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Green Marketing to Control Environmental Pollution in

Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects


Jannatul Mawa Nupur*
Abstract:

Over the last few years there has been increasing interest of Green Marketing (GM) in
the globe, particularly in developing countries. The present study is the result of these
green marketing developments in Bangladesh, is one of the few countries in Asia, where
there is high increasing environmental pollution and its effects on human lives are
creating threats awfully in every moment. This research examines the practices of green
marketing in Bangladesh. The green marketing is the core of Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) and business ethics. In our country marketers have a lot of
prospects of adopting green marketing to alleviate the effects of environmental pollution
and protect the environment for coming generation. This study also shows that the
implication of green marketing strategies in Bangladesh is not in the suitable form. The
study is organized around certain fundamental eco-environmental variables in this
context also an attempt to examine and analyze green market imperatives and its
environmental impact and activities in Bangladesh, so that appropriate policies at the
macro and micro levels could be developed to address them. Finally this paper suggests
some recommendations for practicing green marketing strategies effectively, positively
and in controllable way.
Keywords: Environment, Green Product, Green Consumer, Corporate Social responsibility,
Green Marketing .

Introduction:
Green Marketing is integrating business practices and products that are friendly to the
environment while also meeting the needs of the consumers. According to the American
Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed
to be environmentally safe. Also known as: Environmental Marketing (EM), Ecological
Marketing, Eco-Marketing . The natural environment, commonly referred to simply as
the environment, is a term that comprises all living and non-living things that
occur naturally on earth or some part of it. Pollution is the introduction of contaminants
into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the physical
systems or living organisms. Pollution can take place form of chemical substances, or
energy, such as noise, heat, or light energy. Generally presence of matter (gas, liquid,
solid) or energy (heat, noise, radiation) whose nature, location, or quantity directly or
indirectly alters characteristics or processes of any part of the environment, and causes
(or has the potential to cause) damage to the condition, health, safety, or welfare of
animals, humans, plants, or property.

* Lecturer, Department of Business Administration, Northern University Bangladesh.


The author is grateful to Dr. Abdullah Abusayed Khan ,Faculty of Sociology discipline in
Khulna University for his valuable comments on earlier draft of the article. However, the
author is alone responsible for any sort of error.

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Bangladesh has the highest density of population among all countries of the world and is
the worst victim of environmental degradation. Poor people are dying of arsenic
contamination in Bangladesh’s villages and poor urban dwellers are most exposed to the
poisonous air. Protection of the environment is therefore necessary even from the view of
social justice. In particular, as Bangladesh proceeds towards industrialization it needs to
be careful about environmental impacts. There are several reasons why Bangladesh needs
to be extra careful and gain more knowledge of the environment. The country now relies
greatly on foreign capital, which is more likely to be guided by immediate profit concerns
and lead to many environmentally risky and damaging decisions. Environmental
education can help people become aware of the consequences of their actions, provide
information to help solve environmental problems, and build the human capacity
necessary to solve and prevent environmental problems. A balance between
environmental stewardship and economic development can guarantee this sustainable
future, which in turn needs sound environmental knowledge among both experts and the
population at large. The paper discusses the present environmental situation in
Bangladesh, green consumerism practices and future potentialities for sustainable
development; and a job market of graduates in Bangladesh. Finally, the paper
recommends a sustainable policy framework of Green Marketing and its future in
Bangladesh to the national policy makers for sustainability of this country.

Objectives of the Study:

The general objectives of this study are:

1. To find out the causes of environmental pollution in Bangladesh.

2. To explain the effects of environmental pollution on human lives in Bangladesh.

3. To analysis the role, strategies and prospects of green marketing practices to


alleviate the environmental pollution in Bangladesh.

4. To identify the problems incorporating green marketing practices effectively in


Bangladesh.

5. To develop and explore some probable solutions and recommendations for


positively applying green marketing activities in Bangladesh.

