.OHHOH. A6COJIIOTHO rrOBepXHOCTHOM. Y aroro 06'beMa, aroro Ky6a He 6bIJIO rJIy6HHhI. BOT rro'leMY BhI MOfJIH 6bI rtponsBOJIbHO CMeIllaTh ero C flJIOCKHM KBa)l.paTOM, C ll,Hcpep6JIaTOM (cOJIHe'lHhIM - CMepTeJIhHhIM), napacoeaansn-r aa 3eMlIe, cKphIBalOI.IJ;HM 3eMJIIO TaM, rne BOTKHYTa ero «cmpenxa» (2.46), ero «rrarro-rxa» (4.84), era crecens (<<COJIHe'lHhle '1aChI, 15*

Bnaronaps

(1

+ 2 + 3 + 4)2 =

100 -

BOT BhI PH)l.OM C rrepBbIM KaMHeM - nepacunnppossrBaeMbIM KaMHeM, KOTOPbIH BOBce He O)l.HHOK, KOTOPhIH ecri- see KaMHH BMeCTe, ace oCToJI6eHeBIllHe KaMHH, AparoH HeT, ace, 'ITO OTMeTHJIH aaur nyTh, sens OH 6hIJI O,!\HHM, HO MHOrO'lHCJIeHHhIM. Calculus <xasseurex>. Bynsrsc-

s: jj».

ueaasre

HHK <cailloux>.

11. Tlepeoop <Le surnombre>


,Il,ep)f(a CBOH nYTh, 11nomen rne, no TROHM cno BaM, nonI6 ,lI,0 xonna, no 3THX MeCT,

naps, Te6e,
K01')],a R

)l(eHll.(MHa, R CKa)f(Y nee npaB,ny OT naxana 11

Cnenys

no CBoeMY nyrn,

npH6lllf)l(aJICfl

K 3TOH paSBHlIKe ...

El!F.I

)f( 8 K

A ePPHA

8.

,D,HCCEMHHAL(HS1

CYAb6a PYKH HOT

napa

6bIna

TaKaH -

YMepeTb

OT

petienxa, KOTOPblli POAHTCR OT MeHR aero, Ho JIaM, KaK see MOryT ITOJJ;TBeppa360MHHKaAaBHbIM-,llaBHO, Ha pa3BillIKe ... HOKaCTa

Ka)f()lblil

TaMH

AHTb, 6bIJI y6HT npHIllJIbIMH MH -

H .up,.up H raaa, H I npep,CTaBJUIll


BHyTpH [ ... J

! JIHWb Op,HO11 TO »oe, oopauieauoe

JeKCT Dp <Qe>

naH ABa

pasa

[sic]

Op,HOBHe TO, 'ITO

npyroe xpaairr «npennonaraa,

Korna 011 nouren PbIM saxpermea


TbIM MeAHbIM BHnCH

AO nOAHO)f(HH ITHKa, KOTOB 3eMJIe MHorocryneH'Ia-

'ITO .n;paMa JIBllJIeTCJI 'IeM-TO OTlll1'IHbIM

OT npl1MaHKl111JlH: nosyunor ,lVlJI nanrero 6e3MbIClll1JI, 'ITO OHa BbITeCHJIeT,CKpbIBaeT 11ncerna cnepaorsaer CBJIllI,eHHbli1:csiex, KOTOPbIH ee pa3BJI)I(eT ... 'ITO saranxa sa 3aHaBeCOM c~eCTBYer paaae 'ITO 6JIaro.n;apJI npaiuaroutesica rnnorese, rrocrenenHO paspeuraesroa snecs 11TaM nocpencraosr JICHOCTI1namero YMa: 'ITO 60llee, 'IeM scnsnnxa raaosoro pozoca
I1JlH:

<PYHAaMeHToM, OH OCTaHO-

aa OAHOM:H3 MHOrO'IHCJIeHHblX nopor, xoropsre nepexpenraaarorcs B 3TOM MeCTe, B03JIe nycroro xparepa, B KOTOPOM
samrcaaa
KJUITBa [ ... J MrHOBeHHe MbI ... '-Iepe3

3JIeKTpH-

3AHITa He 6hlJIO C HaMH, 60JIbwe

otieprrynncs: sooome

'IeCTBa, ee yseznr-maaer I1HCTPYMeHTaJIbHOe corrpoaoxcaenae, pacnpezternrrem, TaHHbI». .n;paMa 6e3 TaHHhI 11,~ITO rJIaBHOe, 6e3 KllIO'Ia He MO)l(eT

mncoro

He 6bIlIO ... DOCJIaHHliK «<3)lHfl KOJlOHCKHH.»)

paauuippoeamecn,

npozrexroncrpxposaa

CBOIO TO'lHYIO 11 3a-

«QHCJIa» onpe.n;eJIJIIOTCJI C MHorO'UiClleHHbIMH

nOBTopaMH,

B .n;BfDKeHIiR OlWlEbH020 nymu. Bnaronapa '1eM)' OHH OXBaTbIBaIOT ace pe-nr, xoropsre BbI MOfJIH 6bI ztepxcart. no rrx nOBO.n;y.H36bITO'IHOCTb no.n;06HbLX pexen sapaaee no'reprrena 6bI rropazceane, 6bIlla 6bI caeneaa na HeT. TeM caMbIM «Ql1clla» OTMe'laIOT CaMI1 ce6JI. 10 BKllIO'IaeT XI. Hx I1Mnep<peKT BbIXO)1;HTaa npeziezrsr sanrero 6y.n;~ero npeznnecrnyromero. TaK 'ITO nocne aroro ztorrroro rroeopora ~11<pep6llaTa BbI CHOBa BepHYJII1Cb K KpaeyrollbHOM)' KaMHIO, KaMHIO npeTKHOBeHI1JI,.n;OW.n;o KaMHJI, KOTOPbIi1:He JIBJIJIeTCJI aMHeM, a '1eMK TO, 'ITO 6y.n;eT aanoaceno B <popMe 2pmm'fH020 Bonpoca: no-teMy 3TO COBceM I1HOe nepexacnenae, 3anl1CaHHOe C rronotiHOH OT'IeTlll1BOCTbIO, COXpaHI1TCJI KaK He'lTO aepacunrdipoBbIBaeMoe? . DO'IeMY 3TOT TeKCT anenraero, paa He HMeeT Tai1:HbI
TailH

panee 3a.n;YMaHHYIO apXH:TeKTYPY? B .n;ei1:cTBHTeJIbHOCTI1 3TO Bonpoc KaMHJI 11apXH:TeKTYpbI, rearpa (carrefourc), xpaxra, KOllOHH H limen'a H, KaK BhI TOllbKO 'ITO OTMeTHllH, BOITPOC pronaos'e: «Pronaos - TaK pansure Ha3bIBaJIaCh ornensnas npenxpasroaaa nnouians, 'IaCTO OHa oopasoasrsana .n;OBOllbHO60llbwoe xsanparaoe nosremenae, orpamrxasaeraoe cnpasa H cnesa CTeHaMH cella <rrprrztena>» (Karp-siep .n;eKBHHCH <Quatre-mere de Quincy». Bonpoc na nepexpecrse ztopor, sonpoc pa3BeTBlleHHJI HJlH: pa3BeTBlleHHJI B xsazrpare, sonpoc nepexpecrxa, na KOTOPOM Ka)l(.n;bIH nyrs. OTMC'IeHHbIH KaMHeM, CTaHOBHTCJI )1;BOHHbIM, TPOti:HbIM, 'IeTBepHbIM. DapMeHH)1;OBCKOe KOJIe6aHHe HJlI1, eClIH BaM yrO)1;HO,3.n;HnOBCKoe.DPO'IHThIBaeMoe Y)I(e xepea KOBaHYIO )l(eJIe3Hyro pcweTKY «Ilapxa»: «5{ nOJIHOCTbIO pacnonararo BpeMeHeM. H CHOBa JI BbITJIrHBaIO CBOH nora, OnHpaJICb TY<PJIllMH na KOBaHYIO »ceneaHYIO peweTKY. [ ... J TaM MalleHbKHti: Mallb'lHK y.n;apJIeT caoen JIO)l(KOi1: o CTOllY; ace K HeMY nOBOpa'IHBaIOTCJI, C HHM Ha'IHn HaIOT roaoprrrs, >KeHllI,HHa, BhlCOKaH waTeHKa, - B03MO)l(HO, 3TO OHa canena HanpOTHB MeHJI H TllI,aTellbHO BbI6Hpana

.n;paMa, KOTOpaJI na 3TOT

<Myst> naer .up <Dr>

.uP naer

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CMOTpeJIa xepea OCTeKJIeHHyro 6yxTy aa resnryro sorry, TeMnyto OKPyry H aaesarrasre BcrrbIWKM <pap, pas-naa-rpa-xeTblpe - HJ.{'{ero - pa3-,nBa - HJ.{'{ero - pa3-,nBa-TpM-'1eTbIpe; nonaocs CTaKaH K CBOMMry6aM M HarrpaBJIJIJI B MOIO CTOPOHY BJ1JIKY[.,oJ». H nanee: «Tax.cnparasumcr, B CTapOM KJIeHe, B csoea XIDKHHe J1JIMcsoen KperrOCTM (nse ,nOCKM,npaxpen-

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«3.19.... 3ameM 6b1llo neperpecmse,

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K pa3BeTBJIJlIOIlJ,ei1CJI BeTKe), OH sror pe6eHKOM na6JIIO,naTb, KaK JIIO,nMXO,nJlTryna-crona IIOCa.ny; Ha6JIIO,naTb aa

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BXO,nOMBHYTPb nosra, OTKpbITbIM OKHOM MJIJfnaepsro: OH Mor oueaasarr, HaJIM'IeCTByroIlJ,Me C11JIbI, assremars BOHCKa, 3KMp rra)KM, <pJIarM; KOMaH,nOBaTb, He rro,naBaJI rOJIoca ... ».

nanepmanwue
U He80JMO)l(HO

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aroro

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Ha OOHOU U3 sotipame cneoyxnuee:


limo He COOm8emCnl808allO

HUX, K npuuepy;

TeJIbHOCTM 1 Y)Ke 6bIJIa paCCTaBJIeHa cers: «2.46 .... yuac»,


KUM. 06pa30M, HUU,

NTOS
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ysnaeam» MeH5l, U smo 6b111aKaK 6yomo 6bl He«omopast cern»,peuiemxa, nepexnaouuu «omopou (cmeuu, nucnoea) tiunu
HallO)ICeHbI ua Moe llUt10, y He 6blllO HU KOHl-4a,HU nOK05l... CKa3aJl C6010 ucmoputo

«omopoeo menep» Cneooeamenuno, uuxmo He pac-

6btllU HallOJlCeH1>1 3rt1U OZpOMHbte ¢acaObt, na

mau; 6e3

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[... [».

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nOCm05lHHO

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8 PYUHax

}[ nouuscan, «mo
cmeeunoe ytiuacmeo,

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C5l K HeMY ttepe3 6eCb smom OKOllbHblU nymb ... »). 3TO 6bIJIO 3JIJIMrrTJ.{'{eCKoenpennacaane «L(paMbI»: «C npyroa CTOPOHbI, MMeeTCJI . (TO,{Ka B npooezre, BOT '{TO aro.) 5I rrpe,nCTaBJIJlIO

He Moe euoem» ... ».

(BbI MOrJIM 6bl cpasarrrs

ce6e JIOBywKy, KOTOPaJIpaooraer

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xorna JI C,{M-

I rrOCJIe,nOBaTeJIbHOCTM a 3aTeM 3,

3TOT rpe'leCKJ1I1 Y C KJ1TaHCKMM C orrpe,neJIeHHbIM v.) «KOJIb-

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cstenumn

no, ero oKpy:JKaIOIlJ,ee, B '1aCTM, KOTOpaJi HaxQ}J,J1TCJI cocenrro CTBY C HaWMM MeCTOrrOJIO)KeHMeM, OTMe'leHO rrpo,nOJIbHbIM paspeaoxr, KOTOPbIl1 B ,nei1cTBMTeJIbHOCTM,eCJIJ1cssorperr, na Hero C naurea CTOPOHbI, npnnaer eMY CMYTHbIH 06JIMK 3arJIaBHoi1 6yKBhl Y... MbI MO)KeM CKa3aTb 0 nanresr COJIHll,e, 'ITO OHO onpeneneaao pacrrOJIO)KeHO B TO'lKe Y, B KOTOPOi1 BCTpe'1aIOTCJI TpM COCTaBJIJlIOIlJ,MC JIJfHMM, M, rrpe,nCTaBJIJIJI ce6e ee

«1.13 .i.Paccxas

nauanc«

8He3anHO, KOlOa Jl pemUll

5l3b1K 8 mOM )ICeCaMOM 5l3bIKe... ».

To, 'ITO BbI TOJIbKO 'ITO rrpO,{MTaJIM rro ,nHarOHaJIM rerpaJIorJfJ1, naer snecs orrre-rarox, no-npexoresry sarnaaasm B xa-

mmI

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HMeeT MeCTa,

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He HBJIHeTCH H 'ITO He nepe-

rycroron,
B cepenane

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rro cpaBHeHHIO

C ee ,ll;JIHHOM, MbI MO)l(eM 3TOM IIJIOTHOCTH. snecs, MbI

C'IeTY, HC'IHCJIeHHIO,

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MeCTO MbI

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passreureasr

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B CBH3H C 06'bHCHeHHeM HBJIHIOTCH acero JIHllb

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xoropsre

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CJIOBa HJIH Hepa360p'IHBbJX nexoero oprporparpaert TaMHoro ...

sanaercs
-

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KOTOPaff. panee nneorpasoay

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npencraaneamr

eMY C006rn;eHa, rrOCJIe

(qunzhong)

xpxrrrorpasoasr,
TeKcT

nneorpasoasr
satiumecs,
U

TaMHY

nexoero

CMbICJIa HJIH nexoero HO XHa3M.

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80m euxoo
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npocmpaHcm8a,
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OH TOJIbKO 'IJ.fTaeTCH. To, 'ITO snecs

n !:>. -».

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aoaca,

BbICKa3aHHbIM,

nepeaeneaasna, pe-n., rroK rro-

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XO,ll;HT crreKYJIHU;HIO H nopsnox JIe H csoe

KJIaCca, B TOM 'IHC-

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pmncy
aaexioe,

pexesoro

CMbICJIa HJIH 3Ha'IeHHH.

He-pac-unrrppoasrHMeHHO rro-

c06CTBeHHoe npencraaneuae. «2.42 .... 11 fI CH08a euoen nnouiaos, samxuymyto mYMaHoM, C06pa8l.UUXCR patioscux

CJIe,ll;OBaTeJIbHO, OKa3b1BaeTCH

TaKOBbIM

TOMy, 'ITO

C ux rjJ1la2aMU, 0pYJICUeM, a noo 6ellbtM mYMaHoM «pacnue nsmna nonomnutu; xomopue paseeeanuc», Om8e1JaJl mate na

npusue ... Becuucnennue


1. TO, 'ITO
ro rrpHBH3bIBaeT TeKCT K 'IHCJIY Hero HH 0 'IeM U;Hcppe (urnd» HH'IePY) (K rrHCbMY, xoropoe He BbICKa3bIBaeT) 60JIblle He rOBopHT,

Ha

pacceeme, tiecuucnenuue

eumec-

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pa3JIO)l(eHHIO,

pas-tiopy

HCHHbte 8 nacmosuuuu MOMeHm na none cmpauuuu, 02paHU'teHHbte, cnenue CUllOU, «omopast npoxooum «epes HUX 6e3 yoep»cy, eouncmeennau HaOCJlCOa MHOJICecnt8eH.HOU, nacunscmeenHOU MbtCJlU ... 51 ocnatiun xeamtcy. ... »

<de-faire>, pacnapsteaamo, pacuneppoaxe,

B rrO,ll;'IHHeHHH

sroa

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101 A

a.

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(saxpsrroro
He OHO POlIb,

KB8.)J,paTa HJIH He BblqTeHHOM asmepaoraaer aanopa. OHO CBOH:

rrOBepXHOCTH)

poasraaesroe

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nsrraacs

omuemum», wmo Jl 6blll eounuuea cpeou OPYlUX eouuuu, HO npu 3mOM eouuuuea, xomopou nenss« bam» ~u¢Py, eounuuea; noCmOJlHHO 8036YJlCoaeMOilC80UM.C06em8eHHbLMKOH~OM Ha ea...
MOM oeJle MOJl cuepm» nauana natiyxam»
8

ero, 1I0MaeTCH B YCHlIHH esry nosrenrars. Ho ace 3TO npoacxoznrr MeJlCOy«ucen. DeC'Il1CJIeHHoe, KOropoe, KaK Ka)I(eTCH, nonpsraaer paMKH HlIH neperrpsrrnaaer xepea nnaaxy, - TIO TO, B qeM BhI acerna CMO)l(eTe narr, OTTpOlIHpoBaTb

enytiune, u ttm06bl
<de-nomination>

noamu oanstue - ». Tlepe-nrcneaae, KaK coonpaer H pasonpaer,


TeM )l(e )l(eCTOM qHClIO

H 0603HaqeHHe COqlIeHHeT H

pac-rnenxer
HX

OAHHM

xer. BeCqHCJIeHHOe He rrpOCTO HaqHHaeT rrpeBOCXOAHTh HlIH orpanaxaaari, qHCJICHHbIH: nopanox na ero rpamntax, orpaHHqHBaTb H3BHe. 0HO npopaoareraae r ero H3HYTPH Hero casroro. Ilepeoop B KaKOM-TO OTHOllIeHHH npnnanneaorr KOlIOHHe qHCeJI, ec asicryrry, l.{HclIo acerna rro 3TY H rro TY CTOpony OT cassoro cOOH, B «YAalIeHHH», KOTOpoe MO)l(eT rrpo'UfTbIBaTbCH MallIHHOH:. 1136bITOK H He,n:OCTaTOK B HeM YMHO)l(aB AorrOlIHHTelIhHOM IOTCH H 06YClIaBlIHBaIOT COqJICHeHHH AOCTaTOK».

H HMJ1, OTrpaHH'IHBaeT

na rpaaa-

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K KOTOPhIM

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<surnorn>.
l.{HcelI H

napeu.

noncryrrae-r 6e3-rpaHHqIlOe, TaK orxpsrsaercs 11 CHOBa ClIOB He XBaTaeT AlIH nponanpH6e3 CTOHMOCTH), 6bI

BOACTBa rrHCbMa,

B CHJIY

xero

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npyr npyra

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«3.75 ....
lIHllIb

C ApyrnM.

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acesr -

3TO He-

I "Kmo cnocotien npeocmaeum» C8010006a8KY K mOMY, «eeo He xeamaemi" I.... ToqHO TaK »ce CJIeA »
B CTHpaHHH

OCTaBlIHeTCH

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HHbIM

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<scription

contra-diction>. c060H:

«1.41 .... 60l1;blUe He 6blllO 06'bJlCHeHUJl,xomopoe MOlJlO 6bl cxasam», umo co MHOil npoucxooum ... J! JlCUJl8 paseepmueauuu U pacxpywueauuu, U mo, umo 06'bJlCHJlemCJC soecs, na scoesc scecme, OOJlJlCHO tium» CKa3aHOunaue u paspyuieno ... J! ece max see nJlJlUJlCJl8 mpaniueto, «omopyto He OX8amUlUb 83lJlJlOOM, xomopas He cuoena 6bl 8 xaxou-mo MOMeHm U3MeHUmbCJl 8 cneoe U 8 wucne, 8 cmopouy Y311a,cnnemenus; oepaea, 6ecno"''-'0 " 11""" cmu CJl08 «" Y3eJl, ( C11JlemeHUe, ((o8pal " » ...
TaK lI$IH )l(e, KaK qeTBepTa1I. rroBepXHocTb, KOTOPa1l., COCTaB-

qHCJIO, CJIe,n:,paMKa

HBlI$IIOTCH CaMHMlf Y)I(e pa36HBaJI

nepexnecrosr.
HHe, KOTopoe Topoe HhIM

«TIapK» 3aMbIKaeT,

na

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aa eute

La differance" II Thcorie d'ensemble, coll. «Tel Quel», 1968, p. 58 sq.


De

l'econornie restreinte L'Ecriture et la Difference, coll.


CM.:

a l'economie
«Tel

generale II Quel», 1967**.


0 KOH-

nOHRTHRX

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4
5 «La differance», op. cit., p. 46 sq. Aufheben (0 .u.aHHOM nepeBo.u.e**** CM.: Le puids et la pyramide II Hegel et la pensee moderne, P.U.E, 1971).

Pye.rrep.:

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II ,ll;eppHAa)J{. Ionoc H ¢eHoMeH. Cflti.,


K 3KOHOMHH sceoo-

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OT 3KOHOMHH orpana-reaaon H paSJUI'lHe. M., 2000.

***'*

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I1MeHHo He HBJHleTCH HeKHM rrpO)J,yKTOM, B KOTOPOM Y)Ke He HaHno-npesoreKaK

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(darzustellen)
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nyx

B "<I>eHoMeHOJIOfl111

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0-

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KaK CaMOCTb

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O)J,HaKO rrpo)J,BH)Ke~ KaK H pa3BHT11e seen

TaKOBOM, OHO HaJII.-{qHO Hoe,

(vorhanden) tSelbst)» (p.34).

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aeraras-

rrpensrera

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11 )J,YXOBHOH )KH3HH,

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ttucmblX
na

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8

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aro

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(Bildung)
BO acen BBe)J,eHHeM

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ee rrOJIHOTe, cepsesB

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nenocpencraeaCTaHOBHTB xaxecrae KaK OHH ecrtMbICJIH, )J,yx, ce6e

rrOCJIY)KHT

orrsrr

caMOH

H CBoeH

3axBa'JeHHOCT11 xoropoe <pOPMbI ( •••

BHelllHHM, naer

seum (der in die Erfahrung


xorna 6HHY K TOMY )Ke CTporOCTb seura,

der Sache selbst hineinfuhrt);


rrOHHTIDl HH30it,rr,eT B myH ou,eHKI1

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(Beurteilung)
eMY rrO)J.XO)J,HT

1 OHH

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KOTOPbIH HHe -

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Hx

caMO-)J,BH)Kexero qero

iKonversation)»

(p.8).

3TO HX )J,YXOBHaH )KH3Hb,

TO, rrocpe)J,CTBOM

3a)J,aeTCH HaYKa 9 3)J,eCb CJIe)J,OBaJIO6bI osem, HOCHlll.HeCH K 60JIblllOH BHflMaTeJIbHO nepe-orrars OT«BBeOHa TaK HBJIHeTCH. 0603HaqeHO

H rrpe)J,CTaBJIeHHeM

(Darstellung)
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H Ha3bIxacaercs HaYKH

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B nepaon

H npeznne-

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K JIorHKe. qaCTb

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",

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H )J,Be peaJIbHblX

(realen)
HayKH

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H <pHJIOCO<pHIO nyxa, 6bIJIa 6bI

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H JIOrHKH

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B Bl1)J,e 6eCKOpa3BHBaIOT onpenenen-

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H JIOfHKa -

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H npennonarator

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b)

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(dargestellt)

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H B TO )Ke BpeMH -

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(Auf diesem sich selbst


cnoHaYKoH.

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H 3aKaH'IHBaH npoxomrr

konstruierenden Wege)
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10

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(Resultate)
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KaK

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[riisonierende
onpenezrser 06'bHCHeHHe

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-raxoe

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(vor die Vornona-

11

Ha

3TOT pa3 pe'Ib

H,lI,eT He TOJIbKO 0 H na

nymu

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stellung)
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HaH KpHTHKa B «BBe,ll,eHHH»

HaueJIeHa

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3TO

(historische
TOJ1bKO B

Kenntnis);
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K «JIorHKe»

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paccMaTpHBaeT. HeHHoH

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B MaTeMaTHKe, K "¢eHoMeHOJIOrHH ,lI,yT 60JIee KH.

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(Stoffe), paasrsnnnemra
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nO,ll,p06HO

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OTHOCHTCH MeTO,ll, -

K paCCY)l(,lI,eHHIO 3TO C03HaHHe

lichen Gang der begriffiosen Quantitiit)


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sa nyTb

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<pop-

(Form)

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ee conepacaaroro co12 113,l1,aHHe

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H ,lI,aJI oopaaeu npezn-reroxr,

1831

r.

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npenaapxrensm-re 06'bJlCHeHHH He MOryT 6WTh nonaenensr non KaTerOpJ11Onp0J13BOJIhHhIX npeAJIOCWJIOK. CJIe,l1.0BaTeJIhHO, HX paauemeaae

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MOryT OTCTPaHJfTb <!>HJIOCO<!>HIO, KOTOPM 3hIBalOT ee MOOHOU <!>JfJIOco<!>HeH» iLecons

saaoeasraaer sur l'histoire

H pelUHTeJIbHO C Heii nOKOH'-IJ1Th. OHJf Ha-

de fa philosophie <<<JIe~JfJf tr. Gibelin, p. 69).


13 TpaKTOBKa

no JfCTOPJfJf <!>HJIoco<!>JfJf»>,

aonpocsr

H YCJIOBJfJI, oropsre x pona

MOryT nOCT<lBHTb MCnpe,l1.pac-

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BCJIe,l1.CTBHep~Bbl'IH~IX n

naJIeOHJfMJfJf nOCpe,l1.CTBOM06'bRCHeHJfJl Jf

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aazro BBe,l1.eHHe,IeM HCTOPJfJl<!>HJIOCO<!>JfJf, ' ,lJ.JIjJ TaK)I(e He06xo,l1.JfMO onpe,l1.eJlJ1Thnpenxrer, 'roporo ,l1.0JI)I(Ha6hITh H3JIO)l(eHa.

xoropoa
14

sur I'histoire de la ?ltt~osophle <<<JleKIJ.HJf no HCTOPHJf <pHJIOCO<!>MJf),>, Gibelin, p. 18-19). Csr. tr. TaK)I(e p. 77.AHaJIOrH'-IHble paccyscnenaa CM.: Lecons sur l'esthetique, Introduction <<<JleKIJ.HHno 3CTeTHKe», «BBenemre»>, tr. fr., p. 11-15.
DhITh MO)l(eT, KHTaHcK)'IO anrexy, xyer Mao U3e,l1.YHB cosepureaao naccaace nporaa Ty casryio, '-ITO KpHTHrereJIeBCKOM no CBoeH <!>opMaJIJf3Ma, TO ecrs, npecrynneace

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Bern,

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raacxyio arrrexy,

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15

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Preface

a fa vie d'ecrivain
nonfiopxe <Genevieve

Coler>

01'

26

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a.

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OHO He ,l1.0JDKHO6blJIO OCTaBIDITb xa, ,l1.0JDKHO6blJIO nOJIHOCTblO

B Hac HHKaKoro

OCTaT-

MO~HbIH IO~HH CTBa,

H n03TOMY Hepa3penlHMbIe

HeYCTpaHHMbIH 3HaKH 6bI

CHMyJIHKP,

nona-

OnyCTOIlIHTb

Hac H HC'lep-

C06CTBeHIwro npO'IeCTb

npHTBOp-

naTb ... » ITOCKOJIbKY TaKOrO B xaxecrae,

He npOHCXO,lJ,JIT, <l>ellep6ax oopaniaer npOTHB

xoropsre

caM

OH Mor

TOJIbKO B nonH

CKa)KeM TaK, MeCTH B «cneKYJIRTHBHOM

Ie-

TeKCTe,

B nO,l1.BeIlIeHHoH CaM

<pa6YJIe CBOHX npe,l1.HCJlOBHH B KOHe'lHOM cxere Mor

reJIR 06BHHeHHe MaJIH3Me, repecyer

3MnHpH3Me»

H <pop-

npHMe'laHHH? rrojmac'rtnon

Ierem6bI

6bI

,l1.3)KeB «npHTBopCTBe» He CTOJIbKO K3.)K)l;bIll raxoro aron

H «arpe»,

3,l1.eCbHac HHCKOJIb-

BJIHRHHe naxero 06pa~eHHeM OT HHX

3TOH

nrpsr,

npH'leM

B caMOM I1MeR ,l1.eJIO OT-

H3 3THX TepMHHOB, H raxon

TeKCTe OT aroro C nO,l1.06HbIM TaJIKHBaeTCR K cepbe3HOCTH 'lT06bI

He H3MeHHJIOCb. H XHa3MoM,

KO Heo6xoAHMOCTb

06MeHa

Onn03HlJ,HH. (eCJIH OTJIOpa3BHTHH

<l>eHep6ax

«Ho

HMeHHO

no

rrpn-nrae nay-rayro

HY

Ierens

H HeCBoeBpeMeHHO

npH3bIBaeT «He06xo,l1.HMO,

)KJ:ITb B CTOPOHY ero

CTporOCTb

npH

<pHJIOCO<pHH H HCTOpHH:

resn.t) ,lJ.OKa3aTeJIbCTBO a6COJIlOTHOrO no C~OCTH H no ceoenynpunuuny HMeeT JIJ:IIlIb cpopMallbHoe 3Ha'IeHHe. fereJIeBCKaR <PJ:lJIOCO<P~ npe,l1.CTaBJIReT HaM C car-ioro ero CBO-

<pHJIOCO<pHR BBeJIa B KOTOPblH

mexcm

<pHJIOCO<pHH KOTOPbIll,

-racrs
60C a6-

'IeJIOBeKa, nee roro, cTpaKTHbIM TO, 'ITO

He <pl1JIOCo<pCTByeT,

npomue
Ierern,

<pHJIOC0<pHH, KOTOPbIH TO ecrt-, B

60pemcR

aasana

H ornpaanon

TO'lKH

npOTHBope'lHe, H nUCbMoM.

a HMeH<l>0pMaJIbHO

MbIIlIJIeHl1eM, BblHOCHT

CJIe,l1.0BaTeJIbHO, Bc.e

HO npOT:HBOpetIHe HO a6COJIlOTHaR

Me)K,l1.Y MblCllblO

HAeR, HeCOMHeHHO,

He rrpenrrozrozcena,

B CyrIJ,HOCTH OHa HMeHHO HHe

npennonoaceaa.

[ ... ]OT'l)')K,l1.e-

npuuewanux» (Theses proviso ires pour la reforme de la philosophic <<<ITpe,l1.BapHTeJIbnsre Te3HCbI K pe<popMe <pHJIOCO<pHH»>, ibid., p. 116.
KYPCHB <l>eHep6axa).

(Entiiusserung) RBJIReTCR, TaK CKa3aTb, scero JIHIlIb npumeopcmeosc; OHO H306p3)KaeTCR, HO He npHHHMaeTCR scepses, OHO pasuepueaemcs. Peuraromee ,l1.0Ka3aTeJIbCTBO 6WTb 3TO naxano JIorHKH, Ha'laJIO KOTOPOll ,l1.0JI)KHO KaK OHa, Ha'laJIOM <pJ:lJIOCO<pHH Bo06~e. 'IHCTbIll

17

CM.

Ha'laJIO

«Teopmr

6bITHH»

B 60JIbIlIOH

JIorHKe.

06

:3TOH np06JIeMe rara CM. TaK)Ke:

H «BHe3anHOM Heidegger,

n~p~BO,l1.e~) 3,Toro

~e3YJIb-

Ha-ranars,

Identite et Difference
aroro TeKCTa

C 6bITHR 6bITHe nepBblM 'laTb

3TO npOCTO

<PoPMaJIH3M, Ha'IaJIOM,

nOCKOJIbKY HaCTOR~HM 6bI na-

He RBJIHeTCR HaCTOR~HM TepMHHOM; TO'lHO

18

DOJIbIlIe

H3BeCTHO npo,l1.0JI)KeHHe soc., p.

(le Capital,
CM. TaK)Ke

TaK )Ke MO)KHO 6blJIO

1., 1. ed.

27-29,

rrepenon

H3MeHeH).

C a6COJIlOTHOll

H,l1.eH, nOCKOJIbKY JIOfHKY, TO

OH Ha'lHHaeT

nucam»

erne ,l1.0 roro, KaK ecrs rrpanasars CBOHM


KOMMYHHKaIJ,HH, ,l1.0CTOBepHOCTblO, H,l1.eR

«ITpe,l1.YBe,l1.0MJIeHHe» K H3,l1.aHHIO «KanHTaJIa» rion et

<Avertissement>

~JIbTIOCCepa Flamn:a-

B H3,l1.aTeJIbCTBe Garmerp.

