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FORM 1

Chapter 1: Introduction to Science

Natural phenomena &meaning of science

 Science is the systematic study of nature and how it effects the environment and us
 Things that happen in nature(semula jadi) are called natural phenomena
 Example of natural phenomena: formation of rainbow, a durian falling to the ground, the
growth of a baby to an adult, an ice melting.
 The three main branches of science are: physics, biology, and chemistry.

Steps in scientific investigation

Identifying a problem making hypothesis plan the experiment controlling variables

Scientific steps

Writing a report Making conclusion Analyzing &interpreting data collecting data

Physical quantities and their units

 Physical quantities are measured in S.I units.


 The five base quantities are:
length(meter),time(second),mass(kilogram),temperature(Kelvin)and electric
current(Ampere)
 Prefix: micro=(µ),milli=(m) ,centi=(c), kilo=(k), mega=(M)

The use of measuring tools

 When reading the ruler, the eyes must in the middle of the reading of the objects.
 Length of a curved line is measured by thread and a ruler and also by opisometer.
 External calipers are used for measure external diameters.
 Internal callipers are used to measure internal diameters

Measuring area

 The area of a regular or an irregular shapes can be estimated by using graph paper.
Measuring the volume of liquids

We can measure liquids by using:

 Measuring cylinders which is used to measure volume


 Pipette which is used to measure a fixed volume accurately
 Burette which is used to measure small volumes accurately.
 Suction pump which is used to suck liquids into pipette.

Estimating the volume of regular and irregular solids

 Volume of regular and irregular shapes can be measured by using water displacement
method
 An eureka can is used to determine the volume of irregular shapes which is too big
 Example: There is 34 ml of water in measuring cylinders. When a stone is lowered into the
measuring cylinder, the volume of the water in the measuring cylinder rises to 65 ml. Find
the estimated volume of the stone.
The estimated volume of the stone = (56-34) ml
=22ml
=22 cm cube

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