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Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter

Unit operation report

Group (1(

3/30/2011

I

Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter Unit operation report Group (1 ( 3/30/2011 I
Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter Unit operation report Group (1 ( 3/30/2011 I
Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter Unit operation report Group (1 ( 3/30/2011 I

Faculty of Engineering

Chemical Engineering Department

Cairo University

Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter

Unit operation report

Submitted to: Dr/ Ahmed Sherief

By: Group Hussein Taha

name

Sec

Bn

Ebthal Hamed

1

1

Ebthal Mohamed

1

2

Ibrahim Nasser

1

3

Ahmed Ibrahim

1

4

Ahmed Ashraf iu

1

5

Ahmed Gaber

1

6

Ahmed Khalid

1

7

Ahmed zakria

1

9

Ahmed Safi

1

10

Date: 30/3/2011

I

Table of content

Title

Page

Abstract

III

1. Introduction

1

2. Principal and theory of operation

1

1

2.1 General theory

1

2.2 Drum operation

1

2.3 Handling of cake

2

3. Mechanical parts

2

3.1Drum

3

 

3.1.1Drum deck

3

3.1.2

Drum speed variation

3

3.2 Agitator

3

3.3 Filter valve

4

 

3.3.1Duty of the bridges

5

3.4

Discharge system

6

3.4.1

knife discharge

6

3.4.2string discharge

6

3.4.3 cloth belt discharge

7

3.4.4 roll discharge

7

4. Design equations

8

4.1required area of drum 4.2power required

8

8

4.3

design of air suction rate

9

by vacuum pump

5. Cost

9

6. Manufacturers

10

7. Summary

11

References

12

II

Abstract

This report is concerned about the rotary drum vacuum filter, we will talk about its theory of work, principle, mechanical parts, design equations, cost and how to calculate it and its famous manufacturers

Rotary drum vacuum filter is a solid liquid filtration equipment depending on using vacuum to suck liquid a cross a filter medium and filtrate it from solids then removing the solids (cake)

The importance of this equipment that it has various applications in the industrial field

The advantage of this equipment that it is relatively small space, low cost and easy to be maintained

III

1.

Introduction

Rotary drum vacuum filter is a very important tool for solid-liquid separation; it has various applications in the industrial field. The main advantage of this equipment is its relatively small space, low cost and easy to be maintained

2. Principal and theory of operation

2.1 General theory

All Rotary Vacuum Filters operate on a similar principle. A pressure differential between the surface and inside of the drum (or disc) is applied by means of vacuum. This pressure differential cause's transport of liquid through the filtration surface while the filter medium arrests solid particles and a cake is formed. As the drum rotates, the cake rises above the slurry level in the filter tank and air is drawn through the cake, forcing out liquid. The liquid (filtrate) exits the filter through the internal piping and the vacuum head

2.2 drum operation

The drum is commonly divided into three zones:

*Cake building zone is operated under vacuum pressure.

*De-watering zone

is operated under vacuum pressure.

*Cake removal zone is operated under high pressure.

zone is operated under vacuum pressure. *Cake removal zone is operated under high pressure. Fig2.1 Drum

Fig2.1

Drum

operation

1

The control head divides the filter drum into the different sections for filtration, washing, suction drying and cake discharge, so that in the course of one revolution each point of the drum area passes through these zones in succession.

The filtrate (clarified liquid) runs off through the separator receiver and is discharged by pumping.

2.3 Handling of cake

The filtered solid layer emerges from the suspension as the drum rotates, and following its emergence is washed (to remove impurities or to extract more product), suction-dried and discharged from the filter cloth. The wash liquid is fed onto the cake either directly by means of wash devices such as weirs or spray nozzles, or of a wash belt lying on top of the cake.

The filtrate from the wash zone can be drained off separately from the mother filtrate. The filter cake is discharged by means of a discharge device of some kind, which covers the entire drum and which is specially suited to the cake thickness, consistency and structure.

