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This book has been scanned and OCR-ed. Be aware of the changes that have been made mainly by dropping many images of the original copy and instead images from web were inserted. I also added notes in red colors. Although many spelling errors and formatting errors have been corrected, error still exist. The work in this book not yet completed but providing it in this stage might benefit many. By the end this is a refined and enhanced print of the original book. Keep going..!!


The idea of writing down this concise and illustrated "Flora of Saudi Arabia" occurred to the authors in their endeavor to achieve a proper standard of teaching Saudi Arabian flora to their students in Riyad University. No handy references on that important branch are at present available. The information that have been published so far by botanists and travellers who visited the country at various times, though of value, are rather fragmentary. It is obviously essential to university students of Botany in any country to be well acquainted with the flora of their country. This is not possible unless they have a reference book in their hands on which they may depend in determining the plants. It was the desire to fill that gap in the literature which urged the authors to hasten producing this flora. Information and descriptions embodied here are based on plant specimens collected by the authors as well as by demonstrators and fourth year students of the Botany Department, Faculty of Science at various times during the past ten years. In this book is presented a map of the phytogeographical regions of the country, a list of the different orders and families of vascular plants represented in the flora and keys to the families as well as to the genera of each family. The families are arranged according to recent schemes of classification. For further facilitation of handling the book an index of Latin-vernacular and vernacular-Latin names of the plants was added. Furthermore, a glossary of botanical terms with Arabic translation and explanation is appended. Montasir, A. H. and M. Hassib, 1956. Illustrated Manual Flora of Egypt. Post, G. E. and J. E. Dinsmore, 1932-1933. Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai. Andrews, P. W. 1956 The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Mouterde, P. 1966-1970. Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syrie. Townsend, C. C., E. Guest and A. Al-Rawi, 1968. Flora of Iraq. Davis, P. H. and J. Culler, 1965. The Identification of Flowering Plant Families. Oliver and Boyd Ltd., Edinburgh. Burtt, B. L. and P. Lewis, 1949-1954. On the Flora of Kuwait, I-III, Key Bulletin. To all authors of these references the writers are greatly indebted. A few drawings of Acacias were reproduced from Andrews' Flora of the Anglo- Egyptian Sudan. It is hoped that this book has covered the greater part of the flora of the country. However, it is felt that there is still a minority of species that The writers wish cordially to thank Mrs. Vivi Tackholm, Professor of Systematic Botany, Cairo University for valuable help in identifying many of the specimens collected. Among many references consulted by the authors may be mentioned the following: Tackholm, V. 1956. Students' Flora of Egypt.


have not been included. At any rate the present work could be looked upon as a step towards complete elaboration of the flora of Saudi Arabia. were collected in these later years of heavy rainfall. These were added in the present edition and represented not less than 10 per cent of the total number of species. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Last year (April, 1976) the senior author was notified that the University Library was running The publication of this Flora was financed by the University of Riyad. The same University also provided facilities for preparation of the manuscript, including excursions and references. For all these facilities the authors wish to acknowledge their gratitude to the University authorities Dr. Abdel Aziz Al-Fadda, vice-rector, Dr. Abdel Aziz Al-Khuwaiter ex vicerector and Dr. Reda Obeid, Dean of the Faculty of Science. From the very beginning, Dr. Reda Obeid has taken keen interest in the work. He encouraged the authors in every way and helped them to make ecological excursions and to start establishing the herbarium. For this unfailing help and encouragement the authors are greatly indebted to him. Immediately after the appearance of the first edition of this Flora in 1974 the junior author terminated his services in Saudi Arabia while the senior author continued and extended his botanical excursions to cover parts of the country that were not visited by him before. Fortunately the high rainfall of 1975 and 1976 resulted in a dense cover of vegetation and vigorous growth of plants; the vegetation was rich in both number of species and number of individuals. Many species that escaped detection before 1974, and consequently were not included in the first edition, short of copies of the first edition of the Flora and that there is need for a second edition to be issued in the near future. In preparing the second edition the writer felt that it was worthwhile to grasp the opportunity and make a thorough revision of the first edition. First of all it was felt necessary to make the second edition up-to-date in regard to classification and naming of plants. Since the appearance of the first edition many changes have been made in the current systems of classification as well as in the names of plants. Such changes were introduced by Professor Vivi Tackholm in her second edition of the "Students Flora of Egypt" which appeared in 1974, and were also applied here. Further, the present writer felt that the description of most plants as presented in the first edition was quite brief and insufficient as a guide to the identification of those plants. For this reason in the present edition description of all plants was carefully rewritten, adding all necessary details that would make identification easier. A third change was in the illustrations of the Flora. Due to unavailability of a specialist draftsman and photographer during the preparation of


the first edition the illustrations were relatively poor and scanty. It was felt that illustrations are just as important, if not sometimes even more important, than mere description of parts for the identification of plants. It may be possible to identify a plant at a glance from a photograph or even from a careful hand drawing, but not from a careful description alone. Fortunately during the preparation of this second edition the Botany Department has been employing a specialist draftsman, Mr. Abdel Fattah Nassar who gave a hand in improving the quality of the illustrations and increasing their number. Photographs, coloured pictures as well as black-and-white drawings of as large a number of available plants as possible were done by Mr. Nassar; these were not found in the first edition. Fourthly a considerable number of species, amounting to one hundred or more, that had not been mentioned in the first edition were met with and collected in the 1975 and 1976 excursions. These were described and added in the present edition. It is certain that the more the excursions made and the wider the area explored the bigger the number of plants that can be added to the Flora. All facilities needed by the author for completing this work were generously provided by the University authorities. The author is greatly indebted to H. E. Dr. Abdel Aziz Al-Fadda, Director of Riyad University and to Dr. Abdel Malik Al-Khayal, Dean of the Faculty of Science for unfailing help and encouragement. Thanks are also due to Dr. Abdel Aziz Abu-Zinada, Head of the Botany Department, for continual interA. M. Migahid hand drawings. These illustrations have certainly added a lot to the value of the work. Thanks are also due to all members of the Botany Department who shared in the "Flora" excursions, namely Abd Al-Rahman Khoja, Ibrahim Al-Ghamdy Ali Kassim, Mobarak Al-Arjan and Tourky Ben Madi. The author wishes also to acknowledge the great help contributed by Mr. Abd El-Fattah Nassar in making nearly all illustrations of this second edition, including photos, as well as coloured and black-and-white est, and Dr. Abdullah Al-Sheikh for sharing in all botanical excursions. Mr. M. Sabry El-Sayed Awad had an essential role in the fulfillment of this work. He participated in all excursions and was most active, enthusiastic and intellectual in collecting the material, specially of rare plants, and preparing them for herbarium keeping and description. Furthermore, he took over the hard job of typing the manuscript with utmost care and efficiency. The writer is greatly indebted to him for his sincere help.


The following are the phytogeographical regions of Saudi Arabia as adopted in this Flora and shown in Map Fig. i. N. Northern region, including Tabuk, Al Jawf and Sakakah areas. NF. Nefud region, including the great northern Nefud area, Dahna and Al Qasim area. NH. North Hijaz. representing the western part of Saudi Arabia that extends alongside the Red Sea coast north of Jedda. SH. South Hijaz, representing the southern part of the western region extending south of Jedda till Yemen boundaries. S. Southern region, lying to the east of South Hijaz, to the south of Najd to and the north of Yemen. It includes Abha, Bisha and Nag- ran areas.

NJw. Western Najd.

NJe. Eastern Najd.

E. Eastern region, between Dahna and the Arabian Gulf. R. Al Rub Al Khali, representing most of the southern and south-eastern parts of Saudi Arabia.


DIVISION PTERIDOPHYTA Class 1 EQUISETINEAE Order 1 EQUISETALES Fam. 1 Equisetaceae Class 2 FILICINAE Order 2 OPHIOGLOSSALES Fam. 2 Ophioglossaceae Order 3 FILICALES Fam3 Cryptogrammataceae Fam.4 Adiantaceae Fam.5 Aspleniaceae Fam.6 Sinopteridaceae DIVISION SPERMATOPHYTA Class 3 GYMNOSPERMAE Order 4 CONIFERALES Fam. 7 Cupressaceae Order 5 GNETALES Fam. 8 Ephedraceae Class 4 ANGIOSPERMAE Sub-Class I DICOTYLEDONES Group 1 ARCHICHLAMYDAE Order 6 RANUNCULALES Fam. 9 Ranunculaceae Fam. 10 Menispermaceae Order7 PAPAVERALES Fam. 11 Papaveraceae Fam. 12 Fumariaceae Fam. 13 Hypecoaceae Fam. 14 Capparaceae Fam. 15 Cleomaceae Fam. 16 Cruciferae Fam. 17 Resedaceae Fam. 18 Moringacae Order 8 GUTTIFERALES Fam. 19 Guttiferae Fam. 20 Passifloraceae Order 9 VIOLALES Fam. 21 Cistaceae Fam. 22 Tamaricaceae Fam. 23 Frankeniaceae Order 10 CUCURBITALES Fam. 24 Cucurbitaceae Order 11 MALVALES Fam. 25 Tiliaceae Fam. 26 Malvaceae Order 12 GERANIALES Fam. 27 Oxalidaceae Fam. 28 Geraniaceae Fam2 9 Zygophyllaceae Fam. 30 Balanitaceae Fam. 31 Nitrariaceae Fam. 32 Euphorbiaceae Order 13 RUTALES Fam. 33 Rutaceae Fam. 34 Burseraceae Fam. 35 Meliaceae Fam. 36 Polygalaceae Order 14 SAPINDALES


Fam. 37 Anacardiaceae Fam. 38 Pistaciaceae Fam. 39 Sapindaceae Order 15 CELASTRALES Fam. 40 Celastraceae Fam. 41 Salvadoraceae Order 16 RHAMNALES Fam. 42 Rhamnaceae Fam. 43 Vitidaceae Order 17 URTICALES Fam. 44 Moraceae Fam. 45 Urticaceae Order 18 POLYGONALES Fam. 46 Polygonaceae Order 19 CENTROSPERMAE Fam. 47 Nyctaginaceae Fam. 48 Molluginaceae Fam. 49 Aizoaceae. Fam. 50 Portulacaceae Fam. 51 Caryophyllaceae Fam. 52 Chenopodiaceae Fam. 53 Amaranthaceae Order 20 ROSALES Fam. 54 Crassulaceae Fam. 55 Rosaceae Fam. 56 Neuradaceae Fam. 57 Leguminosae Order 21 ARISTOLOCHIALES Fam. 58 Aristolochiaceae Order 22 MYRTIFLORAE Fam. 59 Lythraceae Fam. 60 Rhizophoraceae Fam. 61 Combretaceae Fam. 62 Myrtaceae Fam. 63 Onagraceae

Fam. 64 Cynomoriaceae Order 23 UMBELLALES Fam. 65 Araliaceae Fam. 66 Umbelliferae Order 24 SANTALALES Fam. 67 Santalaceae Fam. 68 Loranthaceae Order 25 SALICALES Fam. 69 Salicaceae Group 2 SYMPETALAE Order 26 PRIMULALES Fam. 70 Primulaceae Order 27 PLUMBAGINALES Fam. 71 Plumbaginaceae Order 28 EBENALES Fam. 72 Ebenaceae Order 29 OLEALES Fam. 73 Oleaceae Order 30 GENTIANALES Fam. 74 Gentianaceae Fam. 75 Loganiaceae Fam. 76 Apocynaceae Fam. 77 Asclepiadaceae Fam. 78 Rubiaceae Order 31 TUBIFLORAE Fam. 79 Convolvulaceae Fam. 80 Cuscutaceae Fam. 81 Ehretiaceae Fam. 82 Boraginaceae Fam. 83 Verbenaceae Fam. 84 Avicenniaceae Fam. 85 Labiatae Fam. 86 Solanaceae Fam. 87 Scrophulariaceae Fam. 88 Acanthaceae Fam. 89 Orobanchaceae

Order 32 PLANTAGINALES Fam. 90 Plantaginaceae Order 33 DIPSACALES Fam. 91 Dipsacaceae Fam. 92 Valerianaceae Fam. 93 Caprifoliaceae Order 34 CAMPANULALES Fam. 94 Campanulaceae Fam. 95 Compositae Sub-Class II MONOCOTYLEDONES Order 35 HELOBIAE Fam. 96 Potamogetonaceae Order 36 LILIFLORAE Fam. 97 Liliaceae Fam. 98 Agavaceae Fam. 99 Alliaceae Fam. 100 Amaryllidaceae Fam. 101 Iridaceae Order 37 JUNCALES Fam. 102 Juncaceae Order 38 COMMELINALES Fam. 103 Commelinaceae Order 39 GRAMINALES Fam. 104 Gramineae Order 40 PRINCIPES Fam. 105 Palmae Order 41 PANDANALES Fam. 106 Typhaceae Fam. 107 Pandanaceae Order 42 CYPERALES Fam. 108 Cyperaceae Order 43 MICROSPERMAE Fam. 109 Orchidaceae


Cones unisexual, flower-like; staminate cones compound. 8 EPHEDRACEAE. Stem woody; juice not resinous; leaves opposite, undivided, reduced. Plants dioecious. Flowers in spikes or panicles, or the female solitary. Ovule erect, straight. DICOTYLEDONES

EQUISETALES (Horse-Tails) 1 EQUISETACEAE. Herbs. Sporangia equal, borne on lower surface of peltate discs in terminal cones. Stem articulated. OPHIOGLOSSALES 2 OPHIOGLOSSACEAE. Herbs. Sporangia in spikes, 2- ranked, one-celled, sessile. Fronds of 2 petiolated segments, one fertile, the other sterile. FILICALES Perennial herbs, with large fronds arising from creeping rhizomes. Fronds mostly pinnate, with the sporangia in sori on the lower surface. Young fronds show circinate vernation and are covered with ramenta. 3 CRYPTOGRAMMATACEAE. Small ferns with much divided fronds bearing sori protected by the reflexed margins of the frond lobes. 4 ADIANTACEAE. Ferns with fronds branch ing repeatedly; final segments often fan-shaped with forked veins. Sporangia found only at tips of segment lobes covered by indusia. 5 ASPLENIACEAE. Fronds large, with lamina divided completely, or nearly so, into pinnae. Sori form a rusty mass covering the entire lower surface of the pinna. 6 SINOPTERIDACEAE. Ferns having their sori located at ends of the veins and covered with the reflexed margin. CONIFERALES Leaves needle-like or scale-like. Ovules in cones. 7 CUPRESSACEAE. Stems woody, branched with resinous juice. Leaves needle-or scale-like, opposite or whorled. Flowers unisexual, stamens in catkins with 3-5 pollen-sacs. Carpels arranged in cones, ovules turned upwards. GNETALES Intermediate order between Gymnospermae and Angiospermae, with true vessels in the secondary wood.

RANUNCULALES Mostly apocarpous; perianth free or absent. Flowers solitary or in cymes, typically spiral on elongated receptacle. 9 RANUNCULACEAE. Herbs, undershrubs or shrubs. Leaves usually divided. Perianth simple or consisting of calyx and corolla of free petals, hypogynous or nearly so; stamens usually numerous. Anthers opening by longitudinal slits. Carpels superior, solitary or separate, rarely (Nigella) united. Ovules inverted. 10 MENISPERMACEAE. Stems usually woody and twining. Leaves alternate, undivided, palmately lobed or digitate, nearly always exstipulate. Flowers small, unisexual, nearly always dioecious, mostly in racemes or panicles. Sepals usually 6; petals 6 smaller than the sepals, sometimes absent. Stamens generally as many as the petals and opposite to them. Anthers opening by slits. Carpels 3-30, separate, more rarely solitary. Ovules pendulous or laterally affixed, halfinverted, with superior micropyle. Fruit drupaceous. PAPAVERALES 11 PAPAVERACEAE. Herbs with more or less lobed or divided leaves. Flowers hermaphrodite. Sepals 2, very rarely 6, free, hypogynous. Anthers opening by slits. Ovary superior, 1celled, or incompletely 2-or more-celled. Ovules parietal, curved or inverted. Fruit capsule or nut. Seeds with a small embryo and oily endosperm. 12 FUMARIACEAE. Very low herbs with finely dissected leaves. Sepals 2 and petals 4, as in Papaveraceae. Flowers small, zygomorphic,


saccate or spurred. Stamens 4. Fruit indehiscent, 1seeded globose nut. 13 HYPECOACEAE Low herbs having much pinnately-divided leaves. Sepals 2 and petals 4. Flowers zygomorphic, but not saccate nor spurred. Stamens 2, each divided into 3, a middle fertile and 2 lateral sterile, nectariferous ones. Fruit siliqua- like capsule, 2-carpelled, 1-roomed, rarely dehiscing by 2 valves, more often a noded lomentum cut transversely into pieces at maturity. 14 CAPPARACEAE Herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, simple or compound. Inflorescence generally racemose. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular or irregular. Sepals usually 4, petals 4-many. Pistils with 1 locule and 2 parietal placentae. Fruit a capsule, berry or nut. 15 CLEOMACEAE Similar to Capparaceae, but differs in being glandular. Fruit siliqua with replum as in Cruciferae, but flowers usually zygomorphic and stamens rarely tetradynamous. Leaves 3-7foliate, rarely simple. 16 CRUCIFERAE Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, with simple or stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, exstipulate. Flowers mostly regular in racemes. Sepals 4 free in 2 series. Petals cruciform, 4, rarely absent, long-clawed. Stamens 6, tetradynamous. Ovary sessile of 2 united carpels, 1locular, with parietal placentae and divided into 2 locules by a false membranous septum. Stigmas 2 or connate. Ovules usually many. Fruit siliqua or silicule, bivalved or indehiscent. 17 RESEDACEAE Annual or perennial herbs, rarely woody. Leaves alternate, simple or pinnately divided; stipules gland-like. Flowers mostly zygomorphic, racemose or spicate. Calyx 4-7 lobed, persistent, petals small; disc on adaxial side. Stamens 3or more perigynous or on disc. Ovary of 2-6 free or united carpels, opened at top, with separate stigmas. Ovules numerous, on parietal placenta. Fruit capsule. 18 MORINGACEAE Trees. Leaves alternate pinnate. Stipules gland-like or absent. Flowers in panicles, irregular, hermaphrodite. Petals 5, perigynous. Stamens 5, staminodes 5. Anther 1-celled, turned inwards. Ovary short, style simple. Fruit a capsule. GUTTIFERALES 19 GUTTIFERAE Perennial plants with small opposite leaves with transparent dots. Flowers with 5 yellow petals and numerous stamens united below into 3 bundles. Fruit a many-seeded capsule. 20 PASSIFLORACEAE Shrubs and herbs, mostly climbers, with axillary tendrils. Leaves alternate, stipulate, simple or compound. Inflorescence of axillary flowers, usually in pairs. Flower usually regular and hermaphrodite with a petaloid corona developing as outgrowth of andro -perianth. Sepals 5, petals 5 or more, stamens 5 and carpels 3 united. Fruit a capsule or berry. VIOLALES 21 CISTACEAE Herbs and shrubs with volatile oils and glandular hairs. Leaves mostly opposite, simple. Flowers solitary, perfect, regular, in cymes or racemes. Sepals 3-5, petals 3-5, stamens numerous, carpels 3-5 or 10 united. Fruit a capsule. 22 TAMARICACEAE Shrubs or small trees with alternate exstipulate leaves, which are often small narrow and scale-like, giving the plant a heath-like habit. Flowers solitary or in racemes; regular, bisexual, hypogynous and 5- or 4merous, with often increase in number of stamens to 8 or 10 and decrease in number of carpels to 2, 4 or 5 united. Ovary unilocular, with free styles. Fruit capsule. Seeds hairy. 23 FRANKENIACEAE Perennial herbs or undershrubs, mostly halophytic. Stems jointed at the nodes. Leaves small opposite-decussate exstipulate. Flowers small, regular, hypogynous, bisexual, arranged in terminal or axillary cymes; beneath each flower is a pair of medianly placed sterile bracteoles alternating with the two lower normal fertile ones. Sepals 4-7, petals 4-7, stamens 9 and carpels 3 united. CUCURBITALES Mostly tropical herbaceous plants, often climbing. Flowers unisexual, regular, generally pentamerous, with reduction to 3 in the pistil; stamens sometimes indefinite. Pistil inferior; the large placentas bear numerous ovules.


24 CUCURBITACEAE Chiefly climbing or prostrate annual herbs, monoecious with rapid growth. Leaves alternate, entire or lobed. Inflorescence axillary, cymose and corolla typically 5parted, regular. Stamens typically 5 but often by union of parts 4, 3 or 2, or sometimes all united into a column. Carpels 1-10, usually 3 united, ovary inferior. Fruit fleshy, berry-like, or dry. MALVALES Herbs, shrubs or trees, with simple, alternate, stipulate leaves. Stellate hairs are very frequent on young parts and mucilage sacs or canals in tissues of cortex and pith. Flowers bisexual, regular hypogynous, pentamerous with a frequent increase in number of stamens and carpels. Sepals and petals free; stamens monadelphous, the united filaments forming a long column round the pistil, or polyadelphous. Number of carpels very various, uniting to form a multilocular ovary, each with 1-co ovules. 25 TILIACEAE. Trees or shrubs, with alternate, entire, dentate or lobed, stipulate leaves. Mucilage cells occur in pith and cortex. Flowers regular, bisexual. Sepals 5, sometimes united, petals 5, free, rarely absent. Stamens numerous, carpels 2-oo. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule or nut. Stamens, as a rule connate at the base only or quite free. Anther 2-celled, as contrasted with 1-celled anther in Malvaceae. 26 MALVACEAE. Herbs, shrubs, or trees. Leaves alternate, simple or lobed, stipulate, palminerved. Young shoots and leaves often bear stellate hairs; mucilage sacs occur in the tissues. Flowers showy and often solitary in leaf axils, or may be arranged in cymes or racemes. Epicalyx often present Flower hermaphrodite, regular. Sepals 5, petals 5, often large, showy and twisted in the bud. Stamens numerous and monadelphous, all united below into a tube or column. Anther 1-celled, pollen grains large and spiny. Carpels l-many, often 5 united. Fruit a capsule, schizocarp or berry. GERANIALES Herbaceous, rarely woody, with generally simple or lobed, alternate, sometimes opposite leaves. Stipules present or absent. Flowers bisexual, regular, more rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous, with often obdiplostemonous androecium. Sepals 5 free, sometimes united at the base; petals 5 free; stamens typically 10 in 2 obdiplostemonous series, sometimes 5 by abortion of one whorl, sometimes more numerous, free, or filaments united at the base into a ring or tube. Carpels 3 united into a trilocular ovary, with 1,2 or more ovules in each locule. 27 OXALIDACEAE. Generally herbs, perennating by fleshy tubers or bulbs. Leaves alternate, stalked compound, generally exstipulate. Flowers regular, bisexual. Sepals 5, petals 5 contorted, stamens 10, ovary 5- celled. Differs from Geraniaceae in having the ten stamens united at the base, in its five free styles and in the mode of dehiscence of its fruit, which is a capsule splitting along the dorsal suture of each of the 5 carpels, or a berry. 28 GERANIACEAE. Herbs, or woody below, with alternate or opposite, usually palminerved stipulate leaves. Stems and leaves generally thickly covered with simple or glandular hairs. Flowers regular or slightly zygomorphic, sepals 5 imbricate, petals 2-8, imbricate in bud. Stamens 10, rarely 15, typically obdiplostemonous, the antisepalous whorl sometimes staminodial; filaments united at the base. Ovary generally 5celled, with 1 or 2 ovules in each cell. Style long, beak-like dividing at the top into 5 stigmas. Fruit a capsule or berry. When ripe the carpels separate along the septa into 5 one-seeded cocci, which break away from the central column either by rolling elastically outward or by becoming spirally twisted above the seed case. 29 ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Perennial herbs, rarely annuals, xerophytes. or halophytes. Leaves opposite, often fleshy or leathery, mostly compound (rarely simple), stipulate. Inflorescence cymose or flowers terminal and solitary. Flowers regular, bisexual, pentamerous or sometimes tetramerous, with obdiplostemonous androecium (rarely 15 stamens). Stamens generally bear outgrowths at the base, which unite to form an appendage inside the staminal ring. Carpels 4 or 5 united to form a 4- or 5-celled ovary, with one to several ovules in each locule. Fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule. 30 BALANITACEAE Trees allied to Zygophyllaceae. Leaves exstipulate, spines axillary


and not stipular. Fruit drupaceous with thin oilcontaining flesh and bony 5-angled 1-seeded endocarp. 31 NITRARIACEAE Shrubs allied to Zygophyllaceae. Leaves simple, alternate. Ovary unlobed, trilocular, with one pendulous ovule in each locule, Fruit drupaceous, one-seeded. contained in passages formed by separation of cell layers or destruction of cells. Flowers unisexual with 5- to 4- merous calyx and corolla and haplostemonous or obdiplostemonous androecium. Disc present. Carpels 5-3 forming a multilocular ovary with 2 ovules in each locule. Fruit a 2- to 5-seeded drupe, or a capsule.

35 MELIACEAE. An almost exclusively tropical family of trees and shrubs with scented 32 EUPHORBIACEAE Herbs, shrubs or cactus- wood. Leaves alternate, pinnate, exstipulate. like plants with milky juice. Inflorescence variable, Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Stamens usually the first branching being generally racemose, the later 8-10, mostly with connate filaments, anthers sescymose. Leaves simple or compound, usually alter- sile on the tube. Ovary often 2-5-locular, with 1 nate. Flowers radially symmetrical, monoecious or or 2 ovules in each locule. Fruit a capsule, berry dioecious, sometimes much reduced by abortion. Sep- or drupe. Seeds winged. als typically 5 and petals 5, yet calyx and corolla may both be present or the latter or both may be absent. In 36 POLYGALACEAE. Herbs, shrubs, small the male flowers the stamens are as many or double trees or rarely twining saprophytes, with simple, as many as the perianth leaves, 1 in Euphorbia, rarely alternate, opposite or whorled leaves, which are numerous. In the female flower, staminodes are pre- generally exstipulate. Stipules may be represented sent or absent; ovary generally 3-celled, sometimes 2- by glands. Flowers either solitary or grouped in or 4-celled. Ovules 1 or 2 in each chamber, micropyle racemes, spikes or panicles. Both bracts and braccarunculate. Fruit capsule splitting into 3 cocci sepa- teoles present. Flowers medianly zygomorphic. rating from a persistent central column. Seeds with Calyx of 5 free sepals of which the inner ones are abundant endosperm. often large and petaloid. Petals usually 3, two lacking, more or less adnate with the staminal tube which is formed by the union of the filaRUTALES ments of 8 stamens. The lower median petal forms a keel and often bears a dorsal fringed apClosely allied to Geraniales, but differs in the oc- pendage. Anthers with one pollen chamber, and currence of disc-formations in the flower below the pored above. Carpels 2 median united into a biovary, and the very general presence of oil glands. locular ovary, with one ovule in each locule. Fruit a capsule, samara or nut. The plants are also more generally woody. 33 RUTACEAE. Herbs, shrubs or trees with alternate or opposite, simple or compound, generally smooth, gland-dotted exstipulate leaves. A characteristic feature is the presence of oil glands in the ground tissue, particularly in leaves and fruits. Flowers bisexual, regular. Sepals and petals 4 or 5, androecium generally obdiplostemonous, stamens sometimes equal in number to the petals, rarely indefinite. Carpels 4-5, rarely fewer or more, with one or two ovules in each locule of the ovary. Fruit variable, mostly a berry. 34 BURSERACEAE Shrubs or trees with compound pinnate, alternate, deciduous, gland-dotted leaves and small flowers. Leaves, bark and wood with essential oils and resins: balsams and resins being SAPINDALES Flowers bisexual or unisexual by reduction, regular or more often zygomorphic, hypogynous often with a disc below the ovary, generally 5merous, sometimes 4-merous, with a diplostemonous androecium and reduction in the ovary generally to 3 or 2 carpels. Reduction also occurs in the androecium. Ovules 1 or 2 in each chamber of the ovary. Fruit various, often one-seeded. Generally trees or shrubs with simple or compound, alternate or opposite leaves and numerous small flowers. 37.ANACARDIACEAE. Trees or shrubs containing resin passages, especially in the bark.


Leaves alternate exstipulate, simple or compound (unequally pinnate). Flowers small, generally numerous in terminal or axillary panicles. Flowers typically bisexual but often unisexual by reduction of androecium or gynoecium; generally regular and pentamerous, with reduction to 3 in the gynoecium, hypogynous with nectaries variously located. Stamens usually 5 or 10. Fruit a resinous drupe. 38 PISTACIACEAE. Resinous trees and shrubs closely related to Anacardiaceae, but differing in the structure of the pollen and in the naked flowers, the calyx-like structure being bracteate in nature. 39 SAPINDACEAE. Shrubs, trees, vines or rarely herbs. Leaves simple or compound, pinnate, alternate. Flowers numerous and inconspicuous, borne in unilateral cymes arranged in racemes or panicles, unisexual though apparently bisexual, regular or obliquely zygomorphic, generally pentamerous, sometimes tetramerous. Sepals 5 free, petals 5 free, often provided on the inside with scales and hair - tufts covering the nectaries. A ring- like disc is present between petals and stamens. Stamens usually in 2 pentamerous whorls, but often reduced to 8 or less by suppression. Pistil usually trimerous, with a terminal style and 3-celled ovary, and usually one ovule in each cell. Fruit either dry (capsule or nut or sometimes a schizocarp) or succulent (drupe or berry). Seed bears an aril. CELASTRALES Generally woody plants with simple leaves and small green or whitish flowers. The order is closely allied to the Sapindales. Flowers bisexual or unisexual by abortion, regular, hypogynous, 4- or 5merous with one whorl of stamens and generally reduction of the gynoecium. Petals free, or sometimes united below. Stamens alternate with the petals. Ovary superior and plurilocular, with one or more ovules in each locule. Characteristics of the order are: the regular flowers, stamens equal in number to the petals, frequent occurrence of tetramery and a tendency towards union of the petals. 40 CELASTRACEAE Shrubs, trees or woody vines. Leaves simple, membranous or leathery, opposite or alternate. Inflorescence cymose of small greenish or white flowers. Flowers regular, bisexual, or become unisexual by abortion. Sepals 4-5, small, free or united at base, generally persistent. Petals 4-5 free and inserted below a well- developed disc. Stamens 4-5, rarely 10, free and alternate with petals. Carpels 2-5, united into a 2-5loculed ovary, with 2 ovules in each locule. The short style ends in a capitate often lobed stigma. Fruit a capsule, samara, drupe or berry. Seed with coloured fleshy aril. 41 SALVADORACEAE Shrubs or trees of tropical regions. Leaves opposite entire, with very small stipules. Inflorescence raceme or spike of very small flowers. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, 4- or 5-merous with 2 carpels forming a 1 - or 2- chambered ovary, with one or 2 ovules in each chamber. Petals free or united, stamens hypogynous or epipetalous. Fruit berry or drupe, one-seeded. RHAMNALES Shrubs or small trees, often lianes, with simple or palmately-compound leaves and small inconspicuous flowers. Flowers like those of Celastrales, but with a marked tendency towards unisexuality by abortion, and towards perigyny or epigyny. Stamens in one antipetalous whorl. Petals small, sometimes united at the base or above, sometimes absent. Well-developed interstaminal disc present. Carpels 5-2, rarely more, united, ovary with as many chambers, each containing 1 or 2 ovules. 42 RHAMNACEAE. Trees or shrubs often climbing by means of hooks or tendrils. Leaves simple, stipulate, frequently 3-5-nerved. Inflorescence cymose, axillary. Flowers inconspicuous, greenish or yellowish. Intrastaminal disc well-developed. Stamens in one whorl opposite petals. Carpels, 5-2 united, ovary with as many locules, each containing 1-2 ovules. Fruit a drupe or capsule. 43 VITIDACEAE. Climbing shrubs with tendrils, resembling Rhamnaceae in its floral structure, namely 4-5 sepals, petals and stamens, the stamens being antepetalous, and a bicarpellary ovary. Distinguished from Rhamnaceae by the climbing habit and the berry fruit. Flowers hypogynous or slightly perigynous but never


epigynous. Leaves scattered and stipulate, sometimes palminerved, palmilobed or palmately compound. Branching sympodial. Calyx usually only very slightly developed, often forming a ring round the base of the corolla. The petals often fall like a cap when the flower opens. The small greenish flowers are borne in compound dichasial inflorescences or in panicles passing ultimately into dichasia. URTICALES Herbs, shrubs or trees, with simple, alternate stipulate leaves and cymose inflorescence. Cystolithsoccur in the epidermis of many of the genera. Flowers generally unisexual, small and regular, with a greenish inferior perianth of 4-5 more or less united leaves, rarely naked. Stamens equal in number and opposite to the perianth leaves. Carpels 1-2, with unilocular ovary and one ovule. Flowers windpollinated. Fruit a nut or drupe containing one seed. 44 MORACEAE. Trees or shrubs, rarely herbsdistinguished by the presence of latex. Leaves alternate, entire, crenate or lobed, stipulate, evergreen or deciduous. Plants monoecious with unisexual flowers arranged in racemes, spikes, umbels or heads, or on the inside of a hollow receptacle. Perianth 4, free or more or less united. In the male flowers the stamens are generally equal in number and opposite to the perianth leaves, but are sometimes reduced to 2 orl. In female flowers carpels 2 united median, with 2 styles. Fruit aggregated drupes, sometimes united with the perianth and axis in a multiple structure. 45 URTICACEAE. Generally herbs or undershrubs, rarely forming bushes or trees. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, stipulate, often with stinging hairs. Such hairs are also found on the stem. Latex absent. Bast fibers of considerable length are present and are of great value for textile use. Cystoliths and crystals of various form and frequency are commonly present in much enlarged cells. Inflorescence axillary cyme or head or reduced to a solitary flower. Flowers unisexual, regular and minute. Perianth 4-5 or absent. Stamens mostly 4. Pistil of one carpel. Fruit a small nut or drupe rendered conspicuous by the persistent perianth, or the fruits of a whole inflorescence may remain closely coherent.

POLYGONALES Mostly herbs with ochreate leaves. Flowers regular in compound inflorescences, trimerous usually. Perianth hypogynous, 3+3 uniform, rarely calyx and corolla. Androecium 3+3 rarely up to 9 regularly alternating with the perianth. Carpels 3 united with unilocular ovary. Fruit 3-sided and with persistent perianth. 46 POLYGONACEAE. Herbs, rarely shrubs or trees, with spirally-arranged simple alternate leaves having ocreate stipules. Stem herbaceous or sometimes woody, with swollen nodes. Flowers generally small, bisexual, regular, trimerous, borne in large numbers in compound racemose paniculate, spicate or capitate inflorescences. Perianth 3 + 3. Stamens usually 6-9. sometimes fewer. Carpels 3 (rarely 2) with a superior unilocular ovary containing 1 ovule, and 2-4 stigmas. Fruit a 3-sided or biconvex nut or achene. CENTROSPERMAE Generally herbs with simple, usually exstipulate, alternate or opposite leaves, and curved ovules. Ovules solitary or numerous. When solitary the ovule springs from the base of the ovary; when numerous the ovules are borne on a freecentral axile placenta. Flowers bisexual or unisexual by reduction, regular, generally pentamerous. Perianth simple or in 2 series, of which the inner is petaloid. Stamens in 1 or 2 whorls, rarely many. Carpels 1-5 united into a one-celled superior ovary containing l-oo ovules. Fruit generally a capsule or nut, rarely baccate. Embryo large, curved round the endosperm. 47 NYCTAGINACEAE. Herbs, shrubs, or trees,. The family is characterized by the petaloid tubular or funnel-shaped perianth, the lower part of which persists round the fruit, simulating a pericarp; the actual fruit is an achene the single seed of which contains a large, straight, curved or folded embryo, surrounding a mealy endosperm. Needle-like crystals are present. The stem structure is anomalous. Leaves usually opposite, simple, entire, exstipulate. Inflorescence cymose, usually with 1-5 leaf-like, often brightly-coloured bracts subtending the flowers. Flowers bisexual, regular,


perianth of 5 united petaloid leaves. Stamens 1-30, usually 5, pistil 1 with 1 carpel. 48 MOLLUGINACEAE. Very close to Aizoaceae but leaves not, or but slightly, succulent. Perianth deeply 5-lobed. Stamens in 2 whorls alternating with the perianth. Ovary always superior. 49 AIZOACEAE. Annual or perennial herbs or low shrubs. Leaves alternate, opposite or whorled, fleshy or scale-like, exstipulate, often succulent and narrow, spathulate or rhombic, containing layers of water-storage tissue. Flowers terminal or axillary, solitary or form small crowded dichasia passing into monochasia, bisexual, regular. Perianth 5-8 united, stamens 3-5 or indefinite, the outer ones becoming sterile and petaloid, thus forming a showy corona. Pistil of 3-5 united carpels, with a corresponding number of ovary locules. Stigmas 2-20. Fruit a capsule with loculicidal, septicidal or transverse dehiscence. 50 PORTULACACEAE. Herbs or small shrubs with succulent leaves and scarious stipules. Flowers bisexual generally small but sometimes showy. Sepals 2 median, petals 4-5, stamens 4-5 antepetalous, sometimes more, carpels 3 with unilocular ovary. Fruit a capsule splitting transversely or by 2 or 3 valves, or a nut. 51 CARYOPHYLLACEAE. Herbs or undershrubs with entire, narrow, opposite, rarely alternate leaves. Inflorescence cymose, generally manyflowered, more rarely flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual, 5- or 4-merous. Sepals free or united, sometimes scarious, persistent. Corolla rarely absent, often clawed. Stamens 8-10 in 2 whorls, or fewer. Carpels 2-5 or rarely 1, united to form a 1-celled or incompletely chambered ovary, with 2-5 styles free or united below. Ovules generally numerous, rarely few to solitary. Fruit a capsule opening apically or horizontally, rarely a berry. 52 CHENOPODIACEAE. Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes shrubs, with simple alternate leaves and small inconspicuous flowers. Stems sometimes fleshy, jointed, nearly leafless. Leaves sometimes very fleshy and terete or reduced to mere scales. Most members of this family are salt-loving plants (halophytes) growing near the sea, in salt marshes or in saline desert areas. Inflorescence cymose, often baccate. Flowers bisexual or unisexual. Perianth 5-2 small united leaves usually persistent in fruit. Stamens as many as the perianth segments and opposite them. Pistil 1, with 2-3 carpels, 1-3 styles and 1 locule. Fruit a nut or achene. 53 AMARANTHACEAE. Herbs or rarely shrubs with opposite or alternate, simple entire exstipulate leaves often thickly covered with hairs. This family is closely allied to Chenopodiaceae, but from which it differs in having the perianth dry, membranous and often white or coloured, not green and herbaceous. Inflorescence dense and showy, and may be fasciated It is a simple or branched spike or raceme or a dichasial cyme. Each flower has a pair of large membranous persistent bracteoles which may be sterile or subtend partial inflorescence of a dichasium. Perianth 5 membranous. Stamens 5 opposite the perianth. Pistil with a unilocular superior ovary and 1, 2 or 3 styles. Fruit dry, either achene or nutlet. ROSALES Leaves simple or compound with or without stipules. Two tendencies are noticeable in this order, namely the passage of the regular into the zygomorphic flower and of the hypogynous into the perigynous and epigynous flower. Flower bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular or zygomorphic, hypogynous, perigynous or epigynous, usually pentamerous with frequent increase in the number of stamens and decrease in the number of carpels. Sepals and petals generally free, stamens free or united, carpels free or united. Styles generally free. Ovules numerous, rarely few. 54 CRASSULACEAE. Annual or perennial herbs with succulent stem and simple, entire, succulent leaves. Flower bisexual, 5-or 4-merous. Petals usually free, stamens in 2 series. Carpels separate or united at the base. Fruit a follicle or a capsule. Ovules numerous. 55 ROSACEAE. Herbs, shrubs or trees with alternate, simple or compound stipulate leaves. Flowers regular, bisexual. Calyx 5, corolla 5, stamens twice, thrice or 4 times as many as sepals or petals, or may be indefinite. Carpels l-many, 1celled with mostly 2 pendulous or ascending ovules. Calyx, corolla and stamens more or less perigynous. Fruit various, often associated with the thalamus in a false fruit.


56 NEURADACEAE. Prostrate annual herb, tomentose-hairy. Allied to Rosaceae but distinguished by its discoid spiny fruits in which the seeds are retained till germination. The plumule at germination pierces upward through the fruit while the radicle pierces downward, the fruit itself persisting as a collar round the hypocotyl. 57 LEGUMINOSAE. Trees, shrubs or herbs of very various habit. Leaves generally alternate, compound (trifoliate, paripinnate, imparipinnate or bi- pinnate), rarely simple, stipulate. Flowers bisexual, generally zygomorphic, sometimes (Mimosoideae) actinomorphic. Calyx 5, with the odd sepal anterior more or less united. Petals 5 alternating with sepals, either all separate, or 2 united (Papilionatae) or rarely all united (some Mimosoideae), valvate or variously imbricated. Stamens typically 10, free or more or less united into a tube, in which they are monadelphous by the separation of the posterior stamen. Carpel 1, with the ventral suture posterior, Style and stigma simple. Ovary superior, unilocular, with numerous ovules in 2 rows along the ventral suture. Fruit legume dehiscing along both dorsal and ventral sutures. ARISTOLOCHIALES Herbs or woody climbers with simple exstipulate leaves or parasites with much reduced vegetative structure. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular or zygomorphic. Perianth in one whorl, united or free, petaloid or fleshy. Stamens equal in number to the perianth or twice as many or indefinite, free or united with the style on a central column (gynostemium). Ovary inferior, 4-6-locular with axile placentation, or unilocular with parietal placentation. Ovules numerous. Fruit a capsule or berry. 58 ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Low herbs or woody, often climbing shrubs. Leaves alternate, stalked, simple and entire or sometimes 3-5-lobed, exstipulate. Flowers in axillary clusters or racemes or solitary. Flower bisexual, usually regular. Perianth of 3 petal-like united segments. Stamens 6-36, free or united to style. Pistil 1 or 4-6 united carpels. Ovary inferior. Fruit a capsule.

MYRTIFLORAE Herbs, shrubs or trees with simple, entire exstipulate leaves of opposite, less commonly alternate, arrangement on the stem. The order is characterized by increased tendency to perigyny and epigyny, by the simple style, by the frequent presence of internal and interxylary phloem in the stem and the frequency of tetramery in the flower. Flowers regular, bisexual, polypetalous, perigynous or epigynous, generally 4-or5-merous. Stamens diplostemonous or obdiplostemonous, sometimes indefinite. Carpels, reduced in number. Ovary multilocular to unilocular, with a simple style and numerous ovules on axile placentas. 59 LYTHRACEAE. Herbs, shrubs or trees with simple, entire, opposite (or rarely alternate) leaves and very small stipules. A constant anatomical character is the presence of bicollateral bundles in the stem. Flowers bisexual, regular, perigynous, generally 6-merous, sometimes 4-8 merous. Calyx usually crumpled in the bud, sometimes absent. An epicalyx is frequently present. Petals free, alternating with the sepals. Receptacle forms a hollow cup from the margin of which come out the sepals and petals. Stamens in 2 series, twice as many as petals, inserted on the inside of the receptacle. Carpels 2-6, with 2-6 chambers, rarely 1. Fruit a capsule. 60 RHIZOPHORACEAE. Trees or shrubs with simple leaves. Many of the representatives are characteristic components of the mangrove vegetation of muddy coasts in the tropics. These adapt themselves to their habitat by developing respiratory roots. The flowers are borne singly or in few-flowered cymose clusters in the leaf axils. They are bisexual or, sometimes, unisexual, regular and perigynous or epigynous, 4- or 5-merous. Calyx of fleshy or leathery persistent sepals. Petals free, clawed, alternating with sepals. Stamens 8-oo in one series. Ovary completely or incompletely inferior, 2-6-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell. Style single, with a small lobed stigma. Fruit, berry, capsule or 1-seeded dry indehiscent. Seeds may be arillate. 61 COMBRETACEAE. Trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing, with opposite, entire, exstipulate leaves and raceme inflorescences. Flowers


bisexual or unisexual, 5-merous or sometimes 4merous, regular with a tendency to zygomorphy. The floral axis forms a tube above the ovary. Petals small, alternating with the sepals, sometimes absent. Stamens 4,5,8 or 10, rarely co, bent inwards in the bud, generally twice as many as the sepals, in 2 series, the upper series sometimes reduced or absent. Ovary inferior, 1-loculed, generally angled. Ovules 2-5, rarely more, pendulous. Style 1, long, filiform. Receptacle tube bears a disc, which is sometimes hairy. Fruit leathery or drupe-like 1-seeded, 2-5 angled. Internal phloem present in the stem. 62 MYRTACEAE Woody plants with simple, entire, exstipulate, leathery leaves. Many of them show adaptations to dry climate, e.g. assumption of a vertical position of the leaf blade. Characteristic anatomical features are the bicollateral vascular bundles and the spherical lysigenous glands containing ethereal oils produced abundantly in the stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. Inflorescence mostly cymose, rarely solitary flowers or racemes. Flowers bisexual, regular, epigynous. Sepals free, sometimes reduced or inconspicuous. Stamens free and arranged on edge of receptacle. Ovary 1-many chambered, with 2-many ovules in each chamber. Fruit a berry, drupe or capsule. 63 ONAGRACEAE. Herbs with simple alternate or opposite exstipulate leaves, rarely shrubs or trees. Flowers often solitary in leaf axils, but may be grouped in terminal or lateral racemes or spikes, epigynous, regular, bisexual, and generally tetramerous. Receptacle completely fuses with the ovary wall, and is produced above it into a petaloid tubular structure from the other edge of which spring the sepals, petals and stamens. Sepals 4, rarely 2-5, petals 4, rarely 0. Both calyx and corolla free. Stamens in 2 series (4+4) free. Carpels 4 united, rarely 2 or 5, with typically a 4-celled ovary and numerous ovules on axile placentas. Style simple, long and filiform; stigma capitate Fruit a loculicidal capsule. 64 CYNOMORIACEAE. Parasitic reddish " brown fleshy herbs, parasitising the roots of shrubby or herbaceous salt-loving plants. Leaves scale-like. Flowers in a terminal spadix. Perianth 1-5 segments. Stamen 1, with versatile anther. Ovary inferior, 1celled. Fruit a nut.

UMBELLALES Herbaceous or woody plants, with often alternate, rarely opposite large leaves, exstipulate and with sheathing bases. Oil or resin ducts are usually present and the inflorescence is simple or compound umbel. Characteristics of the order are simplification of floral structure, associated with epigyny and reduction of calyx, one whorl of stamens, 2 united carpels with a bilocular ovary and a single pendulous ovule 'in each locule. Flowers bisexual, regular, polypetalous, 4- or 5-merous. Calyx reduced to minute teeth. 65 ARALIACEAE. Trees or shrubs, some are climbers, a few are herbaceous. Leaves often crowded at the ends of branches, alternate, rarely opposite, with a broad sheathing base, stipulate. Different forms of leaf blade occur in different plants and may be at different ages in the same plant. Thus simple, entire, lobed and compound palmate forms are met with. Flowers generally small, whitish, greenish or yellow in much branched showy inflorescences of umbels, heads, racemes or spikes. They are bisexual, with tendency to unisexuality, regular and pentamerous. Calyx simple ring or represented by teeth, petals fall off as the flower opens. Stamens are equal in number to petals, rarely more. Ovary inferior bearing a flat or swollen nectary disc, plurilocular or sometimes unilocular, with a pendulous ovule in each locule. Styles free or united. Fruit a 5chambered berry or drupe, or schizocarpic. 66 UMBELLIFERAE. Mostly biennial or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs. Stem often stout, with hollow internodes. Leaves alternate, pinnately or palmately compound, rarely simple, exstipulate, with a broad sheathing base. Flowers small, in simple or compound umbels, bisexual and regular. Sepals 5, petals 5 and stamens 5, all free. Ovary inferior bilocular, with an epigynous disc, and a single pendulous ovule in each locule. Fruit of 2 dry indehiscent mericarps. An anatomical feature is the presence in all organs of etherial oilbalsam or resin-canals. Another constant character is the umbellate inflorescence.


unilocular, with 2 parietal placentas forming 2 chambers. Ovules numerous, style simple and stigma bilobed. Fruit a membranous or leathery capsule splitting septicidally into 2 valves. Seeds small and numerous. 75 LOGANIACEAE. Herbs, shrubs or trees, with simple, stipulate, usually opposite, sometimes alternate leaves. Inflorescence cymose, either mono-chasial or dichasial. Flowers usually bisexual, regular, 4-or 5-merous, with regular alternation. The mouth of the corolla tube often bears a crown of unicellular hairs. Carpels generally 2 completely united, median with a simple style, a capitate or bilobed stigma and a bilocular ovary, each containing an indefinite number of ovules on a central placenta. Fruit a capsule, berry or drupe. 76 APOCYNACEAE. Generally woody climbers, more rarely shrubby or perennial herbs. Characterized by presence of latex and stem bicollateral bundles. Leaves simple, opposite, whorled or alternate with entire margin. Flowers solitary, or in racemose inflorescences passing into cymose. Flowers regular, bisexual, generally 5-merous, with reduction to 2 in the pistil. Sepals free; petals united and salver-or funnel-shaped, contorted in the bud, with hairs, scales or other outgrowths on the throat or interior of the corolla tube. Stamens epipetalous on the throat or the tube of the corolla, alternating with its segments and with short filaments and anthers often adhering to the stigmas. Carpels free or united, superior or partly inferior. Style simple, often with a thickened stigmatic head. Ovules numerous. 77 ASCLEPIADACEAE. Perennial herbs, shrubby or woody climbers, rarely erect shrubs or trees, sometimes succulent. Leaves simple, entire, opposite decussate, rarely whorled or alternate. Plants resemble Apocynaceae in the presence of laticiferous tubes and stem bicollateral bundles. Inflorescence a cyme (dichasium leading to monochasium), a raceme or an umbel. Flowers bisexual, regular. The plan of the flower is uniform, with 3 regularly alternating pentamerous whorls of sepals, petals and stamens. Sepals deeply cleft, petals united. Corona often present, formed from appendages of petals, stamens or both. Filaments of stamens very short or none; anthers closely at-

SANTALALES Herbs or woody, more or less parasites. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite. Flower bisexual or unisexual, regular rarely slightly zygomorphic. Perianth in one whorl, with the stamens opposite its segments, petaloid. Carpels 2 or 3, rarely 1, with inferior unilocular ovary containing a few naked pendulous ovules, from the apex or from a free central placenta. Fruit a 1-seeded nut or drupe or a berrylike pseudocarp. 67 SANTALACEAE. Semi parasitic green herbs or shrubs, or small trees; some living on the branches of trees, others being root parasites. Leaves alternate or opposite, narrow, 1-nerved or scale-like. Flowers small, regular, bisexual or unisexual, borne singly in leaf axils or forming dichasial cymes, racemes, spikes or heads. Perianth simple in one sepaloid or petaloid whorl with its parts united below into a tube ending with 5 lobes. Stamens equal in number or unisexual, regular, 4-merous. Petals united, or sometimes free; stamens reduced to 2. Carpels 2 united, with a superior bilocular ovary containing 1 or 2 pendulous or basal ovules in each locule. 73 OLEACEAE. Woody plants, shrubs or trees or sometimes climbing. Leaves opposite, simple or imparipinnate, exstipulate. Inflorescence compound racemose, terminal or axillary. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, regular, tetramerous or pentamerous, with reduction to 2 in either of the androecium and gynoecium. Calyx small, rarely absent; petals united, sometimes free or absent; stamens epipetalous. Ovary bilocular, with 2 pendulous or ascending ovules in each locule. Fruit various: septicidal 2valved capsule, drupe or berry. GENTIANALES 74 GENTIANACEAE. Annual or perennial herbs, with opposite, entire, exstipulate leaves. Inflorescence generally cymose, often dichasium with the lateral branches passing into a monochasium, sometimes reduced to a few flowers or a single axillary or terminal flower. Flower regular, bisexual, 4or 5-merous, with reduction to 2 in the pistil. Calyx generally forms a tube with teeth or segments. Petals united below into a tube, variously shaped, with separate segments above. Stamens equal in number to and alternating with the corolla segments. Ovary superior,


tached to the stigma forming a gynostegium. The pollen-contents of anther halves often cohere in waxy pollinia. Carpels 2 free below, superior, with numerous pendulous ovules in each. Styles 2, united above and dilated to form a flat 5-angled or 5-lobed stigmatic head, with 5 receptive surfaces on its underside. Fruit a pair of follicles containing numerous seeds each with an apical tuft of hairs that help in dispersal. 78 RUBIACEAE. Trees, shrubs or herbs. Leaves opposite, entire, stipulate, stipules often united and as large as the ordinary leaves so that the leaves appear to be whorled. Flowers bisexual, regular, rarely zygomorphic, 5-to 4-merous, with isomerous stamens and generally 2 carpels. Petals united to form a corolla tube, to which the stamens are inserted, with spreading limbs. Ovary inferior. Fruit a capsule, berry, drupe or schizocarp. fruit a capsule dehiscing irregularly or by a lid, seeds tubercled. 81 EHRETIACEAE. Very close to Boraginaceae but usually trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, with simple exstipulate leaves, alternate or sub-opposite. Fruit a hard and dry or fleshy drupe, often enclosed by the persistent calyx.

82 BORAGINACEAE. Hispid annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs or trees. Leaves generally alternate, simple, entire, exstipulate, often covered with rough bristly hairs. Inflorescence cymose glomerate, rarely racemose or spicate, usually scorpioid or boragoid. The cyme is at first closely coiled and uncoils as the flowers open. A change in colour may also occur, the flowers being red in the bud and become blue as they expand. Flowers bisexual, regular rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous, pentamerous with reduction of carpels to 2. Sepals free or united below into a bell-shaped tube. Corolla tubular or funnelTUBIFLORAE shaped, with a spreading limb. Stamens alternate with the petals and epipetalous. A ring-like nectaGenerally herbs, yet woody plants are also found. ry disc is present beneath the ovary. Carpels unitLeaves generally simple, alternate or opposite. Flow- ed and median, with an originally biloculai ovary, ers typically bisexual, actinomorphic or more often which soon separates into 4 one ovuled portions zygomorphic, hypogynous rarely epigynous, tetra- with a gynobasic style; style rarely terminal, it is cyclic. Stamens epipetalous, generally 4 or 2. Ovary simple and ends with a simple stigma; ovules inusually bicarpellary, with 1 or 2 locules, rarely 3- to 5 serted at the inner angles of the locules. Fruit 4 -carpellary with as many locules. Ovules many to few nutlets, rarely a 1- 4-seeded drupe. in each locule. 83 VERBENACEAE. Mostly shrubs, undershrubs, trees or climbers. Leaves variable, gener79 CONVOLVULACEAE. Herbs, shrubs or rarely trees, the herbs are often twining. Leaves sim- ally simple, rarely compound, 3-to 7-foliate, opple, alternate exstipulate. Flowers often showy, soli- posite or whorled. Inflorescence racemose or cytary and axillary or forming axillary dichasia, regular, mose, often with involucre of coloured bracts. bisexual, rarely unisexual and monoecious, hypo- Flowers hypogynous zygomorphic, rarely regular gynous with the reduction in number of carpels to 2. and bisexual, pentamerous, with reduction in Sepals free, corolla gamopetalous and entire or slight- number of stamens to 4 and of carpels to 2. Sepals ly 5-lobed. Stamens alternating with the petals and persistent, united, bell- shaped or tubular with 5 or inserted on the base of the corolla tube. Carpels unit- more apical teeth or lobes. Corolla tubular, curved ed, with a superior ovary; rarely pistil of 3 or 5 united with spreading limbs. Stamens epipetalous and carpels. Ovary 1-2-locular, rarely 3-locular, with 2 alternating with the petals. Carpels united, with an ovules from the inner angle of each locule. Fruit a 8- 10-celled ovary; style terminal, simple dividing loculicidal capsule, rarely indehiscent and fleshy or above into a number of stigmatic lobes equal to the number of carpels. Fruit drupaceous. nut-like. 84 AVICENNIACEAE. Mangrove shrubs or 80 CUSCUTACEAE. Leafless stem parasite with trees, often greyish or yellowish. Leaves simple, thread-like stems and minute flowers in sessile or opposite entire, exstipulate. Flowers small, yelstalked clusters. Perianth of 4-5 lobes, stamens 4-5,


low, hermaphrodite. Calyx 5, corolla 5, stamens 4. Fruit ovoid or globular, 1-seeded bivalved capsule. 85 LABIATAE. Herbs, shrubs or rarely small trees, with glands, secreting aromatic oils. Stem squared. Leaves simple, opposite, exstipulate. Inflorescence generally cymose, the pair of cymes in opposite leaf axils forming an apparent whorl, verticillaster. Flowers perfect, zygomorphic, generally pentamerous, with reduction in number of stamens to 4 and of carpels to 2. Calyx 2-lipped, of united sepals; corolla tubular, 2-lipped, of united petals, with imbricate aestivation. Stamens epipetalous, alternating with the petals, sometimes reduced to 2. Carpels united, median, with the ovary soon divided into 4 locules each containing 1 ovule; placentation axile and style gynobasic. Fruit 4 nutlets included in the persistent calyx. 86 SOLANACEAE. Herbs, shrubs or small trees, with terminal flowers on the main axis and its lateral branches. Leaves alternate in the vegetative parts, apparently opposite in the flowering parts, mostly simple, exstipulate. Flowers bisexual, regular or sometimes zygomorphic, hypogynous with tendency to reduction to 2 in number of carpels. Sepals united, persistent, often enlarged in the fruit. Petals united into a rotate, tubular or bell-shaped structure. Stamens epipetalous and alternating with the petals. Carpels united, with typically a bilocular ovary, but which may also be falsely 3- to 5-locular. Carpels generally obliquely placed and the two locules of the ovary separated by an oblique septum. Fruit a manyseeded berry or capsule, surrounded by the persistent calyx. 87 SCROPHULARIACEAE. Generally herbs or undershrubs, rarely trees, some are parasites or semi parasites, some are climbers or twiners. Leaves simple to pinnately-parted. alternate, exstipulate, opposite or whorled. Flowers either solitary or in terminal or axillary spikes or racemes; they may form cyme inflorescences (dichasia) arranged in terminal or axillary racemes, spikes or panicles. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic, hypogynous, pentamerous, with reduction of carpels, and sometimes also of stamens, to 2. Calyx deeply cleft; corolla of united petals, sometimes forming 2 lips, sometimes spurred or pouched on the anterior side. Stamens rarely 5, often 4 in 2 groups, with the rudiment of the 5th present. Hypogynous nectary disc present round the base of the ovary, either annular or unilateral. Ovary bilocular, rarely unilocular, with numerous ovules on an axile placenta; style simple or bilobed; carpels median. Fruit a capsule or berry. 88 ACANTHACEAE. Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees or woody vines, with simple, opposite -decussate exstipulate leaves. Inflorescence often a cyme dichasium passing into monochasium above and forming short axillary clusters; spicate and racemose inflorescences are also found. Bracts and bracteoles well-developed and often brightly coloured. Flowers bisexual, median- ly zygomorphic, hypogynous with hypogynous disc, pentamerous with generally a reduction to 4 or 2 in the androecium and to 2 in the gynoecium. Calyx deeply 5-partite, sometimes 4- or 3-partite. Corolla often bilabiate, petals rolled up lengthwise in the bud. One or 2 staminodes are often present. Carpels median with a bilocular ovary and 2-co ovules in each locule. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, with generally 4-oo seeds. 89 OROBANCHACEAE. Succulent rootparasitic herbs, annuals or perennials, without chlorophyll and with scale-like simple, alternate leaves. Inflorescence terminal raceme or spike, either simple or rarely branched; with bracts and bracteoles. Flowers bisexual, medianly zygomorphic, hypogynous. Calyx gamosepalous, 2-5partite. Petals 5 united into a bilabiate tube. Stamens 4, epipetalous, Carpels 2 median, rarely 3, with a superior unilocular ovary and parietal placentas. Ovules numerous, style simple and stigma 2-to 4-lobed. Fruit a loculicidal capsule enclosed in a persistent calyx. PLANTAGINALES 90 PLANTAGINACEAE. Generally herbs with simple, alternate radical narrow leaves forming a- basal rosette. Leaves have parallel nerves. Inflorescence a crowded head or spike of small flowers, each flower being subtended by a bract, but bracteoles absent. Flowers generally bisexual, regular, tetramerous with reduction in number of carpels to 2. Gynoecium syncarpous with a 4-1chambered ovary containing oo-l ovules on a central placenta. Fruit a transversely dehiscing capsule or nut. DIPSACALES


91 DIPSACACEAE. Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, with entire, lobed or pinnatifid, opposite exstipulate leaves; both radical and cauline leaves borne by the same plant. Inflorescence dense involucrate head. Flowers small, bisexual, generally medianly zygomorphic. An epicalyx, formed by the fusion of the 2 bracteoles, envelops each flower. Calyx and corolla often actually tetramerous, though typically they may be regarded as pentamerous. The corolla is often 2-lipped, or its lobes are unequal. The outer flowers of the head are usually larger than the inner, indicating differentiation into ray and disc florets approaching that in the Compositae. Stamens usually 4; carpels 2 but only one develops. Ovary unilocular, with a single pendulous ovule; style filiform; stigma simple or bifid. Fruit dry, 1-seeded, enclosed in the epicalyx. 92 VALERIANACEAE. Herbs or rarely shrubs, with opposite exstipulate leaves. Inflorescence cymose, many-flowered passing over to monochasia, sometimes closely crowded into heads. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, irregular without any plane of symmetry. Calyx epigynous ring enlarged in the fruit. Corolla tubular with 5 limbs, often saccate or spurred at the base. Stamens 1-4, epipetalous and alternating with the petals. Carpels 3 united with a unilocular ovary containing a single pendulous ovule. Fruit a one-seeded achene. 93 CAPRIFOLIACEAE. Generally climbing woody shrubs, rarely herbs, with simple, opposite decussate, entire (sometimes lobed), exstipulate leaves. Inflorescence cymose. Flowers bisexual, regular or zygomorphic, epigynous, pentamerous with reduction in number of carpels. Calyx and corolla present with parts united. Calyx small, with 5 teeth or 5 lobes. Corolla generally rotate, short-tubed but sometimes the corolla tube is long, slender, with a bilabiate limb. Stamens epipetalous. Ovary inferior, 1 - 5 - loculed with l-oo ovules in the inner angle of each locule. Styles free or united. Fruit a berry or drupe. CAMPANULALES Generally herbs, rarely woody, often with latex or oil-passages. Inflorescence racemose, with a tendency to form heads. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, regular or zygomorphic, pentamerous with reduction in number of carpels and with one whorl of stamens. Anthers laterally united (syngenesious) to form a tube into which the pollen is discharged; style developed into a brush by which the pollen is swept out. Ovary inferior, plurilocular, with co-l ovules in each locule, or unilocular with 1 ovule. 94 CAMPANULACEAE. Herbs, undershrubs, or rarely shrubs, with entire or toothed leaves, usually alternate exstipulate. Radical leaves often differ from the cauline. Laticiferous tubes present in nearly all organs. Inflorescence raceme, spike or head. Flowers epigynous, bisexual, regular or medianly zygomorphic, hypogynous, pentamerous. Sepals free, petals united below. Stamens free or united, sometimes partly united with the corolla tube; anthers introrse. Carpels 2-5 united; ovary inferior, very rarely superior, 2-5- celled, rarely 1-celled, with numerous axile ovules. Style simple, often with pollen-sweeping hairs. Fruit a capsule, rarely a berry. 95 COMPOSITAE. Mostly herbs or shrubs, rarely trees. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple or compound, often exstipulate. Inflorescence a capitulum or short spike, with many or few flowers, on a common discoid receptacle subtended by an involucre. Flowers of a head bisexual or unisexual, monoecious or dioecious. Often the outer, ray florets, are female or sterile, the inner, disc florets, hermaphrodite. Florets generally pentamerous, with reduction to 2 in number of carpels. Calyx absent or pappus in the form of hairs, scales or an epigynous ring, persisting in the fruit. Corolla of united petals forming a regular or bilabiate tube or a ligulate structure. Stamens epipetalous; filaments generally free and anthers fused laterally into a tube dehiscing introrsely. Stamens absent from the female flowers. Ovary inferior, unilocular, formed by the fusion of 2 median carpels, and containing 1 ovule. Style slender ending with 2 stigmatic limbs which bear hairs on the outer surface; in male flowers the style is undivided. Fruit a 1-seeded inferior achene (cypsela) crowned by the pappus. MONOCOTYLEDONE S HELOBIAE Marsh and water plants. Flowers regular, unisexual or bisexual, naked or with a simple or double perianth. Stamens l-many, superior or inferior. Flowers solitary or grouped in simple or compound inflorescences, often enveloped in a


spathe; built on, or derived from, the regular trimerous arrangement, with a tendency to doubling of the number of whorls of androecium and gynoecium. 96 POTAMOGETONACEAE. Perennial aquatic submerged herbs, with creeping rhizomes and sometimes also with floating leaves. The rhizome is a monopodium bearing lateral branches, rooting at the nodes, and covered with scale leaves. Foliage leaves either sessile and linear or differentiated into a broader entire blade and a narrower long stalk. Inflorescence often terminal projecting as a spike above the water surface. Flowers regular, unisexual on monoecious or dioecious plants, or bisexual. Flower parts solitary or in 2- 4- merous whorls. Perianth sepal-like, rarely present; stamens 1-4, anthers sessile; carpels 1-4, free, each with 1 ovule. Fruit achene or drupaceous. LILIFLORAE Generally herbs perennating by bulbs, corms or rhizomes, rarely shrubs or trees. The commonest habit is that of a plant resting during a part of the year in the form of an underground vegetative reproductive unit from which the leafy and flowering aerial shoots arise with the return of favorable conditions. Flowers hermaphrodite, regular or sometimes zygomorphic, trimerous. Perianth petaloid. Ovary trilocular superior or inferior. Fruit a capsule or berry. 97 LILIACEAE. Herbs, perennating by means of sympodial rhizomes, bulbs or corms, sometimes climbers, shrubs or trees. Stems erect or climbing, sometimes modified into cladophylls. Flowers solitary and terminal or, more commonly, grouped into a simple or branched raceme, with each flower in the axil of a bract. Sometimes the inflorescence is a spike, panicle, umbel or, rarely a cyme. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, trimerous, penta- cyclic with 2 whorls of perianth and 2 whorls of stamens. Perianth whorls similar and petaloid, with separate parts, sometimes united. Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior, with a trilocular ovary and indefinite number of ovules on an axile placenta. Styles free or united. Fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule, sometimes a berry. 98 AGAVACEAE. Robust rhizomatous plants, often woody or even arborescent. Leaves narrow, lanceolate, crowded, often basal. Flowers as in Liliaceae and Amaryllidaceae with superior or inferior ovary, perianth united below. 99 ALLIACEAE. Herbs perennating by means of bulbs or rhizomes, intermediate between Liliaceae and Amaryllidaceae. They resemble the Liliaceae in the superior ovary while resembling the Amaryllidaceae in the scapose, false-umbelled, inflorescence developing in the axil of a more or less spathaceous bract. 100 AMARYLLIDACEAE. Perennial bulbous or rhizomatous herbs, scapose with radical leaves and a leafless scape. The scape bears 1many flowers arranged in a monochasial cyme and subtended by 2-cospathe-like bracts. Flowers hermaphrodite, regular or medianly zygomorphic, epigynous, trimerous and pentacyclic, with 2 whorls of perianth and 2 whorls of stamens. Perianth whorls similar and petaloid, with the parts of each whorl rarely separate, more often united below into a tube to which the stamens are attached. Ovary trilocular with indefinite ovules in each locule arranged in 2 series on an axile placenta. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or irregularly dehiscing, rarely a berry. 101 IRIDACEAE. Perennial herbs with corms or rhizomes, less frequently with bulbs. Leaves radical or radical and cauline, linear or sword-shaped. Stems solitary or several together. Inflorescence racemose or cymose, or the flowers solitary. Flowers showy, bisexual, regular or medianly zygomorphic, trimerous. Perianth of two whorls of petaloid leaves, united below into a tube, the two whorls often differing in form. Stamens 3, with extrorse anther. Ovary trilocular with axile placentation, rarely unilocular with parietal placentation; ovules numerous; style branched and its branches often petaloid. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. JUNCALES 102 JUNCACEAE. Grass-like perennial herbs, often with fibrous roots from a creeping sympodial rhizome and erect uribranched aerial stem. Leaves basal or cauline, linear or filiform, flat and grass-like, or cylindrical or reduced to membranous sheaths; they may have sheathing bases with open sheaths. Flowers bisexual, regular. Perianth 6-parted in 2 series sepaloid, inconspicuous, membranous. Stamens 6 in 2 whorls, or


3 in one whorl the inner whorl being absent, united. Carpels 3 united, with a trilocular or unilocular ovary with axile or parietal placentation; ovules oo -few; style simple ending with 3 brush-like stigmas. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. The flowers are rarely solitary, often grouped in axillary or terminal bracteolate cymes, generally monochasial of the fan type. COMMELINALES 103 COMMELINACEAE. Annual or perennial herbs with jointed stems. Leaves sheathing, alternate, entire, parallel-veined. Inflorescence cymose, terminal or axillary with the subtending leaf either an ordinary foliage leaf or a keel-like spathe. Flowers bisexual, sometimes regular, trimerous, pentacyclic with 2 whorls of stamens, but generally some of the stamens are reduced to staminodes or absent. Sepals 3 green, petals 3 coloured commonly blue, stamens with hairy filaments, carpels 3 united with a tri-or bilocular ovary containing few ovules in each locule. Style terminal, stigma capitate. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or indehiscent. GRAMINALES 104 GRAMINEAE. Herbaceous, rarely woody (bamboos). Stems (culms) erect, ascending, prostrate or creeping, typically hollow; nodes solid, usually swollen. Roots fibrous; rhizomes present or absent. Leaves alternate, 2-ranked, parallel-veined, consisting of sheath embracing the culm and blade usually flat, linear, having an appendage (ligule) at its base next to the culm. Inflorescence composed of units (spikelets) aggregated in spikes, racemes or panicles. Each spikelet is made of one or more florets, with subtending bracts. The axis of the spikelet is the rachilla. At the base of each spikelet there are 2 bracts, the glumes. The number of florets in a spikelet varies from 1 to 50. Each floret bears normally 2 bracts: the lemma and the palea. The flower arises in the axil of the palea and is usually bisexual, composed of a much reduced perianth represented by 2 lodicules, 3 stamens, sometimes 6, and a pistil with 1 locule, 1 ovule and 2 styles. Fruit a caryopsis or grain. PRINCIPES 105 PALMAE. Trees up to 40 m. high, with thick, often unbranched, stems (branched in Hyphaene) Leaves large, usually in a terminal crown; petiole smooth or prickly, with a sheath at the base; blade either simple and palmate or pinnately compound. Inflorescence simple or compound, spike or a richly branched panicle enclosed in an enormous spathe, or each branch may have its separate smaller spathe. The spathe is ultimately torn under the pressure of the rapidly growing flowershoot, and may separate completely or remains as a sheath to the stalk and lower branches. Flowers very numerous, sessile and crowded on a spadix, unisexual monoecious or dioecious, sometimes bisexual, regular, Perianth 6 in 2 trimerous series, inconspicuous and persistent. Stamens 6 in 2 whorls, rarely one whorl of 3 stamens. The powdery pollen is produced in great quantity. Carpels 3, free or united with a trilocular ovary and one ovule in each carpel. Style short. Fruit a berry or drupe. PANDANALES Herbaceous marsh-plants with 2-ranked leaves and a creeping stem. Flowers unisexual, naked or with an inconspicuous perianth. Male flower with 1-co stamens, rarely with a rudimentary ovary. Female flower with 1-co carpels, rarely with staminodes. Flowers in heads or spikes arranged in compound inflorescences. Leaves sessile, long and narrow, sheathing at the base. 106 TYPHACEAE. Perennial water or marsh herbs with a creeping rhizome, and simple erect aerial shoots. Leaves erect, narrow, entire with a long sheathing basal part and a long narrow strapshaped blade. Inflorescence a dense spike, with the upper flowers staminate, the lower pistillate. The flowering shoot is cylindrical, stiffly erect and generally leafy below. Flowers naked, surrounded by hairs or scales arising at their base on the axis of the spike; staminate flower of 2-5 stamens, pistillate of 1 carpel. Fruit an achene, with a membranous or leathery pericarp. 107 PANDANACEAE. Trees or shrubs of peculiar habit. Stems tall, woody, erect or climbing, often supported by aerial prop loots. Plants sometimes palm-like. Leaves spiral, 4-ranked, linear, sessile, sheathing at the base, tough, fibrous and leathery, keeled with spines on the keel and margins. Plant dioecious; flowers often


crowded on the axis. Stamens numerous in the male flowers which are arranged in a spike or umbel. A rudiment of an ovary is rarely found in the center of the male flower. Female flower of 1-co carpels which are more or less connate. For each carpel there is a unilocular ovary containing l-oo ovules. Fruit a multiple of berries or drupes. Inflorescence enclosed initially within spathaceous or foliaceous bracts. CYPERALES 108 CYPERACEAE. Grass-like perennial, or, ra rely, annual herbs with sympodial rhizomes. Aerial stem upright, usually 3-sided, stems arise either singly or in clusters from the rhizomes. Fibrous roots are also borne by the creeping or tuberous rhizome. Leaves in 3 rows with a closed sheath and a narrow blade, ligule usually absent. Inflorescence spicate, racemose, paniculate or umbellate, with the spikelets as the basic units, the spikelets being again arranged in larger spike-like or panicled inflorescences. Each flower in the spikelet is subtended by a bract, but bracteoles may or may not be present. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, minute, in the axil of a glume, naked or enveloped in a perianth of bristles, scales or hairs. Stamens 3 in one whorl. Carpels 3 or 2 united, with a unilocular ovary, and a single style bearing 3 or 2 feathery stigmas. Ovule single and basal. Fruit an achene or nutlet. The family includes many species of marsh plants.

with one anther and 2 fertile stigmas. Fruit a capsule.