MAeRM <P0PMY, nparomryro a6COJIlOTHaR MAeR Y)Ke 6bIJIa nenocpencrnennon 6blJIa reIDI, a6COJIlOTHOH

AJIR HayqHoll

(1969),

ocooenao

18-23,

a raiose:

Sollers,

Lenine

AJIR

Ierena

Ie

materialisme

philosophique

II Tel Quel, 43.


H~~ M~cKe

HCTHHOH.

[ ... ] A6coJIlOTHaR

AOCTOBepHOCTblO

AJIR MbICJIHTeJIR

Ie-

Ierens OHa 6bIJIa <popMaJIbHOll He,lJ.OCTOBepHOCTblO» (Manifestes philosophiques, tr. L. Althusser, P.u.F., p. 27, 28, 34, 35. KYPCHB <l>eHep6axa). QTO)l{e 3anpe~aem - BOT B 'leM Bonpoc - 'IHTaTb rereJIeBCKHll metccm KaK orpo smyio nrpy nHCbMa, KaK
OAHaKO AJIR nHCaTeJIR

19

06

3MnHpH3Me

KaK <pHJIOCO<pCKOH ¢_opMe

reTepOJIOrH'leCKOrO

nanpassep: L Ecriture et la Difference **, p. 224 sq., De la grammatologie *,..,..,


CM.,

ny ru

***

Pye. nep.: XaJ:l:Aerrep M. TO)l(,1J,eeTBO If pa3ml'lIIe. M., 1997. Pye. nep.: Ileppnna >K. DHCbMQ H pa3iIH'iHe. M., 2000. Pye. nep.: AeppHJJ.3 )K. 0 rpaMMaTOJIOflUl. M., 2000.

EliDl

)I(

Ae

p P ., A

a.

AI1CCEM"HAlI,I1~

«L'exorbitant», «Question de methode», La Differance II Theorie d' ensemble, coIl. p.45.

p.

«Tel

232 sq., Quel»,

CYIneCTByeT naa: Op,HO BblIIOJIHReTCR nocpencrnost JIH3a, a npyroe nocpencrnoxr

ana-

CI1HTe3aJfJII1CJIO)l(eHHR. na KOTOPOM He'ITO KaK

AHaJIH3 nOKa3bIBaeT
BCR

sepnsm nyrs,

6bIJIO MeTOp,HQeCKHH306peTeHO, H 06HapY)l(HBaeT, 20 3AeCb, rro BeeM BHAHMOCTH, CMenmBaeTCR cxexra nOp,'IHHeHHR Ha}'K, a 3aTeM 11 perHOHaJIbHbIX ruM 06IneM OHTOJIO-

CJIep,CTBH}l3aBHCRT OT npHQHH, Tal< 'ITO 'IHTaTeJIb, KOTOPbIM noacenaer npOCJIeTI.OBaTb no 3TOMY

rry ra

H BHHaerca, B npep,-

HJIH cp)'HP,aMeHTaJIbHOM OHTO-JIOrHKe. CM.:

De la grammatologie,
21 «Pa60Ta,

p. 35.
TOM KOTOPOM R

MaTeJIbHO OCMOTpeTb nee, 'ITO na HeM npennar CTOJIb )l(e

coaepurennsne

06pa30M

paaoepercs

nepasm

npennararo

MeTe, p,OKa3aHHOM TaKHM 06pa30M, 06Inecnocoo p,OKa3aTeJIbCTBa He nparonen

H c,IJ.eJIaeT ero CBOp,JIR 3aBoeBaHHR

HM, KaK eCJIH 6bI OH caxr ero H H306peJI. Op,HaKO TaKOM yrrPRMhIX HJIH He O'IeHb BHHMaTeJIbHhIX 'IHTaTeJIeM, noCKOJIbKY,eCJIH, He 06paTHB na 'ITO-TO BHHMaHHe, yrrycTHIllb caMYIO MeJIb'Ia:A:llIYIO nop,p06HOCTb CHHTe3 sener aroro noxa3aTeJIbCTBa, He06xoP,HMOCTb ero 3aKJIIO'IeHHM 6yp,eT HeRCHa. [ •••] HanpOTHB, p,OKa3aTeJIbCTBO no HX

CTBeHHOCTH,npep,CTaBJIReT C060M npOp,OJDKeHHeTeKCTa, orry6JIHKOBaHHoroB

1859

r. non

3amaB11eM "KpHTHKa

nOJIHTH'IeCKOH 3KOHOMHH". 3TOT p,OJIrHM nposseacyrox Me)l(p,yp,BYMR QT06bl rry6JIHKaU;HRMH 6bIJI 06YCJIOBJIeH MoeM 3TOM KHHre He06xoP,HMYIO saaepurenMHOrOJIeTHeM 60JIe3HbIO.

npanars

HOCTb, R BBeJI B nee TeKCT,KOTOPbIH eM npemnec'rnonan, axparue nepssm nepecxasaa ero B

nepsoa

rnase.

Bepno

COBceM HHbIM nYTeM, KaK 6bI H3Y'IaR npH'IHHbI CJIep,CTBHRM (XOTR conepscauteeca 'IaCTO nner H OT npH'IHH

TO, 'ITO

B HeM p,OKa3aTeJIbCTBO

R C'IHTaJI p,OJDKHbIMB 3TOM nepecxase nJIaH H3JIO)l(eHHR (Die

H3MeHHTb CBOM

Darstellung

ist verbessert).
nepnonaseenOJI-

K CJIep,CTBHRM), p,onO,IJ.JIHHHO H

BOJIbIllOe

KOJI11'IeCTBO aonpocon,

xo-ropsre

H CO acea RCHOCTbIOp,OKa3bIBaeT TO, 'ITO HMeeTCR B ero 3aKJIIO'IeHHRX, nOJIb3YeTCR npa KOM onpeneneaan, 6JIeM, 'IT06bI :nOM p,JIHHHOMuenosH npoHe-

'IaJIbHO 6hIJIH TOJIbKO0603Ha'IeHhI, CTopOHHee pa3B11THe, rorna HOCTbIO

snecs nozry-uom snaxane

BonpOCOB, aKCHOM, TeopeM

KaK npyrne,

paspaooraaasre, snecs JIHIllb 0603Ha'IaIOTcR. Hanpasrep, 6bIJIa ynazrena "Hcropas TeopH11cTOHMOera H nener", HO, C npyron CTOPOHbI, 'IHTaTeJIb naaner B npHMe'IaH11RX nepaon HCTOPHH 3TOM Teop11H. (Tr.

B TOM cnyxae, ecna 6YAYT orpaua'rsca

xoropsre

H3 ero CJIep,CTBHM, MO)l(HO 6hIJIO 6bl noxasars, B npennocsrnxax, TaK 'ITO Taasrpsraaer COrJIaCHe y 'IHTaTeJIR, OH HH 6bIJI;

'ITO OHH Y)I(e conepscarcs xoe p,OKa3aTeJIbCTBO

rnansi

HOBble HCTO'IHHKH no

KaKHM 6bI yrrPRMbIM H npenocyrnrrensmase

Bo scex nayxax Ha'IHHaTh TJI)I(eJIO(Aller

gilt in jeder Wissenschaften)>>. pH30BaH Mapxcosr.)


22 CJIep,YIOInHH TeKCT

J.

Anfang ist schwer,


aBTO-

Op,HaKOTaKOe p,OKa3aTeJIbCTBO,B npOTHBOnOJIO)l(HOCTb nepBOMY, He naer .nOJIHOrO yp,OBJIeTBOpeHHRYMaM Tex, KTO )l(eJIaeT n03HaBaTb, nOCKOJIbKY OHO He cooouraer 6bIJI H306pe-

Roy, nepeson

o MeTop,e, 6JIarOp,apR KOTOPOMY npezisrer TeH» (<<OTBeT Ha BTopble .B03pa)l(eHHR»). MO)l(HO conOCTaBHTh TaKHM 06pa30M, onepauas

Ilexapra

C «neCHbIO IlleCTOH», HO TaK)I(e H C pa371U1.IUeMcnoco6a

CHHTeTwlecKHM nYTb, p,Hp,aKTH'IeCKaR npep,YlCJIOBHe OKa3bIBaIOTCJI HY)l(n06eP,HTb «npenpaccyznor»,

uCClleOo8aHUHH cnoco6a U371OJlCeHUH, yrroMJfHaeMbIM


CJIeCJIOBHH «KanHTaJIY»: K «Cnoc060B

H nropoe

B no-

HbI JIHIllb AJIR Toro, 'IT06bI «c KOroPbIMH

p,OKa3aTeJIbCTBa

MbI CBbIKJIHCb C cassoro p,eTCTBa» (ibid.),

16-6705

IIlliI

)f( 8 K

fJ. e

p p 1-1 A 8.

AI-1CCEMI-1HAI4I-1Il

«BOT nO'IeMY JI HanHCaJI HMeHHO "Pa3MbIlllJIeHHJI", ,lJ,HCnyTbIrum

a He

nepe,lJ, peurerxon K penrerxe

,lJ,BeplJ,bl •••» «... Mon ma3 npHKJIeHJICJI CHJIo~l»

sonpocsr,

KaK nnuryr

<pHJIOCO<pbI, HJIH »ce )1,a6bI ::ITHM

C eme 60JIbllIe~

(Cesn,

pas.)

«OH

.reopescsr

HJIH np06JIeMbI,

KaK y reosrerpos,

CKa3aJI, 'ITO MeH1I HY)f(HO 6bIJIO npHBJI3aTb K )f(ep)1,H •••» MT.,lJ,.


KOllOHHbl:

CBH,lJ,eTeJIbCTBOBaTb, 'ITO JI nHCaJI TOJIbKO ,lJ,JIJI Tex, KTO 3aXO'leT nOTpaTHTb CHJIbI Ha TO, '1T06bI cepsesso nony-

«Mon

BeJIHKOJlenHhI~ nsopeu

nocrpoen

H3 cenopxa-

MaTb BMeCTe CO MHO~ H BHHMaTeJIbHO paCCMOTpeTb see

pe6pJIHbIX CTeH, H3 30JIOTbIX KOJIOHH •••» «".OHH JIIOPbI». « •••He ronopsrre

npensaersr. (...] TeM


paaars CHHTe3»

He MeHee.,. sneer, JI nonpotiyro

H306-

lOT BOKPyr KOJIOHHKaK nJIOTHbIe BOJIHbI '1epHO~ nrese0 MoeM n03BOHO'IHOM cToJI6e,

(ibid.).
«TlepaoaaK <ppaH-

B npoTHBOnOJIO)f(HOCTb «Pa3MbIlllJIeHHJIM»,

nOCKOJIbKY ::ITO Me'l». HbI».

«... 51 nozcenato '1eJIOBeKa KOJIOH-

'1aJIa», KaK H3BeCTHO, czrenyror CHHTeTH'leCKoMy nopanKy. «ilpe,lJ,HCJIOBHe» K HHM (<<ilHCbMO asropa

11 T. n,
«CJIIOHa Moero KBa,lJ,paTHOroPTa». «... O,lJ,Hasac nOpJI)1,OK, npe,lJ,CTaBJIeHHbI~rJIaBerne 60JIee BeJIHK». «... ,nBe COBepllleHJIO~' ynopJI)1,O'leHHOCTblO KBa)1,BH,lJ,HeJIHCb ,lJ,OJIHHe; I CKa3aJI 3TO B J

Keaopamu:

Izy3CKOMY nepeBO,lJ,'1HKY, YMeCTHoe 3)1,eCb KaK npe)1,HCJIOBHe») coseryer posraa», npo-nrrari, KHHry «CHa"taJIalJ,eJIHKOM KaK

KO oxpyxcaiouraa HbIM 06pa30M para,

npaxese

TpH pasa nO,lJ,pJI)1,.

JII06HMlJ,a nH<parOpa, 6alllHH

orposrasre
23
«Anexcaanp ,1J;IOMa-cbIHHHKOr,lJ,a, HKOr,lJ,aB )f(H3HH, He H OH He 3HaeT, 'ITO TaKOe MOpaJIb. OHa He eClIH 6b1 OH 3aHJIJICJI aKHM ,lJ,eJIOM, T 6bI O,lJ,HHM B3MaxOM rrepa nepeB naxazre. 6y.neT CO'lHHJITb pexea }J,JIJI JIHlJ,e~CKOH lJ,epeMOHHH spy'1eHHH aarpan.
H}J,eT aa YCTYllKH. Ho

nozry-ornocs

Ecrru HX YMHO)f(HTb aa nsa, B pe3YJIbTaTe 6bI xersrpe ... Ho JI He oxem, xopouro nOHHMaJI
apH<pMeTH'IeCKOro )1,e~CTBHJI». He XO)f(Y no paBHHHe, rra KO-

He06xo,lJ,HMOCTb aroro

« •••BoT nO'IeMY JI 60JIbllle

caaxana

eMy npmunocs

TOpO~ B03BbIlllalOTCJI nse e,IJ.HHHlJ,bI MHO)f(HMOrol»

«... M3

'1epKHyTh see TO, 'ITO OH HanHCaJI pam-rue, Ha'IHHaJI C ero a6CYP,lJ,HbIX "ilpe,lJ,HCJIOBHH"» (<<CTHXOTBOpeHHH»),

JIeBOH PYKH JI BbIpBaJI aecs MyCKyJI lJ,eJIHKOM,nOCKOJIb-

xy

JI yxce He nOHHMaJI, 'ITO

$I

,lJ,eJIaIO, HaCTOJIbKOJI 6bIJI

B3BOJIHOBaH 3TOH HeC'IaCTHO~ '1eTBepHlJ,e~. 24

A sem,
-

$I

Peuiemxu:
CKynO

«no

pacnOJIO)f(eHHOH C BOCTO'IHO~ CTOPOHbI

C'IHTaJI, 'ITO ::ITO6bIJIO Bern:eCTBOncnpasoreaaa». noace, npnrarxaaromee

«... 3TO

CTeHe, KOTOpaJI OTrOpa)f(HBaJIa BHYTpeHHH~ ,lJ,BOP, bIJIH 6

K ce6e CHJIbI YMHpalOrn:ero,

pastipocaasr

pa3JIH'IHbIe

oTBepCTHJI,

peurer-rart.naa

naepnajax».

«nOpOH

aaxpsrrsre peurerxa nsepusr

JIHlllb MOrHJIa, CJIO)f(eHHaJI 3 OTlllJIH<poBaHHbIX eJIOBbIX H )1,OCOK M HaKOHelJ, xersrpe OrpOMHbIX KOJIa npHTBO)f(••• )1,alOTK MaTpacy see 'meHbI cpasy». 3yroTCJI H TyT xce nanaror, CH.lJ,a yace He nonyxaer

npHnO}J,HHMaJIaCb CO cxpanoxr, eM. HanpaBJIeHHOrO asepx npHpo,lJ,y KaMHJI••.» «... Torna MrHoBeHHH

KaK 6Y,lJ,TO non )1,e~CTBH-

« •••KBa)1,paTbI ofipaHe nO}J,HJITb-

yCHJIHJI PYKH, aacanyrouren KaK ero aora •••» «". erne rryranacs HeCKOJIbKO KOTO-

'1T06bI 60JIbllle

CJI». «... He MeHee BepHO, '{TO ,lJ,panHpOBKa B <popMe MeBblpa)f(eHHH csoea saaepureanon CHMMeTpHH B '1eTBepH'lHOM '1HCJIe:CMOTpHTe caMH, eCJIH He XOTHTe MHe neparr-».
KaMHU:

B xHTpOCnJIeTeHHJIX peurerxn

Hepes

JI npH6JIH3HJIC1I K nsepue,

peurerxa

POH COCTOHJIa TeCHOCnJIeTeHHblX H3 TOB.

npyr

C npyroxa npy::ITO nJIOTHOe

11 T.)1,.

51

XOTeJI nooaorpers

BHYTPb xepes

«Kasrein,

XOTeJI6bI OCB060,lJ,HTbCJI OT3aKOHOBnpa-

CHTO. Cnasana OH np060BaJI

11He Mor HH'lerO YBH,lJ,eTb •••»

«... Hnorna

TJI)f(eHHJI». « •••B03bMH )f(e KaMeHb H y6e~ ee». «..•51 B3JIJI 60JIblllO~ KaMeHb... KaMeHb nO,lJ,npbIrHYJI rra BbICOTY

ero H nO,lJ,HHMaJIO,lJ,HH H3 CBOHX KOHlJ,OB

16*

EIlD

)!(

A e p p 101A a.
nepxsea».

,lJ,Io1CCEMHHAl.(H51

IlleCTH KaMeHb nyCTJm

« •••Korna

H CJlOHHIOCb ••• O.IJ,HHOKHH: KaK

HOH: CKaJIe ..• ») nepsca

«... 3Ta

)KeHlll,HHa no

..• QT06bI

npoTalll,HTb no

ee, CKa-

nOCpe.IJ,H .IJ,OpOrH ... » B ll06 BellHKaHa

« ... Korna

naCTYX

,lJ,aBH.IJ,3a•••»

sa 3TH naJIb'IHKH,

)J,OlIHHaM H noporan, JIH Bbl, 'ITO, xorna non KaMHeM

Ionaarpa

KaMHeM

H3 npalll,H

JIaM H KaMHHM •••»

«... Saaere

MHe CHHTPYKOH: Ma-

« •••Kasrens,
ears

He HMeH

60llbille

B03MQ)KHOCTH 6pocaeTcH rropoxa,

paCTpa'IHB B03.IJ,YX, a 3aTeM rra-

CH CTaJIbHOe KOJIbll,O, cnps'raanoe HbHKa, BOJIOCbI non

CBOH )KHBble

cnzrsr,

CaM C060H:

)J,eH:CTBHeM KaKOH:-TO rOJIOBe?»

HeBH)J,HMOH:

KaK 6y,lI.T0 non .IJ,aeT,3arOHHH HO

B03.IJ,eH:CTBHeM CIDIhI casroro ce6H

CHJlbI BCTalOT ru KOJIbll,O,

Y MeHH'Ha

« •••51

.IJ,OJI)KeH6bIJI HaH-

B 3eMJIIO. l1HOr.IJ,a Me'ITaTellbaasre-raer, KaK TaKOH: a3poYCTpeMJUI-

KOTopoe

CXOpOHHll

no)J, KaMHeM ..• »

«•.. ECJIH

aacrpoeaasra
no

KpecTbHHHH aeprnsana

CMepTb

npepser

HeBepOHTHOe

HCXY)J,aHHe ABYX AlImtHbIX H3MY'IeHHbIX mrrepa'rypaoro MeHH 6ecu,ellbrnrrca, 'IHTa-

JIHT paccexaer

npocrpaacrao,

PYK, OTXO)J,Hlll,HX OT MOHX HbIM H ace nepesreunmanaera )Ke XOTeJI 6bI, 'IT06bI

nJIe'I,

HCb BHH3, K MaHCOBOMY nozno. 3TOT KaMeHb.

OH He 3HaeT, OTKYAa B3MCH HCHoe H nOCJle.IJ,OBaTelIb-

Moero

'Ieneps
aroro

Y sac

ecrs

onnaxnaarounra

Hoe 06'bHCHeHHe OH mner

HBlleHHH». y60WH:

«... OH

He nOKopHeTCH, xasrenrex ero B B03-

TeJIb Mor

CKa3aTb ce6e: "HY)KHO

OT)J,aTh eMY )J,OJI)KHoe. OH HBJIeHHe PHTMH'I-

na narreprn

naronsr

nnOCKHH

3)J,OPOBO Ha)J,YJI MeHH"». noro 06 nepesseuiaaanaa H3BeCTKOBbIH:

«... Yrpeanee
)J,.

C 3aocTpeHHbIMH .IJ,Yx •.•

KpaHMH.

OH C CHllOH: 6pocaeT KaK muennua rranaer na

MeIllKa-HKoca3)J,pa,

Y)J,apHeMoro

Llens

oopesana

nocepennae, HHcTpYMeHT

cepnosr, rrpo-

rraparrerl» 11 T.
601I0Ta

lI,epeMOHHalIbHbIH:

sesono,

HObt:

«... fIYCTbIHHble
••. »

3THX TeMHbIX

T1 nOJIHbIX

H)J,a

JIHBaH 3aKJIIO'IaBilleeCH HaH HOrOH: rpamrr, BbI30B

B HeM MaCJlO Ha nnHTKY •••» He nonnasazrca,

«... fIHB 3eB

cTpaHHlI, nosroura

«... Moe

.IJ,bIxaHT1e CO'IHTCH

H)J,OM•••»

« ••. fIpH
BbI MHe TPY-

KOTOPbIH:

H 6pOCHll

sroro

OTpaBJIeHHOrO C ero

OpY)KT1H, xoropoe nocrpoenaoro

CMepTH ••• H nocneuran

nO.IJ,06HO MOCTOBOH

O)J,OJI)KHlIH, H csepr COCTblO 'IeJIOBeKa,

nsenecrana,

npOCTPaHCTBa». TeMHOTbI rpetiens C060H:

« •••C

,npHXO.IJ,OM HO'IH C xparepos

H ee nO.IJ,06aIOlll,eH: na

caxr oro

C03)J,aTeJIH!»

«... 3a

He.IJ,OCTaTYCJlOBH•••»

OHH 6pOCaJIHCb

nopdiaponsra
nanexo aa

KOM COKa, O.IJ,HOBpeMeHHO HM nHTaHHH n06e)J,HTelIb, MepHoro

Y)J,OBJIeTBOpHIOlll,erO

nO.IJ,BO.IJ,HhIX Te'IeHHH:

H OCTaBllHllH

H OTCYTCTBHH H)J,OBHTbIX semecrs H OTTaJIKT1BalO OT ce6H see

«... KaK
mrueB cepn-

CKaJIHCTbIH: HO'IHOH: ropurox,

na KOTOPOM TY)KHT-

npOHCKH

Cll CBe.IJ,eHHbIH aanopoxr nop, noxa

aHYC JI1O.IJ,eH:-KaKTYCOB, .IJ,O'rex paamrsarr. HaBHCIllHH: OH 6po-

MaKa».

« .•• fIpH3HaHHe
6e3YMlI,a!» MbI

KaK H)J,npOHHKlIO

OHH He rrepecraaamr

ue KopOHOBaHHoro

11 T. )J,.
npe)J,CTaBHTh nOTepHJIH roro, 'ITO BCIO 3TY 6bI nO'ITH

CHllY3T

Mep3KOH: nnaHeThI». 'reno

« •••fOlIbIH:
KaMHH, YCHllHH

KaK KaMeHb,

11 eCJIH
cerr, see, 6hITb Hbm

6bI

saTeM

saXOTelIH TO», Mbl

CHllCH na

.IJ,eBO'IKH H COp Ball ee, 6poCaH

C nee

rrzrarse •••» «,lJ,eTH 3TO 6bIJl

B cpopMe 'IT06bI

«3TO

ecrr,

npeClle.IJ,OBaJIH KaKOR-TO CTeHbI YAapHH

KaK 6Y.IJ,TO 6bI OKa3aJIHCb

OT)J,aTbCH O)KH)J,aHHIO

He MO)KeT

.IJ,P03.IJ,>I. «•••

Ero

6eCnOJIe3HbI.

HH npe)J,H-CJIOBHeM, KaMeHb, na

HH npe-)J,HKaTOM. xasrerrs,

CTpOHTeJIbnpeTKHO(HO

6hIJIH no

cztenansr

H3 TecaHoro

KaMHH, H H im.IJ,eJI, 'ITO, JIe3BHe H JIHlI,O, CH-

KpaeyrOJIbHbI'H: nepaosr

KaMeHb

CTeHKe, OH CO.IJ,pOraJICH KaK CTaJlbHOe KaK 3JIaCTH'IHblH: ocyxcteaaoe MH'IHK». na

BeHHHY)Ke H nOTOM

nop'rnxe

«,lJ,HcceMHHall,T1T1»

OTCKaKHBaJI

«..• Ero

TO)Ke) CJIO)KaTCH B 3ana)J,HIO,

npenHTCTBYIOlll,YIO CTOJIbKO KaMKaMHH?

JIOR 06CTOHTeJlbCTB ,eCTeCTBeHHOH:

rromroe

OTCYTcTBHe Ha-

HCCJle)J,OBaHHHM oueneneamero HeH:! Ho MeHb -

'IHTaTeJIH.

MHMHKH,

nOXO)J,HJIO na

KaMeHHCTbIH:

«rno maxoe
3TO cpalIJIOc. eCJIH cpalIlIOC

KaMeHb, OTBeT -

KaMeHHCTOCTb 1IH 3TO? 3Ha'IHT

Ka-

POCT CTaJIaKTHTa». B)J,pe6e3rH

«... OCTaeTCH

C.IJ,eJIaTbO)J,HO -

pa36HTb

lIH 3TO XOTb ECJIH, He

3TO CTeKlIO KaMHeM •••» «.•

051 yCHyJI

aa npaopeac-

'ITO-TO,

3TO COKphITHe

Belll,H?

IlmI

)f(

Ae

p p 11 A

a.

P'I1CCEMI1HAl(I151

3aHHMa1l CTBeHHoro

HHKaKOrO MeCTa, OH He

uerrrpa,

He

HMeR

HHKaKoro

He CJIe,ll,YR HH rro KaKOMY 3HaqeHHeM, CH1ITHR

ecrecoticmeennoOT H

TeJI1I B HCXO,ll,HOH cHTyau,H11.

Hero

no-npezcaesry

ecrr.

My nymu,
JIl060ro OTpbIBaeT

otinanaer aosasnnaroutero
,ll,BH)l(eHHe

YCKOJIb3aeT

(Aufhebung)
OTHO.IlleHHe

naxce
03Ha-

03HaqHBaHH1I, OT JII060ro

qalOIIJ,ee!03HaqaeMOe B

npyrosr

CMbICJIe, Be,ll,b 06a )l(e caMOMY? H

Aufhebung, B TOM HJIH KOHeqHOM cxere npnxo«nonyureaae»


06pa30M MO)l(eM

nenac, OH y6e)l(,ll,aeTC1I B aTOM, rrOTOMY 'iTO OH xasreaeer. [...) ECJIH rOJIOBa Menyssr 3aMeH1IeT npencraanenae, Darstellung, )l(eHCKHX rrOJIOBbIX opraaos HlIH eCJIH OHa, cxopee, ornenner yzcacasouree B03,ll,eHCTBHe OT B03,ll,eHCTBH1I, npxsonamero K HaCJIa)l(,ll,eHHIO, MO)l(HO BCIIOMHHTh, 'ITO ,ll,eMOHcTpau,HR BeCTHa B rrOJIOBbIX OpraHOB XOPOIllO H3-

ART K TO My

eCJIH

HJIH OTB03Bpa3TO

xasecrse,

rrOMHMO

scero npoxero, crnyrasa-

pauaaae xacrpaumr raxace


maerca
K O,ll,HOMY H TOMY

CTpaHHbIM

xce,

KaK MbI

ym-

cnyxae orieper CKpbIBaeT B ce6e MHoro ClOprrpH30B. Ilpennor AJIR rrOBTopHoro CYMMapnoro npOqTeHHR rrpeAJIO)l(eHH1I c.t>peH,ll,a H cuensr nncsMa, xona, KOTOPhrH ee OTKpbIBaeT H saxpsraaer, sna-reHHR <paJIJIOca, He60JIhIllOrO aHaJIH3a B Das Medusenhaupt (<<06e3rJIaBHTb KaCTpHpOBaTh. HTaK, crpax Meny3bI 3TO crpax xacrpaumr, rrOCKOJIbKY OHa CB1I3aHa co 3peHHeM». c.t>peH,ll, npn aTOM 06'bRCHHeT, 'ITO, B 06meM, CTaHOB1ImeeC1I KaMHeM, OKaMeHeBaeT nepen orpesaaHOH rOJIOBOH Menyasr H AJI1I nee, nepen MaTepblO H AJIH srarepx, rrOCKOJIbKY OHa rrOKa3hIBaeTCBOH rrOJIOBbIe
eepJlCOamb?
T$OM

romero ,ll,eHCTBH1I, ooepera. HMeHHO TO, 'ITO BbI3hIBaeT yzcac, nponssener nonooaoe B03,ll,eHCTBMe aa spara, OT xoroporo HY)l(HO YKpbITbC1I. TaK, Y Pa6JIe ,ll,b1lBOJI yoeraer, xorna »cenunraa noxassmaer eMY CBOIO BarMHY. 3perMpOBaHHbIH MY)l(CKOH rronoaon opran TaK)l(e paooraer B xasecraecpencrsa YCTpaIlleHM1I, HO 6naro,ll,ap1l MHOMy MexaHH3MY. ,UeMOHCTpau,H1I neanca - M acex ero 3aMeCTMTeJIeH 6Y,ll,eT 3HaqMTb: "51 Te611 He 601OCh, 116pocalO reoe BhI30B, Y MeHR ecrs nenac", n03TOMy 3TO eure O,ll,MH nyrs YCTparneHH1I anoro nyxa») M B ,ll,PyrMx
MecTax. BY,ll,eM

namrnapusr
11 06paT11MyIO -

H 3aJIO)l(HM

sneer,

6eCKOHeq-

HO OTKpbITyIO BaJIeHTOB:

uerro-rxy

CJIe,ll,yIOmHX aKBHOKO-

KaMeHb

rra,ll,eH11e -

B03BhlrneH11e

opraasr.
06JIHK JIeKCY

«B HCKYCCTBe
3MeH,

BOJIOCaM

Menyssr

qaCTO

npazraror

rrOCKOJIbKY

nocnennae
rryraror

OTHOC1ITC1I K KOMrrTO, 'ITO, XOT1I OHH)l(e H

xeaeaae - csrepra 11 T. n, B 6Y,ll,eT yrpoxcars 3HaqeHHIO.


25

HeH ,ll,HCCeMMHall,M1I

scerna

xacrpauax, npa
srepe
KaK

aTOM 3aMeqaTeJIbHO H

OHH B KaKOH-TO ycrrOKaHBaIOT, CTBHe

CaMH rro ce6e,

rrOCKOJIbKY

OHH 3aMeH1IIOT

nemrc,

OTCYT-

CTaBJI1ITbC1I B

xoroporo

paa

H 1IBJI1IeTC1I rrpHqHHOH

yzcaca,

nene, <pyHKU,H1I rrHCbMa 'reneps 6Y,ll,eT npenxa-recrse cnocoonoa KOHTPOJIHpOBaTb onHOBpeMeHHo TeJIO H saeumee, B KOTOPOM 3TO TeJIO 1IB«B
caMOM JI1IeTCH; KaK o B03BpaTHOM peHHH", rrpe,ll,CTaBJIReTC1I, H Bce06Iu,eM OHa,

dessen Fehlen die Ursache des Grauens ist. 3,ll,eCb naxomrr nonraepxoreaae raxoe TexHH'IeCKOe rrpaBHJIO: YMHO)l(eHHe CHMBOJIOB neaaca osaaxaer xacrpaumo, Vervielfaltigung der Penissymbole bedeutet Kastration. Bnn roJIOBbI

nanpasryro

3a1lBJI1I1I

B03,ll,eHCTBHH

"CTHXOTBOB Tpex

6Y,ll,eT HerrOCpe,ll,CTBeHHO TOM a, CB1I3aHHOro TeM, 'ITO OHa Y)l(e KHHre", KHHrOH,

3arrHCbIBaTbC1I C 6y,ll,ymHM (H

H3MepeHH1IX CTaHOBHThC1I K 6Y,ll,ymeH B

cpaay

xce

Menyssr xacrpauaa

3aCTaBJI1IeT

OKaMeHeTb O,ll,HO H TO

OT

yxcaca,

rrpe-

ecrs, -

"rrpe,ll,HCJIOBMeM B 6Y,ll,ymee He-

spamaer
IIJIeKCe

3pHTeJIJI B

xasrens.

»ce HaqaJIO

B KOMrrpe-

3a6pOIlleHHOH

H O,ll,HO H TO

xce

a<p<peKTHBHoe

xaxecrne aenpexpauiaiomeroca
npemnecrayromen KHMre, n1060H,

npenacnonna,
6eCKOHeqHO BbIXO,ll,OM

spameaae!
oaaaxaer

,UeJIO B TOM, 'ITO OKaMeHeHHe,

das Starrwerden,
3pH-

KHHrM,

nonro H3

epexmno

H, CJIe,ll,OBaTeJIbHO, ycnoxoenae

OTKJla,ll,bIBaeMOH,

OKOH'IaTeJlbHbIM

II!IiJ

)K

AePP

a.

AHCCEMHHAL\HSl

KHHrH, ::nOH TeMHHll,bI science de Lautreamont»

pe'IeBOH

3noXH)>>. Sollers, p.