3. Mechanical parts

suited to the cake thickness, consistency and structure. 3. Mechanical parts Fig 3.1 RDVF detailed figure

Fig 3.1

RDVF detailed

figure

2

Rotary drum vacuum filter consist of:

3.1 Drum

A multi-compartment drum type vacuum filter consists of a drum rotating about a horizontal axis, arranged so that the drum is partially submerged in the trough into which the material to be filtered is fed (slurry), Most drum filters are fed by operating the drum with about 35 percent of its circumference submerged in a slurry trough, although submergence can be set for any desired amount between zero and almost total.

3.1.1 Drum deck:

The perphorated surface of the drum is divided into a number of longitudinal sections of about 20 mm in thickness. Each section is an individual vacuum chamber, connected through piping to the drum centre and out through a central outlet valve at one end of the drum. The drum surface is covered with a cloth filter medium which retains the cake and the filtration takes place as each section is submerged in the feed slurry.

3.1.2 Drum speed variation

Most drum filters operate at a rotation speed in the range of 0.1 to 10 rpm. Variable-speed drives are usually provided to allow adjustment for changing cake-formation and drainage rates

3.2 Agitator

Some units contain an oscillating rake agitator (slowly moving agitator) in the trough to aid solids suspension in the slurry reservoir, without disturbing the cake formation. Others use propellers, paddles, or no agitator.

3

3.3 filter valve

3.3 filter valve Fig3.2 Component arrangement of a continuous filter All drum filters (except the single-compartment

Fig3.2

Component arrangement of a continuous filter

All drum filters (except the single-compartment filter) utilize a rotary-valve arrangement in the drum-axis support trunnion to facilitate removal of filtrate and wash liquid and to allow introduction of air or gas for cake blowback if needed. The valve controls the relative duration of each cycle as well as providing “dead” portions of the cycle through the use of bridge blocks. A typical valve design is shown below. Internal piping manifolds connect the valve with various sections of the drum.

A valve with a bridge setting controls the sequence of the cycle so that each sector is subjected to vacuum, blow and a dead zone. When a sector enters submergence vacuum commences and continues through washing, if required, to a point that it is cut-off and blow takes place to assist in discharging the cake. The valve has on certain filters adjustable blocks and on others a fixed bridge ring. Adjustable bridge blocks enable the optimization of form to dry ratio within the filtration cycle as well as the "effective submergence" of the drum when the slurry level in the tank is at the maximum.

4

3.3.1 Duty of the bridges

3.3.1 Duty of the bridges Fig3.3 Duty of valve bridge 1- Vacuum and blow zones separating

Fig3.3

Duty of valve bridge

1- Vacuum and blow zones separating bridge: This Bridge cuts off the vacuum so it is slightly wider than the internal pipe port.

2- Dead Zone Bridge: This Bridge opens to vacuum once a compartment submerges.

3- Start-up assist bridge. : At start-up the upper vacuum zone is open to atmosphere and a cake may be formed only when closing the valve that controls this zone. Once the cake starts to emerge from the tank the valve is gradually opened and fully opened when the entire drum face is wrapped with the cake. Since in continuous operation both lower and upper zones are under vacuum this bridge is slightly narrower than the internal pipe port so that the vacuum is continuous and the cake is held onto the drum.

It is to be noted that in some applications, compression rolls or belts are used to close possibly cracks in the cake before washing or to further dewater the cake by mechanical compression.

5

3.4 Discharge system

3.4.1 Knife discharge

3.4 Discharge system 3.4.1 Knife discharge Fig3.4 Knife discharge Consists of a blade that removes the

Fig3.4

Knife discharge

Consists of a blade that removes the cake from the drum by direct contact with the filter cake, It is normally used for granular materials with cake thickness greater than about 6mm. n order not to damage the filter cloth, a safety distance of 1 to 3 mm between the blade and the cloth must be observed. If the residual layer is made not of filter aid but of the product, then there might be danger of its blocking by fine particles and by successive consolidation by the scrapper blade.

3.4.2 String discharge

fine particles and by successive consolidation by the scrapper blade. 3.4.2 String discharge Fig3.5 String discharge

Fig3.5

String discharge

6

Uses a number of parallel strings (wire, chains or coil springs have also been used) tied completely around the filter at a pitch of 1 to 2 cm, passing over the discharge and return rolls .As the strings leave the drum before the discharge point, they lift the filter cake from the medium and discharge it at the discharge roll. This type of discharge is recommended for gelatinous or cohesive cakes.