Literature Review:

The term Green Marketing came into prominence in the late 1980s and early 1990s.The
American Marketing Association (AMA) held the first workshop on "Ecological
Marketing" in 1975.
Kotler (2003) argues, “Environmental marketing is one which connects the company to
the environmentally and socially conscious and demanding markets. It also integrates the

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functions of the company to serve those markets in an environmentally and socially
responsible way.” As such environmental marketing is more complex. It serves two basic
objectives:

i) to develop products that balance consumer’s needs for quality, performance,


affordable pricing, and convenience with environmental compatibility
ii) to project an image of high quality, including environmental sensitivity,
relating to both a products attributes and its manufacturer’s track record for
environmental achievement.

Mohammed and Junaid ( 2005 )observed that difficulties of practicing agricultural and
green marketing concept in Bangladesh by the peasants. Partial practice of agricultural
marketing by marginal landowner is causing environmental damages and so, affects the
productivity. In order to increase the productivity and surplus and reduce the cost at the
same time, the peasants are switching to different kinds of hybrid seeds and applying
fertilizer extensively.
Wise and Ali (2007) argued that Corporate management and corporate social
responsibility is interrelated as the negotiation process is a continuous process which is
related to micro-dynamics of business competition, risk analysis and management, socio-
cultural-ethical reputation in the macro context of the particular country influenced by the
global changing environment.

Methodology of the Study:

This study is properly done based on the primary and secondary data. The primary data
were collected from the survey by questionnaire on the consumers. On the basis of
primary data the study has prepared frequency distribution tables, which were given in
the appendix. And the secondary data were collected from consulting various documents,
reports, articles, case studies, books, and internet and so on. The collected data were
analyzed keeping in mind the objectives of the study. The study also reviews published
material from different sources to explain the relevant thoughts on the issue. In this case,
the researcher explores idea, concept, arguments, approaches, areas, and contemporary
issues on green marketing to explain the topic in detail. With respect to the issues raised
throughout the research, the study identifies important aspects of the topic to collect
opinion from different consumers and concerned business people and enterprises. Mostly
the annual reports of the sample organization enlisted under national and international
sources to make the study practicable. Time period of the study is January 2008 to April,
2008.

Limitations of the Study:

At the time of producing this paper some limitations have realized. These are:

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1. This paper only considers the data available in books, documents, articles,
journals and Internet.

2. Primary data were collected from the young consumers (age 20-25 yrs).

3. Insufficient and rare information about the green marketer and service provider in
Bangladesh.

4. Very few recent govt. publication and report on green marketing policy and
practices.

Basic Principles of Green Marketing


1. Beyond any renewable requirements. rate based resources should be marketed
only under include power from emerging renewable resources (wind, solar,
biomass, geothermal).
2. Make a difference. Marketed renewable should be above and certain
circumstances.
3. Avoid distinctions between "existing" and "new" renewable.

4. Fully disclose product contents and provide information to allow on-going


product verification (in the absence of uniform disclosure requirements).

5. Document claims that power from undesirable sources is not being supported.

6. Do not charge excessive prices.

7. Do not collect premiums in advance, and avoid donation programs.

8. Support a universal system of price, fuel mix and emissions disclosure.

9. Support public policies that advance sustainable energy goals.

Ongoing Debate and Confusion about Green Marketing

The popularity of such marketing approach and its effectiveness is hotly debated. Roper’s
Green Gauge shows that a high percentage of consumers (42%) feel that
environmental products don’t work as well as conventional ones.

One challenge green marketers old and new are likely to face as green products and
messages become more common are confusion in the marketplace. "Consumers don't
really understand a lot about these issues, and there's a lot of confusion out there," says
Jacquelyn Ottman(founder of J. Ottman Consulting and author of "Green Marketing:
Opportunity for Innovation.").

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Green Products

Elkington, Hailes, and Makower(1990) discussed several characteristics that a product


must have to be regarded as a "green" product. They contended that a green product
should not: i) Endanger the health of people or animals, ii) Damage the environment at
any stage of its life, including manufacture, use, and disposal, iii) Consume a
disproportionate amount of energy and other resources during manufacture, use, or
disposal, iv) Cause unnecessary waste, either as a result of excessive packaging or a short
useful life, v) Involve the unnecessary use of or cruelty to animals, v) Use materials
derived from threatened species or environments

Green Consumer:

Who is mindful of environment related issues and obligations, and is supportive of


environmental causes to the extent of switching allegiance from one product or
supplier to another even if it entails higher cost.