MICROSPERMAE 109 ORCHIDACEAE. Perennial herbs, terrestial epiphytic or saprophytic. Leaves alternate, sometimes reduced. Flowers in racemes or panicles or solitary. Flower bisexual, zygomorphic, bracteate. Perianth 8 parts in 2 series: the outer of 3, green or coloured sepals, the inner having the middle petal "labellum" larger than the others, and usually spurred. Stamens 1, jointed to style in a structure known as a "gynandrium" or a column,

Order 1 EQUISETALES Fam. 1 EQUISETACEAE Richard 1 EQUISETUM L. Stems hollow, articulated. Leaves whorled, sheath-like and reduced. Strobilus terminal, with the peltate discs of its sporophylls bearing sporangia on their underside, spores all alike. 1 E. ramosissimum Desf. : Height variable. Plant herbaceous, either with a solitary terminal cone or with numerous, whorled, cone-bearing branches. In moist places. S. Fam. 4. ADIANTACEAE Presl 1 ADIANTUM L. Sori (structures producing and containing spores) oblong, placed transversely at the end of the frond. Receptacles vein-like, veins forked and free. Indusium false. 1 A. capillus-veneris L. : Herbs with a creeping rhizome bearing large, clustered tripinnate fronds on long stipes. Pinnae and pinnules alternate, with the pinnules lobed. NJe, NJw, NH, SH, S, E.

2 CETERACH Adans. Order 2. OPHIOGLOSSALES Dwarf tufted ferns in fissures of rock. Sori linear, mixed with scales on secondary veins of lower surface of pinnatipartite fronds. 1 C. officinarum Lam. et DC. : Fronds oblong, spreading. Pinnae alternate, ovate to oblong, entire obtuse, confluent at the base, glabrous above scrufy beneath. SH, S.

Fam. 2. OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Presl 1 OPHIOGLOSSUM L. Frond leaf-like. Sporangia in a 2-ranked narrow spike. 1 O. polyphyllum A. Br. : Small glabrous herb, 4-10 cm high, unbranched, with a narrow spike of sporangia, in numbers of 6-13 on each side. Stipe with one, or 2 - 3 lanceolate, entire, acute-tipped fronds. On sand. NJe, E.

Fam. 5. ASPLENIACEAE 1 ASPLENIUM L. Tufted fern, with oblong or linear-oblique sori. Indusium 1-sided, fixed by one edge to the inner side of fertile vein. Stipe continuous with the rhizome. 1 A. trichomanes L. : Densely tufted fern up to 40 cm. high. Fronds linear-lanceolate with short stipe and rachis, dark polished brown. Pinnae nearly sessile, roundish oblong or elliptical, unequal-sided. In rock crevices. SH, S.


Fam. 3. CRYPTOGRAMMATACEAE Pichi-Serm. 1 ONYCHIUM Kaulf. Tiny fern up to 20 cm. high. Stipe thin and slender, frond 3- or more-pinnate; pinnules narrow, 1-2 mm. broad. 1 O. melanolepis (Decne) Kuntze: Perennial ferns with pinnately dissected fronds, triangular in general outline on a slender stipe. Segments of fronds in fertile plants narrow, entire; in sterile ones deeply incised. On shady mountain slopes. SH.

2 A. filare (Forssk.) (= A. praemorsum Sw.) Alston: Herbaceous fern up to 30 cm. high, with large bipinnate fronds, turning brown when dry. Ramenta on rachis and very dense on young fronds. SH, S. Order 4. CONIFERALES Fam. 7. CUPRESSACEAE S.F. Gray 1 JUNIPERUS L. Trees or shrubs, with needle or scale-like leaves Cones fleshy, berry-like. Seeds not winged. 1 J. procera Hochst. ex Endl. : Tree with 2 kinds of leaves, spreading needle-like and imbricated scale-like. Cones fleshy berry-like when young. Fruit glossy, reddish brown. Needle leaves and branches drying reddish. In mountain regions. NH, SH, S. 2 J. polycarpos C. Koch. : Shrub or tree. Leaves opposite decussate, scale-like, rhomboidal, obtuse, 1 mm. long. On vigorous young shoots leaves sometimes more or less linear-lanceolate, flattened spreading, in pairs or in whorls of 3, very acute, up to 7 mm. long. Male cones greenish -brown, terminal, ovoid- globose, about 4 mm. long. Female cones terminal, 8-10 mm. in diameter, terminal, globose, when ripe brownish-purple usually with a glaucous bloom, formed from 4-8 scales. Female cones ripening in the second year. SH.

Fam. 6. SINOPTERIDACEAE Koidz 1 CHEILANTHES Swartz Low tufted perennials with tripinnate dark green leaves and brown or dark-red stipes. Sori marginal, with few sporangia; margins of pinnules reflexed and fringed with woolly hairs. 1 C. fragrans (L.f.) Swartz ( = C. pteridioides (Reichard) C. Chr.) : Rhizomes covered with brown scales. Frond serrate, persistent, 3-17 cm. long; petiole brownish red; lamina oval or oblong-lanceolate, 2 -3-pinnatisect. Primary segments petiolate opposite, pinnules sessile with revoluted margin. Sori brown, subglobose, exposed, covering end of nerves and the lower surface of pinnule. SH, S. 2 C. catanensis (Consent.) H.P. Fuchs

2 CUPRESSUS Tourn. ex L. 1 C. semipervirens L. : Evergreen tree, 525m. high, conical pyramidal or loosely ovoid in general outline. Branches more or less spreading; the twigs nearly in 2 rows, somewhat tetragonal. Leaves scale-like, opposite, in 4 rows, sometimes tetragonal. Pistillate cones globular. Fruits globular, grey. Tips of branches reddish. In mountain regions. NH, SH, S.

(Notholaena vellea (Ait.) Desv., N. lanuginosa (Desf.) Poiret): A small woolly perennial fern, having dark green, lanceolate, tufted, pinnate or bipinnate fronds, 10-20 cm. long, with very short stipes and pinnatifid segments; the lobes rarely over 2-3 mm. broad. Fronds hairy on the upper surface, covered with tangled wool on the lower; pinnules small, round or ovate, entire or lowermost pinnatipartite. In shady rock fissures. NJ, S, SH, E.

Equisetum ramosissimum

Ophioglossum polyphyllum

Onychium melanolepis

Adiantum capillus-veneris

Ceterach officinarum

Cheilanthes fragrans

Asplenium trichomanes

Asplenium filare

Cheilanthes fragrans

Cheilanthes acrostica

Cheilanthes acrostica

Juniperus procera

Cupressus sempervirens

Order 5. GNETALES 1 R. forsskalii DC. v. extense Hook. f. : Herbaceous plant. Sepals 3-5; petals 5, with a small nectary at the base; stamens numerous. Achenes Fam. 8. EPHEDRACEAE Dum. 1 EPHEDRA L. Leaves scale-like. Male flowers in spikes or panicles, female solitary or in pairs. Male flowers of 2 -partite perianth and 2-8 stamens with 2-celled anthers. Ovule with a single coat exceeding the perianth. 1 E. alata Decne: Stout yellowish-green leafless shrub. Filament-column branched above, anthers, therefore, shortly stalked. In sand. N, NJe, NJw, NF, E, R. 2 CLEMATIS Dill, ex L. 2 E. aphylla Forssk.( = E. alte C.A. Mey): Slender, blue-green shrub. Fruit red, berry. Filamentcolumn unbranched above; anthers thus sessile. SH. 3 E. campylopoda C.A. Mey: Climbing branches long, distorted, twigs whorled. Staminate inflorescence sessile, clustered, with 5-6 anthers; pistillate inflorescences 3-6 in a cluster, 2-flowered on a reflexed peduncle. S. 1 C. wightiana Wall. : Perennial plant climbing by the twisted petioles of leaves. Leaves opposite. Sepals 4, coloured, petals O. Achenes numerous, sessile-, dehiscent, dry, in head-like clusters. Styles persistent, long, plumose. SH, S. 3 NIGELLA L. Low annual herb, with finely-dissected leaves. Sepals 5, petaloid. Petals 8, transformed into nectaries, small, not distinctly spurred. Carpels more or less united. DICOTYLEDONES Oder 6. RANUNCULALES Fam. 9. RANUNCULACEAE A. Juss. 1 RANUNCULUS L. 1 N. sativa L. : Tall, densely-leafy plant numerous, free, usually flattened, apiculate. Poisonous. NH. 2 R. aquatilis L. : Herbaceous floating water plant with repeatedly dissected leaves into fine capillary segments. Leaves alternate, shortpetioled. Flowers white conspicuous at water surface, long-pedicelled- arising opposite the leaves. SH.

with large flowers. Nectaries short-clawed. Carpels 5, 1-nerved, connate at the tip, only the styles free. The type has leaves with narrow elongated segments and slightly tubercled big capsules. Cultivated. NH.

petals 4, rarely 6,crumpled in the bud; stamens numerous; stigmas sessile, united in flat, 4-20Fam. 10. MENISPERMACEAE A. Juss. 1 COCCULUS DC. Climbing shrub with yellowish-green 6-fid flowers, borne in fascicles. Fruit red, berry. 1 C. pendulus (J R. & G. Forst.) Diels ( = C. rayed disc crowning the ovary. Capsules ovate, club-shaped, cylindrical or elliptical, with parietal placenta extending nearly to the axis forming many false cells opening by pores under the edges of the stigmas. 1 P. rhoeas L. Leaves pinnately or bipinnately parted or cut, with oblong-lanceolate segments. Petals usually broader than long. Fruit as broad as long, on spreadingly-hairy villose peduncles. Stigmas 8-10. NH, S, NJe, SH. E, S. 2 P. polytrichum Boiss. et Ky. ( = P. rhoeas Order 7. PAPAVERALES Fam. 11. PAPAVERACEAE A. Juss. A. Fruit capsule opening by apical pores B. Fruit capsule opening by valves. 1 Capsule oblong-ovoid, reddish, prickly 2 Capsule narrow, cylindrical, siliquose, 1-roomed, 3-4-valved Roemeria 3 3 Capsule narrow, elongated, siliquose, with a false septum. Petals yellow or reddish 1 PAPAVER L. Annual herbs with milky or coloured juice. Flower buds nodding. Sepals 2-3, soon deciduous; Glaucium 4 2 ARGEMONE L. Prickly herb, with yellow juice and clasping spiny- pinnatifid leaves. Flowers bright yellow. Argemone 2 Papaver 1 L. v. pinnatum Post): Plant hirsute, with spreading bristles. Leaves lanceolate, with short obtusely-lobed segments. Capsule club-shaped, ovate-oblong, 1 cm. long, 5 mm. broad. NJ. 3 P. somniferum L. : Hairy plant, 30-60 cm. high. Leaves not clasping, pinnately- or bipinately-partite into linear-lanceolate lobes. Peduncles adpressed hairy to almost glabrescent. Petals nearly rounded, only 2 cm. long, rose-coloured, sometimes black- spotted at the base. Fruit oblong, longer than broad, smooth. E.

leaeba (Del.) DC.): Branches finely striped. Leaves small, elliptical, entire. Male flowers minute, clustered in the leaf axils; female flowers solitary or in pairs.

1 A. mexicana L. : Erect annual herb up to 1 m. high. Leaves deeply cleft, irregularly lobed, spiny, blue-green, white-veined. Flowers solitary, 5 cm. broad, of 4-6 bright yellow or orange, obovate petals with rounded apex. Corolla 3-6 cm. broad. Stamens numerous. Capsule ovoid-oblong, prickly, reddish, with radiating sessile stigmas, opening by valves; white soft hairs run along the middle of the leaves on the upper side. SH, NH. cate base. Peduncles short. Sepals papilose-hairy. Fruit appressed hairy, hairs dilated at the base. v. phoeniceijm (Grantz) DC. : Petals orangeied.

3 ROEMERIA Medic. Annual herbs with dissected leaves. Flowers violet; sepals 2; petals 4,. crumpled in the bud; stamens numerous; style short, stigma capitate. Capsule narrow cylindrical, siliquose, 1-roomed, opening by 3-4 valves. 1 R. hybrida (L.) DC. : Leaves finely dissected, with linear segments. Petals 2 cm. long and 3 cm. broad. Capsule 5-8 cm. long, glabrous or hairy only at the tip. N, E.

4 GLAUCIUM Adans. Herbs with red or yellow flowers. Sepals 2; petals 4 crumpled in the bud. Stamens numerous, stigma bilobed or 2-horned. Capsule narrow, elongated, siliquose, 2-roomed, opening by 2 valves. 1 G. corniculatum (L.) J.H. Rudolph: Richly

branched herb. Leaves pinnatipartite with oblong dentate segments and truncate lobes or dentate apex, the lower leaves petioled, the upper sessile with trun-

Ephedra alata

Ephedra aphylla

Ephedra campylopoda

Ranunculus aquatilis

Clematis wightiana

Cocculus pendulus

Nigella sativa

Papaver rhoeas

Papaver polytrichum

Papaver somniferum

Argemone mexicana

Roemeria hybrida

Fam. 12. FUMARIACEAE DC. 1 FUMARIA L. Annual plants without tendrils. Leaves finely dissected. Flowers small, in dense racemes or spikes, white or purple, dark-tipped. Sepals 2, petals 4, of which one is spurred. Fruit a small indehiscent globose nutlet. Stigma 2-horned. Seeds not arillate. 1 F. parviflora Lam. : Leaf segments narrowlylinear t-o almost capillary. Flowers about 4 mm. long, white (rarely pink) in short, few-flowered racemes. Fruit rugose, apiculate. S, SH, NJ. 2 F. judaica Boiss. ( = F. alexandrina Ehrenb.) Annual herb, very delicate. Leaf-segments broader than in the preceding species, flowers somewhat larger, 9-10 mm. long, white with purple tip. Fruit rugose, obluse. Fruit pedicel 3-4 mm. long. Only species with bracts shorter than fruit pedicel, the latter straight. SH. 2 Calyx tube indistinct or wanting. a. Stamens 4-5 on androphore, berry cylindrical b. Stamens 3-many, petals 4 berry oval B. Fam. 13. HYPECOACEAE (Prantl et Kfindig) Nak. 1 HYPECOUM L. Annual herb with yellow narcotic juice. Leaves bipinnatisect. Sepals 2, petals 4 convolute in bud, in opposite pairs, the outer entire or trilobed, larger than the inner which are tripartite. Stamens 4; stigmas 2. Pod a lomentum with one-seeded segments, often separating at the joints in ripe fruit. Fruit dry. 1 Fruit indehiscent, nut-like, 1-seeded, Capparis 3 Cadaba 2 A. Fruit succulent baccate, indehiscent. Shrubs or trees. 1 Calyx tube well-developed, stamens numerous. Branches spinescent Maerua 1 1 H. pendulum L. : Tall erect plant. Leaf segments filiform. Fruit long, smooth, acuminate, vertically pendulous without joints, on a thick recurved peduncle. NJ,E. 2 H. deuteroparviflorum Fedde ( = H. parviflorum Barb., non Kar. & Kir.; H. littorale) : Leaves finely dissected, arranged in a rosette. Flower pink or rose-coloured. SH, NJ. Fam. 14. CAPPARACEAE A. JUSS.

surrounded by a scarious circular wing. Petals 4, stamens 6 deciduous undershrub Dipterygium 4 2 Fruit hard, globose, warty or pitted Boscia 5

Fumaria parviflora

Fumaria judaica

Hypecoum deuteroparviflorum

Hypecoum pendulum

1 MAERUA Forssk. Shrubs with simple leaves. Calyx funnel-shaped of 4 united sepals, tubular below with a 4-lobed limb. Stamens many, free or attached at the base to a gynophore. Ovary stipitate, many-ovuled. Berry cylindrical. 1 M. crassifolia Forssk. : Pubescent shrub with intricate, often spinescent, branches. Leaves simple, oblong elliptical, short-petioled, about 1cm. long. Flowers green, few together on the twigs. NJ, SH, NH, S. 3 CAPPARIS L. 2 CADABA Forssk. Shrubs with entire leaves. Sepals 4, petals 4 or absent. Stamens 4-5, inserted at the base or middle of a long gynophore which carries at right angles a tubular or ligulate long nectary. Fruit narrowly cylindrical, fleshy. 1 C. glandulosa Forssk. : A highly viscid low 1 C. cartilaginea Decne ( = C. galeata Fres.) : glabrous glaucous plant with erect branches. Stipules short, hooked, leaves ovate-elliptical, 2-5 cm. long, fleshy, often prickly at the base. Upper sepal helmet- shaped, longer than the rest. Berry obovate-oblong. In rocky habitats. SH, S, NJ, E. 2 C. spinosa L. : Shrubby plant of rocky deserts, up to 1.5 m. high, densely branching from the base, decumbent, pendulous or ascending. Leaves simple ovate or suborbicular, 2-4 cm long, glabrous or more or less pubescent, often ending : Large shrub with in a prickle, entire, green or whitish-green; petiole very short, stipules hooked spiny, persistent, Sepals 4, internally concave, slightly unequal, the inferior being more or less helmetlike. Petals 4, white or sometimes rose-white, imbricated in the bud. Corolla 3-6 cm. in diameter, longer than the calyx. Stamens equal or longer than the petals, with filiform filaments and violet-purple linear4 C. obtuse. Flowers in short terminal corymbs. Petals 4, stamens 4, ovary minutely 2-locular. SH. farinosa Forssk. : A straggling bush

which usually grows climbing on other plants. Leaves dense, bluish pulverulent, 1 cm. long, oblong, obtuse. Flowers whitish-green with a tubular nectary. Fruit 2-3 cm. long or more, torulose, inside orange; gynophore 1 cm. SH.

shrub with small inconspicuous flowers and closely packed glandular, hispid, round leaves. Petals absent, nectary ligulate. Fruit 10-12 mm, long. On stony and rocky ground. NH, S, E. 2 C. rotundifolia forssk. drooping branches and orbicular, blue-green, glabrous leaves. Petals absent; nectary ligulate. SH, S. 3 C. longifolia DC. : Shrub. Leaves glabrous, linear-oblong, lanceolate or elongate elliptic; apex

oblong anthers. Ovary borne on a long gynophore, which is longer or shorter than the stamens. Fruit a pear-shaped fleshy berry, 5-6cm. long, dehiscent, 4 DIPTERYGIUM Decne Glabrous deciduous undershrubs. Flowers with black seeds. On rocky ground and steep cliffs. (A very variable species and the status of various varieties described under it, from time to time, is very doubtful. ) N, NH, NJ, E, R, SH, NF. 3 C. decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. ( = C. aphylla Roth): Yellow-green shrub, up to 4 or 5 m. high, with long, virgate, naked branches. Flowers 3-5 in axillary clusters, bright red, with one of the sepals helmet -shaped, red, very conspicuous. Fruit edible, with bitter skin. SH, NH, N, S, NJ, NF, E, R. 4 C. aegyptia Lam. ( = C. spinosa L.v. aegyptia (Lam.) Boiss.): Grey or green shrub with procumbent or pendulous woody branches. Plant glabrous or pubescent, with spiny-hooked stipules. Leaves fleshy, orbicular glaucous (bluish-grey or green), obtuse or retuse with or without prickles. Flowers white of medium size, with red stamens. On rocky ground and steep cliffs. NJ. 5 C. leucophylla DC. ( = C. sicula Duh., C. ovata Desf. v. palaestina Sch. and ssp. canescens (Coss.) Heywood, C. spinosa L. v. canescens Boiss.): Hairy frutescent plant with ovate-elliptic leaves 2-4 cm. long, often ending in a prickle. Stipules sharp spines. Branches soft hairy. Leaves and flowers larger than in other species. Sepals subequal. SH. 5 BOSCIA Lam. Shrubby plants with scented small flowers. Perianth of 4 sepals, no petals. Stamens 8-20. Ovary with a short stipe. Fruit hard, spherical. 1 B. senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. ex Poir. ( = B. octandra): Shrubby plant with coriaceous, oblong, minutely pubescent leaves, 4-12cm. long. Lateral leaf veins looping, 5-6 pairs. Flowers in corymbose cluster; each flower 3-5 mm. long with exserted filaments. 12mm. in diameter. SH, S. Fam. 15. CLEOMACEAE (Pax) Airy-Shaw 1 GYNANDROPSIS DC. Annual herbs with pentafoliate palmate leaves. Flowers white or purple, with a 4-fid perianth and 6 stamens coalescing with the elongated gynophore, free above. Fruit a siliquose capsule, many-seeded, 2-valved. Fruit warty, edible, very small, 4-fid, with free stamens. Gynophore absent. Fruit nut like, surrounded by a circular scarious wing. 1 D. glaucum Decne: Flowers whitish-yellow, short-pedicelled, in a lax long terminal raceme. N, SH, NH, NJW, NJE, E, R.S.

Key to Capparis 1Plants leafless(fallen soon) Flower orange or red............C. decidua .Not so...............................................................................2 2 Plants glabrous................................................................3 .Not so..............................................................................4 3 Leaves orbicular...............................................................C. aegyptia .Not so...............................................................................4 4 Leaves fleshy.....................................................................C. cartilaginea .Not so...............................................................................C. spinosa 5 Plants not glabrous. hairy; Leaves and flowers larger than in other species.........C. leucophylla

Maerua crassifolia

Maerua crassifolia

Cadaba farinosa

Cadaba farinosa

Cadaba glandulosa

Capparis decidua

Capparis aegyptia

Capparis spinosa

Capparis aegptica



E F Capparis cartilaginea (A, C, E, F) Capparis spinosa (B, D). Notice: In A leaves thicker than C. spinosa leaves in B.

Dipterygium glaucum

Boscia senegalensis

1 G. gynandra (L) Briq. ( = G. pentaphylla (L.) DC., Cleome gynandra and pentaphylla L.): Plant 50 -80 cm. high, glabrescent. Leaflets of lower leaves 5, oblong elliptical; of upper 3, minute. Petals long, clawed, 2.5 t mes as long as calyx. Capsule linear, 810 cm. or more long, longer than gynophore. Inflorescence terminal raceme, with white or violet flowers and orange-coloured anthers. NH. 4 C. arabica L. ( = C. trinervia Fres.): Perennial herb, 30-50 cm. high, densely glandular and sticky, pubescent, branched. Leaves simple, ovate to oblong- linear, 1.5-3 cm. long, 3-nerved on the lower surface. Flowers in a terminal raceme. Fruit broader than the preceding, pend2 CLEOME (L.) DC. Perennial herbs or undershrubs, with white, yellow or purple flowers. Calyx 4, deciduous; corolla 4; stamens 4-many, free. Gynophore absent in most species. Fruit an elongated capsule. 1 C. droserifolia Del. : strigose plant, 20-60 cm. high, much branched from the base, brittle, with yellow glands. Leaves simple, long-petioled, orbicular or cordate, 3-nerved, 1cm. long and broad. Flowers axillary, yellow. cels. SH,S. 2 C. chrysantha Decne: shrubby, glandular, up to 30 cm. high. Branches flexuous. Leaves simple, short-petioled ovate, acute, 1-nerved, 6-8 mm. long. Pods ovate, 0.5 cm. long, glandular; Fruit-peduncle circular-reflexed. Flowers axillary. SH, NH. 3 C. scaposa DC. ( = C. papillosa Steud.): A small glandular hispid plant with simple ovate leaves. Pods oblong-cylindrical on a straight peduncle, glandular, shorter than the pedi6 C. lous. Seeds lanate, woolly. NH, NJ, E, NF, N. 5 C. brachycarpa Vahl ex DC. : Annual or perennial, glandular, erect, herbaceous plant, up to 40 cm. high. Leaves digitate, leaflets thickish, lenticular to obovate-oblong, 0.5-1.0cm. long; flowers dirty-yellow, minute. Pods sessile, glandular, 1 cm. long, 0.2 cm. broad; seeds glabrous. NH, SH, N, S, NJ, NF, E, R. hanburyana Penzig: Tall, erect

Flowers pink, in a terminal raceme. Stamens 6. Fruit 2 mm. broad. Seeds glabrous, minutely pitted. NH,S.

perennial herb with glandular hispid stem, and digitate, 3-5- foliate leaves. Leaflets short, broadly lanceolate to spathulate. Flowers large, roselilac, of beautiful aspect. Fruit long, about 10 cm., narrowly-linear, spreading, with a gynophore as a stipe above the calyx. NH, SH, S. 7 C. paradoxa R. Br. ex DC. : Erect shrubby glabrescent annual or perennial plant, with longpetioled blue-green digitate leaves, lower ones 35- foliate, floral ones simple, patent. Leaflets linear, acute. Flowers lemon-yellow, red-veined,

large; petals 20 mm. long, 10-15 mm. broad. Fruit long, gynophore present as a stipe to pod. NH. 8 C. africana Botsch ( = C. arabica non L.): Annual, erect, glandular herbs of offensive odour, with trifoliate lower leaves and simple upper ones. Fruit flat, pendulous, up to 6 cm. long, with a long stalk. Gynophore absent; seeds lanate. Petals yellow, with reddish-brown tips. Note: C. arabica and C. africana are now considered to be synonyms of C. amblyocarpa which has trifoliate leaves. NJ, E.

9 C. viscosa L. : Glandular-bristly annual herb with compound palmate, 3-to 5-foliate leaves. Leaflets broadly Obovate-spathulate; petioles 1 cm. long. Pod long, 3-5 mm. broad, striped, glandular-bristly, containing glabrous seeds. NH, SH. 10 C. kotschyana Bolss. : Herbaceous glaucous plant, 30 cm. high, glabrous below. Stems simple or sparingly branched. Leaves long-petioled, ovate, obtuse, 3-nerved; upper sessile, minute, ovate-oblong. Petals pale, indistinctly-veined. Pods linearspathulate, glabrous, 5 cm. long and 1.2-1.5 cm. broad at the upper end. S,SH.

Keys of Cleome genus made by Salem Al Shekaili hope it will work. Leaves simple Flowers in a terminal raceme Seed glabrous C. scaposa........Ovate leaves. Flower yellow or white turning pinkish Seed lanate C. arabica........Ovate to oblong-linear leaves. Flowers axillary Leaves 3-nerved long-petioled C. droserifolia...........flower yellow Leaves 1-nerved short-petioled C. chrysantha Nerved leaves 3-nerved C. kotschyana........long-petioled, ovate, obtuse C. arabica Leaves digitate 3-foliate leaves Seed Seed glabrous C. brachycarpa..........flowers dirty-yellow Seed lanate C. africana.............flowers yellow, with reddish-brown tips 3 to 5-foliate leaves Stamens 10 - 20 C. viscosa..............Seed glabrous, long-petioled Flower color Rose-lilac,large, of beautiful aspect C. hanburyana.........leaves lanceolate to spathulate Lemon-yellow, red-veined C. paradoxa...........leaves linear acute, long-petioled White or violet flowers C. gynandra

Key based on Fruit length

Fruit c 1 cm. long C. kotschyana C. brachycarpa C. viscosa C. chrysantha Fruit c 6 cm. long C. kotschyana C. arabica Fruit c 10 cm. long C. hanburyana C. gynandra

Cleome droserifolia

Cleome gynandra

Cleome gynandra

Cleome africana

Cleome brachycarpa

Cleome viscosa

Cleome viscosa

Cleome arabica :Note 3-nerved leaves

Cleome africana

Cleome africana
Note: flower of reddish-brown tips

Cleome africana

Cleome scaposa

Cleome droserifolia : leaves 3-nerved

Cleome brachycarpa

Cleome brachycarpa

Cleome viscosa


Fam. 16. CRUCIFERAE A. Juss. I. Fruit less than 4 times as long as broad or broader than long. A. Fruit distinctly beaked. 1 Fruit globoid, spiny plant 2 Not so. a. Beak sword-shaped or so. *Fruit 1-celled, flowers yellow **Fruit 2-ceIled, flowers white b. Beak leaf-like B. Fruit not distinctly beaked. 1 Fruit 1-seeded, fruit stalks bent downwards 2 Fruit 2- or more -seeded. a. Fruit 2-4-seeded. * Petals yellow, silicules obovate **Petals white, fruit valves with a large wing-like auricle, leaves toothed b. Fruit many-seeded. *Fruit with a long stalk **Not so. +Fruit obcordate or reniform. Fruit obcordate notched at apex, leaves lyrate Fruit reniform of 2 nutlets, leaves dentate ++Fruit not as above. Fruit ovoid. Fruit laterally compressed, leaves entire = Fruit winged, leaves toothed lobed Fruit moderately compressed. Petals white, elliptic. i. Flowers racemed ii. Flowers corymbose Lepidium Cardaria 13 14 Schouvvia Horwoodia 11 12 Capsella Coronopus 9 10 Savignya 8 Anastatica 7 Alyssum 6 Isatis 5 Schimpera Eruca Carrichtera 2 3 4 Zilla 1


=Petals red, fibrous partition II. Fruit larger than broad (at least 4 times). A. Fruit valves with a thorn-like appendage B. Fruit valves without a thorn-like appendage 1 Hairs branched. a. Plants covered with glandular tubercles, stigma not distinct, pod tubercled or horned at apex

Farsetia Notoceras

15 16



b.. Plants not covered by glandular tubercles, stigmas limited. *Longer filaments united to top, petals linear, white or pink, leaves filiform Leptaleum 18 **Longer filament 1, free. +Fruit valves convex. Valves not constricted between seeds. -Robust herb, petals white or pink Malcolmia 19 =Dwarf herb, fruit stalked Maresia 20 ..Valves constricted between seeds, leaves narrow Eremobium 21 ++Fruit valves flat. Valves projecting inwards between seeds, petals pink, fruit nearly squared ..Not so, petals purple Hairs simple. a. Fruit with transverse joints. * Fruit valves flat. +Sepals connivent, the lateral saccate, leaves ovate Morettia Farsetia 22 15

Moricandia Diplotaxis Sinapis Brassica Erucaria

23 24 25 26 27

++Sepals spreading, not serrate **Fruit valves convex. +Beak of fruit flat, valves 3-nerved + +Beak of fruit cylindrical. Seeds globular, valves 1-nerved, flowers yellow ..Seeds ovoid, flowers pink b. Fruit not septate (sometirr-is with a seedless beak). * Fruit beakless. +Fruit 1-seeded, flat, indehiscent, leaves lyrate ++Fruit many-seeded, leaves pinnatifid **Fruit with a flat sharp edged beak

Isatis Sisymbrium Eruca

5 28 3

1 ZILLA Forssk. Thorny, nearly leafless, shrubby desert plant, dichotomously branched. Flowers pink. Pod ovateglobular, hard. Style beak-like. Seeds 1 in each cell. 1 Z. spinosa (Turra) Prantl. : Thorny shrub up to 60 cm. high. Lower leaves rosetted, upper oblong linear. Fruit globose, beaked, 8-10 mm. in diameter. In rocky and sandy deserts. N, NH, SH, S, NJ, NF, E, R. 4 CARRICHTERA DC. Dwarf annual plant with cream violet-veined flowers. Calyx erect, petals clawed, entire. Pod globular-ovate, beaked. Beak (style) flattened leaf -like, spoon-shaped, ovate, ovules 4. Spineless herbs. 1 C. annua (L.) DC. ( = C. vellae DC., Vella annua L.): Small hispid herb, dichotomously branched from the base. Leaves finely-dissected, bipinnati- partite into linear lobes. Fruits pendulous, small, arranged on pungent fruiting racemes 2 SCHIMPERA Hochst. et Steud. ex Endl. Flowers yellow. Calyx spreading. Silicules indehiscent, ovate, crustaceous, adpressed to the stem, ending in a linear compressed beak, Seeds pendulous. 1 S. arabica Hochst. & Steud. : Stiff annual herb. Basal leaves pinnatifid, stem leaves simple sagitate. Pedicel short, thick, erect. Beak oblong, 3 times as long as pod. In sandy deserts. NH, NJ, E, S. 3 ERUCA Miller Erect branching herb. Flowers white with dark violet veins of the petals. Pod short, terete long-beaked, dehiscent, opening by 2 longitudinal 1-nerved valves. 1 E. sativa Miller ( = E. vesicaria (L.) Cav. ssp. sativa (Miller) Thell.): papillose-hairy plant. Leaves lyrate pinnatifid or pinnatisect into oblong dentate lobes. Beak half as long as fruit. Flowers in type cream-coloured, pod slightly inflated. NH, NJ, E. 6 ALYSSUM L. Annual or perennial herbs with stellate woolly hairs. Leaves entire. Flowers yellow or creamcoloured. Calyx erect, petals entire or retuse. Silicules small, obovate-orbicular, elliptical or lenticular, opening parallel to the flat sides. Locules often 2-seeded. Septum nerveless, with fine veinules. hanging down from 2-3 mm. long pedicels. E. 5 ISATIS L. Perennial glabrous herbs with yellow floaters. Stem leaves sagittate. Silicules indehiscent, short and broad, oblong-rounded, with a membranous wing at the apex, 1-seeded. 1 I. lusitanica L. ( = I. aleppica Scop.): Glabrous plant with a panicle. Radical leaves obovate, lyrate, cm. long. Silicules puberulent, linear, 2 cm. long.

1 A. homalocarpum (Fisch. & Mey.) Boiss. : Small grey annual plant branching from the base. Leaves lanceolate, entire. Flowers minute; petals spathulate, yellow, shorter than the calyx, mostly 1 mm. long. Fruiting raceme 3 cm. long. Silicules orbicular, 0.4 cm. broad, scarcely inflated. Pedicel shorter than the pod. E. 1 S. parviflora (Del.) Webb ap. Pari. ( = S. aegyptiaca DC.): Annual desert herb, with small, pink or white flowers. Stems numerous emerging from a rosette of fleshy pinnatifid leaves, lower leaves obovate-oblong, dentate, petioled, the upper linear pinnatifid or entire. Calyx erect, of equal sepals; pod flattish, ovate or elliptical, bladder-like with a filiform apiculate style and borne on a filiform spreading pedicel twice its length. 7 ANASTATICA L. Annual herb, dwarf, dichotomous prostrate, stellate-canescent. Flowers minute, white. Silicule woody, globose, angled in the middle, with a long persistent spinescent style between the 2 short valves; valves auricled at the tip. 1 A. hierochuntica L. : Commonly known as 9 CAPSELLA Medicus Annual herbs, with rosetted radical leaves. Flowers white. Silicule flattened and compressed with the replum perpendicular to the flat side, seen as a line on the face of the flat fruit. Pod obcordate-obtriangular, dehiscent, 2-valved; valves many-seeded. 1 C. bursa-pastoris (L.) Medicus: Annual herbs, covered with stellate and unicellular hairs. Stem erect, branched at the base, 15-40 cm. high Radical leaves lyrate-cleft, stalked, pinnatifid, tufted in a basal rosette, cauline ones sessile, lanceolate, amplexicaul. Inflorescence terminal raceme. Flowers white, with 4 oblong sepals and 4 obovate, clawed, petals, 2-2.5 mm. long. Stamens tetradynamous. Pistil 1; fruit silicule, obtri angular flattened, green, with emarginate apex, 6-8 mm. long and 6 mm. broad, with a slender pedicel, 1020 mm. long. Weed of cultivated land, also grows in waste land and along roadsides. Seeds winged, in 2 rows. NH, SH, N, S, NJ, E, NF.

"Jericho-rose"; a small annual herb a few cm. high; stellate-canescent with obovate repand dentate leaves tapering into a short petiole. Flowers minute, with erect calyx and white petals. Fruiting plants indurated, woody, with branches incurved to form a globular structure, which expands again when immersed in water, exposing the persistent fruit. Pod woody ovate - globose, inflated, 2-celled, dehiscent; style long, persistent, spinescent. In rocky and gravel deserts. SH, N, NH, E, NJ, R. 8 SAVIGNYA DC. Flowers pink or white. Pod flattened ovate bladder -like; style filiform; valves opening parallel to the flat sides; seeds winged. Pedicels spreading, twice as long as the pod.

Zilla spinosa

Moricandia nitens

Schimpera arabica

Schimpera arabica

Schimpera arabica

Eruca sativa

Carrichtera annua

Isatis lusitanica

Anastatica hierochuntica

Savignya parviflora

Capsella bursa-pastoris

S, SH. 2 S. purpurea Schweinf. : Shrubby herbs with big ovate, sessile leaves 6 cm. long and 4 10 CORONOPUS Zinn. Small prostrate herbs, with a rosette of pinnatifid leaves and erect stem. Flowers small, with white petals, or petals sometimes absent. Silicule minute, wrinkled or tubercled-dentate, made of 2 compressed -globose, indehiscent nutlets. 1 C. niloticus (Del.) Spreng. ( = Senebiera nilotica (Del.) DC.): Hairy to glabrous plant. Leaves dentate to pinnatifid. Silicule minute, with entire tip, on a long capillary pedicel. S, SH. 12 HORWOODIA Herbaceous scented plants. Leaves toothed or lobed, petiolate. Flowers purplish mauve. Fruit silicule, compressed, orbicular, with 2 stronglyveined lateral wings. Stylar beak inconspicuous 11 SCHOUWIA DC. Flowers purple; pod flat, orbicular, compressed with the septum perpendicular to the flat side and seen as a line on the face, 15-20 mm. broad, broadlywinged with a long style at the apex, 2-valved with the valves opening perpendicular to the flat sides. 1 S. thebaica Webb ( = S. schimperi Jaub. & Sp., S. purpurea (Forssk.) Schweinf. v. schimperi Muschl.): Tall, stout, glabrous, annual plant with simple, broad fleshy leaves. Radical leaves oblong, tapering at the base, entire; cauline ones ovate, acute, deeply cordate auricled. Silicules orbicular or ovate mucronate with the style nearly as long as the pod. v. microcarpa (O.E. Schulz) Tackh. : Flowers smaller than the type, pod only 10 mm. broad. Associated with the type. SH. NJe. 13 LEPIDIUM L. Herbs or shrubs, with minute white flowers. Silicule small, flat compressed, often winged toor absent. 1 H. dicksoniae Turrill: Annual desert herb, richly branched, up to 30 cm. high. Stem erect; leaves entire, petioled, oblong, narrowing below. Inflorescence long raceme, lax; flowers purple or rose-coloured, bracts and bracteoles absent. Fruit an oval or orbicular silicule, flat and compressed with the replum perpendicular to the flat sides. Fruit pedicelled, with a membranous wing all round and a prominent crest along the middle line. Stylar beak very short and inconspicuous. In sandy deserts. N, NJ, NH, E. cm. broad; leaf base cordate-amplexicaulous, margin entire, apex obtuse-pointed. Inflorescence long raceme, calyx 7 mm. long, corolla purple. Fruit oval, 1.2 cm. long, 5 mm. broad, with a persistent spiny style 5 mm. long. SH. S.

wards the tip, consisting of 2 one-seeded valves opening perpendicular to the flat sides. 1 L. aucheri Boiss. : Small, glabrous annual prostrate herb, with numerous thick and stiff stems emerging from the center of a rosette of dentate or obtusely- pinnatifid leaves. Pod about 3 mm. long, adpressed to the stem. NJe, E. 2 L. sativum L. : Annual tall glabrous herb, with erect stem. Radical leaves 1-3 pinnately cut or lobed, the cauline ones linear, undivided. Inflorescence raceme. Silicules ovate-orbicular, about 5 mm. long, notched at the apex, with the style not exceeding the sinus, narrowly-winged. NH, SH, NJe, E. opening parallel to the flat sides. Stigma 2-lobed. Seeds in 2 rows, broadly winged. 1 F. aegyptia Turra: Grey bush with erect spreading branches. Leaves narrowly linear, entire. Petals rose or purple, sometimes almost grey or yellowish. Calyx 9 mm. long, corolla 1.5 times as long. Pod oblong, 1.5-2 cm. long and 6-7mm. broad. NH, N, NJ, E. 2 F. burtonae Oliv. : Grey shrub. Stems and leaves densely hairy. Leaves linear, 2-2.5 cm. long, 2 mm broad. Inflorescence raceme, flowers small, 1.5 cm. long, with pink corolla. Pod 1 cm. long, 3 mm. broad with short stalk and persistent style 4 mm. long. NH,SH,N,NJ. 14 CARDARIA Desv. Very similar to Lepidium, except that the inflorescence is a dense corymbose panicle and the selicules cordate indehiscent. 1 C. draba (L.) Desv. ( = Lepidium draba L.): Pubescent perennial plant with erect stem, corymbose at the apex. Leaves oblong to oblonglanceolate. Silicule cordate, broader than long, inflated. Style conspicuous. NH, S. 15 FARSETIA Turra Shrubby canescent plants with branching hairs, purplish flowers and linear entire leaves. Petals clawed. Pod flat, hairy oblong or elliptical, bivalved, 3 F. depressa Ky. : Grey shrub with slender branches. Leaves linear narrow. Siliqua 3 cm. long and 3 mm. broad, pedicel 5-10 mm. long; style short, curved or straight. Pod constricted and its outer wall depressed between the seeds. Seeds small, winged. NH, N, NJ. 4 F. longistyla Bak. : Low annual herb, with leaves up to 5 cm. long. Flowers white; fruit up to 2.5 cm. long and 4 mm. broad. Persistent style 4 mm. long. NJ, SH. 5 F. longisiliqua Decne: Perennial undershrub - Flowers large, white or pale orange. Siliqua long and narrow.

Schouwia thebaica

Schouwia purpurea

Horwoodia dicksoniae

Lepidium aucheri

Lepidium sativum0

Cardaria draba

Farsetia aegyptia

NH, N, SH, E, NJ. 6 F. ramosissima Hochst. : Annual or sometimes perennial plant. Petals orange-yellow, a little longer than sepals. Pod small, terminated by a 3-4 mm. long mucro. SH. 2 M. humilis DC. : Leaves linear or lanceolate, dentate or pinnatifid. Flowers small, sessile, Pods 3-5 cm. long and 2 mm. broad, stigma short, conical. NH, NJ. 3 M. arabica Boiss. : A tall plant with long virgate branches and narrow linear leaves. Flow16 NOTOCERAS R. Br. Dwarf annual hairy prostrate herb. Leaves narrow, entire, stem leaves not clasping. Flowers small, white, with veinless petals. Siliqua hardly dehiscent, small, squared, deeply 2-cleft at the tip. 1 N. bicorne (Ait.) Amo: Leaves narrow, oblonglinear, entire, 2 cm. long, tapering towards the base. Flowers small, in closely-packed racemes. Pod 5-6 mm. long by 1.5 mm. broad, stiff, erect, subsessile. Mucro 1 mm. long. E, NH, NJ. 18 LEPTALEUM DC. Annual glabrous dwarf herb with filiform leaves and small white flowers. Fruit long and 17 MATTHIOLA R. Br. Hairy plant with the hairs mostly stellate. Flowers white, purple or lead-coloured. Petals at least 1 cm. long. Siliqua linear, terete, 2-valved, often with 2 horns or tubercules at the apex. 1 M. longipetala (Vent.) DC. : Annual herb narrow, thick, linear, hardly dehiscent. 1 L. filifolium (Willd.) DC. : Small glabrous annual plant, 5-10 cm. high, divaricately branched. Leaves thread-shaped, undivided or pinnatipartite, with filiform lobes. Flowers 5 mm. long. Fruit rather compressed, about 2 cm. long and 2 mm. broad. NJe, E. 19 MALCOLMIA R. Br. corr. Spreng. Robust annual herbs, with large purple flowers, sometimes white or yellow. The plant with branching hairs. Petals about 1 cm. long. Pods with branched stem. Lower leaves sinuate, dentate, pinnatifid. Flowers pink or purple; pedicels short; sepals 1 cm. long; petals obovate longer than sepals. Siliqua long, cylindrical, puberulent, with 2 horns or protuberances at the apex. NF. ers sessile, lead coloured, petals linear. Horns absent. Perennial. N, NF, E. 4 M. livida (Del.) DC. v. caespitosa. ( = M. oxyceras v. caespitosa Conti.): Grey canescent, not glandular except leaves; horns distinct, up to 2-3mm. long. NJ.

narrow, elongated, terete, hornless, hispid, 2-valved, tapering into a capitate or conical stigma. 1 M. grandiflora (Bge.) Ktze. : Annual herb. Leaves basal, dentate to pinnatifid. Inflorescence long raceme. Sepals green, the inner ones saccate. Petals violet, oval. Siliqua up to 4 cm. long, 1 mm. broad, hairy, later glabrous. NJ, E. 2 M. crenulata (DC.) Boiss. ( = M. glabrescens Boiss. ): A small annual plant, 20 cm. high, with numerous green glabrous stems. Leaves crenate, the lower oblong tapering to a petiole, the upper sessile, clasping, oblong-lanceolate. Flowers 1.5 cm. long, pod 8 cm. long, 1.5 mm. broad, style bifid. 3 M. africana (L.) R. Br. : Plant up to 30 cm. high, pubescent, stellate-hairy. Leaves broad, oblong, slightly dentate. Pods 6 cm. long, 2 mm. broad, 4angled, spreading; petals 1 cm. long, twice the calyx. NJe, E. N, NF, E, NJe. 2 M. nana (DC.) Batt. in Batt. & Trab. : Annual herb. Pedicels shorter than in M. pygmaea, rarely over 3 mm. (1-2 cm. in M. pygmaea). Flowers smaller, sepals 2.5-3 mm. long, petals 4-4.5 mm. Leaves less lobed. SH, S, NJ. 21 EREMOBIUM Boiss. Annual herbs with small narrow entire leaves and small pinkish or white flowers. Stem leaves not elapsing. Petals very small, less than 1 cm., veinless. Pods narrow, linear, terete, beakless, with seeds arranged in one row. 1 E. aegyptiacum (Spreng.) Asch. in Boiss. ( = Malcolmia aegyptiaca Spreng.): Perennial herb, 10- 30 cm. high, grey tomentose, prostrate or ascending. Leaves small, entire, sessile, oblong to oblong-linear. Racemes dense, many-flowered. Flowers 0.5 cm. long, white to deep mauve. Pods not or hardly compressed, torulose, twice as 20 MARESIA Pomel Dwarf slender annual herbs, rarely over 10 cm. high, with stellate and branching hairs. Flowers pink. Sepals unequal, the 2 inner ones saccate at the base. Pod terete, hornless, about 1 cm. long. 1 M. Pygmaea (Del.) O.E. Schultz in Engl. ( = Malcolmia pygmaea (Del.) Boiss.): A manystemmed delicate annual herb, rarely over 10 cm. high. Leaves rosetted, pinnatifid. Flowers showy, petals 1cm. long, twice the calyx, Siliqua pedicelled, the pedicel 1-2 cm. long. broad as the pedicel, 1.5 cm. long, 1 mm. broad. N, NF, E. 2 E. lineare (Del.) Asch. et Schweinf. : Annual herb, 10-30cm. high, grey, slightly hairy, prostrate, glandular. Leaves sessile, oblong-linear or cylindrical, fleshy. Inflorescence raceme, fewflowered. Pods strongly compressed, 4-5 times as broad as the pedicel, 1.5-2.5 cm. long and 2 mm. broad. Seeds 4-8, winged. NJe, NF,E. 3 E. diffusum (Decne) Botsch. ( = E. lineare auct. mult., non (Del.) Asch. et Schweinf. in

Farsetia ramosissima

Notoceras bicorne

Matthiola longipetala

Matthiola arabica

Leptaleum filifolium

Malcolmia grandiflora

Malcolmia crenulata

Malcolmia africana

Maresia nana

Maresia pygmaea

Eremobium aegyptiacum

Boiss., teste Botsch.): Annual green herb glandular. Pod compressed, 4-5 times as broad as the pedicel. NJ. Perennial herbs with relatively large pink flowers with acute anthers. Leaves simple, fleshy, glabrous, entire or slightly toothed, the upper cordate-auricled, clasping at the base. Pod 22 MORETTIA DC. Perennial herbs, densely stellate-hairy or woolly, grey. Leaves simple, flowers pink. Siliqua short, narrow, linear, more or less squared in cross section. Key to Morettia: 1 2 Plant yellow green, heir soft and dens M. philaneana Plant grey, heir coarse...M. canescens v. parviflora. long and narrow, 2-valved. 1 M. nitens (Viv.) Dur. & Barr. : Shrubby and woody plant. Upper leaves small, 1 cm. long or less, the lower ones larger, 2-4 cm. long, often dentate. Pods 4-6 cm. long, seeds in 1 row. 2 M. sinaica (Boiss) Boiss. : Perennial herb with tough green branches. Leaves large and broad, 6-10 cm. long, obovate to ovate, the lower ones tapering at the base, the upper clasping, amplexicaul. Pods 5-7 cm. long, 2 mm. broad, seeds in 2 rows. NH, NJe, E.

1 M. philaeana (Del.) DC. : Ascending perennial yellow-green, bristly-hairy plant with oblong petiolate, entire leaves, 1-2 cm. long. Flowers and leaves larger than in other species. Siliqua 1-2 cm. long, straight or curbed. SH.

24 DIPLOTAXIS DC. 2 M. canescens Boiss. : Prostrate, stellate grey canescent with entire or dentate, short-petioled, ovate - oblong leaves, 1-1.5 cm. long. Siliqua small, rarely exceeding 1 cm. straight often striped with prominent nerves. v. parviflora Boiss. (Morettia canescens var. parviflora (Boiss.) Migahid is a synonym of Morettia parviflora Boiss.) Grey stellate-canescent herb, with entire leaves and minute pink flowers, smaller than the type. Siliqua small, rarely over 1 cm., curved. NJ, NH, S. Erect herbaceous plants, with yellow, pink or white flowers arranged in racemes. Pods long and narrow, flat, 2-valved with the valves 1nerved, and with 2 parallel rows of seeds in the pod. 1 D. harra (Forssk.) Boiss. : A white-hispid glabrescent desert perennial herb, 20-30 cm. high. Stem multiple branched, often woody at the base. Leaves simple obovate-oblong, hispid, coarsely toothed. Flowers yellow, showy. Pedicel slender, longer than flower. Pod pendulous, stipulate, 4cm. long and 2mm. broad, with broad, subsessile, bilobed stigma; beak absent. In sandy 23 MORICANDIA DC. and rocky deserts.

NH, N, S, NJ, E. 2 D. acris (Forssk.) Boiss. : Short, annual, sparingly hairy, glabrescent desert herb. Leaves obovate, dentate, obtuse, somewhat fleshy. Flowers large, purple, about 1 cm. long. Pods numerous, ascending, in dense racemes; pedicel 1 cm. long. Pods erect, spreading 2-3.5 cm. long; stigmas sessile, truncate. In sandy and rocky deserts. N, NH, SH.

Morettia parviflora

Morettia philaeana

Moricandia nitens

Diplotaxis harra

Diplotaxis acris

3 B. deflexa Boiss. : Plant branched from the 25 SINAPIS L. Herbs with white or yellow flowers in naked racemes. Siliqua linear, terete, beaked, long and with seeds arranged only in one row; opening by 2 longitudinal, 3-7-nerved, valves. 1 S. arvensis L. : Annual herb, with lyrate-clef lower leaves and simple dentate upper ones. Siliqua glabrous, beaked, 3-5 cm. long and 2 mm. broad; beak 10-15 mm. long. NJe, E. base. Lower leaves hirsute, branched, oblonglanceo- late, irregularly lobed, dentate, upper ones lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, denticulate or entire, often also strongly hispid. Calyx woollycanescent, 3-4 mm.; petals pale yellow, 7-8 mm. long, with large limbs; pedicel 2-3 mm. Seliqua 46 mm. long and 1.5 mm. broad, torulose; style thick, 2 mm. long. 27 ERUCARIA Gaertn. Annual herbs, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves 12 pinnatifid or parted, with narrow lobes. Flowers pink, purple or violet in naked racemes. Fruit a 26 BRASSICA L. Herbs or undershrubs with yellow flowers in naked racemes. Pods linear, long and narrow, beaked, terete with the seeds in one row; 2-valved with the valves 1-nerved. 1 B. rapa L. ( = B. campestris L.) : A weed with the lower leaves often hairy beneath. Flowers small, arranged in a corymbose (flat-topped) raceme; petals 7mm. long. In waste places. NH, N, NJ, E. 2 B. tournefortii Gouan: Annual hispid weed, up to 50 cm. high, papillose-hairy below. Rosette leaves lyrate with dentate segments, cauline ones few, small, linear. Pods 2-5 cm. long and 2 mm. broad; beak long, more than 1 cm, pedicels spreading. Weed in cultivated land. SH, S, E. 2 E. crassifolia (Forssk.) Del. : Glabrous annual herb. Flowers pale, sweet-scented, 7-8 mm. long. Pod strongly-nerved, straight or very slightly curved, with a short beak. In sandy places. narrow siliqua with 2 joints, the upper indehiscent, the lower opening by 2 valves. Pod straight. 1 E. hispanica (L.) Druce ( = E. myagroides (L.) Hal., E. tenuifolia DC., E. aleppica Gaertn.): Tall erect annual plant, glabrous or nearly so. Leaves with narrow lobes. Flowers large, with the petals 12-15 mm. long. Siliqua 2-jointed, with the upper joint 1-seeded shorter than the lower one. NH.

Brassica tournefortii

Sinapis arvensis

Brassica rapa

Erucaria crassifolia

Erucaria crassifolia

Erucaria crassifolia

CRUCIFERAE 28 SISYMBRIUM L. Glabrous herbs or with simple hairs. Leaves pinnatifid, mostly lyrate-cleft; stem leaves not clasping. Flowers racemed, usually yellow or cream-coloured. Fruit siliqua narrow, linear, opening by 2 longitudinal valves; valves 1-3-nerved. 1 S. irio L. : A richly branched glabrous herb with lyrate cleft-parted leaves. Raceme manyflowered, flowers yellow. Pod 3-6 cm. long and 1 mm. broad. NJe, E. S. 2 S. erysimoides Desf. : Annual, richly branched, glabrous herb. Leaves pinnatifid with oblong dentate leaves not auricled at the base. Pods stiff, glabrous, horizontally expanding, short-pedicelled. NH, SH, NJ. 3 S. orientale L. ( = S. columnae Jacq.): Plant greyish-green, sometimes villous, with small flowers having almost erect outer sepals. Upper leaves hastate. SH. 4 S. septulatum DC. : Herbaceous plant, 40-60 cm. high, sparingly hirsute with spreading hairs. Leaves auricled at the base, runcinate, the lower lanceolate acutely dentate or incised; lobes of upper leaves linear, entire or dentate. Flowers lemonyellow to cream coloured, 1.4 cm. long, showy; calyx erect, purplish less than or as long as petals, lamina of petal rounded. Pods 5 cm. long, 1 mm. broad, spreading, short pedicelled, glabrous or sparingly hairy, short-beaked. Stigma bilobed. E, NJe.

Sisymbrium irio

Sisymbrium erysimoides

Sisymbrium orientale

RESEDACEAE Fam. 17. RESEDACEAE S.F. Gray A. Carpels free B. Carpels united. 1 Shrubs, fruit berry-like 2 Undershrubs or herbs. a. Petals 2, ovary sessile b. Petals 4-7, ovary stalked 1 CAYLUSEA A. St-Hil. Annual herbs with entire leaves and minute sessile flowers in long slender spikes. Perianth 5-fid. Fruit a whorl of 6 separate 1-seeded carpels. 1 C. hexagyna (Forssk.) M.L. Green ( = C. Oligomeris Reseda 3 4 Ochradenus 2 3 OLIGOMERIS Cambess. Annual herbs with entire leaves and minute sessile flowers in slender terminal spikes. Petals 2, stamens 3, ovary sessile. Fruit capsule, deeply furrowed. Floral disc absent. 1 O. linifolia (Vahl) Macbr. ( = O. subulata Webb, O. dispersa Mull.-Arg., O. glaucescens Cambess.): A small blue-green annual plant, 1030 cm. high, branching from the base and above. Leaves linear, subulate. Inflorescence dense, narrow spike. Petals white. Fruit a spherical capsule, glabrous, 2 mm. broad. NH, SH, N, E, R. Caylusea 1 green when young but becomes waxy white when ripe. NH, N, SH, S, NJe, NJw, NF, E. R.

canescens (L.) A. St. Hil.): Papillose-hairy herb, erect with long slender procumbent branches spreading on the surface of the ground. Leaves narrow, whitishgreen, with crisped margin. Flowers sessile or short pedicelled in very long -slender racemes or spikes. In sandy deserts. SH, S, NJe, NJw, E.

4 RESEDA L. Herbs, sometimes woody at the base. Leaves undivided or once to twice trifid or pinnatifid. Inflorescence terminal raceme. Flowers often white, rarely yellow. Perianth 4-8-merous. Upper petals cleft or parted; stamens 10-oo on a disc within the perianth; carpels united, ovary stalked. Fruit a capsule opening apically at an early stage by means of a wide mouth bounded by 3-4 teeth. 1 R. muricata Presl. : Subshruby-pruinose perennial or biennial herb, 30-50 cm. high. Lower leaves entire, linear-lanceolate, upper ternate with linear- lanceolate lobes. Flowers white, 4 mm. broad, short- pedicelled; sepals deciduous, upper

2 OCHRADENUS Del. A desert shrub with rigid, at last leafless, spinescent shrubs. Flowers in terminal racemes. Sepals 5-6, petals absent. Stamens 10-15, on an oblique disc. Fruit closed, fleshy, berry-like. 1 O. baccatus Del. : A very common big desert shrub in some regions, of characteristic yellow-green colour and spinescent small-leaved branches under dry conditions. Leaves linear, narrow, Flowers yellow, very short-pedicelled. Fruit fleshy, berry-like

RESEDACEAE-MORINGACEAE -CUTTIFERAE petal 7-lobed; stamens with persistent filaments. Capsule erect, glabrous, short-stalked, 0.5-1.0 cm. long and broad, 3-toothed. Seeds pitted. N, NH, NJw, NJe, SH, S, NF, E, R. 2 R. stenostachya Boiss. : Small grey scabrouspruinose annual desert herb. Leaves lanceolate entire below and ternate above, as in the preceding species. Flowers subsessile minute in a long spike-like raceme; sepals deciduous, upper petal 9-lobed; stamens with persistent filaments. Capsule finely scabrous, obovoid-oblong, 3-toothed. Seeds pitted. SH, E, NJ. 3 R. arabica Boiss. : Small, annual, slightly pruinose desert herb. Leaves simple, oblong-linear, undivided or 3-fid. Calyx persistent; pedicel longer than the calyx; petals short; stamens with persistent filaments; ovary sessile. Capsule nearly globular, pendulous sessile inside the persistent calyx, 3toothed Seeds pitted wrinkled. In sandy deserts. E, Nje. 4 R. decursiva Forssk. ( = R. propinqua R. Br., R. alba L. ssp. decursiva (Forssk.) Maire): Small, annual or biennial plant up to 30 cm. high, nearly glabrous, branching at the base. Leaves 1-2 pinnatisect, rosetted below. Flowers minute, white, spiked; petals a little longer than the sepals. Capsule short-stalked, 5-6 mm. long, cylindrical almost truncate at the apex, 4-toothed but with the teeth obscure. E. Fam. 19. CUTTIFERAE A. Juss. 1 HYPERICUM L. Perennial herbs or shrubs with yellow flowers and entire, opposite exstipulate leaves, with transparent dots. Petals 5, stamens numerous separate above bud united below into 3 bundles. Fruit capsule with many seeds. 1 H. hircinum L. ( = Androsaemum hircinum (L.) Spach): Leaves glabrous oblong attenuated at the tip, obtuse, sessile. Cyme terminal. Sepals lanceolate, 5 mm. long; petals 2 cm. long; stamens numerous, in 5 bundles; style long; capsule splits at the apex. S. Order 8 GUTTIFERALES Fam. 18 MORINGACEAE R. Br. 1 MORINGA Adans. Trees with alternate bipinnate leaves and white bark. Stipules gland-like or wanting. Flowers white, irregular, in large axillary panicles, hermaphrodite. Perianth in 2 pentamerous whorls. Stamens 5 fertile+ 5 staminodes. Fruit a 20 cm. long, 3-angled pod. 1 M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori ( = M. aptera Gaertn., M. arabica (Lam.) Pers.): A tree varying in height between 5 and 15 m. Flowers appear on the tree before leafing. Leaflets remote, small, oblong. Seeds white, angled, nut-like. Aromatic oil is obtained from the seeds. NH, SH.

Caylusea hexagyna

Reseda stenostachya (above & below)

Reseda decursiva (above & below)

Reseda muricata

Reseda arabica

2 H. chrysostrictum Webb: A mountain shrub 2 m. or more in height. Leaves large, up to 10cm. long, glabrous, opposite, exstipulate, sessile, with entire margin and broad base. Flowers yellow, large and showy, terminating the branches or in terminal cymes. Petals 5, yellow; stamens numerous. Fruit a many-seeded capsule. In mountains. SH. lar or trilocular capsule, opening by valves. Leaves always grey-canescent, sometimes enrolled. 1 H. lippii (L.) Pers.; A small desert shrublet with slender intricate branches, sessile yellow flowers and flat elliptical leaves, sometimes enrolled into needle-shape with the margins of the upper surface downward. Leaves variable, broad or narrow, often 1-1.5 cm. long and 4-6 mm. Fam. 20 PASSIFLORACEAE broad. Branches long virgate spinescent after flowering, each branch ending in 2 spikes. Fruit 1 ADENIA Forssk. Glabrous shrubs or herbs, glaucous, climbing or twining, Leaves alternate, entire, with 2 glands on the petiole apex. Tendrils lateral criminate. Flower unisexual, small and white. 1 A. vennenata Forssk. : Subarborescent climber, with glabrous glaucous stems. Leaves 3-5-lobed to about the middle, thin glabrous, lobes rounded at the apex; petiole as long as lamina; top glands connate and forming a peltate base. Inflorescence axile, male flowers with short pedicels. SH. 3 H. salicifolium (L.) Mill. ( = H. intermedium (Pers.) thib. ex Dunal): Annual Order 9. VIOLALES Fam. 21. CISTACEAEA Juss. 1 HELIANTHEMUM Mill. Shrubs or perennial herbs, rarely annuals, with entire, often stipulate leaves and yellow or pink flowers. Inflorescence raceme or false spike. Sepals 5, with the 2 outer much smaller than the 3 inner; petals 5; stamens numerous, all fertile, Fruit a unilocuerect herb 10-30 cm. high, hirsute, branching from the base. Leaves obovate to oblonglanceolate. Flowers yellow, small, on upwardlycurved slender pedicels and supported by broadly ovate-lanceolate bracts which are shorter than the pedicels. Capsule glabrous, ovate-globular, 0.5 cm. long. Pedicel much larger than the calyx. N, NF, E. calyx short, less than 6 mm. in length. Stamens 10, half the length of the sepals. Capsule obtuse. N, NJw, E, NF. 1 H. kahiricum Del. : Shrublet with lemon yellow, pedicelled small flowers arranged in 512-flowered racemes. Plant ashy stellatepuberulent, 15-30 cm. high. Leaves oblong to linear, with revolute margin. Peduncles as long as the calyx or shorter. Calyx slightly reddish, villous.

Helianthemum lippii

Helianthemum salicifolium

Helianthemum kahiricum

Ochradenus arabicus

Ochradenus arabicus

4 H. ledifolium (L.) Mill. ( = H. niloticum (L.) Pers., non Moench): Annual erect herb, 30-50 cm. high with lanceolate, usually acute, leaves. Flowers yellow; pedicels thick, straight, shorter than the calyx. Raceme with minute narrow bracts. Bracts longer than the pedicels. Capsule ovate-globular, glabrous, sharply trigonous with ciliated angles. NJ, E. 5 H. ventosum Boiss. : Greenish stellate-puberu - lent branched shrublet, 30-50 cm. high, with broad elliptical leaves. Flowers, small, yellow, few, scattered in 3-5-flowered, racemes. Fruit pedicels mostly as long as or shorter than the calyx. Calyx lobe ovate in fruit 5 mm. broad. N, E. 6 H. sessiliflorum (Desf.) Pers. : Erect, much branched, dark green pubescent desert shrublet, with the branches whitish. Flowers small, yellow, sessile, in 6-7-flowered very lax spikes. Sepals spreading mucronate, the outer filiform; petals yellow. Capsule small, equaling the calyx. Branches long, virgate, not getting spinescent, ending in a single spike. Fruit calyx short, less than 6 mm. in length. In deserts. SH. 2 T. Trees or high shrubs with deciduous branches and very minute scale-like leaves. Flowers white or pink, in spike-like racemes, each flower subtended by a small bract. Calyx 4-5, stamens 4-10, on a disc, styles 3-4. Capsule 1-celled, valves 34. Seeds with a tuft of hairs at the beak-like tip. 1 T. aphylla (L.) Karst ( = T. orientalis 1 TAMARIX L. A. Shrubs or trees, flowers in racemes Tamarix 1 B. Undershrubs, flowers solitary Reaumuria 2 Fam. 22. TAMARICACEAE S.F. Gray

Forssk., T. articulata Vahl): Shrub or high tree, up to 15 m. high and 2-5 m. wide. The only leafless species, its leaves being reduced to sheaths without blades. Slender branchlets usually closely jointed. Flowers small, sessile, in lax interrupted spikes; appearing in late summer. N, NH, NJe, E, SH, S. amplexicaulis Ehrenb. ( = T. pauciovulata J. Gay, teste Baum, T. balansae J. Gay ex Batt. et trab., T. trabutii Maire): A 2-3 m. high shrub, glabrous, glaucous. Leaves with a free distinct blade, fleshy, clasping all round, deltoidcordate on closely jointed branchlets. Inflorescence long, dense, terminal, narrow compact raceme. Flower 2 mm.; corolla of elliptical persistent petals. Stamens 10, enlarged at the base; styles 3, half as long as the ovary. Capsule minute, 6mm. long, opening by 3 valves. NH, E.

TAMARICACEAE-FRANKENIACEAE 3 T. nilotica (Ehrenb.) Bge ( = T. arabica Bge, T. mannifera (Ehrenb.) Decne, T. arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge, T. gallica v. nilotica and v. mannifera Ehrenb., T. scebelensis Chiov., T. aegyptiaca Pertol.): Shrubs or trees of 5-8 m. multiform, glabrous, glauces- cent or green. Leaves with free distinct blade, ovate or deltoid-cordate, acute, half-clasping. Foliage variable: green or greyish, dotted or not, sometimes covered with salt crystals. Racemes loose, also much variable in size and shape. Pedicel shorter than the calyx; petals obovate-oblong; stamens 4-5; styles 3; capsule opening by 3 valves. NJe, N, E. 4 T. passerinoides Del. ex Desv. ( = T. tenuifolia Maire et Trabut). v. macrocarpa Ehrenb. T. macrocarpa (Ehrenb.) Bge): Shrub or small tree with purple -brown bark. Leaves scale-like but with free distinct blade, strongly auricled, spreading. Flowers broad, loose, 6-8 times as long as broad. Flowers large, pinkish, with obtuse sepals and persistent corolla. Stamens 10 or a little less, capsule up to 13 mm. long. N, E. 5 T. mannifera (Ehrenb.) Bge ( = T. nilotica (Ehrenb.) Bge v. desertorum Sickenb., T. maris mortui (Gutm.): Small tree or shrub, with red-brown stems. Leaves sessile. Inflorescence racemose, simple or compound, dense. Calyx 5, 1 mm. long; corolla ceduous 2 mm. long, stamens 5. N, E. Fam. 23. FRANKENIACEAE A. St. - Hil. 1 FRANKENIA L. Mostly halophytic herbs with opposite or clustered simple leaves about 1 cm. long. Flowers with tubular calyx of 4-6 united sepals and 4-6 small, rose-coloured petals. Anthers yellow. 1 F. pulverulenta L. : Small slender annual halophytic herb with forked branches. Leaves fleshy flat obovate. In salty places. NH, SH, NJ, E. 2 REAUMURIA Hasselq. ex. L. Small shrubs with fleshy linear-flattened or cylindrical leaves. Flowers terminal, solitary, white or pink at the ends of the short leafy branches. Seeds hairy. Vegetative plant easily confused with Suaeda. 1 R. hirtella Jaub. et Sp. : Herbaceous halophytic plant with hirsute stem and leaves, and white or pink flowers with purple anthers. The plant is covered with salt crystals during the daytime which help to absorb water at night. N.

Ochradenus aucheri

Order 10 CUCURB1TALES Fam. 24. CUCURBITACEAE A. Juss. A. Anther cells straight or slightly curved. 1 Disc at base of style distinctly developed, leaf cordate at base, denticulate 2 Disc at base of style indistinct. a. Stamens inserted at throat of calyx, prostrate herbs, leaves glabrous b. Stamens inserted in calyx tube with broadened connective, tendrils simple. Momordica 2 Melothria 1

*Stigma 1-lobed, ovules few **Stigma 3-5-lobed, ovules numerous ***Fruit ovoid or ellipsoid. Corolla bell-shaped, slightly cleft B. Anther cells curved or twisted, S-or U-Shaped. 1 Corolla campanulate, flowers monoecious, tendrils 2-or morecleft. 2 Corolla rotate.

