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TRAINING REPORT

BSNL
Connecting India

DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

Submitted to: Submitted by:


ANIL KUMAR
7EC-133

LINGAYA’S INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT &


TECHNOLOGY
FARIDABAD

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CONTENTS

• Acknowledgement.

• Company Profile

• Products and Services.

• OCB-283 (Introduction).

• Main Divisions Of OCB-283.

• Functional Architecture Of OCB.

• Call Processing.

• Pulse Code Modulation..

• CCS#7 (Common Channel Signaling).

• Power Plant Of Exchange.

• E-10B(Introduction).

• General Description Of E -10B.

• Subscriber Facilities.

• Comparison between OCB and other Exchanges.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is my esteemed pleasure to present the training report. I had a golden

opportunity of getting industrial training at Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. (Govt. Of

India Ent.) Jalandhar. I express my deep gratitude to Mr. RAJIV GARG(S.D.E) and

Mrs. VASUDHA SHARMA(TTA) ,who gave me the chance to understand the

working of OCB-283 Exchange. The other employees also deserve thanks for

helping me in completion of my report. It indeed was an enriching experience to

study the digital communication through OCB exchange. This acknowledgement

will hardly be sufficient in expressing our deep sense of gratitude to our

respected professors and individuals in the preparation of this object. Last but

not least we are highly grateful to our parents for helping us round the clock

and for their encouragement and love.

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COMPANY PROFILE

BSNL is the largest telecom operator in India and is known to


everybody for Basic Telephone Services for over 100 years. Presently the
plain old, countrywide telephone service is being provided through 32,000
electronic exchanges, 326 Digital Trunk Automatic Exchanges (TAX),
Digitalized Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) all interlinked by
over 2.5 lakh km of Optical Fiber Cable, with a host of Phone Plus value
additions to our valued customers. BSNL’s telephony network expands
throughout the vast expanses of the country reaching to the remotest part of
the country.

On October 1,2000 the Department of Telecom Operations,


Government of India became a corporation and was christened Bharat
Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL). Today, BSNL is the largest Public Sector
Undertaking of India and its responsibilities include improvement of the
already impeccable quality of telecom services, expansion of telecom

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network, introduction of new telecom services in all villages an instilling
confidence among its customers.
Responsibilities that BSNL has managed to shoulder remarkably,
deftly. Today with a 37 million line capacity, 99.9% of its exchanges digital,
nation wide Network management & surveillance system (NMSS) to control
telecom traffic and nearly 250373 route kms of OFC network, Bharat
Sanchar Nigam Limited is a name to reckon with in the world of
connectivity. Along with its vast customer base, BSNL’s financial and asset
bases too are vast and strong. Consider the figures, as they speak volumes on
BSNL’s standing:
• The Telephone infrastructure alone is worth about Rs. 1,00,000 crore
(US $ 21.2 billion)
• Turnover of Rs.22, 000 crore (US $ 4.6 billion)

Add to which, BSNL’s nationwide coverage and reach.


Comprehensive age of Telecom services and a penchant for excellence; and
you have the ingredients for restructuring India for a bright future. With the
convergence of technologies, catalyzed by the global IT revolution the world
is witnessing change as never before in recorded history. In the realm of
telecommunication, the change and the peace of it are more pronounced –
from basic telephony to voice, video and data services, and from bandwidth
on demand to virtual private networks, IT is making the entire plethora of
BSNL’s telecom services expand. And, being rapidly implemented as the
back one for running customer-friendly services:
• FRS (Fault Repair System), DQ (Directory Enquiry), IVRS
(Interactive Voice Response System) and accounting and billing
system are already operational at BSNL.
• DOTSOFT, an integrated commercial and FRS package being
inducted country wide, to provide single window convenience.
• Telephone Directory on CD-ROM and on the Internet.
• Infrastructure, technology and expertise for full service support to e-
commerce enterprises.
Vision: -
BSNL would like to be a high tech customer oriented company with
emphasis of value addition.

Mission: -
To provide world class Telecom services on demand using state of art
technology for our valued customers at affordable prices.

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PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

SERVICES

When it comes to connecting the four corners of the nation, and much beyond one
solitary name lies embedded at the pinnacle - BSNL. It is working round the clock
to take India into the future by providing world – class telecom services for people
of India.
Here is an overview of the World Class Services offered by BSNL :

 Basic Telephone Services

The plain old, countrywide telephone service through 32,000


electronic exchanges, digitalized Public Switched Telephone Network
(PSTN) with a host of phone plus value additions.