Green Consumerism:

Green consumerism involves actions from the government sector, the private sector and
the civil society. Green consumerism creates a balance between the expectations of
consumer behavior and businesses' profit motives. Points to be noted:

i) Markets don't wait for slow movers. Businesses that innovate and respond
quickly to consumer demands survive best.
ii) Everyone has a part to play, at various levels of administration, manufacture
and use.
iii) A consumer has to realize that he/she not just buys 'a' product, but everything
that went into its production, and everything that will happen in the future as a
result of that product.
iv) All products have an environmental impact, however small. The idea is to
reduce it to the minimum.

Causes of Environmental Pollution in Bangladesh:

If environmentalists are painting a grim picture for the future of the planet, there is good
reason for it. Environmental degradation and depletion of natural resources are
often observed in Bangladesh due to poverty, over-population and lack of
awareness on the subject. It is manifested by deforestation, destruction of wetlands,
depletion of soil nutrients, etc. Natural calamities like floods, cyclones, Sidre,
Nargis, Reshmi and tidal-bores also result in severe socio-economic and
environmental damage.

The Major Forms of Pollution are Listed Below Along with the Particular
Pollutants Relevant to Each of Them:

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Air pollution, the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common
gaseous air pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Water pollution, by
the release of waste products and contaminants into surface runoff into river drainage
systems, leaching into groundwater, liquid spills, wastewater discharges, and littering.

1500-2000 textile dyeing and washing units and a few hundred are in the pipeline. All of
these industries are extracting ground water and releasing it to the surface water directly,
without treatment. Only a few of them have effluent treatment plants (ETP), but they are
operating partially or are out of order. Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are
released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants
are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
Radioactive contamination resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such
as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment.
Noise pollution, which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as
well as high-intensity sonar. Visual pollution which can refer to the presence of overhead
power lines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open storage
of trash or municipal solid waste.

Poisonous food marketers are poisoning the food by mixing dangerous chemicals to make
these look attractive for the gullible and ignorant customers. Some traders are mixing
formaldehyde ('Formalin') with fresh milk to give it longer shelf life. DDT is sprayed on
dry fish. More recent reports say that poisonous substances are being mixed regularly
with everyday food items like fish, meat, vegetables, fruits, pulses and eggs. i).
Environmental Hormones and Pesticides, ii). Indian eggs contain toxic elements:
Smuggled in unchecked and consumed widely in country; a major source of health
hazard, iii). Looming Danger of Bird Flu, iv). Extensive use of pesticides in edible items
causing health hazards Urea in biscuits! v). Hazardous chemical in sugar -a serious threat
to public health, vi) Excessive use of melamine in powder milk, vii) Usage of more
preservative in juice.

It is not only textile dye and burnt Mobil oil that bakery product producers use to
adulterate their products. Urea fertilizer is also used in biscuits and bread to make them
whitish and crispier for a longer time, it was revealed when the mobile court recovered
urea fertilizer from two bakeries in old Dhaka. That water is mixed with milk is an open
secret as is the fact that buffalo meat are being sold as beef The use of extremely harmful
chemicals for ripening fruits continues unabated, Adulteration of foods and use of non-
food grade colors, substandard materials

River water in Sealed Bottles for Sale

Unscrupulous traders in old Dhaka area engaged in filling up thousands of empty plastic
water bottles with plain river water and selling those among the unsuspecting buyers
especially targeting the people who travel by launches from Sadar Ghat.

Even the Life-saving Oral Saline can be Dangerous for Life

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Even the life-saving oral saline can be dangerous for life as unscrupulous people are
producing saline in unhygienic environment violating the safety standard and posing
serious threat to life. Due to lack of vigilance, the workers of some saline producers do
not put on gloves while packaging.