Corallocarpus Cucumis

3 4



a. Male flowers in racemes. tendrils absent, leaves undivided, fruit ejecting seeds when ripe b Male flowers solitary, tendrils branched Ecbalium Citrullus 7 8

CUCURBITACEAE 1 MELOTHRIA L. Prostrate or climbing herb, scabrid with small white prickly hairs. Anther lobes normally straight. Disc at the base of the style distinctly developed. Leaf cordate at the base, denticulate. 1 M. maderaspatana (L.) Cogn. : Annual plant with lobed leaves subacute at the apex deeply cordate at the base, denticulate. SH. 4 CUCUMIS L. Annual or perennial, climbing or trailing hispid herbs with simple tendrils. Flowers yellow, 2 MOMORDICA (Tourn) L. Climbing or prostrate herbs with entire-lobed glabrous leaves. Tendrils simple or bifid. Flowers either small or may be rather large, white or yellow; calyx 5, corolla 5 rotate; stamens inserted at the throat of the calyx with the anther lobes straight or but slightly curved. Fruit fleshy or 3-valvular, disc at the base of the style, indistinct. 1 M. balsamina L. : Cultivated, herbaceous plant with subglabrous or villous leaves. Tendrils pubescent Bracts of male flowers inserted at the middle or near the base of the peduncle, entire. SH, S. 1.5-2 cm. long and 2 cm. broad, with acute lobes, unisexual, monoecious. Male flowers often clustered, female ones solitary. Stamens inserted in calyx tube, with broadened connective. Stigma 35-lobed, ovules numerous. Fruit fleshy, many seeded, ovoid or ellipsoid, spiny or prickly, tubercled, rarely smooth. Corolla 5-partite to the very base or of free petals. 1 C. prophetarum Jusl. ap. L. : Whitish1 C. veluntinus (Dalz.) Hook. f. : Stems

prostrate, scabrous, grooved, bent at the nodes. Leaves 3-5 cm. broad. Flowers dioecious. Fruit 1.2-1.8 cm. long, apiculate, pubescent, shortbeaked. Perennial. SH.

grey hispid perennial herb, with slender, elongated and much branched prostrate stems. Stem angular-sulcate (having deep, parallel furrows or grooves; grooved), rough, geniculate at the joints. Leaves cordate-ovate or palmately 3-5-lobed; lamina rigidulous with crisped whitish-grey scabrid margin, nerves very prominent and reticulate on the lower surface; petiole slender, fragile, very densely hirsute, 2-4 cm. long. Flowers monoecious, yellow with acute lobes; male flowers often clustered, female ones solitary, Fruit globose, puberulous, variegated, 3-4 cm. in diameter, with green longitudinal stripes alternating with white

3 CORALLOCARPUS Welw. ex Hook. f. Herbaceous plants with simple tendrils and yellow - green flowers. Stamens inserted in the calyx tube, with broadened connective; stigma 1-lobed; ovary with few ovules; disc at the base of the style indistinct. Fruit small, few-seeded, usually apiculate or beaked.


ones; fruit surface bare between the spines or tubercles; fruit prickles robust, rarely pointed, 1-3 mm. long; ripe fruit of uniform yellow colour; fruit stalk thin, up to 4 cm. long. Fruit many-seeded. NH, N, NJ, E. 2 C. ficifolius A. Rich. : Perennial plant with procumbent slender branched sulcate stems. Leaf divided at the base into 5 lobes. Male flowers usually solitary 0.5-1 cm. long, filaments 3 mm. long and anthers 2 mm. Fruit ovoid, 5 cm, long. SH.

ar anthers. Fruit fleshy, many-seeded; seeds flattened. 1 C. moschata Duchesne: Stems angled,

obtusely edged. Leaves green with blotches, lamina broad, deeply-lobed. Flower pedicel angled. Sepals lobed leaflet-like. Anthers 3 cm. long, straight. Fruit pedicel with wide edges at its connection with the fruit. SH.

ECBALIUM A. Rich Prostrate or ascending herbs without tendrils. Corolla broad, deeply 5-cleft. Leaves undivided. Male flowers in racemes. Anther cells curved or twisted. Fruit ejecting its seeds when ripe. 1 E. viride: Prostrate herb with undivided leaves. Tendrils absent. Seeds become ejected on ripening of fruit. S.

5 COCCINIA Wight et Arn. Dioecious plants. Corolla bell-shaped, slightly cleft, 1-3 cm. long; fruit of egg size. Leaves variable, from only toothed to deeply 3-5-cleft. 1 C. grandis (L.) J. O. Voigt: Both male and

female flowers solitary, white, 3 cm. long, with glabrous calyx. Fruit ellipsoid, green and whitemottled, turning scarlet when ripe. NH. SH. 8 CITRULLUS Schard. ex Eckl. et Zeyh. Leaves triangular in outline, deeply 3-5palmate- lobed with pinnately-cleft narrow segments. Petals small, 1.5 cm. long or less. Tendrils branched (simple in most other genera). Corolla rotate, male flowers solitary, anther cells curved or twisted. Fruit large globose, fleshy or dry, at least of apple size. 1 C. colocynthis (L.) Schrad. ( = Colocynthis vulgaris Schrad.): Prostrate perennial herbs, very scabrid, grey, with long trailing branches. Stem angular, very much branched, covered with adpressed coarse hairs. Leaves narrowlytriangular, 5-12 cm. long, deeply 3-7-lobed; lobes lobulated or incised, with rounded sinuses. Tendrils branched. Flowers small, greenish-yellow. Receptacle broadly campanulate, covered with white hispid hairs. Calyx with subulate sepals,

6 CUCURBIT A (Tourn.) L. Annuals with bifid or multifid tendrils. Leaves simple or lobed, cordate at the base. Flowers large, yellow to orange-coloured, monoecious, solitary. Calyx 5, corolla 5, campanulate, stamens 3 with line-

Cucumis prophetarum

Citrullus colocynthis

Coccinia grandis

TILIACEAE recurved at the apex. Corolla with acute and mucronate lobes. Young fruits fleshy, globular, mottled with dark-green, turning dry and yellow when ripe, 10 cm. in diameter Fruit extremely bitter. Seeds smooth, shining. The pulp of the fruit is an official, drastic cathartic. In sandy deserts, suffers from winter cold, but recovers again in summer. NH, SH, N, S, NJ, NF, E, R. Stamens numerous. Ovary of 5-2 locules. Fruit a siliquose capsule, opening from above into 5-2 valves. 1 C. olitorius L. : Annual plant, 30-60 cm. high, glabrous except petioles, with erect, branched, slender stems. Leaves petioled, lanceolate serrate acute or acuminate, 4-12 cm. long, Order 11. MALVALES Fam. 25. TILIACEAE A. Juss. A. Herbs or undershrubs. 1 Anthers rounded, fruit spiny 2Anthers not rounded, fruit not spiny B. Shrubs or trees, fruit fleshy 1 TRIUMFETTA L. Shrubby plants with yellow flowers arranged in terminal spike-like racemes. Leaves serrate, entire or lobed, palmate-nerved. Fruit small prickly. 1 T. flavescens Hochst. ex A. Rich. : Shrub of yellow-green aspect. Stem dark red, hairy, covered with black dots. Leaves rounded, irregularly toothed, densely canescent, with long petioles. Fruit ovoid, 1roomed, 1-seeded. NJ. 3 C. depressus (L.) christens. ( = C. antichorus Raeusch.) : Mat-shaped perennial herb with thick tortuose branches. Leaves small, petioled, rounded- ovate, with serrate margins. Flowers 4-fid with 4 stamens (in the other species 5-fid with 5 stamens). Fruit short, sometimes slightly curved, almost awl- shaped, opening by apical 2 CORCHORUS L. Undershrubs or herbs, with stellate hairs. Leaves pinnate-nerved, serrate, with filiform tails at the base of the blade. Stipules filiform. Flowers small, yellow. teeth extending downward to form valves on ripening. SH, NH, S, E, NJe. Corchorus 2 Grewia 3 Triumfetta 1 often with 2 aristate teeth at the base of the blade; petiole 2-3 cm. long, stipules linear. Peduncles 12-flowered. Flowers yellow, about 6 mm. long; sepals 5, petals 5, stamens numerous, carpels 5 united, with a 5-locular ovary. Capsule oblong, 46 cm. long and about 3 mm. across, with 10 ridges, abruptly narrowed to a terminal beak, usually 5-valved. Weed of cultivated land. SH. 2 C. tridens L. : Annual, usually erect,

glabrous except petiole. Leaves serrate lanceolate. Fruit narrow, 2.5-3.5 cm. long with 3 spreading teeth at the tip. NH, SH.

Corchorus olitorius

Corchorus tridens

Corchorus tridens

Corchorus depressus

Corchorus depressus

Corchorus trilocularis

4 C. trilocularis L. : Annual erect herb with pubescent stems. Capsule long, slender, 5-8 cm., beaked, 3-valved. SH. 4 G. occidentalis L. : Puberulent shrub. Leaves broad-ovate, serrate, with rounded base. NH. 5 G. tembensis Fres. ( = G. occidentalis Br. & Mass., non L.): Shrub or small tree. Leaves 3 GREWIA L. Shrubs with palmate-nerved and solitary flowers in the leaf axils. Fruit fleshy, being a deeply 4-lobed glossy drupe of about pea size, rarely larger, globose. Leaves 7-3-nerved at the base. Carpels 4-2, with unicellular ovary. 1 G. mollis Juss. : Shrub or tree up to 6 m. high, bark black, rough, deeply fissured; twigs flattened often drying purplish. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, unequal, rounded at the base palegreen above. Peduncles 1-3 in the leaf axils, each with 2-3 yellow flowers. Fruit black when ripe, globose, of the size of a small pea. NH, SH, S. 2 G. tenax (Forssk.) Fiori ( = G. betulaefolia A. Juss., G. populifoliu Vahl): Glabrous or pubescent shrub. Leaves small ovate, up to 3.5 cm. long, much variable in shape; base rounded-cordate, margin toothed. Flowers white; fruit orange-coloured drupe. 3 G. floribunda Mast. : Shrub or small tree. Leaves obovate to oblong-lanceolate, apex acuminate, base rounded, undulate, serrate, surface smooth. Flowers greenish-white in much branched loose terminal cymes. Fruit of the size of a small cherry, 4locular. SH. ovate, 5-7 cm. long, acute, sparingly crenateserrate, glabrous. Flowers 3-4 together in umbellike cymes terminating the branches, white with the sepals mauve inside. SH.

Grewia tenax

Grewia mollis


Fam. 26. MALVACEAEA Juss. A. Fruit splitting into mericarps. 1 Mericarps winged 2 Not so. a. Carpels with 1 ovule. *Epicalyx absent **Epicalyx present. +Epicalyx of 3.free bracteoles + +Epicalyx 6-9-cleft, corolla 5 mm. long + + +Corolla much larger b. Carpels with 3 or more ovules, epicalyx absent B. Fruit capsular. 1 Calyx black-dotted, staminal column dentate 2 Not so. a. Epicalyx numerous b. Epicalyx 3 Hibiscus Gossypium 8 9 Cienfuegosia 7 Malva Althaea Alcea Abutilon 3 4



1 PAVONIA Cav. Leaves cordate, undivided or lobed. Flowers pink, with an epicalyx of 10 capillary ciliated lobes twice as long as the calyx. Fruit of 5 carpels, mericarps winged. 1 P. triloba Guill, & Perr. : Perennial herbs with hispid branches from a woody basal part, 30-45 cm. high. Leaves trilobed. Leaf up to 25 cm. long, densely stellate-hairy beneath. Flowers rose-or orange- coloured, solitary, long-peduncled. Carpels pubescent not reticulate (no images found in the web).


2 SIDA L. Herbs or shrubs with ovate, crenate or serrate leaves and small, yellow to orange flowers. Calyx 5-cleft, epicalyx absent. Fruit 3-4 mm. broad, splitting into mericarps; carpels 1-ovuled. 1 S. alba L. ( = S. spinosa L., partly): Perennial-erect herb. Leaves simple, petiolate, alternate, lanceolate; petioles long with a small hooked tubercle at

MALVACEAEA the base. Leaves beneath with a dense, short, stellate indumentum. Carpels with 2 awns. Fruit consisting of 5 carpels. SH. 5 ALCEA L. 3 MALVA L. Herbaceous plants with palmately lobed leaves and purple, pink or white flowers. Epicalyx present, of 3 free units. Fruit schizocarpic, flattened, circular in outline, with numerous radiating carpels, each with one seed; splitting into mericarps. 1 M. parviflora L. : Small annual procumbent herb with palmatifid (shallow-lobed) leaves, with the lobes obtuse. Flowers small, pale purplish, clustered in the leaf axils. Fruit rugose. NH, N, NJe, NJw, E, NF, R. 2 M. aegyptia L. : Small, erect annual plant with the leaves orbicular bipalmatepartite (deep-lobed) into narrow linear lobes. Epicalyx present, calyx lobes triangular, corolla rose coloured, not longer than calyx. NJ,E. 4 ALTHAEA L. Hairy herbs with the aspect of Malva. Leaves palmate-parted or lobed. Flowers small, purple, pink or white, rarely yellow, with an epicalyx of 6-9 lobes, mostly as long as the calyx. Corolla 5 mm. long. Fruit schizocarpic, splitting into 1-celled, 1-seeded mericarps. 1 A. ludwigii L. : Annual, hirsute, prostrate 6 ABUTILON Mill. Annuals or perennials with ovate-cordate leaves. Flowers big, yellow, sometimes purple. Epicalyx absent, calyx 5-cleft, carpals numerous, united, whorl- ed, 2-or more-seeded. Fruit at least 10 mm. broad, splitting into mericarps at maturity. 1 A. pannosum (Forst. f.) Schlecht. ( = A. Hairy plants looking like Mulva. Leaves palmate- cleft. Flowers purple, pink, white, rarely yellow, with an epicalyx of 6-9 lobes, mostly as long as calyx. Fruit of numerous free carpels. 1 A. acaulis (Cav.) Alef. ( = Althaea acaulis Cav.): Grey-tomentose, stemless or shortstemmed perennial herb with crowded, rosecoloured flowers. Leaves long-petioled, kidneyshaped, usually crowded. Calyx with elevated parallel nerves. Carpels glabrous, rugose. SH. small, hirsute, whitish-blue, crowded in the leaf axils. Calyx villous, with the outer lobes linear. NJ.

glaucum Br. & Mass., non Sweet, A. muticum (Del.) Webb): Herb or shrub 1-2 m. high, yellowgreen, dense velvety canescent. Leaves ovatecordate, acute, dentate. Flowers large, usually in pairs, axillary on long pedicels, yellow with purple center. Carpels 25-30, each 2-3- ovuled,

perennial herb, with small, alternate, deeply palmatelobed or parted leaves, and clustered hairs. Flowers

Sida alba

Sida alba

Malva parviflora

Abutilon pannosum

Abutilon bidentatum

Malva aegyptia

Althaea ludwigii

Althaea ludwigii

Althaea ludwigii

MALVACEAEA rounded at the apex; epicalyx absent. Fruit sachizocarpic, splitting into mericarps at maturity. NH, SH, S, E. 2 A. bidentatum Hochst. : Erect shrub with 7 CIENFUEGOSIA Cav. Shrubs or shrublets. Leaves entire or lobed, rarely partite. Flowers yellow, bracteoles 3, staminal column dentate below the truncate apex; calyx black-dotted. Ovary 3-4-locular; style clavate at the apex. Fruit a capsule. 1 C. welshii : A shrubby plant with dentate staminal column, black-dotted calyx, plurilocular ovary, clavate style at the apex and a capsular 3 A. fruticosum Guill & Perr. ( = A. fruit. NH, S. denticulatum R. Br.) : Shrubby canescent plant, bluegreen in colour, thinly velvety. Leaves ovate-cordate, much varying in size with slightly crenate or entire margin. Peduncle axillary, longer than the petiole, one-flowered. Flowers small, yellow. Ripe carpels acuminate, acute at the apex. Fruit carpels 8-10, truncate, connate, not separable from the central axis, tomentose, 2-3 seeded. NH, SH, S. 4 A. figarianum Webb. ( = A. graveolens Br. & Mass., non Wight & Arn.) : Shrubby plant 1-2 m. high, with a zigzag-branched stem. Leaves up to 16 cm. long and 8 cm. broad, with the petiole as long as the blade, ovate-cordate, acute at the apex, stellate hairy, crenate-margined. Flowers axillary, solitary or paired. Carpels of the fruit 3-seeded. SH. S. 5 A. hirtum Don. : Leaves ovate-cordate, velvety, grey, with long hairy petiole, acute apex and 8 HIBISCUS L. Shrubs or herbs with undivided or palmatelylobed leaves. Flowers pink or yellow. Epicalyx shorter than the calyx, of 5-12 segments. Fruit a capsule. 1 H. micranthus L.f. ( = H. ovalifolius (Forssk.) Vahl) ): Undershrubs with small serrate undivided leaves. Corolla white, but pink in bud and during wilting. Petals oblong, 3 times as long as the sepals. Capsule small, glabrous, with a white base, 3-4 times the length of the calyx. Seeds cottony. NH, SH, NJe, E. 2 H. vitifolius L. : Villous plant 1-2 m. high, undershrub, with long-petioled round-cordate, slightly-lobed leaves, the lobes being serratemargined. Flowers yellow with purple base, solislender tomentose branches. Leaves ovate-cordate, acute, denticulate, somewhat pilose. Flowers small, in small axillary panicles with peduncles longer than the leaf petioles. Carpels 16-20. bidentate; ripe carpels acuminate, acute at the apex, each carpel 3seeded. Epicalyx absent, fruit schizocarpic, splitting into mericarps. NH. toothed margin. Flowers yellow, solitary, axillary, long- peduncled.

MALVACEAEA-OXALIDACEAE tary, up to 5 cm. long. Epicalyx of capillary lobes. Fruit a capsule with 5 leafy wings. NH, SH, N, NJc, S. petals 5, stamens 10, slightly united at the base. Ovary inferior, 5-celled; styles 5. Fruit a capsule densely hairy, dehiscing longitudinally at maturity, cylindrical, 1-1.8 cm. long. In shady moist lo9 GOSSYPIUM L. Shrubs with petiolate, palmately-lobed leaves and solitary yellow flowers in the leaf axils. Epicalyx of 3 large leaf-like segments, much longer than the calyx. Fruit a loculicidal capsule with numerous hairy seeds. 1 G. arboreum L. ( = G. obtusifolium Roxb., G. nanking Meyen, G. indicum Lam.) : Shrubs of variable size, up to 3 m. high. Leaves palmately 5-7lobed. Epicalyx segments longer than broad, exceeding the calyx itself, with 3-4 apical teeth. Corolla pale yellow, with or without purplish blotches, to red with darker center. NH, SH, NJe, E. calities. SH, NJ, E, S.


Fam. 27. OXALIDACEAE R. Br. 1 OXALIS L. Herbs with digitate trifoliate stipulate leaves. Sepals persistent, stamens 10 in 2 whorls, the outer shorter than the inner. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. 1 O. corniculata L. : Perennials with creeping

stems rooting at the nodes. Leaves alternate, with long petioles about 5 cm. Leaflets 3, obcordate, 5-10 mm. long, sessile; stipules small. Flowers several, umbellate, yellow, about 1 cm. in diameter. Sepals 5,

Abutilon fruticosum

Abutilon fruticosum

Abutilon fruticosum

Hibiscus vitifolius

Hibiscus vitifolius

Gossypium arboreum

Hibiscus micranthus

Oxalis corniculata


A. Stamens 15, all fertile B. Stamens 10. 1 Fertile stamens 5, petals entire, beak of carpel spirally coiled 2 Fertile stamens 7, posterior sepal produced into a spur adnate to the pedicel 3 Fertile stamens 10, petals notched

Monsonia Erodium Pelargonium Geranium

1 2 3 4

MONSONIA L. Annual or perennial herbs resembling Erodium in general aspect. Petals undivided, soon deciduous, stamens 15 bearing anthers united in 5 bundles. Calyx in fruiting stage widened above (obconical). Carpels indehiscent, styles hairy rolling up at maturity. Leaves pinnate-nerved. 3 M. densiflora Tackh. et Boulos : Erect, 1 M. nivea (Decne) Decne ex Webb: Perennial herb, 15-25 cm. high, small and silvery-canescent. Leaves pinnate-nerved, narrow, ovate-oblong, plicate or deeply impressed-nerved forming a dense basal rosette. Peduncles naked, arising from the rosette and bearing 2-6 flowers. Petals flesh-coloured, obovate; stamens 15, all fertile; sepals short-cuspidate. Fruit with a plumose beak 4 cm. long. In sandy desert places. SH, NJ, NF, S, E. 2 M. heliotropoides (Cav.) Boiss. : Perennial erect grey herb up to 40 cm. high. Stem welldeveloped, leafy in the lower half, villous. Leaves long-petioled, narrow, up to 15 mm. broad and 30 2 ERODIUM L'Her. Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves pinnatenerved. Peduncles usually umbelled at apex. Flowers regular, pentamerous. Stamens 5 fertile, villous, perennial herb, up to 40 cm. long. Leaves 20-35 mm. long and broad, slightly cordate, sharply denticulate, not or shallowly lobed, pinnate-nerved. Inflorescence 20-flowered or more, with the flowers and their supporting bracts aggregated in a head-like structure. Fruit calyx 7 mm. long, sepals with a dark, 1 mm. long aristate point. NJ. mm. or more long, Peduncle several-flowered, stiff, slender, up to 40 cm. long. Fruit beak plumose hairy, 30-35 mm. long. Sepals short cuspidate. NH, S.

GERANIACEAE alternating with 5 staminodes. Fruit a capsule splitting spirally at maturity, beaked. Petals entire, beak of carpel spirally coiled at maturity of fruit. 1 E. cicutarium (L.) L'Her. in Aiton: Annual, canescent, often glandular herb, 20-40 cm. high. Leaves compound pinnate, each with several pairs of narrow finely-dissected leaflets. Sepals ending in a fine bristle, petals small, purple shorter than or equal to the calyx, the upper 2 larger than the rest and often spotted basally with a black patch. Pedicels long, up to 5 times as long as the flowers. Beak 5 cm. long, bursting from below in mature fruit into 5 slightly bristly valves, with the central column present. N, NJe, E, R. 2 E. ciconium (L.) L'Her. in Aiton : A l o n g 5 E. hirtum (Forssk.) Willd. ( = Geranium hirtum Forssk., non Burm. f.) : Perennial, glabrous or grey- hirsute herb with tuberous roots. Leaves triangular in general outline, bipinnatisect, slightly puberulent or densely white hispid by spreading white hairs. Flowers purple with blackish-purple base. Beak 8 cm. long, bursting from the top into 5 plumose valves, central column lacking. NJ. 6 E. bryoniaefolium subsp. Boiss. ( = E. lons. Leaves entire, bluish-green, oblong, crenate or lobed towards the base. Petals up to 15 mm. long, longer than the calyx. Bracts minute; white scarious; calyx about 5 mm. long. Beak bursting from the top into 5 plumose valves; central column lacking. N. NJe, E.

beaked, densely glandular, annual herb, 10-40 cm. high pubescent. Leaves bipinnatpartite into narrow segments, with the rachis winged, dentate. Petals mauve; obovate. Beak 10-12 cm. long, bursting from below into 5 slightly bristly valves, central column present. E. 3 E. subtrilobum Jord. ( = E. malocoides v. ribifolium Brumhard pp., E. aegyptiacum (Boiss.) Tackh.) : A small annual herb with long-petioled rosetted leaves, varying from simple unlobed to deeply pinnatifid. The plant is covered with erect or diffuse short spreading hairs. Sepals end in a long mucro; petals lilac. Beak narrow, slender 25-45 mm. long. NH, SH, S. 4 E. glaucophyllum (L.) Aiton. : Procumbent, glabrous perennial plant, 30-50 cm. high, glaucous with thick root, often sending out long creeping sto-




Schonbeck-Temery): Prostrate herb with small, entire, trilobed or 3-parted grey-canescent leaves. Flowers small, rose-coloured; beak up to 12 cm. long bursting from the top into 5 plumose valves, central column lacking. Petals 6 mm. long hardly exceeding the calyx. NH, N, E. 7 E. laciniatum (Cav.) Willd. ( = E. triangulare (Forssk.) Muschl., nomen dubium): procumbent annual herb, 30-50 cm. high, with hairy stems, leaves and petioles. Leaves simple cordate ovate or 3-lobed below, but pinnatisect or

GERANIACEAE parted above. Differs from other species in having only 2 bracts below the umbel. Petals purple. Beak narrow, slender, 4-8 cm. long, Bracts and pedicels glabrous. NF, NJ, N. 8 E. moschatum (L.) L'Her. in Aiton : Annual herb with compound pinnate leaves. Leaflets broad ovate doubly serrate Sepals ending in a stout mucro: petals pink, equal to or longer than the calyx, filaments with teeth at the base. Beak bursting from below into slightly bristly valves; central column present. NJ, E. 9 E. pulverulentum (Cav.) Willd. ( = E. laciniatum v. pulverulentum Boiss. and subsp. pulverulentum (Cav.) Burtt & Lewis): A small annual herb with a greyish- green aspect due to covering of the plant by a fine dense indumentum. Bracts small, hairy, always more than 2. Leaves grey pubescent, simple though sometimes deeply laciniate. Beak narrow, slender. Bracts and pedicels hairy, Sepals with very short or no mucro. Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubby at the base. Leaves palmate-cleft, palmate-nerved. Peduncles 1-or 2-flowered. Flowers regular, with equal sepals. Glands 5, alternating with the petals. Stamens 10, generally all fertile and antherbearing. 1 G. favosum Hochst. ex A. Rich. : Leaves 4 GERANIUM L. 1 P. zonale Ait : Cultivated, ornamental

sweet- scented plant, up to 50 cm. high.

more or less deeply 5-lobed, with pinnatifid segments. Peduncles short, petals tubercled on one side. Annual. SH.

3 PELARGONIUM L'He'rit. Perennial herbs with irregular flowers. Sepals connate, the posterior produced into a spur adnate to the pedicel. Petals 5, or by abortion fewer, the upper pair unlike the lower. Stamens 10, seven fertile and three sterile, connate at the base. Styles elastically coiled at maturity from base to apex.

Monsonia nivea

Monsonia heliotropioides

Erodium cicutarium

Erodium cicutarium

Erodium ciconium

Erodium glaucophyllum

Erodium pulverulentum

Erodium laciniatum

Erodium moschatum

Erodium hirtum

A. Leaves alternate, irregularly cleft, flowers large B. Leaves opposite. 1 Stipules usually spiny 2 Not so. a. Stems prostrate. *Leaves pinnate **Leaves trifoliate b. Stems erect, rarely prostrate, leaf 1-or 2-foliate Tribulus Seetzenia 3 4 Fagonia 2 Peganum 1

Zygophyllum 5

1 PEGANUM L. Herbs with alternate leaves, deeply and irregularly divided into narrow linear segments. Stems numerous, herbaceous, forked corymbose, from a shrubby base. Flowers terminal , large, white, bisexual; sepals 5-4, petals 5-4, stamens 15-12, ovary 4- to 3-locular, ovules numerous. Fruit a capsule with angular seeds. 1 P. harmala L. : A glabrous glaucous under-

celled with numerous ovules in each cell. Fruit a 3-valved loculicidal spherical capsule, 6-7 (up to 10) mm. in diameter. Seeds angular, with a spongy shell. Style triangular. On sandy desert soil. N, NH, NJe, E.

2 FAGONIA L. Much branched annual herbs, or perennials woody at the base, pubescent to glabrous. Leaves often opposite, stalked, tri-or unifoliated; leaflets entire, mucronate; stipules conspicuous, usually spiny. Flowers solitary, rose or violet, rarely yellowish, pentamerous; sepals deciduous, petals clawed caducous, stamens 10, without appendages; ovary 5-locular, with 2 ovules in each locule. Fruit a pyramidal, 5- carpelled capsule splitting into 5 one-seeded valves. Seeds flat, oblong. 1 F. bruguieri DC. : Pale green , procumbent, pubescent, 20-30 cm. high perennial plant, with short internodes and numerous, 1.2-1.5 cm.

shrub 50-100 cm. high. Branches numerous, ascending, herbaceous, ramifying in corymbs from a woody base. Leaves 5-8 cm. long, 3-4 cm. broad, irregularly dissected into acute linear lobes; stipules very small, 3-4 mm. long, needle-like, setaceous. Flowers terminal on the branches, white, large. Calyx 5- parted, persistent open in bud, with the sepals narrow, linear, often dentate, as long as the petals, 10-12 mm. long. Petals 5, imbricated, white, oblong-elliptical. Stamens 12-15, inserted at the base to a short dilated disc, together with the petals. Ovary globular, 3-4-


long spines. Lower leaves tri-, upper unifoliate, spines longer than the leaves. Leaflets flat, 8 mm. long. Internodes 4-angled. Flowers small, 8 mm. across. Pedicel shorter than the capsule. Petals palepink, about 5 mm. long. Capsule up to 4 mm. across, calyx persistent. NH, NJ, E, NF. 2 F. glutinosa Del. : Prostrate glandular hairy, pale-green viscid perennial desert plant, densely covered with adherent sand. Internodes long, slender, terete and striate. All leaves trifoliate, short-petioled; spines shorter than the leaves. Petioles as long as or shorter than the central leaflet. Leaflets obtuse, ovate - rhomboid or oblong, 5-8 mm. long. Flowers small, about 8 mm. across. Capsule 5 mm. long and broad, densely hairy with persistent calyx Peduncle shorter than the capsule. N, NH, NJe, E, NF. 3 F. mollis Del. (= F. grandiflora Boiss.): Yellowgreen glandular, prostrate mat-shaped plant of sandy deserts, glabrous or sparingly hairy. Internodes long, 4 -angled, grooved. Spines spreading nearly as long as the internodes. Leaves short-petioled; petiole nearly as long as the central leaflet. All leaves trifoliate; spines equal to or shorter than the leaves. Leaflets over 5 mm. long. Flowers large, rose-coloured, over 15 mm. across; petals 1 cm. long. Capsule 5 mm. long and broad slightly hairy, with deciduous calyx. Peduncle as long as capsule. NJe, E. 4 F. indica Burm. f. ( = F. parviflora Boiss.) : Slender, erect, pale-green glabrous plant with elon-

gated striate terete internodes and whitish-green, slightly swollen, nodes; only young parts being pruinose and glandular. Leaves simple (unifoliate), narrow oblong-linear, acute shortpetioled with a joint between petiole and blade. Flowers up to 12 mm. across. Capsule 4 mm. in length and breadth, with persistent calyx. Fruitpeduncle longer than capsule, slender, reflexed. NH, S, NJ. 5 F. cretica L. : Dark green, glabrous prostrate perennial plant, 20-30 cm. high, with small spines and brittle branches. Internodes 4angled, furrowed. Leaves all trifoliate, shortpetioled, petiole being as long as or shorter than the central leaflet. Leaflets linear-lanceolate, acute. Flowers larger than in other species, up to 2 cm. across, purple. Capsule 6-7 mm. long, 10 mm. broad, glabrous. Fruit peduncle shorter than the capsule. Calyx deciduous. NJe, E. 6 F. arabica L. : Erect glandular-pubescent dark- green shrub, densely spiny. Stems terete, striate. Lower leaves trifoliate, upper simple unifoliate. Spines longer than the leaves and welldeveloped. Leaflets flat. Flowers up to 15 mm. in diameter. Capsule 3-5 mm. long, 5-7 mm. broad, with the calyx deciduous. NJe, E. 7 F. olivieri DC. : Erect green-frutescent glabrous plant reaching a considerable height of up to 70 cm. All leaves (upper and lower) simple and unifoliate. Internodes quadrangular and sul-


cate. Leaves sessile or short-petioled, with ovatelanceolate blade of acute apex. Fruit a capsule, 5 mm. in both lengthen breadth, with persistent calyx. Fruit peduncle shorter than capsule. NH, SH.

3-6 mm. long, Stamens 10; ovary hirsute; stigma pyramidal nearly sessile. Carpels appressed-hairy or canescent. Flowers and fruits over 10 mm. across. Fruitlets spiny on the sides, with 4 prominent spines, more or less crested dorsally. v. inermis Boiss. : Fruitlets unarmed, only

3 TRIBULUS L. Silk-hairy herbs with prostrate stems. Leaves opposite, compound paripinnate, usually one of each pair smaller than the other, stipules lanceolate. Flowers bisexual, solitary with 5-fid perianth; sepals 5, petals 5, usually yellowish, deciduous, stamens 5-10 ovary 4-to 5-locular. Fruit dry, splitting at maturity into 4-5 hard indehiscent fruitlets bearing wings, spines or tubercles. 1 T. longipetalus Viv. ( = T. alatus Del. nom. nud.) : Appressed canescent soft-hairy annual herb, green or greyish. Flowers yellowish, 10-12 mm. across; petals obovate-oblong, carpels hairy with warty back, bordered at either side by a wing cut into triangular spiny-tipped teeth. Fruit discoid, pubescent. Fruitlets winged, wings toothed, 2-4 mm. broad, forming a few spinescent teeth as broad as the wings. NH, S, NJe. 2 T. terrestris L. : Annual procumbent herb, appressed-pubescent or canescent-silky. Leaves opposite, compound paripinnate, sometimes alternate; petioles bearing 4-6 pairs of leaflets which are pubescent or silky on the two surfaces. Flowers arising at the nodes of the sympodial stem axis, with pedicels much shorter than the leaves. Sepals lanceolate, shorter than the petals. Petals yellow, oblong, sessile

covered with short conical tubercles. 3 T. pterocarpus Ehrenb. ex Koern. : Greyhispid prostrate annual herb completely covered with short hairs. Flowers white, 12-15 mm. in diameter. Fruit globose-ovoid, 8 mm. in diameter. Fruitlets winged, with the wings entire and broader than the carpels. NH.

4 SEETZENIA R. Br. Prostrate herbs with brittle branches, glabrous or woolly at the nodes. Leaves opposite, 3-foliate, stipulate, with the stipules unarmed and the leaflets obovate. Flowers solitary, axillary. Sepals 5 fleshy persisting as 5 green stripes around the yellow ovoid capsule. Petals absent, stamens 5, ovary 5-locular, 5-sided, styles 5. Fruit an ovoid capsule breaking into 5 one-seeded cocci. 1 S. lanata (Willd.) Bullock ( = S. orientalis Decne) : Perennial prostrate glabrous and slender herb, 20-30 cm. high. Branches herbaceous. Leaflets 3, longer than the petiole, fleshy, 4 mm. long, apiculate, the terminal longer obovate. Stipules triangular, unarmed. Peduncles solitary, longer than the petiole. Sepals fleshy persistent as 5


green stripes round the yellow globular fruit. Petals wanting. Capsule yellow glossy. SH, E. NJ.

3 Z. decumbens Del. : Low shrubs with prostrate branches. Leaves compound bifoliate, with fleshy, flattened, broadly obovate leaflets. Flowers small, white, Capsule pear-shaped, small, up to 10 mm. long, deeply 5-parted. N, NH, NJe. 4 Z. coccineum L. : Desert shrub up to 75 cm. high, green, glabrous. Leaves compound, with a pair of bright green glabrous cylindrical fleshy leaflets at least 10 mm. long, terminating a slightly longer terete fleshy petiole. Capsule clubshaped, 5-angled, 8-10 mm. long, with obtuse apex. NH, SH, N, S, NJw, E. 5 Z. gaetulum Emb. et Maire : Shrubs up to 70 cm. high, with pale branches. Leaves simple with swollen, oval-globular blade 8 mm. in diameter; petiole cylindrical. Flowers small, axillary, 1 cm. long, corolla whitish-yellow. Fruit oblong capsule, 1-1.2 cm. long, short stalked, opening by teeth from above. E, N.

5 ZYGOPHYLLUM L. Perennial desert plants in the form of shrublets, rarely annuals, with fleshy branchlets and leaves. Leaves opposite, mostly 2-foliate, rarely simple, cylindrical or ovoid, rarely flattened, often stipulate. Flowers solitary or paired, terminal, white, pinkish or yellow. Stamens 8-10, with 1-2 scale-like appendages at the base of each filament. Fruit a 5-valved, angled or winged, capsule. 1 Z. album L.f. : Shrub with blue-green nearly pubescent leaves and branches. Leaves compound bifoliate grey; leaflets cylindrical, obovate, about 7 mm. long, shorter than the fleshy terete petiole. Flowers small, white. Peduncle shorter than flower and capsule. Capsule pear-shaped, 5-parted, at least 10 mm. long with a retuse apex. Cushion sandaccumulating plant of both desert and salt marsh habitats, frequently reaching a height of 1 m. or more. N, NH, SH, NJe, E. 2 Z. simplex L. ( = Z. portulacoides Forssk.) : Annual glabrous matty-prostrate herbaceous succulent plant, branching from the base. Leaves simple, cylindrical, sessile, 9-10 mm. long, fleshy, obtuse. Flowers yellow. Capsule minute, only 2 mm. in diameter, deeply 5-parted. N, NH, SH, S, NJ.

Fam. 30. BALANITACEAE Endl. 1 BALANITES Del. Shrubs or trees with axillary spines. Leaves alternate, compound (rarely simple), shortpetioled, with 2 coriaceous leaflets. Flowers small, greenish, bisexual, 5-fid in axillary

Peganum harmala

Zygophyllum gaetulum

Zygophyllum simplex

Zygophyllum album

Zygophyllum album

Zygophyllum decumbens

Zygophyllum fabago


corymbs. Fruit an edible green drupe, with a thick endocarp, turning yellow on ripening. 1 B. aegyptiaca (L.) Del. : From a small shrub

1 Corolla present in male flowers. a. Leaves woolly b. c. Leaves minute Chrozophora 2 Jatropha 3 Andrachne 4

up to a high tree. Branches yellow-green, finely pubescent, with thick, rigid, horizontally spreading thorns. SH.

Leaves digitately-lobed

2 Corolla absent in male flowers. a. Leaves large palmatelylobed b. Leaves small, entire Ricinus 5 Phyllanthus 6 Acalypha 7

Fam. 31. NITRARIACEAE Lindl. 1 NITRARIA L. Thorny shrubs, with simple fleshy leaves, alternate or in clusters, stipulate, entire or apically tridentate. Flowers small fragrant, whitish green, racemed, with 5-lobed calyx, 5 petals and 10-15 stamens. Ovary silky, sessile, 3-locular with 1 ovule in each locule. Fruit a somewhat conical, red, edible drupe, with a thin endocarp. 1 N. retusa (Forssk.) Asch. ( = N. tridentata Desf.): Desert shrub up to 3m. high, sandaccumulating and hummock-building. Leaves fleshy, wedge-shaped, entire, retuse or 3-5 dentate at apex, of bitter taste, glabrous or slightly pubescent. Flowers long-pedicelled. Especially common in salty places. NH, N, NJw, E.


Leaves moderate, ovoid

1 EUPHORBIA L. Herbs, shrubs or cactus-like plants with milky juice. Inflorescence a cyathium, i.e., a group of flowers with a cup-shaped, 4 to 8-lobed involucre usually bearing glands at the sinuses. In each cyathium there are numerous male flowers, each of only one stamen, around a solitary female flower of a single stalked ovary. Ovary 3-locular. The genus includes certain milky poisonous species. 1 E. dracunculoides Lam. : Slender, often

tall glabrous* unarmed erect annual herb with slender roots. Leaves narrow linear, entire, at least the lower ones alternate, exstipulate. Cyathia in umbels, with the pedicels longer than the cyathia. Umbel-rays only 2-3, up to 4 times forked. Seeds oblong up to 2.5 mm. long, dark brown to black,

Fam. 32. EUPHORBIACEAE A. Juss. A. Inflorescence cyathium, stamens ,1ovary 3Euphorbia 1

semi-circular in cross section, with roughly tubercled testa. Plants 10-40 cm. high. NJ 2 E. forsskalii G. Jay ( = E. aegyptiaca Boiss): Reddish green, prostrate, pubescent, un-

celled B.

Inflorescence not a cyathium.


armed annual herb up to 30 cm. high, with alternate branches. Leaves opposite, ovate-oblong, symmetric, stipuled, hairy on both sides, slightly toothed. Cyathia in axillary clusters of few flowers. Capsule adpressed hairy, up to 1.5 mm. across. Seeds rugose 0.9-1.5 mm. long, 4-angled in transverse section. SH. 3 E. helioscopia L. ( Tithymalus helioscopius (L.) Scop., Galarhoeus helioscopius (L.) Haw. ): Annual erect bright green weed branching from near the base. Leaves alternate, obovate or spathulate, exstipulate serrulate. Cyathia in umbels, with the pedicels longer than the cyathia. Umbel rays 4-5 in number, each 2-4 cm. long, once to twice divided. Seeds 1.5-2 mm. long with reticulate testa ( thick or hard outer coat of a seed). SH, NJ. 4 E. cuneata Vahl : A small non succulent tree up to 3 m. high, with horizontal spiny-tipped younger twigs; older branches being covered with bark. Leaves simple, small, alternate, entire, linear, obtuse, of Lycium shape in tufts along the branches. Cyathia in small umbels, terminal or lateral. Umbels 3- to 5rayed, each ray 5-15 mm. long. Capsule minutely tomentose, containing smooth brown seeds. SH, NH, E. 5 E. peplis L. : Annual, glabrous erect bright green herbs 20-30 cm. high, with but few branches at the base, and slender root. Leaves tender, entire, obovate, obtuse, alternate, 0.5-2.5 cm. long. Cyathia in umbels, with the pedicels longer than the cyathia.

Rays of umbels, several times forked. Carpels keeled (with 2 wing-like keels along the back). Capsule glabrous. Seeds pitted, 1.5-2 mm. long, prismatic ovoid, hexagonal in transverse section. Pits 3-5 in a regular row on each of the 4 dorsallateral faces. On each of the 2 ventral-lateral faces is found a characteristic longitudinal furrow. NH, SH, NJ, E. 6 E. arabica Hochst. & Steud. ex Boiss. : Glabrous non succulent with numerous slender branches developing from a thick woody base. Leaves opposite, narrowly linear, about 2 mm. broad, acute, entire stipulate. Cyathia in axillary groups of 2-3. Seeds red. NH, SH, S. 7 E. isthmia V. Tackh. : Perennial blue-green ascending desert herb up to 50 cm. high. Cauline leaves and floral bracts similar, all being linear to narrowly-lanceolate, 5-7 mm. broad, entire, apex truncate with few teeth. Arrangement of cauline leaves alternate All leaves exstipulate. Seeds 3.55 mm. long, with a caruncle of the same length, slightly cleft near the base. In sand plains. NJ. 8 E. terracina L. ( = E. provincialis Willd., E. alexandrina Del.): Perennial glabrous ascending herb, with ascending or procumbent branches arising from near the base, and woody roots. Leaves alternate, oblong to lanceolate, exstipulate, entire, retuse; floral leaves cordate. Cyathia in umbels, with the pedicels longer than the cyathium. Umbels terminal or lateral, with 3-5 rays,

Balanites aegyptiaca

Balanites aegyptiaca

Nitraria retusa

Euphorbia dracunculoides

Euphorbia dracunculoides

Euphorbia scordifolia

Euphorbia dracunculoides

Euphorbia helioscopia

Euphorbia cuneata

Euphorbia peplis

Euphorbia isthmia

Euphorbia terracina


repeatedly forked in each umbel. Capsule glabrous. Seeds ovoid, white mealy, 1.5-2.5 mm. long with a smooth testa; caruncle beak-shaped, yellow, borne on a short stalk. In sandy areas near the sea. SH. 9 E. granulata Forssk. : Grey, prostrate, velvety hairy, small annual herb. Leaves small, 2-5 mm. long, opposite, entire, obtuse, hairy on both faces. Cyathia in axillary racemes. Capsule small, hairy. Seeds rugulose 0.5-1.5 mm. long, 4-angled in transverse section. NH, NJe. 10 E. triaculeata Forssk. : Bushy leafless succulent undershrub, up to 0.5 m. high. Stems and branches up to 1.2 cm. across, usually angled with deep teeth- forming notches, each margined by a horny shield bearing a needle-like spine. Cymes of 3 involucres, small, solitary in the axils of the teeth. SH, S. 11 E. retusa Forssk.( = E. kuhirensis Raeusch, E. cornuta Pers.) : Perennial, erect, glabrous glaucescent, blue-green desert herb, 25-40 cm. high. Cauline leaves alternate, symmetrical, exstipulate, linear- lanceolate, with the apex typically 3-4 denticulate and the margin entire or obscurely dentate. Floral bracts broad cordate at the base, with the margin pectinate serrate. Cyathia in umbels; pedicels longer than cyathium. Glands concave, carpels rounded, capsule 6 mm. long. Seeds 2-2.5 cm. long, caruncle shorter than the seed, 2-4-lobed. NJ.

12 E. scordifolia Jacq. : Villous annual herb with a dense cover of hairs spreading all over the plant, and prostrate stems. Leaves opposite, stipuled, serrate, oblong to elliptic oblong, obtuse, hairy on both faces. Cyathia in axillary, fewflowered clusters. Capsule densely hairy, more than 1.5 mm. across. Seeds rugulose 0.5-1.5 mm. long. SH. 13 E. thi Schweinf. : Succulent leafless spiny shrub, with 5-6 angled stout branches, 2-5 cm. across. Leaves absent, spines stipular, in pairs. Cyathia arranged in peduncled cymes in the axils of spines. Capsule globose, glabrous. Seeds brown, tubercled, ellipsoid, somewhat angled. SH. 14 E. cyparissioides Pax: Herb up to 20 cm. high Stem reddish leafless below, green leafy above. Leaves dense, alternate, lanceolate, up to 3 cm. long and 8 mm. broad, simple, sessile, with entire margin and acute apex. Cyathia terminal. Flowering umbel-rays 2-5, twice or thrice bifid and subtended at the base by a whorl of 5 bracts. SH, S.

2 CHROZOPHORA Neck, ex A. Juss. Annual or perennial herbs or shrublets, hairy (covered with stellate indumentum). Inflorescence spike-like raceme, with numerous sessile male flowers in its upper part, and a few pedicelled female flowers in the lower part. Cyathia


absent. Stamens 4-15 of which the filaments are united into a tube. Ovary trilocular, with 1 ovule in each locule; styles 3, bifid. Fruit ovate globular with 3 cocci; capsule 3-loculed, with 1 seed in each locule. 1 C. plicata (Vahl) A. Juss. ex Spreng. : Densely woolly, annual or perennial prostrate plant, branched from the base. Leaves wrinkled, long-petioled, plicate with the base subcordate-ovate sometimes slightly 3-lobed. Capsule woolly, seeds smooth. Stamens about 15 in 3 whorls. NH, SH. 2 C. obliqua (Vahl) A. Juss. ex Spreng. ( = C. oblongifolia (Del.) A. Juss. ex Spreng.) : Perennial herbs, much various in appearance. Leaves varying from thin to thick woolly and from entire to sharply incised-dentate, obtuse or acute. Stamens 4-10 rarely up to 12 in 1-2 whorls. Capsule glabrous. Fruit pedicels elongated, reflexed; seeds scabrous-tubercled. NH, SH, N, NJe, E, R. 3 C. verbaseifolia (Willd.) A. Juss. ( = C. hierosolymitana Spreng.): Annual herb up to 30 cm. high. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, usually acute and obscurely dentate, woolly. Sepals and petals linear-lanceolate Stamens 4-5 (rarely 6-7) in 1-2 whorls. Fruit pedicels elongated reflexed. Capsule glabrous, scaly, tubercled. Seeds scabrous tubercled. NJe. 4 C. brocchiana Vis. : Densely woolly frutescent plant with small leaves. Capsules crowded, shortpedicelled, unlike all other species with long reflexed pedicel; glabrous, scaly, tuberous. Seeds smooth.

Fruit pedicels short, erect. Stamens 4-10, rarely 12, in 1-2 whorls. NJe, 3 JATROPHA L. Erect, glabrous undershrubs, with digitatelylobed leaves. Inflorescence compound cyme. Capsule rough, tubercled. 1 J. glauca Vahl ( = J. lobata Mull.-Arg.) : A frutescent plant about 30 cm. high. Leaves bluegreen large, long-petioled, 3-5-digitately lobed, lobes obovate or sub-orbicular, 3-6 cm. long, with serrate margin. Lobbing of leaves extends down to the middle or a little below. Stipules laciniate, hair-like, gland- tipped. Female flowers larger, and with a larger perianth than the male. Capsule pale, straw-coloured, glabrous, scaly, tuberous, 1 cm. long. Fruit pedicels short, erect. Seeds smooth. Stamens 4-10, rarely up to 12, in 1-2 whorls. SH. S 2 J. villosus (Forssk.) Mull.-Arg. : Leaves slightly smaller than in the preceding species. Leaves covered with smooth silky hairs. SH. S. 4 ANDRACHNE L. Prostrate delicate shrublets. Leaves minute, alternate, stipulate. Flowers small monoecious, female ones with small white petals. Calyx deeply 5-parted; petals membranous, shorter than the calyx, in female flowers minute. Disc furnished with


5 free glands on the petals. Male flower with 5 stamens. Ovary 3-loculed, each with 2 ovules. 1 A. aspera Spreng. : Blue-green scabrous perennial desert herb with long slender branches. Leaves membranous orbicular with notched apex, on capillary petioles. Flowers 3 mm. broad, 3-1 in leaf axils. Capsule depressed, hirsute. NH, S. 2 A. telephioides L. : Glabrous yellow-green glaucous densely leafy plant, 10-40 cm. high. Leaves somewhat fleshy, obovate-oblong with tapering base. Stem filiform, simple or branched. Stipules triangular, peltate. Flowers 3-1, in leaf axils. Sepals rhombic white-margined. Capsule glabrous. NH, S.

1 P. maderaspatensis L. : Densely branched small shrub. Flowering branches angular, almost winged. Leaves scattered, linear-lanceolate, varying considerably in size, up to 6 cm. long and 1012 mm. broad, but often much less. Capsule reddish. SH, NJe. 2 P. rotundifolius Klein ex Willd. : Annual dark green herb, with numerous rounded-obovate obtuse leaves, sessile or short-petioled and SH, NJe. arranged in 2 rows. Capsule green.

7 ACALYPHA L. Shrub with simple petiolate leaves. Bracts of female flower leaf-like. Inflorescence spicate.

5 RICINUS (Tourn.) L. 1 Shrubs with peltate, large, palmately-lobed leaves. Corolla absent in male flowers; stamens numerous, connate, Capsule spiny, of 3 bi-valved locules. 1 R. communis L. : Leaves palmately-lobed, A. fruticosa Forssk. : Shrub with ovoid leaves about 4 cm. long and 2.5 cm. broad, leafapex acute, and margin crenate-toothed; petiole 3 cm. long. Inflorescence axillary, spicate, greenish; flower7 mm. long. SH, S.

with 7-11 lobes, peltate, lobes dentate. Flowers in dense inflorescence, male and female ones in separate cymes, males below and females above. NJ, NF, SH, E, S.

6 PHYLLANTHUS L. Erect plants with small, entire, alternate leaves and erect stems. Petals absent. Monoecious plants. Male flowers destitute of a rudimentary ovary. Flowers small, axillary, Fruit black, fleshy.

Euphorbia granulata

Euphorbia triaculeata

Euphorbia hirta

Euphorbia retusa

Euphorbia cyparissioides

Chrozophora tinctoria

Phyllanthus maderaspatensis



Phyllanthus maderaspatensis

Chrozophora plicata

Andrachne aspera
Chrozophora brocchiana

Andrachne telephioides

Phyllanthus rotundifolius Fruits agregate at the back side. Alternate leaves.

Order 13. RUTALES

high, crisp-pubescent or glabrescent. Leaves tubercled, much variable in form, from narrowly linear to short obovate. Flowers bright yellow, 1 2 attractive, variable in size; sepals glabrous, petals 2-4.5 mm. long. Tubercular glands are also found on the stems. NH, NJ, N, SH, E.

Fam. 33. RUTACEAE A. Juss. A. Leaves pinnate Ruta B. Leaves simple or 3-parted Haplophyllum

1 RUTA (Tourn.) L. Strong-scented herbs with pinnate leaves and cymose inflorescence. Flowers bracted, yellow. 1 R. chalepensis L. : Tall perennial plant with woody base. Leaves oblong, bipinnatpartite into oblanceolate or obovate leaflets. Bracts lanceolate. Calyx lobes triangular acute, petals deeply fringed. SH, S. v. bracteosa : Strongly scented perennial herb, with pinnate leaves. Inflorescence compound cyme, with bracted yellow flowers. Bracts ovate, broader than the pedicel. Calyx 4-parted, petals 4, hooded, dentate or fringed, rarely entire.

2 HAPLOPHYLLUM A. Juss. emend. Reichenb. Perennial herbs, usually with woody bases and erect or divaricate stem. The plants are densely gladulartubercled, with unpleasant smell. Leaves simple, entire. Flowers corymbose, bracted and yellow. Sepals 5, petals 5, stamens 10, ovary 5-lobed. Fruit a glandular 5-celled capsule splitting inwardly at apex. 1 H. tuberculatum (Forssk.) A. Juss. ( = Ruta tuberculata Forssk., H. obovatum (Hochst.) ex Boiss.) Hand.-Mazz., H. longifolium Boiss.) : Perennial viscid, many-stemmed herb, much forked, 30-40 cm.


Order 14. SAPINDALES Fam. 37. ANACARDIACEAE R. Br. 1 RHUS L. Shrubs or small trees. Leaves simple, trifoliate, or compound pinnate. Flowers small, bisexual or polygamous. Calyx 5-fid, petals 5, spreading, stamens 5, stigmas 3. Branches twisted, spiny. Fruit a small flattened drupe, 1-many-seeded. 1 R. tripartita (Ucria) Grande ( = Rhamnus tripartita Ucria, Rhus oxyacantha auct., non Schousb. ex Cav., R. oxyacanthoides Dum. Cours.): Shrub with twisted spiny branches and trifoliate leaves. Leaflets sessile, obtuse, few-lobed, dentate from middle to apex, glabrous or with but scattered hairs. Panicles small, short, terminal with few green flowers. Flowers small, dioecious. Fruit a glabrous globose drupe pale green or red, of about pea-size. NH, SH.

and loose. Fruit obovate, obtuse, obliquely mucro - nate. NH, S.

Fam. 39. SAPINDACEAE A. Juss. 1 DODONAEA Mill. Shrubs or small trees with unisexual or polygamous flowers. Sepals 5, petals absent. Capsule small, flat, orbicular to obcordate, with 2-4 broad membranous wings. 1 D. viscosa Jacq. : Shrub or small tree, 2-4 m. high, with angular, viscid branches. Leaves linear oblanceolate, often glossy, subsessile with long-tapering base and obtusely apiculate apex. Flowers small, yellowish, in terminal panicles or racemes. NH, SH, S, NJe, E.

Fam. 38. PISTACIACEAE (Marchand) Caruel 1 PISTACIA L. Trees or shrubs with a terbinthine gum, glabrous pinnate leaves and axillary racemes or panicles. Branches fragrant of a gum resin. Flowers unisexual small, dioecious, apetalous, the male with 5-fid calyx and 5 stamens, the female with a 3-to 4-fid calyx. Fruit a 1-seeded drupe. P. palaestina Boiss. : Leaves with 5 to 7 pairs of leaflets, petiole crisp-puberulent. Leaflets ovate to oblong, acuminate, with hairy margin. Panicle long Fam. 40. CELASTRACEAE R. Br. 1 CATHA G. Don Shrubs or small trees. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, elliptic toothed, dark-green, shiny, petiolate. Inflorescence cyme. Flowers small white, anthers opening by 2 slits. Carpels 3 with 3 stigmas. Seeds with a white wing-like aril. Order 15. CELASTRALES

Ruta chalepensis

Haplophyllum tuberculatum

Haplophyllum tuberculatum

Rhus tripartita

Pistacia palaestina

Dodonaea viscosa

Catha edulis


1 C. edulis Forssk. : Leaves and tender shoots shewed; hypnotic. Cultivation now abandoned. SH, S.

bell- shaped, corolla twice as long as the calyx, with revolute lobes. NH, SH, S.

Fam. 41. SALVADORACEAE Lindl. A. Tree; fruit drupe B. Shrub; fruit berry Dobera 1


Salvadora 2

Fam. 42. RHAMNACEAE A. Juss. A. Leaf 3-nerved, stipules spiny Ziziphus 1 Rhamnus 2 B. Not so

1 DOBERA Juss. Large tree with polygamous flowers on erect pancles, rachis white tomentose, fruit a drupe. 1 D. glabra (Forssk.) R. Br. : Tree with the branches finely pubescent upwards. Leaves coraceous, variable in shape, ovate to obovate, 5-7 cm. long glabrous above when mature, whitish pubescent below. Flowers in erect panicles. Drupe ellipsoid, 1.5 cm. long. SH, S. 2 SALVADORA L. Glaucous shrubs with opposite simple, entire, petioled leaves with pointed apex, ovate-oblong. Flowers minute tetramerous, unisexual, dioecious in axillary and terminal panicles. Ovary 1-loculed, 1- ovuled. Fruit a small white or purplish globose berry with pungent taste, like the leaves. 1 S. persica L. : Glabrous trees or shrubs with white branches. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, acute, entire, coriaceous, oblong, 5-8 cm. long, glabrous. Racemes forming a spike-like panicle. Calyx

1 ZIZIPHUS Mill. Trees or shrubs with 2-ranked simple alternate, ovate leathery leaves, with 3 almost parallel nerves and usually thorny stipules. Flowers bisexual, in axillary clusters. Calyx 5-fid, rotate, petals 5, stamens 5. Fruit an edible drupe of yellow to brown-red colour. 1 Z. spina-christi (L.) Willd. : Shrubs or

trees with white glabrous branches. Leaves glabrous or slightly pubescent on the under surface, ovate, 2-3 cm. long, 3-nerved. Stipules spiny. Fruit edible drupe of cherry size, globular. NJ, NH, SH, N, S, NF, E, R.


2 RHAMNUS L. Shrubs with spinescent twigs and monoecious unisexual flowers. Leaves elliptical or narrow spa- thulate. Calyx with deciduous teeth, petals inserted at margin of receptacle or absent. Disc thin lining the receptacle. Fruit a small green drupe. 1 R. disperma Ehrenb. : Branches whitish, twisted; twigs spiny. Leaves alternate, narrow-spathulate, obtuse, 6-8 mm. long. Flowers small, green, on capillary peduncles. SH. 2 R. staddo A. Rich. v. deflersii (Schweinf.) Chiov. : A small tree. Old woody branches bear slender virgate twigs, with long internodes. Main branches nodose, nodes being swollen and enlarged through arising of several twigs at each node. Leaves small, subsessile orbicular lanceolate, 5-7 mm. in length and breadth, with entire margin and pointed apex, becoming opposite towards the tips of the virgate branches. SH.

3-lobed to ovate, entire or triangular, 6-10 cm. broad, glabrous. Flowers greenish in shortpeduncled umbel-like cymes about 1-2 cm. long. Fruit subglobose, turning red when ripe, 1.2 cm. in diameter, 1-seeded. SH, S. 2 C. rotundifolia Vahl : A climbing and prostrate plant closely associated with the preceding in the southwestern mountainous part of the country. Stem succulent, cylindrical (not angled), slightly constricted at the nodes. Leaves fleshy, green, alternate, short- petioled, with a cordate base of the lamina. Inflorescence leaf-opposed as well as terminal, compound umbel-like or corymb -like. Fruit a berry, globose, turning red when mature. In mountains. SH. Order 17. URTICALES Fam. 44. MORACEAE Link A. Fruit fig-like B. Fruit mulberry-like Ficus Morus 1 2

Fam. 43. VITIDACEAE A. Juss. 1 CISSUS L. Climbing shrubs with tendrils. Flowers small, 4fid, in axillary long-peduncled corymb. Fruit a berry. 1 C. quadrangularis L. : Glabrous climbing perennial plant. Stem succulent quadrangular, almost winged at the corners constricted at the nodes, leafy only when young. Leaves thin, varying from cordate,

1 FICUS L. Trees with milky juice. Leaves simple entire, or lobed, alternate. Fruit a 'fig' or 'syconium' representing a composite fruit or entire inflorescence with a hollow fleshy receptacle having an apical pore and its wall lined internally with unisexual flowers. Pollination by insects which enter through the apical pore.


Flowers very small and inconspicuous, monoecious or dioecious. Male flowers of 3-5 sepals and 3-6 stamens female of a single unilocular ovary surrounded by a 5-fid perianth in one whorl.

short crowded spikes. Staminate flowers with 4 perianth segments and 4 anthers; female flowers with 4 perianth leaves and a pistil. Fruit multiple. 1 M. nigra L. : Tree with large cordate-

1 F. vasta Forssk. : Tree with big-sized leaves 20 cm. in diameter. Leaf ovate, petiolate, petiole 5 cm. long, margin entire, apex obtuse, base cordate, blade palmately-veined. Fig 2 cm. in diameter. SH. 2 F. carica L. : Shrubs with big palmately-lobed leaves, often velvety-pubescent beneath. Figs large, long-peduncled. SH, S. 3 F. salicifolia Vahl ( = F. teloukal Batt. et Trab., Urostigma salicifolium (Vahl) Miq.) : Tree with glaucous blue-green, long-petioled, narrowlanceolate entire leaves, up to 12 cm. long and 3 cm. broad. Figs glabrous, pubescent, very small (of a pea size), clustered in leaf axils. SH, S, NJe. 4 F. pseudosycamorus Decne ( = F. palmata Forssk.) : Leaves of medium size, either undivided or 3-lobcd scabrous on both surfaces and with dentate margin. Figs small, pear-shaped. In rocky areas. SH, S.

ovate petioled leaves with crenate margin and pointed apex. Style rather long. Perianth of female flowers of the spike inflorescence becomes juicy and filled with sweet sap after fertilization, thus forming the sweet mulberry fruit. NH, SH, NJ.

Fam. 45. URTICACEAE A. Juss. A. 1 Stipules present. Hairs not stinging. a. Stem rough, involucral bracts free Forsskalea 1

b. Stem smooth, involucral bracts united Droguetia 2 Hairs stinging B. Stipules absent Urtica 2 3 Parietaria 4

1 FORSSKALEA L. Slender herbs. Leaves alternate, serrate, without stinging hairs, trinerved, woolly on the under surface. Flowers unisexual, monoecious, crowded in sessile or nearly sessile clusters in the leaf axils, each cluster surrounded by an involucre of 4-6 fleecy leaves. Perianth absent in fertile female flowers. Male flower with 3-toothed calyx

2 MORUS (Tourn.) L. Spineless deciduous trees with milky juice. Leaves lobed or not lobed, simple, alternate. Flowers greenish, unisexual, monoecious or dioecious arranged in

Dobera glabra

Salvadora persica

Salvadora persica

Ziziphus spina-christi

Rhamnus disperma

Cissus quadrangularis

Cissus rotundifolia

Ficus vasta

Ficus salicifolia

Ficus salicifolia

Ficus palmate = Ficus pseudosycamorus

and 1 stamen, calyx tubular and 1-lipped. Fruit achene, enclosed in the involucre. Annual herbs with stinging hairs. Leaves op1 F. tenacissima L. ( = F. cossoniana Webb, Caidbeja adhaerens Forrsk.) : Rough bush, 10-60 cm. high, woolly with hooked stiff hairs. Leaves small, serrate, ovate-orbicular, white-woolly on the under surface, dark green on the upper, easily attaching to objects with which they come into contact. Calyx villous, with narrow lanceolate lobes. NH, SH, S, NJ. E. 2 F. viridis Ehr. ex Webb ap. Hook; Branches softer and leaves longer than in the preceding species - Leaves green on the lower surface, white on the upper. Calyx not villous with broad membranous lobes. In rock crevices. NH. 1 U. pilulifera L. : Tall annual herb with large broad, petioled, deeply serrate leaves. Male flower spiked, female in globose heads of 1 cm. diameter borne on long peduncles 2-3 cm. in length. SH. 2 U. urens L. : Small erect herb branching from the base. Leaves acutely incised-serrate. Male spikes simple, shorter than the petiole and less numerous than the female ones. 2 DROGUETIA Gandich. Green or pubescent herbs, with ovate, serrate, trinerved, petioled, simple stipulate leaves. Stem smooth; flowers enclosed in a dense involucre of united bracts. Male flowers numerous, on the margin of the involucre, female 1 or few in middle. Fruit an ovate-compressed achene. 1 D. debilis Rendle: Herbaceous plant with ovate serrate leaves covered with rough hairs. In leaf axils is found a special type of inflorescence each consisting of a dense cluster of unisexual monoecious flowers enclosed in an involucre of bracts and having one or a few female flowers in the center and numerous male flowers on the margin. 4 PARIETARIA L. Annual or perennial herbs, often with spreading hooked hairs. Leaves alternate, entire, 3nerved and stinging. Flowers polygamous in sessile axillary clusters, each cluster including male, female and bisexual flowers intermingled and enclosed in an involucre of bracts. In female and bisexual flowers perianth tubular or cup-shaped, 4-toothed persistent and enclosing the achene. In male flowers calyx of 4 sepals united at the base, stamens 4. 1 P. alsinifolia Del. : Densely leafy perennial herb, 20-40 cm. high. Stems filiform. Leaves 3 NJ, SH, S. posite- serrate covered with stinging hairs. Flowers small, monoecious in spike or head-like clusters in the leaf- axils. Perianth 2-4 sepals, stamens 4.



-10 mm. long ovate, rounded at the base and pointed at the apex, petioled, entire. Flowers axillary in fewflowered clusters, some fertile others sterile. Bracts subtending fertile flowers broad, membranous, cordate-ovate, those subtending sterile ones small. SH, S.

ers and pedicelled staminate ones. Fruit perianth spinescent. N, NJe, NJw, E. 2 RUMEX L. Annual herbs with alternate leaves sheathing at the base. Inflorescence raceme-like cyme, axillary and terminal. Perianth of 4 lobes, 3 of which enlarging in the fruit either into scarious reticulate wings or into bristly-toothed valves enclosing the fruit and persistent.


Fam. 46. POLYGONACEAE A. Juss. A. Stamens as many as perianth segments. 1 Perianth spiny 2 Perianth membranous 1 Shrubs. a. Leaves ovate, fruit glabrous, spinescent shrub Atraphaxis 3 4 5 Emex Rumex 1 2

1 R. nervosus Vahl : Herb with cylindrical ribbed stems and long-petioled lanceolate leaves, with distinct longitudinal nerves and ochreate leaf-base. Flowers small in branched, terminal racemose inflorescence. Fruit rose-pink, 6 mm in diameter, orbicular, triangular in the middle, with membranous wings. SH. 2 R. pictus Forssk. ( = R. lacerus Balba, Acetosa picta (Forssk.) Love et Kapoor) : Annual, reddish, procumbent herb with pinnatifid fleshy lower leaves, up to 4cm. long. Inflo-

B. Stamens more than perianth segments.

b. Leaves linear, fruit bristly Calligonum 2 Herbs Polygonum

1 EMEX L. Annual, forked glabrous herbs with green flowers in axillary leafless clusters; the lower flowers in each raceme pistillate, the upper staminate. Fruit perianth ending in 3 recurved, rigid spines. Ovary triangular Fruit an achene. 1 E. spinosa (L.) campd. ( = Rumex spinosus L., R. glaber Forssk.) : Glabrous stout annual herb with long-petioled, entire, ovate-cordate leaves and green flowers in axillary clusters of sessile pistillate flow-

rescence terminal leafless raceme. Fruit perianth winged. Flowers unisexual, dioecious. N, NF, E. v. bipinnatus. E. 3 R. nepalensis Spreng. : Erect plant 1 m. high. Leaves oblong, the lower cordate petiolate, the upper lanceolate subsessile. Verticillasters

Emex spinosa

Forsskaolea tenacissima

Urtica pilulifera

Urtica urens

Urtica urens

Urtica pilulifera

Rumex nervosus

Parietaria alsinifolia

Rumex pictus

Rumex nepalensis


separate, pedicels articulate below, sepals short. Valves oval-orbicular, reticulately-nerved. SH. 4 R. vesicarius L. ( = Acetosa vesicaria (L.) Love): Glabrous herb branching from the neck. Leaves fleshy ovate-triangular, obtuse, subcordate or sub- hastate at the base. Racemes simple or panicled, loose, leafless, terminal, each bract supporting a single, 1-3-flowered pedicel. Fruit-perianth wings broad, rose coloured, but lacking the red marginal nerve found in some other species. All leaves undivided. SH, S, NJe, E. 3 ATRAPHAXIS L. Spinescent shrubs. Flowers perfect. Perianth petaoild, 4-5-parted, the inner persisting round the fruit and forming wings. Ovary with crustaceous pericarp. Fruit an achene. 1 A. spinosa L. : Small glabrous shrub with spines- cent small branches. Leaves leathery, small, rounded. Flowers hermaphrodite with a 4-lobed perianth, the 2 inner lobes enlarge in the fruit into 2 reniform wings. N. 4 CALLIGONUM L. Much branched, almost leafless shrub, resembling Ephedra in general appearance. Twigs slender, britlle and dark green, leaves minute, soon deciduous. Flowers bisexual and small, white, clustered in small numbers in the axils of membranous ochreas.

Perianth 5-lobed, stamens 10-16, united at the base and with red anthers. Ovary 4-angled and grooved, styles 4. Fruit large with a red covering of branched spines. 1 C. comosum L'Her. : Glabrous, richly

branched shrub, with articulated fragile, sometimes clustered, white branches. Leaves filiform, ochreate, less than 2 mm. long, adnate to the ochrea. Fruit a reddish ovoid spiny achene; spines soft, resembling a hair tuft. In sand and rock. NH, N, S, NJe, E. 5 POLYGONUM L. Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes with a woody base. Flowers hermaphrodite, reddish in colour or greenish, with a petaloid persistent perianth enclosing the fruit. Fruit perianth small, not enlarging as in other genera of the same family and not forming wings or other appendages. Flowers arranged is small cymes forming together a dense spike-like inflorescence. 1 P. bellardii All. : Glabrous, slender, erect, tall annual herb with elliptic-lanceolate acute leaves, 1-4 cm. long. Floral leaves small, hardly exceeding the flowers. Inflorescence spike-like, with small clusters of 2-3 flowers each. Perigonium green, with reddish margin. E. 2 P. plebejum R. Br. ( = P. herniarioides Del.) : Perennial herbs with woody base. Leaves linear to spathulate, obtuse, 8-10 mm. long. Leaf margin flat, not revolute. Flowers axillary, either


solitary or in small groups, pinkish-white. Fruit an achene 0.5-1 mm. broad, black, smooth, shining, surrounded by the persistent perianth. A weed on roadsides and in cultivated fields. NJ, SH. Order 19. CENTRO SPERMAE Fam. 47. NYCTAGINACEAE A. Perigonium (fruit calyx) tubular, with wart-like glands, especially towards the apex B. Commicarpus 1

SH. 2 C. plumbaginens Asch. et. Schweinf. : Stem tall, erect. Leaves broadly ovate. Flowers white or lilac, with long exserted stamens. Perennial. NH, S. 3 C. stellatus (Wight et Arn.) Berhaut ( = C. verticillatus (Poir.) standi.) : Tall glabrous plant of whitish stems and broadly ovate wavy leaves. Stamens slightly exserted. Perennial. SH.

Perigonium with no wart-like glands, but either glabrous or minutely glandular Boerhavia 2

2 BOERHAVIA L. 1 COMMICARPUS Standley Herbs with woody base and opposite leaves. Flowers in whorls, together forming a lax panicle. Perianth petaloid and tubular funnel-shaped in its upper part, sepaloid and persistent in its lower part which encloses the fruit, forming with it the socalled "anthocarp". The perigonium is beset with wart-like glands. 1 C. africanus (Lour) Dandy ( = C. pentandrus (Burch.) Heim., Boerhavia africana Lour., B. pentandra Burch., B. plumbaginea Cav. v. viscosa Boiss.) : Perennial herb with tall erect stems. Leaves broadly ovate. Flowers white or lilac, with long exserted stamens, relatively very large, up to 20 mm. long from base of the ovary; stamens 5. Inflorescence represented by whorls of flowers in lax terminal panicles. Fruit scarlet when ripe, subsessile, globose, 12 mm. in diameter. Herbs with woody base. Leaves more or less whorl- ed. The upper petaloid part of the perianth rotate campanulate, but without any tubular part. Fruiting calyx (anthocarp) longitudinally ribbed, with no warty glands. 1 B. vulvariifolia Poir. ( = B. repent L. v. vul- variaefolia Boiss., B. diandra L. ) : A small, richly branched annual or perennial plant. Leaves whitish beneath varying from very small elliptical to large undulated. Inflorescence a leafy, axillary, head-like panicle, with usually solitary flowers in addition to the umbels. Stamens 1-2. On rock. SH, S. 2 B. diffusa L. ( = B. repens L., B. repens v. diffusa Boiss., B. adscendens Willd., B. paniculata Rich.) : Tall glabrous plant with a forked, herbaceous stem. Leaves ovate to oblong, obtuse,


green on the 2 surfaces long-petioled, glabrous, large. Flowers in small, 3-5 head-like umbels arranged on peduncles and forming leafy axillary panicles. Fruit oblong, club-shaped, 3 mm. long, 5ribbed, glandular. On sand. NH, SH, S. 3 B. coccinea Mill. ( = B. diffusa L. v. viscosa (Choisy) Cuf., B. viscosa Fres., B. repens v. viscosa Choisy in DC.) : Stem and leaves densely glandularpubescent. Leaves thick, rounded sinuate, up to 3 cm. long. Resembling B. diffusa in other aspects.

1 G. pharanaceoids L. Procumbent slender minutely adpressed hairy annual plant, with narrow oblong-lanceolate opposite leaves. Flowers small in clusters of 10-20 together in crowded axillary cymes. Flowers pedicelled, pedicels stout. NH, SH, NJe.