«La

npeanaraer
sa,

«ypesars»

npeAHCJIOBHR H Bo06II.J,e see CJIO-

II Logiques,

279-280.
npmUlTO pa306-

«6e3 KOTOPbIXMO)f(HO 060HTHCb».

Ypesarrs,

06py6aTb.

XOTR ,u;HCCeMHHaIJ,HR TO)f(e AeJIaeT cpe3 B TeKcTe, uens CO-

26

BoT nO'IeMY B KJIaCCH'IeCKOH paropaxe JIeHHOCTb, Hapll,HCCH'IeCKOe 060)f(aHHe CbIHa.

scesr

HHaR -

npOH3BeCTH <pOPMbI,

xoropsre

3a'IaCTYIO BMeCTe CO

JIa'IaTb npeAHCJIOBHe, ero caMOAOBOJIbCTBO,CaMOBJII06OTIJ,OM csoero

ssoenu 61# noxobum» scea pwrOPKKOH H orpesara.Pl

aa re, 'ITO KOHAHJIbHK -

<pHJIOco<pHeH,KOTOPYIOOH B AaHHOM XOTeJI 6bI CO scea CypOBOCTbIO

«Ilpeoucnoeust KHHra casta

3TO eII.J,eOAHH nOABOAHbIH xa-

cJIY'Iae npeACTaBJIReT -

MeHb; H Hy)f(HO HeHaBH,IJ,eTb, aK rOBOpHJI ITacKaJIb. K

l... J

3aTeM, KaK 06CTORT AeJIa C 3TOH IJ,HTaIJ,HOH-

Bania

AOJI)f(Ha ronop

ar s aa ceria,

eCJIH

HOH npHBHBKOH B HallleM q)paHIJ,Y3CKOMcanei 3anpeII.J,eaa JIH OHa? ,UOJI)f(HaJIH OHa nJIO,u;HTbCR? ,UOJI)f(HOJIH ypesara

nOC'IaCTJIMBMTCR,H rorma CMaTpMBaR Bonpoc

ee npO'ITeT»

(BOJIbTep). Pac-

«)l{aHpa

AHAaKTHKH», KOHAHJIbRK «3JIoynoTpe6JIeHHe eII.J,eOAHH HCTO'I-

topos?

He RBJIHeTCR JIH KJIaCCHIJ,H3M HeBep;eHHH OT B nanrs BeTBbIO 6apoKKo? KOHAHJIbHK KOTOPbIH caM ... «ECJIH H3 MHO-

B «I1CKYCCTBe nacsr-ra»

onncsrsaer

casr oro

ceria scero

npeAHCJIOBHRMH»: «ITpe;UiCJIOBHR -

nOBTopReT JIa6pIOHepa, rHX Tpy.n;OB0 "0.n;06peHHR", JIR", "ITocBRII.J,eHHe CTBO cTpaHHIJ" Bruyere, «Des 27

HKK 3JIoynoTpe6JIeHHH. I1MeHHo B HI1X aBTOp MO)f(eT na'IaTb KH'IMTbCR, nopon cMexoTBopHO npeYBeJIH'IHBaR IJ,eHHOCTbpaccerarpasaesrsrx 3YMHO noxaaars eTCR,cnocoonsr HM aonpocoa.

npaaax yopars "ITpeAynpe)f(AeHHe 'IHTaTe» (cIT » ((0 " , peAHCJIOBHe , rJIaBJIeHHe ,


ezrsa JIH OCTaHeTCRAOCTaTO'IHOe KOJIHqeqT06bI Ha3BaTb OCTaTOK KHHroH» )l{., (La

Becsraa

pa-

TOT 3TarI, aa KOTOPOMnacasnnre

AO Hac

OCTaBHlIH HaYKY, na KOTOPYIO,MbI, KaK HaM npeACTaBJIRnpOJIlITb KaKDH.-TOCBeT.OAHaKO paccxanOArOTOBHTeJIbHbIX HCCJIeAOnpHlIIlIOCb npeOAOJIeTb, 3bIBaTb 0 CBOI1X paoorax, BaHHRX, npenRTCTBIDIX,

les Caractetes <JIa6pIOHep ouvrages de l'esprit»). 11 T. A·

«Xapaxrepsr»>.

xoropsre

C006II.J,aTbrry6JIHKe 0 scex HMeBlIIHXCR H,lJ,eRX; AOBOJIbHe CTBYRCb OAHHM npeAHCJIOBHeM, A06aBJIRTb no npemrCJIOBHIOK K~OM)' OTAeJIbHOH rnaae; HOBOM)' H3AaHHIO H Aa)f(e K Ka)f(AOH nepecxaasmare HCTOPHIO acex 6e3YKa3bIBaTb AJIR Ka)f(AOrO H3 BOero paspeurenaa, xorna Tpe-

Ho eII.J,e JIY'IlIIe, H 3TH ABa )f(eJIaHHRHe nporaaope-rar APyr npyry, eCJIH pests O)f(HBJIReT caM a ceria, eCJIH paccyxcneHHe casro o raexae'r B 3TOM cnyxae aa cetia, KaK rOBopHTCR B «$eApe». OHO CTaHOBHTCR CBOHM c06cTBeHHblM aa HeHa.u;06HoCTbIO:

OTIJ,OM, a npeAHCJIOBHe ornazraer

ycneumsrx

nonsrrox:

«A6cOJIIOTHO 6eCnOJIe3HO, eCJIH aBTOp 6YAeT B CBoeM npeAHCJIOBHH 3aII.J,HII.J,aTb KHHry, KOTOPaR casra He CMO)f(eT OTBeTHTb nepen 06II.J,eCTBeHHOCTbIO» (JlOKK). MbI BHAHM, KaK CyII.J,eCTBeHHbIHAHAaKTH3M KJIaCCHqeCKOrO npeAHCJlOBHR scerna TeM BOAJIep, nOAAep)f(HBaeT MOpaJlbHOe paccxazcer 3a-

npOCOB MHO)f(eCTBOcpencrs nOJIb30BaTbCH, -

6yeTcR OAHO-eAHHCTBeHHoe, KOTOPbIM MO)f(HO 6blJIO 6bI see 3TO JIHlIIb HCKYCCTBO CAeJIaTbKHHqHTaTeJIR. ECJIH OT nOA06HbIX OT HHX nO'ITH HH'IerO He

ry TOJIII.J,e, YTOMHB B arore pa60T orpeaars

ace nenyaoroe,

CY)f(AeHHe. «MoR eAHHCTBCHHaROlIIH6Ka, CyII.J,Heacesr YMCTBeHHhle cnoc06HOCTH

OCTaHeTCR.MO)f(HO CKa3aTb, 'ITO TaKHe

aaropsr

XOTeJIH OHH

6bIJIa B TOM, 'ITO R paCCqHTblBaJI na npHH He HanHCaJI

C03.n;aTbJIHlIIb npe,u;HCJIOBHeK aorrpocasr, 06eII.J,aJIHpaCCMOTpeTb, rH, xorna

xoropsre

OHM 3aKaH'IHBaIOT CBOHKHH-

npe,u;HCJIOBHH, ne R Mor 6bl H3JlO)f(HTb CBOHmrreparypr Hble npmnncnsr OT MopaJIH». H OCB060AHTb CTOJIb Ba)f(HbIH sonpoc

OHH yxce 3a6b1JIH 0 TOM, 'ITO HY)f(HO pelIIHTb xoropsre OHM no.ZJ;HHJIH». IT03TOM)' KOH.u;HJIbRK

sonpocsr,

IImJ
28

>K

Ae

p p 11A

a.

.QHCCEMI1HAlII151

Positions

et Propositions,

I, p. 206-207.

KYPOiB

Knonena,

11 BpO)KAeHHbIH cy6'beKTI1BHOCTb

sapoirutu cuepmu»,
ecrs

«B

I1Aee )K113HI1

nOHJlTl1e, OHa, TaKI1M 06pa30M, a6COJIlOTHOe tiumue-e-ceoe

29

Encyclopedie
Gandillac, B aasane p.

AI1J1 qmlloc0<pcKI1X

des sciences philosophiques <<<3HI.V1KlIoneHaYK»>, ed, Gallimard, tr. M. de


TOT )Ke MOTHB BOCnp0l13BOAI1TCH

ecrs

80311e CaM.OU ceo«

oeu-

crneurnenuuocmu
AeJIhHOe

11YHI1BepCallbHoH KOHKpeTHocTH; npe-

73,82-83.

«Manosr 1I0rH.KI1»: npenaaparensmae nOHJlTI1J1 (Vorbegriffe) I1MelOT 3Ha'JeHl1e KaK «onpenerrenaa, 113BlIe'JeHHble 113c03epIIaHI1J1 uenoro 11 aroprerasre no OTHOIIIeHl110 K HeMy» (p.

6btmUe-ooHo~8He-opyzozo npapozrsr CHIITO (aufgehoben),11 nOHJlTl1e, xoropoe B HeH 1I11IIIb 80311ece6H,B cy6'beKTI1BHOCTI1 crano ollH-ce6H» (§ 375 11§ 376).
51BJIJleTcJI 1I11npeAI1CJIOBl1e

93).
31

npupooou

noroca]

ECTe-

CTBeHHOH )KI13HblO nOHJlTl1J1? cY)K,ll;eHI1J1-I1Ael1(Vas

30

)l{H3Hb, KaK CYIIIeCTBeHHoe <pHlIOCO<pCKoe onpenenenae nOHHTI1J111nyxa, no He06xOAI1MOCTI1 onHCbIBaeTCJI 06-

HCXOAHoe pacnpenezrenae

Sich-

Urteilen der Idee)


noro

np0l13BOAl1TCH (TpeTI1H Cl1l1JI0fl13M)

IIII1MI1 npl13HaKaMH. paCTI1TeJIbHOH HlII1 61101l0rH.'leCKOH )K,H3HI1, KOTOpaJl JlBlIJleTCJI 'JaCTHbIM 06'beKTOM CP11110CO<P1111 npxponsr. 3Ta aaanoraa C03AalOIIIaJl 11lIJ1MeTa<popl1'JHOCTb,

KaK 6bITl1e-B0311e-ce6J1 11AJIJI~ce6J1HAel1 KaK aocomor-

nyxa,

3Ta MeJl

«npI1BOAI1TCJIB AeHcTBl1e, nopozc-

naer ce6J111HaClIa)KAaeTCJIC060H»

(sich ... betatigt, erzeugt


3a-

orpoxnrsre

np0611eMbI, B03MO)f(Ha 1I11IIIb KaK

und geniesst).
BepIIIaeT tr. 32

KaK 60r p.

ApI1CTOTellJl, TeKCT xoroporo CBOI1M errarparpose

ClIeACTBl1e OpraHI1'JHOCTI1 3HIII1KlIOneAH.'leCKoH 1I0r11KI1.

«3HIII1KlIOneAl1lO»

(§ 577,

C 3TOH TO'JKI1 3peHI1J1MO)KHO 6y;n;eT rrpovecrs


CaHI1J1«B03BpaIIIeHI1J1 K eerie» «3apoAbIIIIa»

see onl1-

M.

de Gandillac,

500).

(§ 347

11

§ 348),
naer

«BHYTpeHHeH CJIY'IaHHOCTJ1) (<<)I{I1BoTHoe 0611a-

clIyqaHHbIM

caM008UJlCeHUeM.,

nOCKOJIbKY TaK »ce, OT CHlIbI npl13TO CB060A-

Jlornxa 'roro (OTHOCHTCH K TOMY), 'ITO B03BpamaeTCJI K orny (MepTBOMY - 601lbIIIe 'IeM xorna 6bI TO HH 6bIJIO)
KaK K 3aKOHY 11norocy TaKOBO casro CHJlTl1e.OHa uc-

KaK CBeT -

3TO aneansaocrs,

o'ropaannaa

TJI)KeHI1J1, y6'beKTI1BHOCTb )KHBOTHoro c Hoe BpeMJI, xoropoe,

mUHHa,

11OHa sanaer

HCTI1HY

caMOZO

1I0rOIIeHTpI13Ma.

nOCKOJIbKY OHO OTBJIe'IeHO OT pe-

JIoroIIeHTpH.'leCKOH KyJIbTYPbI 11JIOrOIIeHTpl1'IeCKOrO noHJlTI1J1KyllbTYPbJ. 51 nOKa3aJI (Le Puits et la Pyramide, Introduction a la semiologie de Hegel, 1968 II Hegel et la pensee moderne, P.U.F., 1971), KaK B rereJIeBCKOH Al1aJIeKTI1Ke CHHTHe opraansyer MaeTCJI (aufgehoben) OTHOIIIeHl1e osna-raiourero CHI1K 03Ha'IaeMoMY, BbIIlOllHJlHCb B HeM. 03Ha'IalOIIIee

aJIbHOH BHeIlIHOCTI1, OnpeAeJIJleTCJI CaM.Onp0U38ollbHO na C80eM uecme B COOTBeTCTBHI1C BHYTpeHHeif CJIyqaHHoCTblO. C 3TI1M CBJl3bIBaeTCJITOT <paKT, 'ITO Y)KHBOTHoro ec'rs ZOllOC,Tai< 'ITO ero cy6'beKTHBHOCTb KaK Aet1cTBI1TeJIbHaH I1AeallbHOCTb (AYIIIa) rrpencraanaer ecra rocnOACTBO HaA a6CTpaKTHOH I1AeallbHOCTblO BpeMeHI1 11npOCTpaHCTBa 11 caoe caMOABI1)KeHHe KaK aKT, COCTOJlml1H B CB060AHOM cOApOraHIfJ1 8 XBaTKH» 11 «CHOIIIeHI1J1» BepIIIeHHJI)

B npOIIeCCHl1 CMhlCJIa (03Ha'IaeMO-

ro), Oopaineaae

aroro

AuJhebung

B onn0311III1lO 03Ha'Ja-

CaMOM. ce6e», § 351), «He(§ 369), a TaK)Ke CUllllOZU3Ma

IOmee/03Ha'IaeMOe

OCTaBHlIO 6bI na MeCTe HlIH BepH)'JIO

6bl na MeCTO I1CTHHY <paJIlIOIIeHTpl1'IeCKOH Al1aJIeKTI1KH caM pa3YM, xoropsnt 3AeCh MbI HI1 B xoea Mepe He

)K113HI1 IIellOM, )KI13HI1nyxa KaK I1CTI1HbI11CMepTI1 (saB eCTeCTBeHHOH )K113HI1, KOTOpaJl B ce6e, «CBOIO U3HattallbHYIO B CBoeH KOHe'IHOCTI1,necer

CTapaeMCJI06BHHI1Tb. KaK 11<I>peHAa,xorna OH CTOJIbrny60KOMbIClIeHHO 3aHBJIJleT,'ITO JII16H,l1;O OAHO (nO'IeMY

oonesu»

EllP.1

)K

Aep

P H A B. AHCCEMHHALlHfl

6hI H HeT) H 'ITO n03mOMY '1eMY )I(e? Bee JIH AelIO B

OHO MY)I(CKOrOpOAa (HO no-

yrornro!

To, 'ITO rrpa

3TOM He BCH '1HTaeMOCTb 6YAeT

npennocsrzrxax

JIan. ITo 3TOMY sonpocy CM.: Lacan

J.,

snpasoro CMhICBcrits (passim H


(H He TOlIhKO O'leBMAH Me34

YHH'ITO)l(eHa, He

see

CMhIClIOBhIe3cpcpel<Tbl6YAYT OTMe-

ocooenao p. 554, 692-695, 732). \.fTo xacaerca «)I(eHCKOMcexcyazrsnocrn»


0603Ha'laeMOrOTaKHM 06pa30M

HeHbI, «03HaQaeT», cpena

npoxero,

TO, 'ITO

ocmasouieacs

crpyxrype

6)'KBbI, KOTopaH He HMeeT e06CTBeHHOH rpa-

eI<TOpHH, npHCTalIO

aorrpoca, ero

nyCTHTh c06CTBeHHoe

scerna HMeTh B03MO)l(HOCTh npoaanpaaneaae.


aarnaaaesr l'Encyclo1966 (colI.

HOM CBH3H C np06lIeMaTHI<OH q,alIJIOlleHTpH3Ma

see
paa

O'leBHAHoH -

C np06lIeMaTHKOH MeTaH3hIl<a, I<OTO-

<l>parMeHThI, ony6JIHI<OBaHHhIe nOA

CHOBa cTaHoBHTcH B03MO)l(HOH H CHOBa nozryxaer

pedie.sx. fro
«Arguments» 35

M. de Gandillac, ).

ed.

de Minuit,

MeCTO 6lIarOAapH 3a6hITOMY npHTBopCTBY,

xax

TOlIhl<O

onpeneneaaoe
neeuto),
TaeTCJIxax

oana-raronree

BHAHT B HeM CBOIOnpU8U«IT03311H -

eora I< HeH Hal<lIOHHThCH, '1Haexaa MaTpHIIa (csepx 'roro erne H TeopeTH'1eCKaH,xanpaaneanan aa BHAeHHe). Hesraoro B CTOpOAHcceMHHaIlHH, He OT ,nOM aHaTOMHH npeAMClIoBHH MhI, 6hITh MO)l(eT, eYMeeM

3TO '1aCTh CPHJIOCOCPCKOH TeXHHKH. <l>HlIO-

COCPCKHH npenaxar llU3a4ulO, (p. npH'IeM

n08C100Y

asrpaacaer

CaMO-ifJUHa-

KOCBeHHYIO caMo-cpHHalIH3aIlHIO»

312).

«<I>HJIOCOCPHH 3TO, no cYlIIecTBY, HOCTalIh-

paarvranerr.,

'ITO

sarono-reaae

BOlIhllIOH JIOrH-

rHH -

CTpeMJIeHHe n08c100Y

KOH npeAl1cnOBI1H B CK061<Hnpopaooraso MbLM

meu :JICe ca-

ompuuanueu,

(p. 65).

BOT rro-resry ifJUllOCoifJUJl

'ITO 113aKlIIO'IeHHe B CI<06K11 aHaTO-

MaH xax 060raI.IIeHHe

MHH B, nCHXoaHalIHTH'IeCI<HM q,alIlIOlleHTpH3Me. He

Bnon-

tium» I(.aK Y ceti« OOMa» ceuenu, npencraanseB B03BpaTe I< ce6e, scerna OKa3bI3TOM OT

BaeTCH cy6cTaHIIHalIHCTCI<OH, 3aBHCHMoH npa

onpenenenasra HHTepee npOAOlI)I(aeT BI<JIaAhIBaTh B nOA06Hoe orpanaane H HaxOAHTh B HeM TO, 6e3 -rero,
no YTBep)l(,ll;eHHJlM,MO)l(HO 060HTHCh. KaK 06'hHCHHTh TO, 'ITO npeAHClIOBHH Ierens nOBTOpHTbCJI, ocmaeamecu Ta t.tumaeMbLMU xax npezmonaraercn, AO onpeneneaaoro

pOMaHTl1'1eCKOHMeTacpop113allHH 11MHcpa 0 ceMaHTI1'1eCKOHrnyoaae, anamraapyer OT TOH (ecna

nneonora«,
Ayxa» sonpoc

KOTOPyro Bamnap

TOlIhKO He nOAAaeTCH eA: casr)

B «<I>opMHpoBaHI1H aay-nroro 33

<La Formation

de

no-rpaMOryT MOMeH-

JIOCOCPCI<H 11H36hITO'lHhIe, H HeAOCTaTO'lHble -

l'esprit scientifique>, pasoapaa Ta. (Cesreanoe pusnuuenue HHIIO.)

cnepsna H 30lIOTal<OH C lIIO-

3TO He TOlIhKO cesra H

AHcceMHHallHH

OHH nonaepraio'rca

caMH no ce6e, 6e3 lIOtHKH, OT KOTOPOH, OHI1 AOJI)I(HbI nonyqHTh


CBOM CTa-

TpaI<TOBKe, 1<0TOPaHAOlI)I(Ha 6bIlIa 6hI nopaars

6hIM MHcpolIOrH'leCKI1M naHCfIepMH3MoM H C JII060H anXHMH'IeCI<OH MeTalIlIyprl1eH. '1T06bI HaMeTHTh CBH3b

Tye? \.fTO 6hI npOH301IIJI0, eCJIHsee npeAHClIOBHH Ierezra coopars B OTAeJIbHhlMTOM nOA06HO scesr npeAHClIOBHJIM )J.)I(eHMCaB

Hanporns,

pexs HAeT 0 TOM,

C ABH)I(eHHeM reHeTH'IeCI<OH

The art of the novel? A

MO)l(eT, Ierem,

He

Hayl<H H C reHeTH'IeCI<HM ABH)I(eHHeM HayKH BO acex nYHI<TaX,

nHCaJI HH'IerO, I<pOMe npeAHClIOBMH? \.fTO, eClIH nOCTaBHTb HX He BHe npOH3BeAeHHJI, a B l<aKOe-TOnpyroe eTO, aanpnsrep crpasia HOU nocepennae (xax Me-

me

nOClIeAHHH AOlI)I(Ha C'IHTaThCH C np06lIeMaMH MHoroe,

H He

TOJIbl<OMeTacpopH'IeCI<H -

nHChMa H

npeAHClIOBHe «TPH-

pa3lIH'IHH, C ceMeHHhIM pa3lIH'IeHHeM (CM.:

De Lagramcne-

Illenna») DOlIblIIOH lIorHKH, Me)l(,ll;Y 06'beKmUBnoeuxoa H cytnexmueuoa noeuxoui I1JIH Bo06111erne

matoLogie,

p.

19). Flporrycxas

npaaenesr

nyromyto

IIHTaTY H3 <l>peHAa, OTH 0 ee HanpaBlIeHHOCTH X

am

)I(

.!I e

p p 11 A

a.

AIiCCEMIlHALtI1R

HH B KOeM cnyxae HeJlb311 3a6blBaTb:

«Bee

Hannt epesseu-

B 6e3YMHH OTpbIBaeT HX, noxa He HanOJlHHTClI HMH H He Ha)1,eJlHT HX 6JlHCTaHHeM B nyc TOM npOCTpaHCTBe npoH3BOJlbHbIX H O)1,HHOKHX npa3)1,HHKOB»(p.647). ITpHMe'faHHlI, BbIllOJlHeHHble KaK nocTCKpHnTYM K nex-

asre nCHXOJlOrH'leCKHe KOHl\enl\HH


6a3HC OpraHH'feCKHX

HY:)I<HO6Y)1,eTB xaaa Ie

KoA-TO MOMeHT 3aMeHHTb Y'leHHeM, OnHpaIOll\HMClI npOl\eCCOB» (<<Pour introduire

narcissisme» II La Vie sexuelle, P.U.F., p. 86).


36 B 6YKBaJlbHOM npeapauteaan, noynpa)l(HlITbClI, orner«, npenaaaa B KOTOPOM 3)1,eCbCTOHT

l\HH H naace K casrosry ::ha TO'lKa 3peHHlI,

»caapy

JleKl\HH: He B MeHbIlleR

« ... BBHAY TOf'O, 'ITO BbICIllee npHTR)I(eHHe •••


nHpOTeXHH'IeCKall ee orHIO. 31'0 HCTpe6JIeHHe CTeneHH, '1eM MeTa<pH3H'1eCKaJl;HO <petiepBepK na BbICOTeH no rrpnsrepy HaCJla)l()1.eHHe»(p. MbICJlH pacnpOCTpaHHeT HAeaJIbHOe

nO)1,o6HO TaKOBOMY rHMeHa, HHKOr)1,a He Ha'fHero TO)l()1,eCTBO. «Mo)I(HO C)I(e'fb aJleKCaH)1,H BHe HX ecrs He 6Y)1,eT

HaeTCR H He 3aKaH'fHBaeTCR. B HeM pac-rpasnraaerca

655).
CB1I3aHHOHC YCTaHOBJleHHeM aurarpora. ero

<de-pense>

,n:onOJlHHTeJlbHOe '1TeHHe MOrJlO 6bI BbHIBHTb cnenyiouiee: pext. H)1,eT0 paoore, HJlH, Ha060poT,

PHHCKyro 6H6JlHOTeKY. Ha)1, nanapycasra

CHJIbI: aa KaKOe-TO spesor Y Hac 6Y)1,eTOTHlITa cnocooHOCTb HaXO)1,HTb3TH CHJlbI; HO HX aaepras YHH'fTO)l(eHa» (Artaud,

)1,eMOHTa)l(QM uexoero

cneasr.
CTPOH

3Illa<poT

nOHa)1,06HTClI, '1T06bI xepea KaKOM-TO

(Euvres completes,
aanenare aexoea

t.

IV,

p.

14).

nposreacyrox

BpeMeHH 3aMeHHTb COJlHl\e ITJlaTOHa JlIO-

ITpa3)1,HHK H <peHepBepK, rpara,


JlRKP -

npozorraaae

H CHMy-

Mannapsre.
HJIH HH'IeM. aroro cnoaa,

6bIJlO 6bI HaHBHO

HX (co crpacrsio, cfiOpMbl. J1)1,eTJlH 37

TOM CTOPOHOM rnrreparypsr

KOTOPaJlyxce rOBOpHJIa 6bI sa ce611) HeBHHHocTbIO, 6ecnJlO)1,HOCTbIO HJlH 6eCCHJlHeM pe-ts B KOHl\e «My3bIKH rna soaspauraer )l(e 0 TOM, 'fT06bI

«... 3ro,

na, TOJlhKO OTHOCltTeJIbHOcasroro (ITHCbMO BbeJle-fpH<p<peHY

H CJlOBeCHOCTH», xoropaaace-

3mo ecrnt»... »
8
asrycra

«Viele-Griffin>,

JIHTepaTYPY K npa3)1,HHKY, 0 TOM, 'fTOrrpesparirn, caMY 3eMJIIO B CHMYJlllKp? HJIH CH-

1891

r.). ITOBTOPHM eure paa, '1T06bl CMlIr'IHTb npe)1,HClIOBHH-r-r- 3TO sonpoc

6bI KaKHM-TO 06pa30M B03PO)1,HTb CHMYJlllKP 3eMJIH, HJIH DOJIbIlle He 6bIJlO 6b1 npa3)1,HHKa, znrrepa'rypsr 3HaTb: «3aJlO)l(HTe nopox MelliaeT 0603peTb <pOHaPHKH,'fT06bI JlH rpeoyior J1 '1T06bI B 3TH nonaansr,

Clle)1.yrolll;Hti y)1,ap: sonpoc

6bITHR., BbIBe)1,eHHOrOna Cl\eHY KH11TH-ITpHpO)1,bI KaK JIoroca, 'ITO 0 "ITpe)1,HCJlOBHH"aoooute xer HH'IerO cnsnnare, casroro

surarpora

HJlH na «non-

MOCTKH COCTaBHTeJleti npe)1,HCJlOBHH.» (p. 364). Bonpoc xpyra 3nHJIOra H nponeHHKTO He aaxorOMeH. «ITPe)1.HCllOBHe» «BaTeKY»: «... npHBO)1,HTK TOMY, K 60JlbIlle 06paTHB see BHHMaHHe K n03Hace611. [ •••J KaK a6COJlIOTHO nycroe, { •••J YCTpeMHBIIIHCb, no BaIIIHM KHHrH, O'leBH)1,HOnOJlHOCTbIO OCTaHOBKe,KOTopaH, 6bITb MO)l(eT,

MYJlllKpa, eCJIH6bI MbI MOrJIH COscea yaepeHHOCTbIO 3TO eCJIHTeMHOTa nO)1,BeCbTe HX B nepcnex'rane, HeT -

BH)1,eTb:)1,eJlO TOM, '-ITO BanIH MbI(;B

OT 3eMJIH npaspax».

HHIO xepea

pacnpocrpaasrrs:

R OTpHl\aIO 3TO npaso.

«qeMY 3TO CJlY)I(HT O)1,HORHrpe. BBH)1,Y Toro, 'fTO ssrcuree npHTlI)I(eHHe, H)1,yllI;ee,KaK MbI MO)I(eM BepHO 3aMeTHTb, H3 nyCTOTbI, BbITlIrHBaeMOR H3 Hac CKYKOHno OTHOIlleHHIQ K seutasr, eCJIHOHH YCTaHaBJlHBaIOTClI CO acea npO'fHOCTbIO H HeH36hIBHOCTbIO, _

)l(eJlaHHHM, K aexoea

CTaHeT HaTypaJlH3al\Heti OTCYTCTBOBaJIH 6bI ace 'ITO rrycrtrrs (p. nbllIb

nponerosrensr, cnocoonsre

pa3Be

B rnasa, eCJlH 6bI BbI He )1,O)l()1,aJIHCb»

555).

«ITpe)1,HCllOBHe»K «OpOCKY KOCTeH»: «51 XOTeJl He 'lHTaJIH, a eClIH

6bI, '1T06bI 3TO ITpHMe'laHHe soooute

IIiI!I

)I<

A e P P H A a.

,lJ.HCCEMHHAl(HSl

6bl

H np06e:>KaJIH

MeJIbKOM,

TOT'IaC

3a6bIJIH;

OnblTHOMY 6bIJIH

TbI HMeelllb

B BH;o;y? QY>KE3EMEIJ..

KaK

MHe Ka:>KeTCH, KOCHYTbCH 3HaHHeM. ilapa-

'IHTaTeJIlO 6bI

OHO paCCKa:>KeT MaJIO ero

aemea, xoropsre
nparrac'rs

oxeas
TOrO lOHblfI

CTpaHHaH HBJIeHHH, COKPAT.

ac'rpexa
KOTOpOe

3aCTaBJHleT B Hac

MeHH

sa npenenasor
HOBH'IKa,

nOHHMaHJf1I, ;O;OJI)KeH

HO OHO MO:>KeT CMYB3rml;O;OM

sanae'rca
MHe

THTb K

KOTOPbIH

QTO :>Ke 3TO? QY)I(E3EMEIJ.. IOHOIlla, CeH'IaC

B TOM

nepasrsr CJIOBaM n03MbI, 'IT06bI cnenyiomae, HMeHHO nopanxe, B KaKOM OHH H;o;YT npyr sa npyrosr, npaK nOClIe}l;HHM, pa36HBKa H BO

;O;HrMa, ;o;OCTOHHbIH napa;O;HrMa, lOHblfI MeHH '1T06bI

Hy:>KHa TaKaH

BeJIH ero CTBO KaK

scesr

TOJIbKO O;o;HO aosure-

COKPAT. HH'Iero! TbI

'ITeHHH». «OpOCOK KOCTeH», CTaJIO 6bITb, He 6y-

H «I1rHTYP», KHHroH.

BH:>KY, 'ITO MHe

car-ry MOIO napanarsry, roaopn :>Ke, He cxpsmaa OT QY)I(E3EMEIJ.. 5I CKa:>KY' nOCKOJIbKY H rOTOB CJIe;O;OBaTb sa MHOH. Bens, KaK
06'bHCHHTb TaK Hy MbI 3HaeM, 'ITO n03HaKOMHJIHCb C nHCbMOM •••

ner
38

npe;O;CTaBJIHeTCH,

TOJIbKO-TOJIbKO

Ilpaseep: «JlI060Bb;o;O 6paKa KOM xoporxoe npeAHCJIOBHe


ra»
(ilTH-CeHH <Petit

<hymen> B

nOXOAHT

na cmnnKHH-

aaxane

6eCKOHe'lHOH

Senn».

grammaton empeiroi gignontai ... Onacaaae CllJIeTeHHH (sumploke) naer He06xoAHMOCTb 06pameHHH
MaTH'IeCKOM on

»)

nern, xorna OHH (otan arti (277d-e, tr. Dies)


06HapY:>KHB rpaM-

B nHCbMe

K napaAHrMe

srre,

a 3aTeM

nOCTeneHHO B

nO;O;BOAHT Hac cpop-

39

«Istos unu, B c06CTBeHHOM 3Ha'leHHH, nocmaBlleHHblU npJT.MOnpeascem, orxyna: I. ssauma xopatins: II. eepmuKallbHblU eanux y ;o;peBHHX, a He ropH30HTaJIbHbIH, KaK B HaCTOHmee BpeMH (HCKJIlO'IaH rooenensr H HH;O;HHCKHe MaHycpaKTypbI), OT xoroporo OTXO;o;HT HHTH OCHOBbI aa TKau;KJiH CTaHOK, orxyna 1. mKa1.4KUUcmauox; 2. COOTBeTCTBeHHO, numts OCH08bl, saxpenneunan na mKa1.4KoM cmautee, orxyna ymox; 3. mteau», nonomno, tcyco« nOllomHa; 4. no aHaJIOrHH, naymuua; HJIH nnenuuue comu. III. nanxa; npym. IV. no ananoraa, xocm» HOZU*.
«qY)I(E3EMEIJ.. ECJIH He HCnOJIb30BaTb napa;O;HrMy,

K HCnOJIb30BaHHlO Me H K

aroro cpencrna
TKa'la.

ero «u;apCKOH»

napanarsse

41

pa»

onacaane HCTOPHH HHTepnpeTalJ,HM «$e;o;nonpoca 0 ero KOMn03HU;HH MO:>KHO HaRTH B pa60Te: Robin L. La Theorie platonieienne de l'amour. (P.U.F. 2< edit., 1964), a TaK:>Ke BO «BseneHHH» Toro :>Ke aaropa K «$e;o;py» B H3;o;aHHH Bione
ooraTeMIllee H 06CY:>KAeHHe <Bud6>. H. Platons philosophische Entwicklung, Leipzig, 1905. 3. Bypre <E. Bourguet> KpHTHKyeT aroro anropa B cBoeJ1 crarse: Sur la composition de Phedre II Revue de la Methaphysique et la Morale, 1919, p. 335.