Contaminated WASA Water

Dhaka Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA) and the Department of Environment
(DoE) have detected coli form, a bacteria in groundwater pumped up by the WASA,
which experts say is 'alarming' for public health. 50 tones of medical waste dumped a day
poses serious health risks in Dhaka, promotes unscrupulous trade. The Government of
Bangladesh has not shown much interest in environmental impact created by the
industries, whereas government's concern to create jobs usually meant that when a new
factory is proposed in local, national or international business or agency - little attention
is given to the likely environmental impacts.

Effects of Environmental Pollution in Bangladesh:

Bangladesh: The Worst Victims of Global Warming

Low-lying Bangladesh is predicted to be one of the worst victims of global warming. For
example, flooding, which affects roughly a fifth of the country each year, will go up by
up to 40 percent this century as sea levels rise.

To make things worse, experts say, heavier rainfall triggered by global warming will
swamp the country's riverbanks, a previously unforeseen effect, flooding between 20-40
percent more land than today. We now experience unprecedented intense heat waves in
summer and unusually cold spells in the shorter winters, not to speak of the ever-
worsening floods that destroy life and property each year. Though it usually rains hard
around July 2004, last month's rains broke a 50-year record of 341 mm in 24 hours due to
a depression in the Bay. Met officials said the depression took an abnormal twisting path
not seen in 100 years. An increase in diseases like malaria and dengue fever, asthma and
other respiratory diseases, shifting ecosystems resulting in total disappearance of some
forests, desertification, etc.

Waterborne diseases such as cholera are a serious threat to public health in Bangladesh.
In the 1990s, however, it was discovered that many of shallow wells were contaminated
by arsenic, a poison that occurs naturally in Bangladesh's alluvial soils. Per capita
withdrawals of freshwater for domestic demands are very low in Bangladesh (6
m3/person/yr).

Bangladesh to Lose 17 pc Lands.

The effects of a one-meter relative sea level rise predicts that 17.5 per cent of the country
will be inundated, displacing 13 million people, about 11 per cent of the population.
The Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest in the world, would probably be destroyed.

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This unique habitat for plant and wildlife is already threatened by salt intrusion. Rising
sea levels will lead to 150 million environmental refugees by 2050, 17 per cent of
Bangladesh could be permanently lost.

Sunderban (The largest mangrove forest of the world) suffers global warming impact In
the last two decades 6000 families have been left homeless by the rising sea, which has
swallowed low lying islands. Cyclones, tidal waves and tidal surge are increasing also
both in frequency and intensity accelerating erosion along the 225 km coastal line.

Flooded Future Looms for Bangladesh

Staying afloat the people who live on Char Bangla are among the most vulnerable
anywhere to a rise in sea level. No contribution, highest impact-that makes it a huge case
of moral inequality against which the global citizenry, the global nation states, must take
action. If not we’ll be calling it climatic genocide. (Source: New Age, 3 August, 2005).

We have dramatic reduction of pulses, oil seed and fish, only 50 years left' for sea fish,
marine environment plagued by pollution.

Industrial Pollution Poor Suffers

In Dhaka at Tejgaon area, food-processing industries are situated along the chemical and
heavy metal processing industries. In Tongi a pharmaceutical industry is situated near a
pesticides producing industry. Tannery industries of Hazaribagh are also situated in a
heavily populated residential area. These examples are repeated in the cities of
Chittagong, Khulna and other small cities of Bangladesh. The offending industries are
located in the Savar Export Processing Zone, ironically, the most high-profile industrial
area. They were mandated by the licensing authority to be treating the effluents as a
public health precaution before releasing these into Bongshi river and the adjoining
Dholai beel and canal.

Toxic chemicals and its Problems

These problems include cancer, damage to the immune system, behavioral problems,
hormone disruption and even sex-reversal. In humans, the last few decades have seen
decreased fertility rates and sperm counts. i) Air pollution costs Tk 124 billion Dollars(60
Tk = 1 US dollar) a year in Dhaka, Bangladesh, ii) Dhaka, the most Polluted Cities of the
World, iii) Toxic fumes from brick kilns a threat to health-Bangladesh becoming toxic
dumping ground. A group of environmental organizations has called on the authorities in
Bangladesh to improve conditions in the country's ship-breaking yards, which they say
are the most dangerous in the world - both to workers and to the environment. They say
about 5,000 people have died in the yards in Bangladesh over the past 15 years.