2 MOLLUGO L. Slender glabrous herbs. Leaves whorled or forming a basal rosette or both whorled and basal on the same plant. Flowers long-pedicelled, white, very small, in capillary corymb-or umbellike axillary cymes. Sepals 5, obtuse, glabrous with a broad scarious margin; petals absent. Fruit a trilocular capsule with a thin pericarp.

Fam. 48. MOLLUGINACEAE Wight. A. leaves opposite, carpels separate, flowers in cymes, leaves narrow oblong Gisekia 1

M. cerviana (L.) Ser. in DC. : Erect,

B. Leaves whorled (falsely) or all basal, carpels united. 1 Plant glabrous, flower longpedicelled, pericarp thin Mollugo 2

small, annual herb, 5-15 cm. high. Basal leaves rosetted spathulate, upper ones linear-filiform in dense whorls, exstipulate. Flowers longpedicelled, about 3-4 mm. in diameter. Seeds pale -brown, smooth, triangular. SH, NJe. 3 3 GLINUS L.

2 Plant hairy, flower short-pedicelled, pericarp firm Glinus

1 GISEKIA L. Herbs with opposite leaves and very small pedicelled flowers in axillary cymes. Leaves narrow oblong. Calyx 5 separate to the base, petals absent, carpels 5 separate, ovary superior. Fruit of 5 free carpels.

Hairy annual herbs with short-pedicelled flowers in axillary whorls. Calyx of 5 acute, hairy sepals; corolla absent and replaced by 2-cleft staminodes. Carpels united. Fruit a 5-roomed capsule, with a firm pericarp.

Rumex vesicarius

Atraphaxis spinosa

Atraphaxis spinosa

Calligonum comosum

Calligonum comosum

Polygonum bellardii

Polygonum bellardii

Polygonum plebejum

Polygonum plebejum

Commicarpus africanus

Commicarpus africanus

Commicarpus stenocarpus

Boerhavia diffusa

Boerhavia coccinea

Gisekia pharnaceoides

Mollugo cerviana

Mollugo cerviana

Glinus lotoides


1 G. lotoides L. ( = Mollugo glinus A. Rich.) : Prostrate annual herb, green or densely greycanescent with stellate hairs. Leaves petioled, obovate-spathulate. Sepals 6-8 mm. long. NH, SH, S, E.

terete dichotomous branches. Leaves, at least the lower ones, opposite, terete, 5-10 mm. across, much swollen, tapering upwards from a broader clasping base. Flowers pedicelled. Calyx lobes conical, with 2 of them, larger than the rest, terete and leaf-like. Ovary much swollen, club-shaped.

Fam. 49. AIZOACEAE J.G. Agardh 2 M. A. Petals (really staminodes) numerous, linear; brances dichotomous Mesebryanthemum 1 B. Petals (staminodes) absent, only a 5-cleft calyx; branches alternate; petioles not scarious winged at the base C. Fruit transversely dehiscent; leaves opposite, unequal. Petals absent, petioles scarious winged at base. Style 1 Trianthema 3 Aizoon 2

N, NJe, E. nodiflorum L. ( = Cryophytum

nodiflorum (L.) L. Bolus.) : Annual small, slender succulent herb with nearly sessile flowers. Petals white with yellow base, shorter than the sepals. Leaves terete, 1-2 mm. across, as compared with the 5-10 mm. thick leaves of M. Forsskalei. NJ

2 AIZOON L Perennial herbs. Petaloid staminodes and petals absent. Calyx rotate, 5-cleft with petal-like lobes white or yellow inside. Stamens in clusters, alternating with the calyx lobes. Capsule surrounded by the persistent calyx, 5-seeded, opening by a star-shaped. 5-limbed fissure at the apex. Cells 2-many-seeded, Ovary inferior, branching alternate, not dichotomous. 1 A. canariense L. : Papillose, villous, procumbent annual herb, with rather woody stems alternately branched and zigzag-curved. Leaves spathulate-obovate, alternate, tapering into a petiole. Flowers 3 mm. broad, sessile, yellow inside. In sand. NH, NJe, E.

1 MESEMBRYANTHEMUM L. Herbaceous plants with dichotomous branches and white flowers; beset with glittering water-filled papillae. Flowers terminal or axillary, with a 5-parted calyx. Petaloid staminodes numerous, linear. Stamens numerous. Fruit a 5-celled, nearly pentagonal capsule, having its apex depressed and opening by a star-shaped split, at the tip. 1 M. forsskalei Hochst. ( = Opophytum forsskalei (Hochst. in Schimp.) N.E. Br.) : Papillose, small, soft, erect, succulent annual herb, with short, fleshy

2 A. hispanicum L. : Erect, glabrous, succulent annual herb, dichotomously branched. Leaves opposite, flat, relatively broad, oblong-lanceolate, sessile, obtuse. Flowers short-pedicelled, white inside, solitary in the fork. Calyx tube 1.5 cm. long white within. N, NJe, E, NF. Sepals 2, the lower overlapping the upper and considered sometimes as bracts. Petals 4-6, mostly 5, early falling; stamens 5 or more. Ovary 1celled. Fruit a capsule opening by a lid. Seeds tubercled. 1 P. oleracea L. : Annual herb with branched stems which are decumbent near the base and as3 TRIANTHEMA L. Prostrate fleshy herbs with opposite, petioled, somewhat unequal leaves. Calyx tube campanulate. Petals and staminodes absent. Petioles scariouswinged at the base. Stamens 5-10 or many. Ovary inferior, 1-celled, seeds 2-many on parietal placentas. Fruit a capsule, transversely dehiscing, upper part of the capsule separating as a lid; style 1. 1 T. polysperma Hochst. ex Oliv. : Prostrate herb. Leaves elliptical or oblanceolate. Calyx lobes with petaloid pink margins. Styles 2. Capsule narrowed above, obtuse or depressed at the apex. SH, E. 2 T. sedifolia Vis. : Prostrate herb with slender papillose alternate branches. Leaves fleshy, linear, with obtuse apex and membranous petioles. Flowers in sessile, axillary, compact clusters. SH, E. 2 P. quadrifida L. : Prostrate or decumbent succulent annual herb woolly at the nodes. Leaves fleshy, opposite, numerous, often lanceolate to obovate. Flowers yellow. NH, SH. cending near the top to a height of 10-20 cm. Plant fleshy, stout, purplish with obovate to apathulate obtuse opposite leaves tapering towards the base. Flowers small, yellow, sessile in clusters of 3-5 on the forks and tips of the branches, opening in the morning only. Calyx 2; corolla 5, obovate or spathulate, 4 mm. long and retuse at the apex. Stamens 7-12. Ovary inferior or half inferior with a 5-fid stigma. Fruit oblong, transversely dehiscent. Seeds orbicular, 0.5mm. in diameter. Very common in cultivated fields, roadsides and waste land. NH, SH, NJe, E.

Fam. 50. PORTULACACEAE A. Juss. 1 PORTULACA L. Glabrous fleshy herbs, with fleshy leaves and tender branches. Flowers bisexual, arranged in cymes.

Mesembryanthemum forsskalei

Aizoon canariense

Aizoon hispanicum

Trianthema polysperma

Portulaca quadrifida


Farm. 51. CARYOPHYLLACEAE A. Juss. I. Sepals free, petals not clawed. A. Fruit indehiscent. 1 Flowers in clusters of 3, only the middle perfect. a. Petals absent, pedicels broad b. Petals or staminodes 5 2 Flowers all alike. a. Ovule 1. * Style branches or stigmas 2. +Flower in globose heads, involucre prickly, fleshy terete leaves + + Flowers in fascicles, involucre prickly. .Stipules small, sepals blue-green ..Stipules large silvery **Style branches or stigmas 3 b. Ovules 2, leaves linear fleshy B. Fruit opening at top by teeth or valves. 1 Leaves stipulate. a. Only margins of sepals scarious. *Styles and fruit valves 3 **Styles and fruit valves 5 ***Prostrate plant, bracts not entirely scarious b. Sepals altogether scarious. Spergularia 8 Spergula 9 Polycarpaea repens 12 Pteranthus Cometes 1 2

Sclerocephalus Herniaria Paronychia Gymnocarpos Sphaerocoma

3 4 5 6 7

* Bracts and stipules altogether scarious, plants glabrous, flowers pedicelled Polycarpon 10 ** Bracts and stipules with green middle, glabrous plants Robbairea 11 *** Hairy plants, if glabrous, flowers sessile Polycarpaea 12 c. Sepals not scarious, toothed, leaves subulate Loeflingia 13 2Leaves exstipulate. a. Fruit globose, 6-valved, petals cleft b. Fruit valves 2-toothed, leaves ovate c. Fruit 3-valved, leaves not ovate II. Sepals united, petals clawed. A. Petals contorted, styles or stigmas 2. 1 Petals entire 2Petals toothed. a. Calyx acutely angled, leaf with cordate base b. Calyx tubular, leaf base not cordate B. Petals not contorted, capsule many toothed. Calyx 10-nerved Stellaria Arenaria Minuartia 14 15 16

Gypsophila Vaccaria Dianthus Silene

17 18 19 20


1 PTERANTHUS Forssk. Annual herbs with flattened mucronate opposite leaves. Peduncles flattened, leaf-like. Flowers in clusters of 3, small sessile, only the middle of which symmetrical and normal, the lateral ones asymmetrical. The cluster of flowers crowning the flattened peduncles is a cyme provided with pinnatisect spines representing modified leaves on sterile branches. Sepals 4 free, scarious-margined; petals absent, stamens 4, stigmas bifid; ovule 1. Fruit indehiscent. 1 P. dichotomus Forssk. : Glabrous procumbent

2 C. surattensis L. : Annual herb with glabrescent, distinctly petioled leaves, 1 cm. broad. Petals shorter than filaments.

3 SCLEROCEPHALUS Boiss. Herbs with fleshy, terete leaves. Inflorescence a spherical, short-peduncled, 4-7-flowered spiny head, but not scarious. Peduncle slender, not broad. Spines of the inflorescence simple. Calyx 5 -fid, with cup- shaped base; corolla absent; stamens 5; style bifid. Fruit indehiscent. 1 S. arabicus Boiss. : Procumbent annual

annual herb with linear fleshy leaves in clusters. Peduncle flattened. Inflorescence 3-flowered cyme crowning the peduncle. Sepals 4, free; petals absent. In sand. NJ.

herb, with branches 10-12 cm. long. Leaves linear, terete, mucronate. Stipules scarious, very acute. Heads densely spined by inflorescence modified bracts. SH, NJe, NJw, N, NF.

2 COMETES L. Annual herbs with flattened, linear or lanceolate, mucronate leaves. Stipules subulate. Peduncle narrow, slender, not flattened, crowned by 3 flowers, the middle one normally developed the side ones sterile and transformed into awns. Inflorescence spiny but not scarious; spines plumose. Sepals 5 free, petals 5, stamens 5, style 3-fid. Fruit indehiscent. 1 C. abyssinica R. Br. ex Wall. : Richly branched annual herb with somewhat fruticose (Resembling a shrub, especially in having woody stems and branches ) branches. Leaves pubescent, sessile or nearly so, rarely over 5 mm. long, linear-lanceolate with mucro. 4 HERNIARIA L. Small mat-shaped annual or perennial herbs. Flowers small, green in axillary or leaf-opposed clusters Inflorescence neither spiny nor scarious. Pedicels slender, not broad. Leaves small, flat, with small stipules. 1 H. hemistemon J. Gay : Perennial prostrate herb with woody base, puberulent or glabrescent. Leaves obtuse, the lower ones opposite. Sepals 4, much unequal, with curved hairs; stamens 2. In sand. N, NJe, E. NF.


2 H. hirsuta L. : Annual herb, branching from the base, with a thin slender root, branches nearly at right angles to the main stem. Leaves alternate, with acute apex, hairy on both surfaces. Flower clusters villous. Calyx of 5, almost equal sepals. NJe, E. v. cinerea Herm. ( = H. cinerea Lam. & DC.) : Hairs longer than the breadth of the sepals. The variety more common than the type. In sand. 5 PARONYCHIA Miller Perennial or annual small prostrate plants. Leaves flat. Flowers in silvery-looking heads, being often completely hidden in scarious bracts. Calyx of 5 free sepals; petals filiform; stamens 3 or 5, style bifid. Fruit indehiscent. 1 P. arabica (L.) DC. : Densely branched matshaped, annual, rarely branched herb. Leaves oblong to lenticular, 3-6 mm. long, glabrous or somewhat ciliated. Branches all over the plant with small scarious flower clusters, 6 mm. broad, Calyx spiny-tipped, with hooked hairs only at the base, sometimes up to the center. N, SH, NJe, E. 2 P. argentea Lam. : Typically perennial herb, occasionally annual only in sandy places. Leaves glabrous, mucronate, often somewhat ciliated obovate to oblong-lanceolate, broader than in P. arabica; stipules as long as the leaves. Flower heads 1 cm. broad, giving the plant a dense silvery appearance. Bracts large, papery, twice the length of the flower

(In P. arabica 1.5 times or less), and the plant, therefore, of a more silvery appearance than the preceding. Calyx with stiff spiny hairs all over the outer surface; calyx spines very short. In rocky, sometimes in sandy, places. 3 P. desertorum Boiss ( = P. lenticulata (Forssk.) Asch. & Sfth.) : A desert perennial prostrate velvety- canescent herb, with oblonglanceolate, mucronate, stipulate, hairy leaves, the stipules as long as the leaves. Bracts obtuse or nearly so, very short, not hiding the flowers as in all other species. Heads, therefore of a more green aspect, few-flowered, about 3mm. broad. Stipules and bracts entirely scarious. Aspect of Polycarpaea repens but the latter with green hairy center of bracts and stipules. In rocky places. NJe, E. 4 P. sinaica Fres. : Densely hairy, tufted perennial plant with a woody base. Leaves hairy. Flower heads relatively larger than in other species. Bracts orbicular, pointed. Sepals hairy, not spiny-tipped. Flower heads often of a golden tint, variable in size. 6 GYMNOCARPOS Forssk. Shrub with opposite, fleshy, terete leaves. Flowers in short-peduncled clusters. Sepals 5, petals 5, stamens 5, style long with 3 stigmas. Fruit indehiscent. Calyx of free sepals.

Pteranthus dichotomus

Pteranthus dichotomus

Cometes surattensis

Sclerocephalus arabicus

Herniaria hemistemon

Cometes abyssinica

Herniaria hirsuta

Paronychia arabica

Paronychia argentea

Paronychia argentea

Paronychia sinaica


G. decandrum Forssk. : Intricately

less. Flowers small, smaller than in other species. Calyx 2-3 mm. long; stamens 2-3; Fruit a capsule, as long as the calyx. All seeds wingless. Fruit pedicel much longer than capsule NH. 2 S. rubra (L.) J. & C. Presl ( = S. campestris Asch.) : Annual or perennial herb with dark green thin leaves. Inflorescence few-flowered, lax, leafy. Flowers small, rose-coloured, medium-sized. Stipules free (not connate as in some other species), ovate, entire with a long laciniate point, Calyx 3-4 mm. long; capsule as long as the calyx. All seeds wingless. NJ. 9 SPERGULA L. Small annual herb, Leaves apparently whorled, subulate, stipulate, more than 5 mm. long. Axillary branches so densely leafy that the leaves on the main stems appear as if whorled. Calyx of free sepals, only margins of sepals scarious. Styles 5. Fruit a capsule opening by 5 teeth. 1 S. fallax (Lowe) E.H.L. Krause ( = S. flaccida (Roxb.) Asch.) : Small annual glabrous herb, with narrow, linear, apparently verticillate leaves Axillary branches densely leafy, so that the leaves on the main stems appear as if whorled. Leaves capillary, obtuse, not grooved beneath. Inflorescence rich terminal panicle. Flowers small, white with lanceolate acute petals. Seeds broadly winged. SH, NJ, E.

branched shrub, with whitish-grey stems and spinescent twigs. Leaves mucronate, linear, narrow, rather fleshy. Sepals reddish brown above, narrowly linear, spreading in star-shaped form. Stipules short, triangular. N, NH, NJ, S.

7 SPHAEROCOMA T. Anders. Shrub with grey knotty branches and fleshy, terete, opposite or whorled leaves. Flowers small, arranged in globular long-peduncled heads, which later become spiny because of modified sterile flowers. Fruit indehiscent. Sepals free. 1 S. hookeri T. Anders. : Glabrous, bluegreen, densely branched shrub, 50-70 cm. high. Leaves fleshy, terete, clustered, 1-2 cm. long and 1 mm. broad. Fruiting heads about 1 cm. broad, densely spiny (no images were found). NH. 8 SPERGULARIA (Pers.) J. et C. Presl Glabrous or glandular herbs with opposite filiform leaves and scarious stipules. Leaves subulate more than 5 mm. long. Inflorescence compound cyme or raceme. Flowers small, white, pink or violet. Sepals 5, free, scarious-margined; petals 5, entire; styles 3. Fruit a capsule opening by 3 teeth. 1 S. diandra (Guss.) Boiss. : Annual herb, glandular-hairy. Leaves very thin, filiform. Inflorescence a rich compound cyme, upwards leaf-

Gymnocarpos decandrus

Spergularia diandra

Spergularia rubra


12 POLYCARPAEA Lam. 10 POLYCARPON Loefl. ex L. Small prostrate glabrous annual herbs, with small, flat, stipulate opposite or apparently whorled leaves, sepals keeled. Bracts and stipules altogether scarious, rarely with green herbaceous center. Calyx of free sepals. Flowers pedicelled. 1 P. tetraphyllum (L.) L. : Erect or prostrate, forked, glabrous annual herb. Leaves broad spathulate either opposite or in whorls of 4 Inflorescence lax terminal cyme. Flowers very small, stamens 3. NH, NJe, E. 2 P. succulentum (Del.) J. Gay ( = P. arabicum Boiss., Alsine succulenta Del.) : Small, mat-shaped, densely branched glabrous annual herb. Leaves fleshy, narrow linear. Inflorescence rich terminal cyme. Flowers small pedicelled. In sand. NJ, H, E. Small, annual or perennial herbs, with opposite or whorled leaves which are flat- or revolutemargined. The plants are generally hairy, if glabrous the flowers are sessile. Inflorescence generally dense. Calyx of free sepals. Petals lanceolate, half as long as the acute sepals. Fruit a capsule. 1 P. repens (Forssk.) Asch. & Schweinf. ( = P. fragilis Del.): Greyish-hairy, prostrate, perennial herbs, 10-20 cm. high. Leaves opposite or clustered, stiff", minute, lanceolate or linear, revolute-margined, acute. Flowers minute, 1-1.5 mm. long in dense, terminal cymes. Bracts and sepals not entirely scarious, but with hairy, green, herbaceous center. NH, SH, N, S, NJe, E. 2 P. corymbosa (L.) Lam. v. genuina Pax ( = P. linearifolia (DC.) DC.): Erect annual hairy herb with narrowly-linear whorled leaves. Flowers in crowded silvery-glossy terminal cymes, 11 ROBBAIREA Boiss. Glabrous prostrate herbs, annual or perennial, with opposite or whorled stipulate leaves. Inflorescence lax. Flowers pedicelled. Bracts and stipules scarious with green herbaceous middle. Calyx of free sepals; petals clawed, with ovate or cordate limb, about as long as the obtuse sepals. Small herbs with erect noded stems. Leaves 1 R. delileana Milne-Redh. ( = R. prostrata stiff capillary, mostly 5 mm. long, subulate stipulate. Flowers sessile; calyx parted into 5-keeled rigid lobes with a ciliate appendage on each side. (Forssk.) Boiss.) : Mat-shaped herb with oblong or linear minute leaves. Flowers very small, pedicelled. NJe, NJw, E. 13 LOEFLINGIA L. slightly copper-tinted. Sepals glabrous, altogether scarious, 3-4 mm. long, very acute, with capillary point. NJ.

Polycarpon tetraphyllum

Polycarpon succulentum

Robbairea delileana

Polycarpaea repens

Polycarpaea corymbosa


Petals 3-5, stamens 3, ovary with a short style. Fruit a capsule. 1 L. hispanica L. : Glandular, pubescent, small annual herb, with noded stem. Leaves spathulate, either opposite or in whorls of 4, only a few mm. long in dense tufts along the stem. Stipules filiform connate till the middle of the leaves. Flowers minute, hidden in the leaf-tufts. Stamens 3. NJe.

Flowers white, pedicels capillary. Sepals hairy; petals longer than calyx. SH. 2 A. serpyllifolia L. : Annual herbs, tufted, 10- 20 cm. high, puberulent scabrous. Leaves minute, subsessile, many-nerved. Petals ovate, white minute, 2-3 times shorter than the sepals. SH.

16 MINUARTIA Loefl. ex L. 14 STELLARIA L. Annual herbs, with exstipulate, flat, opposite or whorled leaves. Calyx of free sepals. Petals white, deeply 2-cleft down to the base or absent. Capsule ovoid, equaling the calyx, opening by 6 valves. 1 S. media (L.) Vill. : A soft green, richly branched annual herb. Stem hairy along one side only. Leaves ovate-opposite, petioled. Petals small, white, cleft, very rarely absent. Stamens 3-7. Seeds dark brown. Fruit a globose 6-valved capsule. 15 ARENARIA L. Annual herbs with ovate flat, acute, exstipulate leaves. Flowers small, white. Calyx of 5 free, acute sepals; petals 5, entire; stamens 10; styles 3. Capsule shorter than the calyx, opening by 6 entire or three, 2 -toothed, valves. 1 A. graveolens Schreb. : Perennial tufted herbs, 10-30 cm. high, glandular pubescent with filiform slender branches. Leaves numerous, short-petioled. 17 GYPSOPHILA L. Glaucous, glabrous or glandular, annual or perennial herbs with numerous small white or pink flowers in a rich spreading cyme (panicle of dichasial cymes). Bracts scarious, bracteoles absent. Calyx tubular, cleft scarious with 5 simple nerves. Petals 5, entire, clawed, contorted. Styles 2, capsule 4-valved. 1 G. capillaris (Forssk.) C. Chr. (G. rokejeka Del.) : Blue-green, perennial, desert herb, dichotomously branched, 40-60 cm. high, glabrous and Small, annual or perennial herbs with capillary or narrowly linear (never ovate) exstipulate, flat, whorled leaves. Inflorescence often cymose. Flowers small, white. Calyx of free sepals; petals entire. Fruit a 3-valved capsule. 1 M. filifolia (Forssk.) Schweinf. ex Mattf. : Herbaceous plant with filiform exstipulate leaves, small white flowers and 3-valved capsular fruits. S, SH.

Loeflingia hispanica

Stellaria media

Stellaria media

Arenaria serpyllifolia

Minuartia filifolia

Gypsophila capillaris


glaucous, woody below. Stem slender, whitish. Leaves narrow, opposite, 1-nerved, not connate at the base, soon deciduous; lower leaves oblonglanceolate obtuse, upper ones linear-lanceolate, acute. Flower pedicels capillary, 4-6 times as long as the calyx. Flowers white or pale, violet-striped, forming a rich panicle of dichasial cymes. Calyx campanulate, 2 mm. long, divided to 3/4 its length into oblong white- margined lobes. Petals white, pink or violet, elliptical- oblong, twice as long as the calyx. N, E, NH, NJ, NF. 2 G. viscosa Murr. : Annual herb, glabrous below glandular viscid above. Similar to the preceding but with a tendency of the leaves to be slightly cordate, connate at the base, oblong-lanceolate, 1-4 cm. long. Calyx hemispherical with ovate-rotundate, obtuse teeth, petals rose-coloured; capsule 1.5 times as long as the calyx. NF. 3 G. arabica Bark. : Herbaceous plant, 40-80 cm. high, glabrous with fascicled white or pale-green branches ramified from the base into a diffused divaricated flower-bearing axis. Leaves 1-nerved, soon deciduous, oblong below the flower-bearing twigs, linear higher up; the floral leaves very small, linear, herbaceous. Pedicels capillary, 4-6 times as long as the calyx. Calyx campanulate, lobed to 3/4 its length, with oblong obtuse lobes having a white margin, 2 mm. broad. Petals long, obtuse, pale rose with darker lines, elliptic, 4-5 mm. long. Capsule shorter than the calyx, containing 2 subglobular, finely-tubercled

seeds. Distinguished from G. capillaris by its more straight leaves, shorter internodes, more divergent angles of ramification, its 2-seeded capsule as contrasted with the 4-6-seeded fruit of G. capillaris. NJ.

18 VACCARIA Medicus Annual glabrous herbs, with dichotomously branched stem and opposite leaves. Inflorescence spreading dichasial cymes forming a terminal panicle. Fruiting calyx more or less globular with 5 green wings. Calyx tubular, cleft to near the base. 1 V. pyramidata Medicus ( = Saponaria vaccaria L., V. vulgaris Host, V. segetalis (Neck.) Garcke) :Leaves lanceolate with sessile cordate base. Flowers rose-coloured, long-peduncled. Calyx teeth triangular, broadly scarious-margined. E.

19 DIANTHUS L. Mostly perennial herbs with grass-like opposite leaves. Calyx tubular, many-nerved, 5toothed, with 4 or more scale-like bracts at the base. Petals 5, receptacle elongated, into a gynophore. Styles 2; capsule cylindrical, 4-toothed, many-seeded. 1 D. strictus Banks et Sol. ( = D. multipunctatus Ser., D. axilliflorus Fenzl): Perennial herbs

Gypsophila viscosa

Vaccaria pyramidata

Dianthus strictus

Dianthus strictus


with opposite leaves which are not white-margined and with bracts which are shorter than the calyx. Calyx about 2 cm. long with 5 stripes of green nerves from the sinus between the teeth downwards. Petals rose- coloured dentate. SH.

ear-shaped depressions laterally and an obtuse groove dorsally. SH, NJ, E. 3 S. colorata Poiret : Procumbent annual herb, not glandular hispid. Lower leaves often obtuse, spathulate. Flowers purple, calyx rednerved, more than 6 mm. long. Petals longer than

20 SILENE L. Annual or perennial herbs. Calyx without bracts at the base, tubular cleft, mostly 10-nerved, rarely nerves 30 or reticulate or absent. Petals 5, not contorted, stamens 10, adnate to the petals. Styles 3. Capsule many-toothed, sometimes on a short stalk (carpophore) inside the fruit calyx. 1 S. succulenta Forssk. : Procumbent, perennial, glandular-woolly, seashore succulent plant, densely covered with short, fleshy, obtuse, entire leaves. Leaves oblong-spathulate. Flowers pedicelled, white or pinkish. Calyx 2 cm. long. Fruit pedicels erect. In coastal sand dunes. NH. 2 S. arabica Boiss. ( = S. affinis Boiss, non Godr.): Annual herb, up to 30 cm. high, glandular viscid, similar to S. villosa but more slender and with longer internodes, longer pedicels and narrower leaves. Leaves linear, very narrow. Flowers longpedicelled arranged in one-sided terminal cymes or solitary in the leaf-axils. Calyx more than 6 mm. in length. Petals with deep linear lobes. Carpophore long, at least 1/3 of the capsule or more. Seeds with

calyx. Carpophore half as long as the capsule. Fruit-pedicels erect. Fruit- calyx club-shaped, with oblong obtuse teeth. NJ. 4 S. conoidea L. : Corymbosely-branched, viscid annual herb with acute oblong-lanceolate opposite leaves tapering towards the base. Flowers pink. Fruit calyx 30-nerved globose, contracted at apex, with long acuminate teeth. NJ, E. 5 S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke ( = Cucubalus baccifer L., S. inflata Sm.) : Blue-green glabrescent perennial herb, with white corymbose pedicelled flowers. Leaves oblong to lanceolate, acuminate. Capsule globose, shorter than the broadlyinflated globose reticulate calyx. S. 6 S. burchellii Otth. ex DC. v. schweinfurthii ) Schweinf.) Tackh. et Boulos ( = S. schweinfurthii Rohrb., S. chirensis A. Rich. v. schweinfurthii Schweinf.): Erect annual herb. Leaves lanceolate-spathulate broad with acute apex. Calyx over 6 mm. long, with narrow acute


teeth. Petals small, purple, equal or shorter than the calyx. Carpophore half as long as the capsule. SH, S. 7 S. oliveriana Otth. in DC. ( = S. colorata Poir. subsp. oliveriana (Otth.) Rohrb.): Erect adpressedpubescent annual herb. Leaves narrow acute. Flowers white, opening at night. Calyx over 6 mm. long. Carpophore equal to or longer than capsule (Unresolved at theplantlist.org). E. 8 S. villosa Forssk. : Procumbent annual herb looking like S. succulenta but differing in being annual, its leaves narrower and its fruit-pedicels being patent or reflexed. Flowers moderately large, rosecoloured. NJ, E, NF.

Silene succulenta

Silene arabica

Silene colorata

Silene conoidea

Silene vulgaris

Silene burchellii

Silene villosa



I. Stems not articulated. A. Leaves flat broad. 1 Leaves alternate, mealy or cottony, usually hastate. a. Shrubs or herbs, fruit enclosed in 2 leaf-like bracts b. Herbs, fruit enclosed in 2 spongy-like bracts 2 Leaves not as above. a. Flowers large, sessile, in spikes b. Flowers small, numerous in head-like clusters B. Leaves not flat, broad. 1 Leaves flattened narrow linear, hairy. a. Fruiting perianth hairy or prickly b. Fruiting perianth winged 2 Leaves not flattened. a. Plant spiny. *Leaf spiny-tipped **Leaves amplexicaul +Leaves opposite, spines straight, plant succulent ++Leaves alternate, spines minute, plant not succulent b. Plant not spiny. * Fruit perianth winged horizontally ** Fruit perianth wingless, leaves glabrous fleshy. +Ovary free from the perianth. 5 .globular yellow starninodes alternating with the filaments ..Staminodes absent +-f Ovary in urn-shaped perianth, plant very sappy II. Stem unclearly or clearly articulated. A. Stem unclearly articulated. 1 Upper leaves alternate, leaves spherical, perfoliate 2 Leaves small in small rose-like buds B. Stem clearly articulated. 1. Fruit perianth winged. a. Robust plants, fruit wings often rose-coloured b. Slender plants, fruit wings rather small and yellow c. Stem widely articulated 2 Fruit perianth not winged, succulents. a. Flowers partly protruding, spikes looking as a cone, seeds smooth

Atriplex Blackiella Beta Chenopodium Bassia Kochia Salsola Cornulaca Halogeton Traganum Salsola Sevada Suaeda Schanginia 11 12 13 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6

9 10 7

Halopeplis Halocnemum Anabasis Hammada Seidlitzia Arthrocnemum

14 15 16 17 18 19

b. Flowers imbedded, spikes looking as if composed of small clusters, seeds hairy Salicornia 20


1 ATRIPLEX L. Annual or perennial herbs, or shrubs, with alternate, flattened, broad, frequently mealy, scaly or closely tomentose leaves. Stems not articulated. Flowers polygamous, the male ones with 5-lobed perianth and 5 stamens, the female ones naked, with the ovary enclosed between 2 flat leaf-like bracts, the bracts later growing in size and enveloping the fruit. 1 A. coriacea Forssk. : Robust decumbent tomentose shrub 2-3 m. high, yellowish white in colour Leaves entire, with rounded or tapering base, very thick up to 2.5 cm. long, Flowers in short contracted panicles. Fruit bracts squared, tridentate at apex tubercled on the surface (could not find images in the web). N. 2 A. halimus L. : Tall shrub, about 3 m. high, with silvery-white woody stems. Leaves coriaceous, whitish-yellow, ovate-triangular tapering at the ends, up to 6 cm. long and 4 cm. broad. Inflorescence lax pyramidal panicle, long-branched. Fruit bracts sessile, cordate-reniform, without appendix, entire or nearly so N. 3 A. farinosa Forssk. : A tall robust shrub, 50-80 cm. or more in height. Branches mealy-canescent. The plant of yellow-white colour. Leaf-base auricledcordate, auricles long, obtuse. Inflorescence large naked panicle. Fruit bracts glabrous, entire, longer than broad, acute, spathulate spongy, connate to the middle.

NH, E, SH, S. 4 A. leucoclada Boiss. : Perennial shrubs up to 50 cm. high. Stems white, diffusely branched. Leaves deltoid, triangular, broad-based, 2 cm. long and broad dentate-lobed, short-petioled, thin membranous. Inflorescence lax spike, fewflowered, 7.5-10 cm. long. Fruit-perianth (bracts) bell-shaped, herbaceous, smooth, 3-lobed, with the middle lobe longer than the lateral ones. NH, SH, N, NJ, E, NF. 5 A. dimorphostegia Kar. & Kir. : A small prostrate annual herb, 20-30 cm. high, diffusely branched, with white, frutescent, somewhat spongy stems. Leaves alternate, entire, petioled, triangular-ovate. Fruit- bracts orbicular-cordate, reticulate stalked (on 8 mm. stalks); faces of the bracts with tubercles. Flowers in axillary clusters. E. 6 A. tatarica L. : Erect annual herb, green or white-mealy, up to 1.5 m. high. Stems much branched, light yellow, somewhat angled, mostly with pealing bark. Leaves short-petioled, large, up to 10 cm. long 7 cm. broad, deltoid hastate. Spikes leafy only at the base. Fruit bracts hard, ovate-rhombic, 3-toothed or 3-lobed, some of them tubercled on the faces. E. 7 A. inamoena Aellen ( = A. crystallinum Ehr. non Boiss.) : A many-stemmed, 1 m. tall plant with small ovate to orbicular, subsessile

Atriplex halimus

Atriplex farinosa

Atriplex leucoclada

Atriplex dimorphostegia

Atriplex dimorphostegia


leaves. Flowers in axillary and terminal spikes. Fruitperianth 3-lobed with bidentate side lobes and 2 tubercles on the face. SH.

B. vulgaris L. : Annual or biennial herb

with broad leaves. Radical leaves ovate, obtuse, cuneate, the cauline ones rhomic ovate-lanceolate and linear. Flowers 2-3 in a cluster, or solitary. NH, NJe.

2 BLACKIELLA Aellen Very close to Atriplex but differing mainly in the fruit being enclosed in 2 spongy swollen bracts completely fused into an obconical flat-topped body with only a minute opening in the center of the upper end. Fruit thus becomes included in a small hanging basketlike body situated in the upper part of the spongy perianth. Ths plants are herbaceous with flat, broad, alternate leaves. 1 B. inflata (F. v. Muell.) Aellen: Prostrate

subsp. perennis (L.) Aellen ( = B. perennis (L.) Freyn., B. martima L., B. vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arcangeli) : Comprises wildgrowing varieties. Glabrous, rarely hirsute plants. Stems many, procumbent. Leaves ovatelanceolate. 4 CHENOPODIUM L. Annual herbs, the stems of which are not articulated. Leaves broad, flat, alternate, petioled. Flowers small, numerous, in crowded head-like clusters, these spiked or racemed (rarely flowers solitary, e.g. in C. botrys then pedicelled). Perianth 5-parted, unchanged in fruit. Thus fruit surrounded by narrow, almost free, perianth segments connate at the base only. Perianth lobes not appendages. 1 C. album L. : Annual, white-mealy, plant. Lower leaves usually deltoid-ovoid with scattered obtuse teeth, upper ones lanceolate entire. The

annual herbs up to 40 cm. high. Plant monoecious, of white branches and foliage covered with a grey scaly indumentum. Leaves flat, broad, alternate, more or less rhombic from an elongated cuneate (wedgeshaped) base with few teeth. Male flowers clustered, terminal; female ones axillary (could not find images in the web). NJ.

3 BETA L. Annual herbs with broad leaves and sessile flowers in leafy, axillary and terminal spikes. Flowers hermaphrodite with 5-fid perianth united at the base with the fruit. Fruit globular surrounded by narrow, almost free, perianth segments connate at the base only.

plant without odour. Inflorescence spike-like, cyme-like or in distant glomerules. SH, S, N, NJ, E. 2 C. ambrosioides L. ( = C. anthelminticum L.): Yellow-green erect and tufted annual herb, with a peculiar foetid odour. Leaves alternate short-petioled, oblong to lanceolate, more or less


sinuate-dentate. Flowers greenish-white in leafy panicle-like in the axils of green leaf-like bracts. Perianth 5, with acute lobes, 1-1.2 mm. long. Stamens 4-5, opposite perianth lobes. Fruit utricles fiattenedglobose, included within the perianth, each containing one black seed. Very common in moist waste lands and along canal banks. SH. 3 C. botrys L. : Aspect of C. ambrosioides, but flowers in a narrow, less spreading inflorescence. Leaves deeply cleft, with obtuse lobes. Odour aromatic. Annual. S. 4 C. murale L. ( = C. triangulare Forssk.): Annual weed. Leaves triangular, alternate, petioled, with tapering base and a densely-and acutely-serrate margin. Flower clusters small and globular, in rich cymose panicles. NH, SH, S, N, NJ, E. 5 BASSIA All. Annual herbs with flat leaves, which are either broad (B. eriophora) or very narrow or linear, hairy (B. muricata). Stem not jointed. Inflorescence leafy or leafless terminal panicle. Flowers sessile, perfect or female with urn-shaped, 5-toothed, star-shaped perianth; fruit perianth forming a sort of disc with radiating spines. 1 B. eriophora (Schrad.) Asch. ap. Schweinf. ( = Kochia eriophora Schrad.): Small annual herb with brittle branches and comparatively broad leaves. Flowers in dense spikes, together with the fruits hid-

den in dense, white, cotton-like fleece that ultimately becomes very conspicuous and covers the plant nearly completely. Fruit with short spines. NJ, E, NF. 2 B. muricata (L.) Murr. : Annual herbs of a height up to 50 cm., many-stemmed from neck. Leaves very narrow-linear, crowded, densely silky -hairy. Fruit- perianth forming a disc with radiating spines; spines 2-3 times as long as the diameter of the disc. In sandy and salty places. NH, SH, NJ, E.

6 KOCHIA Roth Of Bassia aspect, but with the fruit perianth winged. Large annual herbs, up to 2 m. high. Leaves flat and very narrow. Plant spineless; stem not jointed. Flowers sessile in leafless terminal spikes. 1 under K. indica Wight: Annual, richly branched favorable conditions. Leaves linear-

herb of big growth, reaching a height of up to 2 m. lanceolate, 3-4 cm. long, on sterile branches but very narrow and small on fertile ones, only a few mm. long. Cultivated and ornamental. NJ. 7 SALSOLA L. Shrubs or very small herbs. Branches not jointed. Leaves terete or very narrow-linear, sometimes spiny- tipped or not spiny, often fleshy. Flowers perfect 5-merous, either solitary or few in

Chenopodium album

Chenopodium ambrosioides

Chenopodium botrys

Chenopodium murale

Bassia eriophora

Bassia muricata

axillary clusters and terminal spikes. Only in S. tetradra flowers are unisexual and 4-merous. Fruitperianth forming a 5-lobed perigonium, the lobes growing transversely into membranous wings of equal size and spreading. Hypogynous disc cupshaped. 1 S. baryosma (Schult.) Dandy ( = Chenopodium baryosmon Schult., S.foetida Del. ex Spreng., non Pall, ex Vest., S. imbricata Forssk. ?): Yellow-green shrub of disagreeable odour of rotten fish. Leaves densely clustered, small, succulent, linear, hairy, generally absent on flowering branches. Flower-spikes naked. NH, SH, NJ, S, E. 2 S. kali L. : Prickly, succulent, hairy herb, up to 1 m. high, divaricately branched from the base. Leaves cylindrical, spiny, alternate, fleshy, halfclasping at the base, subulate spiny at the tip, terminating with a rigid, yellow spine. SH. 3 S. lancifolia Boiss. : Glabrous glaucous plant, up to 50 cm. high. Stems angled. Leaves decurrent, linear-lanceolate, the vegetative ones longer than the triangular ( unresolved ). E. 4 S. tetrandra Forssk. : Profusely branched odourless shrublets of greyish-green colour with thick woody stems. Most branches opposite. Leafshoots neither silky nor angled as in S. tetragona. Leaves densely hairy, short and scale-like, about 2 mm. long, imbricated along short catkin-like cylindribracts. Flowers loosely-spiked 6 S. 5 S. schweinfurthii Solms-Laub. ( = Seidlitzia rosmarinus non Bunge ex Boiss.): Odourless small shrublets, 30 cm. high, with glabrous, white, very glossy branches. Leaves glabrous, linear-cylindrical, clustered, fleshy, somewhat acute, lower ones long, upper ones very small, hardly exceeding the flowers. Inflorescence leafy spike. S. vermiculata L. ( = S. forsskalei Schweinf. ?): Intricately branched shrub, woody at the base. Branches long and slender, stiff, yellowish. Leaves very minute and scale-like, crowded in distant small knot-like clusters on thin yellow glossy stems. Inflorescence leafy spike. Lobes of perigonium hairy. Fruit wings small, pale yellow. NH, SH, E. ssp. tenuifolia (Boiss.) Botsch. ( = S. villosa auct. non Del., S. vermiculata L. v. villosa (Del.) Moq.) : Erect, densely villous undershrub with slender white branches. Leaves well-developed, stiff, filiform, recurved from a narrow clasping base. NJe. 7 S. longifolia Forssk. ( = S. sieberi Presl., non Forssk.) : Low, odourless intricately-branched shrublets with dull (not glossy) branches. Lower cal branches. Inflorescence leafy spike. Flowers 4 -merous. N, E, R.

Salsola baryosma

Salsola kali

Salsola kali

Salsola tetrandra

Salsola schweinfurthii

Salsola vermiculata

Salsola longifolia

Salsola longifolia

Salsola volkensii


branches frequently opposite, upper ones (of the flowering region) alternate. Leaves linear, cylindrical, glabrous, fleshy, up to 10 mm. long, somewhat acute and slightly furrowed only at the base. Spikes leafy. E. 8 S. volkensii Asch. & Schweinf. (= Salsola incanescens): Small, annual, richly branched herb, about 20 cm. high, erect, altogether hairy with branched hairs, changing in colour from blue-green when fresh into whitish yellow when dry. Branches stiff. Leaves small, rounded, scale-like. Fruit-perianth with silvery glossy wings. Flowers in loose spikes. Of disagreeable smell, Flowering in late summer and autumn. NJ, E, NF.

N, NJ, E, NF. 2 C. aucheri Moq. : Annual herbs 5-6 cm. high, branched from the base. Leaves blue-green scabrous, linear, curved, longer than in C. leucacantha, spreading, cuspidate, spiny, hyalinemargined, forming weak, curved spines. Flowers 2-3 together in the upper leaf axils, 1 or 2 of the perianth segments developing into long, subulate spines. NJe. 3 C. ehrenbergii Arch. ap. Schweinf. : Densely branched stout undershrub with broadlytriangular, scale-like, imbricated leaves. Flowers axillary, solitary, not embedded in wool, with short-mucrnate perianth segments not developing into spines (no images were found in the web). NH. 4 C. leucacantha Charif et Aellen: Spiny shrub with monopodial branching. Leaves sessile, short and narrow, spiny-curved, tapering to acute tips with short spinescent-leafy axillary spiny branches. Leaf 1 cm. long and 1 mm. broad at base. Spines weaker than in C. monacantha (no images were found in the web). N, NJ, E, NF.

8. CORNULACA Del. Shrubs or annual herbs. Stem continuous (not jointed), young branches spiny-leaved, old ones densely knotted, with the leaves crowded into cushions after falling of spines. Leaves small, alternate, spiny, terete, amplexicaulous. Flowers polygamous, with 5 perianth segments united below into a hard cup, either all segments membranous or one or two of them developing into long spines. Fruit enclosed in the perianth cup. 1 C. monacantha Del. : Blue-green, intricate shrub. Leaves distant, recurved, tapering from a clasping base into a rigid spiny apex, leaf axils woolly. Flowers immersed in wool; 1 or 2 of the perianth lobes in fruit becoming stout-spiny. On sand and stony land

9 HALOGETON C. A. Mey. Shrubs or annual herbs with continuous stem and fleshy, spiny-tipped, cylindrical or globose leaves. Flowers polymerous, in axillary globose


clusters embedded in dense wool; the middle flower of each cluster bractless, the outer 2 with 2-3 bracteoles. Fruit- perianth with 5 wings, or perianth segments gibbous at the back. Staminodes 4-5, stamens 5. 1 H. alopecuroides (Del.) Moq. ( = Agatophora alopecuroides (Del.) Bge): Glabrous, much branched, low shrub, with slender, white branches. Leaves fleshy, distant, semiterete, flat above convex below, sometimes globose to prismatic cylindrical, at tip obtuse with a needle-like easily deciduous small spine; leaf-axil woolly. Flowers clustered in the axils mixed with the bracts. Aspect of Traganum. NH, N, E. 10 TRAGANUM Del. Much branched un-jointed shrub (with continuous stem). Leaves narrow fleshy, spiny-tipped. Flowers yellow and solitary in the leaf axils. Stem not woolly. Fruit large and enclosed in a fruit-perianth (perigonium) which is nut-like with 2 horn-like teeth; wings absent. 1 T. nudatum Del. : Shrub up to 50 cm. high,

nodes alternating with the 5 colorless filaments (In Suaeda staminodes being absent). Leaves terete or semiterete but not flat broad, glabrous, fleshy. The stem is neither jointed nor woolly and the plant is spineless. Fruit very small and ovary free from the perianth. Fruit- perianth wingless. 1 S. schimperi Moq. ( = Suaeda schimperi

(Moq.) Martelli, Suaeda vermiculata Forssk. v. puberula C.B. CI.): Shrublet, intricately branched. Flowers in crowded spikes. Leaves linear, terete, obtuse, up to 1 cm. long.

12 SUAEDA Forssk. ex Scop. Herbs and shrubs of salt marshes and deserts, with continuous un-jointed stems. Leaves glabrous, fleshy, linear, terete or narrow, or rarely globular, stem not woolly. Plants spineless. Flowers perfect or polygamous; perianth 5-parted, staminodes absent. Ovary free from the perianth. Fruit perianth wingless, fruit very small. Perigonium free from ovary, lobes unchanged or fleshy. Stamens 5, stigmas 2-3. 1 S. monoica Forssk. ( = S. fruticosa non L., non Forssk., S. asal Forssk., Salsola monoica (Forssk.) Poir.): Shrub or small tree, 2-4 m. high, with a trunk up to 15 cm. in diameter. Branches glabrous. Leaves 10-25 mm. long, flat on both sides. Flowers in termini panicle and flowering continues all the year round, on spreading or drooping branches. Fruit perianth red and plant gets black when dry. SH, N, E.

with white, glossy, slender divaricate branches. Leaves small alternate, 0.5 cm. long, broad on fertile branches cylindrical on sterile ones ending in minute, recurved spines. Leaf axils fleecy. N, NJe, NJw E.

11 SEVADA Moq. in DC. Small shrublets closely similar to Suaeda differing mainly in the presence of 5 yellow globular stami-

Cornulaca monacantha

Cornulaca monacantha

Cornulaca aucheri

Halogeton alopecuroides

Traganum nudatum

Traganum nudatum

Suaeda monoica

Suaeda monoica


2 S. vermiculata Forssk. ( = S. mollis Del.): Densely branched low shrub, dark-green in colour, drying black. Branches white-tomentose. All leaves distinctly petioled, upper ones ovoid to spherical. NH, SH, NJe, E, N. 3 S. volkensii C.B. CI. : Green glabrous succulent shrub, with glabrous branches. Leaves fleshy, flat above rounded beneath, oblonglanceolate obtuse, 8-10 mm. long. Flowers in a dense continuous spike. Fruit calyx swollen (unresolved name). NJ, NH, SH, E. 4 S. pruinosa Lange. ( = S. vera Boiss., non Forssk., S. kochii Tod.): Leaves crowded, densely pruinose, fleshy. Flowers minute. Pistil pear-shaped with the style dilated above to a disk, on which the 3 or more stigmas are inserted. SH, S.

1 S. aegyptiaca (Hasselq.) Aellen ( = S. baccata Forssk.) Moq., Suaeda baccata Forssk.) : Procumbent annual herb with extremely sappy linear leaves. Fruit- perianth spongy-baccate. Flowers forming a swollen dense spike(no images found in the web). E, NF. 2 S. hortensis (Forssk.) Moq. ( = Suaeda hortensis Forssk.): A weed with tall, frutescent, white and glossy stem. Leaves thin capillary, often in clusters (no images found in the web). NH, SH, S. 14 HALOPEPLIS Bunge ex Ung.-Sternb. Fleshy, unarmed, annual or frutescent plants, with succulent amplexicaul perfoliate leaf rudiments which make the plant look as if jointed. Flowers in groups of 3, connate and adnate to floral cup, immersed in the stem like the flowers of Salicornia, forming dense spikes. Fruitperianth without wings. 1 H. perfoliata (Forssk.) Bge ex Schweinf. :

13 SCHANGINIA C.A. Mey. Herbs or shrubs with un-jointed (continuous) stem, and very sappy linear terete narrow leaves. Stem not woolly, and the plant spineless. Perianth urn-shaped and adnate to the ovary, 5-lobed, in fruit the perianth lobes tubercled, inflated or unchanged but wingless. Fruit very small. Ovary included in the urn-shaped perianth. Inflorescence spike, with the flowers embedded in groups of 3 in the joints of the spike.

A robust perennial frutescent halophytic plant of saline seashore habitats. The plant is a stout juicy succulent undershrub. Leaf rudiments nearly spherical and enclosing the stem, thus looking like peculiar swollen joints. NH, SH.

15 HALOCNEMUM M. Bieb. Shrubs with continuous branches which are but unclearly and only apparently jointed. Leaves

Suaeda vermiculata

Suaeda vermiculata

Suaeda pruinosa

Suaeda pruinosa

Suaeda pruinosa

Halopeplis perfoliata

CHENOPODIACEAE rudimentary and leaf-rudiments fleshy, forming small, densely decussate, bud-like knots along the stem, thus the stem appears unclearly articulated. Flowers perfect, with 3 unequal perianth segments and 1 stamen, in groups of 3 together, but not. connate as in the case of Halopeplis. Inflorescence spike. 1 H. strobilaceum (Pallas) M. Bieb. (= 1 A. articulata (Forssk.) Moq. in DC. ( = Arthro- phytum schmittianum (Pomel) Maire et Weiler): Robust shrub, up to 1 m. high, much resembling Hammada elegans but with thicker, shorter and more tortuose internodes which do not dry yellow. Branches erect. Leaves reduced to short capsules. Flowers opposite, solitary. Wings of fruit perianth (perigonium) 5, striate sinuate, large, yellow or rose, rotate. In sandy deserts. NJ, N. 2 A. setifera Moq. ( = Seidlitzia lanigera Post): A leafy erect undershrub rising to a height of up to 30 cm., with numerous erect stems. Leaves fleshy, cylindrical, opposite, patent, 8 16 ANABASIS L. Succulent robust shrubs with jointed stems. Leaves reduced to opposite scales or absent. Flowers bisexual, brownish, bibracteate, solitary or clustered, with 5 perianth segments and 5 free stamens. Fruit perianth winged, fruit wings often rose-coloured or purplish, circular, large. Seed vertical. Segments of perigonium free to the base. mm. long and 4-6 mm. broad, furrowed above and ending in a deciduous weak bristle. Flowers in globose, opposite, clusters. Fruit-perianth 5winged, with the wings entire, pale yellow. Resembling Halogeton alopecuroides but differing in its stem being distinctly jointed and not continuous. SH, NH, N, E, NJe, R.

Salicornia perfoliata Forssk.; Salicornia strobilacea Pall.) : Richly patent-branched frutescent plant with narrow flower spikes. Characterized by its abundant, decussate, green, small tubercles of opposite leaf rudiments along the stem. Spikes terminal. NH, E.

17 HAMMADA Bunge Spineless shrub with slender branches and clearly articulated succulent stems. Leaves opposite, minute, rudimentary, scale-like or absent. Flowers solitary, opposite, axillary and usually perfect, with the stamens of each flower united by the filaments into a cup. Perianth 5-lobed with the lobes in fruit forming rather small yel-

Halopeplis perfoliata

The fruit contains one seed with a coiled embryo

Anabasis articulata

Anabasis articulata

Anabasis setifera


low wings which are membranous and not distinctly circular. Plant with a woody base, sandbinding and hummock-forming. Seeds horizontal. 1 H. elegans (Bunge) Botsch. ( = Haloxylon schweinfurthii Asch., and Haloxylon salicornicum auct., non Bunge): Stout shrub (30-70 cm. high) with glaucous green succulent terete branches, drying yellow. Leaves rudimentary, scale-like. Very close to Anabasis articulata but branches here more smooth, fruit wings smaller, filaments united into a cup, staminodes thin-membranous, narrowly oblong elliptic with acute tips. Leaf axils woolly. Spikes many, 5-7.5 cm. long. Flowers perfect, bibracteate. Wings spreading, scarious, brownish, transverse. Staminodes connate with the filaments, but free at the tips. Distinguished from Salsola by the jointed stem, the staminodes and the monadelphous filaments. Flowers in September and October. Occurs in saline deserts. NH, SH, NJe, N, S, NF, R. 2 H. scoparia (Pomel) Iljin ( = Haloxylon

Closely allied to Salsola, differing mainly in the wings of the fruit-perianth, the posterior wing here being spoon-shaped and bent downward to cover and protect the fruit, the other wings spreading. Shrubby plants with sidely and faintly articulated stems, with long internodes. Plant spineless. Leaves opposite, linear-terete. Flowers in clusters of 3-5 from woolly leaf axils. Fruitperianth winged. 1 S. rosmarinus (Ehrenb.) Solms-Laub. ( = Salsola rosmarinus Solms-Laub.): Richly branched shrub, up to 60cm. high. Stems glabrous-white, faintly jointed. Leaves succulent, about 15 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, obtuse. Flowers with 2 bracts each in clusters of 3-5 from woolly leaf axils, exceeded by the bracts. NJ, E.

19 ARTHROCNEMUM Moq. Succulent, leafless, perennial plants with jointed stems, clearly articulated, closely allied to the genus Salicornia. Inflorescence succulent terminal spike, looking like a long cone, with the flowers partly protruding from hollows in its axis. Flowers in groups of 3 in a horizontal row. Fruit perianth wingless. 1 A. glaucum (Del.) Ung.-Sternb. ( =

articulatum auct, non Bunge, Arthrophytum scoparium (Pomel) lljin): Slender densely branched shrub, up to 50 cm. high. Branches thinner and shorter than those of H. elegans, drying black. Leaves scale-like, axils glabrous. Wings very small. Aspect of a Tamarix. NJe, E.






branched robust plant with decumbent rooting


base, resembling Salicornia fruticosa but branches and spikes thicker and shorter. Seeds black or darkbrown ( in Salicornia light- coloured, hairy.) Flowers free and more protruding (in Salicornia completely immersed in hollows of the spike axis.) In salty places. E. 20 SALICORNIA L. Succulent shrubs with jointed, clearly articulated stems. Leaves absent. Inflorescence succulent terminal spike looking as if composed of small clusters. Flowers in groups embedded completely in the joints of the succulent spike without the perianth partly protruding as in the case of Arthrocnemum, the middle flower of each group is above (i.e. superposing the lateral ones). Fruit spikes narrowed and more slender than in Arthrocnemum. 1 S. fruticosa (L.) L. ( = Arthrocnemum fruticosum (L.) Moq.): Perennial succulent plant with shrubby base, erect, rooting at the base, growing in dense clumps. Stems decussate-branched. Spikes cylindrical. Flowers in groups embedded in hollows of the spike, the central flower of each group entirely separates the lateral ones. Plant up to 40 cm. high. NH, SH, E.

Haloxylon salicornicum

Seidlitzia rosmarinus

Arthrocnemum macrostachyum


Fam. 53. AMARANTHACEAE A. Juss. A. Leaves alternate. 1 Flowers small in woolly dense spikes Aerva 2 Not so. a. Flowers in panicled spikes or axillary clusters, 3-bracted, unisexual or polygamous, no sterile ones Amaranthus b. Flowers hermaphrodite, partial inflorescence of 1 fertile and 2 sterile flowers Digera c. Flowers solitary on spicate inflorescence B. Leaves opposite. 1 Flowers in clusters, sterile ones as hooked spines 2 Flowers solitary, glossy Celosia Pupalia Achyranthes

2 3 4 5 6

1 AERVA Forssk. White woolly undershrubs with alternate leaves. Flowers small in woolly dense spikes, bisexual, white fleecy, 3-bracted; sepals 5, nearly equal, hairy, stamens 4-5. 1 A. javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng. (= A. persica (Burm.f.) Merrill, A. tomentosa Forssk.): Erect, densely stellate-hairy undershrub of white colour in flowering stage, 30-60 cm. high. Stems branched, cylindrical, stiff. Leaves flattened, elliptical-lanceolate, densely stellate hairy, 1-3.5 cm. long, obtuse, tapering at the base into a short petiole. Spikes woolly, cylindrical, terminal, 2-8 cm. long and 4-6 mm. in diameter, leafless, simple or branched. Flowers snow-white, hermaphrodite, 3-bracted; bracts ovate, somewhat shorter than the sepals; sepals 5, nearly equal, 1- nerved, fleecy; stamens 5, united at the base; stami-

nodes 5, tooth-like. Ovary 1-ovuled. Utricle oblong, 1 mm. long. In stony and rocky desert areas. NJ, N, NH, SH, S, E, NF, R. 2 A. lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult. : Erect woolly undershrub, without stellate hairs. Leaves small, spikes short and most of them axillary. Leaves obovate to obcordate. 2 AMARANTHUS L. Green annual herbs with alternate, simple, entire, petioled leaves. Flowers in panicled spikes or axillary clusters, 3-bracted, unisexual or polygamous, no sterile ones. Perianth 3-5 segments, simple sepaloid, scarious- margined, persistent. Male flowers with 3-5 stamens, female with (or without) a terminal style and 23 subulate stigmas. Utricle tapering. 1 A. graecizans L. ( = A. angustifolius Lam.): A small, ascending or spreading, annual herb, with small leaves, 1 cm. long, obtuse or acute, tapering at both ends, white-nerved on the under surface, petioled, en-


tire, narrowly ovate-oblong. Flowers small green clustered, axillary. Spikes all axillary, short. SH, S. 2 A. caudatus L. : Herbaceous annual herb, stiff below, stout. Leaves broad, acute, long-petioled, rhombic-ovate, entire. Terminal spike tail-like, nodding from its base, not of aristate aspect, with a very long axis up to 30 cm. in length. Spikes arranged in rich panicles with red, violet, pinkish or rarely white flowers; of these panicles the terminal one is the longest being caudate, cylindrical and very longstalked. SH, S.A 3 A. sylvestris (Desf.) Vill. (= A. graecizans L. v. sylvestris (Vill.) Asch. in Schweinf., A. blitum L. p.p., A. angustifolius v. silvester Thell. in Asch. et Graebn.) : Rather similar to A. graecizans but leaves short and broad, almost rhombical. Annual herbs. All spikes axillary. Bracts as long as the perianth or shorter. Fruit opening by a lid. Perianth segments 3. Glabrous plant. NH. 4 A. ascendens Lois. (= A. lividus L. v. ascendens (Lois.) Thell.): Annual glabrous herbs with the leaves slightly notched at the tip. Flowers in globular axillary clusters and a terminal short, thick spike. Perianth segments 3. Bracts acute. Fruit as long as the perianth, or exceeding it. NH.

A. spinosus L. : Erect herb; leaves may be with a pair of axillary spines. Spikes elongated, paniculate at the ends of the branches, with globose clusters of flowers in the leaf axils. Calyx segments with sharp spiny tips. Fruit membranous. NH, SH.

3 DIGERA Forssk. Similar to Amaranthus. Green herbs with alternate leaves and spiked flowers. Flowers bisexual, 3-bracted, 1 fertile flower between 2 sterile ones. 1 D. muricata (L.) Mart. (= Achyranthes muricata L , A. alternifolia L., D. alternifolia (L.) Asch. ap. Schweinf., D. arvensis Forssk.): Annual, nearly glab-rous, richly branched herb, up to 50 cm. high. Leaves alternate, lanceolate-ovate, with acute apex and entire margin, up to 5 cm. long and 1.5 cm. broad, long-petioled (petiole 2.5 cm. long). Stem decumbent. Flowers pink or red, changing into white, in axillary spikes 3-10 cm. long. NH, SH, N, NJe, E. 4 CELOSIA L. Herbs or shrubs with alternate leaves, and solitary flowers on spicate inflorescences.


1 C. trigyna L. Herbaceous plant with simple, alternate, petiolate ovate leaves. Leafblade about 4 cm. long and 3 cm. broad, apex acuminate, margin entire. Flowering axis slender, elongated, axillary, spicate, up to 10 cm. long. Flowers solitary on the flowering axis, bracteate. Perianth 5 mm. long. SH, S.

1 A. aspera L. : Erect annual herb, up to 1.5 m. high. Leaves broadly lanceolate, silky beneath when young. Spike slender and elongated, up to 30 cm. long in the fruiting stage. Flowers solitary on the spike, the lower ones widely separated, retroflexed, the upper approximate, spiny, of needle-like glossy bracts, whitish or purplish

5 PUPALIA Adans. mut. A. Juss. Hairy undershrubs, with opposite ellipticlanceolate leaves. Flowers whitish, small, about 3 together in woolly clusters in a naked terminal spike, old clusters with hooked spines on the bracts of the sterile flowers. 1 P. lappacea (L.) A. juss. : Frutescent plant with leaves up to 15 cm. long, ovate to almost orbicular, silky when young. Flowers 3 together, enclosed by 2 bracts and 4 bracteoles, covered with white woolly hairs and barbed spines. Spikes interrupted, especially in their lower part. SH.

SH, S.

6 ACHYRANTHES L. Slender herbs with opposite leaves. Flowers soli-tary, small white glossy, in a terminal naked spike.

Aerva javanica

Amaranthus graecizans

Aerva lanata

Digera muricata

Celosia trigyna

Pupalia lappacea

Achyranthes aspera


Order 20. ROSALES Fam. 54. CRASSULACEAE DC. A. Flowers 4-merous B. Flowers 5-merous Kalanchoe Umbilicus 1 2

lous, cylindrical, in a simple or branched spike. Pedicels longer than bracts. Corolla yellowishwhite, tubular, apiculate- lobed. SH.

1 KALANCHOE Adans Perennial herbs with succulent opposite leaves. Flowers tetramerous. Calyx divided nearly to the base. Corolla salver-shaped with spreading segments. 1 K. alternates (Vahl.) Pers: An ornamental plant, widely cultivated. Both stems and leaves fleshy and succulent. The plant is rapidly propagated vegetatively by cut leafy branches. Leaves broad and large, with entire margin. Flowers large, white to cream-coloured (no images found in the web). SH. 2 UMBILICUS DC. Glabrous fleshy perennial herbs with succulent, opposite, orbicular-peltate leaves, crenatemargined. Inflorescence spike-like raceme. Flowers with 5-parted calyx and tubular or spherical, 5toothed corolla. Stamens 10, epipetalous and inserted on the corolla tube. Carpels 5, many-seeded. 1 U. rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy (= U. pendulinus DC., Cotyledon tuberosa (L.) Hal., C. pendulina (DC.) Batt.): Stem stiff, erect, emerging from a tuberous base. Leaves both basal rosetted and cauline; basal ones orbicular, stem ones linear; the upper stem ones almost setaceous. Flowers pendu-

Fam. 55. ROSACEAE A. Juss. A. Leaves large, linear B. Leaves small, ovate Amygdalus 1 Cotoneaster 2

1 AMYGDALUS (Tourn.) L. Shrubs or trees. Flowers nearly sessile. Peduncles thickened in fruit. Fruit a green drupe, the fleshy part of the pericarp at length becoming dry. 1 A. arabica Oliv. : Glabrous shrub with angular, unbranched twigs. Leaves petiolate, linear-oblong, obtuse. Drupe oval-globose, puberulent, mucronate. E.

2 COTONEASTER (B. Ehrh.) Medic. Shrubs with white or pinkish flowers. Leaves small, ovate, entire, woolly beneath. Calyx lobes 5, short. Ovary 2-5-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell. Fruit small, pome-like with 2-5 bony 1-seeded pyrenes adherent to fleshy calyx except at apex. 1 C. nummularia Fisch. & Mey.: Leaves small entire, round-ovate to elliptical, 1 cm.

long, glabrous above woolly beneath. Flowers in short clusters of 3-4 from the leaf-axils. Calyx glabrous. Fruit a very small obovate scarlet pome. NJ, E.

1 .R. arabicus (Defl.) Schweinf.: Hairy thorny shrub with abundant hooked thorns on the stem petioles and midribs of the leaflets. Internodes 6 or more cm. long in mature parts. Leaves compound palmate, petioled, stipulate. Leaflets with irregularly and acutely toothed margins; marginal teeth unequal sometimes rather long and hair-like. Lower leaflets subsessile, upper one larger and borne on a 1 cm. long, stalk. In mountains (no images found in the web). SH.

3 ROSA L. Thorny shrubs with compound pinnate leaves and stipules adnate to the petiole. Fruit an aggregate of achenes clustered within an urn-shaped fleshy receptacle. 1 R. abyssinica R. Br. : A shrubby climbing plant found in Juniperus forests of the high mountains. The plant grows to a height of 1 m. or more; densely prickly with large hooked prickles on the stem and smaller ones on the leaf-stalk, rachis and midribs of the leaflets on the lower surface. Leaves short- petioled, imparipinnate, mostly of 7 leaflets. Leaflets leathery, very short-stalked, subequal, oblong-lanceolate, dark green glossy on the upper surface, dull greyish on the lower, with a brown red midrib, toothed margin and acute apex. Stipules not so clear as in other species ( unresolved name). SH.

Fam. 56. NEURADACEAE J.G. Agardh. 1 NEURADA L. Woolly annual prostrate desert herbs of a whitish grey colour. Leaves small pinnatifid, with minute stipules. Calyx ovate, 5-fid, with contracted throat. Petals 5, small inserted into throat of calyx. Styles at length spinescent. Fruit dry, orbicular, spiny, about 2 cm. across. 1 N. procumbens L. : Woolly canescent annual herb, with prostrate spreading stems, at length woolly. Leaves 1.5-2 cm. long, ovateoblong, obtusely sinuate, pinnatifid. Flowers solitary, axillary, small whitish- yellow, pedicelled from the leaf axils. In sand (unresolved name). NH, N, NJ, NF, E, R.

4 RUBUS L. Thorny shrubs with compound palmate or nearly palmate, stipulate leaves of 3-5 leaflets. Stipules not adnate to the petiole. Fruit an aggregate of numerous small fleshy drupelets, united together into a cylindrical compound structure.

Umbilicus rupestris

Amygdalus arabica

Cotoneaster nummularia

Neurada procumbens

LEGUMINOSAE Fam. 57. LEGUMINOSAE A. Juss. I Petals valvate, flowers regular, leaves bipinnate A. Stamens 10 or fewer. 1 Stamens 10, fruit thick and compressed 2 Stamens 8-10 fruit ovoid, swollen B. Stamens numerous. 1 Spiny tree, filaments free 2 Spineless tree, filaments united II. Petals imbricate, posterior petal inside Leaves twice-pinnate, trees. 1 Flowers large, yellow or red, legume big 2 Flowers yellow, legume membranous B. Leaves once pinnate. 1 Fruit flattened 2 Fruit oblong, curved, indehiscent III.Petals imbricate, posterior petal outside A. B. Filaments free, shrubs or trees, standard shorter than wings, flowers yellow, fruit septate Filaments at least 9 united. 1 Leaves almost wanting. a. Fruit turgid b. Fruit inflated 2 Leaves simple. a. Leaf entire. AlKagi Scorpiurus Ononis Medicago Melilotus Trigonella Trifolium Argyrolobium Lotononis Psoralea Taverniera Indigofera Onobrychis 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 *Thorny plant **Non-armed plant b. Leaf serrate 3 Leaves 3-foliate. a. Fruit curved Fruit linear. *Herbs, flowers yellow in spike-like racemes ** Flowers in usually umbels or heads. +Legume long flattened + +Legume small + + +Silky herbs or shrubs, standard orbicular + + + +Shrubs, stipules unilateral + + + + +Legume 1-seeded, flowers in crowded heads + + + + + +Legume of 2-3 flattened, elliptical bristly joints 4 Leaves pinnate. a. Fruit transversely chambered b. Fruit orbicular c. Not as above. b. Anagyris 9 A. Prosopis 1 Lagonychium 2 Acacia 3 Albizzia 4 CAESALPINIOIDEAE Delonix 5 Haematoxylon 6 Cassia 7 Tamarindus 8 PAPILIONOIDEAE MIMOSOIDEAE

Crotalaria Lygos

10 11


*Leaves paripinnate ending in a tendril **Leaves imparipinnate ending with leaflet. +Lower pair of leaflets appearing as stipules ++Not as above. Leaflets stipuled . .Leaflets not stipuled. Twining plant, flowers yellow, legume 2-seeded =Not so. i. Fruit indehiscent. x Fruit spirally coiled xx Fruit jointed, curved, flattened ii. Fruit 2-valved. x Flowers in peduncled heads xx Flowers in crowded heads Xxx Flowers in lax racemes

Vicia Lotus Clitoria Rhynchosia Hymenocarpus Hippocrepis Astragalus Psoralea Tephrosia

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 21 32

1 PROSOPIS L. Small trees or shrubs, unarmed or armed with prickles and axillary spines. Leaves bipinnate, leaflets and pinnules in numerous pairs, stipules small, sometimes spinescent or absent, petiolar glands small. Flowers 5-merous, small in axillary cylindrical spikes, or rarely globose heads. Petals free at length. Stamens 10, free. Fruit linear, thick and compressed, indehiscent. 1 P. africana Taub (T. oblonga Benth.): Tree up to 12 m. high. Bark rough with blackish scales. Leaves with 2-4 pinnae, pinnules in 6-12 pairs, grey green with mucronate apex, lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 2-3 cm. long. Flowers cream-white, fragrant. Spikes axillary. Pod dark purple-brown, indehiscent, shiny, woody, 15 cm. long. E.

2 P. spicigera L.: Height of plant 2-3 m., glabrous; prickless. Pinnae of 2-3 pairs. Pinnules 6-12 pairs, oblong, 6 mm. long and 2 mm. broad. Spike elongated. Pod 10 cm. long and 7 mm. broad, nearly terete, often curved. N, E.

2 LAGONYCHIUM M. Bieb. Small prickly shrubs with bipinnate leaves. Inflorescence long cylindrical spikes of very small regular sessile flowers. Flowers 5-merous with 10 stamens, all flowers of one colour. Legume ovoid-swollen, indehiscent, constricted and deformed-looking, almost black. 1 L. farctum (Banks & Sol.) Bobr. (= Prosopis stephaniana (Willd.) Kunth. ex Spreng., P. farcta (Banks et Sol.) Macbride): Shrub up to 1 m. high, branched, short spiny, either forming


straggling bushes or growing prostrate on the ground. Leaves bipinnate, pinnae 4-5 pairs, pinnules 8-12 pairs, 2-4 mm. long. Bark whitish-grey. Axillary flowering branch longer than the leaf. Flowers white, corolla glabrous. Legume oval-oblong, 3 cm. long, 15 cm. broad, incurved, brownish-black. N, NJ, NF,E. 3 ACACIA Mill. Spiny shrubs and trees, with bipinnate leaves. Leaflets small in numerous pairs or sometimes reduced to phyllodes. Flowers small, regular with numerous stamens, filaments free. Inflorescences axillary spikes or globose heads. Flowers 5-3-merous, calyx campanulate or lobed; petals usually united. Stamens yellow or white. Ovary usually sessile. Legume variously shaped, flat or terete, sometimes contorted, but neither ovoid nor yellow-hispid nor papery. 1 A. raddiana Savi (= A. tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan): A tall tree with round irregular crown and reddish bark. The plant is altogether glabrous; branches, leaflets and legumes. Flowers in heads. Legume contorted or spirally twisted. NH, N, NJ, S. 2 A. arabica (Lam.) Willd. ( = A. nilotica ssp. tomentosa (Benth.) Brenan): Tree 8-10 m. high with dark stems and branches. Spines straight, sharp, up to 7 cm. long. Leaflets numerous, 10-30 pairs. Flowers bright yellow, in heads. Legume hairy, straight, of numerous orbicular joints, grey softly pubescent, up

to 15 cm. long, constricted between the seeds and breaking up to pieces. NJe. 3 A. ehrenbergiana Hayne ( = A. flava (Forssk.) Schweinf.): A small desert glabrous shrub not exceeding 4 m., the ends of branches smooth shiny, chestnut brown. Spines slender long, usually exceeding the leaves. Leaves minute of 1-2 pairs of pinnae, with 8-10 pairs of oblonglinear minute leaflets, 2-4 mm. long. Pod glabrous linear, falcate, acute, constricted between the seeds. Flowers in heads. NH, SH, NJ, N, NF, E. 4 A. nubica Benth. ( = A. pterygotarpa Hochst. ex Benth.): Umbrella-shaped shrub with pubescent branches, leaflets and legumes, and stout straight spines up to 2 cm. long. Flowers very fragrant, pinkish- mauve. Legume yellow, broad, flat, straight, acute at the 2 ends, with narrow winged margin. Flowers in heads. SH, S. 5 A. tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ( = A. spirocurpa Hochst. ex A. Rich.): A tall flat-topped tree reaching a height of 12-14 m. or sometimes a little shrub. Branches red-brown, together with the leaflets and legumes pubescent. Spines partly long, white, straight, partly small dark-tipped. Flowers in heads, white to cream- coloured. Legume yellow-brown flat, twisted spirally, up to 15 cm. long and 8 mm. broad. NH, SH, N, NJ, NF, E.