42 40

Raeder

ClIO:>KHO 6y;o;eT, MOH 6bI TO HH 6b1JIO 06pa30M.

noporon npyr, paCCMOTpeTb KaKOR 3Ha'lHMblH sonpoc y;O;OBJIeTBOpHTeJIbMO:>KHO 6bIJIO 6bI Ka:>K;O;bIH H3 Hac nO'lTH 3HaeT ;O;OCTOBep060 'ITO

HbIM HO

Bens

yrnepacnars,
'ITO

scesr,
QTO

43

Frutiger

P.

Les Mythes de Platon,


pe'lb MeT 0

p. 233.

KaK 6y;o;TO BO CHe, 06HapY:>KHBaH HHH, OH HH'IerO He 3HaeT.

B MOMeHT lOHblCi

np06Y:>KAe-

COKPAT.

44

3;o;eCb, xorna

logos'

e, P06eH

nepeeomrr

tekhne
CJIO-

KaK «HCKYCCTBO». BO, OTHOCHmeeCH

Ilanee,
na

B 06BHHeHHH, pa3

TO:>Ke car-roe

3TOT

K nHCbMY,

nepeBOAHTCH

Cnoaapaaa craraa (<\0.0<;»:Bailly A., Dictionnaire Hachette, Paris, 1906, p. 983.

grec-francais, Librairie

KaK

«TeXHH'IeCKOe

3HaHHe»

(275c).

milD >K a

IJ,e p p ~ A a.

tJ.I-tCCEM~HAl.\I1~

45

ECnH B «Kypce» Coccropa ro 3KCKYpCa,

BOnpOC nHCbMa HCKJIlOl.faeTOl

49

51.

3aMeTHJI HX 6JIarOlJ,apH BeCbMa npoHHll.aTeJIbHOM Markovitz>.

non-

HnH ynOpSlIJ,Ol.fHBaeTCHBBHlJ,e HeKOerO

npeneaparezrsao-

CKa3Ke, JI106e3HO lJ,aHHOH MHe <I>paHcHH MapKOBHl.f <Francine ECTeCTBeHHo, 3TOT TeKCT He06XOIJ,HMOcpaamrrs C TeKCTaMH H3 KHHr VI H VII

ocraionreroca

BHe npOH3Bep:eHHH, B «Onsr-

Te 0 npoHCXO)l(,IJ;eHHHfl3b1KOB» rnaaa, nOCBH~aeMaH 3TOMy BOnpOCY PyCCO, TaIOKe, HeCMOTpH TenbH)'IO 3Hal.fHMOCTb, PHH,

«Iocy-

aa

CBOlO lJ,eMCTBH50

nape-rna».
31J,eCb MbI MO)l(eM JIHlllb o CBH3HX fpeIIHH OTOCJIaTb KO

npenzraraercs

B BHlJ,e HeCKOnbKO

npOH3BOnbHOrO 1J,0nOnHeHHfl, BCnOMOraTenbHOrO KpHTe-

acesr

pa60TaM

«npyroro cnocooa

CpaBHHTb H3bIKll H

npOC HX IJ,peBHOCTH».Ta )l(e

nacres

B «3HIIHKnOneIJ,HH»

peunrrs BOcaseaa onepanas ocytnecrsIerena; CM.: «Le. Puits et la

C BOCTOKOM H BJIH)l(HHM BOCTOKOM. CErHnToM,

KaK H3BeCTHO, TaKHX pa60T Ol.feHb MHoro.

ero OTHOllleHHflX
sp rcxoro,

ranorese

ero

0 Ilnaroae, rryremecrsaa

Pyramides (1-1968) II Hegel et la Pensee moderne, P.U.E, 1970, colI. «Epimethee».


48 TaMYC Y nJIaTOHa, HeCOMHeHHO, npyroro xoroporo HMeHH 60ra AMMoHa, no (cOJIHel.fHbIM 60r

B feJIHOnOJIb, cBHlJ,eTeJIbCTBax CTpa60Ha yKa3aHHH H HaH60JIee aasoryto MO)l(HO HaMTH B paoorax:

H ,IJ.HoreHa 11aHH<popMaIIHIO

asrcrynaer

B xaxecrae HaM HY)l(HO H cnopy, 51

coocrneaayio qmrypy
3TOMY aonpocy op.

Festugiere, Revelation d'Hermes Trismegiste (t. I); Godel R. Platon a Heliapolis d'Egypte, a TaK)l(e: Sauneron S. Les Pretres de l'ancienne Egypte.
CM.: Vandier, Jacques. La Religion egyptienne, P.U.E, 1949,

H OTeII 60roB)

6YlJ,eT BbInHCaTb

nosnaee.

KOTOPbIM OH POIJ,HJI,CM.: Frutiger,

ocooenao
Archiv Wissowa, fur

Eisler,

cit., p 233, n. 2 H Platon und das dgyptische Alphabet II


der Philosoph ie, 1922; Pauly52

ocooenno p. 64-65.
CM.: Morenz S. La Religion egyptienne, npHCYTCTBHeM nepsoro xepra Payot, 1962, p. 58.

Geschichte

Real Encyclopiidie

der classischen

Altertums-

TaKaH <POPMYJIHpOBKa, no MHeHHIO npHMel.faTenhHa KO

Mopeaua,

BeCbMa

wissenschaft (CTaTbH Ammon); Roscher, Lexicon der grichischen und riimischen Mythologie (crarr.a Thamous),
47

JIHIIa. «3Ta pen-

scrpesaevas

K3)l(eTCH HaM BeCbMa

rrpnraexaHC-

TeJIbHOH:, nOCKOJIbKY TaKHe <P0PMYJIHPOBKH xacro

nOJIb3yroTCH B CJIO)l(eHHbIX na rpe'-IeCKOM H3bIKe rHMHax,

zoon 06HapYJf<HBaeTCfl B pexax HCOKpaTa «OPOTHB codmcros. H Am<HIJ,aMaHTa «0 C0<pHCTax». CM. TaK)l(e KHHry: SUss W. Ethos, Studien zur alter en grichieschen Rhetorik (Leipzig, 1910, S. 34 sq.), B KOTOPOM aBTOp

CBfl3Ka logos -

B KOTOPbIX nOHBnHeTCH I1CHlJ,a ("51 l1CHIJ.a" H T.IJ,.); cnenoBaTeJIbHO, MbI snpaae 3Ta xep'ra neernnercxoe 53 CM.: Sauneron cyurecrna 54 H

sanars ce6e aonpoc, npoucxcosneane

He nsmaer

JIH

3THX rHMHOB». 60r, 'lT06hl

ocyuiecraan

nOCTpO'lHOe

cpaeueane

3TH X et

S., op. cit., p. 123: «OepBbIH

IJ,ByX pesea C «<I>elJ,pOM», TaIOKe: Dies A. Philosophie a

C031J,aBaTb,1J,0n)l(eH6blJI JlHIllb ronopsrrs:

ynOMl1HaeMble

rhetoroque
48

1/

Autour

de Platon, I, p. 103.

aerua

pO)l(lJ,aJIHCb ero rOJIOCOM» (H nanee). KOTOPbIH no «HaM

Ast Fr. Lexique platonicien. CM. TaK)l(e: Parain B. Essai sur 1942, p. 211, a TaK)l(e Louis P. Les Methaphores de Platon, 1945, p. 43-44.

CM.: Morenz,

op. cit., p. 46 H S. Sauneron,


naer

le logos platonicien,

3TOMY sorrpocy

cnenyromee

YTO'lHeHHe:

HeH3BeCTHO, 'ITO B TO'lHOCTH 3Ha'lHT 3TO HMH. OIJ,HaKO

I!I.lm

)f( 8 K

AePP

A 8.

,D.HCCEMl-1HAl.\I151

OHO np0l13HOCHJIOCb TaK )J(e, KaK Apyroe paJII1 3TO C03B}"Il1e, 60ra,

CJIOBO, KOTOKaK BeJII1KOrO

TaK)J{e 1IBJI1IeTOI 11TOJIKOBaTeJleM, 113npyrxx C Iepsrecosr.

hermeneus.

8TO onna

poe 03Ha'laJIO "cxpsmari,"; "CKpbIBaTbC1I", a nl1CU;bI 06bIr-

necsraa MHorO'll1CJleHHbIX <I>eCTIO)l(bep aaanasapyer

xep'r ero CXoAcTBa 3Ty '1epTY B rna-

onpenenaa

AMoHa

KOTOPbU1 CKpbIBaeT OT CBOl1X AeTeH CBOH I1CTI1HHe n0601lJIl1Cb n011TI1 euie y3HaJI 0 xcpe-recxottrpa1IK06bI 1IBAJIR.roro,
58

Be IV csoea KHl1fl1.
)K.

HbIH 06JII1K ... Ho nexoropsre nanstne:

Iexaren

A6AepcKHH

Cepnn

<J, Cerny>

U;HTHpyeT niMH

TOTY, Ha'lI1HaIOCTpaH». (11lOt,

,l1.HU;I1I1, COfJIaCHO KOTOPOH 3TO I1MR. (AMOH) JIR.eTC1ITepMI1HOM, I1CnOJIb3yeMbIM B Ernrrre '1T06bI n03BaTb oaaaxaer KOrO-HI16YAb ... "npHAI1", "npHAH

ru.11:flCJ1 TaKI1X CJIOB: «TIpMBeTcTBYIO Te611, TOT-JIYHa, C KOTOPbIl1 cnenan CepHI1 caaxana OAHaKO ncxope pa3J1I1'1HbIMI1 fl3bIKl1 pasnsrx BbIJ1CHMJI,'ITO Bonnea <Boylan> London, C'IMTaJI 3TOT AOKYMeHT eAI1HCTBeHHbIM,

Bepno

TO, 'ITO CJIOBO

amoini "Amoini

KO MHe"; cpaKToM 1IB-

JIR.eTCR. TO, 'ITO aexoropsre H

fl1MHbI Ha'IHHaIOTC1I COCJIOB

The Hermes of Egypt,


pasnenua] CTe ceine CM.: Cerny, Egyptian

1922) U;I1Tl1pOBaJI (p. 184)

Amoun",

"ITPI1AI1 KO MHe, AMOH". nexan

Ilpocroe

CO-

aHaJIOrl1'1HbIH namrpyc

(<<TbI, KOTOPbII1 pa3JIl1'1l1JI [HJII1 (p. 197) «(TbI, The Journal of

3B}"IHe 3THX nsyx CJIOBn06YAHJIo )KpeU;OB K MbICJII1, 6YATO Me)K,l1.y HHMH cyurecrayer TaHHa1l CB1I3b, TO

1I3bIK Me)J(AY OAH011CTpaHOI1 M ApyrOI1») BMeOAHHM noX.O)J{MM nanxpycor-r

80m no<teMY,otipaiuasic« tc usnananunoscy 602Y... «ax x ueeuauMOMYu cKpbtmoMY cYUiecm8Y, OHUnpuenatuatom U sasu6alOm e20 H8umbCH UM U omxpum» CBOU 0611UK, nasueas eeo AMOHOM» (op. cit., p. 127).
ecrs TaK OHH HaIIIJIH 06"b.H.CHeHl1eI1MeHI1 60ra:
55

KOTOPbII1 OTJ1M'1I1JI I3bIK JlI06011 IiH03eMHo11 crpansr»). 1

Thot as Creator of languages 1/


London,

Archeology,

1948, p. 121 sq.; Sauneron


francais

S. La Differenciation egyptienne II Bulletin


orientale

des languages d' apres la tradition


de l'Institut ] 960.

d' Archeologie

de Caire, Le Caire, A.,

CM.: Morenz,

op. cit.,

p. 232-233. Momo

B aosane,

KOTOPbIH
BCR.

MbI 3AeCb 06pbIBaeM,

6bI 6bITb OTMe'leHO, 'ITO

59
60 61

Erman

op. cit.,

p. 90-91.

3Ta cpapMaU;1111 TIJIaTOHa YBJIeKaeT sa C060H 11TeKCT Ba'raa, BnI1CbIBaIOru.I1H B I1CTOPI1IO 1IHu;a COJIHu;e npOKJI1ITOH AOJIH. Bens ace Hallie scxope n011MeM, acce casro no ce6e, KaK MbI npoVandier J., He 'ITO I1HOe, KaK onpenenennoe

Ibid., p, 96. op.cit.,


p. 51.

'1TeHHe «ITOMI1HOK no <I>I1HHeraHy».


62 56

lbid., p. 52.
Erman

CM.: Vandier,

op. cit.,

p. 36: {(ABa 3Tl1X 60ra

(Xop

11TOT J
63 64

6blJIl1 CBR.3aRbI B TBOp'leCKOM axre: Xop MbICJIb, KOTOPaR.3aMbIlIIJI1IeT, a TOT I1CnOJIH.H.eT» (p.

npeACTaBJI1IeT CJIOBO,xoropoe

A., op. cit.,

p. 10].

64). CM.

TaK)Ke: Erman

A La Religion des

I1.MeHHo TaK 60r UHCbMa MO)J(eT CTaTb 60rOM TBopHIu;ero CJIOBa.8T0 CTPYKTYpHaR. B03MO)J{HOCTb, KOTOPaR.CB1Isana C ero CTaTYCOMAOn0J1HeHI111 C JlOrl1KOI1 AOnOJIHeM HHH. Taxoe CTaHOBJIeHl1e MO)J{HO TaK)J{e 3acpl1KCMpOBaTb B xaxecrne cpaKTa 3BOJIIOU;1111 I1CTOPHii MI1CP0J10rHli. TaK B

Egyptiens,
57

Payot, p. 118.

CM.: Morenz, p. 70-73.

op. cit.,

p.

46-47

11 Fustigiere,

op. cit.,

fiYA}"I11 nOCJIaRHI1KOM, TOT, CJIeAOBaTeJIbHO,

I!m!I

)I(

A e P P H A a.

)J,HCCEMIltHAl(HR

H nocrynaer pHeTCH

<I>ecTIO)I(bep:

«O,ll,HaKO

TOT He y,ll,OBJIeTBO-

70

Morenz,
Erman

op. cit., p. 47-48. A., op. cit.,


p.

CBOHM )l(peIJ;bl

rrO,ll,'lHHeHHbIM

CTaTYCOM.

B 're apesrena,
B KOTO-

xorna
pmx

Erarrra

C03,ll,aBaJIH CBHIll,eHHHK HM 6ory,

KOCMorOHHH,

71

249.

Ka)l(,ll,bll1 MeCTHblH

XOTeJI ,ll,aTb maBHyIO co-

POJIb rrpOCJIaBJIHeMOMY peBHyIOIll,HeCH pa60TaJIH

TeOJIOrH fepMOrrOJIH,

C TeOJIOraMH

,lJ,eJIbTbl H feJIHOrrOJIH,

pas-

72 73 74

Ibid., p. 250. Ibid., p. 41.


Boylan,

KOCMorOHHIO,

B KOTOPOl1

rnaaaoe

MeCTO OT-

BO,ll,HJIOCb TOTy. TaK

KaK TOT 6blJI KOTopble

KOJI,ll,YHOM, TaK KaK OH

nenan

CHJIOl1 3BYKOB,

npa

rrpaBHJIbHOM

npo-

H3HeceHHH

C Heo6xo,ll,HMOCTbIO HMeHHO

rrpOH3BO,ll,HT

onpenenenMHp. TaK

op. cit., p. 62-75; Vandier, op. cit: op. cit., p. 54; Pestugiere, op. cit., p. 67.
Morenz,
60rHHH 31ll1Koli

p.

65; Morenz,

Hoe AeHCTBHe, cxopee,

rrOCpe,ll,CTBOM rOJIOca, CJIOBa HJIH,

3aKJIHHaHHlI,

TOT ,ll,OJI)l(eH 6blJI TBOp'leCKHM ce6e, -

coanars

75

op. cit., p. 95. Ilpyraa


HCTl1Hbl. He6a, OHa TaK)I(e

cny'ra

aua

TOTa,

Maar Pa,
xocrpaaa

rOJIOC TOTa CTaHOBHTCH H TBOPHT; MaTepHH,

OH <popMHpyeT B BH,ll,e

HBJI51eTCll ((,ll,O'lepbIO ,ll,BYCTopOHHeli

cryurascs

B caMOM

sarsepneaaa
xoroporo

xoropas ynpaanser
Pa,
y xoroporo

OH CTaHOBHTCH

6bITHeM. acnycxanae

TOT OTO)l(,ll,eCTBJIHeTKaK pa3

HOl1, ma30M crpanaue, cnenyiomee: rrpHrrHCblBaIOT rpH<pa) (p.

HeT nO,ll,06HH».

A.

3pMaH orsrexaer

CH CO CBOHM H poaoiaer

zrsrxanaesr, see seura.


B 3THX

rrOCBHIll,eHHOH

Maar,

B 'laCTHOCTH, aa KaKOM

ITpe,ll,CTaBJIHeTClI

B03MO)l(HbiM fepMOrrOJIH KOH

« ••• el1, HeH3BeCTHO


B xaxecrne

OCHOBaHHH, 3HaKa rrepo

odnapysom,
onpenenennsre
TOPblH 6blJI MHyproM,

crreKynHIJ;HHX

)l(peIJ;OB

OTJIH'lHTeJIbHOrO

CXO,ll,CTBa C O,ll,HOBpeMeHHo a TaK:>Ke C 'ITO erne

Logos rpexos -

/lorocosr,

82).

H CJIOBOM, H Pa3YMoM, anexcannpasrcxax

Sophia
no

Ileespees:

76

Vandier, p.

He HCKJIIO'leHO, aHCTBa )l(peIJ;bl

HaCTynlIeHHH

snoxa

XPHCTHHCrrbITbl3TO

TOTa, CTpoH

CBOH KOCMorOHHH,

BaJIH BJIHHHHe HaBepHHKa Mbl

rpesecxoa

MbICJIH, O,ll,HaKO yraepsenare

He MO)l(eM»

Cop. cit., p. 68).


op. cit.,
passim.

p. 71 sq. CM. TaK)Ke: Pestugiere. op. cit., B 3THX paoorax co6paHbi MHoro'lHCJIeHHble TeKCTbl 0 TOTe H306peTaTeJIe MafHH. Haxarro onnoro H3 HHX npencrasnser )J,J1HHac HeMaJIbll1 aarepec: ((3aKJIHHaHHe)J,J1H npo-rrenna nepeo COl1H/1eM: "51- TOT, H306peTaTeJIb H coanarem. HaCToeB H 6yKB") (p. 292).

op. cit.,

287

sq.

65

Ibid.,
Erman

CM. TaK)I(e:

Vandier

HErman,

77
66

Vandier, op. cit.,


BHTeJIbHOl1

p.

A.,

op. cit., p. 81.

,ll,HIJ;HHa H <pHrypa

230. Kparrrorpadiaa. 3MeH nepennerarorcs

MarH'leCKaH TaK)I(e

Me-

B y,ll,H-

HapO,ll,HOl1 B

67

Ibid.
Vandier,

<G. Maspero>

CKa3Ke, H3JIO)l(eHHOH f. Macnepo xaure Les Contes populaires de I'Egypte CaTHH Xa3Myaca «npoaonan KHHfH, C MYMHBpeMH

ancienne.
68

3TO

npaxmoxeaae

op. cit.,

p.

182.

HMH.

CaTHl1

Xaasryac,
MeM<pHca, rrHCbMOM,

CblH rne

uaps,
'lHTaJI

B MeTporrolIe

nanacamrste
nosra )l(H3-

69

Vandier, op. cit., p. 136-137; Festugiere, op. cit; p. 68.

Morenz, op. cit., p. 173;

cBHIll,eHHbIM HH".

H KHHfH

")J.Bofmoro 'leJIOBeK

O,ll,Ha)K,ll,bl

O,ll,HH 3HaTHbll1

rrOCMeHJICH Ha,ll,

l!miJ

)K

A e P P H A a.
"DO'IeMY '1eJIOBeK

,D.HCCEMHHAllHR

HHM. HhIH

ThI HaCMeXaelllbCR OTBeTHJI:

aano

MHOH?"

3HaTHa,ll,

T060H:;

HO KaK R MOry

"51 BOBCe ynepzcarsca


see
3TH

He HaCMexaIOCh OT CMexa,

BHAR, 'ITO Y KOTOPhIX

xopa-raoro B napue H3

TbI paClllH<PPOBhIBaellih HeT HHKaKOH

rrHChMeHa,

CHJIhI! ECJIH ThI B caMOM

xecrr,

,lI,eH:CTBeHHYIO B MeCTO,

BeAY Te6R

nene xo-renrs rrposanacs, rrOH,lI,eM CO MHOH; R rrpHrne HaxoAHTCR KHHra, HarrHCaHHaR


KOTopaR MHrOM B03HeceT ECJIH 3eMrrorrpe-

napue, 6POH30BhlH napeu - B napue H3 nepeaa, napeu H3 KOpHqHOrO nepeaa CJIOHOBOH: KOCTH H 36eHoBoro nepesa. Jlapeu H3 CJIOHOBOH KOCTH H 36eHoBoro nepena HaxO,ll,HTCR B cepe6pHHOM napne, Cepe6pHHhIR napeu - B 30JIOTOM napue, a B 30JIOTOM napue - KHHra. f Onraoxa rracuai 3Ta ouraoxa 6hIJIa asenena HJIH saxpennena B nepaosr H3,l1,aB 6POH30BOM HHH; B CJIeAyIOIu;eM H3AaHHH KHHrH Macrrepo B OHa 6hIJIa

c06CTBeHHOH Te6R K 60raM.

PYKOH: TOTa, B HeH

sarracansr naa 3aKJIHHaHHH. ThI rrpo-nrraeun, nepnoe, ThI aaananeeun, He60M, JIeH:, MHpOM HOqH, ropasm, BO,ll,aMH; ThI CMO)l(ellib
HHMaTh TO, 'ITO rOBopRT KaKHe

ncnpasneaa oepocum cxea

B CHOCKe:

«Ilnceu snecs ouraoca


napeu
H3 OCTaBJIeH ,lI,JIR BOKPyr

nepexac-

JIeHHH. OH ,lI,OJI)l(eH 6hIJI 6hl CKa3aTh: H T.

»ceneaa

co-

n.»,

(OTphIBOK

,lI,eMOHCTpa-

see

He6eCHhIe

rrTHU;bI H

ace

U;HH JIOrHKH

BKJIIOqeHH.R.))

CMbIKaIOIu;HeCR, TbI

TOJIbKO HH

ecrs na

6eJIOM

CBeTe;

[B rrTOJIeMeeBY

anoxy -

napua C KHHroH O,ll,HH npnsrepao 12000 uapcxax


cxopnaoaos
H

ysanaun,

PhI6,

rrOTOMY 'ITO 60)l(eCTBeHHaR MOpR.

CHJIa 3a-

JIOKTeH rro ra,IJ,OB,

CTaBHT HX rrO,ll,HRTbCR K rrOBepXHOCTH

nposaraeun,
B MOrHJIe, phIH: 6hIJI

sropoe
ThI

3aKJIHHaHHe, 06peCTH

A eCJIH ThI TO, naace oxaaaanrnc],


TOT 06JIHK, KOTO-

0,52

M)

3MeH:, BceB03MO)l(HhIX

CMO)l(ellib

aa 3eMJIe; TbI CMO)l(ellib BH,lI,eTh COJIHue, BCTaIOIu;ee nan ropH30HTOM H coaepmarouree XOA, H JIYUy B rex ee <POp Max, xoropsre OHa npaaroaaer na He60CKJIOHe". CaTHH CKa3aJI: "!VI1IHYCb )KJ{3HbIO, npoca
Y Te6R

xero xoseurs,

see HCrrOJIHIO,
3Ta KHHra!"

TOJIhKO OTBe,ll,H MeHR TY,lI,a, 3HaTHhIH qeJIOBeK CKa3aJI

me

HaXO,ll,HTcR "3Ta

CaTHH:

KHHra B MOrHJIe

He MOR. OHa

HaXO,ll,HTCR B

HeKpOrrOJIR,

neonraxa ... He
KY OH 3aCTaBHT rraJIKOH

Heaodiepxerrraxa, ChIHa B3,l1,YMaH noxaurari, ee Y Hero,


Te6R ee sepayrs, HBHBlllHCb KOCTPOM C rrhIJIaIOIu;HM H3 KHHrH aa

uenrpe napa MHrrOCKOJIh-

nepxcrrr B CBOHX 06'h.llThRX 6eCCMepTHaR 3MeH". Hoene rpex rrOrThITOK repon y6HBaeT 3MeIO, BhIIIHBaeT KHHry, paCTBopHB ee B nnae, H TaKHM oopa30M npuooperaer 6e3rpaHHqHhie 3HaHHR. TOT xcanyerca aa Hero Pa H Hal3JIeKaeT aa Hero crpaurasre KaphI». OTMeTHM HarrOCJIe,ll,OK, npescne 'leM paCCTaThCR C ernrreTCKHM TOTOM, 'ITO Y,lI,HBHTeJIhHO rrOXO)l(HH aa Hero nepcoaaxc - 3TO He TOJIbKO rpe-recxaa Iepsrec, HO H Ha6y, ChIH Mapnyxa. B BaBHJIOHCKOH H aCCHpHRCKOH: MHJIapeu; <pOJIOrHRX «Ha6y, TaK KaK rro CyIu;eCTBY, RBJIReTCR 3aTMeBaeT rrpHCBOHT 60rOM-CbIHOM; 3HR, Ha6y,

caxr

xce KaK Mapnyx


MhI YBH,lI,HM,

csoero orna
ce6e MeCTO

C BHJIaMH H fOJIOBe .. :'

(Dhorme

B PYKax, MorHlIbI

1945, p.
ue. Ha6y, rrHChMa»,

Mapnyxa» E. Les Religions de Babylonie et d'Assyrie, P.U.F., 150 sq.). Mapnyx, oren Ha6y, - 3TO 60r-COJIH«X03RHH «HOCHTeJIb 'laCTO TpOCTHH ,lI,JIR rTHCbMa», «C03,l1,aTeJIh cY,lI,b6aOCTaBJI.IlR Ta6JIHl.feK C 3arrHcaHHhIMH

my6HHe

HCXO,ll,HJI CBeT. PR,lI,OM C HeH ero ceMbH, "6JIarO,ll,apR HeHOCKa-

6bIJIH

,lI,BOH:HHKH napa

H 'lJIeHOB

CHJIaM KHHrH <pepKerrTax 3aJI eMY: ca"

TOTa': •• Bce rrepexoor

3TO yace

rrOBTOpRJIOCh. CaTHH.

MH 60rOB», orua

BhIXO,ll,HT aa

nepasra
Y Hero npensrer B

nnaa,

yace

HCTOPHIO

>Kpeu;

"3 'ra

aa C060H

H 3aHMcTBYR

CHMBOJIHqeCKHH: ,lI,JIR CBRIu;eH-

KHHra

HaxO,ll,HTCR nocpena Jlapeu

MOpR

Korrro-

HHCTpYMeHT,

rnarru.

«Mennsra
KOTopaR

B zrapue

H3 xceneaa.

H3 »cezresa

HaXO,ll,HTcR

HO,ll,eH:CTBHH, 06HapY)l(eHHhlH: Iu;HH C060H "3MeIO,

Cyse

H rrpe,ll,CTaBJIRIOB nacru l.fTO-TO

,lI,ep)l(HT

Pe,D;!(OeApesHeenmeTcKoe

naaeaaae KpaCHQrO MOPJl,

BpO,ll,e JIOrraCTH", 6hIJI

orsre-ien, -

oopanraer

BHHMaHHe

lImD

)t(

Ae
-

p p 101A

a.

,D,Io1CCEMIo1HAlIIo1R

)J;°PM,

HaAnHChIO David M.

"KOBW

60ra

Ha6y"»

(p.

ISS).

CM.

82

EmH

BMeCTe c P06eHoM

<Robin>

peunrrs,

'ITO «<l>e,IJ.p»,

'ratoxe:

Les Dieux et Ie Destin en Babylon ie,


nOCJIeAOBaTeJIhHO Me)f(.u,y TOToM nepe'IHCJIHTh

P. U.E,
MO)f(HO

HeCMOTpJJ 06BHHeHHi1,

aa nexoropsre
au

HeJICHOCTH, JIBJIJIeTCJI «cnHCKOM

1949,

p. 86 sq. 6hI

BbI,IJ.BHHYThlX

rrporas

pHTOpHKH p. CLXXIII), 60JIhWe

Hcoxpara»
H 'ITO caM 3a60THTCJI

6hIJIO

nee
Ha6y

(Introduction

xeprsr cxoncraa
(He60).

Phedre, ed. Bude,

H 6H6JIeHCKHM

Hcoxpar, 'ITO 6hI OH HH rOBOpHJI, o doxa, 'IeM 06 episteme (p. CLXVIIl),


we He 6y.n.eM y,IJ.HBJIJIThCH Ha3BaHHIO H TOMy, 'ITO B Heft, CO<PHCTOB». KaK HaflTH

MhI, KOHe'IHO, 60JIh-

ero

pe'IH

«Flporas
MO)f(HO

78

3.u,eCh H n03BOJIIO

ce6e

B Ka'IeCTBe K

oouiero
B «0 MO)f(HO

nOJICHeHHH

OTOCJIaTh C 'ITO

rrpenaaparezn.noro H «Borrpocy 0 MeTo.u,e»

nanpxsrep,

CJIe,IJ.yIO~HH OTPhIBOK, COKpaTOBCKofl

<popMaJIhHOe

nO,IJ.06He KO-

rpaMMaTOJIOrHH». 6y.u,eT

HeKOTophIMH

oroaopxasm
nJIaTOHa

roporo
rrpOCTO

aprYMeHTaIIHH

npe,IJ.CTaBJIHeTCJI KpHTHKOBaTh ny6JIH'I-

cxasa'rs,
POJIh,

B .u,aHHOM 'ITeHHH

OWeJIOMHTeJIhHhIM:

«He06xo,IJ.HMO

pharmacon
B 'ITeHHH

HrpaeT Pycco.

mtaJIOi!Ut-{HYW pOJIH oonollHeHwc'"

He TOJIhKO HX, HO H HOMY KpaCHOpe'lHIO TaKHe

'rex,

KTO

ooeuiaer

HayqHTh

(tous politicous logous).


06pa30M He 3a60TJICh

nOCKOJIhKY 06 HCTHHe, HaH-

JIIO,IJ.H,HHKOHM 'ITO

79

CM., MO

B 'IaCTHOCTH:

Iocynapcrso II 364a
np06JIeMa

333e.

3Ta

ynoMHHaeTcH

nanee, IhrcsB patio re

C'lHTaIOT, 60JIhWee

HaYKa COCTOHT B TOM, KaK npHBJIe'Ih nOJIyqHTh HanOMHHTh,

'IHCJIO JIIO,IJ.eH, 'IT06hI [He06xo,IJ.HMO

C HHX B03Ha'ITO yCJIyrH

Moutsoupoulos

E.

La Musique
sq),

P.D.F.,
BeChMa

1959

(p. 13

B KOTOPOH

dans l'teuvre de Platon, naerca MHO)l(eCTBO

rpaacneaae ...
Hcoxpara
CTaBHTh, JIa

CTOHJIH O'IeHh KaKOBa 6hma )[{.

u;eHHhIX

CChIJIOK.

ero

YCTaMH.