Drastic Fall in Chalan Beel Fish Production after the Introduction of IRRI
Cultivation

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Fish production in Chalan Beel has fallen by over 50 per cent during the last two decades.
Officials in Rajshahi on 2 September, 2005 said that Chalan Beel, country's largest sweet
water body with all fertile ingredients for the production of numerous fish species, started
losing its natural capacity after the introduction of IRRI cultivation in the area

Diabetes and Drinking Water Exploring the Connection to Nitrate

Nitrate is found in ground water of Bangladesh above standard in many wells and
diabetic is very common.

Anti-Insect Ozone

In attempts to control insects and the diseases they bring, farmers have relied on a variety
of pesticides, many of which are highly toxic to humans. Meanwhile, insect resistance is
growing. Replacement technologies are critical.

Prospects of Green Marketing in Bangladesh:

In the market societies where there is a “freedom of choice” it has generally been
accepted that individuals and organizations have the right to attempt to have their wants
satisfied. As firms face limited natural resources, they must develop new or alternative
ways of satisfying these unlimited wants. Ultimately green marketing looks at how
marketing activities utilize these limited resources, protect the environment and earn the
profit of the organization.

Government Actions and Pressure:

Bangladesh has some separate laws for protecting the consumer's interest. The consumer
protection laws of the country were amended last in the beginning of the eighties and
such laws have become obsolete in today's totally changed context. To follow these rules
and legislation no way without green marketing -

i) Control of Essential Commodities Act, 1956,


ii) Pure Food Act, 2005,
iii) The Price and Distribution of Essential Commodities Ordinance, 1970,
v) The Drugs Act, 1940,
vi) Breast-Milk Substitute (Regulation of Marketing) Ordinance,1984,
vi) The Special Powers Act, 1974,
vii) The Dangerous Drugs Act, 1930,
viii) The Trade Mark Act, 2003,
ix) The Labeling Act, 2006,
x) The Standards of Weights and Measures Ordinance, 1982,
xi) Penal Code, 1860.

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The use of BSTI Certification is governed by the provision of the BSTI Ordinance 1985,
and the rules and regulations made there under. In recent years, the government has taken
some important steps towards protection of the environment, environmentally sound use
of natural resources and pollution control to take prompt legal action against
environmental pollution, the government has recently set up Environment courts. The
Environment Conservation Rules 1997 has also been passed by the Parliament. The
Department of Environment is taking measures to carry out surveys on identification and
control of polluting industries, river pollution and automobile pollution.

Opportunities for the Success of Green Marketing:

It appears that all types of consumers are becoming more concerned and aware about the
natural environment. We have also a lot of opportunity to commit and implement the
green marketing practices. The following prospects are waiting for us to open a new sky
for green marketing issues. i) Consumers want the best quality products and services so
green marketing can open a door to ensure the best quality product. ii) We have huge
sources of sustainable raw materials in our country that show the maximum utilization of
natural resources as raw materials in environmental marketing. iii) Reusable, recycling
and refillable products and packaging have a great demand in our markets, so green
marketing can meet these requirements easily. iv) Safely disposable, compost able and
eco-efficient products’ demand is sustainable to our green conscious consumers. Green
marketer can pave the way for fulfilling their needs.

Green Communication on Social Networks, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)


and Business Ethics:

Many firms are beginning to realize that they are the members of the wider community
and therefore participation in social networks continues to grow seemingly without
bounds as more people seek to connect, share and collaborate with likeminded
individuals online. Today, hundreds of millions of online users have already signed up,
with an increasing number belonging to more than one network. So we can not say that
we are not in chain of green marketing. We have lot of prospects to practice, implement
and successfully accept the green marketing issues.To confirm the CSR and business
ethics only the willingness of green marketer will help to work in a sustainable way. The
firms believe that they must achieve environmental objectives and profit related
activities.