6 A. seyal Del. : A tree 4-5 m. high with its smooth stem covered with rusty-red powder over the bright green bark beneath. Leaves bipinnate; pinnae 3 -9 pairs, with 8-12 pairs of acute pinnules. Spines ivory-like, 3 cm. long. Flowers in heads. Branches, leaflets and legumes glabrous. Flowers yellow, fragrant, appearing before the leaves. Legume falcate, constricted between the seeds, 8-15 cm. long, narrow (up to 6 mm.), slightly curved, brown, with a thick suture along the margin, in clusters usually. NJ, SH, S. 7 A. mellifera (Vahl) Benth. : Grey or brown glabrous shrub or small tree, with short, hooked, yellow spines, often forming impenetrable thorny thickets. Leaves bipinnate, each with 2 pairs of pinnae and a single pair of big pinnules in each pinna. Flowers with purple calyx and white stamens, arranged in simple racemes. Legume membranous, thin, flattened, yellowish. NH, SH, S. 8 A. asak (Forssk.) Willd. ( = A. glaucophyllu Steud. ex Rich.) : Glaucous or puberulous small tree. Prickles short or absent. Pinnae 3-7 pairs, each pinna with 10-20 pairs of leaflets. Legume thin, flat, straight; acute, narrowed at each end. SH. 9 A. cyanophylla Lindl. : Trees around 5 m.

SH, S. 10 A. etbaica Schweinf. : Glabrous shrub or small flat-topped tree, up to 10 m. high, with short spines and brown fissured bark. Flowers in fewflowered heads. Branches, leaflets, and legumes all glabrous. Leaves bipinnate, pinnae more than 2 pairs, with 10-30 pairs of pinnules in each pinna. Legume nerved, about 7 mm. broad and 5-10 cm. long, red- brown, shinning, straight, with pointed apex. NH, SH, S. 11 A. farnesiana (L.) Willd. : Trees 3-5 m. high. Spines 1-2 cm. long. Pinnae 5-8 pairs, pinnules 15-20 pairs, oblong. Heads solitary or clustered. Flowers golden-yellow, with sweet odour. Pods cylindrical 6-8 cm. long, and 1.5 cm. broad, brown, slightly curved. H, NJ, E. 12 A. laeta R. Br. ex Benth. : A small glabrous glaucescent tree with hooked, dark prickles. Pinnae 2-3 pairs, each pinna with 3-5 pairs of pinnules. Spikes generally twice as long as leaves. Legume oblong, 6-8 cm. long and 3 mm. broad, brown, membranous. SH, S. 13 A. albida Del. : Tall tree up to 20 m. high with white branches. Pinnae 4-5 pairs with numerous small leaflets (7-12 pairs). Flowers white, fragrant. Legume yellow-brown to orange, coriaceous (not membranous), thick, pulpy, often becoming spirally twisted or falcate on ripening.

high, evergreen, glabrous, with drooping angled branches. Lower phyllodes 30 cm. long, upper 10-15 cm., linear- lanceolate. Flower heads golden yellow, about 6 mm. in diameter. Leaves blue-coloured.



upper lemon-coloured petal; filaments red, anthers orange.

4 ALBIZZIA Durazz Unarmed tree. Leaves bi pinnate. Leaflets in numerous pairs. Petiolar glands conspicuous. Flowers in globose heads or spikes. Stamens elongate, 10, usually white. Corolla funnel-shaped, connate beyond the middle. Fruit broadly linear, indehiscent or 2- valved, valves not twisted. 1 A. lebbec (L.) Benth. : A large much branched tree with bipinnate leaves, each having 5 pairs of pinnae. Pinnules of each pinna up to 9 pairs. Flowers small, greenish-white, with pleasant odour. Inflorescence stalked, axillary, globose heads. Stamens very long, up to 4 cm. and numerous. Fruit a dehiscent, flat, white, papery legume. NJ. 5 DELONIX Rafin Trees with bipinnate leaves. Pinnules numerous, small, Flowers irregular, not papilionaceous, large, showy, yellow or red, corymbose-racemose at the end of branches. Petals imbricate, posterior petal inside. Sepals 5 valvate, united forming a calyx tube. Corolla 5, unequal, stamens 10 free; ovary 1. Legume flat, broad, elongated, compressed, hard, at length brown, about 15 cm. long, filled between the seeds. 1 D. elata (Torner) Gamble ( = Poinciana eluta Torner): Small or medium-sized tree, with yellow wood. Pinnae 4-8 pairs, pinnules 10-14 pairs, oblong, obtuse. Petals crisp-margined, pure white, except the

NH, SH, S.

6 HAEMATOXYLON L. Trees with coloured wood and spiny branchlets. Leaves paripinnate or bipinnate. Leaflets in few pairs, obovate. Flowers small, yellow, racemes axillary. Sepals 5, imbricate, petals 5, oblong, spreading. Stamens 10; ovary unilocular, with 2-3 ovules. Fruit lanceolate, compressed, membranous, with suture along middle of valves. .1 H. campechianum L. : Prickly tree with small yellow flowers in axillary racemes and compressed membranous legumes. NJe, E. 7 CASSIA L. Shrubs and undershrubs, or, rarely (C. occidentalis) annual. Leaves once-paripinnate, leaflets in few pairs, obovate; rarely reduced to phyllodes. Stipules various, petiolar glands present. Flowers yellow, bisexual, in axillary or terminal racemes. Calyx tube short, 5-lobed. Corolla irregular, non papilionaceous (caesalpinioideae), imbricated, with posterior petal inward. Stamens 10, sometimes the upper (posterior) ones smaller and imperfect. Legume variable in shape, terete or compressed. 1 C. italica (Mill.) Lam. ex Steud ( = C. obovata Collad.): A blue-green undershrub, with soft branches from a woody base. Leaves


paripinnate with obtuse, obovate, short mucronate leaflets in 3-7 pairs. Flowers yellow, racemed caesalpinate. Legume transversely nerved, slightly curved, thin papery, 2-3 times as long as broad, with a crest of elevated projections along the middle on both sides. NH, N, S, NJ, NF, E, R. 2 C. holosericea Fres. ( = C. pubescens R. Br.): A velvety-pubescent shrubby plant with leaflets smaller and flowers twice as large as in the preceding species. Legume curved but shorter than in the preceding species, pubescent, not crested. NH, S, NJ. 3 C. senna L. ( = C. acutifolia Del., C. alexandrina (Mill.) Thell., Senna alexandrina Mill., S. acutifolia (Del.) Batka): Glabrous undershrub with lanceolate acute leaflets. Legume straight, thin, papery, smooth, not crested, 2-3 times as long as broad. SH.

margins, slightly curved, about 10 cm. long and 1 cm. broad, containing 30-40 seeds. SH. 8 TAMARINDUS Tourn. ex L. Big trees with paripinnate leaves and small leaflets in numerous pairs. Flowers yellowish, tinged with red. Calyx 4-segmented, imbricate and membranous. Petals 3, an upper large one and 2 lower small imbricate ones. Legume thick, indehiscent septate between seeds. 1 T. indica L. : Evergreen tree, up to 15 m. high, with a compact rounded crown of drooping branches often reaching near to the ground. Bark pale-grey, with scales. Leaves up to 15 cm. long, leaflets usually in 10-15 pairs, opposite, oblong, 1.2-2.5 cm. long, 5 mm. broad. Flowers in racemes. Sepals 4, petals 3, yellow streaked with red. Pod 10 cm. long. SH, S. 9 ANAGYRIS L.

C. occidentalis L. : Perennial plant with Tall shrubs with digitate trifoliate exstipulate leaves and united leaf-opposed stipules. Leaflets entire. Flowers papilionate, black-spotted, rather large yellow; pedicels 2-3 together, keel slightly longer than wings. Fruit broadly-linear, compressed. 1 A. foetida L. ( = A. neapolitana Ten.): Shrubs, 1-2 m. high, with 3-foliate leaves of elliptical, obtuse, entire leaflets. Flowers shortpedicelled in short clustered racemes on lateral branches.' Calyx broad, with 5 short triangular

compound perennial leaves about 20 cm. long. Leaflets usually in 4 pairs, lanceolate with acuminate apex, 3-8 cm. long and 1-3 cm. broad, the uppermost leaflets largest; stipules lanceolate. A gland is present at the base of the petiole. Inflorescence corymbose raceme, axillary or terminal. Flower yellow, about 2 cm. in diameter. Calyx 5, obovate, corolla 5, about 12 mm. long; stamens 7 fertile + 3 staminodes. Ovary hairy. Pod glabrous, long and narrow, linear-compressed with elevated


teeth. Corolla yellowish-green, with the standard black-spotted. Legume large, flat, often 2 cm. broad, curved, tapering at base into a stalk, Seeds violet. SH.

Leaves simple, very small. Flowers minute, racemed; standard red-striped. Legume ovoid, glabrous, 2-3 times as long as the calyx. NH, NJ, SH. 4 C. thebaica (Del.) DC. : Small villous

10 CROTALARIA L. Either herbs with digitate 3-foliate leaves or shrubs with simple or absent leaves; leaflets entire. Flowers papilionate, yellow or cream-coloured with beaked keel; keel sometimes mauve. Corolla deciduous. Legume unarmed, more than 5 mm. long, wingless, inflated, globose or oblong, beaked. Stamens connate, style incurved or inflated. Stipules small or absent. 1 C. retusa L. : Half-shrubby herb, 60-120 cm. high. Leaves obovate-oblanceolate, rounded or retuse at apex, 3cm. long. Flowers yellow with purple veining. Pod about 3 cm. long and 1.5 cm. broad, glabrous. NJ, E. 2 C. microphylla Vahl: Slender herb with narrow leaflets, 3-10 ram. long. Flowers small, peduncled. Standard yellow, keel white or yellow veined with mauve. Legume oblong. Leaves digitate trifoliate. Flowers 1-2 together, leaf opposed (no images were found in the web). NH, SH. 3 C. aegyptiaca Benth. : Shrubby plant growing on hummocks, with the branches stiff, glabrous or appressed, hairy, soon becoming spiny and leafless.

shrub, with stiff, nearly spinescent branches. Leaves small sessile, silky, simple. Flowers small, in racemes of 4-8 flowers each. Legume pubescent, subglobose, 4-6 mm. long, ending with the remains of the style (no images were found in the web). NJe. 5 C. aculeata De Wild. : A shrubby,

spinescent woody plant. Branches grey-hairy, cylindrical; all (even the flowering ones) tapering to sharp spines at the distal end. Leaves very minute, simple, soon deciduous. Flowers typically papilionaceous, widely spaced on long floral spiny branches; nodding, with a short looped pedicel about 1 cm. long. Calyx 5- parted, corolla pale-yellow. Legume inflated, of about pea size, ovoid with a long terminal stylar beak of more than half the length of the pod (no images were found in the web). SH.

11 LYGOS Adans.

Crotalaria retusa

Crotalaria aegyptiaca

Lygos raetam

Soon leafless unarmed desert shrubs, rarely shrub - lets or small trees. Leaves simple or absent, very small. Branches long, virgated, whip-like, furrowed, with sunken stomata and xeromorphic structures. Flowers papilionate, in subsessile terete racemose clusters. Calyx more or less dark and with short lobes, upper 2 sepals free, lower connate. Corolla white, standard ovate, keel oblong; stamens connate. Legume inflated, subglobose, 1-seeded, nearly indehiscent. 13 SCORPIURUS L. 1 L. raetam (Forssk.) Hey wood ( = Ratama raetam (Forssk.) Webb, Genista raetam Forssk.): Glabrescent, leafless, erect shrub.. Leaves small, simple, linear, or absent. Flowers in lateral racemose clusters. Standard as long as or longer than the wings. Fruit 1 cm. long, with a tapering tip; pericarp leathery, horny or parchment-like, indehiscent. Seeds brown to black. NH, NJe, E. 1 S. muricatus L. : Annual herb with simple oblong spathulate, entire, petioled acutely-tipped 12 ALHAGI Gagnebin Spiny shrubs or shrublets of green colour. Leaves simple entire, small, soon deciduous. Flowers solitary red, papilionate carried on the spines. Spines modified axillary branches bearing scale leaves, with sometimes flowers, and later fruits, in their axils. Legume swollen, terete, indehiscent, constricted between the seeds. 1 A. maurorum Medic. ( = A. mannifera Desv., Hedysarum alhagi L., Alhagi graecorum Boiss.): A v. subviilosus (L.) Fiori: Legumes not loosely twisted as in the type, but very closely twisted and densely covered with short prickles. Seeds short, reniform, striate. NH. leaves. Peduncle long, 2-3-flowered. Legumes muricate, loosely-coiled as to form one ring only, ribs smooth on the inner side; muricate with short conical tubercles on the back. E. Unarmed annual herbs with simple, entire, petioled leaves and partly adnate stipules. Tendrils absent. Flowers papilionate, yellow, in longpeduncled, few- flowered heads. Petals longclawed. Filaments connate. Legume subterete, twisted, constricted between the seeds, longitudinally furrowed with spiny or tubercled, rarely smooth ribs, indehiscent.

green spiny plant with strong, stiff, abundant spines. Leaves small, simple, entire, soon deciduous. Flowers red; calyx hairy. Pod blackish spongy, terete, constricted between the seeds. Common in waste land and along river and canal banks. Indicator of high-level water table. N, NJ, NH, E.




Perennial or annual herbs or shrubs, sometimes spiny. Leaves simple or compound trifoliate with serrate or dentate margin. Stipules herbaceous, adnate, bifid. In trifoliate leaves the terminal leaflet is generally the largest. Flowers solitary or 2-3 together on short brittle peduncles. Petals yellow, pink or white; keel beaked. Calyx deeply 5-cleft. Stamens connate. Legume oblong-ovate or linear, swollen, 2-valved. 1 O. reclinata L. : Glandular, villous annual herb with slender spreading stems. Leaves petioled, the lowest simple the upper trifoliate with serrate leaflets. Stipules ovate, dentate. Flowers 5 mm. long, forming a short leafy axillary raceme. Corolla purple, typically shorter than the long subulate calyx teeth. Legume pendulous, somewhat longer than calyx, hirsute, cylindrical, about 7 mm. long. E.

Herbs with trifoliate leaves. Leaves stipuled, but leaflets not stipuled, serrate or toothed. Flowers often small, yellow or violet, deciduous, exposing the legume. Flowers papilionate, keel shorter than wings, obtuse. Legumes spirally twisted, often spiny. 1 M. hispida Gaertn: Herbaceous plant up to 50 cm. high. Leaflets obcordate to obovate. Legume disc-shaped, 8 mm. broad, 2-4-coiled. SH, NJe.

2 M. lupulina L. : Pubescent annual or biennial plant, up to 50 cm. high. Leaflets obovate. Stipules ovate or toothed. Flowers yellow, small, numerous, in long-peduncled cylindrical heads. Legume small, 2 mm. broad, kidneyshaped with spirally twisted tip, unarmed. SH.

2 O. serrata Forssk. : Pubescent, prostrate or decumbent annual herb. Leaves rather long-petioled. Leaflets oblong to oblong-linear, acutely serrate. Corolla pink, slightly longer than the deeply cleft calyx. Calyx teeth longer than the tubular basal part. Legume ovate, 5 mm. long, hardly as long as the calyx. E.

3 M. orbicularis (L.) Bartal. : Glabrous annual herb. Leaves trifoliate, leaflets obcordate to obovate, denticulate at the apex. Stipules deeply fimbriated. Flowers yellow, 1-3 in shortpeduncled heads. Legume 10-15 mm. broad, lensshaped or orbicular, with entire acute margins. SH. 4 M. laciniata (L.) Mill. : Annual small glabrous herbs. Leaves trifoliate with small leaflets and dentate-laciniate stipules. Flowers yellow, papilionate, 2 mm. long. Peduncles 1-2-

Ononis reclinata

Ononis serrata

Medicago hispida

Medicago lupulina

Medicago orbicularis

Medicago laciniata

Alhagi maurorum

Scorpiurus muricatus


flowered, much longer than the leaves. Legume spiny, coiled with 4-5 rather loose coils. Margin of legume with 2 rows of awl-shaped, hooked diverging prickles at right angles to the face of the coil. N, NJe, E.

1 M. indica (L.) All. ( = M. parviflorus Desf.): Flowers 2-3mm. long, smaller than in any other species. Stipules entire, or nearly so. Flowers yellow. Legume globose, obtuse, irregularly wrinkled. Annual herb. Weed of cultivated land. NJ.

5 M. sativa L. : A pubescent plant, up to 80 cm. high, with obovate to linear leaflets, dentate at the apex. Flowers blue, violet or purple. Inflorescence dense short raceme up to 40-flowerd. Legume small, spineless, of 2 or 3 coils, NH, SH, N, S, NJe, NJw, NF, E.

2 M. alba Medic. : Tall, stiff biennial plant with small white flowers in lax elongated racemes. Legume smooth or slightly reticulate. SH, N, NJ, E.

6 M. aschersoniana Urb. ( = M. laciniata Mill, v. brachycantha Boiss.): Glabrous procumbent annual herb. Stipules rounded, equally dentate-laciniate. Small plant with small leaflets. Peduncles not exceeding the leaves. Flowers yellow, papilionate. Legume small, glabrous, globose, with 3-4 coils, spiny with the spines hooked at the apex. NH, SH, NJ, NF, E.

17 TRIGONELLA L. Annual herbs with peculiar smell. Leaves trifoliate stipulate, with dentate leaflets. Flowers papilionate small, yellow (rarely blue or white), usually umbelled, rarely solitary or in peduncled heads or racemes. Legume linear, long, flattened, mostly curved and compressed, rarely ovoid or broad flat. 1 T. cylindrica Desv. : Annual small herb, about 20 cm. high., with decumbent stems. Leaf-


lets narrow, sharply dentate, 4-5 mm. long. Flowers yellow, 7-8 in peduncled heads or racemes, 5 mm. long. Legumes racemed, cylindrical, curved, slender subulate, deflexed, 15-20 mm. long, 1.5 mm. broad, with long subulate tip. NJ.

Annual or biennial green herbs. Leaves trifoliate with dentate leaflets, stipules adnate to petiole. Flowers small, white or yellow, in elongated, narrow axillary and terminal racemes. Legume subglobose or ovoid 1-seeded, rarely 2-3-seeded. Herbs of characteristic smell.


2 T. stellata Forssk.

: Glabrescent prostrate

6 T. monantha C.A. Mey.

: Decumbent

diffuse annual herb. Leaves long-petioled; leaflets with minute shallow teeth, broad, obcordate. Flowers papilionate, several together in axillary clusters, nearly sessile, small, pale, 4 mm. long. Legume deflex- ed in star-shape, about 6 mm. long, 1 mm. broad, not exceeded by the stipules, curved. NH, NJe, E, N.

plant. Leaflets obovate-cuneate rounded at apex or oblong. Flowers solitary or rarely in pairs. Pods linear, 6 cm. long, 2 mm broad, terete E

7 T. foenum-graecum L. : Erect plant up to 50 cm. high. Leaflets obovate to oblong dentate towards tip. Flowers solitary, yellowish-white. Pods linear, 8-10 cm. long, tapering into a beak. Seeds numerous. SH, E.

3 T. anguina Del. : Prostrate, nearly smooth herb. Leaflets small rounded, slightly dentate; leaves long petioled; stipules semisagittate. Flowers several (4-7) together in axillary clusters, 3 mm. long, nearly sessile. Legumes sessile, about 8 mm. long, spreading in star-shape, wavy in shape like a crawling eel. Calyx shorter than corolla. NH, N, NJ, E.


Herbs with trifoliate leaves and papilionate 4 T. laciniata L. : Annual herb, 10-40 cm. high, sparingly pubescent or glabrescent, diffuse. Leaves and stipules sharply dentate-laciniate. Leaflets cuneate- obovate or obcordate. Head peduncled. Flowers yellow, 6 mm. long. Legume straight, about 7 mm. long and 3 mm. broad. 5 T. hamosa L. : Stout annual herb 30-40 cm. high, decumbent, nearly glabrous. Leaflets obovate cuneate, shallowly dentate. Peduncle as long as leaf, aristate. Heads spherical. Flowers 0.5 cm. long. Legume 0.8- 13 cm. long, 0.15 cm. broad, semi-circular with blunt tip. NJe, NJw. 1 T. fragiferum L. : Creeping perennial herb with erect peduncles. Leaflets entire or nearly so. Flowers white, later turning pink. Fruit-head inflated woolly. Flowering calyx 4-4.5 mm.; with teeth longer than tube, fruiting calyx 8-10 mm., hiding all or most of the persistent corolla (fragiferum: from fraga for "strawberry," fero to "bear,
carry, bring" ).

flowers in dense heads. Legume small, indehiscent, covered by the persistent withered calyx or corolla (Trifolium: from tres for three; folium for leaves ).


Melilotus albus Melilotus indica (up & down photo)

Trigonella cylindrical (A)

Trigonella stellate (B,C,D)

Trigonella hamosa

Trigonella monantha

Trigonella foenum-graecum

Trifolium fragiferum

Trifolium procumbens


2 T. procumbens L. Annual herb with yellow flowers. Peduncles once-twice as long as the compact head Middle leaflet stalked. SH. Dwarf herb. Leaves digitately 3-foliate minute; stipules solitary unilateral flowers papilonate, small, cream-coloured clustered in subsessile, axillary clusters. Upper 4 calyx lobes 19 ARGYROLOBIUM Eckl. et Zeyher connate in pairs, the lowermost free. Corolla 6-7 mm. long, Legume unarmed, oblong, linear, 5 Silky herbs or rarely small shrubs with trifoliate leaves and entire leaflets. Stipules small or absent, free. Flowers papilionate small, yellow, with the standard orbicular, either arranged in terminal clusters- or solitary or racemed on leaf-opposed peduncles. Calyx divided to the base into 2 limbs, an upper bifid and a lower 3-toothed limb,. Legume unarmed, flattened torulose.
1 A. uniflorum (Decne) Jaub. et Sp. (Cytisus
uniflorum Decne): Silvery shrublet 10-15 cm. high, with

20 LOTONONIS (DC.) Eckl. et Zeyher

mm. long, several-seeded, 2-valved. Aspect of a small Lotus 1 L. platycarpa (Viv.) P.-serm. (= L. leobordea Benth., L. dichotoma (Del.) Boiss.): Annual or perennial herb, often villous. Corolla 6-7 mm. long. Legume 5 mm. long, with scabrous punctate seeds. NH, SH.

solitary, leaf-opposed flowers and spreading rigid branches. Leaflets hairy on both sides, oblong to oblong-linear, acute. Flowers 4 mm. long; legume 6-10-seeded. SH, S, N. 2 A. abyssinicum Jaub. et Sp. : Green, herbaceous, annual, slender herb, branched from the base, 15-50 cm. high. Leaflets glabrous above. Flowers pale yellow, in short-stalked, 2-3-flowered racemes (no images were found in the web). SH.

21 PSORALEA L. Grey-hairy canescent glandular dotted perennial plants with trifoliate leaves and small violet or rose- coloured papilionate flowers in racemes or heads. Leaflets dentate or serrate. Legume small, rounded, mostly 1-seeded, not spirally twisted. 1 P. plicata Del. : Grey-hairy canescent shrub, with repand, undulated leaves. Flowers in whorls of 2-3, together forming lax axillary racemes. Legume small, 1-seeded, beakless.

Argyrolobium uniflorum

Lotononis platycarpa

Lotononis platycarpa

Psoralea plicata


22 TAVERNIERA DC. Leaves small, simple or 3-foliate with entire leaflets. Stipules very small or absent. Flowers yellow or flesh-coloured, 1-2 together, axillary. Legume of 2-3 flattened, elliptical, bristly joints. 1 T. aegyptiaca Boiss. : Small shrubby plant, with virgate branches up to 30 cm. long. Leaves few, simple, entire, orbicular, with rounded apex, 5-10 mm. long and broad. Flowers short-pedicelled; calyx hairy, corolla flesh-coloured, about 1 cm long, often still adhering to the developing fruit (no images were found in the web). E.

2. Leaves simple or compound (alternate leaflets, leaflets 2-4), pod slightly curved............ I. oblongifolia Not so....a a. Flowers racemes not exceeding the leaves 1.Leaflets 3-5, rarely 7 or1................ I. articulata 2.Leaflets 4-8............................. I. argentea

b. Flowers raceme long, much exceeding the leaves.......................... I. tritoides B. Annual herb................................I. sessiliflora

1 I. spinosa Forssk. : Silvery spiny shrubs, with patent, glossy, needle-like, red or yellow sharp spines. Flowers papillionate, fleshcoloured, 2-4 together borne above the middle of

23 INDIGOFERA L. Hairy or spiny shrubs or herbs. Leaves simple or compound imparipinnate, of one or several pairs of leaflets, or digitate 3-foliate. Flowers papilionate, either solitary or in axillary racemes. Wings slightly coherent with the spurred keel. Anthers with glands at the tip. Legume often narrow, linear, terete transversely septate between the seeds. The plant often white woolly. Indigofera key to species A. Perenial Shrubs: 1. spiny shrubs............. I. spinosa Not so....2

the spines. Leaves mostly trifoliate. Pod not torulose. NH, SH, S, NJw, NJe, NF.

2 I. argentea L. : Silvery, 0.5-1.0 m. high shrubs. Leaves compound pinnate, with 2-4 pairs of leaflets. Leaflets opposite, obtuse. Flowers in short axillary racemes not exceeding the leaves. Legumes short, thick, tubercled, with 3-4 big globose seeds. SH. 3 I. oblongifolia Forssk. (= I. lotoides Lam. I. paucifolici Del., I. desmodioides Bak.) : Unarmed shrublet with grey branches. Leaves simple or compound pinnate, with 1-2 pairs of alternate


leaflets. Flowers in rather short racemes. Legume terete up to 2 cm. long. SH, S.

short, thick, tubercled-looking, with 2-4 large globose seeds; dorsal and ventral sutures narrow. NJ.

4 I. sessiliflora DC. (= I. tribuloides Boiss., I. arabica and trigonelloides. sensus Bak., non Jaub. et Sp.): Richly branched, unarmed annual herb, with stiff branches. Flowers in small, dense axillary sessile clusters, minute, with pink corolla not exceeding the calyx. Leaflets small, in 3-5 pairs. Legume 1 cm. long. SH. Shrublets or herbs. Seedlings of some of the herbaceous species germinate within the fruit. Leaves imparipinnate, up to 10-paired, leaflets entire. Flowers papilionate, solitary or in axillary racemes or spikes. Fruit either orbicular, hairy, or 5 I. tritoides Back. (= I. tenuisiliqua Schweinf., I. leptocarpa Hochst. et St.): Unarmed silvery shrublet. Leaves small, trifoliate with small obovate leaflets with acute apex. Flowers small, racemed, turned upside down; raceme long, much exceeding the leaves. Pedicel of the same length as the calyx, more elongated in the fruit. Legume terete, nearly straight, up to 4 cm. long and 1.5 mm. broad, with a mucro. SH, NH, E. 6 I. articulata Gouan. ( = I. glauca Lam., 1 thick, ovoid with prickly-aristate margins. 1 O. ptolemaica ( Del. ) DC. ( = Hedysarum ptolemaicum Del.): Villous perennial herb, with the stems ascending from the neck. Leaves compound pinnate with 4-8 pairs of oblong to elliptical leaflets. Racemes long, many-flowered. Flowers papilionate, large, many-flowered. Corolla yellow, 1.5 cm. long, with brown stripes; wing horse-shoe-shaped. Legume orbicular, densely woolly, about 1 cm. in diameter, disc and margin with minute prickles. NH, NJ. 24 ONOBRYCHIS Adans.

tinctoria sensus Forssk., non L., I. argentea sensus Bak. non Sensus L. pp., non Burm. f.): Silvery shrub 50-100 cm. high. Leaflets 3-5, rarely 7 or 1, opposite obtuse, silky-hairy on both surfaces, large (1-4 cm. long). Flowers small, flesh-coloured, in short axillary racemes not exceeding the leaves. Legume terete,

25 VICIA L. Herbs, usually climbing by means of leaf tendrils. Leaves paripinnate usually ending with a

Indigofera spinosa

Indigofera argentea

Indigofera oblongifolia

Indigofera articulata


tendril, rarely the tendril reduced. Leaflets more than 2, stem wingless. Stipules much smaller than leaflets. Flowers papilionate, often blue or yellowish, in axillary racemes. Standard notched, wings adherent to the keel, stigma hairy near the tip. Legume flattened, many- seeded, 2-valved. 1 V. peregrina L. : Climbing annual herb. Leaflets narrow linear to almost capillary, retuse. Flowers solitary, very short-pedicelled, purple, papilionate; calyx teeth much unequal. Legume hairy, rarely glabrous. Seeds marblous. NH, E.

long and 1 cm. broad, with a short curved beak, many seeded. Pedicel longer than calyx. E.


Herbs or shrublets. Leaves imparipinnate, with 2 pairs of leaflets and a terminal one, the lower pair close to the stem and appears as modified leafy stipules, being as large as the other leaflets. Leaflets entire. Flowers solitary or in umbels, yellow, purple, pink, red or rarely white, papilionate with the keel beaked. Fruit linear-oblong, terete, 2 -valved.

2 V. sativa L. : Annual herbs climbing by tendrils. Leaves compound pinnate, stipulate, with several pairs (5-6 pairs) of oblong-linear leaflets. Leaflets narrow, few mm. broad. Stipules dentate. Flowers 1-2, papilionate; calyx regular, of 5 equal large teeth; corolla 2 cm. long, violet (rarely white). Legume rather long and narrow, brown or yellowbrown, glabrous, contracted between the seeds. Seeds 3.5-6.5 mm. across. SH, S.

1 L. glinoides Del. (= L. trigonelloides Webb, L. arabicus v. trigonelloides (Webb) Webb) : A small prostrate annual herb up to 20 cm. high. Leaves short-petioled, imparipinnate, of 5 leaflets of which the 2 lower ones stipule-like; leaflets obovate. Flowers pink, very small, umbelled with 1-2 (rarely 3-4) flowers in each umbel. Length of legume 14-20 mm., rarely up to 25 mm. Peduncle much shorter than the subtending leaf. NH.

3 V. monantha Retz., non Desf. (= V. calcaruta Desf., V. biflora Desf., non Boiss.): Sparingly hairy to glabrous annual herb, ascending or erect, often rather rigid, up to 50 cm. high. Tendrils present. Leaves compound pinnate with 5-8 pairs of linear to oblong, obtuse leaflets. Stipules small, 2-parted. Raceme lax, shorter than leaf, 2-4-or more-flowered, occasionally 1-flowered. Legume flattened, 4 cm.

2 L. pusillus Medic. ( = L. villosus Forssk.) : Small silvery pubescent herb, with narrow elliptical leaflets. Flowers lemon-yellow, usually 1-2 on each peduncle. Legume 1-1.5 mm. broad.


N, NJ, E. 3 L. garcinii DC. : A small grey-canescent

6 L. Ialambensis Schweinf. ( = L. arabicus v. glabrescens Schweinf., L. brachycarpus v. Ialambensis (Schweinf.) Brand): Annual or perennial herb with rose-coloured flowers in umbels of numerous (up to 7) flowers each. Flowers papilionate and leaflets 5 of which the lower 2 stipule-like. Pods linear, clustered terete, 4 cm. long, articulated between the seeds. Peduncle long, about 6 cm., as long as or longer than the subtending leaf. Plant not villous. Umbels axillary. Ovules about 30 in each ovary. NH, SH.

shrublet looking like Crotalaria. Leaflets minute, 1-2 mm. long. Flowers papilionate solitary, sessile, without bracts. Calyx villous, cleft' to the base, exceeding the small corolla. N. E.

4 L. arabicus L. ( = L. roseus Forssk., L. mossamedensis Welw. ex Bak., L. glinoides sensu Bak., non Del.): Tall annual herb, with prostrate or ascending much branched stems. The plant is soft, minutely adpressed-hairy. Leaves imparipinnate, with 5 leaflets, of which the lower 2 stipule-like; leaves shortpetioled and leaflets wedge-shaped obovate. Flowers 8-9 mm. long in long-peduncled 3-flowered umbels; peduncle nearly twice as long as the leaf. Corolla pink, standard obovate. Legume thick, straight, 2-3 cm. long, glabrous, terete. SH.

7 L. halophilus Boiss. et Sprun. in Boiss. ( = L. villosus Forssk., non Burm., L. pusillus Viv., non Medic., L. aucheri Boiss., L. pusillus v. major Boiss.): Annual small silvery pubescent herb, with narrow elliptical leaflets about equal in size. Flowers small, lemon yellow, 5-8 mm. long, usually 1-2 on a slender peduncle longer than the leaf. Calyx 2-lipped, with unequal teeth. Legume 1-1.5 mm. broad, curved at the tip, slightly compressed, torulose, with small globose, dull seeds. 27 CLITORIA L. Shrubs or herbs of twining or climbing habit. Leaves imparipinnate, 2-to 3-paired, terminating with a leaflet. Stipules persistent; all the leaflets supported by 2 small setaceous stipules. Flowers purplish blue, white or red, solitary or racemed. Standard large, keel shorter than wings, ovary stipitate. Legume linear, compressed, 2-valved.

5 L. lanuginosus Vent. : Perennial woolly, densely villous densely leafy plant, growing stiffly upright. Leaflets 5, orbicular, less than 7-8 mm. long, of which the lower 2 stipule-like. Petiole much shorter than the leaflets. Flowers large, purple, papilionate, with the standard oblong-linear, arranged in 3flowered umbels. N, E.


1 C. ternatea L. : Perennial plant with big leaflets up to 5 cm. long, shortly pubescent beneath. Flower solitary in the leaf-axils, short peduncled, 4-5 cm. long, dark-blue but occasionally white with orange coloured throat Calyx with 2 large bracts at the base. Legume flat, linear, beaked, up to 10 cm. long, pubescent. SH.

5-lobed, corolla yellowish inside, striped on the outside, with dark tapering nerves. Legume oblong, up to 15 mm. long and 5 mm. broad, softly pubescent, 2-seeded. NJ.

29 HYMENOCARPOS Savi 28 RHYNCHOSIA Lour. Twining perennials with trifoliate leaves. Leaflets stipuled, entire, with glandular dots below. Leafstipules ovate. Flowers yellow, rarely purple, in axillary racemes. Legume small flat not partitioned, 2seeded. 1 R. minima (L.) DC. : Green herb with very slender twining stems. Leaves glabrous, 3-foliate. Leaves rhombic-ovate. Flowers papilionate, in rich racemes. Legume oblong, 2-seeded, 1.5 cm. long, soon getting glabrous. Seeds mottled with black. SH, S, NJe, E. v. memnonia (Del.) Cooke ( = R. memnonia (Del.) DC.): Brownish-green twiner or erect herb, or prostrate; minutely pubescent with very slender stems. Leaves trifoliate stipulate, densely brown- canescent, with more or less stipuled leaflets. Leaflets rhombic-ovate, 7-10 mm. long, with prominent nerves on the lower surface, the terminal leaflet in each leaf being the largest. Flowers small, 8-9 mm. long, arranged in rich axillary racemes. Calyx brown, 30 HIPPOCREPIS L. 2 H. circinnatus (L.) Savi ( = Medicago circinnata L.) : Differs from the preceding mainly in the margin of the legume being crenate, prickly. NJ. Annual prostrate herbs. Leaves imparipinnate or the lower 2-foliate and the upper 4-foliate, with the terminal leaflet largest. Flowers small, yellow, 2-4 together in axillary peduncled heads. Standard orbicular, keel inflexed, clawed. Fruit spirally coiled, broadly flattened, orbicular, 2seeded, indehiscent. 1 H. nummularius (DC.) G. Don. : Soft pubescent annual herb with small orange-yellow flowers. Margin of legume entire. Peduncle shorter than leaves. NJe, E.


Annual herbs with imparipinnate leaves of many pairs of leaflets, and terminated by a leaflet. Leaflets not stipuled. Flowers papilionate, yellow, nodding, in axillary pedunculate umbels, or 1-2 in leaf-axils. Petals long, clawed, keel incurved, beaked. Legume indehiscent, ribbon-like, curved, jointed, flattened, with numerous horse-shoe or circular cuts along the margin on the outer side, formed by the more or less ring-like seeds. 1 H. bicontorta Loisel ( = H. cornigera Boiss.): Hairy decumbent plant with imparipinnate leaves, leaflets 3-5 pairs, linear retuse. Flowers papilionate, rather large, on 2-4-fIowered peduncles. Legume more or less circular, forming one or 2 circular turns; each sinus of the legume ending in 2 elongated, divergent, narrow horns on the outer margin.

3 H. constricta Kunze (H. elegantula Hochst., H. ciliata non Willd.): Annual small prostrate herb. Leaves imparipinnate with 2-3 pairs of elliptic obtuse leaflets. Legume almost straight with the sinuses on the slightly concave margin. Pod separating into joints at maturity in contrast to other species in which the pod is deciduous as a unit. NH.

4 H.




multisiliquosa non L.): Annual herbs with small flowers, few together. Legume forming one or more circular turns, usually hairy but sometimes glabrous. NJe, NJw.

N, NJe, NF, E. 5 H. multisiliquosa L. : Annual herb, 2 H. unisiliquosa L. ( = H. bisiliqua Forssk., H. unisiliquosa v. bisiliqua (Forssk.) Bornm., H. biflora sensu Boiss., non spreng.,//. ciliata non willd.): Annual herbs with decumbent glabrescent stems. Leaflets 35 pairs, wedge-oblong to linger. Flowers axillary, nearly sessile, usually twin together. Cuttings of legume more numerous than in other species, usually 812 cuttings facing the inner concave margin. Rings of seeds nearly complete, unlike in other species. Pods straight or but slightly curved. NJe, E. 31 ASTRAGALUS L. taller than other species. Leaves 4-7-paired, flowers many together, legume usually not forming a complete circle. Seeds (the elevated ring around each sinus) reaching the inner margin of legume. NJ.


Shrublets or herbs, sometimes spiny. Leaves compound pinnate, with several pairs of leaflets, and with or without a terminal leaflet. Leaflets entire. Stipules free or adnate. Flowers papilionate violet or purple to white or yellow, racemed or in sessile axillary clusters; keel usually equal to wings. Legumes dark, glabrous many-seeded, with the upper margins inflexed, thus making the inner space more or less 2-roomed.

Legume curved, without spots, glabrous, wrinkled, ending in a short curved mucro, ventral surface slightly netted, wrinkled. NJ, E.

3 A. hamosus L. : Annual prostrate or ascending herb. Leaves with many pairs of oval or oblong leaflets. Stipules connate, membranous. Racemes of 4-15 or more flowers. Flowers yellow, hardly exceeding the calyx. Calyx tubular with subulate teeth longer than the calyx tube. Legume coriaceous, much curved in the shape of a fish-hook, 3-4.5 cm long and 2 mm. broad, finally terete, swollen, almost circular. Ovules many. E.

A. Annual herbs

1 A. corrugatus Bert: Green, prostrate or erect, almost glabrous herb. Leaves with 5-8 pairs of linear retuse leaflets; stipules short and membranous. Inflorescence axillary raceme of 1-4 flowers. Calyx membranous whitish, corolla whitish. Legumes wrinkled (the only annual species with wrinkled legumes), glabrous, dark, mucronate, remote on long peduncles exceeding the subtending leaves. v. brevipes Post: Similar to the type, except that the peduncles are shorter than the subtending leaves. Associated with the type. NH, NJ, E. 2 A. tenuirugis Boiss. (= A. corrugatus v. tenuirugis Coss. & Karl.): Close to A. corrugatus but calyx teeth one-third of the calyx tube. Hairy procumbent plant. Leaflets wedge oblong in 6-7 pairs. Racemes 1-5-flowered. Peduncles as long as leaf.

4 A, asterias Stev. ex Ledeb. ( = A. cruciatus, A. stella Bieb, non Gouan, A. trabutianus Batt.): Grey-hairy plant, with procumbent or ascending stems. Leaves compound pinnate, with 6-10 pairs of elliptical leaflets. Heads 3-6 flowered on 1-3 cm. long peduncles. Flowers 8-10 mm. long; corolla 7-8 mm. long, white or bluish-purple; calyx hairy. Legumes in groups of 2-6 together, spreading in starshape, each legume 12-14 mm. long, hairy, slightly curved, more or less triangular. SH, NJe, NF, E.

5 A. annularis Forssk.

: Pubescent diffuse

small herb. Leaflets 2-4 pairs, obtuse, obovate. Racemes 2-4-flowered. Flowers small, pale purple. Legume 4-5cm. long, 2mm. broad, curved, red-


spotted (the only red-spotted species), semicircular to circular, ending in a short point, bristly and by time glabrous mottled with red. E, R, NJ.


9 A. vogelii (Webb) Bornm. ( = A. prolixus Sieb. ex Bge): Grey annual canescent plant with small yellow flowers in elongated racemes. Calyx

6 A. schimperi Boiss. : Procumbent annual black- and white-hairy with the teeth shorter than herb. Leaves with 4-8 pairs of oblong elliptical the tube; corolla 3 mm. long. Legume linear, small leaflets; leaflet pairs often less numerous than in A. and straight, turgid membranous, not exceeding 8 asterias and A. sinaicus. Legume and often the mm. in length, whole plant villous of spreading hairs. Flowers 8 mm. long in 2-6- flowered peduncled umbels. Legume spreading, nearly terete, densely villous, 1.5-2 cm. long, linear-oblong. NJ, E. 7 A. bombycinus Boiss. : Prostrate annual herb, loosely clothed with wavy white wool. Leaflets 6-12 pairs, minute, often crowded. Root thick. Flowers racemed. Calyx white woolly, corolla 11 A. peregrinus Vahl: Prostrate loosely whitewhite. Legume oblong-lanceolate, thick, only 3-4 villous annual herb with oblong leaflets. Racemes times as long as broad, about 2 cm. long and 7-8 rather loose, 3-5-flowered. Calyx with mixed black mm. broad. E. and white hairs, corolla white or purplish. Standard short, acute. Legume straight or slightly curved, lanceolate, large, 8 cm. long and 6 mm. thick, vil8 A. dactylocarpus Boiss. : Biennial plant, ascending. Leaves 10-15 cm. long with rigid petiole, finally subspiny, carrying 10-15 pairs of small oval orbicular leaflets; upper surface glabrous, lower hispid. Stipules triangular. Racemes subses12 A. tribuloides Del. ( = Oxyglottis tribuloides sile, with 1-2 flowers. Corolla, 4-5 cm. long 4-6 (Del.) Nevski): Small annual silvery-hairy herb, mm. broad, sessile, pubescent, attenuated at the prostrate and branched from the neck. Leaflets 6-10 apex. Valves persistent. pairs, elliptical-oblong. Umbels axillary, sessile or subsessile. 6-10-flowered; flowers bluish-white, up lous, of tubercle-based hairs, acute, grooved on the back. E. 10 A. sinaicus (Boiss. ( = A. pseudostella Boiss. non Del.): Hairy annual herb with prostrate stems. Leaves 6-8-paired. Flowers in subsessile umbels. Legume villous, 1-1.4 cm. long. N, E. NH, SH.


to 15 mm. long. Legumes adpressed hairy, in starshaped clusters, slightly curved, oblong-triangular, with acute apex and auricled base. NH, NJ, N, E.


B. Perennial Spineless Plants 13 A. eremophilus Boiss. : Grey prostrate 16 A. abyssinicus (Hochst.) Steud. ex A. Rich. : Shrubby herb, up to 1.5 m., with erect, glabrous, very thick stems. Leaves sessile with elliptic, oblong, glaucous green leaflets. Flowers red or purple in long racemes. Legume linear, 2.5 cm. long, divided inside by a longitudinal membrane. S. annual herb, villous all over with spreading hairs. Leaflets few, 3-6 pairs, obovate, retuse, 4-6 mm. long. Flowers small racemed, pale sulphur-yellow. Racemes loosely -2 4-flowered; standard little longer than keel; calyx with only white hairs. Legume villous, 2-5 cm. long, 3 mm. thick, flattened, slightly falcate to semi-circular, acute, narrow, 810 times as long as broad. NH. 17 A. kahiricus DC. : Tall stout plant. Leaves 14 A. gyzensis Del. : Small grey puberulent spreading annual herb. The only annual species, besides A. annularis with few (1-3 or 4) pairs of leaflets. Leaflets broad, elliptical to ellipticaloblong, silvery canescent on both sides, the terminal leaflet longer. Flowers white. Racemes shortpeduncled, loosely -3 5-flowered. Legume short, but more than 2 cm. in length, curved, adpressed hairy, not spotted. NJe, NF. C. Spiny Shrublets with orbicular leaflets in 5-8 pairs. Flowers yellow, in dense axillary racemes. Leaflets glabrous above, white-canescent beneath. Legume small, included within the persistent inflated calyx. NJ, SH, E.

18 A. sieberi DC. : Spiny shrublet, up to 50 cm. high. Stem white-woolly, short leafy canescent. Leaflets very small, 3-5 mm. long, ovate or orbicular, in 20-25 pairs, on elongated, later frutescent spiny petioles. Legume woody, acuminate, oblong, 5cm. long and 8 mm. broad, tapering into a stout beak.

15 A. stella Gouan ( = A. acutifolius DC., ex Steud., A. radiatus Stev., Stella radiata Fourr.): Annual herbs, with numerous yellow flowers, 7-8 mm. long. Peduncles long and legumes smaller than in A. asterias. Legume adpressed hairy. Flowers umbelled.

LEGUMINOSAE SH, NJe. Jaub. et Sp., T. pogonostigma Boiss., T. arabica (Boiss.) Martelli): Perennial, tall, erect plant with 19 A. spinosus (Forssk.) Muschl. ( = A. the stem and petioles adpressed hairy. Leaves 3forsskalei Boiss., A. tumidus. Willd.): Spiny cushion- foliate, only the lowermost ones 2-3-paired. Leafshrublet, up to 50cm. high Leaves with 4-5 pairs of lets narrow, acute. Corolla pink. leaflets, of 2 kinds: long ones forming long spines NH, SH. and short axillary ones forming short spines after shedding of their leaflets. Fruit calyx globose, inflated. Legume small, included within the persistent inflated calyx. N, NJ, E. 3 T. quartiniana Cuf. ( = T. vicioides Rich., non Schlechtend.): Small, herbaceous perennial procumbent plant, 40-60 cm. high, with grey pubescent branches. Leaves with 3-4 pairs of obovate to obcordate, silky leaflets, up to 1.2 cm. long with emarginate apex. Corolla pink, Legume villous, 2.5 cm. long and 3-4 mm. broad. 32 TEPHROSIA Pers. Shrubs, shrublets or herbs. Leaves imparipinnate SH, S. 4 T. ehrenbergiana Schweinf. ( = T. villosa

with many pairs of leaflets and ending in a leaflet. non (L.) Pers.): Perennial plants. Leaves with 6Leaflets with close parallel nerves oblique to the 10 pairs of leaflets. Flowers in terminal and latmidrib silky beneath. Racemes lax, terminal. Flow- eral lax racemes. Corolla reddish, standard denseers papilionate red, purple or white. Petals clawed, ly hairy on the outside. standard hairy outside. Legume linear, compressed, NH. 2-valved, not septate between the seeds. 5 T. apollinea (Del.) Link: Erect, stiff, silvery 1 T. nubica (Boiss.) Baker ( = Pogonostigma plant. Leaves with 2-4 pairs of leaflets. Flowers nubicum Boiss., P. abyssinicum Jaub. et Sp., T. nubi- forming elongated racemes on axillary peduncles. ca v. abyssinica Schweinf.): Tall, stout, erect plant Calyx, corolla, and legume minutely adpressedwith the stem and petioles spreadingly hairy. All the hairy to glabrescent. Calyx teeth as long as tube. leaves 3-4-paired; leaflets obtuse. Calyx and legume Legume long and narrow, many-seeded. villous, corolla pink. NH, SH, S. 2 T. nubica (Boiss.) Baker ssp. arabica (Boiss.) Gillett ( = Pogonestigma arabicum Boiss., P. boivini NJ. 6 T. purpurea (L.) Pers. : Perennial plants

with imparipinnate, 6-8-paired leaves. Flowers racemed. Calyx, corolla and legume minutely adpressed-hairy. Calyx teeth longer than tube.

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE LYTHRACEAE RHIZOPHORACEAE COMBRETACEAE MYRTACEAE Order 21. ARI STOLOCHIALES Fam. 58. ARISTOLOCHIACEAE A. Juss. 1 ARISTOLOCHIA L. Trailing herbs with alternate, entire cordate-based leaves. Flowers solitary, pedicelled, axillary. Corolla absent, calyx petaloid, tubular inserted on top of the ovary, dilated and variously bent in the lower part, ending upwards in a single flat limb. Flowers shortpedicelled, green to yellow-brown. Fruit a capsule. 1 A. bracteolata Lam. ( = A. bracteata Retz.): Leaves broadly cordate, 6-7 cm. broad, petiolate; petioles 2-3 cm. long. Flowers on short pedicels, green to yellow-brown, limb narrow, purple. Perennial. SH. 1. R. mucronata Lam. : Woody and much Mangrove sea-shore shrubs or trees. Leaves coriaceous, alternate, simple, entire. Inflorescence axillary. Fam. 61. COMBRETACEAE 1 COMBRETUM L. Grey-coloured trees with smooth bark. Leaves opposite or subopposite. Flowers 4-merous, petals yellowish or green, anthers with numerous pollen sacs. Ovary 2-celled, inferior, with the seeds germinating in the fruit before falling. Fam. 60. RHIZOPHORACEAE R. Br. 1 RH1ZOPHORA L. 1 L. hyssopifolia L. : Stem densely leafy, usually erect. Lower leaves oblong to linearoblong, upper ones ascending or slightly spreading. Blue-green plants with distinct calyx teeth. Flowers with 6 stamens, the outer calyx teeth long, the inner minute triangular. Petals 1.5 times as long as the calyx. All stamens included. S.

branched shrub or tree on muddy sea shores. Leaves simple, petioled, leathery, shiny, elliptic or ovatelanceolate, broadly pointed at the apex, entire, deciduous or persistent, 11-12 cm. long and about 5 cm. broad. Flowers few, elongate, axillary, perfect, regular, with 4 oblong coriaceous sepals. Petals entire, hairy inside, orange-coloured. Stamens long. Always mixed with Avicennia. SH, S. Order 22. MYRTIFLORAE Fam. 59. LYTHRACEAE Jaune St-Hil. 1 LYTHRUM L. Annual or perennial herbs with opposite or alternate leaves. Flowers pink or purple in a leafy terminal spike. Calyx tubular cylindrical 8-12-toothed. Petals 4 -6, stamens 8-12 or fewer.

1 C. molle R. Br. ex Don. : Trees up to 12 m. high- Leaves elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, with acute or acuminate apex. Flowers yellow, spiked. Fruit small. S.


Fam. 62. MYRTACEAE 1 EUCALYPTUS L'Herit. Cultivated Australian trees, with alternate, rigid, lanceolate, petioled, entire leaves with acute apex. Flowers epigynous. Perianth united to form a lid or cap, which opens transversely. Fruit a capsule. 1 E. rostrata Schlecht ( = E. camaldulensis Dehnh.): A cultivated tree reaching a height of several meters and a considerable thickness of the trunk in old trees. Leaves narrow-lanceolate, simple, entire, with characteristic transparent dots. Flowers small, yellowish-green, epigynous. Fruit a small, beaked capsule, up to 5 mm. long, opening by 4 apical narrow slits. NH, NJ. Fam. 63. ONAGRACEAE A. Juss. 1 EPILOBIUM L. Perennial hairy plants growing in marshy places. Flowers red. Perianth in 2 whorls, 4-fid; stamens 8. Capsule narrow, siliquose, inferior, splitting lengthwise into 4 parts. Seeds with a tuft of long hairs at the apex. 1 E. hirsutum L. : Softly hairy perennial herb. Stems erect leafy from a creeping rootstock. Leaves sessile, lanceolate, serrate, Flowers 2 cm. broad in a terminal leafy raceme. Perianth 4-fid. S.

Fam. 64. CYNOMORIACEAE Lindl. 1 CYNOMORIUM L. Fleshy blackish red leafless prostrate herb, destitute of chlorophyll and living as parasite. Flowers small, crowded on a fleshy club-shaped spadix, male, female and bisexual flowers being mixed together on the same spadix. Perianth segments 1-5, linear spathulate; stamen 1, fruit nutlike. 1 C. coccineum L. : Blackish-red fleshy parasitic plant, parasitising salt-marsh and maritime sand plants, up to 30 cm. high. Inflorescence spike of crimson colour, little broader than the stem. N, NJe, NJw, E. R.

Order 23 UMBELLALES Fam. 65. ARALIACEAE 1 HEDERATourn. ex L. A vine climbing on rocks and walls by small stiff root tendrils' coming out from branches. Flower 5-merous; fruit a berry, crowned with scars of calyx lobes. 1 H. helix L. : Leaves angled, 5-lobed, those of flowering branches entire, rhombic, glabrous, glossy. Umbels panicled. Fruit 5 mm. in diameter, globular, black. SH.


Fam. 66. UMBELLIFERAE A. Juss. A. Leaves undivided, with entire margin. Flowers irregularly arranged B. Not so. 1 Umbel rays woolly, hermaphrodite flowers sessile, surrounded by male flowers 2 Umbel rays not woolly. a. Leafless aspect, desert shrub b. Pituranthos 3 Pycnocycla 2 Bupleurum 1

Leafy herbs. *Bracteoles absent. +Fruit flattened, winged. .Wing broad membranous Peucedanum 4 ..Wing narrow Anethum 5 ++Fruit not so. . Flowers white. Fruit ovoid hairy, leaves once or twice 3-parted Pimpinella 6 =Fruit glabrous, ribs of mericarp 5 Apium 7 ..Flowers yellow, leaf segments filiform. Fruit broad, flat Ferula 8 =Fruit oblong linear Ridolfia 9 **Bracteoles present. +Fruit with prickly ribs. .Flowers white or yellowish, hispid herb Daucus 10 . .Flowers white or reddish Torilis 11 ...Flowers whitish-pink, involucre of spiny-tipped bracts, involucel of spiny shorter bracteoles, fruitlets of secondary umbels aggregated before ripening, later separating into spiny units Echinosciadium 12 ++Fruits not prickly. .Fruit cylindrical, ovoid or globular. Bracts present, flowers white, weed Ammi 13 =Bracts absent or deciduous, cultivated herb, fruit globoid Coriandrum 14 ..Fruit flat, broad. Plant glabrous, leaf segments narrow Ducrosia 15 =Plant hairy. i. Fruit hairy mericarp, margin winged Zosima 16 ii. Fruits glabrous, not all similar Tordylium ...Fruit ovoid, small, laterally compressed, with prominent filiform ridges Ammoides 18


1 BUPLEURUM L. Herbs or shrubs with undivided entire leaves and yellow or yellowish-green flowers. Fruit laterally flattened, ribs of mericarp 5. 1 B. semicompositum Hojer ( = B. glaucum Robill et Cast.): Small annual herb, with spreading umbels. Leaves narrow, linear, not perfoliate. Bracts and bracteoles narrowly linear-lanceolate, herbaceous, the bracteoles much exceeding the flowers. E. 2 B. falcatum L. v. linearifolium (Boiss.) Tackh. ( = B. exaltatum v. linearifolium Boiss., B. linearifolium v. schimperianum Boiss.): Tall shrubby plant with slender virgate, sparingly leafy or naked branches. Umbels few in a naked, lax, irregular panicle, bracts deciduous. In mountains. NH, SH.

with many short rays making the umbel headlike. Flowers white hairy. On rock. NH.

3 PITURANTHOS Vis. Glabrous, strong-smelling desert shrub, of leafless aspect, with soon deciduous small leaves, most of which are capillary and reduced to sheaths. Umbel rays not woolly. Fruit flattened, rounded or ovoid, hairy. 1 P. triradiatus (Hochst.) Asch. & Schweinf. ( = Deverra triradiata Hochst.): Yellow-green shrubby desert plant with thick stout branches and strong aromatic smell on squeezing. Umbel-rays 2-6, most frequently 3, always thick. Fruit 2-5 mm. long, densely hairy. NJ. 4 PEUCEDANUM (Tourn.) L.

2 PYCNOCYCLA Lindl. Shrubby perennials with white hirsute flowers. Fruit woolly, cylindrical, tapering. Calyx of flowers 5-dentate. Fruit surrounded by persistent pedicels of the outer sterile flowers. Bracts and bracteoles present. Umbel rays woolly of dense hairs, umbel headlike. 1 P. tomentosa Decne: Tall perennial plant of naked aspect. Stems striate, erect, sparingly branched. Leaves puberulent, the lowest longpetioled, pinnatisect with 2-3 pairs of leaf-segments 6 mm. long. Upper leaves reduced to a linear sheath. Umbels solitary or in pairs, long-peduncled, woolly

Perennial herbs with yellow flowers. Involucre obscure or many-leaved. Flowers hermaphrodite. Fruit flattened or lenticular, surrounded by a flattened dilated margin. 1 P. areysianum Defl. : Yellow-flowered

perennial herb with flattened lenticular fruits, surrounded by a flattened dilated margin. NJe, E, S.

5 ANETHUM Tourn. ex L. Tall herbs with dissected leaves and yellow flowers. Bracts and bracteoles absent. Fruit flat-


tened, lenticular, 6 mm. broad, surrounded by a narrow flat margin. Oil tubes present. 1 A. graveolens L. : Glabrous plant. Leaves

SH, NH, NJe. 3 P. etbaica Schweinf. : Slender glabrous annual herb with but few (3-7) umbel rays. Segments of upper leaves narrowly linear, fruit densely white-hispid with hairs recurved at the apex. SH.

pinnatisect into long setaceous lobes. Umbels manyrayed. involucre and involucel absent. Fruit elliptical, 3 mm. broad. SH, NJ, E.

6 PIMPINELLA L. Annual leafy herbs with white flowers. Leaves pinnate or once to twice 3-parted, lower ones with broad leaf-segments or leaflets. Bracts and bracteoles absent. Calyx teeth obsolete. Fruit small, rounded or ovoid, hairy. 1 P. puberula (DC.) Boiss. : Annual herb. Lower leaves pinnatisect with the terminal segments linear setaceous. Umbels with 10-20 rough hairy rays. Petals pubescent. Fruit rounded or ovate, obtuse, 1 mm. long, hirsute. E. 2 P. cretica Poir. in Lam. : Tall, slender glabrescent annual herb, 30-60 cm. high. Lower leaves crenate- dentate, heart-shaped. Segments of upper leaves narrowly linear. Umbel-rays 6-many. Petals glabrous. Fruit ovate-conical, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. broad, sparingly hairy with straight hairs. SH, NH, NJe. v. arabica Boiss. : Small, 5-10 cm. high, procumbent, often biennial, herb. Lower leaves cuneate tripartite. Umbel rays few.

7 APIUM L. Glabrous biennial or perennial leafy herbs with small white flowers. Calyx teeth absent. Petals not radiating. Bracts absent, bracteoles present or absent. Umbels leaf-opposed, umbel rays not woolly. Fruit nearly globular, glabrous, beakless and spineless, sometimes ovate-oblong, somewhat compressed from the sides, tending to be laterally flattened. Ribs of mericarp 5. 1 A. graveolens L. : Biennial or perennial glabrous robust herb of heavy aromatic smell. Stem hollow, deeply grooved. Leaves broad pinnate, somewhat fleshy, with petioled 3-lobed leaflets. Umbels short- peduncled or sessile. Bracteoles absent. NJ. 2 A. nodiflorum (L.) Lag. ( = Helosciadium nodiflorum (L.) Koch): Perennial glabrous herb of moist habitats. Stem tall, erect. Leaves pinnate, with 5-9 sessile serrate leaflets. Umbels subsessile, leaf-opposed. Bracteoles present, but bracts absent or deciduous. In ditches.


NJ, SH, E.

curved, 4-5 times as long as the erect fruit. Fruit oblong-linear.

8 FERULA L. Perennial tall glabrous leafy herbs with yellow flowers. Leaves dissected, with flat, narrow, filiform segments. Umbel rays not woolly. Umbels corymbose or racemose, the central one large sessile or short- peduncled, with hermaphrodite flowers, the lateral ones smaller and frequently opposite, with male or polygamous flowers. Bracts and bracteoles absent. Fruit broad, flat. 1 F. sinaica Boiss. : Thick, glabrous, glaucescent plants. Stem 1 m. high or more, 2 cm. thick, bluegreen. Leaves much dissected, upper ones reduced gradually to a lanceolate sheath which is not turgid, with short filiform lobes. Leaf-segments linear, narrow. Umbels corymbose. Fruit flat. In rocky habitats. N, NJ.

NJe, E.

10 DAUCUS L. Leafy, hispid or bristly herbs with white or yellowish flowers. Leaves dissected. Umbel-rays numerous. Bracts and bracteoles present. Fruit ovate -oblong, spiny with prickly ribs. Umbel-rays not woolly. 1 D. syrticus Murb. : A small hairy annual herb branching from the base. Leaves dissected into narrow, almost filiform, acute segments. Flowers reddish, not radiating, arranged in small umbels. In sandy places. NJ, E.

11 TORIL1S Adans. 9 RIDOLFIA Moris Annual glabrous leafy herbs with filiform leafsegments to which the leaves are finely dissected. Bracts and bracteoles absent. Leaf-sheath dilated. Umbels with no involucre. Flowers yellow. Fruit oblong-linear, laterally flattened. 1 R. segetum (L.) Moris : Annual herb up to 1 m. high, glabrous glaucescent. Stem leafy, much branched. Leaf segments filiform and leaf-sheath dilated. Umbel-rays numerous unequal. Umbels with neither involucre nor involucel. Outer pedicels reAnnual leafy herb with minute bristles. Flowers white or reddish, with 5-toothed calyx. Bracts absent, bracteoles present. Fruit spiny with prickly ribs; primary ribs 5, secondary 4, hidden by the numerous prickles which occupy the whole interval. Umbel rays not woolly. 1 T. nodosa (L.) Gaertn. : Decumbent annual hispid herb, divaricately branched. Leaves bipinnatisect, leaf-segments at least 1 mm. broad. Umbels sessile or short-peduncled, leaf-opposed, primary umbel 2-3-rayed. Fruit 3 mm. long and broad, spiny all over the surface, the inner mericarp often papillose.



broad, flat, serrate lobes. Rays of umbel slender, 3 -6 cm. long. Fruit oblong, 2 mm. in length. Weed. NJ, SH, E.

12 ECHINOSCIADIUM Desert herbs with hirsute bipinnately parted leaves and whitish pink flowers. Umbels leaf-opposed. Involucre of spiny-tipped bracts, involucel of spiny shorter bracteoles. Fruitlets aggregated before ripening, later separating into spiny hispid units. 1 E. arabicum Zohary: Perennial desert herb, up to 50 cm. high, branched from the base. Branches with white-ribbed sparingly hairy stem, bifurcated below. Leaves alternate, hirsute, with long petioles (up to 5 cm.), broad clasping base and bipinnatelylobed blade. Inflorescence compound umbel, leafopposed, on 10 cm. long peduncle. Flowers whitish pink. Involucre of spiny-tipped bracts, opposite and equal in number to the rays, the latter flattening and broadening above; involucel of spiny, shorter bracts. Fruitlets of each secondary umbel aggregated before ripening, later separating into spiny hispid units. NJ, E.

14 CORIANDRUM L. Cultivated annual herbs. Leaves thin, dissected. Umbels leaf-opposed, umbel-rays not woolly. Bracts absent or few deciduous, bracteoles present. Fruit glabrous, globose, hollow, not prickly. 1 C. sativum L. : Glabrous annual herb of strong smell. Lower leaves broadly, upper ones narrowly dissected. Flowers white, outer ones with ray-like radiating petals. NH, NJ, E.

15 DUCROSIA Boiss. Glabrous leafy herbs with white or reddish flowers. Leaves dissected to narrow segments. Bracts and bracteoles present. Fruit flat, broad, spineless, elliptical, somewhat pointed at the apex, dark grey with thick yellow margin.

13 AMMI L. Annual or biennial herbs with white flowers. Leaves thin irregularly dissected. Bracts and bracteoles present, filiform. Umbel rays many, not woolly. Calyx teeth minute. Fruit small, ovoid or oblong. Ribs of mericarps 5, filiform.

1 D. ismaelis Asch. : Small glabrous perennial plant, with herbaceous branches from a woody base. Leaves finely dissected into narrowly linear white- mucronate lobes. NJe, NJw,

16 ZOSIMA Hoffm. 1 A. majus L. : Slender annual herb. Leaves ovate in general outline, pinnately parted into narrow or Annual, biennial or perennial, hirsute leafy herbs, with dissected leaves and white flowers.


Bracts absent or few, deciduous; bracteoles present. Fruit flat, broad, densely hairy, with yellow, spongyswollen margin. All fruits flat and of one kind. Ribs of fruit very slender. 1 Z. absinthifolia (Vent.) DC. : Greyish-hairy pulverulent biennial herb with a thick fusiform root. Stems thick, reduced. Leaves oblong-lanceolate in general outline, finely dissected, 2-3-pinnatisect into small obtuse oblong lobes 2-4 mm. long. Umbels many-rayed. Fruit orbicular to elliptical. NH, S.

Glabrous plants with white flowers and small, ovoid, laterally compressed fruits. Bracts absent or caducous. Fruits with prominent filiform ridges. 1 A. pusilla (Brot.) Breistr. ( = A. verticillata (Dub.) Briq., Ptychotis ammoides Koch): Slender annual herb up to 50 cm. high. Lower leaves bipinnate, oblong in general outline with several pairs of very short lobes, middle leaves with 3-5 pairs of leaf segments, upper with 2-3 filiform segments. Umbel rays unequal, slender, up to 20. SH, S.

17 TORDYLIUM L. Annual hairy herbs with pinnatipartite leaves into large, ovate or oblong segments. Calyx teeth conspicuous. Flowers white or reddish. Bracts few or absent, bracteoles present, filiform. Fruits glabrous of 2 kinds: the outer ones flat, with thick yellow margin, the inner small urn-shaped. Fruits surrounded by wrinkled pithy margin. 1 T. persicum: Annual hairy herbs with pinnatipartite leaves of ovate or oblong segments. Flowers white or reddish. Bracteoles present but bracts absent or few. Fruits flat broad with thick yellow pithy margin, the outer large, the inner small urn-shaped. NH, S.

Order 24. SANTALALES Fam. 67. SANTALACEAE R. Br. 1 THESIUM L. Glabrous, small, semiparasitic herbs. Leaves small, entire, exstipulate, narrowly linear to almost filiform. Flowers solitary or in cymes; perianth trumpet-shaped, 4-5-fid, ovary inferior, style filiform, stigma capitate. Fruit a small globular inferior nut, crowned by the persistent perianth. 1 T. schweinfurthii Engl. : Perennial herb about 20 cm. high. Stems numerous, erect, much branched. Leaves linear, with acute apex, nearly colourless. Inflorescence short with a terminal flower. Fruit a small, globose-ovoid nut. 2 T. viride A. W. Hill. : Perennial

undershrub. Leaves subulate, about 2 cm. long. 18 AMMOIDES Adans. Inflorescence irregularly branched. Fruit minute, globose-ovoid.


Fam, 68. LORANTHACEAE Juss. 1 LORANTHUS L. Woody parasites with evergreen coriaceous leaves. Flowers scarlet, in umbels. Calyx minute. Fruit inferior baccate. Parasites on tree branches. 1 L. heteromorphus A. Rich. : Branchlets short, spreading, tomentose when young, later pubescent. Leaves coriaceous, opposite, ovate-oblong or lanceolate. Umbels 2-9-flowered, axillary, solitary. Corolla 4.5 cm. long, villous tomentose outside. Parasite on Acasia and Ziziphus. SH, S. 2 L. curviflorus Benth. ex Oliv. in Hook. ( = Plicosepalus curviflorus (Benth. ex Oliv.) Van. Tiegh.): Leaves linear-oblong, obtuse. Corolla of 5 very narrow petals 4 cm. long, coherent below to form a basally- swollen tube, then curved in the middle. Parasitic on Acacia. SH. Order 25. SALICALES Fam. 69. SALICACEAE Mirbel 1 SALIX L. Dioecious trees, usually with oblong-lanceolate, alternate undivided, mostly deciduous leaves, soft wood and bitter bark. Buds not covered with resinous varnish. Inflorescence catkin of unisexual flowers, appearing with or before the leaves, bearing scales subtending the flowers. Flower-bracts entire. Male flowers of 2-12 stamens, with yellow anthers, female ones of a single carpel with a single ovary.

Perianth modified into 1 or 2 nectaries. Fruit a capsule opening by 2 slits; seeds many, small with silky hairs. 1 S. tetrasperma Roxb. : A shrub or medium - sized, often evergreen tree. Leaves up to 6 cm. broad, oblong-lanceolate, glandular serrate. Catkins on a naked or sparingly leafy peduncle. NJ, S. 2 S. subserrata Willd. ( = S. safsaf Forssk. ex Trautv., S. octandra Sieb. ex Rich.): Shrubs or trees with reddish-brown branches. Leaves narrow lanceolate, often serrate, rarely 1.5 cm. broad, usually less. Catkins straight, cylindrical, on densely leafy peduncles, the staminate 3 cm., the pistillate 2 cm. long. SH.



Fam. 70. PRIMULACEAE Vent. A. Capsule opens by lid B. Capsule 5-valved Anagallis Samolus 1 2



Annual procumbent herbs. Leaves simple, opposite or alternate. Flowers solitary in the leaf axils, pedicelled, rotate, red, blue or white sexual, plant monoecious. Sepals 3-7, petals 3-7, leathery, stamens 2-3 times as many as petals, carpels 2-16, fruit an edible, globose, small berry. 1 E. schimperi (A. DC.) Dandy ( = E. kellau Hochst.): A frutescent plant with the leaves cuneate at the base rounded at the apex, obovate to oblanceolate, often wavy, up to 5 cm. long, glossy on the upper surface pale on the lower. Petiole up to 3 cm. long. Racemes axillary, the male 2.5 cm., the female 1.5 cm. long. Sometimes mistaken for Olea chrysophylla. SH, S.

cate in the bud, corolla tube long, Stamens 2, carpels 2, fruit a drupe, berry, capsule or samara. 1 J. floribundum R. Br. : Climbing shrub with imparipinnate leaves. Leaves exstipulate, petioled, opposite, of 3-5 leaflets of which the terminal one is the largest. Leaflets ovate to ovate -lanceolate, with entire margin and acute apex. Flowers white and pink fragrant, in terminal and axillary cymes. Calyx persistent, 5-lobed. Corolla of 5 united petals, with a narrow curved tube and spreading, 5-lobed limb, aestivation of corolla contorted. Fruit ovoid. In rocky places. SH, S NH, 2 OLEA L. Trees with simple leathery evergreen leaves

Order 29 OLEALES

and whitish flowers. Flowers numerous, small, white in axillary panicles. Calyx with 4 short teeth, corolla of 4 petals, with a very short tube and valvate lobes in the bud. Fruit a drupe, the fleshy part of which is oily. 1 O. chrysophylla Lam. : A tree 10-15m. high. Stem much branched. Leaves lanceolate to ovate; on the under surface, as well as inflorescence, covered with golden or silvery glandular scales. Fruit a purple globose drupe of sweet taste. NH, SH, S. 2 O. europaea L. : Trees with stiff branches. Leaves oblong to lanceolate, entire, white scurfy

Fam. 73. OLEACEAE Hoffmgg et Link A) Shrubs, leaves compound, fruit berry B) Trees, leaves simple, fruit drupe Jasminum 1 Olea 2

1 JASMINUM L. Climbing shrubs with compound imparipinnate leaves of 3-7 leaflets of which the terminal is the largest. Flowers perfect, regular, fragrant, large, white, in few-flowered terminal and axillary cymes. Calyx 4-lobed, corolla 4-lobed, with the lobes imbri-

GENTIANACEAE- LOGANIACEAE below. Flowers in axillary racemes. Fruit ovate, edible, Cultivated. NH.