,a.J ... By,IJ.yqH

noporo, TaK 'ITO MO)f(HO npenueaa HCTHHhI, KOr,IJ.a OHa rosopacaMH HeBe)f(eCTBeHa CO'lHHJIJI H OCTaJIhHhIX,

80

3.u,eCh MhI

n03BOJIHM

ce6e

C,IJ.eJIaTh OTChIJIKY K 60raTeHBep3TH

HhIMH,

TaKOBhIMH 'IeM

OHM C'lHTaIOT MOrJIH 6hI

uresry

no CBoeMY CO,IJ.ep)f(aHHIO TeKCTY )l{aHa-nhepa <Pierre Vernant> (KOTOphIH HHhlM et du paCCMaTpHBaeT 3peHMJI)

pexa xysce,
CBOHX

COCTaBHTh

nexoropsre

nerpa-

naaa

MOTH hIe JIIO,ll,H, OHH B TO )f(e BpeMJI

06e~aIOT

C,IJ.eJIaThH3

np06JIeMhI mythiques

non
de la

COBceM

yrJIOM temps»

«Aspects

II My the et Pensee chez les Grecs, Maspero,196S. 0 CJIOBe Tupos, ero OTHOweHHHX C perigraphe H paradeigma CM.: Blumenthal A. von, Tupos undParadeigma, ~HTHpyeTCHB: Schuhl P. M. Platon et PArt de son temps II P.U.E, 1952, p. 18, n. 4.
81

memoire

y-renxxon oparopos,
HeyrIyCTHTh TaKyIO

JIOBKOCTH KOTOPhIX XBaTHT

aa
HH-

TO, 'IT06hI

HH O,IJ.Horo B03MO)f(HOrO

apryMeH-

'ra

B ,IJ.eJIax.nOJIyqHB

BJIaCTh, OHH He npHAaIOT HH npHpO,IJ.HhIM 'ITO

xaxoro 3Ha'IeHHJI HH OnhITY, yxenaxa, OHH JIHWh rOBOpJIT, pe'IH (ten ton logon epistemen)
Ma •••

,IJ.aHHhIM eMY HaYKY

nepenaior

TaK )f(e, KaK HaYKY

51

y,IJ.HBJIJIIOCh TOMY, '-ITO ,IJ.OCTOHHhIMH HMeTh Tex JIIO,IJ.eH,

rracsyxerrpn-

Msr

nOJIh3yeMCH OTOWJIeM

3,IJ.eChTepMHHOM K ero

)J;Heca <Dies>,

n03TO-

HHKOB C'lHTaIOT Me'IaH, BO,IJ.JIT B Ka'IeCTBe

MY MhI

HCCJIe,IJ.OBaHHIO

La Transposition

xoropsre,

caMH

roro

He 3a-

platonicienne, B 'IaCTHOCTH K rrraae I «La Transposition de la rhetorique» II Auteur de Platon, t. II, p. 400.
Supplc!ment; B PYCCKOM nepeaone H. A.
ABTOHOMOBOl1 «BOCrrOJIHeHHe».

npaxrepa

TBOp'IeCKOrO HHCTpYMeHT.

HCKYCCTBa

npocron

HeH3MeHHhIH

B caMOM ,IJ.eJIe, H 'ITO

KTO, KpOMe

HHX, He 3HaeT, 'ITO 6YKBhl

HeH3MeHHhi

OHH COXPaHJIIOT O,IJ.HO TO )f(e H rna HCnOJIh3yeM

saa-reaae,

TaK 'ITO MhI see-

O,IJ.HHH 're )f(e 6YKBhI

,IJ.JIJI O,IJ.Horo H 'roro

ImllJ

)I(

ax A e p

p 101 A

a.

,[\IoICCEMHHAlIloIfI

)l(e 060el(Ta, 'ITO CKa3aJI

rorna xax

C pe'IaMH

BCe COBCeM l1Ha'Ie?

To,

JIaeT 601lee COKpaT -

qyBcTBHTeJIbHb[M, 3TO

YClioKaHBaeT.H

TpeBO)l(HT. 11

O,u;HH 'IeJIOBeK,

He IIpHHeceT

TY )l(e IIOJIb3Y JIOBKHM

HapKOTH3I1pYIOrn:Ht! BCIIOMHHM

CKaT, HO raxxce H3 «<l>e,u;oHa» (91

TOMY, l(TO B 3TOM

CKIDKeT TO )l(e· IIOCJIe Hero;

a caMblM

)l(HBOTHoe II03,u;Hee

C )l(allOM:

rrxeny

c);

HCKYCCTBe C'IHTaJOT

CR TaK, KaK HOCTb

roro, l(OTOPbIR H3'bRCHReT'roro rpeoyer rezaa, HMeR IIpH 3TOM B03MO)l(Bblpa)l(eHHR, COBepIlIeHHO OTJIH'IHble OT

HaM IIpH,u;eTCH OTKpbITb

«AIIOllorHIO»

B TOM cace6H C OBO-

MOM MeCTe, B KOTOPOM COKpaT

cpasnaaaer
COKpaTa

HaRTH

BbIpa)l(eHHH npyrnx, BOT 'ITO zrysure scero ,lJ;OKa3bIBaeT aecxoncrso ,u;BYX 3THX IIpe,lJ;MeTOB: pexa He MoryT 6blTb npexpacnsiaa, eCJIH OHH He cornacyiorca C 06CTORTeJIbCTBaMH, JIHIlIeHbI eCJIH OHH He COOTBeTCTByroT HOBH3Hbl; a Benb 6YI<BaM TeMe H eCJIH OHH H3 BbIIlIeIIe_ IIpH-

,u;OM.
KHtf

CJIe,u;OBaTelIbHO, 6ecTHapHtf.

qmrypbl

COCTaBJIHIOT He-

MO)l(eT

JIM y,u;HBHTb TO, 'ITO o,u;ep)l(HMbIH TOllbKO HCXO,u;H H3 II 3TOH

,u;eMOHOM

KpeCTHTCH

B 6eCTHapHH?

3TOH 300<papMall,eBTH'leC1<OH

aM6HBalleHTHOCTH

ztpyrort
lIbl

COKpaTOBCKOH

aHallOZUU OIIpe,u;ellHIOTCR npene-

HH'lerO

anthropos'a.
3aMeTlITb, 'ITO 3Ta

pe'IHCJIeHHoro XO,lJ;HTCR 'Iro6bl

He Hy)l(}{O». 'lT06bl

3aKJIIO'IeHHeTal(OBO IIHcaTb.

nzrarars, acerna

A sens

CJIe,u;OBaJIO6bl,

lIIOMM

IIHCbMa

HHKor,u;a He IIJIaTHlIH.I1,u;eaJI:

rrycrs
'ITO

86

MO)l(HO paTHbIM

cuena

HBJIHeTCH CTPaHHbIM,06-

H CHMMeipII'IHbIM,

OTBeTOM

aa

ClI,eHY H3 «<i>e,u;II03BOJIHlIO H Ha060-

OHH CaMH

IIJIanlT.

Flycre

OHH

nnarar,

IIOTOMY

pa». Oopaurenae
POT,

HaJIMlI,O: e,u;HHCTBO, IIepexQU;HTb B

xoropoe

logos'a. «TaKHM 06pa30M, JIIO,lJ;H, xoropsre acrrom.syror rronoonsre npasrepsr (paradeigma - 6YKBbl), cxopee caMH ,u;OJI)l(Hbl
OHH HY)l(,lJ;aJOTCH B 3a60Te CO CTOPOHbl MaCTepOB 6bIJIH 6bl IIJIaTHTb, a He

TeKCTY IIO,u; IIlIarn:OM

pharmacon

rrorrysarr,
3a

,u;eHhrH, IIOCKOJIbKY OHH, 3a60THlIHCb,

Hy)l(,lJ;aRCb B TOM, 'IT06bl caMH IIpHHHMaIOTCH

0 HHX BHHMaTellbHO

sapauee sanucano B «<i>e.u;pe» (pharmacon - oro TeKCT, Y)l(e narracannsra «CaMbIM YMellblM H3 COBpeMeHHbIX IIHcarenen»), H TOJIbKO npeonucauo B «Xapsnrne» (peuerrr pharmacon'a, IIpe,u;IIHCbIBaCMoro COKpaTOM, ,u;OJI)l(eH 6bITb
3aIIHcaH IIO,u; ,u;HKTOBKY). COKpaTOBCKoe YCTHbIM, a IIpe,u;IIHcaHHe

sophisum, XIII, 9, 10, 12, 13).


83

ooy-renne npyrax»

(Kata ton

51

lI,HTHPyro

la poesie (cl.a
orpsmxe
'lap H3

nepeaon, ony6JIHKOBaHHbIH Parole dite», n° 90, octobre


06 OTHOIlIeHHRX 06

La Revue de
3TOM H

pe-rs corrposoaoraer pharmacon KaK YCJIOBHe ero ,u;et!CTBeHHOCTH. B rny6HHe H aa l(al(OM-TO OT,u;alleHHOM ypOBHe 3TOH cueasr neooxoB ,u;aHHOM HBJIHeTCR ,u;HMO

cnysae

1964).06

«Tloxaansr»,
CM.:

thelgo
Y

peitho,
3c-

pasrnaners

IIpe,u;CTaBlIeHayIO Ha3Ha'ICHHR

B «ilOJIHTHKe»

KPHTIl-

KY IIHCbMeHHoro

lIeKapCTB, He

H y6e)l(,u;eHHR,

HX HCTIOJIb30BaHHH

Iosaepa,

XHJIa H nJIaTOHa

Dies, op. eit.,

graphein»,
PyeTcH

HeH3MCHHOCTb

xoroporo

p. 116-117.

CTHbIM cnyqaeM

H pa3BHTHeM

601le3HH

«hypomnemata cooopasyercs C'Iarax I1lIJIlOCTPH3aKOHOB.

84

IIOllHTH~IeCKaH

IIp06JIeMa

3aIIHCaHHbIX 601lbHoro, H3MeHHTb raxace:

«fOJIOC

rOJIbIl1:,

orrycrourenasia;
HMeeT

psilois logo is
rysreara 3aTeJIbCTB

TaK)I(e

HJIH )l(e rrpoc-ror-o


YTBep)l(,u;eHHH

,u;.; Bblpa)l(eHHe 3Ha'IeHHe aocrpaxrnoro apH npasezrenaoro 6e3 noxaH T. Te3TeT 165a).

Flonooao

spa-ry, aanenrarouter-ry

saxononarerrs
CBOH

nonzcea HMeTb B03MO)l(HOCTb npenrracaaas (294a-297b; CM.


87
Ha'IaJIo

nepssre

298d-e).
lIH Tbl H,u; caM PH,u;OM

(CM.:

85

naanora:
B TOT

«3XEKPAT.

EbIJI

COKpaTOBCKHH peMeHHO

pharrnacon
H

o,u;HoBpeMeHHo

H/HJIH

IIOIIeH ,u;e-

C COKpaTOM

nens, xorna
(57a).

OH BbIIIHlI

(pharmacon)

IIopIDKaeT

rrpocyxoraer,

06es60JIHBaeT

B CBOCt! TIOpbMe?»

BIIi1

)j(

Ae

P P HA

a.

,D.HCCEMI>1HAlIHll

KOHeu: ,1J,JofaJIOra: «COKPAT •.•.

npeacne rpyna»
88

'1eM BhIIlHTh

R,ZI.

Tloxoxce, 'ITO JI)"IUle MHe, (pharmacon), BhIMblThCR CaMO-

U:HIO MO)l(HO HaHn1 B nocBR~eHHoH 60ThI MapHH ,lJ;eJIhKyp <Marie

3,ZI.Hrry

Delcourt>

rnaae paLegendes et

My, '1T06bI H36aBHTh )KeH~HH OT 3a6oT no OMOBeHHIO (l1Sa). CM. TaKJKe: 117a.

Cne,ZI.OBaTeJIbHO,U:HKYTy MOJKHO 6bIJIO 6bI paCCMOTpeTb


H

Cultes des heros en Grece (1942, p. 101) H B ,ZI.pyrHx KHHrax 'roro )l(e aaropa: Pyrrhos et Pyrrha, Recherches sur les va leurs du feu dans les tegendes helleniques (1965, p. 29) H ocotieuno (Edipe ou la legende du conquerant (1944,
p.29-65).

xaxecrae aexoero pharmacon'a

6eCCMepTHR. Ha

ra-

xyro MbICJIb HaBO,ZI.HT Y)Ke casta pHTyaJIbHaR H uepesroHHaJIbHaJI <popMa, saaepuraroman «<l>eAOH» (116b-c). B crarse Le Festin d'immortalite (Esquisse d'une etude

Hecoxoreaao,
<pHryPbI

3,ZI.eChasroe BpeMR OTMeTHTb, c 'ITO, HeCMOTpR

pas

ylf.< peqh

3aUlJIa 0 Heo6xo)J.HMOM C61IHIf.<eHHH <PHrYPb£ 3,ZI.Hna H

pharmacos'a,

aa

onpe~eJIeHHhle

mythologie comparee indoeuropeenne, 1924) )1(. ,lJ;IOMe3HJIb <G. Dumezil> YKa3hIBaeT na «npHCYTcTBYlO~J.fe B AqmHax CJIe,ZJ.hl TeceHcKoro U:HJ<JIa, BR3aHHble C tfiapC UllU01-tOM*» (n03JKe HaM enre npanercs roaoprrrs 0 Hede KoeM OTHOUleHHH Me)K,ZJ.y <papreJIHOHOM, pO)K,ZJ.eHHeM H CMepTbIO COKpaTa) JIeHHOM H ,ZI.eJIaeT CHOCKY: «HH <l>epeKH,ZI., HH AnnoJIo,ZI.0p He OnHCaJIH pHTyaJIbI,

CXO,ZI.CTBa, Harne HCCJIe,ZI.OBaHHe flBJIReTCR strictu He <B TOqHOM CMbICJIeCJIOBa(nam.) flo KpaMHeH Mepe, B TOM CTeneHH, B KaKOM MhI <pHlIOCO<pHHH T. ,ZI..), 06pa~eHHR C

sensa

nrnXOaHaJIHTHqeCKHM.

oopame-

HbI K TeKCTYaJlbHOMY sanacy (KYJIbType, R3hIKY, Tpare,ZI.HH,

rpesecxoa

K KOTOPO-

My )J.OJl)f(eH6hIJI

aaxare

H caM <l>peH}1"HHKOr,ZI.a He

nepe-

xoropsre

onpenecrpa-

CTaBaBUlHO: OTChIJIaTh K nexry, Mst co6HpaeMCR HCCJIe,ZJ.O-

pernone Ipenaa

,ZI.OJIJKHhl 6bIJIH COOTBeTCTBO6eccMepTHR, KOTOPbIM


n

aarr.

STOT

sanae.

3TO He

oanaxaer,

'ITO OTMe'leHHaR

BaTh HCTOPHH pharmacon'a HCKyccTBeHHoH orHHH, y Iaranroa HX 6eccMepTHe»


89
«

TaKHM 06pa30M

)J.J.fCTaHU:HR oTHoUleHHlO K no

ncnxoana-

CTHO CTpeMHJIHCb OBJIa,ZJ.eThueaumu, a 'raiose HCTOPJ.fH I

JIHTH'IeCKOMY ,ZI.HCKYpCY, OTOPbIH MOlf.<eT 6e30 BCRKOH K pe<pJIeKCHH ,ZI.BHraThCRB

A<pHHbI, (p. 89).

KOTopaR

OTHRJIa

cpene

He,ZI.OCTaTOqHO pacun«]»

posanaoro rpexecxoro
M. ,lJ;elIbKYP (Delcourt )K.-fl. IToCJIe

TeKcTa, 6bIJIa 6hI M.

roro

)l(e THna,

'ITO H ,ZI.HCTaHU:HR, KOTOPYlO YCTaHaBJIHBaIOT, nanpnvep.

Inaansre HCTO'lHHKH, n03BolIRIO~He onacars pHTyaJI pharmacos'a, coopaasr B paoore Mythologische Forschungen (1884) B. MaHHXap,ZI.Ta (W. Mannhardt), KOTopaR yrroMHHaeTcR, B '1aCTHOCTH, ,lJ;JK. ,lJ;JK. <l>ps3epoM B ero «30JIOTOH BeTBH» (tr, fro p. 380 sq.), B paoorax: Harrison J. E. Prolegomena to the study of greek religion (1904, p. ~~ sq.), Themis, a study of the social origins of greek religion (1925, p. 27), Nilsson, History of greek religion (1925, p. 27), Schuhl P. M. Essai sur Laformation de la pensee grecque (1934, p. 36-37). fIOJIe3HYIO HH<popMa<l>apreJUIOH MeCJllI ApeBHerpeqeCKOrO HalllHM MaIO-HIOHIO. xanennapa, cooraercrayronnm .

Bepaaa nepsoa

(Vernant

J.-P. (Edipe

Legendes, p. 109, 113, etc:) H sans complexe II Raison rexcra" BhIUlJIO B caer Bepuaaa <J.-P. Vernant> sur la structure enigmatique
Communications, Mouton, melanges 1970. 3,ZI.eCh,

presente, 1967).
3aMe'laTeJIbHOe

rry6JIHKaU:l-fH aroro

acce )K.-fl. Ambigutt« et renversement, d'(Edipe-Roi II Echanges et


offerts

Claude

Levi-Strauss,

B qaCTHOCTH, MO)l(HO npoxecrs (CM.

CJIe,ZI.YIO~He CTPOKH, 'ITO, «KaK

KaK npe,ZI.CTaBJIJleTCR, nO,ZI.TBeplf.<,ZI.aeT aUlY rHnOTe3Y H

npuxre«,

85 -

K rnaae

«Pharrnakeus»):

Iopon

I1MeeTCIl B BHAY H3AaHHe B »cypnane

Tel Quel, NIt 32. 33.1968.

liIII

)K 8 K

A e p P '" A

8.

,lJ,I<1CCEMI1HAl.ll15!

MOl'

npanarr,

B CBOIO cpeny Toro,

KTO, rrO,ll;06HO 3,ll;HJII06oro

rry, "6POCIDI CBOIOCTpelIY JIOBeKa" H CTaJI

nansure

isotheos <paBHhlM 60raM Korna Iopon )"ipe:lK,ll;aeT CHCTeMY OCTpaKH3Ma, OH COsnaer HHCTHTYT, pOJIb xoroporo OKa3hlBaeTCR 06paTHOH H CHMMeTPHquo:ti rro OTHOlIleHHIO K POJIH paryana <papreJIHOHa. B JIHll,e noztaeprayroro OCTpaKH3My Iopon HCropraer TO,'ITO B HeM C<!MOM OKa3blBaeTCRCJIHlIlKOM B03BhllIleHHhIM, 'ITO BOIlJIOIll,aeT 3JIO, xoropoe MO)KeT HH3aeprtryrscn na Iopon C aetiec. B HHcTHryTe pharmacos'e
Iopon
HcropraeT TO, ~O B HeM

npyroro se(op.-ipett.»?

veneficis", «3ayqHBaeMblH HaH3ycTh TeKCT» xoroporo csacrero, coxpanen AlIR Hac IJ,Hll,epOHOM, see eute onpenenser venenum malum <3JIOH RA, 3JIOe caanorise (nam.) (Pro Cluentio, 148. B «Ilarecrax» TaK)Ke npezrnacsrsaercs rrOJICHRTh, 0 KaKOM «venenurn», «bonum sive malum» <RAe, Ao6pOM HJIH 3JIOM ( nam.}>, HAeT pe-ts). Maraxecxna HarrHTOK, qYAOAeHCTBeHHblH Ha6bIJI, K CTOH npeACTaBJIReTCR BrrOJIHe BepORTHOH 3THMOJIO-

ecrr,

Han60JIee HH3Koro H

=rro BOrrJIOIll,aeT3JIO,xoropoe HaqHHaeTCHCHJ.i3Y. IlocpenCTBOM raxoro ,ll;BoHHoro H B3aHMO,ll;OrrOJIHRIOIll,ero)f(ec'ra oropachIBaHHR Iopon OrpaJlH1IJlBaeT CaM ce6R rro OTHOlIleHHIQ K TOMy, 'ITO rro Ty CTOPOHYOT Hero H 'ITO rro

venenum (v. Walde, Lat. etym. Wort., ad. verb.) C venus H c caHCKpHTCKHM van, vanati MO)KeT 6blTb KaK A06pblM, TaK H 3JIbIM. Ipexecxnn philtron TaK)Ke He 06R3aTeJIhHO 0603HaqaeT HeqTO y)KacrHR, KOTopaR C6JlH:lKaeT Hoe, 3TO MO)f(eT 6bITb HarrHTOK APY)J(6bTHJIH JII06BH, KOTOphlH CTaHOBHTCR orracnsna, eCJIH TOJIhKO 'roro saxoxer xaponen» (Gift-gift (1924) 1/ Extraits des Melanges offerts a Charles Andler par ses amis et ses eleves, Istra, Strasbourg /1 (Euvres 3, p. 50, ed. de Minuit, 1969). A 3TO rrpHBOAHT Hac K «Oxepxy 0 nape», KOTOPbTHOTcsinaer K TOJIbKO 'ITO rrpOll,HTHpOnaHHOH crarse: «Gift-gift. Melanges Ch. Andler, Strasbourg, 1924. HaM 3aAaJIH BOrrpOC, nosesry MbI He paCCMOTpeJIH 3THMOJIOrHIO CJIOBa gift, nepesona JIaTHHCKoro dosis, xoropoe caxso RBJIReTCR TpaHCKpHrrll,HeH JIeKTbl nepxneHa3BaHHe AlIR rpexecxoro

ary. OH YCTaHaBJIHBaeT c06CTBeHHyro Mepy senosesecxoro, rrpOTHBOrrOCTaBJIHeMOro, C O,ll;HOHCTOPOHbl, 60:lKeCTBeHHoMYH repO}fqeCKoMy, a C npyroa - CKOTCKOMY
H qyAOBHIll,HOMY» (p. H ,IJ;eTheHa<Detienne> o

Beprrana poikilon, KOTO~O~ y H~C erne 6y.neT paarosop na crpaanne 183):


0

1275). CM. TaK)Ke paoorsr (ocofienno rro Borrpocy

la Metts dAntlloque /1 Revue des Etudes grecques (janv.dec. 1967) H la Metis du renard et du poulpe (ibid., juill.dec.

000\<;,

"A03a",

1969).

,IJ;pyroe rroATBep~eHJ.ie:

1969

r. 6bIJIO H3AaTIpHBeAeM

"A03a RAa". TaKaR 3THMOllOrHR npezmonaraer,

'ITO AHa-

HO coopaaae COqHHeHH:ti ll,HTaTY: «BrrpOqeM, HhI.B

<Oiuvres»

Mocca.

H HH)J(HeHeMell,KOrO Bb16pallH HayqHoe

sennr .noncezraeaaoro

rrpHMeHeHHH, 'ITO

see

3TH rrpeACTaBJIeHHR HMelOT ABe CTOpO-

He RBJIReTCR06Ill,HM 'roro,

ceMaHTHqeCKHM 3aKOHOM.

Kposre
CJIOBa

APyrHX HHAoeBporre:tiCKHX assncax H

ueonpeaeeen3THMOJIO-

HhlM JJBJIReTCR rrOHRTHe JIAa. Knyre

npynre

HY)f(HO 6bIJIO 6bl TaK)J(e 06'bRCHHTh BbI60p rrepeBOAa H oopamennoe B

gift

AlIR raxoro

llHHfBHCTHqeC-

npasosr CpaBHHJIH JIHHHIO potio <mrrse, (nam.}», poison <RA (!pp.» H JIHHHIO giftgift <HO (HeM.), Aap tanen.s». Taroxe C HHTepecoM MO:lKuo.npovarars BeCeJIOe06CY)f(AeHHe ::nOH rescsr Y ABJIa feJIJIHR (ABJI feJIJIHH naer BeCbMa nennsre ll,HTaTbl H3 Iossepa) 0 ABoHcTBeHHocTH rpeqeCKOro pharmacon H JIaTHHcKoro venenum. Bern, Lex Cornelia de Sicariis et
C rrOJIHbIM H~rrHToK

xoe Ta6y, xoropoe

nexoropsrx

OKa3aJIO B03AeHcTBHe na CMbICJI"nap", 3TOMY CJIOBy.11 aaxonen rpexecxoe

repsrancxax aasrxax paaee npacymna

JIaTlfHCKoe H, casroe rJIaBHOe,

HCrrOJIh30BaHHe CJIOBa dosis B CMhICJIe "HA"

«3aKOJI

Kopnenan
B

06

y6l1Al\aX

11 OTpaBI1TeJl.Rx»

3aKOII

81

r. no

H. 3.,

coxpanemnaa

«,lJ,HreCTaX» IOCTI1I1Halla.

17·6705

111m

)K

a K IJ. e p p ~ A a. ,/J,HCCEMI1HAL<I1S1

IJ.OKa3hIBaeT, HO

'ITO

Y)Ke Y IJ.peBHHX

C~eCTBOBaJIa

HMeHnpaBHJIa-

ClOAa -

3nOAeM,

ra

pharmasso:

OT aTTH'IeCKOrO nOMOlIJ,H

tto -

06-

CBJl3h Me)I(IJ.Y HlJ.eJlMH MhI

H MOpaJIhHhIMH

MI1, KOTOPyzo

3IJ.eCh OnHChIBaeM. CMhICJIa CJIOBa

paoarsrsars HJII1 I13MeHJlTh npa Iasepc (Havers IF"" XXV 375-392),


rempharaktos
H3 (cp. 6hI

cHaA06bJl. OT papharmacon 6HTh

orrrpasnaacs
BhIBOAHT H3 KOPHJI

HeonpelJ.eJIeHHOCTh C HeOnpeAeJIeHHOCThIO

gift

MhI

C6JIH3HJIH a TaK)Ke

lIaTHHCKoro

venenum,

parakekommenos,
«YAap», a

rpexecxax <pO. rpov


6hI A06aBHTh

<papJ.l.UXov;
(CM;:

pharma osnasa'rs

pharrna
T;tK 'ITO

bher -

K 3TOMY HY)KHO 6hllI0

C JIHTOBCKHM

C61IH)f(eHHe

societe linguistique, t. III,'p. 410), C vanati (aa cancxpare "AOCTaBlIJlTh YAOBOlIhcTBHe") H C gewinnen, win (BhII1rphIBaTh). HY)KHO TaK)Ke acnpaBHTh 01llH6KY IJ,HTHPOBaHHlI. ABJI feJIJIH11 HCnOJIh3yeT B HCClIeAOBaHHH p. 3TH CJIOBa, OAHaKO He OH, a fall,

Breal, Melanges de la venia, venus, venenum

buriu),

pharmacon

AOJDKeH 6hlJI

«TO, "ITO OTHOCHTcn

lJ.eHHIO HJIH 'ITO nOA06Horo

HCnOJIb3YeTCSI B

HaBa)KAeHHlI»,

aaaaxcxa-recrse JIeKapCTBa OT ecna y-nrrsraars secsva pacK AbJlBOJIbCKOMY 'ITO 60JIe3HH H B03AeMoHoB

npocrpaaenaoe aaponaoe
HHKaIOT H3-3a B03AeMCTBHJI

BepOBaHHe,

Ibsiepa (Odissee, VI,


casr
JlBJIJleTCJI Ta6JIHIJ,ax"

226)

~TI1pyeT

KOTOPhlJl

lOPI1CTOM, (Digeste,

B CBOeM: KHHre verb. 255,

0 ",lJ;BeHaAIJ,aTH signif., 236)))

L. XVI, De antropologie, P.V.F., p.


90 91
CM.: Harrison,

n. 1).

(Sociologie

et

Kpe-rsrep (Kretschmer Glotta** III 388 «pharmacon B snonee acerna Q603Ha'laeT IJ,HlO, 'rpasy, Ma3b, rnrrse HJlH KaKoe-TO HO HHKorAa casro AeM:CTBHe HCIJ,eneHHJI,
OTpaBlIeHHJI; 3THMOnOfHJI

nesarcs HMH »ce. sq.) B03pa)KaeT, 'ITO


HeKYZO cy6CTaHHHoe BellJ,eCTBO,

OKon,uOBhIBaHlUl, A06aBmleT

Iasepca

npoCTo

eute
B03-

op. cit.,

p.

lO4.

OAHY B03MO)KHOCTh

K Y)Ke I1MeIOlU,HMCJI, H3

nanpasrep

MO)KHOCTH BhIBeAeHlUl <'ITO npHHOCHT TaK)Ke: 3eMJIfl

«TO'IHO HHJI no

TaK )Ke

aasrepeaae rex, KTO 6HJI K03na ornyrnenOJIOBhIM opraaasr MOPCKHM nyKOM [TpaBJlHI1-

CM.

Harrison,

phero, pherma, "quod terra fert" (nam.t>», p. 108: « •••pharmacos 0603HaqaeT


TepMHH B JIHTOBCKOM OH 06HaB JIaTHHCKOM cpopMYJIa,

npocro
Jl3hIKe

croe JIYKOBH'lHOe paCTeHI1e, HHOfAa KYJIhTHBHpyeTCJI H3aa CBOI.fX cpapMaIJ,eBTH'IeCKHX, B 'IaCTHOCTH MO'lerOHHhIX, CBOM:CTBj, COCTOJlJIO JIHIllh CBOIO cnOC06HOCTh B TOM, "ITO OHI1 XOTeJIH K BOcnPOH3BOACTBY AeMOHaMH (Frazer, OT HJIH OCB060AHTh

"xezrosexa-saara" DJIH3KHli 3TO burin, Marn'leCKHi1; PY)KHBaeTCJI nOA BHAOM forma -

MarH'IeCKHe OCTaB

qaphI;

naur

"CPOPMYJIJlP"

eure

XpaHI1T

KaKOM-TO

TOK nepBOHa'laJIbHOM: 'IeCKOM 03Ha'IaeT

KOHHOTaIJ,I1H. cpeACTBO, -

nopxa
APYfHMH

Pharmacon

rpenee-

H OrpaHl{qeHHH, BpeAOHOCHhlMH 230).

HaJIO)f(eHHhIX

JIeqe6HOe CMbIClIe

JlA, KpaCKY, HO

cyurecraaera ... »

Le

Bouc emissaire, p.
92
HanOMHHM 3AeCh

rna B

B MarH'IeCKOM

B CMhICJIe '1epHOM

MarHH

HJIH 6eJIOM». CBOeM: patiore Frye>

Anatomy
npusnae'r

of criticism

Hoprpon

<I>paM

npeAnOJIaraeMYZO ITpHBeAeM

3THMonorHIO IJ,HTaTY

CJIOB

<Northrop nOCTOJlHHYIO

B cpHrype

pharmacos'a
sanannoa

ph~rmacon/p'h~rmacos. Boisacq E. Dictionnaire


<Heidelberg, caanoose, BHTeJIb, rpexos 1950, p. neKapcTBo, TOT, xoro ropona»

H3 czrosapa:

H apXeTHnH'IecKyIO

CTPYKTYPY

etymologique de la langue grecque 1015>. «Pharmacon: xapsr, HacToM, JlIJ.. Pharmacos: Mar, KOlllJ.YH, orpaB )KepTBY BO HCKynJIeHI1e OT-

npHHOCJlT (CM.

Innrroaaxra

H APHCTocpaHa),

IF - lndogermanische Forschungen, herausg. Yon K. Brugmann und W. Streitberg. Strassburg, 1892 ft. Glotta. Zeitschrift fur griechische und lateinische Sprache, herausg. yon P. Kretschmer und Fr. Stkutsch. Giittingen, 1907 ff.

17*

BIllJ

>K

Aepp

11 A

a.

~HCCEMI1HAI4HR

JUlTepaTyphI.

HCKJIIOqeHl1e

phormacos'«,

KOTOPhIH,

lIO

CJIOBaM <t>paH, He HBJIfleTCH HhIM» (p.

«HI1 HeBI1HHhIM,

HI1 BI1HOB-

95

3TOT

OTPhIBOK

fI paCCMaTpMBaIO

B rOTOBHw;eMCR

K IJY6-

41), nosropserca Y Apl1cTo<paHa 11 Illexcrnrsarparasaer KaK Illeanoxa, TaK 11 <t>aJIhCTa<pa, KaK Taprrodia, TaK 11 qapJIH* «<t>l1rypy pharmacos'a MhI acrpexaea B 3cTepe Ilpan Ioropna, DI1JIJII1 Banne MeJIpa, OHO B11JIJIa, B Tecc Y311

JII1KaIJ.1111TeKCTe 6POCKOB

«Entre deux coups de des»

<<<Me)J( AByX

KOCTeH»>.