Goals Commonly Expressed by Environmental Scientists:

Goals will be definitely applied by the green marketers and all other green stakeholders in
Bangladesh. To achieve these goals common for every country of the world we can also
enjoy these opportunities by practicing the following issues:

• Reduction and clean up of pollution, with future goals of zero pollution;


• Cleanly converting no recyclable materials into energy through direct combustion
or after conversion into secondary fuels;

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• Reducing societal consumption of non-renewable fuels;
• Development of alternative, green, low-carbon or renewable energy sources;
• Conservation and sustainable use of scarce resources such as water, land, and air;
• Protection of representative or unique or pristine ecosystems;
• Preservation of threatened and endangered species extinction.

Competitive Pressure:

As the firms marketing goods with environmental characteristics will have a competitive
advantage over firms marketing non-environmentally responsible alternatives. In many
cases firms observe competitors promoting their environmental behaviors and attempt to
emulate this behavior. In some instances this competitive pressure has caused an entire
industry to modify and thus reduce its detrimental environmental behavior. Competitors
are offering the promotional green benefits in reasonable price. To hold and retain those
consumers and customers Economic of Scale (EOS) has achieved by the competitors. So
it will create extra pressures to follow and earn EOS immediately.

Greener Pricing:

A central concern of many environmentalists is that product prices do not reflect total
environmental costs. Waste disposal costs, for instance, are frequently incurred on a
fixed-fee basis, regardless of how much waste is actually generated. Similarly, the
national accounting systems of most countries do not incorporate the costs of
environmental degradation or depletion. After-the-fact expenditures on pollution control
and remediation are included, albeit as income. Greener pricing decisions are based on
the premise that goods and services associated with greater environmental damage should
cost more.

There are two types of arguments regarding the cost-benefit analysis of green marketing,
which should be taken into consideration. Green policy may reduce costs, shape future
regulations and reap first mover advantages. However, there is also opposite views that
green policies are expensive and charge higher. In these cases they often develop more
effective production processes that not only reduce waste but reduce the need for some
raw materials. This serves as a double cost savings since both waste and raw materials are
reduced. In other cases firms attempt to find end-of-pipe solutions, instead of minimizing
waste. In these situations firms try to find markets or uses for their waste materials, where
one firm ‘s waste becomes another firm’s input of production. Logistics and
transportation costs are coming under greater scrutiny due to rising fuel prices, congested
highways, and global-warming concerns.

Problems of Green Marketing in Bangladesh:

One of the biggest problems with the green marketing area is that there has been little
attempt to academically examine environmental or green marketing.

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Firms using green marketing must ensure that their activities are not misleading to
consumers or industry and do not breach any of the regulations or laws dealing
with environmental marketing.
Another problem firms face is that those who modify their products due to increased
concern must contend with the fact that consumers’ perceptions are sometimes not
correct.
When firms attempt to become socially responsible, they mar face the risk that the
environmentally responsible action of today will be found to be harmful in the
future.
Because of some limited scientific knowledge at any point in time it may be impossible
for a firm to be certain they have made the correct environmental decision.
While governmental regulation is designed to give consumers the opportunity to make
better decisions or to motivate them to be more environmentally responsible, there
is difficulty in establishing policies that will address all environmental issues.
Reacting to competitive pressures can cause all followers to make the mistake as the
leader and thus blindly following the competition can have costly ramifications.
Consumers are not overly committed to improving their environment and may be looking
to lay too much responsibility on industry and govt.
All market segments are not always conscious about the green products and ready to pay
more price to purchase.
Green marketers and govt. are taking little initiatives to aware green stakeholders.

Conclusion

At the very outset green marketing and its prospect is based on the premise that
businesses have a responsibility to satisfy human needs and desires while preserving the
integrity of the natural environment. Being a “green” company does have its benefits.
Companies today need to incorporate environmental responsibility into their strategic
futures and should refrain from misrepresentation. Those companies that are non-
compliant and try to fool the customers with fraudulent claims will suffer long-term
consumer scrutinizing, potential adverse publicity and loss of sales. That this latter
concern has been ignored throughout most of recorded human history does not mean it
will be unimportant in the future. Indeed, there are significant indications that
environmental issues will grow in importance over the coming years and will require
imaginative and innovative redesign and reengineering of existing marketing efforts on
the part of many businesses. Solutions to environmental problems can be characterized
into roughly three categories: ethical, legal, and business (economic and technological).
Long-term sustainability of the planet is likely to require some rather distinct changes in
the ethical behavior of its human population. Barring a crisis, these changes will probably
be a long time coming. Legislation is a useful tool for effecting social change; it has a
tremendous advantage over moral persuasion in terms of speed and efficacy of
implementation, although its results are not always as intended. In the short term,
business solutions the enlightened self-interest of commercial enterprises finding new
ways to incorporate technology and carry on exchanges with greater concern for
heretofore un-priced environmental goods and services offer particular promise. Green