Fam. 74. GENTIANACEAE A. Juss. 1 CENTAURIUM Hill. Annual herbs of moist habitats with opposite entire leaves. Flowers with a tubular 5-fid calyx and a funnel-shaped corolla. Stamens 5 with twisted anthers. Inflorescence spike or forked cyme. Capsule 2 -valved. 1 C. pulchellum (Sw.) Druce ( = Erythraea ramosissima (Vill.) Pers.): Annual herb of ditches, the whole plant forming a lax leafy corymbosely cymose inflorescence. Flowers pedicelled, rosecoloured, with corolla tube hardly exserted above calyx. Cymes forked. Corolla lobes 3-4 mm. long. Anthers 1.5 mm. long. Leaf rosettes absent or inconspicuous. NH, N, NJ, E.

Fam. 75. LOGANIACEAE A) Flowers greenish-white in corymbose cymes Lachnopylis B) Flowers yellowish-brown, larger, in branched raceme-like cymes Buddleia 2 1



SH, S. Fam. 76. APOCYNACEAE A. Juss

Small to tall trees. Branchlets slender, glabrous. Flowers greenish white in corymbose cymes. 1 L. oppositifolia Hochst. ( = Nuxia dentata R. Br. ex Benth.): Tree with slender branchlets. Leaves opposite, toothed, lanceolate, 5-10 cm. long, shiny above, glaucous. Flowers greenish-white, small, in corymbose cymes. NH.

A) Tree, corolla red. 1


B) Spineless shrub, leaves lanceolate, flowers white Rhazya 2

C) Spiny shrub, leaves ovate, flowers red 2 BUDDLEIA Houst. Carissa 3

Tropical shrubs or trees with simple, opposite, exstipulate leaves. Latex absent while glandular hairs present. Mouth of corolla tube often bears a crown of unicellular hairs. Inflorescence cymose; flowers 4merous. Anthers dehisce by longitudinal slits. The 2 carpels are median. Several species are grown as ornamental plants. 1 B. polystachya Fres. : Shrub or small tree. Leaves simple, opposite, petioled. lanceolate with acute apex and nearly entire margin; blade up to cm. long and, 1.5 cm. maximum breadth, whitish on the lower surface but darker green on the upper. Inflorescence large, terminal, branched; partial cymes in clusters of about 10 flowers each arranged on the axis accropetally, and separated by distinct internodes. Flowers small, tetramerous; corolla reddish brown Trees with smooth trunk and branches, bark transversely striated. Leaves deciduous below, upper simple, ovate-oblong, leathery, 5 cm. or more long, with entire margin and obtuse apex. Flowers condensed above, calyx tube lobed, corolla red-rose, tube narrow below, wide and lobed above. Follicle elongate, 15 cm: long. Seeds with tufts of long silky hairs. 1 ADENIUM Roem. et Schult.


1 A. obesum (Forssk.) R. : A mountain tree up to 5m. high, with a whitish, swollen, tuberous conicaltrunk and a crown of leafy branches. Leaves velvety hairy, alternate, simple, sessile, oblong-ovate, up to 10 cm. long and 4 cm. broad, with entire margin and rounded apex, leathery, broad towards the tip and tapering towards the base; midrib and lateral veins white prominent. Wood of the trunk very light and spongy. Inflorescence a few-flowered terminal cyme, Flowers large, pink. Calyx 5 separate, triangular, purplish green sepals with acute apex and imbricate aestivation. Corolla of 5 showy pink petals of contorted aestivation, united into a tube 3 cm. long with a spreading 5-lobed limb, 4-5 cm. in diameter. Corona brown follicles, 10-15 cm. long. SH, S.

terminal clusters or lateral cymes. Follicles cylindrical, 10 cm. long; seeds winged. 1 R. stricta Decne: Perennial sand-binding undershrub on hummocks of sandy plains, densely branched, up to 1 m. high, evergreen. Branches densely leafy, with the leaves erect, nearly sessile having the blade tapering towards the base. Leaves thick, leathery, alternate, about 10 cm. long and 1.5 cm. broad, with entire margin and acute apex. Inflorescences axillary cymes near the tips of branches. Flowers pentamerous, white, 22.5 cm. long, short-pedicelled, with inserted stamens. Fruit a pair of cylindrical glabrous follicles,

5, filiform. Stamens 5. Fruit a pair of long pinkish- 7-8cm. long. NH, SH, N, S, NJe, NJw, E. R. 3 CARISSA L.

Shrub with axillary spines and opposite leaves, 2 A. arabicum Bafl. f. : A high tree of the moun- branched, glabrous or thinly and softly pubescent. tainous region of south Hijaz. Leaves simple, entire, Leaves ovate. Fruit blackish-purple, fleshy, edible. acute, ovate-oblong, with the blade tapering below to a short petiole, Inflorescence dense, terminal, flowers large. Bark fissured and transversely striated. SH, S. 2 RHAZYA Decne Shrubby perennials up to 1.5m. high with numerous rather procumbent and erect densely leafy branches. Leaves, simple, alternate, lanceolate, up to 10 cm. long and 1.5 cm. broad, with entire margin and acute apex. Flowers small white, subsessile in 1 C. edulis (Forssk.) Vahl: Shrubby plant with spiny branchlets; spines axillary. Plant intricately branched, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves ovate, acute, rounded at the base. Flowers white and red, fragrant, in short cymes. Fruit purple-black, globose, glabrous, edible. NH, S.

ASCLEPIADACEAE Fam 77 ASCLEPIADACEAE R. Br. A) Pollen in loosely coherent granules. Pollen carriers spoon-or trumpet-shaped. Filaments free, corona lobes thread-like B) Pollen of each anther half united into waxy masses. Filaments nearly united, or wanting. 1 Non succulent plants. a) Corona inserted on corolla. * Erect shrubs, leaves lanceolate, corona 5-lobed Solenostemma 2 **Herbs, wooly, leaves oblong, mericarp thick Glossonema 3 b) Corona, at least the inner, inserted on staminal tube. * Corona lobes united. +Leaves cordate Pergularia 4 + +Twining herb, leaves oblong Pentatropis 5 + + +Shrubs, leafless Sarcostemma 6 **Corona lobes free. +Tree, leaves ovate, broad Calotropis 7 ++Herb, leaves narrow with axillary minute bristles Kanahia 8 + + +Shrub, leaves oblong without bristles, follicle inflated Gomphocarpus 9 c) Corona absent, stem cylindrical, almost leafless, flowers white Leptadenia 10 2 Succulent plant, stem tetragonal with soft spines Caralluma 11 3 Twining, blue-green, linear leaves, rose-coloured flowers Oxystelma 12 Periploca 1

1 PERIPLOCA L. Twining or climbing shrubs with brownish-green or yellow flowers. Flowers in cymes, calyx of free sepals, corolla rotate up to 1 cm. across, with ovate or narrow linear lobes. Filaments free, anthers hairy at back. Pollen in loosely coherent granules, pollen carriers spoon-or trumpet-shaped. Corona lobes threadlike. Fruit a pair of narrow-linear, horizontally diverging follicles. Leaves, if present, hardly petioled, long, narrow, linear. 1 P. aphyila Decne: Shrub or small tree up to 2 m. high, with long virgate whip-like drooping branches which are velvety when young, then becoming gla-

brous when mature. Leaves few, small, nearly sessile, 3 mm. long, ovate-oblong, soon deciduous. Cymes in axils of leaves, densely-flowered. Corolla brownish-purple, 2 cm. broad, with ovate lobes, densely white-bearded at the margins. Follicles velvety, then glabrous, 10 cm. long. SH, NJ. 2 SOLENOSTEMMA Hayne Stiff, branched, erect shrub. Leaves ovateoblong or lanceolate. Umbels axillary. Flowers white, pentamerous; corona cup-shaped, thick, 5lobed, inserted on the corolla. Pollen masses club-


shaped. Follicles oblong-ovate, bone - hard, smooth, of dark purple colour.

4 PERGULARIA L. Twining or climbing shrubby plants. Leaves

1 S. argel (Del.) Hayne: Blue-green velvetypubescent shrub up to 1 m. high, with numerous erect stems. Branches stiff, terete. Leaves fleshy, velvety, elliptical-lanceolate, acute. Umbels axillary, dense, short-peduncled. Flowers white, corolla-lobes erect. NH.

cordate. Flowers in axillary umbels. Corolla with a short tube and 5-parted limb. Corona doubled, the outer short 10-lobed, the inner 5-lobed. Corona lobes united. Corona, at least the inner, inserted on the staminal tube. Pollen mass flattened. Fruit inflated, spiny-bristly, narrowed towards the apex; twin- follicles erect. 1 P. daemia (Forssk.) Chiov. ( = Daemia

3 GLOSSONEMA Decne Perennial leafy herbs with ovate-oblong to linear leaves. Flowers minute in axillary clusters, corolla lobes fleshy above. Corona of 5 flat leaves, tapering at the tip, inserted on the corolla. Pollen masses ovate. Fruit ovate, with acuminate tip, pubescent, softly spiny. 1 G. nubicum Decne: Erect, branched from the base, grey-hairy perennial herb or undershrub up to 30 cm. high, with a creeping rhizome. Leaves crisped, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, pubescent beneath, with acute apex and undulated margin. Flowers small, 2-6 together in sessile cymes not exceeding the crisped leaves. Fruit ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, pubescent and covered with soft spines. NH, NJ.

extensa (Jacq.) R. Br.): Leaves larger and thinner than in P. tomentosa, glabrous or pubescent. Umbels long- peduncled. NJ.

2 P. tomentosa L. ( = Daemia cordata (Forssk.) R. Br. ex Schult.): Woolly, greycanescent under- shrubs, with the young branches twining around the old ones. Leaves rather small, opposite, petiolate, cordate, 1.5-3.0 cm. long. Inflorescences axillary umbels on peduncles longer than the leaves. Pedicels much longer than the whitish-yellow flowers. Calyx 5-parted, brownish, hirsute; corolla 8 mm. broad, with ciliate margin and a tube little longer than the calyx. Fruit a pair of spiny follicles, each 6 cm. long, inflated below and with a long hooked beak. In rocky deserts. NH, SH, N, S, NJe, NF, E, R.




Twining herbs. Leaves small, mucronate, roundor cordate- based, short-petioled (petiole less than 1/3 of the blade), at least the upper ones elliptical or lanceolate. Corona, at least the inner, inserted on the staminal tube; corona lobes united. Flowers small, axillary, greenish. Calyx 5, corolla 5, rotate, with double corona, the outer toothed or not, the inner connate with gynostegium, spurred below. Pollen masses ovoid. Fruit lanceolate, smooth. 1 P. spiralis (Forssk.) Decne: Glabrous or nearly glabrous, branched perennial plant. Leaves elliptical, up to 4 cm. long. Peduncles hairy, not exceeding the leaves. Flowers 2 cm. long, solitary or few together, cream-coloured, corolla-lobes acuminate. NH, NJw, NF, E, R. 1 C. procera (Ait)Ait. f. : Shrubby desert plant, 3-5 m. high. Leaves large, fleshy, palegreen, sessile, obovate, mealy velvety on lower surface, up to 20 cm. long and broad, with entire margin and pointed apex. Bark corky, white. Juice milky. Flowers green on the outside, pink on the inside, clustered in terminal and axillary inflorescences. Corolla 2 cm. broad, with pink, spreading, ovate lobes, having somewhat revolute margin. Corona of 5 keeled leaflets vertically 6 SARCOSTEMMA R. Br. adhering to the gynostegium, gibbous below. Fruit follicle, usually in pairs, large, inflated, Shrubs with trailing or twining stems. Flowers greenish-white or sulphur-coloured. 1 S. viminale (L.) Ait. f. : Shrub. Stem glaucous, glabrous, woody below, leafless or with minute ovate leaves. Flowers small, in lateral or terminal sessile umbels. Follicles linear-lanceolate, smooth. NH, S. spongy, globose or obovate, up to 15 cm. broad. Evergreen. In sandy deserts. NH, SH, N, S, NJ, NF, E. Small leafy trees with large, broad, obovate, fleshy leaves. Flowers green outside, pink inside in terminal and axillary clusters. Calyx parted to base, corolla hemispherical-campanulate. Staminal corona of 5- keeled leaves adherent to gynostegium. Pollen in masses. Stigma 5-angled. Fruit smooth, inflated, apple-like, spongy, obovate.


8 KANAHIA R. Br. Herbs with glabrous branching stems. Flowers on glabrous stout peduncles, 5 cm. long, numerous in the apical part. 1 K. lanifolia (Forssk.) R. Br. : Herb up to 1.5 m. high; stems glabrous. Leaves with a cluster of axillary short bristles, lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, tapering to a point, 10-15 cm. long. Flowers in a raceme-like inflorescence, petals hairy, corona lobes fleshy, ovoid with a short beak. Follicles lanceolate, acuminate into a beak. S.

2 G. fruticosus (L.) Ait. f. in Ait. ( = Asclepias fruticosa L.): Glabrous, green, perennial plant, up to 1 m. high. Leaves subsessile or short-petioled, oblong to linear-lanceolate, 1015cm. long, mucronate. Corolla white, glabrous outside, 1-1.5 cm. across, with ovate reflexed lobes. Fruit glabrous between the spines. Cultivated and naturalized.

10 LEPTADENIA R. Br. Leafless shrubs, with cylindrical stem, or leafy twiners. Young branches bear minute linear leaves, but soon become leafless. Flowers minute, pale, 5 mm. across, densely fascicled in small axillary clusters. Calyx short, 5-parted, corolla rotate, 5-parted, with a very short tube and woolly lobes. Corona absent. Fruit glabrous, smooth, linear or oblong. 1 L. pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne: Erect, leafless, spinescent shrub or tree, up to 5 m. high, with numerous long virgate, spinescent branches. Flowers yellow- green, almost sessile, clustered on short, thickened, recurved peduncles. Corolla 7 mm. broad, whitish- grey. Fruit pedicels thickened, recurved. Fruit a pair of very long narrow, linear, stalked, pendulous follicles, 10-13cm. long, and 5 mm. across, sparingly pubescent. SH, NH, N, S, NJ.

9 GOMPHOCARPUS R. Br. Low shrubs. Leaves narrow, linear-lanceolate, without bristles. Flowers in axillary umbels. Calyx 5 -parted, corolla 5-parted, rotate or reflexed. Corona of 5 free lobes adnate at base to gynostegium, concave hooded, urn-shaped. Fruit inflated, spinybristled, narrowed towards the tip. 1 G. sinaicus Boiss. ( = Asclepias sinaica Muschl.): Crisped-hairy shrub, up to 1 m. high. Leaves short- petioled, oblong to linear-lanceolate, 5 cm. long, acute. Corolla yellow, pubescent on the outside, 1-1.5 cm broad, with reflexed ovate lobes. Fruit reddish, mealy- pubescent between the short spines. SH, S, NJ.



on the inside. Inner leaves of corona ligulate, acute, much longer than the outer ones.

Leafless succulents, rarely with a few fleshy leaves with tetragonal branches dentate along the margin with soft spines in the notches. Flowers terminal solitary or in umbels. Fruit long narrow, linear, erect, smooth, with pointed apex, in twinfollicles. 1 C. retrospiciens (Ehrenb.) N.E. Br. : A


Twining, perennial, blue-green plants with long narrowly linear leaves and rose-coloured flowers in axillary cymes. Corolla rotate with 5 broad ciliate lobes. Calyx 5-parted. Fruit oblong, acuminate, glabrous. 1 O. esculentum R. Br. v. alpini N. E. Br. :

dense, tall, stout, richly branched cactus-like bush up to 1 m high. Stem thick, succulent, not tapering upwards, quadrangular, their angles much compressed with broad, deltoid, recurved teeth. Flowers about 15mm across, brown red in dense terminal umbels. NH, SH, S.

Blue-green twining plants with slender branches. Leaves narrowly linear, 4 cm. long and 4 mm. broad, acute, petioled tapering towards base of the blade. Racemes 2-5-flowered, about as long as the leaves. Corolla lobes broad.

C. penicillata White et Sloane: Stems tall,


robust, succulent, acutely 4-angled up to 7.5 cm. squared in cross-sectional area, glabrous, glaucous; angles deltoid-toothed, spreading horizontally. Flowers small in lateral globose umbels. NH, SH.

3 C. sinaica (Decne) A. Berger ( = Boucerosia sinaica Decne): Branches narrow, slender, elongated, younger ones terete, older ones obscurely angled, grooved, toothed, tapering upwards. Flowers small, solitary at apex of branches, pendulous. Corolla small, 3 mm. broad, 5-fid, with deltoid lobes hairy

Fam. 78. RUBIACEAEA. Juss.


Leaves apparently whorled, stipules similar to leaves. 1 Corolla funnel-shaped, Flowers in dense spikes 2 Corolla wheel-or bell-shaped. a) Flowers with a large bract, flowers yellow b) Flowers without a bract. *Flowers yellow, in threes, pedicels spinous enclosing fruit **Not so, fruit twin dry, stamens 4 Valantia Galium 3 4 Callipeltis 2 Crucianella 1


Leaves opposite, stipules not similar to leaves. 1 Shrubby plants. a) Stipules connate, leaves linear, stiff b) Stipules sheath-like, leaves almost filiform , sharply pointed 2 Herbs. a) Flowers blue b) Flowers white Oldenlandia 7 Kohautia 8 Gaillonia Jaubertia 5 6

1 CRUCIANELLA L. Annual or perennial herbs, scabrous, sometimes shrubby at the base. Leaves narrowly linear, often white-margined, apparently whorled, with stipules similar to leaves. Inflorescence a dense terminal spike, not hispid, formed from stiff, erect, leaf-like bracts, each subtending a single flower. Spike imbricate. Corolla funnel-shaped or tubular with a small limb opening at night. Flowers perfect, solitary or in twins, sessile or subsessile. Calyx limb obsolete, corolla 4-5 lobed ending in a caudiform introflexed ap-

pendage. Style bifid, stigma globular. Mericarp dry, oblong or oblong-linear. 1 C. membranacea Boiss.: Annual erect herb, 20-50 cm. high, densely leafy, branched from the base. Leaves linear, white, acute, very scabrous, together with the bracts recurved. Spike ovateoblong, short, at length elongated, 2-5 cm. long, relatively loose. Bracts lanceolate, very acute, keeled, white-margined, with spreadingly recurved tip, very broadly membranous. Flowers frequently longer than the bracts.

NJ, E.

1 V. hispida L. : Annual herb 5-30 cm. high, with elongated, 4-angled stem. Spike interrupted, with exposed internodes. Flowers yellow, minute, sessile. Fruit hispid, throughout spiny-tubercled, crescentic, with 3 deflected and no erect horns, and furnished with a small conical obtuse spur, near the base of the mericarp. SH.

2 CALLIPELTIS Stev. Small annual dwarf herbs with short branches. Leaves in fours or twos, oblong-spathulate, apparently whorled. Inflorescence extra-axillary, sessile, 5-7flowered cyme, not hispid. Flowers regular, minute, sessile or very short-pedicelled, yellow in subsessile clusters at the internodes, but below the leaves. Bracts large membranous, pendulous. Calyx obsolete, corolla 4-3 parted, stamens 4, very short, style bifid, stigma globular, ovary unilocular. Fruit a nut supported by a large membranous, pendulous bract. 1 C. cucullaris (Jusl.) Rothm. v. aperta (Boiss. & Buhse) Rech. f. & Ehrend. ( = C. aperta Boiss. et Buhse): Annual herb, 5-8 cm. high. Bracts flat, obovate, unfolded, retuse or obtuse subtending the glabrous or sparingly scabrous fruit. NJ.

4 GALIUM L. Small delicate, annual herbs with short branches, sometimes shrubby at the base. Leaves several in whorls, rarely 2 opposite. Flowers small, perfect or polygamous, rotate, pedicelled, 4-parted, in terminal or axillary cymes. Bracts absent. Calyx teeth obsolete, corolla rotate 4-lobed. Fruit of usually twin, globose, dry indehiscent, 1-2-seeded nuts. Stamens 4. 1 G. setaceum Lam. : Annual herb 10-20 cm high, glabrous, branching from the base. Stems

3 VALANTIA L. Small, slender annual herbs with short branches. Leaves in whorls of 4 overtopping the flowers. Flowers minute, yellow, in threes: one central bisexual and 2 lateral male, together forming a dense hispid spike of spreading hairs. Flowers sessile or nearly so, axillary ternate; pedicels spinous enclosing fruit, corolla rotate, that of the staminate flowers 3-fid, of perfect flowers 4-fid. Styles 2, stigma capitate; ovules 2, but seeds often 1. Fruit recurved, with 3 deflexed horns and a fourth erect horn or small spur near the base at the back of the mericarp.

erect, branches filiform-capillary, bearing minute, cup-shaped, purplish flowers, 0.5 mm. across. Leaves in whorls of 6-8, lowest narrowly spathulate, upper thin, filiform awl-shaped. Floral leaves capillary, over toppling the minute flowers. Cymes both axillary and terminal, 3-7-flowered, peduncled; pedicels capillary, about twice as long as flower and fruits small, 0.5 mm. long, varying from glabrous to short-hispid to villous. Plant keeping green and not drying black. On hills and rocks. NJ.

ssp. decaisnei (Boiss.) Ehrend. : Annual herbs, 10 -40 cm. high, glabrous, branching from the base; stems slender fragile, 2-3-chotomously branched. Leaves in 6-leaved whorls, acute, uppermost solitary, awl-shaped, somewhat longer than the cymes. Cymes both axillary and terminal, few-flowered, peduncled. Pedicels flexuous and many times longer than the flowers. Corolla lobes long, attenuate (in type obtuse or shortly attenuate). Fruit small, glabrous, 0.5 mm. long. E. v. longipedicellatum Post: Pedicels 2-6 times as long as glabrescent fruit. SH. 6 JAUBERTIA Guill. Desert shrubby plants, with opposite, almost filiform, sharp-pointed leaves. Stipules sheath like, not similar to leaves. Branches long, slender, terete, virgate. Fruit 1-2-seeded indehiscent nut, crowned by 2 growing calyx-lobes of yellow, wing-like appearance. 1 J. calycoptera (Decne) Tackh. ( = Gaillonia calycoptera (Decne) Jaub. & Sp. ): Desert shrub with slender, virgate, terete branches. Flowers sessile, either solitary or few together, surrounded at the base by a scarious involucre also sheathing the stem. Perianth white, with a long tube and 5 spreading lobes. NJ, H. 5 GAILLONIA A. Rich. Shrubs with opposite, almost needle-like, sharppointed leaves; stipules more or less connate, forming a sheath-like structure at the base. Flowers perfect, corolla funnel-shaped, with 4-5 oblong lobes, style filiform, stigma 2-lobed. Fruit a nut, crowned by 2 growing calyx lobes of yellow, wing-like appearance. 7 OLDENLANDIA L. Annual, rarely perennial herbs, with opposite linear leaves. Stipules connate, united with petiole and forming a sheath. Flowers white, blue or lilac varying from small rotate to elongated tubular with a spreading limb, 4-merous, solitary or in clusters from the leaf-axils. Calyx tube 4-8-

1 G. calycoptera (Decne) Jaub. et Sp. : Sparingly toothed, with a broad sinus between the teeth. Coleafy desert shrubs with slender, smooth, terete dich- rolla rotate, funnel- shaped, 4-5 lobed, stamens 4tomous branches. Lower leaves linear 1 cm. long, floral ones joined with the stipules and reduced to membranous sheaths with short teeth. Flowers sessile, solitary or few together in spikes 2.5-4 cm. long, at the base surrounded by a scarious involucre sheathing the stem. Fruit 2-winged or-horned. NH. 5, stigma bifid; locules of the fruit many-seeded. Capsule crowned by the calyx teeth, opening loculicedally. 1 O. schimperi (Presl.) T. anders. : Perennial plant with woody base. Stems numerous, rigid, punctate, scabrous below, glabrous above, loosely

corymbed. Leaves glabrous, linear, tapering at base acute at tip; stipules tooth-like. Pedicel much shorter than the flower. Calyx teeth ovate-triangular, acute, shorter than the tube. Corolla blue, 1.6 cm. long, with oblong lobes one-third to one-fourth of the tube. SH.

8 KOHAUTIA Cham, et Schlechtd. Herbs with tubular white flowers, at least 1.5 cm. long, with a limb of 4 lobes spreading in star shape. Calyx minute, cup-shaped. Corolla tube cylindrical; anthers and stigmata included, with the latter overtopped by the anthers. Fruit a many-seeded capsule. Leaves opposite. 1 K. caespitosa Schnizl: Stiff erect, herbaceous, annual or perennial herb, up to 50 cm. high, with numerous simple or few-branched stems. Corolla white or yellow, rose or lilac, turning blue-black when dry. NH, SH, S, NJ, E.


Order 31. TUBIFLORAE Fam. 79 CONVOLVULACEAE A. Juss. I. Ovary 2- lobed, small, trailer with reniform leaves II. Ovary 5- lobed. A) Styles 2, free or united below. 1 Herb or shrublet, leaves small, stigmas filiform 2 Stigmas globose or peltate. a) Anthers projecting, prostrate herb b) Anthers hidden, shrublet B) Style 1, undivided. 1 Corolla funnel-shaped 2 Corolla bell-shaped 3 Corolla irregularly widened with midpetaline areas

Dichondra 1 Evolvulus 2 Cressa 3 Seddera 4 Convolvulus 5 Merremia 6 Ipomoea 7

cled. Styles 2, forked for half their length, with I. DICHONDRA J. R & G. Forst. Perennial procumbent plants with small reniform leaves. Flowers solitary, small, axillary. Ovary 2lobed, styles 2, gynobasic, each ending with a globular stigma. Fruit a 2-lobed capsule. 1 D. repens J. R. & G. Forst. : Perennial herb with a trailing stem. Leaves erect, long petioled, with a reniform blade, up to 2 cm. long and broad. Flowers small, whitish or greenish, with a bell-shaped, deeply 5- cleft corolla. SH 1 C. cretica L. : Hairy, greyish, herbaceous or frutescent plant, prostrate, rarely erect, 10-20 cm. high. Leaves sessile, ovate to lanceolate, 3 mm. 2 EVOLVULUS L. Shrublets or prostrate herbs. Leaves small, simple, entire, elliptical or orbicular. Flowers small, pedunlong, crowded, with acute apex. Flower spikes terminal; flowers aggregated in dense spikes of about pea size or little longer at the end of branchlets, each flower bracteated by a reduced leaf. Calyx-lobes hooked, 3 mm. long, elliptical, obtuse; long sub-terete, filiform stigmas. 1 E. sinaicus : Leaves simple, entire, elliptical. Styles 2, forked, stigmas filiform. 3 CRESSA L. Much branched, mat-shaped herbs. Leaves minute. Stems slender, woody, up to 20 cm. long, with spreading, hairy, densely leafy branchlets. Flowers sessile, white, in short terminal spikes. Calyx 5, parted to base. Corolla cleft over the middle in 5 narrow lobes. Styles 2, exserted, with capitate stigmas.


corolla tube about as long as calyx, lobes reflexed. Capsule ovoid. A halophyte of salty lands. NH, SH, N, NJ, E, R.

vided, with 2 filiform stigmas. Pedicels often bracteolate, but no involucre of bracts. Capsule 2valved 1 C. arvensis L. : Prostrate or twining, glabrous herb, Leaves undivided, entire, repand, varying from cordate-hastate to linear-lanceolate;

4 SEDDERA Hochst.

petiole shorter than leaf. Flowers 1-3 together on the same peduncle. Sepals small, 3-4 mm. long, round-ovate, scarious- margined. Corolla almost white, 2 cm. long, 6-7 times as long as calyx, with broad red stripes outside. NH, SH, N, S, NJ, NF, E, R.

Erect, silky pubescent shrublets, with almost sessile white flowers. Style single, bifid to the base, stigma orbicular; ovary not lobed; stamens included and anthers hidden. Leaves small, elliptic, 1 cm. long. Plant much branched. 1 S. latifolia Hochst. & St. : A much branched undershrub, velvety-white pubescent. Leaves ellipticoblong, short mucronate, 8 mm. long, apex and base rounded. Flowers subsessile, solitary in the leaf- axils or in short terminal spikes. Corolla 5 mm. long, not exceeding the calyx. Capsule small, splitting into 4 valves. SH.

2 C. pilosellifolius Desr. in Lam. : Perennial, tall, hairy plants, up to 80 cm. high, with slender, green, not woolly, branches. Stems erect or prostrate but not twining arising from the neck, adpressed-hairy, with or without some white spreading hairs, bearing flowering branches from the middle of the plant up. Leaves hirsute, palegreen, with the margin often wavy, the lower oblong tapering to a petiole, the upper sessile, lanceolate, acute, sometimes subcordate at the base. Flowers small, rose-coloured, 1-3 on long patent axillary peduncles. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, shortpointed, 1.5-2 mm. long; corolla rose, 14 mm. long. NH, SH, NJ, E.


Creeping or twining herbs or shrubs of various appearance and habit. Leaves undivided or lobed, if parted mostly of glabrous calyx, relatively big, not crowded. Calyx 5, corolla 5, funnel-shaped, with entire, 5-angled or 5-plaited limb and no regular coloured stripes like those of Ipomoea. Style single undi-

3 C. fatmensis Ktze. : Twining annual plants. Leaves lobed, but lobes never linear. Peduncles 13- flowered, not exceeding the leaves. Flower

purple, 1 cm. long; calyx glabrous, corolla twice as long as the calyx. NH, SH, NJ. sessile, forming interrupted spikes. Sepals villous, corolla pinkish-white, silky, 2-3 cm. long, twice or thrice as long as the calyx. N, NJ, E, NF. 4 C. glomeratus Choisy: Twining perennial herb. Stems numerous, prostrate, long, simple. Leaves entire, green slightly cordate-hastate, short-petioled, the lower ovate, the upper oblong. Flowers numerous small, white in brown-villous heads on long axillary peduncles. Heads globular, longer than the leaves. Sepals villous, oblong-acuminate; corolla white, glabrous, 12 mm. long, somewhat exceeding the calyx. H. 8 C. prostratus Forssk. (C. microphyllus Sieb.): Perennial herb, not spinescent, branched from the base into simple, brown-villous branch5 C. hystrix Vahl: Spinescent tall shrubs 50-60 cm. high, sending out along the surface of the ground to a distance of up to 12 m. sterile shoots with leafy spiny twigs, beset with appressed or spreading hairs. Leaves about 1 cm. long, truncate at the base. Flowers sessile, solitary or 2-3 together at the base of small spiny-tipped twigs, axillary. Sepals scarious, hirsute, obovate, toothed, mucronate. Petals small, sky-blue, densely hairy, narrow, scarcely twice as long as the sepals. Ovary glabrous. SH, NJe. 9 C. deserti Hochst. et St. : Perennial hairy herb branched from the base into numerous long adpressed- hairy stems 50-70 cm. long. Leaves 6 C. lanatus Vahl. : Spinescent desert shrub, 3040 cm. high, representing a favorite forage for camels and sheep. New branches white woolly, old ones naked. Leaves grey puberulent 1.5-4 cm. long, the upper ones sessile, lanceolate, the lower petioled, linear spathulate. Flowers pinkish-white, clustered narrow linear- oblong, the cauline ones obtuse, 20-25 mm. long, 3 mm. broad. Flowers few in peduncled axillary cymes. Sepals brown-villous, acuminate with a narrow long point. Corolla 15 mm. long, pale with darker, pubescent, midpetaline areas. Capsule glabrous. es, erect or prostrate, 15-30 cm. long. Leaves narrow, linear, short, rarely exceeding 1.5 cm. in length. Flowers 1-3 together, sessile or subsessile, on short peduncles. Sepals linear, brownhispid, long acuminate of 5 mm. maximum breadth; corolla 6-8 mm., flesh-coloured. Capsule glabrous. SH, NJ. 7 C. reticulatus Choisy: Plant up to 60 cm. high. Leaves netted-wrinkled, the lower oblong, the upper ovate-cordate, 2-5 cm. long. Corolla 1 cm. long, white, twice as long as the calyx. NJ, E.



with 1-2 mm. broad lobes. Peduncle and calyx glabrous. Corolla white with purple streaks. Perennial. SH.

10 C. siculus L. : Slender annual herb, usually erect, 5-50 cm. high. Leaves ovate-cordate, entire. Flowers small, blue on short peduncles from the leafaxils. Sepals elliptical tapering, corolla 1 cm. long, blue. 11 C. capituliferus Franch. : Perennial hairy herb. Flowers arranged in short peduncled heads. Corolla s mall as long as sepal, 6 mm. Leaves small, short- petioled, silky. SH.



Leafless, twining, filiform stem parasites. Flowers small in heads or clusters. Calyx 4-5cleft, corolla tubular or bell-shaped, 4-5-cleft, of-

12 C. cancerianus Abdallah et Saad: Perennials ten urn-shaped after flowering. Stamens epipewith villous stems. Stem leaves 12 mm. long, 2 mm. talous, alternate with the lobes of the corolla. Ovabroad. Flowers 3-11 in compact peduncled cymes. ry 2-loculed, 4-ovuled. Fruit a capsule. Corolla 11 mm. long. 6 MERREMIA Dennst. 1 C. planiflora Ten. ( = C. brevistyla A. Br. ex A. Rich.): Stems richly branched, thin, yellowish or reddish. Flowers small, white, sessile or nearly so, in dense globular heads 5-10 mm. Leafy green twining plants with the aspect of Ipo- across. Perianth moea, differing from the latter mainly in its smooth 7 IPOMOEA L. pollen grains. Leaves palmate-parted, 5-foliate, not crowded. Flowers white or yellow, sometimes with a purple center. Calyx and peduncles densely villous of long yellow hairs. Style 1, stigma globose, bilobed. Ovary not lobed. Fruit dehiscing by 4 valves. Corolla bell-shaped, the middle of the petals marked by violet lines. 1 M. semisagitta (Peter) Dandy ( = M. pedata Choisy) Hallier f.): Leaves deeply palmate 5-cleft Creeping or twining leafy green plants. Leaves not crowded, undivided except in I. cairica with palmate-cleft leaves. Calyx 5 sepals. Corolla broad, funnel-shaped, showy, 5-lobed or repand 5plaited, with 5 distinct longitudinal stripes, one in the middle of each petal. Style 1, stigma globose, bilobed. Pollen grains spinulose.

EHRETIACEAE 1 I. eriocarpa R. Br. ( = I. hispida (Vahl) Roem. et Sch.): Annual herb 1-2 m. long with twining or prostrate, pilose stems. Leaves undivided or very shallowly lobed, cordate, entire, hairy on both sides, and especially on the petiole, long-petioled. Flower small, up to 1 cm. long, pink or purple, darker inside, sessile or nearly so, in axillary clusters. Seeds glabrous. Flowers open only in the morning. Weed. NH, SH. 2 I. coscinosperma Hochst. ex Choisy: Annual lar, irregularly 3-8-toothed. Corolla funnel-shaped with usually 5-parted limb. Stamens exerted or included. Ovary 4-loculed with one ovule in each locule. Style terminal, twice forked. Fruit pulpy drupe, with 4 stones and hard endocarp. 1 C. myxa L. : Shrubs 5-8 m. high. Leaves orbicular to ovate, long-petioled, 5-15 cm. long, glossy on the upper surface, obtuse or mucronate, always alternate. Inflorescence loose cymes. Calyx teeth short, ovate; corolla tube as calyx, with the lobes oblong-linear, recurved. Drupe red or yellow, mucronate, 1.3 cm. long. SH, NJ, E. 2 C. abyssinica R. Br : Shrub or tree, up to 9 m high, with pale brown bark. Leaves alternate, ovate, long-petioled, smooth on the upper surface. Flowers white, in compact panicles. Calyx strongly ribbed. Drupe yellow. S, SH. herb; stem trailing, slightly hairy. Leaves linearlanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, rounded or narrowed at the base. Flowers red or purplish, 1-2 cm. long, with very short pedicels. Capsule globose, glabrous. H.-5fid, turgid. Styles 2 with linear stigmas. Attacks all sorts of host plants. NJ, E. 2 C. pedicellata Ledeb. ( = C. arabica Fres.): Stems yellow, richly branched less than 1 mm. in diameter. Flowers small, globose, about 1.5 mm. long, pedicelled, in umbellate heads. Perianth 4-fid. Styles of 2 small tubercles, each ending in a subulate stigma. Capsule opening irregularly. On various hosts, specially Vinca rosea. NJ.

Fam. 81. EHRETIACEAE Mart. 1 CORDIA L. Glabrous or somewhat scabrous trees or high shrubs. Flowers in axillary clusters. Calyx 5, tubu-

Fam. 82. BORAGINACEAE A. Juss. A) Undershrubs, fruit dry, 2-4 nutlets, yellow flowers Heliotropium B)Herbs. 1 Flowers irregular, stamens projecting Echium 2 Flowers regular. a) Stamens long, exserted Trichodesma b) Stamens included in corolla. *Inflorescence non-bracteate, nutlets concave, spiny margined Paracaryum * *Inflorescence bracteate. + Corolla with open throat. . Perennial, flower large Alkanna = Annual, flower small. Style simple Moltkiopsis = Style bifid Arnebia ++Corolla with throat covered with scales. . Fruit spiny, nutlets pyramidal Lappula ..Fruit spineless. Perennial tall plant Anchusa =Annuals. i Flowers in head-like clusters Hormuzakia ii Flowers short-pedicelled, solitary 1 HELIOTROPIUM L. Herbs or shrubs. Flowers yellow or white, small, in leafless (at least in the upper part), scorpioid, often 1-sided cymes. Calyx 5-parted, either persistent or deciduous with the fruit; corolla funnel-shaped or salver-shaped, with a 5-lobed limb. Style simple, terminal, inserted on the top of the ovary. Stigma "with broad base surrounded by a fleshy rim. Ovary at maturity breaking up into 4 distinct drupelets, these rarely connate in pairs. 1 H. digynum (Forssk.) Asch. ex C. Christens. ( = H. luteum Poir): A richly branched, hairy, yellowgreen small shrublet, 20-40 cm. high, retrorsely tomentellous, canescent. Leaves small, 1-1.5 cm. long, sessile or short-petioled, ovate-lanceolate, petiole not exceeding 1-2 mm. in length. Inflorescence dense cyme, 1-4 cm. long. Corolla pale-yellow with dark Gastrocotyle 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

throat, one and a half times as long as calyx, abruptly constricted to a short tube not exceeding the calyx, lobes narrowly linear. Stigma long, conical, half as long as the style, hirsute at apex. Nutlets typically hairy. In sand. NH, NJe, E. 2 H. europaeum L. v. tenuiflorum (Guss.) Boiss.; Annual herb, 30-50 cm. high, short-hairy, very canescent. Leaves elliptical, petioled, obtuse. Corolla minute, pale, a little longer than the calyx but hardly exserted. Flowers ch ebracteate; corolla tube hirsute. Stigma on a short style, pubescent. Nutlets hairy. NH, SH, E. 3 H. longiflorum (A. DC.) Steud. et Hochst. ex Bunge: Shrublet with grey hispid leaves, toothed or slightly pinnate-lobed. Flowering axis


slender. Flowers small, with narrow, elongated, pinkish corolla tube which is 2-3 times as long as the calyx. 4 H. pallens Del. : Annual herb, yellow-green, densely hairy. Leaves petioled, broad ovatelanceolate. Flowers ebracteate (Having no bracts). Calyx persistent, covering almost the whole corolla tube. Nutlets 4, glabrous. SH, S. 5 H. arbainense Fres. : Erect greenish white shrublets, 20-40 cm. high, hairy. Similar to H. digynum but leaves longer petioled. Leaves oblong to ovate, 1-1.5 cm. long, tapering to a petiole. Leafapex acutish and margin wavy. Cymes 5-10 cm. long. Corolla 8 mm. long, nearly twice as long as calyx, strongly ribbed, limb shorter than tube, lobes repand. Corolla-tube slowly widened upwards, trumpet-shaped with short obtuse lobes. Nutlets netted, glabrous. SH, S. 6 H. bacciferum Forssk. ( = H. persicum auct., non L., H. ramosissimum (Lehm.) Sieb. ex DC., H. undulatum Vahl): Erect, hairy undershrub, up to 40 cm. high, with' rough stiff branches and grey bristles. Leaves nearly sessile, dark green or grey-hispid, usually densely hispid of bulbous-based bristles, broad lanceolate to linear, if narrow undulated, revolutemargined. Cymes rather loose, few-flowered, becoming lax in fruit. Flowers white, ebracteate. Corolla tube somewhat longer than the calyx, lobes of corolla

somewhat longer than tube. Stigma short, conical, somewhat longer than style. SH, S, NJe, E. 7 H. strigosum Willd. v. bicolor Hochst. & Steud. : Grey-hispid shrublets of stiff white hairs. Leaves hairy, narrow-linear, flat, acute, with revolute margin. Cymes spike-like, lax, usually erect with small bracts between the lower flowers. Corolla small, white, twice the calyx or less. Nutlets globose, hairy. SH, S. 8 H. hirsutissimum Grauer ( = H. villosum Willd.): Yellow-green, densely hairy annual herb, 30-40 cm. high. Leaves petioled, broadly ovate, obtuse. Calyx short, villous, only reaching the base of the corolla, persisting after the fruit has fallen off. Corolla big, yellow, twice the length of the calyx with a long exserted tube. Stigma nearly sessile, much broader than long, cup-shaped (depressed conical). Nutlets 4, glabrous. Bracts absent. SH, S. 9 H. lignosum Schweinf. ex Bunge :

Fruticose shrubby plant with short, woody, ascending stems, densely clothed with whitish hairs. Leaves small, sessile, lanceolate, with revolute margin, densely and shortly bristly on both surfaces. Spikes short, dense, 3-6-flowered. Nutlets hispid. E.


10 H. supinum L. : Annual, prostrate, densely hairy herb. Leaves all long-petioled, elliptical, obtuse, 5-15mm. long, the upper surface plicate. Cyme dense, with minute flowers. Calyx deciduous with the fruit. Corolla small. Stigma elongated, conical, 4lobed. Nut single. NJe. 11 H. pterocarpum Hochst. : A small, slender procumbent annual with broad leaves. Flowers white, minute. Nutlets 2, glabrous, broadly winged. Plant drying black. Leaves undulated, densely hispid.

E. 2 E. horridum Batt. : Erect annual plant, densely beset with white, bulbous-based bristles like the preceding, but corolla longer (20 mm.), violet. Leaves narrow, not ovate and not silverygrey. Fruit-calyx 2 cm. long. Corolla longer than calyx, broad. NH, S. 3 E. longifolium Del. : Annual plant, 30-60 cm. high. Stems branching, erect, herbaceous, pubescent and hispid with long hairs. Leaves green: The rosetted radical ones narrow, very long (1020 cm. long), tapering at the base, the cauline and floral ones linear and shorter. Calyx white, bristly fruit calyx 1 cm. long or less; calyx lobes linearlanceolate. Corolla funnel- shaped, reddish, thrice as long as calyx. Nutlets tetragonal-conical somewhat tubercled-wrinkled, echinate. E.

2 ECHIUM L. Perennial or annual herbs with large zygomorphic flowers in bracted terminal, simple or branched cymes. Root coloured. Flowers 1-3 cm. long. Sepals 5-parted, with linear to lanceolate lobes. Corolla big, 1-3.6 cm. long, funnel-shaped, curved, irregular, with limb obliquely cut or 2-lipped; throat open. Stamens 5 unequal projecting, with long filaments inserted below the middle of the tube. Style long, bifid. Nutlets 4, free, ovoid, tubercled, wrinkled. 1 E. rauwolfii Del. : Erect annual herbs, 30-60 cm. high, densely covered with spreading bulbousbased bristles. Leaves narrow, the lower linearspathulate, tapering to a long petiole, the upper linear, the floral as long as calyx or longer. Calyx lobes strigose, lanceolate unequal. Corolla white or fleshcoloured, 12-15 mm. long and broad, irregularly campanulate. Stamens little exserted. Nutlets 3 mm. long, greyish- white, faintly tubercled, glossy. Inflorescence lax, few flowered cyme.

3 TRICHODESMA R. Br. Annuals or perennial desert shrublets, with usually opposite leaves. Flowers white or blue in terminal panicle-like cymes, regular, bell-shaped with naked throat. Calyx deeply 5-cleft; corolla regular, scarcely longer than calyx, campanulate, lobes broad with awl-shaped tips, Stamens with short filaments inserted on the corolla tube and long-exserted appendix raising like a cone above the corolla. Style filiform, nutlets erect, central


column quadrangular. Calyx growing in fruit, its lobes finally becoming rounded or cordate- based. 1 T. africanum (L.) R. Br. : Richly branched perennial desert plant with woody base, 40-50 cm. high, densely beset with white, bulbous-based bristles. Leaves lanceolate. Flowers 6 mm. long; calyx truncate, at the base slightly auricled with triangular acute lobes. Corolla blue, throat yellow with 5 purple spots. Nutlets granular at the back with denticulate margin. Style single, gynobasic. Ovule 1. SH, NH, NJe. 2 T. ehrenbergii Schweinf. ( = T. boissieri Post): Erect annual plant with very large broad rounded- ovate leaves, esp. the lower ones longpetioled. Flowers small, hardly 4 mm. long, numerous, in a rich crowded panicle. Calyx somewhat truncate at the base, in fruit growing, lobes villous at the back twisted at the top. Corolla blue, with tapering spreading lobes. Nutlets oblong, rather triangular, acute. SH. 3 T. pauciflorum Bak. : Perennial herbs or undershrubs of mountain regions, stems relatively smooth (adpressed hairy). Leaves soft hairy, with reddish-white tinge, specially on the lower surface; large, lanceolate, short-petioled, up to 6 cm. long and 2 cm. broad, with pointed apex, entire margin and prominent ribs on the lower surface. Inflorescence terminal. Flower large, with long slender pedicel, up to 5cm., longer than the flower. Fruit calyx large persistent, deeply 5-cleft, brown with acuminate apex of the sepals.


4 PARACARYUM Boiss. Annual or perennial herbs, Flowers blue or violet in elongated, leafless, rich, many-flowered cymes or spike-like cymes. Calyx 5-parted, corolla funnel- shaped with ascending lobes. Stamens entirely included in the corolla. Nutlets concave, cup-shaped, looking excavated with incurved, more or less spiny-dentate margin. 1 P. intermedium (Forssk.) Lipsky v.

boissieri Schweinf. : Slender annual herb, with blue flowers of which the upper ones sessile, the lower ones in fruit stage on pedicel 2-3 times as long as the calyx. Nutlets of 2 kinds: partly cupshaped and partly trigonous. NJ.

5 ALKANNA Tausch. Perennial herbs with shrubby base and coloured roots. Branches green, soft. Flowers comparatively large, regular. Calyx 5-parted; corolla blue or yellow, regular, funnel-shaped with open throat, exceeding the calyx. Stamens inserted near middle of tube, entirely included. Stigma capitate or bilobed. Nutlets 4 or by abortion 2-1, beaked, warted or pitted-wrinkled. Seeds curved. Inflorescence leafy (bracteate) to the very top. 1 A. orientalis (L.) Boiss. : Perennial, yellowgreen, glandular-hairy plant, 40-50 cm. high. Stems stout ascending. Leaves wavy-margined,


oblong to oblong-lanceolate, the lower long-petioled, often 10 cm. long, the upper half-clasping, all leaves repand. Bracts ovate, with rounded or cordate base, twice as long as calyx. Calyx lobes lanceolate, enlarging slightly in fruit and becoming deflexed; corolla tube yellow, twice as long as calyx, limb 3-5 mm. broad. Nutlets pitted, 2 cm. broad with somewhat recurved beak. S.

7 ARNEBIA Forssk. Small annual herbs with small yellow (violet only in A. tetrastigma ) flowers in dense, leafy, spike-like cymes. Root coloured. Flowers small regular, sessile or on short pedicels. Calyx 5parted. Corolla funnel- shaped with narrow elongated tube, a nectar-like ring at its base, a naked throat and a spreading limb of 5 patent, orbicular lobes. Stamens included. Style bifid with often bilobed branches. Inflorescence leafy to the top. Nutlets ovoid, rugose. 1 A. linearifolia DC. : Annual herb, 5-10 cm. high, adpressed hairy. Stems branching from neck. Leaves appressed hairy; root leaves oblongspathulate, somewhat petioled, stem ones oblong linear-lanceolate. Flowers yellow. Cymes dense. Calyx lobes broad, growing in fruit to 5-6 mm. Cyme dense. Bracts linear, somewhat shorter than calyx. Corolla tube villous, 1.5 times as long as calyx. Nutlets tubercled, 2 mm. long. NH. 2 A. tetrastigma Forssk. ( = A. tinctoria Forssk.): Annual herb, adpressed hairy, especially the leaves, of grey aspect, Stem branching from the base. All leaves obtuse, with a tapering base. Cymes very dense, silvery-silky, Bracts linear, somewhat longer than calyx. Calyx hirsute with linear elongated lobes 1 cm. long, 3nerved, growing in the fruit; calyx tube neither crested nor tubercled. Corolla tube, glabrous, pale violet, not longer than the calyx. Stigma 4cleft. Nutlets smooth glossy.

6 MOLTKIOPSIS I. M. Johnston Small desert hispid shrublets with white frutescent branches. Flowers small, regular, blue or white, in cymes which are leafy (bracteate) to the top. Calyx 5-parted; corolla regular, tubular, slightly widened upwards, with short, erect lobes and naked throat. Nutlets triangular, wrinkled-tubercled or ovate-glabrous. Style exserted. Stamens entirely included. 1 .M. ciliata (Forssk.) Johnst. ( = Moltkia callosu (Vahl) Wettst., and ciliata Maire, Lithospermum callosum Vahl): A desert shrublet, 15-20 cm. high, densely hispid of bulbous-based bristles, and with snow-white, angled branches. Leaves short, 1-2 cm. long, 5 mm. broad densely spiny-hispid, subsessile and with callous margin. Flowers blue with exserted long pink tube, usually crowded towards the end of the branches. Corolla tube 2.5-3 times as long as the calyx. Nutlets 1 mm. long, ovate-triangular, brownish glossy. NJe, E.

NJe, E. 3 A. decumbens (Vent.) Coss. & Krai. : Annual, erect, yellow green herb 10-40 cm. high, hispid with appressed and yellowish spreading hairs. Stem branching from the base. Lower leaves linearoblong, upper linear-lanceolate, acute. Cymes elongated, loose, with bracts as long as calyx or longer. Fruit-calyx growing, at base crested or tubercled. Calyx lobes narrowly- linear. Corolla yellow, 1-2 cm. long with a hirsute tube, once or twice as long as calyx. Stigma 2-4-cleft. Nutlets 1 mm. long, unequally tubercled. NH, S, NJe. 4 A. hispidissima (Lehm.) DC. : Annual or biennial, densely white bristly herb, 20-30 cm. high, often richly branched. Leaves lanceolate to linear, spreadingly hairy of white bulbous-based bristles. Cymes dense, one-sided. Calyx lobes narrowly lanceolate, not growing in fruit, 5 mm. long. Corolla yellow, with a tube 1-2 cm long. Stigma flattened. Nutlets minute, tubercled. NH, SH, NJ, S, E, N. Annual or perennial herbs. Flowers pedicelled, in hispid, leafy scorpioid cymes. Corolla regular funnel-shaped with throat covered by small scales and spreading lobes. Calyx deeply 5cleft, generally growing in fruit. Stamens included. Nutlets unarmed, hollow at the base, which is surrounded by a thickened ring. 1 A. aegyptiaca (L.) DC. : Annual herbs 3060 cm. high, pale green, prostrate or ascending, dichotomous, warty strigose. Leaves broad, mostly acute. Flowers pedicelled in or above the leaf axils, upwards forming a lax leafy cyme. Calyx lobes lanceolate, twice as long as nutlets. Corolla pale yellow, with lemon-yellow scales at 8 LAPPULA v. Wolf Annual or perennial herbs, adpressed hairy. Inflorescence lax, leafy cyme. Flowers regular, blue, hardly exceeding the calyx. Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla regular salver-shaped with the throat closed by minute scales. Stamens included. Fruit spiny or tuberthroat; corolla tube shorter than calyx, 2 mm. broad, scales exserted. Nutlets 5 mm. long, 3 mm. broad. NH. 2 A. milleri Willd. : Annual herb, 30-50 cm. high. Very close to the preceding, but flowers smaller, white or flesh-coloured, corolla tube 9 ANCHUSA L. 1 L. spinocarpos (Forssk.) Asch. ex Ktze: A small, richly branched, stiff annual herb with narrow convolute leaves 1-1.5 cm. long. Flowers small, in lax, leafy cymes. Fruits glossy, spiny, on short, erect pedicels. NJe. cled, nutlets closely adnate to each other forming a pyramidal body with exserted style at the tip.


about twice as long as calyx. Nutlets 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. broad. Plant loose hispid, not warty, diffuse or erect, branching from base. Leaves repand, oblong, tapering at both ends, the lower petioled. Flowers at or above leaf axils, forming loose leafy cymes, pedicels as long as or longer than calyx, straight. Calyx lobes linear, twice as long as nutlets. N, NJ, regular, corolla throat covered with scales. Stamens included. Fruit unarmed. 1 G. hispida (Forssk.) Bunge. ( = Anchusa hispida Forssk.): An annual prostrate herb with numerous, branched, simple or forked stems from the neck. Leaves narrow, obtuse, remotely repand-denticulate, with a wavy margin. Flowers small, violet, solitary in the leaf-axils, pedicels short, at length nodding. Calyx teeth white10 HORMUZAKIA Gusul. Similar to Anchusa. but flowers subsessile, densely aggregated in crowded head-like, white hispid clusters. Annual or perennial herbs. Inflorescence leafy (bracteate) to the very top. Corolla regular, with the throat covered with scales. Stamens included. Fruit unarmed. A) 1 H. aggregata (Lehm.) Gusul. ( = Anchusa aggregata Lehm.): Annual herbs densely covered with bulbous-based white bristles. Leaves narrow, sparingly dentate. Flowers small, blue, crowded in white hispid, terminal, head-like cymes. NJ. 1 LIPPIA L. 11 GASTROCOTYLE Bunge Prostrate herbs, annual or perennial with long, narrow, dentate leaves. Differs mainly from the preceding genus in the flowers which are very short-pedicelled, solitary in the leaf-axils. Corolla Creeping mat-shaped plants, rooting at the nodes. Leaves undivided, small, serrate. Flowers in axillary peduncled heads. Calyx small, tubular, membranous. Corolla funnel-shaped with cylindrical tube and oblique slightly bilabiate limb, the upper lip entire or 2-lobed, the B) Creeping herb, flowers small, in heads Lippia 1 barbed at the margin, 2 mm. long. Corolla tubular, violet, not longer than the calyx, with minute limb and papillose obtuse throat scales. Nutlets transversely ovate, nearly horizontal, with an acute-angled beak. NH, S, NJe, NJw. Fam. 83. VERBENACEAE Jaume St.Hilaire

Herbs or undershrubs, flowers in racemes, ovary-4-celled Verbena 2


lower 3-lobed. Stamens epipetalous, inserted on the middle of corolla tube, generally included. Ovary bilocular, with one ovule in each locule, style short, stigma oblique or recurved. Fruit small, dry, separated into 2 pyrenes. 1 L. nodiflora (L.) Michx. ( = Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene): Perennial procumbent plant, green or canescent, rooting at the nodes, covered with appressed hairs. Leaves cuneate-spathulate, 1-3 cm long, tapering to a short petiole, entire below, acutely serrate above. Peduncles solitary, axillary, longer than the leaves; heads ovate to oblong-cylindrical, 1 cm. or more long. Corolla white or pinkish, supported by minute bracts. Fruit ovate, broader than long. Weed, lawn plant. NH, NJe, E.

SH, S.

Fam. 84. AVICENNIACEAE (End.) Schnizl. 1 AVICENNIA L. Evergreen tree with opposite, entire, leathery leaves, dark green above white-or greywoolly beneath. Flowers in small, shortpeduncled clusters. Calyx short, 5-parted into ovate lobes. Corolla tube short, cylindrical, straight, limb spreading, 4-cleft, nearly equal to the tube. Filaments 4, short, anthers somewhat exserted, lobes parallel. Ovary of four 1-ovuled locules, style short, bifid. Fruit a large capsule, somewhat fleshy, dehiscent by 2 valves. By abortion fruit 1-seeded. Embryo germinating within its pericarp on mother plant

2 VERBENA L. Herbs with cleft or parted leaves, and minute, spiked, violet-blue flowers in terminal spikes. Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, corolla funnel-shaped, with straight or incurved tube, spreading, somewhat 2-lipped, unequally 5-lobed limb. Stamens included, with ovate anthers of 2 parallel lobes. Ovary with 4, 1-seeded locules. Style short bifid. Fruit included, separating into 4 pyrenes. 1 V. officinalis L. : Perennial erect herbs, 30 cm. high, with glabrous or nearly glabrous stem. Leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate, coarsely dentate, incised with broad lobes, or lyrate-pinnatifid tapering to a short petiole. Spikes terminal, slender, 5-20 cm. long, longinterrupted. Corolla lilac, with the tube exserted.

(viviparous). 1 A. marina (Forssk.) Vierh. ( = A. officinalis L.): Mangrove tree of the coasts of the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf, especially in southern latitudes. Tree or large shrub with oblong, entire, opposite leaves tapering into a short petiole. Leaves leathery, green on the upper surface, snowy-white on the lower. Inflorescence dense capitate, terminal on the branches or in their upper leaf-axils, 2 or 3 together. Flowers sessile, each with a bract and 2 ovate bracteoles which are silky on the outer surface and shorter than the calyx. Corolla lobes half exserted, ovate ascending, glabrous on the up-

per surface, silky on the lower, stigmas nearly sessile. NH, SH, E.

LABIATAE Fam. 85. LABIATAE A. Juss. A) Corolla 4-cleft Mentha B) Corolla 1-lipped. 1 Flowers in heads or racemes Teucrium 2 Flowers in axillary clusters Ajuga C) Corolla 2-lipped. 1 Disc opposite ovary lobes, corolla blue or violet, calyx persistent in fruit Lavandula 2 Disc entire or alternate with ovary. a) Stamens descending on lower lip, corolla white, lower lip entire Ocimum b) Stamens ascending or projecting forwards. *Stamens 2, half anther only fertile, connective long Salvia **Stamens 4. +Upper pair of stamens longer than lower, herbs. .Flowers blue Nepeta ..Flowers white Lamium ++Upper pair of stamens shorter than lower. .Stamens and styles enclosed in corolla tube, false whorl of flowers Marrubhim ..Stamens and styles projecting beyond corolla tube. Calyx funnel-shaped Otostegia =Calyx inflated white, flowers white or red, tuft of hairs on upper lip Leucas =Calyx 5-toothed, teeth equal, flowers pink Micromeria 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1 MENTHA L. Perennial herbs with whorled flowers condensed

serrate, sessile or nearly so, densely greypubescent of branched hairs, often plicate with undulated margin. Inflorescences narrow spike-

in terminal spikes or racemes. Calyx campanulate, 5- like, below-interrupted racemes. toothed, corolla funnel-shaped, pale violet, with a SH, H limb of 4 almost equal lobes. Stamens 4, equal. Flow3 M. lavandulacea Willd. ( = M. microphylla ers strongly mint-scented when squeezed. lavandulacea (Boiss.) Tackh., M. longifolia v. la1 M. longifolia (L.) Huds: Erect plant up to 1 m. vandulacea (Willd.) Dinsm., M. sylvestris v. longihigh. Leaves 2-5 cm. long, nearly sessile, ovate to folia Boiss.): Leaves linear-lanceolate, nearly enlanceolate, dentate, acute. Whorls of inflorescence tire. Flowers minute, in a very narrow acuminate many-flowered, forming cylindrical or conical spikes, spike. 2-8 cm. long. Corolla lilac. NH, SH, S. 2 M. microphylla C. Koch ( = M. silvestris v. stenostachya Boiss.): Perennial herbs. Leaves broad,



Leaves opposite, triangular, trilobed at apex, entiremargined and trinerved. Inflorescence raceme, flowers opposite in axils of leafy bracts, pedicel 1.5 cm. long. Calyx persistent, corolla violet-blue, stamens 4, exserted. Nutlets angular, tufted-hairy. NJe, E, NF. 2 T. polium L. : Desert perennial, 20-40 cm. high, richly branched, shrubby at the base. Stems white fleecy, thinly pilose of soft spreading hairs. Branches ascending, panicled or corymbose. Leaves sessile, oblong or linear, typically revolute-margined, 1-3 cm. long, obtuse, crenate to pinnatifid. Heads dense, spherical or oval, short-peduncled, about 15 mm. across, of about the size of a hazel-nut; bracts linear- spathulate, shorter than flowers. Calyx 4 mm. long, tubular-campanulate with ovate, acute or obtuse teeth which are all nearly equal and about half as long as the tube. Corolla little longer than calyx, stamens hardly exserted. SH, N, NJe, E. NF. 3 T. leucocladum Boiss. : Richly branched

margined, obtusely pectinate or crenate-lobed; floral leaves shorter than flowers. Bracts linear plumose. Heads terminal, globular, 1 cm. across, solitary or in clusters of 2 or 3. Calyx glandular, punctate and hirsute, upper 3 teeth triangular ovate, lower 2 longer and narrower. Corolla white times as long as calyx. NJ.

3 AJUGA L. Woolly perennial plants. Stems densely white woolly. Leaves slightly pinnatifid. Flowers in dense leafy spikes and axillary clusters. Calyx campanulate or obconical, 5-fid or 5-toothed. Corolla purple, rarely yellow, upper lip reduced, minute, lower lip well- developed, of 2 small lateral lobes and a long central bifid lobe. Stamens 4 ascending, usually exserted didynamous, style bifid. Nutlets pitted or wrinkled. 1 A. iva ( L. ) Schreb. : Small perennial herb, 15-20 cm. high, densely hairy or fleecy. Leaves linear, entire or slightly pinnatifid, crowded, revolute- margined, 2-3 cm. long, 3-5 mm. broad. Whorls 2-4-flowered, much shorter than floral leaves, forming a dense raceme. Calyx fleecy, teeth lanceolate, obtuse, shorter than tube. Corolla purplish-pink or yellow, thrice as long as calyx. NF. 2 A. tridactylites Ging. ( = A. chia Schreb. v. tridactylites Boiss.): Perennial herb, 10-35 cm. high, very hispid; rootstock woody, branches tender. Leaves short cuneate, widened upwards into

perennial, 20 cm. high. Adpressed woolly-canescent, with the old branches spinescent, woody tortuose, the new ones white-felty. Leaves small, flat, densely grey- canescent, up to 9 mm. long and 6 mm. broad, cuneate-obovate, retuse. Floral leaves elliptical, entire. Heads smaller than in other species, of only about pea size or little more. 4 T. pilosum (Decne) Asch. & Schweinf. : Perennial plant, 20-40 cm. high viscid, grey, hisrute, not white felty, trunk woody below. Stems green pilose. Leaves oblong to linear, sessile, convolute-


3 obtuse, digitate leaves. Floral leaves shorter than the flowers. Whorls 2-flowered, forming dense, long, leafy racemes. Calyx teeth acute, shorter than tube, corolla always purple, 2.5 times as long as calyx. Nutlets transversely-wrinkled. NJe.

3 L. dentata L. A densely-branched bushy plant. Leaves linear, crenate. Spikes terminal 2 cm. long, on a 10 cm. long peduncle. SH, S. 4 L. canescens Defl. : Shrubby plant with grey- canescent leaves which are lanceolate, entire or broadly toothed. Spike terminal or axillary, glossy, short, 2 cm. long. NH, S. 5 L. pubescens Decne: Perennial plant,

4 LAVANDULA L. Perennial herbs or shrubs, with quadrangular stem and finely dissected leaves in most species. Flowers blue or violet, in leafless spikes. Plants not covered with glossy fleece. Stems in the upper part naked. Calyx-tube elongated, 5-toothed, calyx persistent in the fruit. Corolla bilabiate, with 2 distinct lips: upper lip rather large 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed. Stamens 4, included, Style bilobed. Disc with 4 fleshy scales opposite the 4 nutlets. 1 L. stricta Del. ( = L. coronopifolia Poir.): A densely branched bushy plant. Upper part of stem soon dropping its leaves. Leaf-segments very narrowlinear. Spike long, narrow. Calyx teeth equal. NH, SH. 2 L. coronopifolia Lam. : A densely branched shrub, 50-100 cm. high, pubescent or glabrescent. Stems long, stiff", opposite, soon becoming leafless in their upper parts. Leaves pinnatisect into linear, almost filiform, very narrow entire lobes. Spikes stiff, elongated, very narrow, 5-15 cm. long, interrupted below. Bracts much shorter than calyx, short lanceolate. Corolla tube up to twice as long as calyx. NJ, NH, S.

pubescent, viscid, 40-60 cm. high. Stems erect, opposite-branched, never woolly below the spike, but spreadingly hairy above. Leaves dissected, bipinnatisect into short, oblong to ovate segments. Spikes elongated, dense, rather short-peduncled, often forming a panicle 2-5 cm. long. Bracts oblong, acuminate, slightly puberulent, a little shorter than calyx. Calyx bilabiate, with heteromorphous teeth, corolla tube twice as long as calyx. Bracts not black-veined. NJ.

5 OCIMUM L. Undershrubs. Leaves big, entire, undivided or but slightly lobed. Stems not woolly. Flowerwhorls in scattered interrupted spikes. Bracts orbicular, short- pointed, as well as the calyx whitehispid. Corolla white, bilabiate, upper lip 4-lobed, lower entire. Stamens 4. Disc entire or lobed with the lobes alternating with the ovary lobes.

LABIATAE 1 O. basilicum L. : Perennial shrublet up to 60 cm. high, often with purplish foliage. Common in cultivation. SH, E. 2 O. hardiense Forssk. : Undershrub with pubescent branches and ovate-lanceolate, entire, minutely serrate leaves. Flowers in interrupted racemes, bracts and calyx white, corolla palepinkish. Of strong mint smell. SH. sessile base, toothed. Flowers in remote, 2-4flowered whorls. Calyx 2-lipped, puberulent or hispid of long, white hairs. Corolla glabrous about once and a half times as long as calyx. 2 S. deserti Decne: The whole shrub whitehispid, up to 15 cm. high, with simple branches. Leaves few, small, obtuse, pinnatifid, with bullate-crenate lobes, distinctly petioled, 1-1.5 cm. long and 2-3 mm. broad. Floral leaves lenticular. Flowers almost sessile, in. dense 4-8flowered whorls. Calyx hirsute-fleecy, ovate, 2 mm. long, with the 2 lips about equal. Corolla 6 SALVIA L. Shrubs or herbs with spiked flower-whorls, spikes simple or branched. Calyx campanulate, more or less distinctly bilabiate, the upper lip 3toothed, the lower deeply 2-cleft. Corolla bilabiate, with 2 distinct lips; corolla tube included or exserted, the upper lip concave, straight or falcate, the lower spreading, trifid, with the middle lobe broader than the other 2. Perfect stamens 2, with short filaments and a long connective, the posterior limb of the connective ascending or projecting forward bearing a fertile anther-half, the anterior straight or deflexed bearing a barren or fertile anther lobe or naked. Posterior staminodes minute or absent. 1 S. aegyptiaca L. : Green dwarf shrub, canescent, up to 20 cm. high, intricately- branched, with stiff, almost spinescent branches. Leaves few, opposite, oblong-linear, 1-2 cm. long, 2-3 mm. broad, tapering down to sessile or almost glabrous, white, 1.5 times as long as calyx. SH, NJe, NJw. 3 S. lanigera Poir. (5. controversa Boiss.): Perennial hispid plant, 20-35 cm. high, with long hairs. Stems numerous, simple or branched from near the base. Leaves deeply and repeatedly pinnatisect into narrow linear lobes, 1-3 mm. broad. Calyx white hispid, 5 mm. long in flower, 8 mm. long in fruit. Corolla purple-blue or reddish, shorter or once and a half times as long as calyx, upper lip somewhat falcate. NJ.


4 S. spinosa L. : Tall, stout, glandular-villous perennial plant, 30-40 cm. high, spreadingly hairy of long glands. Stem ending in a large pyramidal panicle, 20-30 cm. broad. Leaves both radical and floral: radical leaves very large, 8-20 cm. long, rosetted, floral leaves smaller, all leaves appressed canes- cent to based, the radical long-petioled, the floral cordateclasping, acuminate, shorter than calyx. Bracts and calyx teeth with rigid acute spines. Flower whorls 2-6 -flowered. Calyx 12 mm. long, tubular, growing in fruit, bilabiate, with triangular-lanceolate, teeth onefourth the length of the tube. Corolla white 1.5 times as long as the calyx, with the upper lip not or but little, longer than the lower one. SH, NJe. 5 S. verbenaca L. : Perennial pubescent plant, 30 -50 cm. high, villous above, with ascending, simple or sparingly branched stems. Upper leaves ovate to oblong, 3-10 cm. long, crenate, wrinkled, glabrescent, round or cordate at the base, undivided or slightly cleft, lowest leaves petioled, 10-20 cm. long, the upminate. Flower whorls 6-to 4-flowered, remote. Calyx 5-6 mm. long in flower, upper calyx lip deeply concave, 2-grooved, with 3 short connivent teeth, calyx often coloured in fruit. Corolla blue, 10-12 mm. long, with the upper lip somewhat incurved. SH.

Perennial herbs with small crenate leaves. Stem not white-woolly, though often hairy. Calyx tubular, straight or incurved with straight or oblique mouth, without scarious limb. Calyx teeth present, but not spiny. Corolla blue bilabiate, with a long narrow tube excerted above the calyx, the with the middle lobe rounded, concave. Stamens 4, parallel under the upper lip, curved forward, the lower shorter. Nutlets smooth, wrinkled or tubercled. 1 N. deflersiana Schweinf. : Perennial herb. Leaves small, crenate. Inflorescence spike of flower whorls. Flowers blue. Calyx and corolla both 2-lipped. Stamens 4. Nutlets smooth, wrinkled or tubercled. 8 LAMIUM L. Annual green herbs with rounded crenate leaves. Calyx tubular or campanulate, 5-toothed, teeth not spiny. Corolla purple, bilabiate with 2 distinct lips and long narrow tube exserted above the calyx, upper lip arched or helmet-shaped, enparallel under the upper lip, anthers diverging. Styles equally bifid. Nutlets acutely triquetrous, truncate at tip. 1 L. amplexicaule L. : Annual, 10-40 cm. high, pubescent or puberulent, branching from the neck. Upper leaves sessile, semi-amplexicaul, lower ones petioled, all coarsely crenate to palmately lobed. Bracts absent. Flower-whorls 1-4, separate. Calyx villous, teeth lanceolate-subutate, somewhat shorter than tube. Flowers partly large

pale-green, simple, crenate to dentate, ovate, cordate- upper lip flat, straight, bifid, the lower trilobed,

per sessile. Floral leaves minute, round-cordate, acu- tire, retuse or bifid, the lower 3-lobed. Stamens 4,



open, partly small closed. Corolla bilabiate, with 2 distinct lips, about thrice as long as calyx. Nutlets smooth. NJ.

the margin, lower lip trifid. Stamens 4, ascending, style bifid. Nutlets obtuse. 1 O. fruticosa (Forssk.) Briq. ( = Clinopodium fruticosum Forssk., O. repanda and scariosa Benth, O. moluccoides (Vahl) Jaub. et Sp., O. sinaitica (Ehr.) Tackh.): Shrub with ascending, long slender branches. Leaves large when fully developed with petioles as long as the flower whorls. Bracts filiform, palmate- parted, at base of calyx. Upper calyx lip small, ovate entire, lower lip almost square, entire or nearly so. S. v. schiinperi (Boiss.) Tackh. ( = O. microphylla (Desr.) Asch. et Schweinf.): Shrubby, stiff, minutely velvety. Leaves densely woolly, shortpetioled, ovate, 5-15 (25) mm. long, crenate, wrinkled on the under surface, the floral leaves shorter than the subtended flower whorls. Whorls 2-4-flowered, remote, Bracts few, short, linear subulate, reaching the base of the calyx. Calyx hairy, with a small, reticulate, obsoletely 10crenate, bilabiate limb, lower lip 7 mm. long, twice as long as the upper, nearly as long as the calyx tube. NJe.