3.4.3 Cloth belt discharge

for gelatinous or cohesive cakes. 3.4.3 Cloth belt discharge Fig3.6 Belt discharge Is based on taking

Fig3.6

Belt discharge

Is based on taking the cloth endless belt off the drum in the same way as with the string discharge, the advantage here is the ease of washing both sides of the cloth before the cloth returns to the drum. The disadvantage is in the need for an additional control device for the guidance of the cloth.

3.4.4 Roll discharge

in the need for an additional control device for the guidance of the cloth. 3.4.4 Roll

Fig3.7

Roll discharge

7

Use a roll, which rotates at a slightly greater peripheral speed than the cake and is in contact with the cake. The cake is transferred from the drum to the discharge roll by adhesion which, by giving the roll a rough surface or because of the presence of residual cake on the roll, is designed to be greater to the roll than to the drum. The cake is usually removed from the roll by a knife. This type of discharge is designed to discharge tacky cakes, which cannot be handled effectively by either of the previously described designs. The cake thickness is small here from 0.5 to 3mm.

4. Design equations

For continuous flow, Incompressible cake with (constant pressure drop), neglect resistance of filter medium

4.1 Required Area of drum:

Time of filtration:

=

,

: Time of filtration, sec - viscosity of slurry, pa.sec- cake resistance -

4.2 Power required:

,

and F= (0.3-0.4)

, sec- V: volume of filtrate, : concentration of solids in slurry,

/

-

-

:

: specific

, pa- F: time factor- Q: volumetric flow rate,

(

1)

K: ratio of specific heat of gas at constant pressure to specific heat of gas at constant volume,-

: theoretical horse power,

-

-

hp-

: cubic feet of gas per minute at intake conditions ,

-Actual horse power

=

8

4.3 Design of air suction rate by vacuum pump:

: Viscosity of air at temperature and pressure surroundings, lb/hr ft -

: fraction of total

surface available for air suction, lb/hr ft -

: the fraction of this area immersed in the slurry

lb dry-cake solids/

filtrate -

: the specific air-suction cake resistance.

5. Cost

Drum Filter is a vacuum type, multi compartment cylinder shell with internal filtrate piping with polypropylene filter cloth, feed box with inlet and drain nozzles, suction valve, and discharge trough, driver consisting of rotor, drive motor base plate, worm, gear reducer and , two pillow block bearing with supports

Defaults for Drum Filter

Medium filtration rate, 0.5 tons per day/ square feet solids handling rate, 20% consistency (percent of solids in feed stream)

Design Basis:

1st Quarter 1998 Dollars-Material: A285C (Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels.)

Cost 2009= cost from figures*

= cost of figures*

9

6. Manufacturers Fig5.1 Cost vs. area chart Company name City-country Web-site Shanghai chemical machinery

6. Manufacturers

Fig5.1

Cost vs.

area

chart

Company name

City-country

Web-site

Shanghai chemical machinery plant

Shanghai-china

Aaron

Chicago-Chicago

Komline-Sanderson Engineering Corporation

New jersey- USA

Abhishek filtertechnik

Mumbai- India

Peterson filters

Salt Lake City- USA

11

Summary

Finally this report discussed one of most important filters in industry, rotary drum vacuum filter is fundamental support in any industrial scale ,as previously shown its simple principals, components, work theory, design equations and famous manufacturers.

Report discussed RDVF briefly to more details ,check references below.

11

References

1-http://www.solidliquid-separation.com/VacuumFilters/Drum/drum.htm

2-Ladislav Svarosky, solid liquid separation, fourth edition, 2000

3- Don w. green, Robert h. Perry, Perry's chemical Engineers' Handbook, Eighth Edition,

2009.

5- J M. COULSON & J. F. RICHARDSON, Coulson & Richardson's Chemical Engineering, fifth edition, 2002.

6-Max S.Peters and Klaus D.Timmerhaus plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, 5 th edition, McGraw-Hill,2003.

7-Dr. Ahmed Sherif, unit operation course, lecture 4, 3 rd year chemical engineering department

12