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marketing and the promotion of responsible consumption are part of that solution which
is very much needed through considering corporate social responsibility.

Policy recommendations:

In Bangladesh Green Marketing concept should be urgently utilized for the public use.
But to overcome the problems lying in Green Marketing some recommendations are
suggested here.

1. Regarding the integration of environmental issues into marketing Ottman (1998)


suggests five things that can be followed undoubtedly:

i) to define green in an appropriate manner,


ii) to enlist consumer support for lifestyle changes necessary for greener behavior and
product,
iii) to overcome misconceptions and balance environmental ills with solutions,
iv) to communicate for environmental marketing terms under uniform guidelines,
v) to gain credibility and assert that the interest of industry do not conflict with
greenness.

2. We Should Confirm the Components of Environmental Education

i) Awareness and sensitivity to the environment and environmental challenges


ii) Knowledge and understanding of the environment and environmental challenges
iii) Attitudes of concern for the environment and motivation to improve or maintain
environmental quality
iv) Skills to identify and help resolve environmental challenges
v) Participation in activities that lead to the resolution of environmental challenges
(UNESCO, 1978,Source: www.epa.gov/enviroed/eedefined.html )

3. It must not be forgotten that the industrial buyer also has the ability to pressure
suppliers to modify their activities. Thus an environmental committed organization may
not only produce goods that have reduced their detrimental impact on the environment,
they mar also be able to pressure their suppliers to behave in a more environmentally
“responsible” fashion.

4. Green consumers and other stakeholders like educators, employees, and retailers can
contribute to create pressures on organizations to integrate the environment into their
corporate culture and thus ensure all organizations minimize the detrimental
environmental impact of their activities.
5. The US Federal Trade Commission (FTC) guidelines for green marketing claims
may be followed. i) Clearly state environmental benefits. ii) Explain environmental
characteristics. iii) Explain how benefits are achieved. iv) Ensure comparative differences
are justified. v) Ensure negative factors are taken into consideration and vi) Only use
meaningful terms and pictures (Source: www.ftc.gov/bcp/grnrule/guides980427.htm.)

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6. Govt. Actions

i) Govt. can develop congenial and eco friendly industrial policies and
legislation in line with ISO 14000 to encourage and motivate enterprises.
ii) Govt. should develop information policy for identifying, collecting and
disseminating of information to the concerned parties.
iii) They can encourage the enterprises to practice green marketing rules by
offering cash prizes, subsidies, awards, certificates of honor for the best
performance and can arrange seminars, conferences to participate with
industry, NGOs stakeholders, and associations.
iv) The Ministry of Environment should issue environmental clearance
certificates without which no company should be allowed to run their
business.
v) Govt. should use economic instruments to internalize the externalities, norms,
eco-taxes, environmental tradable permits and all other relevant aspects of
importance.

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Ottman,J.1998.Green Marketing: Opportunity for Innovation, NTC-McGraw Hill,USA.
Poojas (2007). GREEN MARKETING (html). Sulekha.com. , Aug 8
Wise, Victoria and Ali, Muhammad Mahboob(2007):Corporate Management and Corporate
Social Responsibility: A Conceptual framework"(Co-author), ”, paper presented at the XVI
Biennial Conference on “Participatory Development: External and Internal Challenges”
organized by the Bangladesh Economic Association held on 12-15th December 2007 at
Institution of Engineers, Bangladesh, Dhaka.

