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Models of

Public Policy Formulation

• Why public policy formulated.

• Problem identification: A set of conditions that is perceived to

jeopardize the general well being of society.

• Once policy problems is identified the objectives of the policy are

established, usually expressed in terms of ends which are desirable.

• Generally public policy is aimed at reducing problem, the objective

must be acceptable to both those administering the policy and those
affected by it.
Figure 1. Linear Model of the
Public Policy process

And Policymaker Policy
prescription Policy Choice Implementation

Societal Centered Forces State Centered Forces

• Classes • Technocrats
• Interest Groups • Bureaucrats
• Parties & Voters • State Interests

Source: Meier 1991

Figure 2.
Phases of the policy process

Decision for
On Agenda Reform

Not on Agenda Decision

Agenda Phase Decision

Source: Grindle & Thomas

and their roles

• Technocrats • Knowledge
• Bureaucrats • Institution
• Interest Groups • Representation
• Politicians • Power
• Donors • Influence

Source: Walt and Gilson, 1994

Public Policy Process
Policy Ist stage 2nd stage 3rd stage 4th stage 5th stage 6th
Terminology problem
Policy Agenda Policy Policy Policy Policy
formulation adoption implementati Evaluation

Formal Relief is Problems Developme Developme Application Attempt by

sought from among nt of nt of of the policy the govt. to
a situation many, that pertinent support for by the determine
that receive the and a specific government whether or
produces a government acceptable proposal ’s not the
human s serious proposed such that bureaucrati policy has
need, attention courses of the policy c machinery been
deprivation, action for legitimized to the effective
or dealing with or problem
dissatisfacti public authorized.
on problems.
Common Getting the Getting the The govt.’s Getting the Applying Did the
sense govt. to see govt. to proposed govt. to the govt.’s policy work
the problem begin to act solution to accept a policy to the
on the the problem particular problem
problem solution to
the problem

Source: Public Policy and Politics in America by James E. Anderson etal

Policy Formulation
– Mostly policies suffer at this stage due to
1.Insufficient number of well trained personnel and
inadequate resources.
►In other words for the successful implementation of the
policy there should be equilibrium between the objectives
and resources.
1.Cultural dichotomy between traditional and modern
• Evaluation
Model of public
policy formulation and evaluation
A problems perceived
Evaluation of Strategies

A set of policy objective established

Evaluation of performance

Alternative strategies to attain

The objectives are identified

The consequences of
Alternative Strategies are

The preferred Strategy of

Plan implemented

The consequences of the

implemented Plan are investigated
Figure2. Refined Model
of public policy formulation and evaluation
A problems

Empirical Analysis of the



nature/Extent /Magnitude of the


A range of potential policy

Evaluation of performance
Objective is outlined

A set of policy objective established

Evaluation of performance
Evaluation of


Alternative strategies to attain

The objectives are identified

The consequences of
Alternative Strategies are
The preferred Strategy of Plan
The consequences of the
implemented Plan are investigated
Factor that influence
Public Policy Implementation:
• Environmental factors:
– Policy making can’t be adequately understood without
understanding environmental factors.
– These are:

• Political Culture

• Public Opinion

• Social System

• Economic system.
Factor that influence
Public Policy Implementation
• Political culture:
– Political culture refers to the set of political beliefs and values
that sustain any political system. And it is the political system
that determines the decision making.

– In political culture, goodness, badness, desirability and

undesirability of good action or bad action.

– Sociologist Robin Williams has described “major value

orientation” in America society such as individual freedom,
equity, progress and efficiency. These values and other such as
democracy, individualism, humanitarianism and material
achievements have significance for policy making.
Political Culture
– Political cultures differs from society to society due to patterns of
development, environmental conditions and historical factors.

– It is political culture within which decision making occurs.

– In democratic culture official are hold accountable

– Old adage “People have right to be heard and official have a

duty to hear.

– Such conditions contribute towards the existence of

“participatory culture”
Public Opinion
• Public opinion refers to the expression of public attitudes or beliefs about
current social, economic and political issues.

• The articulation of opinion depends on the type of political culture.

• The articulation of public opinion is determined by the public interest

which in most cases is not applied equally.

• While examining the impact of public opinion on policy making V.O Key

“Many, if not most, policy decisions by legislatures and by other authorities

exercising broad discretion are made under circumstances in which extremely
small proportions of the general public have any awareness of the particular
issue, much less any understanding of the consequences of the decision.
Social System
• Societies are not generally homogenous, rather
consist of groups social groups with varying degree
of social, political and economic influence.

• In pluralist society such groups can mount heavy

pressure on the political system.

• And serve as major source of demands for policy

Economic system
• Economic activities varies from society to society. Some
society have very simple economic system but some have
very complex one such as US.

• Economic activities are major source of conflict in modern

• And those possess economic means control political power.

• In most of the societies the policy making is the elite activity

and policies are fashioned in way that reflects elite aspiration.
Micro and
Macro politics
• Micropolitics
– Refers to the attempts made by particular companies or
communities to secure favorable govt. action for their own.
– Micropolitics involves groups or communities at grassroots

• Macropolitics
– It involves the community as whole and the leaders of the
govt. in the formation of public policy.
– The participants in the macropolitical arena include
president, executive departments , MP’s and
communication and media persons.
Actors in
decision making
• Governmental
– Executive
– Legislature
– Judiciary
• Non-governmental
– Civil Society and NGO
• International
– Countries and International Institutions such as UN,
IMF, World Bank and etc.