9 MARRUBIUM L. Perennial or annual herbs with rounded, wrinkled, palmately-nerved leaves. Stems white-woolly. Leaves rounded, palmate-nerved, serrate or crenate, undivided or slightly lobed. Calyx tubular with 5-10 spiny equal teeth. Corolla bilabiate with 2 distinct lips, tube included or slightly exserted, the upper lip erect, retuse or bifid, the lower spreading, trifid. Stamens 4, didynamous, straight, parallel, included. Style bifid, with short obtuse lobes. Nutlets obtuse. 1 M. vulgare L. : Perennial plant, 40-60 cm. high with white-woolly, simple or sparingly branched stems. Leaves finely dentate, rounded, crenate, palmately-veined, often dark green on the upper surface, 1-3 cm. long. Flower whorls dense, globular, distant, shorter than the subtending cuneate-oblong floral leaves. Bracts subulate, hooked at apex. Calyx with 10 minute teeth, spreading, hooked at apex. Corolla small, white, with minute teeth. SH, S.

10 OTOSTEGIA Benth. Shrubs with serrate or crenate leaves. Calyx tube cylindrical, 10-nerved, with dilated bilabiate scarious limb. Corolla bilabiate with 2 distinct lips; tube included, upper lip helmet-shaped, densely bearded at Herbs or shrubs, with crenate or dentate leaves. Flowers pale, in leafy, often spiked whorls, more than 2-flowered each whorl. Calyx 11 LEUCAS R.Br.


tubular or campanulate, striate, straight or incurved at the tip, with 8-10-toothed mouth. Corolla tube short, included in the calyx. Stamens 4, ascending. Style very short. Nutlets triquetrous, obtuse. 1 L. inflata Benth. : Silky-canescent shrub. Lower leaves short-petioled, obovate, cuneate obtuse, 3-4toothed at the tip, floral leaves smaller, cordate- orbicular, sessile not longer than the subtended flowerwhorls. Whorls numerous, spiked, 6-10-flowered each. Calyx 8-10-toothed, white-hirsute, ovateinflated, with contracted mouth and triangularlanceolate, acuminate teeth. Corolla pale. NH, SH, S, NJe, E. 2 L. urticaefolia R. Br. : Leaves ovate, long- petioled, acute. Flowers in 2-3 remote, densely globular whorls, surrounded by numerous linear bracts. SH.

2 M. myrtifolia Boiss. et Hoh. : All leaves ovate or oblong, the lowest petioled, the floral in whorls, somewhat longer than the others. Flowers pink. Calyx teeth awl-shaped. SH.

12 MICROMERIA Benth. Perennial herbs or undershrubs with small, entire, ovate to ovate-lanceolate leaves. Flowers minute, pink or white in whorls forming leafy spikes or racemes. Calyx tubular or campanulate, 13-nerved, with 5 equal teeth. Corolla tube exserted or included, with the upper lip erect, nearly flat and the lower trilobed. Stamens 4, didynamous, curved at the apex. 1 M. biflora Benth. : Small perennial herb wih small dark green leaves. Flowers pedicelled, in lax whorls, pure white with a little violet inside. Plant strongly scented when crushed. Leaves 6 mm. long, 3 mm. broad, entire, acute. Calyx villous of short hairs. E.


Fam. 86. SOLANACEAE A. Juss. A) Flowers solitary, large, ovary 4-celled B) Flowers smaller, ovary 2celled. 1 Fruit a capsule. a) Capsule opening Datura 1

Annual green herbs with very large solitary white flowers. Calyx tubular, 5-angled, 5-toothed, persistent in the fruit. Corolla funnel-shaped, with elongated tube, 5-lobed, twisted in bud. Stamens 5 inserted near the base of the corolla tube, included, with linear anthers and parallel anther lobes opening by introrse slits. Ovary 2-loculed, or by false septa 4-loculed, ovules attached to true or false septa. Style filiform, stigma bilamellate. Fruit oblong-globular capsule, prickly and opening irregularly or by 4 valves.

by lid , calyx enlarged in fruit, succulent leaves b) Capsule opening Hyoscyamus 2

D. stramonium L. : Annual herb, 60-100

by valves, stamens inserted on lower part of corolla 2 Fruit a berry. a) Corolla or trees b) Corolla campanulate or rotate. *Corolla widely campanulate, calyx slightly enlarged in fruit Solanum 5 narrow Lycium 4 Nicotiana 3

cm. high, with stout green stems and large, petioled, ovate alternate leaves, 10-15 cm. long, sharply incised, unequally sinuate-dentate. Flowers large white, 7-8 cm. long with the calyx reaching somewhat below the middle. Corolla pentagonal with 5 cuspidate lobes. Capsule 3-4 cm. long and broad, erect. NH, S, N, NJe, E, NF. 2 D. metel L. : Greyish-green, densely pubescent annual, up to 100 cm. high, with stout green stem. Leaves 10-25 cm. long, ovate, cuneate or cordate at the base, entire or obsoletely repand. Flowers white, up to 16 cm. long. Calyx reaching above the middle of the corolla tube. Corolla long tubular pubescent outside, with 5 teeth and 5 acute shallow indentations alternating 6 with the teeth. Capsule nodding, spiny, 3-4 cm. long and broad.

tubular, shrubs

**Corolla narrowly campanulate, calyx much enlarged and inflated in fruit Withania


3 D. innoxia Mill. : More hairy than others, and distinguished by its leaves having a nerve


running parallel with and a little inside the margin, catching the lateral nerves. Leaves about 15 cm. long, ovate, hardly or little dentate. Flowers white or lavender. Corolla with 5 teeth and 5 triangular lobes alternating with the teeth. Fruit nodding, rather spherical, with needle-like, 8-12 mm. long, dense prickles. NJ. 4 D. fastuosa L. : Annual small herb, with the corolla as large as in D. metel, but calyx smaller, about 5 cm. long, reaching only below the middle of the corolla. Fruit tubercled or with 3mm. long thick spines. NJ, SH, S.

cm. long, longer than calyx, with the limb irregularly split. Fruit calyx growing, up to 4 cm. long and 1.5 cm. broad with broad triangular muticous teeth. SH, NJ. 2 H. pusillus L. : A small annual herb 5-30 cm. high, crisp papillose-pubescent. Stem erect, simple or branching. Leaves varying from entire to deeply pinnatifid with narrow lobes. Flowers pale yellow with violet throat. Corolla 1.5-2 cm. long with oblique limb of nearly equal lobes. Fruiting calyx growing, 1.5 cm. long, 6 mm. broad with triangular, prickly pointed teeth. Corolla not or but slightly longer than the spiny calyx teeth.

2 HYOSCYAMUS L. Herbs with narcotic odour. Flowers funnelshaped, in one sided raceme-like or spike-like cymes. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 5-clett, growing in fruit, ribbed, persistent enclosing the capsule. Corolla funnel- shaped, with a 5-fid limb and broad imbricate lobes. Stamens epipetalous, generally exserted. Style filiform, stigma capitate. Capsule unarmed, opening by a lid near apex. Seeds tubercled or pitted, Ovary 2 -celled. Leaves succulent. 1 H. muticus L. : Stout, green, fleshy, pubescent, perennial plant, 30-60 cm. high, richly branched from the neck. Stem thick, often warty. Leaves fleshy, alternate, long-petioled below, sessile above, ovate to rhombic, acute, angled or toothed-lobed; blade 10 cm. or more long. Floral leaves oblong lenticular. Flowers white with violet spots. Corolla 2

NJe, E. 3 H. albus L. : Annual, sometimes perennial, 30-60 cm. high, densely covered with spreading viscid white hairs on stems, petioles and calyx. Leaves petioled, ovate-orbicular, coarsely and obtusely dentate-lobed, thin, the lower ones often cordate-based. Floral leaves cordate, ovate dentate or oblong entire tapering at the base. Flowers pale yellow to almost white, with violet base, short pedicelled, 1.5-2.5 cm long, with oblique limb and unequal lobes. Stamens slightly longer than corolla tube. Fruiting calyx 2 cm. long, 8 mm. broad with short triangular acute teeth. Corolla much exceeding the calyx. SH.


3 NICOTIANA L. Viscid, pubescent, strongly scented plant, with simple alternate leaves. Flowers in richly branched large terminal cymes. Calyx ovoid or campanulate, corolla funnel- or salver-shaped, with elongated tube. Ovary 2-celled. Stamens inserted on lower part of corolla tube. Capsule unarmed, opening by 2, rarely by 4, valves. 1 N. rustica L. : Lower leaves small, petioled,

2 L. barbarum L. ( = L. vulgare Dunal): Glabrous shrub with small flowers 10 mm. long. Corolla lobes broad (as broad as long), obtuse, spreading, red, lobes scarcely shorter than tube. Calyx bilabiate. Leaves oblong-spathulate. Plant up to 4 m. high. N, NJe, E.

5 SOLANUM L. Flowers in cymes or umbels. Plants unarmed or spiny but without thorny twigs. Calyx 5toothed, not growing in fruit, campanulate or spreading, not hiding the fruit. Corolla rotate, 5lobed, with a very short tube. Filaments inserted at throat of tube, very short, with connivent or coherent anthers, opening at tip by 2 pores or chinks. Fruit an exposed berry (in S. dubium enclosed by a spiny calyx). 1 S. nigrum L. : Annual herb, 30-60cm. high, glabrous or adpressed hairy. Angles of branches prominently ridged, often tubercled. Leaves ovate to oblong, entire or undulate, angled or coarsely sinuate- serrate. Cymes 3-6-flowered, shortpeduncled, peduncles 1-2.5 cm. long. Fruiting pedicels thickened at tip, reflexed. Flowers small, white, umbellately disposed, sometimes slightly purplish, about 7-8 mm. in diameter. Calyx tube green, 5-lobed, lobes rounded. Corolla white, pubescent, twice as long as calyx. Stamens 4, forming a conical tube. Berries globose about 5-10 mm. in diameter, green when young turning purplish black on ripening. Seeds 30 or more, flat,

obtuse. Corolla greenish yellow, flowers much smaller than in other species; in compact racemes. NH. 4 LYCIUM L. Thorny shrubs with clustered, entire, narrow spathulate leaves and leafy twigs modified into thorns. Calyx cup-shaped or tubular, small, short not hiding the berry and not growing in fruit, persistent, irregularly dentate or bilabiate. Corolla narrow, elongated, tubular with spreading limb, white or violet. Stamens epipetalous, inserted at the middle of corolla tube. Ovary on receptacular disc, stigma capitate or bilamellate. Fruit an exposed globular or ovate berry on a disc. 1 L. shawii Roem. et Sch. ( = L. persicum Miers, L. arabicum Schweinf. ex Boiss.): Rigid, shrubby, prickly plants, 1-3 m. high. Leaves much varying in size, together with the young branches pubescent, more seldom glabrous, spathulate-oblong. Flowers long-pedicelled, with the calyx one fourth as long as the corolla. Berries red, edible, of pea-size. NH, SH, S, N, NJe, E, NF.

pale yellowish-brown, about 1.5 mm. long and 1 mm. wide. NH, SH, N, S, NJe, E. 2 S. incanum L. ( = S. coagulans Forssk.): Woolly- canescent grey perennial frutescent plant 60-120 cm. high. Prickles 2-4 mm. long, recurved. Leaves ovate, entire or acutely sinuatelobed. Cymes short- peduncled, bifid, the lower pedicel bearing a fertile flower. Flowers palepurple, calyx lobes triangular, corolla 2 cm. broad. Berry yellow. SH. 3 S. dubium Fres. : A densely pubescent bushy undershrub. Leaves elongated, longpetioled, pinnatifid with sinuate, obtuse lobes. Spiny plant, with the spines straight, needle-like, white glossy. Corolla pale-violet. Berry surrounded by the spiny inflated fruit calyx. NH, SH, S. 4 S. albicaule Ky ex Dun. in DC. : Spiny shrub with slender branches. Leaves ovate, entire or slightly sinuate, as well as the whole plant densely pubescent. Leaves less than 5 cm. long. Spines curved with swollen, often hairy base. Corolla mauve. Berry as big as a pea. NH, SH. 5 S. unguiculatum A. Rich. : Stout, yellowgreen, densely pubescent spiny, perennial plant, with very big oval, broad, obtusely sinuate-lobed NH., SH 6 WITHANIA Pauq. Pubescent perennials. Leaves entire, upper ones usually opposite. Flowers green, clustered along the stem. Calyx campanulate, 5-cleft, growing in fruit, inflated, enclosing the fruit, unarmed. Corolla campanulate, 5-cleft. Stamens usually 5, inserted near the base of the corolla, filaments flat, anthers erect. Style filiform. Stigma short, bilamellate ( formed of two plates). Berry globular. 1 W. somnifera (L.) Dun. in DC. : A densely pubescent shrub, up to 1 m. high, with flexuous branches. Leaves broad ovate, acute, 5-10 cm. long. Flowers 5 mm. long, very short-pedicelled, pedicel being 1-2 mm. long, clustered in the leaf axils. Calyx woolly with linear muticous lobes. Corolla small, greenish yellow. Berry 5 mm. in diameter enclosed in the persistent calyx, bright red, drying yellow-brown, of pea-size. NH, SH, S, NJe, E. leaves. Flowers large, bright violet. Fruit berry, of the size of a large plum. SH, S. 6 S. surattense Burm. f. ( = S. armatum Forssk., non R. Br., S. xanthocarpum Schrad. et Wendl., S. arabicum Dun., S. jacquini Willd.): Annual plant characterized by its dense pale yellow spines up to 20 mm. long. Corolla large, dark violet -blue, fruit yellow, 10-15 mm. across.


A) Semi-parasite, corolla with long tube, leaves narrow B) Semi-aquatic, corolla with short tube, stamens long C) Not as above. 1 Leaves alternate. a) Stamens 2, corolla with long tube, low herbs b) Stamens 4, stigma club- shaped c) Stamens 5, tall plants, woolly 2 Leaves, at least the lower, opposite or whorled. a) Corolla with spur, or saccate, 2-lipped. * Spur long at base, leaves pinnate nerved. +Flowers spiked or racemed + +Flowers solitary from leaf-axils **Spur not long at base. +Capsule opening by pores. .Capsule large, 2-3 apical toothed pores ..Capsule small, 1-2 apical pores ++Capsule opening irregularly, flowers small axillary b) Corolla neither spurred nor saccate. * Flowers in cymes, corolla with narrow limb, flowers greenish **Flowers solitary or in heads. .Nearly leafless, flowers violet ..Leaves opposite, flowers white

Striga Veronica

1 2

Anticharis Celsia Verbascum

3 4 5

Linaria Kickxla

6 7

Antirrhinum Anarrhinum Schweinfurthia

8 9 10

Scrophularia 11 Lindenbergia Bacopa 12 13


1 STRIGA Lour. Semi-parasitic annual herbs, getting black when dry, with narrow entire leaves and bilabiate flowers. Corolla tube elongated, not spurred, at least 12 mm. long, bent in the middle and much exceeding the calyx. 1 S. hermonthica Benth. : Tall leafy plant with a rich spike of big pink flowers, often reaching a length of up to 35 mm. Leaves linear, entire, hispid and scabrid, 6-7 cm. long, NH, SH.

tube dilated above into a regular limb of 5, almost equal, lobes, Stamens 2. 1 A. glandulosa Asch. : Densely-glandular, hairy, small annual herb. Leaves ovate to elliptical-lanceolate, petioled, obtuse or shortly acute, mostly 15 mm. long. Capsule 1.5 times as long as calyx. NH, S. 2 A. arabica Endl. : Sparingly glandular, hairy, small annual herb. Leaves lanceolate, petioled, acute, up to 30 mm. long. Calyx short, deeply-cleft, brown at the base. Capsule twice the calyx. Bracts inserted on peduncles at or below the middle. On stony ground. SH. 3 A. linearis Hochst. : An annual herb, densely branched from the base. Leaves linear, acuminate, subsessile, up to 50 mm. long. Peduncles with bracts inserted above the middle; basal lobes of anthers acuminate. The plant gets blueblack when dry. SH.

2 VERONICA L. Annual or perennial herbs. Calyx 4-5-parted. Corolla rotate, of 4, blue, pink or white, almost equal lobes; tube short or none. Stamens 2, epipetalous, exserted. Capsule rigid, generally flattened, 2- loculed. Seeds flattened or concave. 1 V. anagallis-aquatica L. : Perennial herb. Leaves broadly lanceolate, opposite, sessile, with amplexicaul subcordate base, acute apex and finely serrate margin. Flowers in rich narrow racemes from the leaf-axils. Corolla pink, white or very pale blue. Every leaf pair with 2 opposite racemes. In ditches and wet places. SH, S.

4 CELSIA L. Undershrubs with small entire leaves. Calyx 5cleft. Corolla flattened rotate, yellow-brown with 5 nearly equal lobes; tube short or none. Stamens 4, filaments bearded, style 1, stigma club-shaped.

3 ANTICHARIS Endl. Glandular herbs with entire alternate leaves and violet or rose-coloured flowers. Corolla tubular, the

Capsule 2- loculed, septicidally 2-valved. Seeds wrinkled, pitted.


1 C. scrophularifolia Hochst. : Leaves small, entire, corolla rotate, brownish-yellow. Fruit capsule dehiscing septicidally by valves. S.

Annual glabrous herbs with blue white or yellowish flowers, spiked or racemed. Calyx parted, with nearly equal lobes. Corolla bilabiate, with a spur at the base of tube, upper lip erect, bifid, lower relaxed, 3-lobed. Stamens 4 didynamous, capsule ovate or globular, 2-loculed and various-

5 VERBASCUM L. Erect, tall, woolly plants with alternate leaves. Calyx 5-cleft or parted. Corolla rotate, yellow, with sub equal lobes, tube short or none. Stamens 5, with unequal filaments, the upper 3 woolly. Anthers 1celled. Capsule 2-valved. Style single, stigma clubshaped. Capsule 2-loculed, 2-valved, septicidal. Seeds wrinkled. 1 V. nubicum Murbeck. : Perennial herb. Stems erect Leaves woolly, basal leaves large, petiolate, elliptic-oblong; lower cauline leaves short-petioled, elliptic; upper cauline leaves sessile, lanceolate, much smaller. Flowers yellow, in clusters of 2-4, bracts linear. Capsule ellipsoid-ovoid. 2 V. schimperianum Boiss. : Rusty-yellow tall woolly biennial plant. Upper leaves cordateamplexicaul, lower ones pinnatifid. Flowers small in a rich naked panicle, solitary along the branches of the inflorescence. Pedicels without bracteoles. Filaments white-woolly. Capsule ovoid, globose, 3-7 mm. long. Calyx 3 mm. long. Panicle much branched from the base, leafless except 1 - 2 scale-like, ovate cordate eaves. NH. 6 LINARIA Mill.

ly dehiscent or ruptured at apex. 1 L. haelava (Forssk.) Del. : Small glabrous annual herb, 5-25 cm. high, branching from the base. Inflorescence glandular-pubescent. Leaves terete, furrowed, about 1 mm. across and 1-3 cm. long, alternate. Racemes nearly capitate, ovate in flower, elongated in fruit. Flowers large, yellow or purple, always with a bright yellow blotch at throat, and straight spur about 20 mm. long, widened upwards. Capsule 3 mm. long. Seed minute, reniform. Calyx hairy, much shorter than corolla limb, with ovate-oblong lobes. NH, SH, NJ. 2 L. acerbiana Boiss. (= L. beutu Sklan) : Densely glandular hairy annual herb, with broadly ovate, hastate long-petioled leaves. Peduncles short, not exceeding the leaves. Flowers yellow, 7 -8 mm. long. NJ. 3 L. tenuis (Viv.) Spreng. (= L. ascalonica Boiss. & Ky.): Glabrous herb up to 30 cm. high, with erect stem. Leaves crowded, opposite, linear, 1-3 cm. long. Racemes terminal, loose, fewflowered. Pedicel as long as calyx. Calyx glabrous with linear, membranous- margined lobes. Flowers rather small, always yellow, with short


narrow spur. Capsule 3 mm. long, seeds minute, tubercled, wingless. SH, NJ. 4 L. micrantha (Cav.) Hoffmgg. & Link (= L. parviflora Desf, non (Jacq.) Hal.): Small-flowered little annual herb up to 15 cm. long. Leaves linear below, but oblong-lanceolate in threes, or opposite or alternate above. Inflorescence often glandular- hairy. Flowers 5 mm. long or less, white, more crowded towards the top of the stem. Corolla 3 mm. long, spur short conical. Seeds broad, flat, with membranous margin. N, E. 5 L. parviflora (Jacq.) Hal. (= L. simplex

brous, petiole 2-15 mm. long, often coiled; leafbase hastate, sagittate or obtuse. Flowers large, 15 -25 mm. long on pedicels several times as long as calyx. Seeds ovoid, tubercled all over. NJe, NF. 2 K. aegyptiaca (Dum.) Nabelek (= Linaria aegyptiaca (L.) Dum.): Glandular hairy shrublet with prostrate branches and at least upper leaves hastate. Leaves hairy, rarely over 3-4 mm. broad. Peduncle as long as the supporting leaf or longer. Flowers large, yellow, on spreading axillary peduncle. Corolla 12-15 mm. long including spur. N, NF.

(Willd.) DC.): Stem simple or few-branched, upwards glandular. Flowers white, minute, mostly 3 mm. long, more crowded towards the top of the stem. Inflorescence often glandular hairy and seeds flattened, membranous margined. Annual. N, E.

8 ANTIRRHINUM L. Annual herbs with entire leaves. Flowers in spike-like racemes. Calyx 5-parted with nearly equal lobes. Corolla closed, 2-lipped, widened beneath, saccate at the base, upper lip erect, bifid, lower spreading trifid, the palate broad closing the throat. Stamens 4, didynamous. Capsule ovate or pear-shaped, with unequal many-seeded locules, opening by pores. Seeds wingless. 1 A. orontium L. ( = Misopates orontium (L.) Rafin.): glabrous or glandular-pubescent annual herb 50-80 cm. high. Leaves short-petioled, oblong to linear-lanceolate. Flowers solitary, axillary, almost sessile forming an interrupted spikelike raceme. Calyx lobes linear, as long as or longer than the corolla 1 cm. or more long, rosecoloured, rarely white. Capsule obliquely ovoid.

7 KICKXIA Dumort. Corolla tubular bilabiate with a long spur as in Linaria, but flowers here solitary on usually long pedicels from leaf-axils. Mostly perennial plants with rather broad, often hastate leaves. Flowers most frequently pale yellow. 1 K. heterophylla (Schousb.) Dandy in Andrews (= K. sagittata (Poir.) Steud., Linaria sagittata Hook, f.): A perennial plant, with herbaceous climbing or prostrate stem, up to 3-4 m. long. Leaves gla-


SH. 9 ANARRHINUM Desf. Perennial erect plants with shrubby base. Flowers numerous, small, in naked spike-like racemes. Calyx deeply 5-cleft. Corolla tubular bilabiate, not spurred at base, with throat not closed by palate; lobes of upper lip erect, at length deflexed, those of lower lip spreading. Anthers kidney-shaped. Capsule spherical, with equal locules, opening by a dorsal, oblong 1valved pore. Seed ovoid, wingless, tubercled or muricate. 1 A. orientale Benth. : Glabrous plant up to 80 cm. high. Rootstock with leafy stems. Lower leaves petioled, obovate-oblong, the cauline ones sessile, linear, 2-3 cm. long. Flowers in spike-like, loose, terminal racemes. Corolla white, 5 mm. long. Capsule globose, 2 mm. in diameter. SH, S. 10 SCHWEINFURTHIA A. Br. Glabrous somewhat stiff annual herb with small rose coloured flowers. Flowers solitary in the leafaxils. Corolla tubular, bilabiate, without spur. Leaves entire. Calyx shorter than corolla. Corolla 7 mm. long. Stamens 4. 1 S. pterosperma A. Br. : Much branched erect annual herb. Leaves petiolate, elliptic-spathulate to linear-oblong, obtuse at the apex, narrow at the base. Flowers white, tinted rose at throat, solitary on threadlike pedicels. Capsule small.

SH, E. 11 SCROPHULARIA Tourn. ex L. Herbs or shrubs, annuals or perennials. Leaves rounded-ovate, petiolate or oblong cleft, serrate or dentate. Inflorescence compound rich panicle, Calyx 5-parted, corolla narrow, bilabiate, with almost globular inflated tube. Spur absent. The upper lobes of the corolla-limb erect, the lower spreading. Stamens 4, didynamous, a rudimentary fifth one forming a scale-like appendage between the 2 upper corolla- lobes. Capsule 2-celled, many -seeded, opening septicidally by valves. Seeds ovoid or oblong, transversely wrinkled. 1 S. deserti Del. : Shrubby perennials with frutescent base, 40-50 cm. high, glabrous except the minutely glandular inflorescence. Stems slender, sparingly leafy, ending in a panicle. Leaves deeply cleft or parted, with obtuse, often whitemargined lobes. Cymes of the compound panicle bifid, often dichasial, 3-9- flowered each. Bracts and bracteoles scale-like. Flowers minute, pedicel shorter than calyx. Calyx lobes orbicular, narrowly white-margined. Corolla twice as long as calyx, tinted in deep red and pink, its upper lobes small, rounded. Anthers nearly included, scale orbicular. Capsule small, equal or at most twice as long as calyx. In stony and rocky habitats. N, NJe, NF, E. 2 S. hypericifolia Wydl. : Shrubby plant with somewhat spiny twigs. Leaves small, oblong, entire. Pedicels 1-flowered. Flowers cymed, minute.


Corolla twice as long as calyx. Capsule globose 3 times as long as calyx. NF. 3 S. xanthoglossa Boiss. : Very similar and easily confused with S. deserti, but leaf lobes narrow, acute, never white margined. Glabrous perennial plant, up to 1 m. high. Stem erect expanding from middle upward to a much branched panicle. Leaves rather fleshy. Unit cymes short-peduncled, bifid, branches of the panicle at length elongated-rigid, loose, many- flowered. Bracts and bracteoles linear; the latter as long as calyx. Corolla 5 mm. long, thrice as long as calyx, upper lobes large, rounded, narrowed at the base; scale, large, yellow, often as large as upper corolla lobes, with crenulate (Having a margin with very small, low, rounded teeth) margin. Stamens more or less exserted. Capsule 3-4 mm. long, ovate-spherical, equal to, or at most twice as long as calyx. NJ. 4 S. lucida L. : Glabrous plant up to 80 cm. high. Stem tetrangular. Leaves shiny, the lower small, ovate, lobed, the upper pinnatisect. Corolla blackishpurple. NJ. 5 S. libanotica Boiss. : Leaves broad, deeply serrate, rarely incised. Capsule 3-4 times as long as calyx.

Hairy undershrubs of spreading hairs, highly viscid, with broadly ovate crenate-serrate leaves. Calyx tubular, unequally 5-lobed. Corolla bilabiate. 2-coloured, longer than the calyx, upper lip concave, erect, retuse, the lower larger, 3-lobed, with 2 plaited projections at throat, violet or yellow. Fertile stamens 4. Style truncate, capitate at apex. Capsule oblong or ovoid, 2-grooved, loculicidal. Seeds numerous minute. 1 L. sinaica Benth. : Nearly leafless, shrubby, glandular hispid desert herb, 50-60 cm. high, with branches ending in long racemes of sessile opposite flowers. Leaves short-petioled, those of new branches 15-20 cm. long, the upper much smaller, 3-5 mm. long, the floral leaves nearly sessile, shorter than the calyx. Calyx 3-5 mm. long. Corolla violet and orange, 1.5 cm long, 4 times as long as calyx, throat bearded. Capsule somewhat longer than calyx. NH, SH, S.

13 BACOPA Aubl. Creeping glabrous herbs with opposite leaves, rooting at nodes. Leaves small, spathulate, subsessile, retuse, entire, 10-15 mm. long. Flowers small, white, axillary, long-peduncled. Calyx 5parted, of unequal parts, corolla bell-shaped, with 5 equal lobes, white, stamens 4. .1 B. monnieri (L.) Pennell: Glabrous aquatic


perennial herb, growing in mats, with somewhat fleshy leaves and long-creeping stems. Leaves nearly entire, obtuse, subsessile, obovate to spath-


ulate. Flowers solitary with pedicels longer than leaf. Corolla white, 1.5 times as long as calyx. Capsule ovate, acute. SH, N, E.

Fam. 88. ACANTHACEAE Juss. A) Corolla unlipped. 1 Corolla contorted, seeds usually hairy, leaves equal in size 2 Corolla nearly regular, leaves elliptic, calyx 4, stamens 2 B) Corolla 1-Iipped, spiny herb, bracts large prickly C) Corolla 2-lipped. 1 Anther 1 -celled, flower purple-white, calyx regular Hypoestes 4 2 Anther 2-celled. a) Anther halves inserted at unequal heights. *Anther halves spurred or with basal appendage, herb Justicia 5 **Anther halves not as above, bracts opposite, in pairs, united at base, fruit oblong, flowers in leafy spike Peristrophe 6 b) Anther halves inserted at equal heights, bracts broad, flowers in spikes, fruit flat, 2-seeded Ecbolium 7 Ruellia Barleria Blepharis 1 2 3

outer ones broadly ovate, reticulate, twice the size 1 RUELLIA L. emend. Bremek. Small hairy spineless undershrubs. Flowers sessile in the leaf-axils. 1 R. patula Jacq. : Leaves ovate, petioled. Corolla tubular, widened upwards, 3 cm. long, white or pale violet. Capsule glabrous, shining, club-shaped, with mucro. SH, NJ. Thistle-like spiny, frutescent herbs, with blue 2 BARLERIA L. Hairy undershrubs with entire elliptic leaves. Flowers long, tubular, funnel-shaped, with spreading 5-lobed limb. Plant either spineless with pedicelled flowers, or spiny with white subsessile flowers in lateral one-sided spikes. 1 B. acanthoides Vahl: Plant armed with simple or pinnatifid spines. Flowers subsessile in axillary one-sided short spikes. Corolla white, with long tube, exserted above the sepals. Sepals unequal, the two flowers in a dense, bracteate, terminal spike. Bracts large prickly. Calyx 4-parted; corolla tube short, ovoid, constricted at apex, limb short, cupshaped at base, 3-5-lobed at apex. Stamens shorter than corolla- lips, inserted at the base of the corolla, filaments thickened incurved, anther connivent in pairs, 1-lobed. Style bifid at tip. Capsule 4- or by abortion 2-seeded. 1 B. ciliaris (L.) B. L. Burtt ( = B. persica (Burm. f.) Ktze, B. edulis (Forssk.) Pers.): Perennial thistlelike spiny herb, up to 30 cm. high. 2 B. of the inner ones. S, SH. discantha Hochst. ex Nees: The

inpetiolar spines often paired. Floral leaves obovate-lanceolate, spine-tipped and rigid. S. 3 BLEPHARIS A. Juss.


Spike dense, 4- ranked, bracteate, with blue flowers. Flowers 2 cm. long; calyx 4-parted, the upper and lower sepals exterior, larger, the lateral 2 interior, small. Corolla bluish, 3-lobed, with a small tooth on each side. Capsule flattened, ovate, tapering, 1 cm. long. Root leaves entire, with spiny margins, soon disappearing, cauline ones at base of spike oblong to lanceolate. Bracts indurated, lanceolate, prominently nerved and grooved, spreading, with 3-5 lateral spines on each side and a long spiny tip, longer than the flowers, bracteoles shorter, linear-subulate, villous. In stony and gravel deserts. NH, SH, NJ, E, N, S, NF. 4 HYPOESTES Soland. Herbs or shrubs. Flowers turned upside down, purple, red, pink or white, often enclosed between 2 bracts which form a tube; calyx 5 lobed, corolla 3lipped. 1 H. verticillaris (L. F.) Sol. : A herb up to 90 cm. high, very variable in form. Leaves oval to lanceolate. Inflorescence branched, rather 1-sided, of axillary group of flowers. Flowers bilabiate, purple, whiteveined, up to 1.8 cm. long. SH.

anther halves inserted at different heights; anther halves spurred or with basal appendages. 1 .J. heterocarpa T. Anders. : Annual herb, 10 -30 cm. high. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, petioled. Sepals linear, white-hairy. Fruits of 2 kinds, spiny and spine less in the same cluster, rarely all the same. NH, SH. 6 PERISTROPHE Nees Spineless, glabrous or hispid annual herbs with pedicelled flowers in a lax leafy panicle. 1 P. bicalyculata (Vahl.) Nees in Wall. : Erect, hispid rarely glabrous, tall annual herb with angular stems, lanceolate leaves and small pink flowers. Characterized by its unequal bracts supporting the calyx, of which one is erect, long and exceeding the calyx like a narrow green tail. SH.

7 ECBOLIUM Kurz Spineless undershrubs, with the flowers in dense terminal spikes, the latter with numerous broad imbricated bracts. 1 E. viride (Forssk.) Alston ( = E. linneanum Kurz): A tall shrubby plant 1-2 m. high. Leaves glabrous or pubescent, broadly lanceolate up to 15 cm. long, with a triangular obtuse apex. Corolla white with a long narrow tube and a spreading limb; tube 2-3 cm. long, 1 mm. broad. NH.

5 JUSTICIA L. Annual, spineless, pubescent herbs with small, sessile, white or purplish flowers, densely clustered, in the leaf-axils. Corolla bilabiate. Anther 2-celled,


Fam. 89. OROBANCHACEAE Vent. A) Calyx 5-lobed with blunt or rounded lobes B) Calyx 2-5-toothed with pointed teeth Orobanche 2 Cistanche 1

spreading limb. Fruit ovoid, 1.5 cm. long. Anther lobes acute. N, NJ, R, E. 2 C. tubulosa (Schenk) R. Wight: Perennial big plant 60-100 cm. high, glabrous. Stem 1-1.5 cm. thick, beset with lanceolate scales. Spike long dense, bracts broad lanceolate, longer than calyx; bracteoles linear- lanceolate, shorter than calyx. Lobes of tubular calyx oblong obtuse. Corolla yellow with violet limb, tube curved at base, 1.4 cm. broad at apex with rounded lobes. Differs from the other species in its obtuse anther lobes (in other species sharply acute with a pungent mucro). NH, NJ, E. 2 OROBANCHE L. Brown or yellowish squamose ( covered with or formed of scales) root parasites, with flowers in spikes. Each flower supported at its base by a broad bract. In some species there are also 2 narrow, almost filiform bracteoles, one on each side of the calyx tube. Calyx usually 4-toothed, and split up in one or two places; calyx teeth acute. Corolla ringent. Anther lobes mucronate at base. Ovary unilocular, stigma retuse or bilobed. Capsule laterally dehiscent, with valves adherent at base and apex. Seeds reticulate. 1 O. aegyptiaca Pers. : Stem thin, 20-30 cm. or more high, glandular papillose, richly branched, with a lax spike of large, patent, violetblue flowers, 20-35 mm. long. Bracts oblong, bracteoles present, narrow lanceolate, rather

1 CISTANCHE Hoffmgg. et Link Parasites with the aspect of Orobanche but much bigger, thicker and stouter. Stem simple and fleshy. Flowers yellow, blue or purple, bracted, with a median bract at the base and 2 lateral bracteoles. Calyx 45-fid, lobes broad, obtuse. Corolla tubular, bilabiate, upper lip bifid, lower trifid, lobes of corolla-limb spreading. Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted on corolla tube, anthers woolly. Ovary 1-loculed, capsule 2valved, dehiscent at apex. Seeds numerous, reticulate. 1 C. phelypaea (L.) Cout. ( = C. lutea Hoffmgg et Link, C. tinctoria (Forssk.) G. Beck): Large robust perennial plant, 30-60 cm. high, glabrous. Stem 1-1.5 cm. thick covered with oblong-lanceolate scales, 3 cm. long. Spike thick, dense bearing ovate-obtuse bracts, 1 cm. long, as long as the calyx or longer, bracteoles oblong, shorter than the calyx. Flowers 46 cm. long, less constricted than in other species, altogether yellow. Calyx campanulate with acute, scarious-margined lobes. Corolla bright yellow, up to 5 cm. long; corolla tube curved in the middle, with broad widened limb, 2.5 times as long as calyx, narrow at base, 1.5 cm. broad at tip with ovate-orbicular


shorter than calyx. Calyx lobes acuminate from a triangular base. Corolla 2-3 cm. long, thrice as long as calyx, tubular, funnel-shaped, curved and constricted in the middle, with ovate, obtuse lobes. Anthers densely white-woolly. Differs from most other species in the anthers having crisped white hairs. NJe, E.

rolla- limb intensely blue, tube white, turning glossy when dry. Corolla constricted above the fruit, 1.5 cm. long, lips small crenate, not ciliate, the upper bilobed. Filaments inserted above the middle of the corolla tube. N, SH, NJe, E. v. nepalensis Reut. in DC. (O. curviflora Viv.,

2 O. ramosa L. : Perennial plant with small, thin, richly branched stem. Spike lax, narrow, interrupted. Flowers small, less than 15 mm. long, Bracts oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, bracteoles linearsubulate, a little shorter than calyx; calyx as long as tube, subulate from a triangular base; corolla 10-15 mm. long, yellow or violet, 2.5 times as long as calyx, only slightly constricted above ovary and slightly bent near apex, with ovate obtuse lobes. Anthers glabrous or nearly so. S. 3 O. pubescens Urv. ( = O. versicolor F. W. Schultz): Annual plant, 30-40 cm. high, crisp whitewoolly. Stem unbranched. Spike lax, few-flowered, narrow. Bracteoles absent. Flowers 10-20 mm. long. Corolla bell-shaped, not constricted, upper corolla lip outside with crisped long white hairs; corolla tube dull, but limb striped with white, pink or violet. SH. 4 O. cernua Loefl. : Minutely pruinose or glabrescent perennial plant. Stem thickish, 15-30 cm. high, rather small, scaly below, ending in a narrow cylindrical very dense, obtuse spike of small, 12-15 mm. long, blue flowers. Bracts ovate-lanceolate acute, half as long as corolla, bracteoles absent. Co-

O. cernua v. desertorum (G. Beck) Stapf.): Stem thick, robust, 30-40 cm. long. Spike very dense, flowers larger than in the type, up to 18 mm. N, SH, NJe, E. 5 O. muteli F. G. Schultz in Mutel (= O. romosa Subsp. muteli (F. W. Schultz) Coutinho and v. brevispicata (Ledeb.) R. Grah.): Richly branched perennial, with thin stems like O. ramosa, but flowers larger, about 20 mm., violet, usually constricted above ovary and then bending to the horizontal plane. Spike long, dense, acuminate. NJe, E.

Order 32. PLANTAGINALE S Fam. 90. PLANTAGINACEAE A. Juss. 1 PLANTAGO L. Annual herbs or rarely shrubby perennials, with yellowish green flowers. Flowers small, 4fid, sessile, in heads or spikes, usually inconspicuous, hermaphrodite, regular, without bracteoles

and subtended by bracts. Calyx lobes similar or unequal, the anterior pair sometimes united. Corolla 4, tubular, limb reflex- ed. Capsule a membranous pyxis. 1 P. ovata Forssk. : Small, silky, annual, villousfleecy herb, about 10 cm. high, stemless with the scapes (flowering stems) arising from a basal leafrosette. Leaves narrow- linear to lanceolate, entire or obsoletely toothed, tapering towards the base. Scapes as long as leaves or shorter. Spikes dense globular to ovoid and oblong, 8-30 mm. long, bracts round ovate, glabrous, obtuse, scarious, glabrous or pubescent. Petals rounded or broadly lanceolate with brown center. N, NJe, NJw, E. R. 2 P. cylindrica Forssk. : Stemless or short-stemmed annual or perennial herb, silvery-fleecy. Leaves 7.5-10 cm. long broadly lanceolate to narrowly linear, greyish, silky, tapering to a petiole, acutish, entire, nerves concealed by fleece. Scapes terete. Spikes cylindrical, often interrupted, 2-8 cm. long, Flowers large, bracts ovate obtuse, broadly scariousmargined, villous-ciliate. Calyx lobes oblong, obtuse. Petals narrowly lanceolate. N, NJ, NF, E. 3 P. ciliata Desf. : Small densely silky whitehairy annual herb, stemless or caulescent. Leaves oblanceolate, acutish, tapering to a petiole. Spikes ovate to oblong, 8-20 mm. long, bracts ovate, obtuse, hairy along midrib, broadly scarious, long ciliated along the margin. Calyx lobes ovate, scarious, long ciliated along the margin. Corolla petals minute, linear, long

villous on the outer surface, ciliated with long hairs. N, NJe, NF, E. 4 P. albicans L. : Perennial, branching , densely villous herb with a rather woody rootstock. Leaves and scapes silvery with silky fleece. Leaves rosetted at tips of branches or rootstock, linear-spathulate to lanceolate-spathulate, acuminate, tapering to a long petiole, 3-nerved, flat or wavy. Scapes terete, 15-30 cm. long. Spikes cylindrical, 2-6 cm. long, sometimes interrupted at the base. Flowers large, bracts concave with a broad, herbaceous, glabrous or velvety strip along the middle of the outer surface, margin of bract broad scarious, villous-ciliate. Calyx lobes ovate, bearded at tip, herbaceous along midrib, otherwise scarious. Corolla with broad concave petals, ovate- oblong, short-acuminate. N, NJe, NF, E. 5 T. major L. : Perennial, stemless herbs, tall glabrous, or minutely pubescent, with broadlyovate undivided, entire or irregularly repand leaves. Leaves radical, in a basal rosette of 11-15 leaves. Leaves petioled, 3-7-nerved, 10-20 cm. or more long. Scapes ascending, as long as leaves or longer. Spikes linear- cylindrical, narrow, green, 10-15 cm. long. Bracts obovate, concave, keeled, scarious-margined as long as calyx. Flowers whitish, small. Calyx greenish, of 4 ovate-oblong sepals, scarious with acute apex and long-ciliated margin, calyx lobes 2 mm. long. Corolla petals minute, with lanceolate lobes, long- villous on the outer surface. Stamens 4, 3.5 mm. long, inserted

in the middle of corolla, glabrous, with ovate anthers. Fruit ovate-oblong, transversely dehiscent. Seeds 811, compressed, 1.2 mm. long, A weed. SH, S. 6 P. afra L. ( = P. psyllium L.): Stout richly branched annual herb, sometimes glabrous, sometimes glandular hairy with numerous heads on opposite peduncles. Flowers pale, bracts linear, shorter than the spike. Seeds 3-4 times as long as broad. A distinct stem with opposite leaves. N, E. v. stricta (Schousb.) Verde ( =P. stricta

gined, ovate, acute or acuminate. Calyx lobes ciliate, the posterior keeled-winged; corolla tube hirsute, lobes ovate-lanceolate, acuminate. E. 9 P. lagopus L. : Annual stemless herb, with a hirsute neck. Leaves glabrescent to hirsute, lanceolate to oblanceolate, tapering below to a petiole, 3-5- nerved, often glabrous, entire or with a few minute teeth. Scapes angled, sulcate, 1-4 times as long as leaves. Spikes ovate to cylindrical 1.5-7 cm. long, dense. Bracts ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, scarious except at green midrib, villous above. Calyx lobes villous at tip, the lateral lobes keeled. Corolla lobes ovate, acute or acuminate, more or less hairy along nerve. E. 10 P. lanceolata L. : Perennial, stemless, glabrous or hairy. Leaves lanceolate, green, glabrous or pilose, 5-25 cm. or more long, acute, tapering to a petiole, 3-5 nerved. Scape angled, furrowed, elongated up to 40 cm. long, much longer than the leaves. Spikes ovate-oblong to cylindrical, 2-6 cm. long. Bracts ovate, acute or acuminate, glabrous. Anterior lobes of calyx glabrous, usually united into 1, 2-nerved, the posterior usually hairy along keel; corolla lobes ovate, acuminate. Capsule oblong. NJe, E. 11 P. bellardi All. : The whole plant covered with scattered patent yellow hairs. Leaves narrow

Schousb.): Lower and more slender, leaves only 1-2 mm. wide (in type more). With the type NJ, N, E. 7 P. amplexicaulis Cav. : Usually of short but conspicuous stem. Leaves hairy, lanceolate, clasping at the base, 5-nerved, entire, tapering below to a petiole with a clasping base. Peduncles arising from the leaf-axils. Heads ovate cylindrical, 1-2 cm. long. Bracts broadly scarious-margined with black midrib; plant turning black when dry. Calyx globular, the anterior lobe with a green keel. NH, N, NJ, E. 8 P. coronopus L. : Stemless adpressed-hairy annual or biennial plant. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, pinnatifid with acute lobes forming a basal rosette. Scapes longer than leaves and arising from the basal leaf-rosettes. Spikes cylindrical, dense, 3-15 cm. long. Bracts adpressed-hairy, narrow mar-

lanceolate, spike short cylindrical, bracts and petals linear. NJe, NJw, E.


Order 33. DIPSACALES Fam. 91. DIPSACACEAE A. Juss. A) Involucral bracts in many rows, stiff B) Cephalaria 1

2 SCABIOSA L. Annual herbs with head-like inflorescences, supported by green leaf-like involucre of green bracts in 1-3 rows. Each flower (best seen on fruiting heads) consisting of a cylindrical or bell2 shaped outer calyx, sometimes expanded at the margin into a broad, scarious, rotate limb, In the 3 middle there is an inner calyx of 2-5 awns, spreading in star-shape. Corolla 5-fid. Receptacle chaffy. 1 S. olivieri Coult. : Annual appressed-hairy, canescent, branching from the neck, branches slender. Leaves small, entire, densely hairy, obtuse, linear- oblong undivided or upper with a lobule at the base. Heads small, few-flowered, hemispherical. Outer calyx with a short tubular base and a small rotate spreading limb, inner calyx awns much exserted, 7 mm. long. Flowers purple, all of the same size. SH, E. 2 S. aucheri Boiss. : Dwarf annual herb 2-10 cm. high, pubescent. Stems simple or branching. Leaves linear-lanceolate, lower undivided, upper with a pair of small lobes at the base. Involucre longer than the flesh-coloured flowers. Outer calyx forming a broad scarious rotate limb, 1.5 cm. in diameter, exceeding the inner awns, with radiating red nerves, inner calyx with black spreading, not exserted awns from a short stalk. NJ. 3 S. palaestina L. : Stems 2-3-dichotomously branched above. Slender and glossy annual plants

Involucral bracts in 1-3 rows, green, leaf-like. 1 Calyx 5-awned, bell-shaped Scabiosa

2 Calyx many-toothed, pappus plumose Pterocephalus

1 CEPHALARIA Schrad. ex Roem. et Sch. Annual herbs with head-like cymes. Heads ovoid supported at the base by coriaceous abruptly spinytipped bracts, in the form of scale-like, densely imbricated pale scales. Outer calyx basin-shaped, quadrangular-sulcate, ending in 4 long and 4 short bristly teeth; inner calyx cup-shaped, hirsute, with ciliatedentate margin. Receptacle chaffy. 1 C. syriaca (L.) Schrad. : Stiff, erect, scabroushispid, bristly annual herb, up to 1.5 m. high, with stiff stems, trivaricately branched above; branches long, angled-furrowed. Leaves sessile or nearly so, the lower oblong-lanceolate, entire or serrate, often 10-15 cm. long, the upper linear entire. Peduncles long, stiff or heads in forks, sessile. Heads ovate, 2 cm. long; bracts and pales obovate, ending abruptly in a long awn. Involucel hirsute, truncate, with 4 awns much longer than calyx limb and 4 intermediate ones, half or less than half as long. Flowers small, violet-blue. Weed. E.

with elongated naked peduncles. Leaves entire or serrate, sometimes deeply dentate or lyrate-cleft. Flowers white or yellow, exceptionally rose or blue, the outer ones with fimbriated limb, radiating. Leaves of involucre oblong-lanceolate, shorter than corolla. Awns included. Peduncles up to 30 cm. long, slender glossy. Outer flowers of the head much larger than the inner ones, radiating. Fruit calyx with a broad, scarions, rotate limb, 10-15 cm. wide. E. v. calocephala Boiss. : Heads 3-4 cm. broad. Petals blue or pinkish-blue. With the type. sessile, elliptic-lanceolate, oblong to obovate. Flowers solitary, terminal, 1 cm. in diameter. S. 3 WAHLENBERGIA Schrad. ex Roth Slender annual herbs. Corolla small, white, 3-5 - lobed, not or hardly exceeding the calyx. Fruit on erect capsule opening at the tip with usually 5 terminal valves. 1 W. etbaica Vatke: Slender, tall erect, simple or sparingly branched annual herb, leafy and hispid below, leafless and glabrous above. Leaves broad ovate-lanceolate, dentate. Flowers small, white distant, on erect terminal and lateral pedun3 PTEROCEPHALUS Adans. Annual or perennial plants. Outer calyx tubular, 8grooved or striate, ending in minute teeth or short crown, inner one consisting of numerous plumose awns or pappus. Corolla 5-fid. Receptacle hairy or naked. 1 P. frutescens Hochst v. pumila Defl. : Involucral bracts green, leaf-like, in 1-3 rows. Outer calyx many- toothed, inner plumose pappus. S toothed, short petioled to sessile. Flowers very small, 3 mm. long, blue, all of the same kind. Calyx lobes triangular-lanceolate, broad, spreading in star-shape, in fruit growing and appearing stellate. Corolla a little longer than calyx lobes, pale bluish-white. Capsule nodding. S, SH. 3 C. edulis Forssk. : Perennial herb from a stout rootstock. Stems ascending or procumbent. Leaves cles. Calyx lobes 5, entire, stamens 5. S.


Fam. 95. COMPOSITAE Giseke A) Corolla of all flowers ligulate. Juice milky: LIGULIFLORAE 1 Pappus of inner fruits of feather bristles. a) Involucral bracts in one row, flowers yellow, leaves dentate or pinnatifid Urospermum b) Involucral bracts in several rows. * Leaves entire Scorzonera ** Leaves dentate or pinnatifid. +Leaves all radical Leontodon ++Leaves cauline and radical, stem branching, hairy Picris 2 Pappus of simple soft bristles. a) Fruit beaked. * Involucre imbricate, fruit compressed **Involucre in one row with smaller ones at base, fruit terete or angular b) Fruit beakless, involucre scales in several rows. * Fruits of 2 kinds. +Outer fruits transversely wrinkled, the inner glabrous Launaea ++Fruit furrowed, with crenate ribs Reichardia **Fruits all alike, compressed Sonchus 3 Pappus scaly or bristly. a) Involucral bracts hardened at maturity, flower-head terminal, solitary Hedypnois b) Involucral bracts not hardened at maturity. * Leaves broad, fruit 5- angled Cichorium **Leaves filiform Koelpinia B) Corolla of some flowers tubular, juice not milky: TUBIFLORAE 1 Heads 1-flowered, globose, spiny 2. Heads several-flowered, a) Leaves prickly. * Stem winged, spiny. +Pappus plumose + +Pappus simple, of soft hairs **Stem not winged. +Leaves white, mottled, flowers red ++Leaves needle-like, spiny ++ +Leaves lanceolate, prickly-pointed + + ++Not as above. .Involucre with spiny-tipped scales ..Involucre leaf-like, prickly. Leaves lobed, spiny-toothed =Leaves ciliate, spiny Echinops 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Lactuca Crepis 5 6

1 2 3 4

Onopordum Carduus

14 15

Silybum 16 Iphiona 17 Hochstetteria 18 Cirsium Carthamus Atractylis 19 20 21


b) Leaves not prickly. o. Involucral bracts awned p. Involucral bracts with scarious, silvery, broad margin q. Involucral bracts slightly dentate, corolla 2-lipped r. Involucral bracts spiny-tipped, heads in lax racemes s. Involucral scales lemon-yellow, leathery, spiny-tipped, shrublets with small heads and white flowers t. Involucral bracts later woody, spiny, flower-heads solitary, large, terminal u. Involucral bracts scarious, flower heads in clusters, flowers golden yellow or white v. Involucral bracts scarious, flower-heads solitary, pale w. Involucral bracts long, leaf-like x. Involucral bracts marginal, pointed y. Not as above. +Leaves alternate or stemless. .Annuals. *Heads small on filiform peduncles, leaves capillary **Heads compound, dwarf herbs, leaves entire ***Heads in glomerules or spikes. i Heads in spikes ii Heads in glomerules, glabrous stemless herbs, leaves linear Heads with corolla of outer flowers ray-shaped. i Fruit curved ii Fruit thick and hard, winged ..Perennials, sometimes annuals. *Heads with corolla of outer flowers thread-shaped **Heads solitary, hemispherical. i Pappus at base surrounded by a small cup ii Pappus without cup. x Heads with yellow ray florets xx Heads discoid, or at least appearing so. o Leaves entire oo Leaves crisped ***Heads in dense cymes ****Heads of 2 kinds, male and female, the latter 1-2 flowered and later transformed into a spinescent fruit.

Zoegea 22 Centaurea 23 Pegolettia 24 Dicoma 25 Phaeopappus 26 Anvillea 27 Helichrysum 28 Phagnalon 29 Asteriscus 30 Rhanterium 31

Asteropterus 32 Filago 33 Ifloga 34 Gymnarrhena 35 Calendula 36 Osteosprmum 37 Pluchea.38 Pulicaria 39 Inula 40 Jasonia 41 Francoeuria 42 Gnaphalium 43


i Leaves finely dissected ii Leaves 3-cleft or palmate-lobed

Ambrosia 44 Xanthium 45

iii Not as above, receptacle glabrous. x Corolla of outer flowers white or blue Felicia 46 xx Corolla of outer flowers yellow, o Annual herbs. y. Corolla short Cotula 47 yy. Corolla long, showy Chrysanthemum 48 oo Shrubs. y. Heads panicled, discoid Artemisia 59 yy. Heads yellow, clustered, in corymbose cyme. Leaves lanceolate Psiadia 50 yyy. Heads yellow, not clustered. Leaves rigid needle-like. Euryops 51 =Heads with hermaphrodite disc flowers, at least some fertile. i Heads blue or purple Vernonia 52 ii Heads yellow or white. x Involucral bracts imbricate Conyza 53 xx Involucral bracts in one row, free Senecio 54 xxx Involucral bracts scarious at edges. * Ray flowers yellow, leaves pinnately divided Achillea 55 ** Ray flowers white, annuals, y. Heads broad, corolla tube compressed. z. Achenes tubercled, ribbed Anthemis 56 zz. Achenes 3-ribbed, flat, stem naked Tripleurospermum 57 yy. Heads narrow, aromatic herb, pappus ring-shaped Matricaria 58 xxxx Involucral bracts not scarious at edges, heads in lax corymbs, fruit winged, herbs Verbesina 59 + +Leaves opposite. .Heads solitary or in pairs, marginal ray flowers in 2 rows Eclipta 60 ..Heads few-flowered in glomerules, leaves 3-nerved. Flaveria 61


1 UROSPERMUM Scop. Annual herbs with yellow flowers. Heads manyflowered, all flowers ligulate, bisexual. Involucre bell -shaped, of 8 equal scales in one row, united below and increasing in size after flowering. Receptacle naked. Achenes compressed, beaked, covered with muricate scales ending in a hollow beak. Pappus of plumose hairs, 1 cm. 1 row. Leaves dentate or pinnatifid.

2 S. papposa DC. : Woolly, then glabrescent herb. Leaves often wavy margined, the lower oblong, the upper half clasping, linear-lanceolate. Heads 3-4 cm. long. Scales of involucre whitemargined. Flowers lilac. Achenes 1 cm. long, muricate. E.

3 LEONTODON L. 1 U. picroides (L.) Scop, ex F. W. Schmidt: Annual herb 30-60 cm. high, sparingly hispid of stiff hairs. Leaves oblong-spathulate, entire, pinnatifid or lyrate, those of stem auricled-clasping, the upper lanceolate or linear. Heads 2 cm. long, at first conical, later campanulate. Flowers small yellow. NH, SH, E. 2 SCORZONERA L. Small herbs with tuberous edible root and leafless scapes from a basal rosette of narrow entire leaves. Heads many-flowered. All flowers ligulate and bisexual purple or yellow. Involucre imbricated. Pappus sessile, plumose, Achenes supported at the base by a hollow stalk either very short and indistinct or elongated and rather inflated. 1 S. intricata Boiss: Appressed grey-hairy herb; stem erect from a shrubby rhizome. Lower leaves few, narrowly filiform, folded. Heads 8 mm. long, cylindrical, few-flowered, with rigid cylindrical peduncles. Flowers little exceeding the involucre. Pappus 1.5 times as long as achene, bristles reddish, few. NH, SH, NJe, NJw, NF. 4 PICRIS L. Strigose or hirsute annual or perennial herbs with yellow flowers. Stem leafy. Heads manyflowered. Involucre calyculate, all its scales narrow, in one row, of equal length with or without a few short ones at its base. Achene tapering or beaked, transversely wrinkled, with plumose pappus. Pappus either similar in all achenes, being united in a ring at the base, with the interior brisAnnual or perennial herbs. Stem a leafless scape or with few scale-like leaves. Involucral scales imbricated, unequal, Achenes beaked, longitudinally striate, sometimes transversely wrinkled, with plumose pappus. 1 L. hispidulus (Del.) Boiss. : Annual small hispid or glabrous herb, 10-25 cm. high. Stems simple or forked. Leaves rosetted, deeply pinnatifid, with narrow acute lobes. Involucral scales glabrous or nearly so. Achenes tapering into an indistinct beak. Pappus rather persistent. NJe, E.


tles stronger, plumose, the outer fewer, short, or that of the marginal achenes consisting of short bristles, more or less united in a cup. 1 P. abyssinica Sch. Bip. : Small herb, up to 15 cm. high. Radical leaves lanceolate, slightly lobed, hairy. Stem-leaves small, triangular. Flowering axis slender hairy. Heads terminal, yellow, 2 cm. long, 1 cm. broad. Pappus deciduous. NH, SH, NJe, N. 2 P. sulphurea Del. : Erect annual herb, rather delicate, with simple or divaricately branched stem. Lower leaves oblanceolate, sparingly sinuate-toothed or pinnatifid, stem leaves few, linear-lanceolate, entire. Peduncles not thickened. Achenes short, tapering, not beaked, with persistent pappus. SH. 3 P. damascena Boiss. et. Gaill. v. diffusa Eig. : Stems low, simple or forked, 1-2-headed, with only a few leaves. Pappus soon deciduous, borne on a capillary stalk (beak). Achenes of 2 kinds: the outer tapering, the inner beaked, all light brown and transversely wrinkled. 4 P. radicata (Forssk.) Less. ( = Spitzelia corono - Pifolia Sch. Bip.): Small annual herb, 15-25 cm. high, rough-papillose. Root-leaves densely rosetted oblanceolate, pinnatifid into rounded or ovate lobes; stem leaves few, linear. Peduncles long, scarcely thickened, heads 1.5 cm. long. Marginal achenes cylindrical incurved, truncate, inner ones very small, oblong, rounded or narrowed at the top. Pappus of marginal achenes confluent, with a fringed cup.

NH, SH, NJe, E.

5 LACTUCA L. Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, with yellow, pale red or blue flowers and a milky juice. Heads narrow, 5-many flowered. Stem leafy. Involucre imbricated or 2-rowed. Achenes similar compressed at the back, beaked, pappus stalked, of soft, white, simple hairs. 1 L. saligna L. : Tall biennial herb, up to 1 m. or more high. Stems simple erect, or several from neck, not green-striped. Leaves prickly of unarmed, linear-lanceolate to linear, the lowest ovate, serrate- pinnatifid, then often spiny beneath on the midrib. Stem leaves usually entire, sagittate at the base. Heads on short pedicels, more than 5-flowered, about 1 cm. long. Flowers yellow or drying violet blue. Achenes ovateoblong, 5-7 striate on each side. Beak white, twice as long as the achene. NJ.

6 CREPIS L. Annual or perennial herbs with yellow flowers. Heads many-flowered. Involucral scales equal, in one row, with a few smaller outer ones at the base. Receptacle naked, villous or glabrous. Achenes usually similar, terete columnar, striped, with tapering or beaked apex. Pappus of simple hairs. In few species 2 kinds of achenes,


the outer ones large truncate, with pappus absent or reduced.

7 LAUNAEA Cass. Herbs or, rarely, shrubs with yellow, ligulate,

1 C. parviflora Desf. : A richly branched annual herb, up to 1 m. high. Stems slender, zigzag, dichotomous, corymbose, leafy. Lower rosette-leaves - oblong, sharply sinuate-lobed, stem leaves linearlanceolate to linear, sagitate at the base, clasping. Peduncles slender, divergent, curved. Heads numerous, very small, pedicelled, 4-6 mm. long, half as wide in a lax corymb. Involucre appressedcanescent, inner scales bristly-mucronate, obtuse. Achenes beakless, 2 mm. long, with the deciduous sessile pappus twice as long. NJ, E. 2 C. ruepelli Sch. Bip. : Perennial herb with strong root. Radical, rosette leaves denticulate oblanceolate, with rounded apex and glandular hairs. Flower heads peduncled, in lax open cyme. Inner involucral bracts 8, puberulent, hairy. Achenes beaked, with white pappus. S. 3 C. radicata Forssk. ( = Barkhausia senecioides Spr., C. senecioides Del.): Small, slender, manystemmed annual herbs, up to 30 cm. high. Leaves rosetted, sharply dentate or cleft. Heads numerous, small. Involucre 5-10 mm. long, with black bristles along the midrib. Achenes with a short body of 1-2 mm. and a long capillary beak of 3-6 mm. Pappus stalked, 3 mm. long, persistent. NH.

bisexual flowers. Heads many- or few-flowered. Involucre imbricated, with bracts in more than one row, or at least the lower ones imbricated. Achenes usually beakless, of 2 kinds in the same head: the outer velvety-hairy, the inner white glabrous. Pappus of simple hairs. 1 L. resedifolia (L. emend. Coss.) Kuntze ( = L. mucronata): Leaves much varying in shape, broad or narrow, deeply lobed; lobes linear, entire or nearly so. Involucral scales broad, mostly white-margined. Pappus uniform, of distinct separate hairs, not mixed with bristles, persistent, mostly as long as the achene, together with the latter 15 mm. long. Biennial plant. Heads not clustered. E. 2 L. capitata (Spreng.) Dandy ( = L. glomerata (Cass.) Hook.): Biennial herbs, 5-15 cm. high with stiff, stout, scape-like, almost naked, simple or 2- forked stems emerging from a dense rosette of lyrate- cleft leaves. Heads short and thick, nearly sessile, densely-clustered towards the summit of the stem. Involucral scales broad, white-margined. Achenes beakless, broad, yellow, winged, flattened, retuse, short. SH, NJe, E. 3 L. mucronata (Forssk.) Muschl. ( = L.

candol leana (Jaub. & Sp.) Bornm. ): Herbs 50-


80 cm. high, glabrous. Stems erect, dichotomous and loosely corymbose. Lower leaves petioled, lanceolate in outline, bi-pinnatipartite or lobed, lobes oblong to linear, mucronate. Stem leaves oblong, auricledtoothed or many-cleft at the base. Scales of involucre white- margined, ovate to oblong, tips of outer ones obtuse prickly. Achenes with persistent pappus longer than the achenes. Resembling L. cassiniana but always recognized by its persistent heteromorphous pappus, longer than the short achene. NH, SH, N, S, NJe, NJw, NF, E. R 4 L. cassiniana (Jaub. & Sp.) Kuntze: A stout, richly branched, annual or biennial herb. Leaves deeply cut, with narrow lobes. Heads not clustered, 5 mm. broad or more. Involucre scales broad, not white -margined. Achenes short, narrow cylindrical, beakless and wingless. Pappus short, as long as achene, deciduous. NH, SH, NJe, NJw, Nf. 5 L. remotiflora (DC. ap. Wight) Amin: A small herb, with rosette pinnatisect leaves. Flowering axis bearing small leaves. Heads terminal, unequal, with subterminal heads at upper nodes. NJ. 6 L. massauensis (Fres.) Chiov. : A delicate, tall, annual, glabrous herb, 50 cm. high. Stems erect, slender, fragile, much paniculate-corymbosely branched above. Leaves thin, broad, usually pinnatifid, sharply serrate; the lower short-petioled, the rest sessile, broad-auricled. Pedicels filiform, lower scales of involucre calyx-like, short, ovate, the true scales 5, 5

times as long as the lower ones, linear. Heads small, numerous, narrowly cylindrical, about 5 mm. broad, in a spreading, rich, naked panicle. Achenes rather compressed, the outer black, the inner white, nearly 4 -angled, usually beakless. Pappus persistent, longer than achene. SH. 7 L. nudicaulis (L.) Hook. f. Perennial herbs, loosely corymbose above. Stems slender, thin, upwards almost twining. Root leaves rosetted, lyrate- cleft, with the lobes cartilaginous toothed. Stem leaves few, small at the lower forks. Heads not clustered, short-pedicelled, cylindrical with narrow involucral scales of broad white margins. Achenes glabrous, beakless, truncate at the tip, narrow cylindrical,-5 furrowed. Pappus persistent. NH, SH, NJe, E. 8 L. procunibens (Roxb.) Dandy (= L. fallax Jaub. & Sp.) Ktze: Nearly leafless, loosely corymbose perennial herb. Radical leaves rosetted oblong. Heads not clustered. Involucral scales narrowly-linear, obtuse, white-margined, the lower triangular-ovate. Achenes narrow, cylindrical, attenuate at the tip. Pappus deciduous. SH. 9 L. angustifolia (Desf.) Kuntze ( = L. arabica Boiss., L. foxii (Post) Dinsm.): Small fleshy biennial herb, up to 20 cm. high, glabrous, branching from the base. Stems thick, 1-4headed. Leaves pinnatifid, with entire, simple 6-


lobes. Heads ovate, involucral scales herbaceous, usually (not always) destitute of white margin, orbicular to elliptic and oblong, obtusely tipped. Pappus persistent, of interwoven entangled hairs of cottony aspect, easily distinguishable, together with the achene 7 mm. long. NJe. 10 L. spinosa (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. : Intricately branched spiny shrub, 30-50 cm. high, of a very disagreeable smell and abundant latex on wounding. Leaves linear, glaucous, soon deciduous. Heads small, few, solitary, nearly sessile, few-flowered. Achenes somewhat dorsally flattened. NH. 11 L . goraeensis (Lam.) O. Hoffm. : Erect,

hairs connate at the base in a ring and deciduous as a unit. 1 R. tingitana (L.) Roth ( = Scorzonera tingitana L. and orientalis L., Picridium tingitanum (L.) Desf.; Reichardia orientalis (L.) Hochr.): Tall, stout annual herbs, 15-30 cm. high, with thickened, sparingly branched stems. Lower leaves clasping, linear-lanceolate, deeply pinnatelobed. Peduncles upward swollen. Heads large 2.5 cm. long and broad, pale-yellow to orange, in the middle often blackish-red, on stout peduncles. NJ, E. 9 SONCHUS L. Annual, biennial or perennial herbs with yellow bisexual flowers. Heads many-flowered. Involucre imbricated. Achenes all of the same kind, compressed, attenuated at both ends, 1-3-ribbed, elliptic, beakless Pappus, of 2 types of hairs: solitary rough deciduous hairs and more persistent softer hairs in clusters. 1 S. maritimus L. : Perennial rhizomatous plant 40-60 cm. high. Stems glabrous, hollow, simple, slender, with few branches and few leaves. Leaves densely-rosetted linear, entire, upper ones slightly lobed, minutely dentate; no lyrate leaves. Heads tomentose at the base. Scales of involucre broad, obtuse, the outer oblong, the inner oblong-lanceolate. Achenes elliptical, thickand broad-margined, slightly wrinkled with one rib on each face. N. E.

stiff, sparingly branched, annual or perennial herb. Leaves rosetted, acute-lobed. Heads distant, shortpetioled, few-flowered, cylindrical, in narrow racemes. Achenes sub compressed. transversely rugose -tubercled, inner ones tapering, outer ones with a short beak. NJe.

8 REICHARDIA Roth. Annual or perennial leafy herbs with yellow flowers often blackish-red in the middle. Heads broad, thick, many-flowered. Involucral scales imbricated, broadly white-margined. Achenes yellow, of 2 forms, inner ones pale, nearly smooth, outer ones dark, tubercled-rugose. Pappus sessile, of soft, white simple

Launaea mucronata

Launaea capitata


2 S. oleraceus L. : Annual, rarely biennial herb growing as weed in cultivated land as well as in moist habitats. Stems erect, the young branches partially with glandular hairs, soft, hollow, stems and leaf milky-juiced. Leaves alternate, oblong, acute, 10 -20 cm. long, pinnately parted, margins irregular toothed, the base auriculate and clasping the stem. Heads terminal, corymbose, yellow, 2-3 cm. in diameter; involucre green, 12-15 mm. long, the involucral bracts in 3-4 rows, oblong-lanceolate, the outer bracts 3.5-4.5 mm. long, the middle ones 6-9 mm. long; flowers all ligulate, the corolla truncate at the apex, 5-toothed, the lower part tubular, with white hairs. Achenes narrow-margined, 3-nerved and 3striate, 3 mm. long, brown, oblanceolate, rugose. Pappus white, about 6 mm. long. NH, SH, NJe.

nately cleft. Peduncles more swollen than in the type, and involucre indurated in fruit. Pappus of dirty bristles. SH.

11 CICHORIUM L. Herbs. Heads with blue, rarely white, ligulate flowers. Receptacle naked, often somewhat honeycombed. Involucre calculate. Achenes obovate. 1 C. pumilum Jacq. : Heads in sessile clusters along the stem or solitary at the tip of thick swollen peduncles. Involucral scales slightly hairy, but not glandular. Stem leaves narrow. Annual herbs. NJ. v. endivia L. : Stem leaves clasping, broadly cordate to sagitate. Involucre slightly glandular.

10 HEDYPNOIS Mill. Hairy, yellow-flowered annual herbs, with forked leafy stem and upwards swollen peduncles. Head many-flowered. Involucre imbricate. Outer involucral scales short, calyx-like, inner ones concave, hardened in fruit, almost enclosing the marginal achenes. Outer achenes tipped with a cup-like margin, inner ones with a pappus of lanceolate-subulate dirty bristles.


12 KOELPINIA Pall. Annual herbs with capillary, thread-like leaves. Heads several-flowered. Receptacle naked. Outer involucre of 2 very small scales, scales of true involucre 5-7 in one row, more or less united in fruit Flowers yellow. Achenes linear, curved, densely spiny along the back, and at the

1 H. cretica (L.) Dum. -Cours. ssp. Rhagadi- tip crowned with a star of minute, spreading brisoloides ) L.) F. W. Schmidt as sp. : Richly branched tles. hairy annual herb, smaller than the type, only 10-15 cm. high, procumbent, with densely rosetted leaves. All leaves, rosetted and cauline, are dentate or pin1 K. linearis Pall. : Annual herb 10-20 cm. high, small, slender. Stems erect dichotomous. Leaves linear, filiform. Flowers yellow, not ex-


ceeding the involucre. Achenes narrow, curved, linear with aspect of umbel rays, twice as long as the linear-lanceolate scales. N, NJ, NF, E. 3 E. 25.

NH, SH. blancheanus Boiss. : Grey, not

glandular. Involucre 2-3.5 cm. long. Scales 22E.