Websites:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environment, 10/10/07, 3.05pm-5.00pm
http://www.greenmarketing.com/index.php/our-book/. 10/10/07, 5.05pm-5.45pm.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollution, 11/10/07, 2.30 pm-3.00pm
http://healthandenergy.com/air_pollution_causes.htm, 11/10/07, 3.05pm-3.40pm
http://www.chicagotribune.com/topic/environmental-issues/environmental-
pollution/06005000.topic, 02/01/08, 11.00am-11.30am
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Green_marketing, 02/01/08, 11.35am-12.00pm
http://sbinfocanada.about.com/od/marketing/g/greenmarketing.htm, 03/02/08,2.00pm-
3.00pm
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_a_'green'_consumer, 03/02/08, 3.30pm-4.00pm
http://www.gdrc.org/uem/green-consumer.html, 03/02/08, 4.10pm-5.00pm
http://www.discoverybangladesh.com/meetbangladesh/env_issue.html, 04/02/08, 10am-
12.00pm
http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1024&context=uclalib/egj,
12/04/08, 1.00pm-2.05pm
http://www.environmentalleader.com/2008/03/09/green-marketing-predictions-for-
2008/],14/05/08, 9.00pm-10.00pm
http://ecopreneurist.com/2008/03/11/times-they-are-a-changing-green-marketing-tips-for-
eco-entrepreneurs-in-2008/,17/02/08, 5.00pm-7.00pm
http://www.sos-arsenic.net/english/environment/, 18/05/08, 3.05pm-3.55pm
http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/depth.asp,18/05/08,4.00pm-5.00pm
http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/grnrule/guides980427.htm, 02/06/08, 4.00pm-4.40pm
http://www.epa.gov/enviroed/eedefined.htm, 07/07/08, 5.00pm-6.00pm.
Appendix:

Frequency Table
Table: A

We have not alternatives of green products


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 18 52.9 52.9 52.9
Agree 7 20.6 20.6 73.5
Somewhat agree 3 8.8 8.8 82.4
Disagree 3 8.8 8.8 91.2
Strongly disagree 3 8.8 8.8 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table:B

Green marketing offers are not always understood


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 16 47.1 47.1 47.1
Agree 14 41.2 41.2 88.2
Somewhat agree 3 8.8 8.8 97.1
Disagree 1 2.9 2.9 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table: C

15
Price of the green products is little bit more
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 13 38.2 38.2 38.2
Agree 19 55.9 55.9 94.1
Somewhat agree 2 5.9 5.9 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table: D

To use the green products kill more time


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 18 52.9 52.9 52.9
Agree 10 29.4 29.4 82.4
Somewhat agree 4 11.8 11.8 94.1
Disagree 2 5.9 5.9 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table: E

Green product is not always convenient


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 15 44.1 44.1 44.1
Agree 7 20.6 20.6 64.7
Somewhat agree 8 23.5 23.5 88.2
Disagree 3 8.8 8.8 97.1
Strongly disagree 1 2.9 2.9 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table :F

Green products create some problems to use


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 19 55.9 55.9 55.9
Agree 11 32.4 32.4 88.2
Somewhat agree 2 5.9 5.9 94.1
Disagree 1 2.9 2.9 97.1
Strongly disagree 1 2.9 2.9 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table: G

Marketers are not offering the green product or service in an easier way
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 13 38.2 38.2 38.2
Agree 15 44.1 44.1 82.4
Somewhat agree 2 5.9 5.9 88.2
Disagree 4 11.8 11.8 100.0

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Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table :H

Consumers are sometime ready to pay more price


Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 14 41.2 41.2 41.2
Agree 9 26.5 26.5 67.6
Somewhat agree 7 20.6 20.6 88.2
Disagree 2 5.9 5.9 94.1
Strongly disagree 2 5.9 5.9 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table : I
Govt. rules and regulation should be strict to protect the environment
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 23 67.6 67.6 67.6
Agree 9 26.5 26.5 94.1
Somewhat agree 1 2.9 2.9 97.1
Disagree 1 2.9 2.9 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table : J
Consumer consciousness is most important to save the environment
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Strongly agree 28 82.4 82.4 82.4
agree 4 11.8 11.8 94.1
Disagree 2 5.9 5.9 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

17