 Internet

Keeping the global network of networks connected, the countrywide


Internet Services of BSNL under the brand SANCHAR.NET includes
internet dialup/ leased access service, for web browsing and E-mail
applications. Internet Telephony service is also started under the brand
name WEB FONE recently.

 ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network service of BSNL utilizes a unique


digital network providing high speed and high quality voice, data and
image transfer over the same line. It can also facilitate both desktop
video and high quality video conferencing.

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 Intelligent Network

Intelligent Network Service offers value added services, such as :

 Free Phone Service (FPH)


 India Telephone Card (prepaid card)
 Account Card Calling (ACC)
 Virtual Private Network (VPN)
 Tele-voting
 Premium Rate Service (PRM)
 Universal Access Number (UAN) and many more

 I-Net

India’s x.25 based packet switched public data network is operational


in 104 cities of the country. It offers x.25 leased, x.28 dial up (PSTN)
connection and frame relay services.

 Leased Lines and Datacom

BSNL provides leased lines for voice and data communication for
various applications on point to point basis. It offers a choice of high,
medium and low speed data circuits as well as dial up lines.
Bandwidth is available on demand in most cities. Managed Leased
Line Network (MLLN) offers flexibility of providing circuits with
speeds of nx64 kbps upto 2 Mbps, useful for internet leased lines and
International Principles Leased Circuits (IPLCs).

 Cellular Mobile Service (Countrywide Cellular Service)


Excel (pre-paid card)

BSNL’s project of GSM cellular mobile service envisages a


customer base of over 4 million and will support applications like
Voice Mail, E-mail, Short Message Service (SMS), Cell Broadcast
Service, International Roaming, IN Services like Prepaid Card,

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Premium rate, Free Phone, Universal Access Number (UAN), Split
Charging, VPN etc.

OCB-283
(Organ Control Bhersion-283)

OCB-283 is digital switching system, which supports a variety of


communication needs like basic telephony, ISDN, interface to mobile, data
communication. ALCATEL of France has developed this system.
The first OCB-283 exchange of R11 version were commissioned in
Brest (France) and Beijing (China) in 1991, first OCB-283 exchange came to
India in 1993. The system has been upgraded and current version R20 has
fully validated in Jan 1994. The latest version is R24.

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All new technology switching system, are based on (SPC) stored
program control concept. The call processing program is distributed over
different control organs of the system and is stored in ROM/RAM of the
units. Data required to handle the calls are also managed in RAM of
different control units.

Salient Feature of the system:


1. It is digital switching system; maximum of 2048 PCM’s can be
connected.
2. It supports both analog and digital signal and it do not require separate
OFC room.
3. The system supports all the existing signaling system e.g. MF (R2) for
E10B, CAS, CCS7.
4. It provides telephony, ISDN, Data Communication.
5. The system has automatic recovery feature when serious fault occurs
in control station it gives a message to SMM (OM), the SMM puts this
unit O/S, load the software of this unit in a back up unit and brings it
into service.
6. Version units of OCB-283 system are connected over token rings
MIS, MAS, MAL for fast exchange of information and o avoid
complicated links and wiring.
7. The charge accounts of subscriber are automatically saved on the disk
once in case of information and to avoid complicated links and wiring
8. The traffic handling capacity of the system is huge depending on the
traffic, 200,000 subscribers or 60,0000 circuits.
9. The system is made up of only 35 types of cards excluding CSN cards.
10.It has modular structure so expansive can easily be carried out by
adding necessary software and hardware.
11.The SMM’s are duplicated; one active and other hot stand by.
12.The hard disk is very small in size and has got memory of 1.2 Gb.
EXCHANGE SWITCH

ANALOG DIGITAL

NOKIA SIEMENS ALCATEL ERICSON--------------

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OCB-283 OCB-286

Main Divisions Of OCB-283


• MDF Room.

• Exploitation Room.

• Switching Room.

MDF (Main Distribution Frame), this room is used to distribute the


subscriber’s call according to his request.

In any type of exchange, there is a unit called main distribution frame and is
used for interconnection of exchange line and junction unit equipments to
external physical lines coming to the exchange. The distribution frame
provides easy and flexible interconnection, isolation point for testing,
protective devices used for safety of exchange equipment etc.