96

no

BOlIPOCY

0 MeCTe

11 3BOJIIOIJ.1111 lIOHHTI1H MhI B

mimesis

..,,**

XapAI1,

B CelITI1Myce

H3 "MI1CCI1C

.IJ:3JIJIO-

B <pJ1JIOCO<pMI1 nJIaTOHa eM K paoore: Goldschmidt

, B I1CTOPI1HX 0 lIpeCJIeAoBaHl111

espeea
reHI1H

11

KO:>KI1X, B I1CTOPI1HX 0 XYAO)f(HI1Kax,

qeH

xepnonpespa(p.41,

rrepsyio osepezn, orcsrnaV. Essai sur le Cratyle (1940,

uraer ax

B H3Ma11JIOB

6YP)Kya3Horo p. 148-149).

orimecraa»

CM. TaK:>Ke p. 45-48,

93

Frazer, p.l02.

Le Bouc emissaire,

p. 228.

CM.

TaK)Ke:

Harrison,

165 sq.). B HeH, B 'IaCTHOCTI1, pa3'bHCHHeTCH, 'ITO nJIaTOH He scerna 11 He BO scex cnyxaax OCY)J(AaJI mimesis. OTcIOAa MO)KHO CAeJIaTh lIO KpaHHeH Mepe cnenyrornee 3aKJIIOqeHl1e: He3aB11CHMO OT roro, oCY:>Knaer OH nonpaxcanne I1JII1 HeT, nJIaTOH CTaBI1T BOlIPOC o lI033HH, onpenenaa ee KaK mimesis, OTKphIBaH TaKI1M
p. 06pa30M lIOJIe, B KOTOPOM «n03TI1KOH» :HOH xareropaen, xoropoe ApI1CTOTeJIH, 6YAeT 6YAeT KaHTa BhIlIOJIHOCThIO pafiorano TO BlIJIOTh (HCKJIlOqaH, AHTb YIIpaBJIHeMOH

ocotienno

94

MO)KHO

6blJl0

6hI lIOKa3aTh,

'ITO BCH <peHOMeHOJIOrMH opraH1130BaHa

Iyc-

CepJIH CHCTeMaTWIeCKHM aHaJIOrWIHOH IJ.MI1

06pa30M

BOKPyr

lIOHRTl1e AO XIX

znrrepa'rypsr,

np11HR11

OlIlI0311IJ.l1l1lIpe3eHTau.1111 11

H penpeseara-

CTOJIeTHR, I1CKJIIO'IaR

Ierena

(Gegenwiirtigung
OlIlI0311IJ.11R qaCThIO

Vergegenwiirtigung) R cnenyiomea
BOClIOMI1HaHI1R (HBJIHB «IllI1POKOM CM.:

OAHaKO, TOJlhKO B TOM cnyxae, KaK «nonpaacamre»). lIOA I1MeHeM TO, 'ITO

eCJII1 nepeao-

aa HeH

lIepBl1qHOro

mimesis
I1JIaToH

IOw;erOCH

<PYHAaMeHTaJIhHOrO

C ApyrOH

CTOPOHbI,

¢aHma3Ma
cerOAHH

I1JII1

npurnrcs-

CMhICJIe CJIOBa»)

11 BTOpJ1qHoro

BOClIOMI1HaHI1H.

Voix et Ie Phenomenet=.

La

spaxa
BO MO. no

OCY)J{AaeT

BhIABl1raeTCH KaK

scea

pMI1KaJIhHOCTI1 KpaHHeH Mepe,

CB011X Tpe60BaH11H I1MeHHO TaK

MO:>KHO I1MeHOBaTh TO, 'ITO BhIXO-

euympu
~harlot HMl! KJIaCCWleCKoro repos LJaplIH LJamIHHa. crep flPI1H - rep01'IH1I povana «AlIall 6)'KBa» aMepHKaHCKoro nl1CaTeJIIl HaTaHKeJI3 Ioropna (1804-1864): 6blJIa oCYlK.I1eHa aa pOlK.I1eHl1e Blle6paqnoro peoenxa, rrpnroaopena K n030pHOMY CTOJI6y 113aKllelfMeHa n030pHbIM 3HaKOM - aJIot{ 6)'KBOH; BHlIJII1 BilAA - 3arnaBHhlft repoa nOBeCTH AJ1T sa KOTOPhIX

<p11JIOCO<p1111

:u

«MI1MeTOJIOrl1l1)} OlIlI03HIJ.I1H, <paHTa3M.

rrpenensr
nJIaTOH

nOHHTHHHhIX orrpenenser no Ty

lIocpeACTBOM no Ty CTOPOHY 11JI11 Y:>Ke

3T11X OlIlI03MIJ.I1H, He-I1CTI1HHOCTHhIX He MO:>KeT, KaK

CTOPOHY

I1CTI1HHOCTHhIX

Iepsraaa MeJIBI1JIJIa (1819-1891): KpaCHBbl:H MOJIOA011Ma1pOC, He BbIAeplKaJI npHAl1pOK 60l\MaHa 11YAapHJI ero, aa 'ITO 6blJI noaeureir; Tecc _ rePOI1HII posrana Toxiaca XapAK (1840-1928) «Tecc rrs POA3 A'3p6epBI1JIJIeil»: nourna na npecrynnenne paznr caoero cxacrsn
II.

3HaqeH11H

3TOT 1136hITOK lIMChMa

HeCJIO)KHO B xaxecrae lIl1ChMa

AorMaThCH, npaspaxa

KBaJIH<pI1IJ.I1POHJIH <paHTa3Ma. lIOHI1Ma-

6b1JIa oCYlK.I1eHa na BI1PAlKHHI1H ByJI¢

BaThCH lIOlIPOCTY HI1 B xasecrse rnasnoe.

cMepTb; CerrTHMYc Yoppen-CMHT

nepcona»,

posraua

B ero

KJIaCCl1qeCKOM

.11.3JIJIOpj{»: BepHYJICII C ROJ:iHbl nCHXH'leCKI1 ne3AOPOBbiM 11B crpaxe nepen JIe'Ie6HI1l.leH AJIR AyweBH060JIbHblX Bbl6poCI1ilClII13 OKHa H pa36HlIcII HacMepTh. Bcex I1X, He COBepIlIHBWI1X TR)f(KHX npeCTyrIJIemrit, 06meCTBO oopexaer na csrep rs KaK nOKYCHBWHXCR na ero MopallhK yrpozcarourax ero rrOPIlAKY H crrOKoHCTBHIO. AepPHAa )K. rOJIOC 11¢eHOMen. Cfl6., 1999.

0882-1941)

«Mnccnc

HHH, 'ITO

97

«Pa3Be

He 6hlJl0

6hI nsyx

npenraeroa

KpaT11JIa crnyacs,

11 oopasa lIOA06HO

Kparnna,

eCJII1 6hI

(pragmata), TO ecrs Bor, He AOBOJIh-

XYAO:>KHI1KaM,

BOClIp0113BeAeH11eM

BIID

)f( 8 K

A e p p 11A

8.

AI1CCEMI1HALlI1S!

raoero usera
6bI eft B nOJIHOM

H TBoeH

<P0PMbI,

KpOMe

TOro

H306pa3HJI TBOH

CJIeACTBHH TaKO"

TpaHc¢opMa1vm

CO~HaJIbHOrO

CTaTY-

COOTBeTCTBHH

BHYTpeHHue Ka'IeCTBa

xaxecraa

ca rrl1CbMa 6YAYT HMeTb

¢yHAaMeH'faJIbHOe HCTOPHH». H

JIH'IHOCTH,TO'IHO

nepeAaBaR Aymy

MHrKOCTH

scea

HHTeJIJIeKTyaJIbHOH p.

saaxemre AJIH Op. cit., p. 15-152

rennorra, nepenas
B KaKOM OHHeCTb HOC111, TO'IHyro KpaTHJIa KaK MHe

ABH)I(eHHe, B Te6e,

H MbICJIb B TOM BHAe, '1epTbI TBoeH JIH'ITBOIO

(CM. TaK)I(e: p. 43-44).

52,

p. 78

Origines de la pensee grecque,


HeJIb3H JIM CKa3aTh, 'ITO DJIaIlHCbMO, OmpaBJIHHCb B OT IIO-

xopoxe, ace 'rorna

B TaKOM CJIy'Iae MbICJIHTb

pasae
KonHIO?

OH He nOCTaBHJI BbIJI 6bI

6bI PHAOM C T060H Y Hac KPATI1JI. KpaTJ.fJI ,[(aa

TOH rrpOAOJI)I(aeT 3H~HH

H 06pa3 KpaTHJIa,

HJIH )I(e ABa KpaTHJIa? Ka)I(eTCH, COKpaT»

CTPYKTYP HeHHbIX?

uaps, rrpOAOJI)I(aeT rrpeACTaBJIHTb ero basileia <napcrsa>, B re apexreaa


HeCOMHeHHO, OH npeACTaBJIHeT O¢OPMlIHIOT C'IHTaeT ero ero B AUHHOM IIyHKTe CTOPOHbI, 3aKOHbI, DJIaTOH TaK 'ITO

rrpenenax

Y)I(e OTMeB MH<peMax, MbICJIb. Ho

(432b:...._c).

98

Do

BceM

3THM

TeMaM

CM.:

Schuhl

P.

M. Platon et l'Art de

xoropsre C npyron
rtacsraars

son temps.
99
P.

CeKpeTHbIM

cnoe06HOCTHM

M. Schuhl, op. cit.

p.

22.

CM.

TaK)I(e:

L'Essai

sur la

Ha «HeAeMOKpaTH'IeCKyro» AHMO

saanpecosanuoe UHCbMa, cxopee HanpaBJIeHO rrOJIHTHKY rrHCbMa. HeotixoHe06xOAHMbIM nOA03peHHe, H BHHMaTeJIbHO B JII060M OCMOT-

formation
100 CM. TaK)I(e:

de la pensee grecque, p. 39 sq.


<DHJIe6 18a-b.

pacrryrars
pa3JIH'IHbre

Bee 3TH ypOBHH

HHTH

peri,

H pa3JIOMbI. rrHCbMa

czryxae
OT ABH-

pa3BH.THe )I(eHHH

<pOHeTH'IeCKOrO

HeOTAeJIHMO

«AeMOKpaTH3a~HI1». (H He TOJIbKO) Cl1pOTa acerna OKa3bInpecnenyexroro. Buaxarre Mbt non-rep-

101 )J{.-D.
caM oro

Bepaaa
nHCbMa

YKa3bIBaeT

na

TaKyro

«AeMOKpaTH3a~HIO» nocpeACTBOM 3Ha'lHMOC111, C Tex nop

H AeMOKpaTH3a~HIO

rmcsKOTOrJIaB-

'102 B TeKCTe DJIaTOHa


BaeTCH 06pa3QOM KHBaJIH POACTBO

Ma B ,[(peBHeH

Ipemor,

«DOA06HOll

pon rorna
HbIM

HaneJIHeTCH

pe-ts,

CTaBmaH

rracssra

mythos'a

B HX

rrpornaonoc6bITb MO)KeT,

HHCTpYMeHTOM TaK)I(e

rrOJIHTH'IeCKOH

)I(113HH,COOTBeT3Ha'IeHI1H 6bIJIO rro-

TaBJIeHHH

logos'y.

CHPOTCTBO

HBJIHeTCH,

crnyer
rrl1CbMa.

11 113MeHeHl1e BJIH)I(HerO

CO~l1aJIbHOrO BOCTOKa

B uapcraax

IlHCbMO

BOT'IHHOH 3BOJIHJIO JIHFOBaTb CYAapCTBa,

rrHC~OfJ H HX OC060H

rrpHBHJIerHeH.

OHO

napcxosry

ynpaBJIHIO~eMy

armapary
ee. OHO

KOHTpO-

3KOHOMH'IeCKyro rrOAC'IHTbIBaH

H CO~HaJIbHyIO H yqHThIBaR

)I(H3Hb

roHJIH ••• »

erne OARon pOACTBeHHOH xepron. Y logos'a ecrs OTe~, orna )I(e M~<pa noxra HHKorAa HeB03MO)I(HO HaftTH, OTCIOAa He06xOAHMOCTb nonexeaan (boetheia), 0 KOTOPOM rOBopHT «<DeAp», cpaBHI1BaH nHCbMO C CHpOTon. 0 TaKOM nonexexaa pe-n, UJ(eT H B ApyrOM TeKCTe:
«COKPAT ••.• TaKHM 06pa30M BpeMH 6bIJIH YHH'ITO)I(eHbI TBOM MH¢, H MH¢

Tpe60-

BaJIOC03AaHHR MeHeeceKpeTHbIMH, B KJIaCCH'IeCKOll

apxnaos, xoropsre,
XpaHHJIHCb

6YAyqH

60JIee ABop~e

Ilporaropa,
AeCTBJIHeT TE3TET. COKPAT. eCJ1U 6bI

H B TO)Ke H

KOTOPbIM OTO)K-

B caMOM

HaYKY BHAUMO,

Ipeuna «BMeCTO Toro '1T06bI 6bITb npaBHJIerHeH onpeneneaaon xacrsr, cexperosr KJIaCca nne~OB, pa60TaIO~HM Ha zmopeu naps, rrHCbMO CTaHOBHTcc 6» CH seursro, 0 mea AJIH scex rpazoran, HHcTpYMeHToM
rry6JIH'IHOCTH ••• 3aKoHhI AOJI)I(Hbi 6bITb 3arrHCaHbI. •.

ouiyinenae. na,
MH¢a 6bIJ1

Ho,
OTeQ ynapsr,

KaK MHe rrpeACTaBJIHeTOJ,

nepsoro
HO reneps

aro He erne )KMB,


'ITO

TaK, OH

nens, orpaKOTO-

3HJI 6bI poro

3AeCb OCTaJICJl CHpOTa, TeM 60JIee re

MbI

OKaTbIBaeM

rpH3bIO;

CaMbIe

I!im

)I(

Aepp

11 A

a.

AI1CCEMI1HAUI1Sl

HaCTaBHHKH, KOTOPbIX npOTarop

OCTaBJ1JI AJIH nero, OT-

xassraaror

eMY B KaKOM 6bI TO HH 6bIJIO nOMOlIJ,H

(boeHaM

thein],

H nepBbIM

cpena

HJ1X-

ct>eoAop. n03TOMy

rrpHAeTCH PHCKHYTb H PaAH BOCCTaHOBlIeHJ1H crrpaaenlIHBOCTH caMHM OKa3aTh ct>EO,nOP••••MbI 6YAeM TbI

esry eecssra

rrOMOlIJ,b

(boithein).

rrpH3HaTelIbHbI Te6e, eClIH

saxosems

OKa3aTb rrOMOlIJ,b

(boethes).

COKPAT.

XOPOillO

CKa3aHO, ct>eOAOp.Terrepr, )I(e CMOT-

PH,KaKyro rrOMOUV> (boitheian) H HMeIO B BHAY.••» (Te3TeT 164d-16Sa).

npaaen apryBens H yrsepacnaio, 'ITO HCTlfHa TaKOBa, KaK H ee aamrcan (6s gegrapha): MepOM HBJIHeTCH Ka)l(,ll.bIMH3 Hac roro, 'ITO ecrs, H roro, xero HeT. O,ll.HaKO6eCKOHe'IHO pa3J1H'lHe Me)I(AY O,ll.HHM npyH rHM (murion mentoi diapherein eteron eterou auto tout6). I J Ho H casro 3TO onpeneneaae (logon) TbI He nonscea ... rrOHHMaTb 6YKBalIbHO (t6 remati) TaK, KaK OHO BhIBbICTaBJ1JIHMeHH, TaK KaK COKpaT MeHTbI, 'IT06bI

marna

noxaaarr,

3TO. [ •••J

CKa3aHO. BOT 'ITO 3aCTaBHT Te6H 60JIee TO'IHO rrOHHTb TO, 'lTO H XO~Iy CKa3aTb. BcrrOMHH, rOBOpJ1JIHno

aanpasrep,

'lTO MbI a 3AOpO-

103 CM.: Milne

M. J. A study in Alcidamas and his relation to contemporary sophistic, 1924, P. M. Schuhl, Platon et I'Art de SOntemps, p. 49.
ynoMlfHaHHe orrrr03lflWH 3aKOHHbIX CbIHOB B 278a.

aroro:

60JIhHOMY 6lI1O,ll.0Ka)l(eTCHropbKHM

H B ,ll.eMCTBI1TeJIbHOCTHJIJI Hero A

ecri, ropsxoe,

BOMY 'IelIOBeKY OHO Ka)I(eTCH I:t B ,ll.el1CTBHTelIbHocTH AJIH Hero cymecrsyer HeJIh3H nenars npaxro rrpOTI1BOrrOlIO)I(HhIM 06pa30M. O,ll.HOrOH3 HI1X 60JIee MY,ll.phIM,,ll.a B ,ll.ei1-

,npyroe nonpocy crno»

Flo

He3aKoHHopo)l(AeHHbIX If 3aKOHHO<sa-

po)I(AeHHbIX

(nothoi / gnesioi). B 'laCTHOCTH,CM.: «[ocYAap-

CTBHTeJIbHOCTH 3TO 11 HeB03MO)l(HO cnenar s; TaK xce HeJIh3H 06BHHHTh 60JIbHoro B neaeacecrue rro roa npn-

(496a: «B CO<pH3Max»HeT Hl1KaKoro «gnesion»

'lHHe, 'lTO Y Hero TaKHe MHeHHH, 11 06'bHBJI.lITb ~OM snopoaoro, HY)l(HO TOJIbKQ rrOCKOJIbKY Y Hero OC~eCTBl1Tb nepexon npyrue

My,ll.peMHeHHH. OT

KOHHoro pO)I(AeHHH> ), «rIOlIHTHK» (293e: «nonpaacaaas» KOHeTHT)'l.\J1HMHe HBlIHlOTeH «saKOHHOpO)I(AeHHbIMH»); CM. TaK)I(e: [OpruM Sl3b; 3aKOHbI 74a H T.,ll..

(metableteon)

O,ll.HOrOCOCTOHHHHK ,n;pyrOMy, rrOCKOJIbKYO,ll.HO113raKHX COCTOHHHH zry-nne npyroro. TO'lHO TaK )I(e H B 06yrr03ToMY HY)l(-

104 AHalIOrHT.{HaH 're're» (l66a roporo

ccsrnxa

na 3eMlIe)J;elIb~a HMeeTCH B «Te3-

'IeHHH O,ll.HOCOCTOHHHe zry-nne npyroro, HO OT O,ll.HOrOnepeara r axon rrepexon CO<pHCT srynpeuos nocpencraosr rrpl1 rrosrounr JIeKapCTB

sq.), OHa BKlI1O'leHa B CXO,ll.HOe 06CY)l(AeHHe

nOCepe,ll.HHe Y,ll.HBHTelIbHOH: arronormr

Ilporaropa,

K ,ll.pyrOMy: spa-r oC~eCTBJIHeT pe-ren

KO-

COKpaT saCTaSlIHeT B 'lHClIe npoxero ero (He)HCTHHbI, KOTopble HaM 3AeCb B

Hal1TH H

xert.rpe
creneaa

asrcmen
Bee

aazcasr

(sophous),

noporoa

(pharmakois), (logois). [... J tITo xce AO npyr COKpaT, H BOBce He


AJIH TeJIa H HaHcpe-

HMeHHO B HHX nepecexarorcn

c06HpaIOCb HCKaTb HX cpena naryurex:

XO,ll.bI paCCMaTpHBaeMOH: <papMa~IDf. «COKPAT. HTaK, ace, 'lTO Mbl CKa3alII1 B ero 3alIJ,HTy, OH K HaM BbICK~eT Pe6eHoK rrpOTI1B Hac, acnyrancn,

,ll.yTaKlfX My,ll.pe~OB cpena apaxea, AJIH paCTeHH:H,ll.H 3eMJIe,n;eJIh~eB. [ ••. J TaKHM 06pa30M, JIIO,ll.H,KOTopble Y xoro 105 My,ll.pee

cymecTByroT
XOTR

C rrOlIHbIM npeapenaesr

(soph6teroi)

npyrnx,

HH

3aHBHB: "BOT H cMelIbIM COKpaT! xorrta ero cnpocroia, O,ll.HOBpeMeHHO BcrrOMHHTh 3TOM? Pe6eHoK acnyranca

HeT JIO)l(HhIX MHeHHH ••"» orr-rexaer P06eH, B xa-

MO)l(eT lIJf O,11,HH TOT xce 'IelIOBeK H 0 'leM-TO H He 3HaTb 06

«Ha

rrpa3,11,HI1KH A,n;OHHca, -

If CKa3alI "HeT': rrocKOJJbKYOH

KOH-HH6Y,ll.h paKOBHHe, Kop3HHe, aase BblrOHHlIH, He CO6JllO,ll.aH06bI'lHbIX CPOKOB,paCTeHHR, xoropsre 6bICTPO

He MOrnpe,ll.BIf,ll.eTb nOClIe,11,CTBHtf, B Ka'IeCTBe nOCMea

m.I

)K B K,lJ,

PP

I<

A B,

,l),I1CCEMI1HAl\I1H

YMl1paJII1, JIH3HpOBaJIl1 B KOTOpOe

3TO 6bIJll1 nO,lJ,HOllIeHI1.!J, OTOpbIe CI1MBOK

ceKpeTapR cyna, npl1BI1BOqHOrO HO)J(a 11 npHBOR*. TaK)J(e MO)J(HO 6bllI0 MeHHbIe 6bI nOKa3aTb, 'lTO BCe casrste COBpenCI1Xl1qeCKl1e, 3Tl1qeCKl1e) TKaHeH, ,lJ,a)J(e orna x OHI1 (6HOJIOrl1qeCKHe, np06JIeMbI

npeacneapesaeanyio

KOH'1I1HY B03JIlO6JIeHH3 nepesa, 11 peBHI1BbIH A,lJ,OHI1Ca, ero 3TO nOJIlO611JIa, a 3aTeM

HOrO A<PP0,lJ,I1TbI». A,lJ,OHI1Ca,poacnennoro

npesparanacs Mnppa,
B senpa

acnexrt.r

nepecanxn

npeCJIe,lJ,OBaJIa Benepa, Mapc, npeBpaTHBllIl1HCH

npeCJIe,lJ,OBaJIero

CBfl3aHbi C qaCTRMI1, CqI1TalOlll,I1MI1CHBa)J(HeHllIl1MI1 I1J1H a6COJIroTHO «C06CTBeHHbIMI1» ,lJ,JIR TOrO, KOrO Ha3bIBalOT I1H,lJ,I1BI1,lJ,OM (TaKl1e qaCTI1, KaK pasysr HJlI1 rOlIOBa, BCe 3Tl1

11y6l1BllIl1H

paHI1B ero 6e,lJ,po. B PYKax ortraerarouree «B3,lJ,OX». C ormoamnrea secenaee

Beaepsi,

KOTOPaH naruna «AHeMOH» -

CJII111IKOM n03,lJ,HO, OH npeBpaTI1JICH B aHeMOH, 6bICTPO

qyBCTBO 111I11epznre, )J(elIaHl1e I1JII1 nOqKI1), c

pacrenxe.

acnexrsr
HI1R.

OXBa'leHbI 11orpaHl1qeHbI

rpa<pI1KOH ,lJ,OnOJIHe-

aesrnenensua/canoaona

(nJIO,lJ,OB/ll,Be'repnemrn/crteur106 AJIKI1,lJ,aMaHT TaK )J(e Onpe,lJ,elIRll nMCbMO KaK Hrpy

TOB, AJIHTeJIbHoro/6bIcTpOTeqHOrO, KH, cepsesnocrn/arpsr ,lJ,BOHHOro napa

H T. n.) MO)J(HO C6JIl13l1Tb TeMY )J(e ,lJ,0 OCeHHI1X BbI,lJ,eJII1Tb Ka)J(,lJ,OMY cnenyionarpaacnae-r I1rpylliKa Hac ,lJ,BOfJ.IJ.110HI1Ca sce no 3aKOH: I1JII1 108

113 «3aKOHOB»: «tITO

(paidia). CM.: Friedlander, Lebenswirklichkeit, xacrs


p.427.

Platon: Seinsw~rheit u~d 1, rJI. V, a TaK)J(e: A. DIeS, op. C1t.,


Paul.

nJIO,lJ,OB, ,lJ,OJIlO I1X cnenyer lll,I1M 06pa30M. HblM csoen napoxr: npnpone

Casra

60rHHH

O,lJ,I1HU3 HHX npennaaaaxea

107 CM.: fOCY,lJ,apCTBO 602b 234b-c; 11T.,lJ,. 3aKOHbI

sq;

DOlll1TI1K 288c-d;

CO<p

I1CT

(paidian Dionisiada),

OH He COXpaHHeTCH,npyron

II 667e-:-668a;

ilOCJIe3aKOHl1e 97Sd

,lJ,JIJJ Xp3HeHI1JJ. ilpl1MeM

)J(e B OTHOllIeHMI1 OCeHHI1X nJIO,lJ,OB cnezryioutaa

1IlO60H, KTO BKyCUT CeJIbCKI1X nJIO,lJ,OB, mrorpazta s <pl1r, npeacne qeM npnner naroutee 844d-e). BpeMH

CM.: ilapMeHI1,lJ, 137b; ilOJII1TI1K 268d;

coopa

ypO)J(aH, COBna-

o KOHTeKCTe 11I1CTOpWIeCKOM CO,lJ,ep)J(aHI1I1 nO,lJ,06HOH


np06JIeMaTl1Kl1 I1rpbI CM., B qaCTHOCTH: Schuhl p. 61-63.

TI1MeH S9c-d.

C BOCXO,lJ,OM Apxrypa

...

,lJ,OJDKeH 6Y,lJ,eTsanna-

P. M.

THTb .IJ.110HI1CY nJITb,lJ,eCnTCBHlll,eHHbIX npaxsr •••»

(VIII

Platon et l'Art de son temps,


109 CM.: 3aKoHbI rex cBoe06pa3HOH 6blJIO Jll1 raxoe

npOCTpaHCTBe np06JIeM,

06'be,lJ,I1HRIOlll,eM nl1CbMO 11

I 644d-e:
KyKJIbI

«ilpe,lJ,CTaBI1M ce6e Ka)J(,lJ,Oe 113 KOI1MI1 MbI RBllfleMCR, B KaqeCTBe

3eMJIe,lJ,eJIl1e, pOTI1BOnOCTaBJIHR I1X, MO)J(HO 6bIJIO 6bl n

)J(l1BbIX cyutecra.

noxasar», 'ITO napanoxcsr ,lJ,OnOJIHeHUR KaK pharmacon'a 11KaK mrcesra, KaK rpamopsr 11KaK neaaJIerKO KOHHoro pO)l(,ll,eHI1HKI1~onepauaa onepamnr 're )J(e, 'ITO napanoxcsr npl1BI1Bno npl1BI1BaHI1IO (TO ecrs rpaBl1pOBKI1*, npHBI1BKy,

(paignon),

C03,lJ,aHHOH60raMI1;

C03,lJ,aHl1e,lJ,llfl HI1X 3a6aBOH

(paignon)

I1JII1

)J(e qeM-TO cepbe3HbIM HanOMI1Harolll,l1e

(6s spoude) -

MbI He MO)J(eM06 COCTORHI1R,

3TOM 3HaTb; MbI 3HaeM TOllbKO, 'ITO naunr

Ca,lJ,OBHHKa,ocynrecranruomero

<:YXO)J(I1JII1R I1JII1 6eQeBKH, THHyT Hac,

<I1paHlI,Y3CKHe raaroxsi «graver» parrarr,») H «greffer» MOJlOrHlO.

(<<rpaBHpOBaTb», «OCTaBJlHTb MeTb[», «ua«nepecaaoreari,») HMelOT 0611\YlO 3TJ.t-

[L'operationl du greffeur «(Ca,Il.OlJHHKa, ocyrueCTBJllllOl1\erO npMBHBKY»), du greft1er «(CeKpeTapll cyna», npH'1eM "greffier» HMeeT If npyrue 3Ha'1eHHH, cpeAM KOTOPbIX «xouixa»), greffe (<<npHBolI»), du greffoir (<<npHBHBO'1HOrO HOlKa») et du

(~npHlIHBaTb»,

I!I!B

)I(

.It e p p

11A

a.

,llI1CCEMI1HAlIi'tSl

a nOCKOJIbKY OHH npOTHBOnOnO)l(Hbl neKaIOT Hac TO B O,D;HOM

,D;pyr ,D;pyry, OHH YBTO B npRMO ,D;eifcTBHjJM,

H Manb'IHKOB opaKYJI 6hln

B Ka'IeCTBe 'ITO

>KeHI:u;HH ... ». lIaH, OH 6Y,D;eT y6HT

KOTOPOMY

nanpasneaarr,

npoTaK

npencxasan,

CBOHM CbIHOM,

THBOnOnO)l(HOM 'ITO Mhl

J< npOTHBOrrOnO)I(HbIM HaXO,D;HMCR

see

BpeMR KaJ<

,D;06p0,D;eTenH.

06XO,D;HMO, 'IT06bl My-e,D;HHCTBeHHOMY HHKOr,D;a H TaKoe

aa rpamnre nopoxa H yxassrsaer paCCpK,D;eHHe (logos), HeKa)l(,D;brn scerna nOBHHOBanCR O,D;HOH3 3THX Bne'!eHHH, Bne'IeHHIO HeOCTaBnHn ero

JII06BH.

npaaepacenuexr npOTHBoeCTeCTBeHHOH tEdipe // Delcourt M. Legendes et Cultes de heros en Grece, p. 103. 113BecTHo TaK)I(e, 'ITO, cornacao «3aKOHaM», HeT xyznneI'O npecr ynneana H xyzunero 60roxynbcTBa, He>KenH
TaK>Ke CM.: pO,D;HTeneH 3acny)I(HB~n TaKOH y6HHu;a

conporrrnzrancn

npyrax

6e'IeBOK;

y6Hl1CTBO

«tionsure

nI060-

snesemre - 3TO 30nOToe PYKOBO,D;CTBO, CBRToe py_ KOBO,D;CTBO paaysra (ten tou logismou agogen khrussen kai

ierani, xoropoe
Koropoe

Ha3bIBaIOT

06I:u;HM

3aKOHOM 'iTO

ropozra

OKa3bIBaeTCR

rH6KHM,

nOTOMY

OHO H3 30H

nora,

TOr,D;a KaK

ocransasre

H3 )l(ene3a,

OHH )l(eCTKH

nOXO)I(H aa BceB03MO)l(Hble MO,D;enH... » OTHbIHe HY)l(HO nepscars B PYKax 3TY Y3,D;Y,Ha3BaHH)'IO khryse <30nOTOM> HnH xpusonoeueu.

csiepren» (X 869b). OH aaczryzomaer KOe-'ITO nocepsesaea CMepTH, KOTOpax He HBnReTCR npe,D;enbHblM HaKa3aHHeM. «Heooxo,D;HMO, Cne,D;OBaTenbHO, 'ITo6bl HaJ<a3aHHR, aanaraesasre aa 3THX nIO,D;eH aa nO,D;06Hble npecrynneaua euie BO BpeMH HX >KH3HH, no B03MO>KHOCTH HH'IeM He ycryrrana 6bl
HHoro 6bl HeCKOJIbKO HaKa3aHHRM AH,D;a» (881b).

ro

110

De lagrammatologie, p. 443 sq."


qTO xacaerca nortpoca Hcnonb30BaHHH 6YKB, a TaK>Ke sonpoca cpaBHeHHH «THMeR» C «zosarppoa», HcnaMcKoH HaYKOM 6YKB KaK HaYKOM «npeapaureaaa» CM.: Corbin H. Histoire de la pholosophie islamique, NRF, p. 204 sq. C 3THM ana(VIII 836bc), B KOTOPOM pe-n, H,D;eT 0 nOHCKe pharmacon'a, He06XO,D;HMOM, 'IT06bl HaHTH «Cpe,D;CTBO (diaphugen) npOTHB ::nOM yrpossr», TO ecrs nenepacrmr. HH na 'ITO He nazre-

113

antpamrra H HX paCCMOTpeHHH V. Le Paradigme dans La dialectique platonicienne, P.U.F., 1947, p. 61-67.


no 0 6YKBax B «nOJIlfTHKe» CM.: Goldschmidt CTPYKT)'pa 3TOM np06neMaTHKH B «lIorH'IecKHX COBepweHHO HCCJIe,D;OBaHHRX»

nonpocy

111

114

aa

TaKOBOH

aaanorsrxIyccepna,

112

Hac

ecrt,

nOJIHaH

B03MO>KHOCTb

CBH3aTb

nH30M

cne,D;)'lOI:u;Hl1 OTPbIBOK

H3 «3aKOHOB»

la Voix et le Phenomene", 3,D;eCb MO>KHO 6blJIO 6bl nonpoxecrs KOHeu; «nOJIHTHKa», pas y>K pe-ts 3arnna 0 sumploke H pharmacon'e. B CBoeH paoore TKaHbR isumplokei u;apCKHH TKa'I CYMeeT HaBHTb OCHOBY TKaHI1, YBH3bIBaH npOTHBOnOnO)l(HOCTH, xoropsre COCTaBnHIOT ,D;06p0,D;eTenb. Sumploke, rxanse, 6YKBanbHO cessueaemCM.: HHOMY

(en) c pharmacon'

OM:

«Tom.xo

rex zryurax,

KOTOPblM

6na-

RCb, ACPHHRHHH
«eCJIH 6bl

3a,D;aeTCR BonpOCOM,

'ITO CJIy'IHnOCb

6bl,

I'OPO,D;CTBO BpO)K)J;eHO H B KOTOPblX

OHO nOMep>KHBaeTnOpO,D;HTb

rrpnuapcrnoaan ,D;OJIaR (te phusei theisei ton pro tou Laiou nomon) H B KOTOPOM YKacaMOM nIO,D;H PYKOBO,D;CTBOBanHCb PO,D;OM, H3,D;aB 3aKOH, J<OTOPbB1: 3bIBanOCb, 'ITO He n03BonHeTCH Hcnonb30BaTb MY>K'IHH

aa

nene

CR 06Y'"leHHeM,3aKOHbl

CMorYT

ee <CBH3b>

(kata physin monois dia nomen emphuestai); HMeHHO)J;JIH HI1X HCKYCCTBO C03,D;anO 3TO neKapCTBO (pharmacon);
OHO, KaK Mbl I'OBOpl1nH, nOHCTHHe 60>KeCTBeHHaH CBR3b,

,ll.eppliAa >K.0 rpaMMaTolioflili.

