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THE ENGLISH SOUND SYSTEM

24 20
CONSONANTS
VOWELS

PHONEMES

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Short Vowel Sounds
/ɪ/ (ship) /e/ (pen)

bin pen
pin ten
sit bell

/ʌ / (cup) /æ/ (man)


cup pan
hut man
bun bag

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Short Vowel Sounds
/ɒ/ (clock)
/ə/ (a camera)
hot
a camera
cot
a glass
top
a book

/ʊ/ (book)
book
cook
look

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Consonants /b/ (baby)
/p/ (pen) bin
pen box
pencil bear
voiced
paper
voiceless
/d/ (door)
/t/ (tin) door
tin duck
tail doll
ten voiced
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voiceless BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM
Consonants /g/ (girl)

/k/ (key) goat

car girl

cup glass
voiced
cat
voiceless /v/ (van)
/f/ (fin)
van
fin
five
vase

four veil voiced


voiceless KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM
Consonants /ð/ (than)
/θ/ (thin) they
thin there
thumb those
voiced
thick
voiceless /z/ (zoo)
/s/ (sun) zoo
sun zip
sit zebra
sand voiced
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voiceless BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM
Consonants /m/ (mouth)
/h/ (hat) me
hill met
heel moon
voiced
hand
voiceless /l/ (letter)
/n/ (nose)
low
nose
light
nine
line
noise voiced
voiced KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM
Consonants /j/ (yellow)

/r/ (wrong) yolk

right yam

red yes
voiced
rose
voiced /ʒ/ (television)
/w/ (window)
television
we
treasure
wheel
garage
wet voiced
voiced KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM
Consonants /tʃ/ (cherry)

/ʃ/ (shoe) chips

she chin

shoe cherry
voiceless
ship
voiceless /ŋ/ (ring)
/dʒ/ (jam)
wing
jam
thing
jeep
wrong
jar voiced
voiced KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
10 BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM
Long Monophthongs
/ɜ:/ (girl)
/i:/ (sheep)
bird
heel
turn
peel
burn
leek

/u :/ (boot)
pool
root
tooth KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA
BAHAGIAN PEMBANGUNAN KURIKULUM
Long Monophthongs

/a:/ (heart)
march
/ɔ:/ (ball) card
port barn
fork
tall

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Diphthongs
/aɪ/ (fine)
/eɪ/ (tail)
buy
tail
tie
pain
kite
wait
/aʊ/ (house)
/ɔɪ/ (boy)
cow
oil
bow
coin
brow
toy
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Diphthongs
/ɪə/ (beer)
/əʊ/ (phone) ear
float tear
coat dear
boat
/ ʊə / (sure)
/eə/ (chair) sure
air pure
pear cure
hair
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Phonics

• an approach to teaching reading


• aims at building foundational skills
in beginning readers
• use of phonics depends on the
practitioners’ beliefs about reading

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Good Phonics Instruction should:

a. develop the alphabetic principle – the notion that


letters in words stand for specific sounds
b. develop phonological awareness – recognition of
sounds in spoken words (phoneme awareness)
c. provide a sound grounding in the letters – learning the
shapes and names of letters
d. provide sufficient practice in reading words – in
isolation or in context
e. lead automatic word recognition – phonics instruction
is not the end but the means to help children read
words automatically

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Phoneme : /s/

Grapheme :
s
ss
c

1. Form a cobra head with your hand.


2. Trace the letter ‘s’ in the air and, say s…

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Phoneme : /æ/

Grapheme :

Imagine a spider crawling up your arm


and say eh…

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Phoneme : /t/

Grapheme :

Tap two fingers on the desk and say t…

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Phoneme : /p/

Grapheme :

Place four fingers in front of your mouth and


say p…

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Phoneme : /ɪ/

Grapheme :

Show your teeth and say e.

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Phoneme : /n/

Grapheme :

Touch the tip of your nose and say n…

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Phoneme : /m/

Grapheme :

Lick an ice-cream and say m…

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Phoneme : /d/

Grapheme :

Drumming action and say d…

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Phoneme : /g/

Grapheme :

1. You are cold, clutch your hands and


shiver
2. Say ggg

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Phoneme : /ɒ/

Grapheme :

Draw a small circle (anti clockwise) in the


air and say o

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Phoneme : /k/

Grapheme :

c
k
ck

Action of flying a kite and say k

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Phoneme : /e/

Grapheme :

Walk like an elephant and say eh

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Phoneme : /ʌ/

Grapheme :

u
uh

Look up and say uh

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Phoneme : /r/

Grapheme :

Be a lion and say rrr

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Phoneme : /h/

Grapheme :

1. Place your palm in front of your mouth.


2. Laugh haha
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Phoneme : /b/

Grapheme :

Action of balloon bursting and say b…

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Phoneme : /f/

Grapheme :

f
ff

Action of bird flying and say f…

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Phoneme : /l/

Grapheme :

l
ll

Raise both arms upright and say ll..

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Phoneme : /dʒ/

Grapheme :

g
j

Jump and say j.

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Phoneme : /v/

Grapheme :

Show the peace sign and say v.

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Phoneme : /w/

Grapheme :

Join two peace signs and say w.

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Grapheme :
Phoneme : /ks/
/gz/ x
Cross your hands Slash ‘x’ and say
and say ks.. gz..

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Phoneme : /j/

Grapheme :

Nod and say yeh

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Phoneme : /z/

Grapheme :

z
zz

Trace ‘z’ in the air and say z..

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Phoneme : /kw/

Grapheme :

qu

Action of a duck flapping its wings once


and say qua

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Phoneme : / tʃ /

Grapheme :

ch

1. Action of a moving train with both arms


2. Say ch.

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Phoneme : /ʃ /

Grapheme :

sh

Finger on the lips and say sh..

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Grapheme :

th

Phoneme : / θ/ Phoneme : / ð/
voiceless voiced

Show the thumb Point with the thumb


and say th. and say th.

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Phoneme : /ŋ /

Grapheme :

ng

Action of mosquito buzzing around ears


and say ng….

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High Frequency Words

Decodable Not
Decodable

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Decodable Words :

Phonetically decodable words


should be taught according to
the principle of saying sounds in
a word in the order in which they
occur.

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Not Decodable Words :

Some words are not decodable


using the grapheme-phoneme
correspondence. They are also
called tricky words.

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Tricky Words :
you
the they
we
to all
me
I are
be
no my
was
go her
into he
she
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Tricky Words :
were their
said there people
have little Mr
like one Mrs
so when looked
do out called
some what asked
come oh could
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Regina Joseph Cyril
English Language Unit
cyril0711@yahoo.com
03-8884 2088
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