In MDF, all lines are coming from subscribers, non exchange lines, telex
lines and analog junction lines, are terminated on 100 pair krone type tag
blocks in which gas discharge tubes type protective devices are provided to
tackle voltages and current surges. These tag blocks are located on one side
of the MDF called “line side”. On the other side of the MDF called
“exchange side” tag blocks re provided for terminating the cables from CSE
for subscriber lines and from transmission room for analog junction lines.

TRANSMISSION MEDIA

In many communication systems, it is often necessary to interconnect points that are


some distances apart from each other. The transmission of information as an
electromagnetic signal always occur as a transverse electromagnetic wave. One of
the media for transmission is :

Coaxial cable:

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d D

Optical Fiber Cable:

In the Switching Room all the information is stored in the ZD-Racks


(Explained Later).

The Exploitation Room operates the whole OCB-283 exchange. So it is


also known as operational room. My main responsibilities are come under
this exploitation room. As in this room all the operations are done through
system software by operating different commands over there. I have to

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operate some of these commands, which are named as under and discussed
in detail with the help of example as under:
• IDABSE

• INDIN

FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF OCB-283

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CONTROL STATION (SM):
The hardware equipment of the OCB 283 switching node consists of a set of
control (multiprocessor) station SM interconnected by one or several
communication multiplexers (MIS or MAS).
There are five types of control stations, corresponding to the types of
services they provide:

• SMC : Main Control Station

• SMA : Auxiliary Equipment SM

• SMT : PCM trunk SM

• SMX : Switching Matrix SM

• SMM : Maintenance SM

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1. SMC: Main Control Station
It consists of MR, MQ, TR, TX, PC, GX, which helps, in call processing.
The followings are some of the multi registers:
• MR: - Establishes and releases the calls, it takes real true decision for
processing for processing of a call.
• TR (Translator): - TR stores exchange date, it also stores routing and
analysis date.
• MQ (Marker): - MQ carries out messages between common control
function and connection unit for subscribers.
• TX (Charging Unit): - TX carries out charging for each
communication set up. It keeps charge account of all subscriber and
send detail billing messages to SMM.
• GX (Matrix System Handler): - GX monitors the connection in the
switching network also it monitors internal links in the switching
network.
• PC (CCS, Controller): - PC carries out routing and traffic management
function for CCS7 signaling

2. (SMA): Auxiliary Multiprocessor Station

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1. Function of SMA

- Tone generation (GT)


- Conference call (CCF)
- Frequency generation & reception for R2
MF signaling or for receiving DTMF
frequencies (RGF)
- Clock
- CCITT 7 signaling management (PU/PE)
- Access network management (AN).

2. SMA Environment
8 LR
SMA
1 GLR
SMX
MAS

to other stations

The SMA is connected to the switch by one GLR (i.e. 8 LR links), on


the other side it is connected to MAS token ring over which it
communicates with control units. A MAL ring collects converter
alarms of the station. The SMA obtains the time base from STS via
the switch over GLR cable.

3. Functional Architecture of SMA:

A SMA station can provide following functions (O) combination.


- ETA & PU/PE
- PU/PE alone
- ETA alone
- AN (access network) alone.

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First two SMAs essentially have GT functions and clock function
besides other ETA or PU/PE functions.
For the above functions and to adapt on token ring different
type of couplers and processors are provided. The functional name
and PCB names are listed below:
- CMP - implemented by ACAJA5/ACAJB5 or ACAJAG
ACASB4
- PUP - ACJTR5 AB
- PUS - ACUTR5 AB – Only one PUS
- MC (Common memory) – ACMCS
- Coupler CTSV – i.e. coupler Treatment
Signal Vocal or Voice signal processing
couplers.
These couplers are used as GT, RGF, CCF and as psophometer.
- Coupler CSMP - Coupler signaling Multiprotocol
for CCS#7 or V 5.2 signaling implemented by ACHIL
2 & ACHIL 3 PCBs.

3. (SMT): Trunk Multiprocessors Station


1. GENERAL:
The SMT is a interface for PCM coming from RSU, RLU (E-10 B
CSED) and as junctions from other exchanges.
With the initial supply of OCB-283 exchanges first Generation SMT
(SMT – 1G) was supplied and subsequently SMT-2 G replaced them
since no more SMT – 1 G are existent in the field only SMT – 2 G is
included in the handout. The functions of SMT are same whether it is
SMT 1 G or SMT 2 G. SMT – 2 G is more powerful and intelligence
is extended at the PCM terminal level.