M., 2000.

,!J;eppHAa)l(.

Ionoc

Ii:

<peHoMeH. CD6., 1999.

I!PliI

)I(

A e p p 1-1 A a.

,D.i-1CCEMI-1HALlH51

KOTopaH COe.n.HHHeTMC!)K,!l.yC060H ~aCTH CKOJIb6bI OT~HbI

nooponerena,

«CMOTpHTe-Ka, utero,

CKa)KYT HaM, -

BOT Hrpa 03Ha~alO'ITo6bi ee

,lI.pyr OT npyra OHH 1m 6bIJIH no CBOeH: (31Oa). H3~aHHe

KOTopaH He MO)KeT 060HTHCb 6e3 roro.

npapone

H CKOJIb6bI npoTHBOnOJIO)KHbI 1m MOrJIH 6bITb

He BblCKa3aJIH BCJlyX. CJIe.n.OBaTeJIbHO,OHa Y)Ke He y.n.ep)KHBaeTCH BCeu,eJIO B CTHXHH Toro nHCbMa, 0 KOTOPOM HaM Y)Ke ace YlllH npO)KY)K)KaJIH». TeM, KTO sa He.n.OCTaTKOM 'ITeHHH nocneurno H B npOCTOTe .n.YllleBHoH y.n.OBJIeTBOpHJICJI bI no.n.o6HbIMH yrrpeKa6 MH, BKpaTu,e HanOMHHM CJIe.n.yIOI.Qee )KHBaeT ce6H Ha'IHHM TO, 'ITO

HX CrpeMlIeHHH»
115

1£ «Livre» de Mallarme <<<KHHra» MaJIJIapMe>,


Jacques Scherer <>KaK Illepep>, Gallimard, .QHTaTbI B TOM CJI~ae,

p. 182. 3TH

ecna

OHH He OTCbIJIaIOT K «flOJIcompletes,

npocneyxo,
:3TO

HOMY coopaamo CO~HHeHHH» «(Euvres la Pleiade), H3BJIe'IeHbI H3 «KHHrH».


116

ed.

de

C :3TOH:JIlOCTPbI H 'ITO H. B CaMOM .n.OJI)KHOpe3aTb CHCTeMaTH~eCKHe He HMeeT HHKaKoro

nene

B KaKOM-TO OTHOllleHHH

onpe.n.eJIeHHOe Goux, p.59.


117

CMeI.QeHHe nHCbMa,

Jean-Joseph.

Numismatique

II II Tel Quel, 36,

TpaHc<popMau.HH

H o606I.QeHHe ero «nOHHTHH». CTapaJl TeKCTOM, KOTopbm HaMepeH-

orrrrosauaa
3Ha'IeHHH

pe'IH H nHCbMa 600bllle


,!l.JlH

yrrpaBJIeHM

0 CMbICJle H rrp06JIeMaTHKe aroro CJIOBaCM.: Benveniste, «La notion de "rythrne" dans son expression linguistique», 1951 1/ Problemes de la linguistique generale, Gallimard, 1966, p. 327, a TaK)Ke: Fritz, K. von. Philosophic und Sprachlicher Ausdruck bei Demokrit, Plato und Aristoteles, Darmstadt, 1963, S. 25 ff.
B .n.pyrOM KOHTeKCTe H no nosony poB )KaH-TIbep peaopasasaaaesc imaginaire de COBceM HHbIX npnsseRichard> aHaJIH3H(L'Univers

HO ee .n.eKOHCTpYHPyeT. TaKoH TeKCT HBJIHeTCHHe 60JIee «YCTHbIM», He)KeJIH «nHCbMeHHbIM», OH He 60JIee

npomue

pe'IH, 'IeM 3a nHCbMO, eCJIH nOHHMaTb 3TH CJIOBa B MeTa<pH3H'IeCKOM CMbICJIe,TaK)Ke OH H He sa KaKOH-TO TpeTHH TepMHH, oco6eHHO eCJIH HMeeTcH B BMY ~e~ pa,!l.HKaJIH3MHa'IaJIa HJIH uenrpa. 3Ha'IeHHH arche, telos a a TaK)Ke 3aBHCHI.QHe OT HHX 3Ha'IeHHH HCTOPHH H TpaHCu,eH.n.eHTaJIbHOCTH noxesry KaK paa H COCTaBJIHIOT rnanasre npOTHBOuerrr-

118

Panrap

<Jean-Pierre

06'beKTbI .n.eKOHCTpyKTHBHOH: pHTHKH. flOBTOPHM: «BOT K HHKor.n.a He 6bIJIO pexa 0 TOM, 'ITo6bI nOCTaBHTb HeKHH· rpa<pOu,eHTpH3M HeKoeMY JIOrOu,eHTPH3MY HJlH )i(e Boo6I.Qe KaKOH:-TO uenrp npyrosry py ... EI.Qe MeHee 0 pea6MJIHTau,HH Toro, 'ITO scerna Ha3bI-

pyer TO, ~TO OH KaK pas H Ha3bIBaeT «CeMaHTH~eCKHM neTeMbI «OTCe'IeHHJI rnassn p. 199). des Lettres,

Mallarrne,

119

L'(Euvre de Mallarme, Un coup de des, Librairie


1951.

BaJIOCb nHCbMOM. Pe-n, He MeT nHCbMY ero npaaa, CTBO...» «<0

0 TOM, 'ITo6bI

nepayrs

ero nepBeHCTBO HJIH ero .n.OCTOHH-

rpaMMaTOJIOrHH»>. 11 n03TOMY HY)KHO non-

120 UHTHpyeTcJI

B paoore:

Scherer, Jaques. 1947,p.

L'Expression litte79. onpo-

-repxnyre:

«...3To, eCTeCTBeHHO, Be.n.eTK nepeo<p0pMlIe[Bceo6I.QeMY} mrcs sry.

raire dans I'(Euvre de Mallarme,


121

HHlO nOHSlTHH nHCbMa ... YCTHblH Jl3bIK Y)Ke npananne)KHT 3TOMy

Ho

TeM caMbIM

3.n.eCbnpOTHB Hac 6y.n.eT BbI.n.BHHYTO nocneuraoe aepacemre, noxcnaauieeca caoero BaHHOe H rrymeuaoe

npe.n.n0I10)KeHa MO.n.H<pHKaU,HH nOHJlTHH IIHCbMa ... <l>OHOJIorH3M He TepIUIT HHKaKoro nOp8)KeHHH, noxa COXpaHJI.IOTCH06I.QenpHHHTble nOHfiTHH pe'!H H nHCbMa, xoropsre

TPHYM<pa, Mo6HJIH30-

B XO.n. JIaro.n.apH OC060MY pBCHUlO: 6

I!I!IB

)f(

,[I

ePP

l-1 A

a.

.QHCCEMHHAL\I1S1

KaK pas H COCTaBlIJIIOT rrpoxayro TKaHb ero apl)'MeHTOB. 06rn.errpHHJITbIe rrOHJITHH, rrOBCe,[lHeBHbIe H, KpOMe 'roro, HbIe B 'IeM HeT HHKal<oro rrpOTHBOpe'IHH HCTopHeA, rrOHHTHH, OrpaHH'IeHHbIe OCBoeHMallO-

ceria TOllbKO rrocpeztcraoxr Cpe,ll;CTBOM MHMHKH.


122 MbI

nepeaoca

H CHMYlIJIKpa, no-

crapoa

3aMeTHbIMH rpaHHu,aMH,

xoropsre

He CMorlIfl

6w snecs npoanazrasapoaars

TeM He MeHee OCTaJOTClIOBO H crapoe rrOHH-

-rpeaasrY Fbrarona.

CJI aecsxra )J(eCTKHMH» <<<0 rpaMMaTOlIOrHH»>. ClIe,ll;OBaTellhHO, HMeHHO crapoe THe rrHCbMa BMeCTe co BeeM TeM MaTepHaJIOM, KOTOPbIif HHBeCTHPyeTcH B HHX, 6bIlIH, rro rrpe,ll;rrOllO)J(eHHlO )J(ypaanoa caM oro pasnoro TOlIKa, oopameasr rrpOTHB aanren Y neeHeKOTopbIe H3 CBOHX O'leBH,ll;HO CHMrrTOMaxorna eMy KPHTHKH,XOTH 611aro,ll;apJIorrpe,ll;elleHHoH rryraaane TO OHHKaK pas H rr03aHMeTBOBallH pecypcoa. Bee 3TH peaxuaa
HOCHT

'laHHO ClIO)J(HYIO cHcTeMY nOHllTHJI mimesis

B npyrose MeCTe (<<Me)J( ,ll;BYX6POCKOB KOCTeH» <elintre deux coups de des»> MhI nonsrraesscs npoanannaapoaa'rs ee CHCTeMY H 1I0rHKY, opraHH30BaHHYIO BOKPyr K KO3Ha-

'rpex netrrpoa. a. Ileounoe omueytiuucmeo. Iosrep, no OTHOIlleHHIO TOPOMY Flnaroa nesroacrpapyer MHOrO'IHClIeHHhIe
H3 ropo,ll;a, nO,ll;06HO lII060MY noary,
XOTH

KH YBa)J(eHHH, rrpH3HaHI1H H BocXI1rn.eHHJI, H3rOHHeTCH npyrosry MHMeTH'IeCKoMY


«CBH-

TH'IeCKmf xapaxrep, C TPY,ll;OMynaaazrocs

OHH rrpHHa,ll;lIe)J(aT Orrpe,ll;elleHHOMy y6e,ll;HTb B B03MO)f{HOCTH MY)J(CKOH <pOPM COrrpOTHBHe TOlIbOH CTOllKHYlICH KOlIJIera, KaK (sic)

OH H MO)J(eT nO'IHTaThCH KaK xenosex

THrry. <:DpeA,ll; aCCKa3bIBaeT, 'ITO BO spesreaa, p HCTepHH, cpenn HaH601lee crroaraaasrx KO rzrynocrs C 3aMe'laHHeM cxaaan eMY oaaa-raer pHKOM?» BeCT« H
(C

rn.eHHhIM H Y,ll;HBHTellhHbIH» 'IepKHYTh» ercs H3 csoero

(ieron kai thamaston, Iocyonacasre

,ll;apCTBO398a), eClIH TOllbKO OT Ioxrepa He Tpe6YIOT «BhITeKCTa ace nOlIHTH'IeCKH MeCTa (386c). Ioxrep, 3TOT CTaphIH ClIenOM OTelJ" ocyacnanOTOMY, 'ITO OH

lIeHHJI, B KOTOPhlX 06HapY)J(HBaJIH ce6H nanexo HlIH He06pa30BaHHOCTb, ozraoro xnpypra,

KOTOPbIH cneuuanuno

npaxmuxyem

MHMe3HC (nonpasca-

cnenyroinee «Ho,

TellhHoe

nOBeCTBOBaHHe, a He npocroe).

MOM noporon

BbI MO)J(eTe roaopxrs MaTKa.

"K ax ace My)J(l-{HHa MO)J(eT 6bITb HCTe-

TaKoM ssnop!

Bens

"hysteron"

Ilapsreaxn,

oCY)J(,ll;aeTCH nOTOMY, 'ITO OH

Ilpyron oreu uenopupyem

MHMe3HC. PyKy aa nOTOMY, 'ITO ero pa3MHO)J(eHHe <paHTa3MoB») 241d-e)

Flapxreaana HY)f{HO rroztaars HMeHHO logos, «OTU,OBCKHHTe3HC», sarrpeman 6hl


(<<06pa30B, HKOH, MHMeM, 3TO-

,ll;BoifHHKOB xoropoe

3TOT npHMep 3Ha'IHM ,ll;lIH Hac. Ho MO)J(Ho 6bIlIO 6hI npH-

npyrae: npennonaraevoe

H HX 06'hHCHeHHe. He06xo,ll;HMOCTh

npoHCxo)K,ll;eHHe HeKOnpou,eccy HX TPaHC<pOP-

ro orneyonacraa,

B 3TOM OTphIBKe (CO<pHCT HMeHeM,

ero nOHHTHH HlIH Bo06pa)J(aeMYIO 3THMOllorHIO ClIOBa noCTOHHHO nponlBonOCTaBJIJllOT Mau,HH, He 3aMe'IaJI 'roro, 'ITO HMelOT neno C HaH601lee

Ha3hIBaeTCH CBOHM c06cTBeHHhlM

,ll;oJI)f{Ha 6hITh O'leBH,ll;HOM nazce cnernry

ttuphlo).
KJIaCcH<pHKaIJ;HH

06rn.enpHHJIThIM 3HaKOM, HarpY)J(eHHhIM onpenenennoa HCTopHeM H 6eC03HaTellhHhlMH MOTHBau,HHMH. 3Ta CHOCKa, 3Ta

b.

/l.80UHllJ(.

sanuc»

mimesis'a.

HeB03MO)J(HO 06e3,ll;BHnpHnHcaTh 0,ll;H0-

)J(JITb mimesis HlIH -

nocpencraoxr

6HHapHoH

ccsrnxa,

eClIH rOBopHTh 60llee TO'lHO -

BhI60p

aroro

npHMepa

see

e,ll;HHCTBeHHOeMeCTO napanjrrxra

techne mimetike

B «,ll;elleHHH» «CoHll.(eTCH MeTO,ll;H MHH-

3TO ClIY)J(HT snecs lIHIllh

MH 06'hHBlIeHHJI

06 orrpeneMbI aaezte-

lIeHHOM CMeU{eHUU JI3hlKa; TaKHM 06pa30M, HhI B TO, 'ITO, KaK npebnonaeaemcn, MeHOM: B HCTepHIO (uo rep«),

<pHcTa» (B TOT caMhIM MOMeHT, xorna MH opraaasauaa

OXOThl ua codmcra).

y,ll;ep)J(HBaeTCJI 3a rn-

MeTHKa OKa3hIBaeTOI OOHOapeMeHHO O,ll;HOHH3 'rpex <pOpM «npoH3Bo,ll;HTellhHoro HCKyccTBa»

KOTOpaJI 06HapY)J(HBaeT

ttechne poetike)

I!mlJ

)f(

aK A ep

p 14A 8.

AI1CCEMI1HAlll1Sl

aa

npyroi«

KOHlJ;epa3BHJlKH -

<pOPMOH HJIH HHCTpYMeH-

mOT H3

Te3HC MO)KHO norrrnepmrrs,

nepe'-IHTaB OTPbIBOK

TOM HCKYCCTBanpH06peTeHHH TeJIbHOrO H He noeraaecxoro ,ll.eH (218d-233

(ktetike)

(He npOH3BOAHMOJIO,ll.bIX1110-

HCKYCCTBa), acnonssyexroH

«Iocynapcrsa» (393a BaHHH H mimesis'eIinst


XO'-IeT nonerrarr,

H nanee) 0 npOCTOM nOBeCTBOHac 3Ha'IHMa HMeHHO 'ra «BHYT,ll.a6bI o rnemrrr, XOpOWHH

ro CO<pHCTOMB CBoeH OXOTe na 60raTbIX H nanee). KaK «KOllAy" CO<pHCT MO)KeT npOH3BO,ll.HTb «MHMeMbI sceB03MO)KHbIX CyrtJ;HX (234b-235a). er n03TH'leCKOMY, xoropoe, Ho, Y)Ke nO'ITH rrorraannrcs, 1I0BymKH, nonyxas

noapaacarens»,
H OMOHHMbI»

peHHHHl> ,ll.BOHCTBeHHOCTb mimeisthai, KOTOPyro nlIaTOH nannoe,

mimesis
XOTn

(TOT, 'ITO BocnpOH3BO,ll.HT BepHO H no HCTHHe, <paKT npHcYTcTBHH B HeM Hrpy (396c).Cxenonoero nonKOTOPbIH He06xo,ll.HMO cnepxorH (nypnyio)

CO<pHCT nonpasca-

eMY Y)Ke rp03HT npocron KaK 6e3YMHe (396a)

O,ll.HaKO,CaMO CO,ll.ep)KHTMHCO<pHCTace PaBHO H36eraeT 61IarO,ll.apH ,ll.OnOlIHHTelIbHO3UIW-

Y,ll.BOeHHH) OT rrnoxoro, sars

MeTH'IeCKOe, OH npOH3BO,ll.HT ,ll.BoHHHKa npOH3BO,ll.CTBa.

Ma :nOH «lIOrHKH» TaKOBa:

naseaxy

1. Mimesis

npOH3BoAHT ,ll.BOH-

HHKa BeIIJ;H. ECJIH ,ll.BOHHHK nepen H cosepurenno 6eH, HHKaKoe Ka'IeCTBeHHoe OT 06pa3IJ;a. Orcrona pa)KaIOIIJ;ee 'IHT; b) nonpascaioniee 06pa3eIJ; xopour, ce6e OTlIH'-IHe He ornenaer TpH ClIe,D.CTBHH: ,ll.BOHHHKa)

My BbI,ll.elIeHHlO ,ll.BYX <POPM MHMeTHKH (235d)

cmUKU, KOTopaH BocnpOH3BO,ll.HT BepHO, H ifjaHmacmuKU, xoropaa CHMYJIHPyeT 3ifi<aCTIf.KY, ztezraer BH,ll.,'ITO CHMYJIHPyeT BepHO H 06MaHbIBaeT 'IaCTb )KHBonHCH rnas npH3paKOM (<paHTa3MOM), KOTOPbIH COCTaBlIHeT «aecsxra aaa-nrrezrsayro

:3T0 HH'ITO, caM no ce6e OH HH'IerO He 3HaHMeeT 3Ha'IeHHe lIHWb 61IarO,ll.anlIOX.

pH CBoeMY 06pa3IJ;Y, OHO OKa3bIBaeTCJl XOPOWHM, eClIH H mIOXHM, eClIH oopaseu H np03pa'IHO;

(wgraphia)

H MHMeTHKH B ~elIOM».

Ta-

Casro

KOBa anopaa (236e) <pHlIOCO<pa-OXOTHHKa,OCTaHaBlIHBalOIIJ;erOCH na neperryrse, eH ,ll.H'IblO (KOTopaH, 3arOHIIJ;HKOM), CHOBa 06HapY)KHM MHMa H

no ce6e OHO HeHTpalIbHO

c) eClIH caM no OH
3JIO,

uecrrocotinoro
B CBOlO oxepens

nanee npecnenoromoaoro CBO, OKa3bIBaeTCH

mimesis

HH'IerO He 3Ha'IHT H HH'IeM He HBlIneTCJl, czrenosarem.no, OH ecrs

aarr, CBOIO ,ll.06bIqy H 6eCKOHe'IHO nonro ee noore

OH ecrs

OTCYTCTBHe 3Ha'IHMOCTH H 6bITHH, TO ecrs -

B caMOM ce6e nerarasen, a nonpaacanae xorna

,ll.OJIroro 06XO,ll.HOro rryra MbI MaJIJIapMe. 3Ta naHTOOHa ,ll.OJI)KHanar» MecBbI'IepKHY-

3TO casro no ce6e 3110, a He TOlIbKO 311y. 2.

B «MliMHKe»

nonpascaror

Ilonpaacaiomee,

He3aBHCHMO

080UHOUceaHC, KOTOpOMy

OT Toro, nO,ll.06HO OHO HlIH HeT, CKOllbKY cyuiecrsyer KaKHM-TO 06pa30M na: a)

3TO nexoe cyuiee, no«(CO<PHCT»). OTClOK 06pa31W, Ha'IHHaeT nonpa-

TO, 6Y,ll.YT HMeTb 3Ha~eHHe lIHlUb AJIH aexoea TOH HCTOPHH OTHoweHHH C. He-8uHo8HblU nocodxxoro HH
B KOeH Mepe

mimesis

H MHMeMbI. 3TO He6bITHe

<PHlIOCQ<PHHH C0<PHCTHKH. MO)KHO 3aMeTHTb, 'ITO IlJIaToH, (HlIH, cxopee, CO CTPYKTypOH «penponyxuaa» npHHH)KaeT CHMy-

«cyurecrnyer» nooasnaac],

mimesis.

ECJIJfCXBaTHTb mimesis «no» <pH-

nonpaacaiomee,

«peurenaa»,

,ll.OnOlIHHTb ero H nepecraer MOCTblO; b) nooaazraacs

6bITb HH'IeM H He-3Ha'IH-

He CBH3bIBM Cy,ll.b6y n033HH H HCKyccTBa

K «CyrtJ;eMY» 06pa3~Y,

CO CTPYKTypOH

mimesis'a

xcarontee He HBlIJleTCH TeM xce caMbIM, H 6Y,ll.b OHO a6co1I1OTHOnO,ll.06HbIM, OHO see paBHO HHKOf,ll.a He HBlIHeTCH a6COlIlOTHO naxorna nO,ll.06HbIM «(KpaTHlI»). xoropoe To ecrs OHO He HBlIHeTCH a6COlllOTHO MCTHHHbIM; c) 6y,ll.ysee paBHO He MOHH)f(e ero no
3TOT

scero 'roro, 'ITO ceronna HHe», <rronpaacaaae», H T. n, B orrpoaepras snepen, -

nepesonarca

KaK «npeacraane-

«asrpaxcemre»,

ace 3TH BapHaHTbI),

mimesis'e

see TO, 'ITO «COBpeMeHHOCTb» KaK pas BbIMaCKY, HC'Ie3HOBeHHe aaropa,

'-IH ,ll.OnOlIHeHHeM oopasua, xcer C HHM cpasnm-sca,

nsaraer

nonpaxcarouiee

lIHKp, aHOHHMHOCTb, anOKpH<pH'IeCKyro TeKcTyaJIbHOCTb.

CyrtJ;HOCTH naace B TOT MOMeHT, xorna

OHO MO)KeT

IBiJ

)I(

Ae

PPHA

a.

,D,I1CCEMIiHAl.Il-1f1

oopasen

3aMeHMTb 3Ta

M TaKMM

06pa30M

«BbIMTM

na

nep-

124

Hasero
cxsecxyro

B Ha6pocaHHOM

BblIlIe

rrporpasoae

He M3MeHMTB «KJIaC6Y}J.eT M

BbIM IIJIaH». sanaer pyer xypc

CXeMa (}J.Ba Te3MCa M IlIeCTb JIOrWieCKyro scex Mau.rnH)';

CJIe}J.CTBMM)

CH M Tor}J.a, xorna snoxy»,

nOCJIe ApMCTOTeJIH, 06pa3u.aMM

M oc06eHHO

HeKyro

OHa nporpasoorBnMcaHHbIX B }J.MCB CO3Ta

}J.JIH nonpaacanna

npOTOTMnbI nJIaTOHa

nOJIO)l(eHMM,

Y)l(e He npOCTO HX asropsr,

npnpona,

a aHTM'lHbIe

npOM3Be}J.eHMH npnpone.

M B }J.MCKypCbI TPa}J.HU.llli. JIOrWieCKMM

AeMCTBYH 3aKOHOM,

xoropsre

YMeJIM nonpascars

TbICH-

OTBeTCTBMM MaIlIMHa erne

C HeYMOJIHMbIM

'1M npasrepoa

3TOH nporpasoasr POMaHTM3Ma

MO)l(HO 6bIJIO 6bI HaMTM (BKIIlO'IaH ee casay 1I }J.a)l(e

pacnpenenaer

see urrasmsr

KpMTMKM,

KOTOPOM

BIIJIOTb }J.O3noXH 6011ee n03}J.HMe secssea

TOJIbKO npe}J.CTOMT nOHBMTbCH.

nepnonsi).

AM}J.po 06pa30M

KOTOPhIM, BnpO'IeM, nOBpe}J.MJl MMMeTOJIO-

cymecrsenasn« MaIlIlIHe, rrpx aaannse

123 AOKa3aB

B «KpaTMJIe», q,opMa

'ITO MMeHOBaHMe 6bI

MCKJIIO'IaeT

mi-

rWieCKoif Ta»* -

oc06eHHO 'roro,

«Tlapanoxce

KOMe}J.MaH«M}J.eaJIbHOH

mesis,
q,opMe

'ITO

CJIOBa He MOrJIa

ynO}J.06JIHTbCH, MCKYCCTBaM, YT-

'ITO OH Ha3bIBaeT (HBllHlOmeMCH,

B npOTMBOnOJIO)l(HOCTb senra (423a

nonpaacarensnsna
COKpaT MHoe -

Bo06pa)l(aeMOM rronaraer, 'ITO see

MO}J.ellblO»

KaK OH npen-

M nanee),

TeM He MeHee -

HenJIaTOHWleCKOH rrepeBOpa'IMBaHMH 6Y}J.ymero

MO}J.eJIblO), norrrsepacnaer, srracaasr B nporpaso-ry. OT-

Bep)I(}J.aeT, 'ITO HeKoe

HeqysCTBeHHoe

no}J.oseunr, Te3MC

6Me }J.OJI)I(HO npespauiars KaK OHa ec'rs OCTaeTCH «no

MCTMHHoe (439a

MMH B 06pa3 3TOT

HOCMTeJIbHO

MCTMHe»

M nanee). BO acex

Konnens "Ilasarrre
TyM -

<Antoine

npenurecrsyiourcro: «AHTyaH Coypel>. HeCOMHeHHO, 6bIJI secssaa


pa3 OH CKa3aJI XY}J.o)l(HMKaM: HaIlIMX craryn, HaMM KapTMH CTaotipaasr

HenpMKOCHOBeHHblM M oTcTynJIeHMHX B ero MCTMHe no oopasna no

MpOHM'IeCKMX

OCTPOYMHbIM

'IeJIOBeKOM,

paCCY)I(}J.eHMHX HOCTb cyrnero

«KpaTMJIa». OTHOIlIeHMIO OTHOIlIeHMIO

FlepaaxK H3bIKY, K ero 06-

}J.eJIaTb TaK, ~IT06bI

JIM )l(MBbIMM

MO}J.eJIHMM aHTM'IHbIX pacyesrsrx

a He 3TM CTa06pa30B". TOT

KaK M nepBM'IHOCTh pa3y, ooaanaer

nO}J.JlMHHMKaMM

npO'IHOCTblO ecmr Y Hac ecrs

a6COJIIOTHOM

nocrosepnonOJIyqMTb 6JIarO}J.apH 3HaHMH,

)l(e CaMbIM COBeT MO)I(HO 11,aTbM rnrreparopaxr».

(<<Pensees Garnier,

CTM. «I1TaK,

B03MO)l(HOCTb 3HaHMH

detachees

sur

la peinture»

II tEuvres esthetiques,

CKOJIb yrO}J.HO COBepIlIeHHbIe MMeHaM M TaKaH )l(e

seuren
nOJIyqMTh

ed. Verniere, p. 816.)


125 I13}J.aTeJllI
ro B

B03MO)l(HOCTb semasr, KaKoM

HO 6JIaro}J.apJl }J.OB 3HaHMH

CaMMM OKa)I(eTCJI

M3 3TMX }J.BYX BMM HaM60JIee

«Tlomroro

c06paHMH

CO'IMHeHMM»,

BbIIlIe}J.IlIeB CO-

HaM60JIee

TO'IHbIM

«Pleiade»,

He CO'IJIM He06xo}J.MMbIM

OTMeTMTb

npexpacasnai He06xo}J.MMO paaa (ek tes eikonos), 'IT06bI,


Y3HaTb, xopoura JIM KonMH, KOroPOM MCTMHY, 06pa30M }J.MTb HY)I(HO nosaarr, 06pa30M

JIM 6Y}J.eT MCXO}J.MTb M3 06M3yqaH ero caM no ce6e,

CTaBJIeHHbIX

MMM«npMMe'IaHMHX

M sapaaarax»

M B TO )l(e BpeMH

Y3HaTh

TY

et Variantes>, 'ITO TeKCT M3 )l(ypHaJIa dente», BKJIlO'IeHHbIM B HaMHoro 60JIee


TeKCT, He MMeJI 3arJIaBMJI «MMMMKa»

<Notes «La Revue indepenooumpasra KOHM 'ITO sa aosauesr, npepaas ero

OHa HBJIHeTCH? I1JlM)I(e

MCXO'IT06bl JIM

M3 caMOH

MCTMHbI

(ek tes alehteiasi,


He

KOTOPbl.H MbI TOJIbKO 'ITO np0l1,MTMpOBaJIM, B TOM )l(e HMfi», MeCTe, 'ITO

ee CaMY no

ce6e

M nOHJlTb,

nO}J.06alOmMM

M M3}J.aTeJIM «C06paHMH KOTOPbIM M csoea

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6bmo

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ee M306pa)l(eHMe?.

CTOMT

CJIe}J.OBaJI aosan

JIM COrJIaCMThCJI B TOM, 'ITO He CJIe}J.yeT MCXO}J.MTbM3 CJIOB, a CJIe}J.yeT Y3HaBaTb 0 seuiax M MCCJIe}J.OBaTb

ax,

MCXO}J.H

M3 HHX CaMHX, a ae M3 HX MMeH!»

Paradoxe sur Ie Cornedien repe».

B PYCCKOM

nepeaone

«Flapanoxc 06 ax-

lei

)K

A e p p 11 A a.

,D.I1CCEMI1HAlII1>l

H CBOHM CHHTaKCHCOM COBeplleHHO COOTBeTCTByroll.l;ero arisana JIO)KHOCTb CBoeMY oornesry B cry-rae «MHMHKH».