13 ECHINOPS L. Desert thistle perennial herbs, more or less cobwebby or canescent, without latex. Heads big, spherical, dense, of numerous sessile 1-flowered headlets on the common receptacle of the globular head. The head is supported by broad leaves. For each headlet there is an involucre of several rows of bristle-like bracts passing gradually from outer spathulate to inner subulate or spiny-tipped. Involucre of headlet surrounds a single blue, pink or white flower. Corolla regular, with a slender 5-parted tube. Anthers append- aged at the base. Achenes elongated, terete, villous. Bristles of pappus more or less united, forming a crown. 1 E. glaberrimus DC. : Perennial herb, up to 60 cm. high. Stem slender, unbranched with a single head as well as the leaves glabrous, only the lowermost leaves sometimes slightly cobwebby on the under surface. Leaves rigid, prominently nerved, lanceolate, pinnatipartite into small ovate-oblong segments, with crowded densely spiny-lobes, margin flat or very slightly revolute. NJe. 2 E. galalensis Schweinf. : Leaves narrower that in E. spinosissimus, almost awl-shaped. Stems dark red, glandular, glossy, and head all over beset with crowded, yellow, horn-like spines.

4 E. hussoni Boiss. : Stem glabrous, glossy, whitish-yellow. Leaves thin, soft, with flattened margins, with few deep, spiny-tipped lobes, densely cobwebby lanate beneath. Spines few, rather weak. Head with horn-like spines. NJ, S 5 E. spinosissimus Turra ( = E. spinosus L.): Perennial, richly branched, desert thistle plant, up to 90 cm. high, not glandular, Stem red or yellow, always cobwebby-lanate. Leaves densely white woolly beneath, pinnatipartite; leaf-lobes narrow, linear, revolute-margined terminated by rigid spines. Heads large, 5 cm. broad. Flowers pale yellow or white. NH, NJ, N, E.

14 ONOPORDUM L. Tall spiny herbs usually with large heads of violet or purple flowers. Heads homogamous, many-and equal-flowered, of normal type, surrounded by common involucre. Scales of involucre leathery, entire, terminated by a needle-like spine, on the outer scales short and recurved, on the inner ones long and erect. Stem spinywinged, leaves spiny-lobed. Receptacle fleshy,


honey-combed. Achenes obovate, 4-angled, somewhat compressed. Pappus caducous, plumose. 1 O. ambiguum Fres. : Biennial herb, 40 cm. high, snow-woolly. Stems with scarcely-lobed prickly wings. Leaves 5-15 cm. long, 1-3 cm. broad, usually undivided, but sometimes the lower ones pinnatifid, all leaves with spiny margin and densely whitewoolly. Heads medium-sized, scales of involucre ovate, spines 2.5-3 cm. long, awl-shaped. SH, S. 15 CARDUUS L. Thistle annual herbs with spiny-winged stems by the decurrent leaves, and crimson or purple flowers. Heads simple, homogamous, with many equal perfect florets and a common involucre. Scales of involucre imbricated, spiny-tipped except the inner ones. Receptacle fringed. Tube of corolla short, with a 5cleft limb Filaments free, hairy, anthers bicaudate. Achenes obovate-compressed, glossy, more or less striate and transversely wrinkled. Pappus of simple soft hairs (not plumose), in many rows, united in a ring at the base, deciduous. 1 C. pycnocephalus L. : A densely white cobwebby lanate (having or consisting of woolly hairs) annual herb, 30 cm. high. Stems spiny and spiny- winged. Leaves oblong in outline, deeply cleft into prickly-toothed lobes with sharp spines, Heads 2-5 together, sessile, at the top of stem or its branches, these winged to the very summit. Involucral scales prominently nerved, lanceolate, the inner about as long as florets. SH, S, E, NJ.

2 C. getulus Pomel: Annual, green, densely spiny-winged up to the heads. Plant glabrous or nearly so. Leaves slightly cleft, glabrous or more often somewhat woolly along the nerves. Heads several together at the top of the stem or its branches. NJw. 16 SILYBUM Adans. Perennial spiny herbs with many-flowered heads, and equal homogamous florets. Leaves oblonglanceolate in general outline, pinnately-cleft with spiny-toothed lobes, white-mottled sessile with clasping base. Stem not spiny-winged, and leaves not decurrent (having the leaf base extending down the stem below the insertion) on the stem. Heads large, of normal type, surrounded by common involucre. Involucral scales imbricated, the outer spiny-tipped with spinulose-ciliate margins Receptacle fleshy, fringe with long acute bristles. Achenes obovate, laterally compressed, smooth. Pappus of several rows or bristles, united at the base into a deciduous ring. 1 S. marianum (L.) Gaertn. : Glabrous, palegreen perennial herb, with simple or slightly branching stems. Leaves large, mottled with white, pinnatifid into ovate-triangular, sinuatetoothed spiny lobes. Heads globular 6-10 cm. broad. Involucral scales broad with numerous lateral spines and a very long stiff terminal spine, the terminal spines of all involucral bracts forming a star-like aspect around the head. Flowers usually violet-red. Pappus of simple hairs.



Rigid perennial herbs, with homogamous discoid heads. Florets all perfect, fertile. Leaves lanceolate, prickly pointed, altogether green. Stem not spiny- winged. Involucre hemispherical, with narrow, acute, rigid, pungent, glossy scales in many rows. Corolla regular, tubular, 5-parted, lobes more or less revolute. Anthers sagittate at base. Branches of style linear, obtuse. Achenes densely villous, with a pappus of 10 long, pale scales. 1 H. schimperi DC. ( = Dicoma schimperi Baill ex O. Hoffm.): A perennial erect glabrous herb. Stems angular, striate with forked branches. Lower leaves ovate, narrowly and obscurely toothed, upper oblong lanceolate, the uppermost pair just below the involucre. Heads terminal, sol-

17 IPHIONA Cass. Bushy plants with stiff branches and pungent, needle-like leaves. Heads discoid, rather narrow, fewflowered; florets yellow, all perfect, with almost no tube, and a long, cylindrical 5-toothed throat. Involucral scales numerous, imbricated, coriaceous. Achenes cylindrical, furrowed; pappus of many rows of rigid bristles, increasing gradually in length from outside inwards. Leaves altogether green, not mottled. Stem not spiny-winged. Heads simple, homogamous, surrounded by a common involucre. 1 I. mucronata (Forssk.) Asch. et Schweinf. :

Perennial shrublets, 30-50 cm. high, glabrous, in- itary at the ends of the branches or in lax tricately branched, sparingly leafy, forked-corymbose corymbs. above. Leaves linear, pinnatipartite to the midrib into 2-6 pungent side lobes. Outer scales of involucre ovate, obtuse, abruptly mucronate, inner ones lanceolate. Peduncles somewhat elongated. NJ. 2 I. scabra DC. : A glandular-scabrous leafy shrub, corymbose, 50-70 cm. high. Leaves oblong to linear, with 2-4 short spines at the base. Peduncles short, hardly exceeding the leaves. Scales of involucre glandular, the outer triangular, tapering into a prickle the inner linear. NJe. 19 CIRSIUM Mill. Annual, biennial or perennial thistle herbs. Leaves altogether green (except sometimes white nerves) either spiny serrate or spiny pinnatifid. Stem not spiny- margined, leaves not decurrent. Involucral scales narrow linear. Head subtended by white, green- margined spines formed by the midribs of reduced leaves. Head of the normal type, surrounded by a common involucre. Pappus of plumose hairs. Flowers purple. 1 C. lanceolatum (L.) Hill : Plant up to 1 m. 18 HOCHSTETTERIA DC. or higher, branching above. Leaves sinuate, pinNH, N.


natifid, armed with weak spines. Heads ovate, 3-5 cm. long. SH,S.

outer radiate, strap-shaped. Filaments free, with bearded appendages. Styles with 2 very short, convergent lobes. Achenes terete, silky-hairy. Pappus plumose, in one row, united at the base. 1 A. carduus (Forssk.) Christens. ( = A. flava Desf.): Perennial spiny plants, 80-100 cm. high, appressed-woolly, branched from the neck. Leaves leathery, lanceolate-linear, sinuate-lobed, prickly. Heads terminal, 2 cm. long, ovate, larger than in any other species, solitary, with yellow flowers (in all other species flowers pink or purple); outer flowers ligulate, radiating. Leaves of outer involucre supporting the head twice as long as the head, inner involucral scales woolly, broad -ovate to linear-lanceolate, abruptly pricklytipped. N, SH, NJe, E, 2 A. cancellata L. : Annual herb, up to 1 m. high, densely cobwebby. Stems slender, simple or branching from the base, often corymbose branching. Leaves linear, serrate-prickly. Heads ovate, 1.5 cm. long. The leaves below the head (outer involucral bracts) pectinate-looking, with numerous patent approximate, spiny teeth. Flowers all tubular, not radiating, purple. N, NJ, E. 3 A. mernephtae Asch., Let., & Schweinf. : A slender annual herb, with the stem downwards glabrous white. Uppermost leaves with red prickles on the margins. Inner involucral scales purple -margined, slowly tapering into a spine. All flowers tubular, not radiating, purple. Involucre 3 cm. long.

20 CARTHAMUS L. Thistles with heads supported by leaves. Leaves spiny-toothed, prickly-margined and pinnately-lobed, usually attenuate upwards from a broader base. Heads homogamous, many- and equal-flowered. Involucre of several rows of scales, the outer leaflike spiny, the inner scarious. Receptacle densely fringed with long bristles. Filaments free, anthers not caudate at the base. Achenes club-shaped or obovate, obtusely 4-angled. Pappus of unequal flat scales. Annual herbs. 1 C. oxyacantha M. B. : Flowers yellow. Achenes bald. NJ, E. 2 C. tinctorius L. : Stem corymbose. Leaves oblong, serrate prickly, rarely entire unarmed. Heads ovate-conical, 2 cm. long, Florets red. NH, E.

21 ATRACTYLIS L. Annual or perennial thistle plants. Heads homogamous, many-flowered supported by prickly leaves. Leaves spiny-serrate, altogether green, not decurrent on the stem. Stem not spiny-winged. Involucre doubled, the inner scales in many rows, not radiating. Flowers yellow or purple, perfect, uniform or the

Carthamus tinctorius

Atractylis carduus

Atractylis cancellata



spiny or unarmed, entire or fringed, usually with a broad silvery fringe along the margins. Receptacle 22 ZOEGEA L. bristly. Anthers caudate at the base. Pappus persistent of 2 kinds, an outer one of several rows of bristles or scales, of which the inner ones longer, and an inner pappus of a crown of short connate scales; rarely pappus absent. 1 C. solstitialis L. : More or less woolly annu-

Annual herbs. Heads heterogamous, 3-4 cm. wide, radiate. Involucre imbricated, with several rows of membranous scales; outer involucral scales yellow, with fringed margin, inner ones entire redtipped, all terminated by a long red awn exceeding the head. Achenes at tip with 2 long furrows. Pappus persistent, rigid, of 2 forms; the outer of several rows of simple bristles, the inner of 1 row of shorter scarious bristles forming an internal crown. 1 Z. purpurea Fres. : Annual, slender and scabrous small herb, not exceeding 20 cm. in height. Stem erect, forked, branches slender. Lower leaves narrowly lanceolate, entire, or few-lobed, upper narrow-linear. Heads small, solitary, globular, terminal, on slender peduncles. Involucral scales ending in a red long awn exceeding the head; outer scales yellow with fimbriated margin, inner ones entire, red-tipped. Ray florets flesh-coloured to white. All bristles of the pappus white, slender and entire, with a short scarious crown in the center. NJ.

al herbs, 40 cm. high, with winged stem of decurrent leaves. Stems and branches rigid, spreading. Leaves narrow, linear, entire, only the lower ones lyrate with few side lobes. Stem wings entire, as long as internodes. Heads small, yellow-flowered, resembling those of C. pallescens, ovate, 1-1.5 cm. long; lower scales of involucre terminating in 3 short prickles, the intermediate of which is a slender sharp spine as long as the head or twice as long with prickles on each side at base. E. 2 C. ammocyanus Boiss. : Heads small with

rose-coloured flowers. Involucral-scales browntipped, with a white silvery-fringed margin and terminated each by a short, soft spine. A slender, branched annual plant with small, pinnatifid remote leaves.

23 CENTAUREA L. Annual or perennial herbs with unarmed leaves.

Heads heterogamous, the marginal florets sterile, E. much larger than the inner ones, somewhat radiating; C. sinaica DC. : Annual cobwebby herb, 20 rarely heads homogamous. Involucral scales imbricat- 3 ed, of various appearance, leathery or membranous, cm. high, branching from the neck, dichotomous


( branching into two parts). Stem winged of decurrent curved, reddish, thin, needle-like. Involucral scales ( Having the leaf base extending down the stem below with entire margin, terminated by a long spine, 4-5 the insertion) leaves, wings narrow, shorter than inter- times as long as the scales, with a few small side node. Leaves all dentate or irregularly pinnatifid. spines near the base. Flowers pale purplish with Heads in forks or terminal, short-peduncled, solitary, darker, yellow-tipped centrl flowers. Pappns conovate, 1-1.5 cm. long, somewhat bracted by upper sisting only of simple hairs which are copious and leaves. Involucral scales terminated by a large spine slightly red-flushed. 12-20 mm. long, with a few (2-3) smaller remote spines on each side near the base. Florets white or NJe, SH. flesh-coloured. Pappus of an outer row of simple hairs and in the middle a short crown of scales. N, NJe, E. 4 C. eryngioides Lam. : Perennial plants, 30 cm. 6. C schimperi DC. : Leafless densely branched undershrub, with dry straw-coloured terminal heads. Involucral bracts dry, stiff in several imbricated whorls. In mountains. high, green, crisp-pubescent, coarsely pubescent at the SH. neck. Stem thick, rigid, usually branching from the base. Leaves lyrate pinnatipartite into small obtuse lobes, the terminal lobe ovate-oblong. Heads large, globular, 2 cm. in diameter, with long, stout, nearly Shrubby, branched, slightly glandular and odournaked peduncles, and with rose-coloured flowers. In- less plant, woody below, with discoid yellow or volucral scales with a white prickly fringe along the purplish heads. Leaves lyrate, unarmed, alternate. margin and with a terminal, long, yellow spine, 10-35 Stem wingless, pubescent, ribbed. Pappus double, mm. long. E. 1 5 P. senegalensis Cass. : Stiff, corymbosely C. aegyptiaca L. : A small, hairy, annual or bi- branched frutescent plant, below crisped roughof an outer row of fimbriated scales and inner of long plumose hairs. Achenes terete, ribbed, hispid. 24 PEGOLETTIA Cass.

ennial plant 15 cm. high, branched from the base, hairy, upward glandular. Upper leaves linear, enbranches leafy, forked, proliferous, 1-3-headed. Stem tire, lower ones spathulate-oblong, slightly dentate wingless. Leaves pinnatifid. Heads cobwebby ovate- at apex. Flower-heads numerous, about 1 cm. oblong 1.5 cm. long, with thickish, short peduncles long, laxly corymbose. Flowers yellow, later turnbracted by the upper leaves. Spines of involucre ing purple. Achenes closely ribbed. Pappus in 2

Zoegea purpurea

Centaurea solstitialis

Centaurea solstitialis

Centaurea ammocyanus

Centaurea aegyptiaca

Centaurea eryngioides

Centaurea eryngioides

Centaurea schimperi

Pegolettia senegalensis

cio longiflorus


rows, outer short and multifid, inner longer and plu- short appendages at the base. Style with 2 short mose. NJ, SH, S. 25 DICOMA Cass. Annual woolly herb with unarmed leaves. Involucral scales narrow, woolly, tapering into a yellow, rather soft, simple spines, without side, basal spines. Involucre not leaf-like. Fruit silky and pappus double of an outer row of hairs and an inner row of acuminate scales. 1 D. tomentosa Cass. : A small branched annual herb, lobes at apex. 1 P. scoparius (Sieb.) Boiss. ( = Centaurea scoparia Sieb.): Intricately branched shrubby plant with stiff peduncles, woody at the base. Stems forked, branches interlocked 1-headed. Upper leaves linear, entire, 1-2 mm. broad, lower ones pinnate-lobed, 4 mm. wide. Heads oblong, peduncled, scales of involucre yellow-tipped. Flowers white, drying yellow. Plant either green or grey-canescent.

27 ANVILLEA DC. Rigid branching desert shrubs. Heads large,

sometimes slightly frutescent. Leaves entire or finely yellow, discoid, many-flowered, with tubular biserrate, beneath densely woolly, Heads short- sexual, perfect flowers. Involucre at length peduncled, terminal and axillary, forming a scattered woody, outer scales leaf like, inner ones in 2 leafy lax raceme. E. 26 PHAEOPAPPUS Boiss. Shrublets close to Centaurea. Leaves unarmed. Stem leaves narrow, about 1-2 mm. broad, lower leaves pinnatisect. Heads small, yellow-flowered heterogamous, with strongly radiating tubular margin flowers. Scales of involucre not leaf-like, leathery, in several rows, spiny-tipped. Receptacle bristly. Achenes all pappose, 4-angled, pappus persistent uniform, of numerous scabrous scales in several indistinct rows, the inner longer, the outer gradually shorter. Filaments free, papillose, anthers with very rows, appressed, spinescent. Receptacle chaffy. Anthers caudate at base. Achenes uniform, 4sided, bald and umbilicate at tip. Pappus absent, In gravel and rocky deserts. With the aspect of Asteriscus graveolens. 1 A. garcini (Burm. f.) DC. : Perennial, appressed canescent shrublet, branching from the base. Leaves small, obovate-spathulate, dentate. Heads discoid, large, yellow, homogamous or heterogamous with the marginal row of florets pistillate, with a deeply 2-cleft exserted style, the disc florets perfect, fertile or sterile by abortion of ovary. Involucre woolly, imbricated, the outer scales with a leaf-like herbaceous blade much exceeding the head.

NH, NS, NJ, NF, E, R. Florets tubular, the outer in several rows, pistillate filiform, the inner perfect, tubular, 5-toothed. 28 HELICHRYSUM Mill. corr. Pers. Woolly perennial herbs, sometimes woody at the base, with entire, alternate leaves, and wingless stem. Inflorescence naked, densely corymbose. Heads glossy, lemon-yellow, many-flowered. Involucral scales altogether scarious translucent. Pappus in one row of simple scabrous hairs, frequently somewhat plumose at the tip. 1 H. conglobatum Steud. : Erect, many-stemmed frutescent plant, with simple, slender, leafy stems. Leaves linear, obtuse, woolly on both surfaces, often rolled together. Heads glossy, bright-yellow. NJ. 2 H. somalense: Perennial pubescent herb, Involucre imbricated, leathery or scarious. Flowers mostly yellow, pappus uniform, of simple hairs. 1 P. barbeyanum Asch. & Schweinf. : Perennial woolly plant, somewhat shrubby, 20 cm. high, many- stemmed, stems very leafy, 5-7.5 cm. long, appressed white-canescent, elongated into 1 -headed naked peduncles. Leaves oblong to linear, 10-12 mm. long and 2 mm. broad, rigid with revolute margin, half-clasping, acutely 2-auricled, cobwebby-grey, white beneath. Outer involucral scales slightly woolly, all or at least the inner ones acute, coriaceous.

30 ASTERISCUS Mill. Annual or perennial herbs, with large manyflowered radiate heads. Involucre imbricate, the outer scales leaf-like, supporting the hemispherical head, but unarmed. Leaves alternate, oblong. Receptacle chaffy. Ray-florets ligulate, 3-5 toothed, yellow. Anthers caudate. Achenes uniform, turbinate, triquetrous. Pappus scarious, cuplike, irregularly dentate or divided. 1 A. pygmaeus (DC.) Coss. & DR. ( = Odontospermum pygmaeum Benth. & Hook, f.): Annual, dwarf, grey-villulose, stemless herb, or with a few simple branches. Leaves oblong, obtuse, all tapering into a long petiole. Heads sessile, mostly solitary, subtended and overtopped by spathulate, hairy, entire leaves. Achenes silky, pappus subulate-tipped, scarcely toothed.

densely leafy from a woody base. Leaves alternate up to 5 cm. long and 5 mm. broad, sessile, simple, narrow, soft hairy, with broad clasping base and entire margin. Heads small in globular clusters terminating very long white stalks, up to 12 cm. long, produced abundantly and projecting above the level of the dense basal leaves. Flowering stalks bear few distant leaves. Heads glossy, cream coloured, more than 30 crowded in each cluster. In mountains. SH.

29 PHAGNALON Cass. Low shrubby plants with entire, undivided, alternate leaves and solitary, long-peduncled, cup-shaped or cylindrical small heads terminating the branches.

Dicoma tomentosa

Anvillea garcinii

A. graveolens

Helichrysum conglobatum

Phagnalon barbeyanum

Asteriscus pygmaeus

Asteriscus pygmaeus

N, E, NJe, NF. 2 A. graveolens Less. ( = Odontospermum graveolens Sch Bip.): Perennial plants 40 cm. high, grey -velvety, with a branching stem from a rather woody base; branches rigid, forked. Some of the leaves linear-oblong, tapering at the base, but most of them, particularly the lower ones, cordate-clasping, remotely cut or toothed. Heads several, 2 cm. in diameter (including the rays), short-peduncled, terminal and in the forks of the branches. Outer scales of involucre linear, acute, inner shorter, oblong. Ray florets a little longer than involucre. Achenes hirsute. N, E. 3 A. schimperi Boiss. (= A. graveolens Less.) : Perennial plants 40 cm. high, silky-canescent with branching stem from dense clumps. Leaves smaller than in the preceding, spathulate, entire-margined. Heads smaller than in the preceding; bracts as long as ray florets, scales of involucre oblong. Rays very small, few, not longer than involucre. Achenes hirsute. NJe. 32 ASTEROPTERUS Adans Annual small herbs with simple, capillary alternate leaves and yellow flowers. Involucre glabrous, the inner scales scarious-tipped, exceeding the flowers. Pappus of a short- scarious crown and a few plumose hairs. 1 A. leyseroides (Desf.) Rothm. ( =

1 R. epapposum Oliv. : Desert undershrub, hemispherical in general outline, richly branched, up to 60 cm high. Stem white hairy, leaves green, linear, simple up to 2 cm. long and 2 mm. broad, with nearly entire margin. Heads numerous, yellow, nearly spherical about 1-1.5 cm. in diameter, with a whorl of yellow marginal ray-florets. Involucre of many whorls of imbricated, stiff, acutelytipped scales. Summer- deciduous undershrub, producing new foliage towards the end of the rainy season. N, NJe, NJw, E, NF.

Gnuphalium leyseroides Desf., Leysera capiUifolia (Willd.) Spreng., L. leysseroides (Desf.) Maire): Heads oblong, about 5 mm. long, solitary, on naked capillary peduncles, terminal and axillary. Outer flowers female, strap- shaped, inner ones bisexual.

31 RHANTERIUM Desf. Much branched shrublet up to 60 cm. high. Stems whitish-woolly. Leaves small, alternate, narrowlinear, up to 2 -cm. long and 2-3 mm. broad, margin serrate or slightly lobed, apex obtuse. Plants fragrant. Heads numerous, terminal, with yellow ray-florets. Involucral scales imbricate, radiate, stiff, acutelytipped.

33 FILAGO L. Dwarf annual woolly herbs, with alternate entire leaves. Head minute, discoid, spiked or clustered. Involucral scales chaffy, translucent, not


scarious, in 2-5 rows. Outer florets pistillate in 2several rows, filiform, each in the axil of a bract. Achenes bald. Pappus absent or of simple scabrous hairs. 1 F. desertorum (Pomel) Maire ( = F. spathulata Presl. v. prostrata (Pari.) Boiss.): Tiny annual greyhairy herb., much branched, prostrate, frequently close together. Leaves broadly spathulate, densely woolly. Heads numerous, yellow-flowered, in rounded dense clusters of 20-30 heads, usually supported by leaves. Pappus present. S, NJe. 2 F. contracta (Boiss.) Chrtek et Holub ( = Evax contracta Boiss.): Stemless annual small herb, rarely with 1-2 short branches. Heads yellow-flowered, in a sessile cluster surrounded by spathulate, long- petioled, 5-10 cm. long leaves, dilated and indurated at the base, thus protecting the head-cluster. Pappus absent. NJe, NJw, NF.

very base into several simple stems. Each branch forms a leafy, cylindrical spike. Leaves linear, subulate protruding from the spike like green threads. Heads 2-3 in a cluster; scales of involucre scarious, ovate tapering into a long point. SH, N, NJe, NF, E.

35 GYMNARRHENA Desf. Stemless glabrous annual herbs, with crowded sessile heads in the center of a leaf-rosette. Involucre many-rowed, scales rigid, boat-shaped coriaceous, imbricated. Flowers mostly yellow, marginal florets pistillate, in many rows, each subtended by a scale, the corolla slender, tubular, 3toothed. Achenes obconical, villous. Central florets few, minute, abortive, the corolla funnelshaped. 1 G. micrantha Desf. : Small annual herbs, 23 cm. high. Leaves 10 cm. long, linear-lanceolate, acutish with dilated membranous base, rosetted around the sessile clustered heads and much longer than the head-cluster, often lying flat on the ground in hard calcareous soil. Heads whitishgreen, involucral scales coriaceous. SH, E, NF, NJ.

34 IFLOGA Cass. Small annual herbs forming a dense cylindrical leafy spike of small head clusters. Leaves nearly linear, somewhat thread-like. Heads many-flowered, discoid. Involucre scarious, imbricated. Receptacle elongated, naked at the center. Marginal florets pistillate, central ones tubular, perfect and staminate. Achenes of the pistillate florets bald, of the perfect ones with a row of simple hairs representing the pappus. 1 I. spicata (Forssk.) Sch.-Bip. : Annual small herb, from a few to 10 cm. high, branched from the

37 OSTEOSPERMUM L. Plant with the aspect of Calendula. Heads many- flowered, with yellow ray-florets. Achenes from base to top with broad scarrious wings.


1 O. vaillantii (Decne) T. Norl. ( = Tripteris vaillantii Decne): Perennial plants, 40 cm. high, glandular-hirsute, richly branched, with simple, entire or few -toothed, half-clasping, oblong-lanceolate leaves, and a few corymbose heads. Heads small, peduncled; scales of involucre, linear. Achenes broadly scarious winged. NH, S. 36 CALENDULA L. Annual or perennial herbs with orange-coloured or yellow ray-florets. Leaves alternate, often undivided. Heads large, many-flowered, radiate, heterogamous. Involucre imbricated, in about one row of nearly equal scales. Ray-florets strap-shaped, pistillate, fer-

3 C. aegyptiaca Desf. : Annual herbs 20-40 cm. high, papillose hairy. Leaves narrow, linear to lanceolate. Heads small, hardly 1 cm broad, fewflowered, ray-florets papillose-hairy at the base hardly longer than involucre, pale yellow, never orange. Marginal achenes long, prickly at back, ending in a slender beak, intermediate ones winged-crested or boat- shaped, inner ring-like, wrinkled. N, NJ, E.

38 PLUCHEA Cass. Annual or perennial herbs with orange-

tile, disc florets tubular, perfect, 5-cleft. Achenes coloured or yellow ray-florets. Leaves alternate, much varying even in one and the same head, in 2-3 often undivided. Heterogamous shrubs with disrows, often curved with the outer ones prickly at the coid heads. Flowers usually white, the marginal back, but may be ring-like or beaked or unarmed, pistillate in many rows, the central perfect, few. winged or wingless. Pappus absent. 1 C. micrantha Tineo et Guss. : Small annual Involucre imbricated, scarious. Receptacle naked. Styles of pistillate flowers glabrous, of perfect

herb with the flowers orange coloured, often with ones hispidulous. Achenes somewhat terete. Flowblackish-red disc. Flower heads small, 10-15 mm. er heads white, shortly peduncled, in umbellate across. (no pic found in the web) NH, SH, S, NJ, E. 2 C. persica C. A. Mey. : Annual herb, 10-30 cm high, branching from the neck. Heads 1 cm. broad. Rays one and a half times as long as involucre. Achenes all ring-like, prickly at the back, winged at the face, three times as large as the wrinkled inner ones. NJ, E. 39 PULICARIA Gaertn. terminal panicles. 1 P. ovalis (Pers.) DC. : Leaves sessile, denticulate-serrate, elliptic or ovate, auriculateclasping. Flowers white, achenes glabrous, pappus scabrous (rough to the touch: as a: having small raised dots, scales, or points ). SH.

Calendula persica

Pluchea ovalis


Calendula aegyptiaca

Francoeuria crispa

Rhanterium epapposum


Annual or perennial herbs with small, showy yellow heads, 5-25 mm. in diameter. Heads many- flowered, heterogamous, marginal ones in one row, pistillate, ligulate strap-shaped, inner ones perfect, tubular, 5-toothed. Involucre densely imbricated, in several rows, with linear scales. Receptacle naked. Anthers bicaudate at base. Achenes beakless. Pappus double, outside of a short scarious cup, inside of fragile scabrous hairs. 1 P. arabica (L.) Cass. : A slender, stiff annual herb, hirsute or woolly, dichotomous, with usually straw-coloured glossy branches. Lower leaves oblong, tapering into a petiole, upper ones linearlanceolate, frequently silky but hairs not tuberclebased, auricled at the base. Leaf margin flat, neither crisped not undulated. Heads small, in forks and terminal. Involucral scales hirsute ( covered with coarse stiff hairs ), lanceolate-linear, acuminate. Ray florets spreading, a little longer than the involucre. E, NJe. 2 P. petiolaris Jaub. & Sp. : Delicate perennial herb. Leaves broad serrate, with rounded base and narrowly winged petioles about as long as the blade itself. Heads scattered, corymbose, on long peduncles. SH. 3 P. orientalis Jaub. & Sp. : Perennial fragrant herb with erect branches up to 50 cm. high. Leaves lanceolate-obovate, about 3 cm. long. Heads terminal, 1-1.5 cm. in diameter, ovate-obconical, with convex top. Involucral bracts narrow, peduncle flat. Ray

florets pale yellow, small, petals about 1 mm. long. Achenes 1.5-2 mm. long. NJ. 4 P. inuloides (Poir.) DC. (= P. longifolia Boiss.): A tall stout perennial plant with thick, often reddish stems and large broad, usually sessile stiff and viscid, leaves. At least some of the leaves 6-10 cm. long, all leaves rough with tubercle-based, minute hairs. Leaf margin flat. Heads often big, panicled. 5 P. undulata (L.) Kostel: Perennial herb, 30 cm. high, much branched, woolly, procumbent. Leaves wavy, typically sessile, cut or toothed; the radical ones oblong, tapering at the base, those of the stem linear-lanceolate auricled-clasping. Heads terminal, 15-20 cm. in diameter. Ray florets long, yellow (in other species short or absent). Peduncles rather long, scaly towards the tip. Scales of involucre oblong- linear, acuminate somewhat shorter than disc. Rays about twice as long as involucre. Of aromatic odour. NJ. 6 P. sicula (L.) Moris: Annual richly

branched herb, with erect, stiff, reddish or darkbrown rough hairy branches. Leaves typically sessile; lower ones falling early, oblonglanceolate, somewhat toothed, tapering at the base, hairy hirsute beneath, stem leaves narrowly short linear, convolute at the margin, halfclasping. Heads small, terminal with scaly pedun-

Pulicaria arabica

Pulicaria petiolaris

Pulicaria undulata


cles. Involucre dark-coloured. Ray florets about as long as disc florets and involucre-pappus reddish. NJw.

small, pale-yellow, few-flowered, appearing in late summer. Of strong aromatic scent. In maritime ( adjacent to the sea) dunes.

40 INULA L. Perennial herbs, sometimes shrubby at the base, with bright yellow ray-florets. Heads solitary or racemed, many-flowered, heterogamous, radiate, rarely discoid. Marginal florets commonly in one row, strap -shaped or tubular, 3-cleft; central florets perfect 5toothed. Involucre imbricated, in several rows; scales copious, narrowly linear, unequal and scarious- margined. Pappus uniform, of simple hairs. 1 I. crithmoides L. ( = Limbardia aithmoides Dum.): Perennial herb woody at the base, halophytic, 30 cm. high, glabrous corymbose to monocephalous. Leaves fleshy, green, narrowly-spathulate, either entire or upwards 3-dentate. Heads solitary, 3 cm. broad. Peduncles long beset with linear bracts. Scales of involucre linear-lanceolate, the outer somewhat shorter; ray florets about twice as long as involucre. In salty places. 41 JASONIA Coss. Shrubs with oblong, elliptical or linear unarmed leaves. Heads small, discoid, yellow, of obconical shape. Achenes compressed. Pappus of scabrous hairs, without cup. 1 J. candicans (Del.) Botsch. ( = Varthemia

42 FRANCOEUR1A Cass. A genus close to Pulicaria, differing in its pappus which is not double with a scarious cup outside, but single consisting only of bristles which are sub- plumosely scabrous above. 1 F. crispa (Forssk.) Cass. ( Pulicaria

crispa (Forssk.) Benth. et Hook, f.): Perennial bushy desert plant, cushion-shaped, 40-50 cm. high. Stems numerous, appressed-canescent, corymbose above. Plant odourless. Leaves variable in appearance; on juvenile. shoots long and white -woolly, on adult branches minute, green. All leaves cobwebby-canescent, linear spathulate, acutely toothed, half-clasping crisped. Head yellow, 5 mm. broad, appearing discoid be cause of its very short ray florets. Scales of involucre glabrescent, linear, acuminate; rays not longer than involucre. N, NJe, NF, NH, SH, E.

43 GNAPHALIUM L. Annual woolly plants with simple entire leaves and clustered heads. Heads small, without ray florets, discoid, heterogamous, many-flowered. Involucral scales at least upwards scarious imbricate. Receptacle flat, naked. Outer florets pistillate, filiform, usually in several rows, central ones

candicans (Del.) Boiss. ): Leaves on sterile shoots linear, up to 3-4 cm. long, soft-hairy, floral leaves small, oblong-elliptical, revolute-margined. Heads


tubular, perfect. Anthers caudate. Achenes nearly terete or compressed. 1 G. luteo-album L. Erect, rather tall annual

N, NF.

44 XANTHIUM L. Annual monoecious plants with alternate 3cleft or palmately-lobed leaves. Heads sessile, solitary or racemed, of 2 kinds, upper male and lower female. Male heads globular, with tubular 5 -toothed flowers and involucre of several scales. Pistillate heads ovate, 2-flowered, with gamophyllous involucre, later forming a large ovoid fruit, densely with hooked prickles and at tip in some species with 2 rigid spinescent beaks. 1 X. brasilicum Vellozo. ( = X. strumarium L. ): Annual herb 60 cm. high. Leaves longpetioled, scabrous, broadly ovate to cordatetriangular, with irregularly incised-crenate lobes. Stem simple or few- branched. Heads racemed. Fruit hairy, the terminal beaks thick and stout, not or hardly longer than the prickles. S. 45 AMBROSIA L. Annual herbs. Lower leaves opposite, upper alternate. Spikes terminal, bearing pistillate heads (1- flowered) at the base, frequently compound, and staminate heads (many-flowered) at tip, greenish, 3 mm. broad. Female heads later form a small, angled, prickly fruit. 1 A. maritima L. : Annual richly branched grey- hairy fragrant herb, up to 50 cm. high. Leaves ovate in general outline finely dissected,

herb, 30 cm. high, simple or branching, corymbose above. Leaves sessile, broad, entire; lower oblong spathulate, obtuse, upper linear or lanceolate, acute, half clasping. Heads small, densely clustered corymbose, not distinctly racemed, straw-coloured glossy. Involucre glabrous, of obtuse, pale, glossy scales. Achenes tubercled. NH, SH, S, NJ. 2 G. pulvinatum Del. : Annual, prostrate, appressed white-woolly, richly branched herb, with branches spreading flat in a rosette. Leaves petioled, flat, obovate-spathulate, acutish, not crisped, tapering to a petiole. Heads in dense globose terminal clusters, reddish, more or less hidden in wool, with the leaves exceeding the reddish head clusters. Scales of the woolly involucre lanceolate acute, pale reddish, shortly exceeding the disc. E. 3 G. leyseroides (Desf.) Rothm. ( = Asteropterus leysseroides(Desf.)Rothm., Leysera capillifolia (Willd.) Spreng., L. leysseroides (Desf.) Maire): Annual small herb with simple capillary leaves and yellow flowers. Leaves alternate. Involucre glabrous, the inner scales scarious-tipped, exceeding the flowers. Pappus of a short scarious crown and a few plumose hairs. Heads oblong about 5 mm. long, solitary on naked capillary peduncles both terminal and axillary. Outer flowers female, ligulate, inner ones bisexual.

Gnaphalium luteo-album

Gnaphalium luteo-album

Xanthium brasilicum

Xanthium brasilicum


bi-pinnatipartite into toothed oblong lobes. Involucre of pistillate flowers surrounded near the middle by 46 blunt, horn-like projections. Along muddy canals. NH, SH.

pressed, striate with white ribs. Pappus absent. Aspect of Matricaria and Tripleurospermum but always hairy. 1 C. anthemoides L. : Green prostrate annual herb with leaf-opposed heads on hair-fine capillary peduncles. Leaves pinnatifid, finely dissected with leaf lobes serrate. Involucral scales distinctly scarious margined. N, NJ, E. 2 C. cinerea Del. : Grey-woolly annual herb, 10-20 cm. high, branching from the neck, erect or ascending. Leaves 1-1.5 cm. long, wedge-shaped, pinnatifid with entire lobes. Heads 5 mm. broad, terminal. Involucral scales grey-woolly, not margined. NJ.

46 FELICIA Cass. Hispid shrubby plants with solitary terminal heads. Flowers blue or white, the marginal ones ligulate, oval or oblong. Pappus of scabrous hairs. 1 F. abyssinica Sch. Bip. : Hispid small shrublet, with alternate, sessile, linear, serrate leaves, 1.5-2 cm. long, very dense. Heads solitary, terminal or in the axils of upper leaves, less than 1 cm. in diameter. SH, S, NJ. 2 F. dentata (A. Rich.) Dandy. ( = Agathaea dentata A. Rich., F. richardi Vatke): Erect shrublet. Leaves alternate, entire or few-toothed, lanceolateobovate, 1.5-3 cm. long, 5-10 mm. broad. Heads solitary, terminal, yellow, 15 mm. broad, with numerous narrow, pointed; hairy involucral scales. NJ.

48 CHRYSANTHEMUM L. Glabrous herbs with large, 3-4 cm. broad, yellow flower heads. Leaves broadly bipinnatisect. Heads many-flowered, rayed; ray florets strapshaped, pistillate or sterile, white or yellow. Involucre imbricated, scales scarious-margined. Receptacle naked, convex. Achenes of 2 kinds, those of ray florets more or less triquetrous or 3winged, those of disc turbinate. Pappus crownlike or absent.

47 COTULA L. Small hairy annuals with yellow discoid heads of hemispherical shape. Leaves finely dissected with flat lobes. Heads many-flowered, homogamous. Involucre imbricated, with scales shorter than disc. Receptacle hemispherical, naked, papillose. Flowers all perfect. Corolla-tube translucent, compressed, 4-5toothed. Achenes obovate-oblong, somewhat com-


1 C. coronarium L. : Erect, glabrous, simple or few-branched annual herb, 30-60 cm. high, densely leafy. Lower leaves tapering at base, upper half clasping, all bipinnatisect into acutely toothed lanceolate lobes, rachis dentate-lobed. Heads solitary, terminal, with long, yellow, obovate-oblong ray florets. Achenes grooved, tubercled, those of disc compressed 4-angled with a narrow wing at the inner side.

of the pistillate florets bald, of the perfect ones with a row of simple hairs representing the pappus. 1 I. spicata (Forssk.) Sch.-Bip. : Annual small herb, from a few to 10 cm. high, branched from the very base into several simple stems. Each branch forms a leafy, cylindrical spike. Leaves linear, subulate protruding from the spike like green threads. Heads 2-3 in a cluster; scales of involucre scarious, ovate tapering into a long

49 ARTEMISIA L. Fragrant shrubby plants with finely dissected leaves. Heads very small, discoid, sessile or shortpeduncled, in rich panicles, homogamous or heterogamous, the marginal florets pistillate in 1 row, with a deeply 2-cleft exserted style, disc florets perfect, fertile or sterile by abortion of ovary. Involucre of scarious-margined imbricated scales. Receptacle naked or hairy. Achenes obovate, ribless. Pappus absent. 1 A. abyssinica Sch. -Bip. : Green, glabrous shrub, rather woody below, with numerous dense leafy erect upper branches, terminated by paniculate at the base, thus protecting the head-cluster. Pappus absent. NJe, NJw, NF.

point. SH, N, NJe, NF, E.

35 GYMNARRHENA Desf. Stemless glabrous annual herbs, with crowded sessile heads in the center of a leaf-rosette. Involucre many-rowed, scales rigid, boat-shaped coriaceous, imbricated. Flowers mostly yellow, marginal florets pistillate, in many rows, each subtended by a scale, the corolla slender, tubular, 3toothed. Achenes obconical, villous. Central florets few, minute, abortive, the corolla funnelshaped. 1 G. micrantha Desf. : Small annual herbs, 23 cm. high. Leaves 10 cm. long, linear-lanceolate, acutish with dilated membranous base, rosetted around the sessile clustered heads and much longer than the head-cluster, often lying flat on the ground in hard calcareous soil. Heads whitishgreen, involucral scales coriaceous. SH, E, NF, NJ.

34 IFLOGA Cass. Small annual herbs forming a dense cylindrical leafy spike of small head clusters. Leaves nearly linear, somewhat thread-like. Heads many-flowered, discoid. Involucre scarious, imbricated. Receptacle elongated, naked at the center. Marginal florets pistillate, central ones tubular, perfect and staminate. Achenes

Felicia dentata


36 CALENDULA L. Annual or perennial herbs with orange-coloured or yellow ray-florets. Leaves alternate, often undivided. Heads large, many-flowered, radiate, heterogamous. Involucre imbricated, in about one row of nearly equal scales. Ray-florets strap-shaped, pistillate, fertile, disc florets tubular, perfect, 5-cleft. Achenes much varying even in one and the same head, in 2-3 rows, often curved with the outer ones prickly at the back, but may be ring-like or beaked or unarmed, winged or wingless. Pappus absent. 1 C. micrantha Tineo et Guss. : Small annual herb with the flowers orange coloured, often with blackish-red disc. Flower heads small, 10-15 mm. across. NH, SH, S, NJ, E. 2 C. persica C. A. Mey. : Annual herb, 10-30 cm high, branching from the neck. Heads 1 cm. broad. Rays one and a half times as long as involucre. Achenes all ring-like, prickly at the back, winged at the face, three times as large as the wrinkled inner ones. NJ, E. 3 C. aegyptiaca Desf. : Annual herbs 20-40 cm. high, papillose hairy. Leaves narrow, linear to lanceolate. Heads small, hardly 1 cm broad, few-flowered, ray-florets papillose-hairy at the base hardly longer than involucre, pale yellow, never orange. Marginal achenes long, prickly at back, ending in a slender beak, intermediate ones winged-crested or boatshaped, inner ring-like, wrinkled. N, NJ, E.

37 OSTEOSPERMUM L. Plant with the aspect of Calendula. Heads many- flowered, with yellow ray-florets. Achenes from base to top with broad scarious wings. .1 O. vaillantii (Decne) T. Norl. ( = Tripteris vaillantii Decne): Perennial plants, 40 cm. high, glandular-hirsute, richly branched, with simple, entire or few-toothed, half-clasping, oblonglanceolate leaves, and a few corymbose heads. Heads small, peduncled; scales of involucre, linear. Achenes broadly scarious winged. NH, S. 38 PLUCHEA Cass. Heterogamous shrubs with discoid heads. Flowers usually white, the marginal pistillate in many rows, the central perfect, few. Involucre imbricated, scarious. Receptacle naked. Styles of pistillate flowers glabrous, of perfect ones hispidulous ( covered with stiff, short hairs). Achenes somewhat terete. Flower heads white, shortly peduncled, in umbellate terminal panicles. 1 P. ovalis (Pers.) DC. : Leaves sessile, denticulate- serrate, elliptic or ovate, auriculateclasping. Flowers white, achenes glabrous, pappus scabrous. SH.

39 PULICARIA Gaertn. Annual or perennial herbs with small, showy yellow heads, 5-25 mm. in diameter. Heads many - flowered, heterogamous, marginal ones in one


row, pistillate, ligulate strap-shaped, inner ones perfect, tubular, 5-toothed. Involucre densely imbricated, in several rows, with linear scales. Receptacle naked. Anthers bicaudate at base. Achenes beakless. Pappus double, outside of a short scarious cup, inside of fragile scabrous hairs. 1 P. arabica (L.) Cass. : A slender, stiff annual herb, hirsute or woolly, dichotomous, with usually straw-coloured glossy branches. Lower leaves oblong, tapering into a petiole, upper ones linearlanceolate, frequently silky but hairs not tuberclebased, auricled at the base. Leaf margin flat, neither crisped not undulated. Heads small, in forks and terminal. Involucral scales hirsute, lanceolate-linear, acuminate. Ray florets spreading, a little longer than the involucre. E, NJe. 2 P. petiolaris Jaub. & Sp. : Delicate perennial herb. Leaves broad serrate, with rounded base and narrowly winged petioles about as long as the blade itself. Heads scattered, corymbose, on long peduncles. SH. 3 P. orientalis Jaub. & Sp. : Perennial fragrant herb with erect branches up to 50 cm. high. Leaves lanceolate-obovate, about 3 cm. long. Heads terminal, 1-1.5 cm. in diameter, ovate-obconical, with convex top. Involucral bracts narrow, peduncle flat. Ray florets pale yellow, small, petals about 1 mm. long. Achenes 1.5-2 mm. long. NJ.

4 P. iuuloides (Poir.) DC. (=P. longifolia Boiss.): A tall stout perennial plant with thick, often reddish stems and large broad, usually sessile stiff and viscid, leaves. At least some of the leaves 6-10 cm. long, all leaves rough with tubercle-based, minute hairs. Leaf margin flat. Heads often big, panicled. 5 P. undulata (L.) Kostel: Perennial herb, 30 cm. high, much branched, woolly, procumbent. Leaves wavy, typically sessile, cut or toothed; the radical ones oblong, tapering at the base, those of the stem linear-lanceolate auricled-clasping. Heads terminal, 15-20 cm. in diameter. Ray florets long, yellow (in other species short or absent). Peduncles rather long, scaly towards the tip. Scales of involucre oblong- linear, acuminate somewhat shorter than disc. Rays about twice as long as involucre. Of aromatic odour. NJ. 6 P. sicula (L.) Moris: Annual richly

branched herb, with erect, stiff, reddish or darkbrown rough hairy branches. Leaves typically sessile; lower ones falling early, oblonglanceolate, somewhat toothed, tapering at the base, hairy hirsute beneath, stem leaves narrowly short linear, convolute at the margin, halfclasping. Heads small, terminal with scaly peduncles. Involucre dark-coloured. Ray florets about as long as disc florets and involucre-pappus reddish. NJw.


40 INULA L. Perennial herbs, sometimes shrubby at the base, with bright yellow ray-florets. Heads solitary or racemed, many-flowered, heterogamous, radiate, rarely discoid. Marginal florets commonly in one row, strap -shaped or tubular, 3-cleft; central florets perfect 5toothed. Involucre imbricated, in several rows; scales copious, narrowly linear, unequal and scarious- margined. Pappus uniform, of simple hairs. 1 I. crithmoides L. ( = Limbardia aithmoides Dum.): Perennial herb woody at the base, halophytic, 30 cm. high, glabrous corymbose to monocephalous. Leaves fleshy, green, narrowly-spathulate, either entire or upwards 3-dentate. Heads solitary, 3 cm. broad. Peduncles long beset with linear bracts. Scales of involucre linear-lanceolate, the outer somewhat shorter; ray florets about twice as long as involucre. In salty places. 41 JASONIA Coss. Shrubs with oblong, elliptical or linear unarmed leaves. Heads small, discoid, yellow, of obconical shape. Achenes compressed. Pappus of scabrous hairs, without cup. 1 J. candicans (Del.) Botsch. ( = Varthemia candicans (Del.) Boiss. ): Leaves on sterile shoots linear, up to 3-4 cm. long, soft-hairy, floral leaves small, oblong-elliptical, revolute-margined. Heads small, pale-yellow, few-flowered, appearing in late summer. Of strong aromatic scent. In maritime dunes.

42 FRANCOEUR1A Cass. A genus close to Pulicaria, differing in its pappus which is not double with a scarious cup outside, but single consisting only of bristles which are sub-plumosely scabrous above. 1 F. crispa (Forssk.) Cass. ( Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Benth. et Hook, f.): Perennial bushy desert plant, cushion-shaped, 40-50 cm. high. Stems numerous, appressed-canescent, corymbose above. Plant odourless. Leaves variable in appearance; on juvenile. shoots long and white -woolly, on adult branches minute, green. All leaves cobwebby-canescent, linear spathulate, acutely toothed, half-clasping crisped. Head yellow, 5 mm. broad, appearing discoid be cause of its very short ray florets. Scales of involucre glabrescent, linear, acuminate; rays not longer than involucre. N, NJe, NF, NH, SH, E.

43 GNAPHALIUM L. Annual woolly plants with simple entire leaves and clustered heads. Heads small, without ray florets, discoid, heterogamous, many-flowered. Involucral scales at least upwards scarious imbricate. Receptacle flat, naked. Outer florets pistillate, filiform, usually in several rows, central ones tubular, perfect. Anthers caudate. Achenes nearly terete or compressed.


G. luteo-album L. Erect, rather tall annual

44 XANTHIUM L. Annual monoecious plants with alternate 3cleft or palmately-lobed leaves. Heads sessile, solitary or racemed, of 2 kinds, upper male and lower female. Male heads globular, with tubular 5 -toothed flowers and involucre of several scales. Pistillate heads ovate, 2-flowered, with gamophyllous involucre, later forming a large ovoid fruit, densely with hooked prickles and at tip in some species with 2 rigid spinescent beaks. 1 X. brasilicum Vellozo. ( = X. strumarium L. ): Annual herb 60 cm. high. Leaves longpetioled, scabrous, broadly ovate to cordatetriangular, with irregularly incised-crenate lobes. Stem simple or few-branched. Heads racemed. Fruit hairy, the terminal beaks thick and stout, not or hardly longer than the prickles. S. 45 AMBROSIA L. Annual herbs. Lower leaves opposite, upper alternate. Spikes terminal, bearing pistillate heads (1- flowered) at the base, frequently compound, and staminate heads (many-flowered) at tip, greenish, 3 mm. broad. Female heads later form a small, angled, prickly fruit. 1 A. maritima L. : Annual richly branched grey- hairy fragrant herb, up to 50 cm. high. Leaves ovate in general outline finely dissected, bipinnatipartite into toothed oblong lobes. Involucre of pistillate flowers surrounded near the middle by 4-6 blunt, horn-like projections. Along muddy canals.

herb, 30 cm. high, simple or branching, corymbose above. Leaves sessile, broad, entire; lower oblong spathulate, obtuse, upper linear or lanceolate, acute, half clasping. Heads small, densely clustered corymbose, not distinctly racemed, straw-coloured glossy. Involucre glabrous, of obtuse, pale, glossy scales. Achenes tubercled. NH, SH, S, NJ. 2 G. pulvinatum Del. : Annual, prostrate, appressed white-woolly, richly branched herb, with branches spreading flat in a rosette. Leaves petioled, flat, obovate-spathulate, acutish, not crisped, tapering to a petiole. Heads in dense globose terminal clusters, reddish, more or less hidden in wool, with the leaves exceeding the reddish head clusters. Scales of the woolly involucre lanceolate acute, pale reddish, shortly exceeding the disc. E. 3 G. leyseroides (Desf.) Rothm. ( = Asteropterus leysseroides(Desf.)Rothm., Leysera capillifolia (Willd.) Spreng., L. leysseroides (Desf.) Maire): Annual small herb with simple capillary leaves and yellow flowers. Leaves alternate. Involucre glabrous, the inner scales scarious-tipped, exceeding the flowers. Pappus of a short scarious crown and a few plumose hairs. Heads oblong about 5 mm. long, solitary on naked capillary peduncles both terminal and axillary. Outer flowers female, ligulate, inner ones bisexual. N, NF.



pressed, striate with white ribs. Pappus absent. Aspect of Matricaria and Tripleurospermum but always hairy. 1 C. anthemoides L. : Green prostrate annual herb with leaf-opposed heads on hair-fine capillary peduncles. Leaves pinnatifid, finely dissected with leaf lobes serrate. Involucral scales distinctly scarious margined. N, NJ, E. 2 C. cinerea Del. : Grey-woolly annual herb, 10-20 cm. high, branching from the neck, erect or ascending. Leaves 1-1.5 cm. long, wedge-shaped, pinnatifid with entire lobes. Heads 5 mm. broad, terminal. Involucral scales grey-woolly, not margined. NJ.

46 FELICIA Cass. Hispid shrubby plants with solitary terminal heads. Flowers blue or white, the marginal ones ligulate, oval or oblong. Pappus of scabrous hairs. 1 F. abyssinica Sch. -Bip. : Hispid small shrublet, with alternate, sessile, linear, serrate leaves, 1.5-2 cm. long, very dense. Heads solitary, terminal or in the axils of upper leaves, less than 1 cm. in diameter. SH, S, NJ. 2 F. dentata (A. Rich.) Dandy. ( = Agathaea dentata A. Rich., F. richardi Vatke): Erect shrublet. Leaves alternate, entire or few-toothed, lanceolateobovate, 1.5-3 cm. long, 5-10 mm. broad. Heads solitary, terminal, yellow, 15 mm. broad, with numerous narrow, pointed; hairy involucral scales. NJ.

48 CHRYSANTHEMUM L. Glabrous herbs with large, 3-4 cm. broad, yellow flower heads. Leaves broadly bipinnatisect. Heads many-flowered, rayed; ray florets strapshaped, pistillate or sterile, white or yellow. Involucre imbricated, scales scarious-margined. Re-

47 COTULA L. Small hairy annuals with yellow discoid heads of hemispherical shape. Leaves finely dissected with flat lobes. Heads many-flowered, homogamous. Involucre imbricated, with scales shorter than disc. Receptacle hemispherical, naked, papillose. Flowers all perfect. Corolla-tube translucent, compressed, 4-5toothed. Achenes obovate-oblong, somewhat com-

ceptacle naked, convex. Achenes of 2 kinds, those of ray florets more or less triquetrous or 3winged, those of disc turbinate. Pappus crownlike or absent. 1 C. coronarium L. : Erect, glabrous, simple or few-branched annual herb, 30-60 cm. high, densely leafy. Lower leaves tapering at base, upper half clasping, all bipinnatisect into acutely


toothed lanceolate lobes, rachis dentate-lobed. Heads solitary, terminal, with long, yellow, obovate-oblong ray florets. Achenes grooved, tubercled, those of disc compressed 4-angled with a narrow wing at the inner side.

3 A. monosperma Del. : A green glabrous or nearly glabrous shrublet, 50-70 cm. high, in certain areas with some scattered hairs on the leaves. Stems thick, ascending, diffuse or erect, ending in a long, pyramidal, many-flowered panicle. Leaves of sterile shoots pinnatisect, of stem short,

49 ARTEMISIA L. Fragrant shrubby plants with finely dissected leaves. Heads very small, discoid, sessile or shortpeduncled, in rich panicles, homogamous or heterogamous, the marginal florets pistillate in 1 row, with a deeply 2-cleft exserted style, disc florets perfect, fertile or sterile by abortion of ovary. Involucre of scarious-margined imbricated scales. Receptacle naked or hairy. Achenes obovate, ribless. Pappus absent. 1 A. abyssinica Sch. -Bip. : Green, glabrous shrub, rather woody below, with numerous dense leafy erect upper branches, terminated by paniculate inflorescences. Leaves alternate, with tufted deeply pinnatisect linear lobes up to 4 cm. long. On mobile loose sands. NJ, NF, E. 2 A. scoparia Waldst. et Kit. : This is the only annual species, its heads smaller than in other species, 1 mm. across. Plant green, glabrous or nearly so. Stem branching throughout into a spreading panicle. Leaves thread-like, upper ones undivided, lower ones ovate-orbicular pinnatisect. Heads globose, nodding, with ovate, glossy involucral scales. NJe, E.

few-lobed, often in dense clusters. Heads crowded, ovate, short- peduncled, few-flowered, nodding. Receptacle naked. Involucre glabrous, gradually enlarging from outside inward, the outer orbicular, the inner oblong. In sandy places. Has weaker smell than the others. N, NJ, NF, E, R. 4 A. judaica L. : Perennial grey-woolly shrublet, 50 cm. high, branching into a spreading compound panicle. Leaves short with small lobes. Heads hemispherical, yellow, nodding, shortpeduncled or nearly sessile, 3 mm. broad, in dense racemes along the branches of the panicle. Scales of involucre ovate- rounded. In deep sand. Strongly scented. NH, SH, N, NJ, E. 5 A. inculta Del. (= A. herba-alba Asso): Similar to the preceding in being a perennial grey -woolly shrublet, but leaves longer, always with narrow lobes. Heads brownish, ovoid (not hemispherical), erect (not nodding), densely clustered, sessile. Inner involucral scales linear. N, NJ, E.

50 PSIADIA Jacq.


Branched shrub, up to 2 m. or more high. Flowerheads yellow, small on short peduncles in manyheaded corymbose cymes. 1 P. arabica Jaub. et Sp. : Leaves entire or distantly serrulate, lanceolate, up to 7 cm. long, the younger leaves resinous. Flower heads yellow, small. SH, NH, E.

1 V. cinerea (L.) Less. : Herb up to 1.5 m. high, stem striate. Leaves serrulate-dentate or sub -entire, lanceolate or ovate to obovate, petiolate. Flower head bluish or reddish-purple, 6 mm. in diameter, numerous on slender peduncles in axillary and terminal, many-headed cymes. SH.

53 CONYZA Less. 51 EURYOPS Cass. Spreadingly branched high mountain shrubs, with long narrowly linear alternate, mucronate sessile leaves and bright yellow heads of ligulate and disc florets. 1 E. arabicus Steud. : Shrubby plant with dense narrow, sessile alternate, mucronate, linear leaves, up to 10 cm. long crowded at the ends of branches. Stem of young branches dark reddish. Heads bright yellow, conspicuous, corymbosely arranged at the end of twigs. Disc florets tubular in the center surrounded by ligulate ray florets, both with yellow corolla. S, SH. Herbs, sometimes woody at the base. Flowers white, purple or pale-yellow. Heads radiate or discoid. Central flowers bisexual, few, the numerous others male with filiform corollas. Ligulate florets absent or inconspicuous, and scarcely exceeding the pappus; this of scabrous hairs. Achenes beakless, more or less flattened. Discflorets perfect, 5-toothed, involucre imbricated. 1 C. triloba Decne. ( = Erigeron trilobus (Decne) Boiss.): Perennial hairy herb, 30 cm. high, stems woody below, leafy corymbose above. Leaves small, tapering into a petiole, the lower obovate-spathulate, with 3-5 obtuse teeth toward the tip, those of stem 3-5- lobed or parted into obovate obtuse lobes, the terminal larger. Peduncles slender, 2-3 times as long as the 3 mm 52 VERNONIA Schreb. Erect branched herb. Stems striate, shortly pubescent. Flower-heads homogamous, bluish or reddish purple, with bisexual tubular disc florets, at least some of which fertile. Anthers arrow-shaped. 2 C. linifolia (Willd.) Tackh. ( = Erigeron bona- riensis L., E.linifolius Willd., E. crispus broad head. Heads numerous, small, 7 in a rich corymbose inflorescence. Scales of involucre oblong-linear, acuminate about as long as pappus, scarious-margined. NH.

Senecio desfontainei

Senecio flavus

Senecio flavus

Anthemis cotula


Pourr.): Densely pubescent annual herb. Leaves numerous, linear, entire with narrow acute lobes. Heads numerous in a rich panicle. Weed on canal banks and in waste places. NH, NJ, S, E. 3 C. abyssinica Sch.-Bip. : Herbaceous plant with simple alternate lanceolate leaves 3 cm. long, 1 cm. broad. Leaf margin serrate with delicate spiny tips Heads small, 5 mm. in diameter clustered in terminal panicles. Involucral scales numerous, narrow, grey. SH, S. 4 C. discoridis (L.) Desf. ( = Pluchea discoridis (L.) DC.): Richly branched hairy shrub, often 2-3 m. high, corymbose above. Leaves ovate-oblong, acutish serrate, lobed or undivided. Floral leaves small. Heads 4 mm. long, pinkish, numerous, corymbose, terminating the leafy branches. Flowers pale-yellow or pink. Scales of involucre ovate to oblong-linear, acute, slightly hairy, the inner acuminate, as long as pappus. SH. 5 C. stricta Willd. : A small green herb with small ternate or pinnatisect leaves, leaf-lobes small linear. Heads small, abundant, yellow. SH, S. 6 C. incana Willd. : A grey, short-hairy herb, larger than the preceding and with larger, ternate or pinnatisect leaves. Leaf-lobes small, linear. Heads

yellow, larger and less abundant than in the preceding species. SH. S. 54 SENECIO L. Annual herbs with corymbose bright yellow flower- heads with or without rays. Heads usually heterogamous. Marginal ray flowers (if found) strap-shaped, in one row, pistillate, disc florets perfect, tubular. Involucre, cup-shaped, not scarious; scales equal, in 1 row, with a few small outer ones (squamules) at the base. Receptacle flat, naked. Achenes beakless, furrowed and ribbed, all with simple hairy, commonly deciduous pappus, in more than 1 row. 1 S. desfontainei Druce. ( = S. coronopijolius Desf.): Annual sweet smelling herbs, 25 cm. high. Leaves fleshy, pinnatipartite into linear remotely toothed lobes, the lower leaves tapering into a short petiole, the rest clasping with minute auricles. Heads large, cup-shaped, 1 cm. long and broad in loose corymbs with rather long ray florets. Achenes ribbed, hairy. NH, NJ, NF, E. 2 S. flavus (Decne) Sch. Bip. : Small annual herbs with somewhat fleshy leaves, the lower ovate-oblong, toothed, short-petioled, those of the stem cordate- clasping at base, irregularly toothed, sessile. Stem erect, forked, rarely simple. Heads discoid obconical-cylindrical, 1 cm. long, 4 mm. broad. Rays none or rarely longer than involucre. Pappus caducous (dropping off very early), longer than achenes.


SH, NJe, E. 3 S. longiflorus Oliv. et Hiern: Stem rather woody, forked. Leaves reduced. Heads on branched slender axes. Involucral bracts of limited number. Pappus silk-hairy, 1.5 cm. long. Achenes 8 mm. long, 1 mm. broad, sometimes growing on trees. S. 2 A. arabica Ky: Pubescent plant with finely dissected leaves and yellow heads. SH, S.

10 cm. high, branching from the neck. Leaves small, oblong in outline, bipinnatisect into linear acute lobules. Peduncles' short, much thickened in fruiting stage. Scales of involucre oblong, the inner scarious margined. Receptacle ovate, chaff linear, awl-shaped. Ray florets short E, NJ. 3 A. melampodina Del. subsp. deserti

(Boiss.) Eig. : Small, annual, ash-coloured, densely grey- woolly desert sand herb. Leaves small pinnatifid, few- lobed or parted with mucronate lobes. Peduncles short, not thickened. Heads 2 cm. broad. Scales of involucre lanceolate to oblong the outer acute, the inner scarious-tipped. Ray florets white, often red- flushed. Achenes with rounded apex, without auricle (in the type achenes with a large entire auricle equal in length to the achene itself). Outer involucral scales prominently scarious-margined, more than in the type. N, NJ, NF, E, R. 4 A. indurata Del. : A small green annual herb, densely branched. Leaves except the lowermost ones pinnatipartite into linear, fleshy, acute mucronate lobes. Peduncles hairy, later much thickened, indurated in the fruiting stage. Achenes at tip truncate, concave, with toothed margin. Plant sparingly pubescent to glabrous.

56 ANTHEMIS L. Annual herbs with rather large heads with white ray-florets. Leaves finely dissected or narrow entire. Heads broad, many-flowered, radiate. Involucre imbricated. Receptacle with scales or bristles between the flowers. Marginal florets strap-shaped, in 1 row. pistillate, rarely neutral; the rest perfect, 5-toothed. 1 A. cotula L. : Annual green herb, corymbosely branched, glabrescent. Leaves bipinnatisect with narrow linear segments. Peduncles not thickened. Receptacle conical, with bristle-like scales in the upper part only between the florets. Achenes terete, rounded above, tubercled, caducous. S, NJ. 2 A. pseudocotula Boiss. ( = A. rotata Boiss.): Small annual herb, 10 cm. high, close to the preceding but fruit peduncles much thickened and bristles exceeding the nearly persistent achenes. Plant hairy,




Small glabrous annual herbs with finely dissected leaves and yellow, discoid hemispherical heads, with scarious-margined involucral scales. Ray-florets absent. Achenes ribbed, crowned by an oblong translucent wing as long as or longer than the achene. Leaves only at the base. 1 T. auriculatum (Boiss.) Rech. f. ( =

Fragrant perennial herbs often woody at the base, with yellow flowers. Leaves small alternate serrate. Heads many-flowered, corymbose, yellow. Ray flowers absent. Marginal florets in 1 row, pistillate, the rest perfect, tubular, 5-toothed. Involucre imbricated. Receptacle chaffy. Pappus absent. Achenes compressed. 1 A. fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch. Bip. : Perennial, white-woolly fragrant plant, up to 60 cm. high. Stems numerous, leaves small, undivided, oblong-ovate, serrate. Heads discoid, 3-4 mm., as long as peduncles, in clusters of 3-4 on each branch. Rays absent. NJ, N, E. 59 VERBESINA L.

Chamaeme- lum auriculatum Boiss., Matricaria auriculata Benth. & Hook, f.): A many-stemmed annual herb, 10-20 cm. high. Leaves basal, and thus stems long, naked, almost scape-like. Heads about 10 mm. broad. Differs from Cotula in being glabrous and from Matricaria in its fruit-wing and scape-like stem. NH, NJe.

58 MATRICARIA L. Strongly aromatic branching annual herbs. Glabrous annual aromatic herbs with capillary, finely dissected leaves. Heads more or less conical with naked receptacle; ray florets white or absent. Involucral bracts scarious, imbricated. Achenes nearly terete, back ribless, inner face 3-5-ribbed. Pappus crown-like or absent. 1 M. aurea (Loefl.) Sch. Bip. : Annual 15 cm. high with slender ascending stems. Leaves pinnatipartite into simple capillary acute segments. Heads small, 5 mm. broad, short-peduncled. Receptacle ovate. Achenes minute, bald or with a crown-like pappus. NJe, E. Heads spherical on long peduncles, with yellow ray-florets and green foliaceous involucral scales. Receptacle chaffy, achenes flattened, pale, with 2 short awns or bristles at apex representing the pappus. 1 V. encelioides (Cav.) Benth. et Hook, f. ex A. Gray: A branching annual herb up to 60-70 cm., densely grey-canescent, especially on the leaves. Leaves alternate, varying from ovate to cordate to auricled to triangular-lanceolate, always acutely serrate Petiole in the type winged, up to 5 cm. long, with auricles at the base. SH.




Annual herbs with opposite sessile leaves and white flowers. Heads small, many-flowered, radiate, with short, slender, pistillate ray florets, in few rows. Disc florets tubular, perfect, 4-toothed. Scales of involucre herbaceous, in 2 rows. Receptacle chaffy, with a few narrow scales. Achenes unarmed, tubercled and puberulent at tip. Pappus absent. 1 E. alba (L.) Hassk. ( = E. erecta L.): Erect, scabrous, richly branched annual herb, 50-60 cm. high. Leaves lanceolate, opposite, obsoletely denticulate, pointed. Heads solitary, peduncled, axillary. Scales of involucre ovate, obtuse, scarcely longer than florets. Fruit naked, unarmed, without pappus. Along canals and in waste places. NH. 61 FLAVERIA A. Juss. Annual herbs with opposite, sessile, lanceolate leaves. Heads small, yellow, clustered. Disc corollas tubular, 5-toothed. Involucre of 2-5, keeled, concave bracts. Achenes naked, unarmed, without pappus. 1 F. trinervia (Spreng.) Mohr. : Erect or diffuse dichotomously branched glabrous herb. Leaves remotely serrulate, linear to lanceolate, 3-nerved beneath. Flower-heads yellow, in axillary or terminal clusters. NJe, H.

Matricaria aurea

Achillea fragrantissima

Achillea fragrantissima

Tripleurospermum auriculatum

Verbesina encelioides

Eclipta alba

Flaveria trinervia

Endemic plants to Saudia Arabia (this is new addition to this book) Ajuga arabica P. Davis Albuca pendula B. Mathew & Collen. Allium asirense B. Mathew Aloe armatissima Lavr. & Colle. Aloe porphyrostachys Lar. & Colle. Aloe shadensis Lavr. & Colle. Aloe sheilae Lavr. Angolluma commutata (Berger) Plowes ssp. Sheilae Plowes Anthemis dicksoniae A. Ghafoor Anthemis scrobicularis Hedge & Kit Tan Anthemis sheilae A. Ghafoor Astracantha echinus ssp. Arabica (DC.) Podl. Astragalus collenettae I.C. Hedge & D. Podl. Barleria hochstetteri Nees Calligonum crinitum ssp. Arabicum (Sosk)Sosk Centaurothamnus maximus Wagenitz & Dittr. Ceropegia tihamana Chaudhary & Lavr. Convolvulus asirensis Kotschy Convolvulus cephalopodus ssp. abhansis Alfarhan Cornulaca arabica Botsch. Crucianella aegyptiaca ssp. arabica Schonb.-Tem. & Ehrend. Delphinium sheilae Kit Tan Doupaea arabica (Hedge & Kit Tan) O. Appel & Al-Shehbaz Echinops abuzinadianus S. Chaudhary Echinops mandavillei Kit Tan Echinops sheilae Kit Tan Erysimum hedgeanum Al Shebaz Euphorbia abdulghafooriana S. Abedin Euphorbia collenetteae Al-Zahrani & El-Karemy Euphorbia madinahensis Fayed & D.Al-Zahrani Euphorbia saudiarabica Fayed & D.Al-Zahrani Euphorbia taifensis Fayed & D.Al-Zahrani Euryops jaberiana S. Abedin & Chaudhary Heliotropium chaudharyanum Al-Turki, Omar & Ghafoor Heliotropium jizanense Al-Turki, Omar & Ghafoor Huernia haddaica Al-Hemaid Huernia khalidbinsultanii Plowes & D.C.H. Huernia Saudi-arabica D.V. Field Hypericum collenettae N. Robson Indigogera brachyphylla Al-Turki Kickxia abhaica D. Sutton Kickxia collenettiana D. Sutton Kickxia coralliolea D. Sutton Melhania jaberii S. Abedin Nepeta sheilae I.C. Hedge & King Phagnalon stenolepis var. abdulazizianum S. Chaudhary Pycnocycla sheilae S. Chaudhary Reseda pentagyna Abdallah & A.G. Mill. Rhytidocaulon sheilae D.V. Field Rubus asirensis D.F. Chamb. Salsola Arabica Botsch. Silene asirensis D.F. Chamb. & Colle. Silene corylina D.F. Chamb. & Colle. Teucrium hijazicum I.C. Hedge & R. A. King Teucrium popoviii R.A. King Trisetaria chaudharyana H. Scholz Lamiaceae Liliaceae (Hyacinthaceae) Alliaceae Aloaceae Aloaceae Aloaceae Aloeaceae Asclepiadaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Fabaceae Papilionaceae Acanthaceae Polygonaceae Asteraceae Asclepiadaceae Convolvulaceae Convolvulaceae Chenopodiaceae Rubiaceae Ranunculaceae Brassicaceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Asteraceae Brassicaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae Asteraceae Boraginaceae Boraginaceae Asclepiadaceae Asclepiadaceae Asclepiadaceae Hypericaceae Fabaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Scrophulariaceae Sterculiaceae Lamiaceae Asteraceae Apiaceae Resedaceae Asclepiadaceae Rosaceae Chenopodiaceae Caryophyllaceae Caryophyllaceae Lamiaceae Lamiaceae Poaceae