2. Function of SMT:

(i) Provide terminations of a maximum of 128 PCM from trunks, CSED


and CSND.

(ii) Carrying out URM (Multiplex connection unit function)


consisting of:

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(a) HDB 3/ Binary code conversion.
(b) Injection and extraction of CAS on time slot 16 and making
over to another functional unit called CLTH for processing.

(iii) Transforming the intelligence in PCM TS to LR T/S for


switching to destinations TS and transforming the switched LR
time slot into PCM TS.

3. Specific features of SMT – 2 G:

Beside above-mentioned general functions of SMT following special


features are available in SMT – 2 G.

(i) Digital Access cross connect (DACS) where the additional bits (bit
8 to 12) can be used to carry channel associated signaling for
PABX with linked numbering scheme.
(ii) Can support higher order PCM multiplexes e.g. 34 M bit /S.
(iii) Can support ISDN PRA (30 B + D) links.
(iv) Reduction of load on MIS/MAS by introducing decentralized
processes in a software way.

4. (SMX): Switching Multiprocessor Station


1. ROLE: A SMX is one module of the entire switch matrix system with
independent control. The station is responsible for carrying out
connection of an incoming LR time slot to an out going LR Time slot.

2. FUNCTIONS: Switching may effect connection between


subscribers, subscriber to junction, junction to junction subs to tone or
RF, junction to tone or RF etc. or there may be a semi permanent
connection for certain data link.
Besides the connection function, the SMX performs following
other functions:-
• Clock reception from STS and distribution.
• Fault and alarm processing
• Defense of the station etc.

5. Maintanance Station (SMM A and B)

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It works as hot stand by it. One of the two SMM is pilot; it has got two
mirror unique hard disks of 1.2 Gb capacities. Pilot SMM is able to access
either of disks; it dialogues with all SMC’s over MIS token ring. It consists
of one streamer for cartridge drive; it receives all alarms from whole
exchange on MAL ring.

Architecture of SMM:

SMM is built around two identical microprocessor 68030; it works in


pilot and hot stand by mode. Each of the processor has 16 M bytes primary
memory. All the components viz. processor, memory and complex are
connected on the x-bus.
Each hard disk has a capacity to 1.2 Gb and both of them are connected to
active SMM. Date can be read from and written into both the disks
Streamer has a memory capacity of 525 M bytes.

CSN (Rack)

It is a subscriber connection unit, it can be equipped with either analog


or digital subscriber or both CSN can be either placed in the exchange, which
is called CSNL i.e. local subscriber connection unit, and at remote location
called CSND (Digital Subscriber connection Unit).
The subscriber’s card shelf called concentrator it is also known as
local or remote concentrator i.e. CNL or CNE.
The CSNL is connected to switching matrix (SMX) through a
minimum of 1 GLR (i.e. Group of 8 LR’s is called as a GLR and each LR is
PCM having 32 slots).
The CSND is connected to UE or SMT rack through a minimum of 2
PCM and a maximum of 16 PCM’s.
There are four types of cards:
For analog signal: TABAF, TABASE
For digital signal: TABND, TADPB
The TABAF card is for STD PCO/CCB PCO’s can accommodated 16
subscribers.
The TABASE card is for local subscriber can accommodated 16 subscribers.
The TABNP card is for basic ISDN and TADPB only 2 channels or circuits
are allotted but for TADPB 1(one) PCM allotted @ 64kbps.

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Call Processing

LOCAL EXCHANGE
Exchange Side
TELE MDF
PHO CSE
OCB
NE TAXO/G
COMMON EXCH
CONTROL ANGE
EQUIPMENT

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MR, MQ, TR, TX

LOCAL Exchange Side


EXCHANGE MDF TELE
OCB PHO
TAX CSE
NE
EXCH
ANGE
Common
Control
Equipment

MR, MQ, TR, TX

Steps Of Call Processing:

a) When a subscriber goes off book, it is detected by line equipment. The


change in loop state is detected by micro processor during its
scanning. The CSNL allots free TS on LR for this call. The CSNL
prepares a new call message and sends it to PU/PE (in SMA) over a
signaling link through MCX. The message is sent in local version of
CCS7.
b) PU/PE receives this message and sends it to MR over MAS. It
indicates UR no. UT no. (line card no.) and equipment no. And T/S
allotted.
c) MR allots a free register to handle this call. It notes down UR no.
Equipment number And T/S allotted for the subscriber. Now MR
obtains UR-LR to SMX-LRX correspondence from MQ.
d) MR obtains class of service date from TR.
e) MR orders COM to connect dial tone to the free T/S allotted to
subscriber. If subscriber has DTMF instruments it orders for
connection of RGF to the T/S of subscriber and then orders for dial
tone connection.
f) MR also sends acknowledgement message to CSN.