OTJHftlaeTCJI OT B nporxsono-

na HJIJIIOCTpHpyeT TOJIbKO H,n,elO,a He nacroautee CTBHe, B rHMeHe, H3 xoroporo

nea-

6epeTCJI Ipesa, nOpO'IHOM,

npaBHJIY, c06mOAeHHOMY

HO CBJlllJ,eHHOM, Me)K,n,y )KeJIaHHeM H BblnOJIHeHHeM, coaepuremresr


U BocnOMHHaHHeM: snecs onepeacaa, TaM

npyrax

TeKCTOB,H3AaTeJIH He npeACTaBHJIH na-

pHaHTbI BTOPOH BepCHH, ony6JIHKOBaHHOH B «CTpaHH-

MeHHHKH»

uax» (Pages, Bruxelles 1891) B rnase «)KaHp HJIH COBpe<le Genre ou des Modernes>, omrrs )Ke 6e3
3TO rpersn BepCHJI, Ony6JIHKO-

BcnOMHHaJl, B 6y,n,yll.l;eM, B npOWJIOM, B nO)KHOM JlBJIeHHH HaCTOJlIlJ,ero. TaK neacreyer MHM, nrpa KOTOporO

OrpaHH'IHBaeTCJI nOCTORHHbIM HaMeKOM: He HHa'Ie 3axpennaer OH 'IHCTyro cpeny BbIMbIcna."K TO npo-nrra

3arJIaBHJI. «MHMHKa» -

BaHHaH nOA TaKHM 3afJIaBHeM B «OTcTynJIeHHJlx»

(Diva-

e T,

gations, 1897), pendente»


xacrr,

B pasneae

AaTeJIH «Pleiade»,

lJ,HTHpyJlABa aosana H3

«Crayonne au theatre». XOTJI H3«La Revue indey6HHlJ,a CBoeH )KeHbI»), noB

KaK JI TOJIbKO 'ITO nocryrnrn TJlK, MeHblle

casr, 3TOT qy,n,eCHbIH nyc-

TblCJl'IH CTPOK, nOHMeT

se-msre

npaBHJIa,

KaK 6y,n,TOOKa3aBllHCb HbIM pacnopazurrenexr.

nepen no,n,MOCTKaMH,UX Mpa'IHeO)KH,n,aHHOCTb,CTOJIb)Ke 06KOTOPOH B pexrecne <pHK<ppa3aMH,

(AO CJIOB«Flsepo,

6aBJIJlIOT: «,1J.Ba 3THX aosaua (p. 135-.136)

Pages (1891)

COCTaBJIJlJIH

BOpO)KHTeJIbHaH, npH'IHHa,

rJIaBbI ")KaHp

HJIH cOBpeMeHHHKH': p.186», 'raxoe

CalJ,HH qyBCTB BOBce He npOH3HeceHHbIMH CTBeHHOM cnyxae,

TaK)Ke OHH <pHrypHpOBaJIH B

Divagations,
aepcaa

COCTOHTB TOM, ~ITO, 6bITb MO)KeT, TOJIbKOB 3TOM eznmMC)K,n,yJIHCTaMH H B3fJIH,n,OM, nonB HaCJIa)K,n,eHHe e,n,HHcTBeHHaH

YTO'lHeHHe JlBJIJleTCJIHenOJIHbIM H aa caMOM nene HeTO'IHbIM. ,1J.Be npe,n,llecTByroll.l;He MbI socnpoas-

JIHHHOM BH,n,eYCTaHaBJIHBaeTCHTHllHHa, 'ITeHHH».

Be,n,eM sneer, HMeHHO nOTOMY,'ITO TpaHC<popMalJ,HJIKa)Knoro H3 aosanea (HeKOTopbIX CJIOB,CHHTaKCHca, n}'HKnOKa3bIBaeT a TaK)Ke nOTO-

b.

«CTpaHHlJ,bI»

(Pages, IR91). «Morrsamre,


se-repa

TyalJ,HH, Hrphl

CK060K, no,n,'IepKHBaHHJI)

POCKOllb nOCJIePH<pM,opxecrp lleJIeCTOM MbICJIe1i H HHe, pasnoe y6HTOM

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3KOHOMHKY «CHHTaKCHKa» ea pa60TOH; xoe-xaxne a. KOHKpeTl:lble YKa3aHHJI. (1886)

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My, 'ITO n03)Ke MbI H3BJIe'IeM H3 3TOH TpaHC<popMalJ,HH

one,

KOTOPyro npHCTaJIO

asrpaaars

«La Revue independente.


y6HHlJ,a

n03Ty, CMJlTeHHoMY 3THM BbI30BOM! MOJIqaHHe, xoropoe (nocne CTPOK, npoC KaKHX-TO nop JI mny nOCJIenOJIy,n,HJI MY3bIKH; JI CynoaJIeTBOpeHHeM nauren npeacaexry Legrand>. ero 6JIaro,n,apJl nOBTopHOMY H noHeO)Kl1,lI,aHHoMYnOJIBneHHIO MHMa TIOJIJI MbI naxonasr [3TOT a63aI(

lJ,HTHpOBaHHbIX B OCHOBHOMrexcre): TOMHMbI "TIbepo,

«... JIH6peTTo nanJII16peTTO

csoea

)KeHbI': CJIO)KeHHOH: H

Ilsepo,
Jlerpana
B

TO ecrs <Paul

COCTaBJIeHHOH[-HOM TIOJIeM MaprepHTTOM.

aCKeTH'IHOrO H My,n,poro

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theatre, O. c., p. 340.) Hrax, 3TOT "Tlsepo, y6HHU.a

Crayonne au

CBoeH )KeHbI", CJIO)KeHHbIH

HanHCaHHaJl CTpaHHlJ,a. BblpbIBaeTCJI

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HbI yrroTpe6JIeHI1eM MbIM HaCTOH~I1M

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eM, qeM-TO aKCI10MbI 113BeCTHO. I1CTOqHI:fK JII16peTTO, 'ra, 'ITO nenne, ClIY'-Iae

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B CaJIOHaX

11 aa

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rocnonan

Crerpan Mannapae. )I{. K. rIOI1CTeonop ne BaHBI1JIb, KOTOPbIH


OCTPOTOH YMa, pa3y6e)l()1.aJI rry6JII1Ka CJII1WKOM ... )1.yrrpOWJII1. MI1MI1'1e-

B )1.aHHOM

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11 ee CI1HTaKCI1C. MaJI-

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11 eCJlI1 'ITO-TO

11 OCTalIOCb

napsae aroro

llpe)1.CTaBlIeHI1I1 KHH)I(eqKa»,

nonsrrxa,

TaK 3TO JII1TepaTypHaH na

KOHIJ;errU;I1H CO-

«Tlsepo».

Bropoe

113)1.aHMe, «penxaa

spesaenaoro

H HaBO)1.H~ero

pa3MbIWJIeHI1H

Ilsepo.

BBI!J

)!(

Ae

p p 11 A a. AI-ICCEMI1HAUI'1R

06JIa'IalOIIJ,erOCHno CBoeMY )l(eJIaHHIOTO B npocropasm KJIaCCH'IeCKHHKOCTIOM,TO B xepaoe IIJ,erOCHnon ,Il,eHCTBHeM60JIH H TpHKO H naaraio-

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0611aCTblO «'IeJIOBe'IeCKaK OHa onpenenx-

KOH nCHXOJIOfHH» Bo06pa)KeHHH, erca

crpaxa, 3TY H,Il,elO,OT[Pierrot assassin de sa femme, 1882,Schmidt, Imprimeur 1, H n03)1(e pasoasro B O,ll,HOMposrane [Tous Quatre, roman, 1885, Giraud, editeur], H naneiocs npHKOCHYTbCH K Heii CHOBa B ,Il,BYX
Me'IeHHYIO B MaJIeHbKOH naHTOMHMe rOTOBHIlJ,HXCH TOMax B HCCJ1e,ll,OBaHHH xY,Il,O)l(eCTBeHHbIX OIIJ,ymeHHH H B C60pHHKe naHTOMHM.

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«Bonsr ({

B CJIe,ll,YIOIIJ,eM BenHKOJIenHOM OTPbIBrpes»: «B 'IeJIOBeKe npeasnue scero Mbl CTO-

xe H3

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HT JIH npO)KHBaTb TO, 'ITO He MO)KeT 6bITb HanHcaHO? ,Il,OBOJIbCTBOBaTbCll sooopaorpaanHCCJIe,ll,OBaHHeMnpU8um020 )KeHHH, npH'IeM, CBOIOOTMeTKY na npxpone,

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Tlocne smoeo

nOCKOJIbKY xynsrypa

y)Ke OCTaBHJIa

MHe 6yaem n0380JleHO yamu


noicasanocs,

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KO, HO 3TO Moe neno, BbIJIO 6bl HeCnpaBe,IJ;JIHBO, eeJIH 6bl 'ITO MOH 6YAyIIJ,He KHHrH B,Il,OXHOBJIeHbI xa-

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BnpO'IeM, 3TO AJIH Hac He npOCTO MeTacpopa. THB, npU8U8Ka no naurexy

51

ysepeH

Hanpo-

B TOM,'ITO TOJIbKO6JIaro,n;apHCJIyqaHHoMY CTe'IeHHIO 06CTOHTeJIbCTB nOCJ1e"Tlsepo, y6m'rnbI HBHJIOCb nponsaeneaae repoa posiana csoen )I(eHbl" no-

npe,n;CTaBJIHeTCH HaM nOHHTHeM, cymenCHXOJIOrHH.

CTBeHHblM AJIHnOHHMaHHH 'leJIoBe'lecKoil

C nOXO)I(HM Ha3BaHHeM, a nOCJIe "Bee xerispe"

MHeHHIO, 3TO 3HaK 'IeJIOBe'IeCKOrO, 3HaK,

nOJIH BHomI <Paul Violas> eIIJ,e O,n;HHTlsepc,

He06xo,ll,HMblH ,Il.JlH onpe,ll,CJleHHH'IenOBe'IeCKOrO Bo06pa)KeHHH. C naurea TO'lKH 3peHHH, Bo06pa)KalOIIJ,aH HaXO,ll,HTCH no TY CTOPOHY OT

<Tous

Quatre>

KOTOPblH nOXO)I(

aa Hero.

51

JIHmb KOHCTaTHpYIOcaoe nepBeHCTBO H COMHOIO K npeKpaCHOMY HC-

'IeJIOBe'IeCKaH npupona

xpaHHIO ero sa C060H na 6Y,Il,ymee. 3TO 03Ha'IaeT, 'ITO CHMnaTHH, HcnblTbIBaeMaH BHHeTY <Album sceptique> de Willette>,

nOpO)K,n;alOIIJ,eH npHpO,ll,bI. B ,Il,eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTH nart.

Tonsxo

npHBHBKa

MO)KeT

MaTepHaJIbHOlviY Bo06pa)Ke-

KyecTBY naHTOMHMbl H KO BceM flOHCMaHCa H

Tlsepo -

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ne

HHIO H306HJIHe cpOpM. TOJIbKO npHBHBKa MO)KeT nepe,Il,aTb<popMaJIbHOMY Bo06pa)KeHHIO 60raTCTBO H nJIOTHOCTb MaTepHil. OHa 3aCTaBJIHeT,Il,H'IOKnBeCTH H naer

'Tlsepo-cxerrrmcy" <Pierrot 3HHHKa <Hennique>, 3aCTaBKOTopaH BOCnooporo APYeIIJ,e H naurero

JIHeT MeHH pyxonnecxarr, KpeCHT -

JII060iI nonsrnce,

na cneae HJIH B KHHre -

nBeTKY MaTepHIO. ECJIH OCTaBHTb ace MeTacpopbl, AJIH npOH3BO,ll,CTBa n03TH'IeCKOrO npOH3Be,ll,eHHH H!)KHO e,ll,HHCTBO rpe3HIIJ,eIl ,Il,eHTeJIbHOCTH H,Il,eaTHBHOH H ,Il,eJITeJIbHOcTH. HCKYCCTBO OTHOCHTCHK npHBHTOH npapO,ll,e» (p.

ra Flsepo».
3Ta AJIHHHaH inrrara MOrJIa 6bl 6blTb mrrepecaa TeM, 'ITO OHa OTMe'IaeT HCTOpH'IeCKYIO 3anYTaHHOCTb TeKcTyaJIbHOH cern, TOPOH Maprepnrr opHrHHaJIbHOCTH. 126 no npH'IHHaM, xoropsre H3JIO)KeHbl snecs, 3TO nOHHB KOTOPYIOMbI Y)Ke nOnaJIH H B KO3aHBJIHeT 0 csoen rrpennozraraenoa

14-15*,

KypCHB asropa).

3TH YTBep)K,Il,eHH

ocnopensr
personnel,

POHOM <Mauron>

Mo(Des m8apllOres obsedantes au my the p. 26-27).


C «nCHXOKpHTH'leCKOH» TO'IKH 3peHWI

THe TeKcTyaJIbHOH npHBHBKH, HeCOMHeHHO, C TpY,Il,OM

Cpo pye. H3JJ;.:BaWIUlp r. BOAa H rpessr. M., 1998, c. 28-29.

I!IIi1

)f( 8 K

Ae

P P H A 8.

AHCCEMHHA~S1

127 3TO apJIeKHHaAa B AeHCTBHHX H CTHXaX (HanHCaHHaH

Eapony pana H3yqeHHH naHTOMHMhI), «Tlsepo rroaeurennoro» xaxyio-ro

B COaBTOpcTBeC IT. CHpOAeHOM <P. Siraudin», MHoro~03)l(e

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paa nOCTaBJIeHHaJ{ OKTH6pH 1847 r, B .rearpe BOAeBHJIH. 4

(Illaacpnepa <Champflery> sa TO, 'fTO OH YKpaJI KHHry, Tlsepo, KOTOPhlH npHKHAhIBaeTCH MaT-

Mapreprrrr

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The, "MCTOPHHFlsepo,

rasecxoa

CI<a3KHKOMeHAaHTa Pnasepa, ABYX CTJfXOB[03aJ..QeKOTaBmero )l(eHY H 3aCTaBHB-

urero ee, CMelOrn;)'IOCH, TAaTh AYJ.IIi:· CTaJIOpenrarounoa O AJIH MoeH CaTaHHHCI<OH, CBepXpOMaH'fH'feCKOHH B TO )l(e BpeMH COBpeMeHHOH KOHIIenLl,HH'fH'fHbIH, )l(eCTOKHHH HaHBHhm KHH ITpoTeH, nexmoro ps YTOH'feHHhIH, nespo06'beAHHHIOrn;HH

Iorse

nanacars

TaKHe CTPOKH: «MrHoBeHHeM

nosxce nOHBJIHI01:CH xecansuumsr, OT KOTOPhIX 6eAHbIH

Flsepo,

B ce6e ace npOTHBOnOJIO)J(HOCTH, HaCTOHrn;HHrrcaxrorecC3AHCTCKHH, OXO'IHH AO BhlllHBKH TparH'feCI<OMY xourITo, B KOTOPOMFlseH C~BepmeHHeHmHH HerOMH. TaKHM 06pa30M, 6JIarOAa-

Flsepo crpanaer B TeqeHHe BeChMa HenpHHTHOH «emeepmu t.taca - 6hlTh ssrsecamrsn«, BOT 3TO cYAh6al Toro H rlIJIAH, saaoxnetuscn. ITpocTIITe MHe 3TH KaJIaM6yphI, KOTOPhIX He MO)l(eT 6hITh B naHTOMHMe, l.J.TO AOKa3hlBaeT npeBOCXOACTBO npOH3BeAeHHfi sroro HHhIMH». pona HaA BCeMl1 He MeHee

Flsepo,

y6HftIIe CBoeH )l(eHhI" -

B ApyrOM

MeCTe Iorse orsre-raer, 'fTO <mpOHC-

Mapy B CTHJIe[oq,MaHa HJIH 3wapa CTyrrHH, -

XO)l(AeHHe Tlsepo», «CHMBOJIa rrpozrerapna», «HHTepeCHO», 'feM

pO 3aCTaBJIHeTCBOIO)l(eHY YMepeTh COcsrexy, urexoxa ee H 6bIJI npeATe'IeH B03pmK,neHHH naHTOMHMhI, a cerOAHH, B 1881 r., H MOry nO'ITH C nOJIHOH yse-

nexoropsre 3araAKH, «xo-ropsre BhI3BaJIH JII060nhITCTBO ... oTIIa Kapxepa <Kircher>, Illasrrrorn-ona <Champollion> H T. A.». Tpona OTKphITa. 51 BhI-

peaaocrsro CKa3aTh - e,nHHCTBeHHbIMnpeATeqeH» (Nos treteaux, ] 910). Mapreprrr-ry, noxoace, HeH3BeCTHhI ace KYJIHChIH POAOCJIOBHhle :nOH CIIeHhI. Harrpnsrep, y6HHCTBO coaepuraerca B «3JIOKJIIO'IeHlfHX rrpn nOMOrn;H rn;eKOTaHHH nor H

pazcaro 6JIarOAapHOCThIToJIl{) TeBeHeHY<Paul Thevenin>,


KOTOPbIH nor-tor MHe pa306paThCH C 3TOH 6H611HOTeKOH

Flsepo, xoropsre see, BKJIIO'faH Flsepo Mapreprrrra,


BhIMH, 'feM )l(HBhIMH, Me)f(OY )l(113HblOH csreprsto,

OAecna

HOBpeMeHHO )l(HBhI H MepTBbI, )l(HByIIJ;He cxopee MepTy-recri, 3TH 3q,q,eKTbI 3epKaJIhHOrO YABoeHHH, na KOTO-

Tpnazrsrpa.

Ham cOBpeMeHHHK ne-

pen CBOHM caMoy6HikTBOM» <les Roueries de Ttialph, Notre contemporain avant son suicide> JIacaHn <Lasailly> (1833); AO cMepTH rn;eKOTaJIH yace B «DeJIOM AhHBOlle» ~The white devil> Beticrepa <Webster> (1612): «He tickles you to death, make you die laughing» (V, iii) <OH ... samexo-rer Te6H AO CMepTH, 3aCTaBHT Te6Jl rrosrepen, co CMexy>, a TaK)l(e aa npOTH)l(eHHH scero npoxrexcy-ro-r-

psre CChIJIaeTCH orposnras


HepBaJIH 11Aa)l(e ITo.
129 ITOCKOJIhKY MOTHB

znrreparypa

3noXH [oq,MaHa,

neampanunocmu

B ee HeraTHBHOH

q,opMe OTKphIBaeT npOCTpaHCTBO AllH HaH60JIee KJIaCCI1'feCKHX H aropnoro HX npoc-roe

naationee

nOl~03pHTeJIhHhIX nOnhITOK noHeOCTOpO)l(HhIM AeHCTBHeM

noro nepHoAa Me)l(AY AByMH 3THMH AaTaMH H yzce, TaK CI<a3aTb,aa aHrJIHHCKOM H3hIKe.
128 CpeAH MHO)l(eCTBaHHhIX nepece-renna

npHCBoeHHH,

6hIJIa 6hI OTMeHa MeTaq,H3H'feCKHX

rrapnsrx

onn03HIIHH,

omepanu-cenue
'fTO 3TO

OT JII060ro

TeKCTa (ecznr

MO)l(HO 6hIJIO 6hI

npeAnOJIO)l(HTb, TerH'feCKHH BaThCH.

sootirne

B03MO)l(HO).

Crpa-

HamH «Flsepo MepTBoro H )l(HBoro», «Flsepo, cnyry csrepTH». (C 06'bHCHeHHeM

aHaJIH3 AOJI)KeH nOCTOHHHO nepecrpanAeKOIlCTpYKIIHJl MeTaq,H3H'feCKHX

Hepaana,

KOTOPhIH 06'l:e3,IU1JIBCIO

Harrpasaep,

I!lD

)t(

A e P P IA A a.

,alACCEMIo1HAl.\I'1l1

napnsrx

Orrrr03HJ.Ufl1: MOrna 6bI OCJIa6HTh, HeMTpallH30HHOCJIY)f(l1Th mrrepecasr, B


TOM

oopase

l1 H.JIJJIOCTpaIJ;l1l1; 3aTeM l1 C TeMl1 CBfl3HMl1, KO~ a ceancc 3aBR)f(YTCH Me)f(,ny KHl1rOl1 OTBe'IaeT aa O,nl1H BO-

aarr, TeKCT Mannapsre nnreprrperauax,

saneriKOTOHero

TopbIe B cnenyromesr rrpoc: «5I sneci, -

CTBOBaHHhIM B ero Tpa,u.JUJ;l10HHOHl1 rocnoncrsytouiea TO ecrs mrrepnperamor, pan no ceM ,neHh HOCHT rrO'ITM MCKnIO'IHTenhHO l1,neanl1CTl1'IeCKHH xapaxrep. 3TO onpenezrenae <Jean Hyppolite>: oopaacaer B aTOM KOHTeKCTe l1npOTl1B MO)f(HO H. HY)f(HO nonxepxrryrs «MaTepH.anH.3M nnesr».

H. ,nBl1)f(eHl1eM CIJ;eHbI.MannapMe 'ITO BbI3bIBaeT xnura, 'leMY 6bI He

He AJlH l1JlnIOCTpaIJ;l1l1, rrOCKOJlbKY ace, ,nOll)KHO rrpOHCXO,nl1Tb B pa3YMe aa <pOTorpa<p"IO, rrorrpHMHKOM B Kl1HeMaTorpa<p, KOC 60nbllll1M npeaxry-

'Il1TaTenH; HO ecmr BbI nepexornrre

nepearn

MhI 3al1MCTByeM Y )KaHa Hrmomrra « •••B aTOM MaTep"aJIH.3Me l1,neH.OH BOB03MO)f(HOCTl1 qTeHl1H TeKCTa... »

TOPbIM B CBoeM pa3BepTbIBaHl1l1 )f(eCTBO HX TOMOB» (p.

llJ,eCTBOM CMO)f(eT 3aMeHHTb l1 TeKCT l1 KapTl1HKl1, MHO-

pa3nH.'IHbIe

878).
C 60JIblllOM 6YKBbI,

«(Le Coup de des de Stephane <<<"EpOCOK xocrea"

Crerpana
TOM

Mallarrne Mannapsse

et le message» l1 nocnaaae»> 3,necb MbI cranaCUMMem131 «[l1MeH»,

1/ Les Etudes philosophiques, 1958, NQ 4).


Kl1BaeMCH C rrpl1MepOM

KOTOPbIM 'IaCTO rnnuercs

rrpl1,naIOllJ,eM anneropaxecxoe KH.H l1 TIonl1lllHHeJIb KonOM6H.HbI» aaacnoe, C06hITl1e -

'3Ha'IeHl1e,

HBnHeTCH Herl1MeHY l1 casroe

cmpameeuuecxau

pUU,

cOMHeHHoM qaCThIO CJIOBapH acex 3THX Flsepo (<<ApneCTpeMHTcH K cnaanosry

KOTOpaH nonscaa

nOCTORHHO KOHTPOJIH.pOBaTb see ,neKOHCTpYKIJ;l1l1. B rorrorparl1MeHa», He


HBJIR-

aenrpannaytouure

MOMeHTbI nI060M

Io-r se), raxace

OH npacyrcrnyer

3Ta aCl1MMeTpHH nonacaa <pm! Toro BnpO'IeM, rrpOCTpaHCTBa,

6bITb TllJ,aTenbHO paCC'Il1TaB KOTOPOM OHa nencrnyer.

B «Cl1MBOnl1CTCKOM» xone. OCTaeTcH CKa3aTb 'ITO Mannapsre ("CTOp"'IeCKOe, POM OTMe'IaeT ero Hepa3pelllHMyIO

na C )"leTOM acex pa3JIl1'IMM, BbNneHReMbIX euie 6y,neT OTMe'IeHO, 'ITO «noraxa HeflTpanhHOCTl1,

CBoeM Cl1HTaKCl1qeCKOM l1raM6l1BaneHTHOCTb. l1MeeT <pOpMy ynsoemra, ,UeMCTBl1e, ecmr yronno)

KOTOPyro MbI 6y,neM snecs pacumdipoasrsars, eTCH 110rH.KOM aerarnaaon npOCTO nOrl1Kotf 'ITO «MaTep"amI3M HetfTpallbHOCTM.

rrOBTopeHHH, MeThI, 'll1TaeMOM B Cl1JlY cnoero <P0PMY KBa3l1-pa3pbIBa, KHBAHHE 6naro,napH oprana paspsm, <DEHISCENCE>, KOTOPOMY pasnsre

Hl1 naace TaK)f(e, Be-

paCTpeCKl1BaHl1H. «PACTPEC-

Ilon-repxaesr

cpo p. Bom.
QaCTl1 onnoro

l1,nel1»YKa3hIBaeT He na naaoonee onpenemrrs,

saxpsrroro

pOHTHoe conepzcaaae

«<pl1nOCO<pCKoro» Y'IeHHH Manrne MMeHHO KaK 3TOT

OTKpbIBaIOTcH 6e3 paspsrsa, B,nOJIhursa, l1X 06'he~

zrapsre (MbI KaK pa3 nsrraesrcs TeKCT paccsnrrsmaer

,nHHHIOllJ,ero.

Crporo

onpe,neneHHbIM

l1 paCC'lRTaHHbIl1

B ero TeKCTe HeT «<pl1110CO<pl1l1»,111l1,cxopee, l

KOTOPbIM B HaMe'IeHHoe ... 3muM.

BpeMH OCyllJ,eCTBnH-

ceria, 'IT06bI

60nee He OCTaBaTbCH
3TOM

eTCH B 3aKpbITbIX opranax, B HHX conepaorrcs aaruca, OT

'IT06bI ,naTb BbIXO,n TOMY, 'ITO

B <plmoeo<pl1H.), a na <POPMY TOro, qTO passrrpsrsaerca B ,neMCTBHH rrl1CbMa l1 «qTeHl1H BrrH.CblBaHHH «paarra-msrx CTa».
130 3,neCh cnenyer

npaxrmor»,

BO

B03MO)l(HOCTeM 'ITeHHH TeK-

nam. Dehiscere, rrpl10TK~bIhiscere, <ppeKBeHTaTl1BHaH <popMa hiare (o'rciona hiatus)» - JIHTTpe.

de

BOCCTaHOBl1Tb KOHTeKCT 3TOM IJ;l1TaTbI l1 B nasrane 06 npa pasroaope 0 KHl1re, 0 npnnacxe,

132 « .••5I 6bl casr npennoxen

l1MeTb na 6enoM CTpaHl1IJ,e pa3-

COOTHeCTl1 ero C TeM, 'ITO 6bIJIO npenncoxeno aroro ceaaca

6l1TbIM aa oT,neJlbHhIe yqacTKH 3arrHTbIMl1, TO'IKaMl1 l1 HX BTOPH'lHblMH CO'IeTaHl1HMl1 PHCYHOK, l1306pa)f(aIOllJ,l1M

BID

)K

/J. e p P '" A a.

.n"'CCEMHHA~S'I

'IJ1CTyro MeJIO,ll,HIO, -

C pa.n.OCTbIO npenno-ren 6bl TeKCT)',

CKOlIb yrOAHO B03BbIIlleHHOMY, eCJUI:6bl OH He 6bllI Me'leH 3HaI<aMM rryHKTYau,HH» (p.407).

pas-

135

3AeCb Mbl CAeJIalIM6bl CCblJIKYHe na TeKCT<DpeHAa, BAOXHOBJIeHHOrO A6eJIeM (1910), a aa TeKCT «)J{YTKOe» (Das Unheimliche, 1919*), nosropaoe -rreane xo'roporo Mbl, eClIH rosoptrrtB ll,eJIOM, -reneps KaK pas M oTKpbIBaeM. Mst 6YAeM CHOBa M CHOBa sosspauiarr-ca K 3TOMY TeKCTy 61IarOAapH napanoxca» ABOHHMKa M nOBTopeHMH, CTHpaHMH rpaaansr Me)K,lJ.Y «Bo06pa)f(eHMeM» M «peaJIbHOCTbIO», «CMMBOJIOM»M «CMMBOJIM3MpyeMbIM» (<ppaHll,Y3CKHH

133

Csr.:

Scherer, Jacques.

L'Expression

litteraire dans (Euvre

de Mallarme, p.

142 sq.

134 qTO

xacaercs

rMMeHa Me)K,lJ.Y Ierezresi M MaJIJIapMe, He-

nepeson

B C60pHHKe

Essais de psychanalyse

06XO,ll,HMO 6blJIO 6bl B

xaxecrne

npnssepa

npoaHa1IH3M-

appliquee,
'lecKyro

p. 199), CCblJIKaM -

aa

[0<pMaHa M <paHTacTM-

poaars ynosoraaesioe
MaHMe

B «<DeHoMeHOJIOrHM Ayxa» nO,l.UIHMeCTa, <pMJIO-

JIMTepaTYPY, aHaJIl13Y

080i'mozo CMblCJIa CJIOBa:


pa3Bep-

saaaseca, Ha6JIIOAaeMOe C yanxansnoro xoropoe B STOM TeKCTe 3aHl1MaIOT «Mbl», TO ecrs xpaaaocrn,
psurero

«TaK, "heimlich"

3TO CJIOBO, MblCJI xoroporo C

TbIBaeTCH C onpeAeJIeHHOH uM6MBaJIeHTHOCTbIO,TaK 'ITO B

CO<pCKoe C03HaHMe M cy6'beKT a6COlIIOTHoro 3HaHJfH: «ABe 'lMCTOrO BHYTpeHHero M BHYTpeHHero, CMOTCOBnaAaIOT; TaK-

xonne

KOHll,OB OHO BCTpe'-laeTCH CO CBoeH npOTHBO"Unheimlich" 3TO HeKOpOA "heimlich"» (tr. fro p. 175).

nOJIO)f(HOCTbIO"unheimlich". TOPblM 06pa30M

B 3TO 'lMCTOe BHYTpeHHee, Tenepb

(Tlpo-

a nOCKolIbKY OHH HC'le31IH B

xaxecrne xpanaocrea,

AOJI)f(eHl1e CJIeAyeT.)

)f(e MC'le3 M cpeAHHH TepMMH KaK He'lTO, HaxOAHm;eeCH Me)K,lJ.Y HMMM. 3TOT nOAHHMaeTCH BHYTpeHHee;

saaasec (Vorhang),
xoroporo

TaKHM06pa30M,

aa

BHYTpeHHee,

M npeACTaBlIHeTCH caM CMOTPMT BO

136

«Csrenraaasre

KJIIO'laIOTCH B TOM,

aKT, nocpeACTBOM

BHYTpeHHee

cosepuaaae

OMOHHMa

TOPblJl OTTaJIKMBaeTCHcaM JIH'leHHOe BHYTpeHHee, all}! nocpeACTBeHHO TepMMHOB, -

6e3 pa311U"IU5f, KOOT ceoa, nonaraercs KaK OT«omopoeo, OOHaKo,'raroxe HeABYX HCHO,'ITO

npeACTaBJIeHa Hepa31IH'leHHOCTb

3TO

caMOC03HaHue. TI03TOMY
BHYTpeHHee,

sa

Ha3bIBaeMble CUlIlIenCUCaMU, sa",mo OOHOU mo )ICeClI080 ynompe6nnemcst oOH08peMeHHO 8 08yX pa3HbiX CMbICJlax,OOUH ~3 KomopblX UCXOOHblU unu C"IumaemC5f maK08bl":, no xpaanei: Mepe oeumaemce c06CTBeHHblM, a opyzou - cjJUzypallbHblU unu ocumaemcx maK08bIM, oaxce eCJlUOH He 5f8nxemcs maxoeuu Ha caMOM oene; TaKMe Tponbl MorYT MMeTb MeCTO 6JIarOAapH MemOHUMUU, 6JIarOAapH CUHeKTponbl,

3aHaBeCOM, KaK 06bI'lHO AOJI)I(eH npmcpsrsarr, Toro, 'lT06bl 'roro, 'lT06bl M3

rOBopHT, 3aHaBeCOM, KOTOPblH

ooxe

I1JIM )f(e 6JIarOAapH intr.

scemaqrope»

(Fontanier,

P.

Les

aexero
aa

CMOTpeTb, KaK

Figures du Discours,
p.105).

Par G. Genette,

Flammariol1,

eClIM TOlIbKO Mbl caMM He npOHMKHeM

Hero -

rom
137

6bllI KTO-TO, KTO 6YAeT CMOTpeTb, TaK M rom 6blJIO na 'ITO CMOTpeTb. Ho B TO )f(e BpeMH 'ITO HeJIb3H npHMO npOHTM -repes KY-

«" A paaae ABoHHble KOJIH'-IeCTBa He MorYT 6blTb pacCMOTpeHbl seura, OAHOBpeMeHHO M KaK nOJIOBMHHble M KaK ABOJlHble?" -

sroro

orenyer,

lIHCbl, MMHYH nee 3TM paCCY)K,lJ.eHMH» (tr, p. 140-141).51 TeKCTe. xo-ry

J. Hyppolite,

t.

I,

"Ila,

3TO TaK". -

"A 60JIblllMe MJIMMaJIble OHM 3aCJIY)f(MBaIOT

ssrpaasrrs

6JIarOAapHocTb

A. Byr-

TH)f(eJIble MJIM JIerKMe, passe

pronry <A Boutruche>,

KOTOPblJl HanOMHHlI MHe 06 STOM


<l>peflJl. 3. )KYTKoe II <l>Pt'i\iJ. 3. XynolKHHK H ¢aHTa3HpOBaHHt'.

M., 1995.

18-6705