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g) On receipt of dial tone, the subscriber dials called party’s number. The
UT (Terminal Unit i.e. subscriber line card) disconnects dial tone from
the calling subscriber.
h) CSN sends these digits to PU/PE through the same path and signaling
system.
i) PU/PE sends these digits to MR over MAS.
j) On reception of first digit, MR orders COM to disconnects dial tone
from the calling sub.
k) On receipt of first two digits, MR calls TR for pre-analysis. TR, after
analysis of first two digits tells MR, the type of call (i.e. local, STD
etc.).
l) After receipt of adequate number of digits (or all the digit in case of
local call) MR again calls TR for analysis. TR supplies called party’s
address and charging information to MR.
m) MR carries out party’s test to know whether it is free, or not. (Path
MR-U/PE-CSN).
n) CSN tests the called party’s equipment. If this is free, it connects
ringing current to called subscriber. It also allots free TS to LR and
sends a message to MR indicating LR-T/S of called subscriber.
o) MR orders COM for connection of ring back tone to calling
subscriber. It also obtains UR-Lr to SMX LRX correspondence for
called subscriber. MR walls for called sub’s reply.
p) When called subscriber replies, the concerned CSN sends a message
to PU/PE. PU/PE sends the message to MR.
q) MR orders COM to disconnect ring back tone. MR orders MQ for
connection of calling and called subscriber time slot. MR also orders
TX for charging the calling subscribers. As per data supplied by TR.
MQ and TX give compliance.
r) The subscribers are now in conversation phase. MR hands over the
surveillance of calling and called subscriber to retrieve CSNs and
releases.
s) When calling subscribers goes off-hook, CSN informs PU/PE. PU/PE
informs MR. MR releases the connection. If called subscriber goes off
hook, MR sets a 1-minute timer and releases the connection after
expiry of this time.

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PULSE CODE MODULATION
PRINCIPAL :

The PCM generator produces a series of numbers or digits. Each digit is a


binary code corresponding to the approximate amplitude of the signal sample
at that instant.
A supervisory or a signaling bit is generally added to each group representing
a quantized sample.The major advantage of the PCM is that the information
does not lie in any property of the pulse, but it lies in the presence or the
absence of the pulse. Thus even if the noise distorts the pulse, it makes no
difference so long as the decision regarding the presence or absence of the
pulse is correct.

So the PCM is used extensively in telephone conversation, as it provides large


number of channels, which previously had carried over the one pair of wires
and carried only one conversation.

PCM is also used in Space Communication.

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TOKEN RINGS
In OCB-283 exchange the communication-multiplexed highways are
utilized for interchange of messages between various equipments of exchange.
These communication multiplexes work on the principle of computer’s
circular LANs using TOKEN RING protocols.

There are three types of communication multiplexed highway


according to their use :-
(1) MIS INTERSTATION MULTIPLEX
(2) MAS STATION MULTIPLEX
(3) MAL ALARM MULTIPLEX

The MIS token ring is provided for interchange of messages between two
SMCs and between an SMC and SMM.
The maximum and minimum number of MIS is only one (duplicated as
A&B)
The MAS are provided for interchange of messages between CSNL, SMT,
SMA & SMX on one hand and control units (SMC) on the other hand. A
maximum of four MAS token rings can be provided in a large size exchange,
where as no MAS token ring is provided in compact configuration. While
SMCs are connected on the entire MAS token ring, the other units are
connected only on one of the MAS rings.
MAS token ring can be minimum nil & maximum FOUR duplicated as
A&B.
MAL token ring is provided to handle exchange alarms from all the
hardware stations of exchange except CSNL.
The token ring conforms to IEEE 802.5 Standard and operates at 4 Mbps.

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COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALING
No. 7
1. Introduction
The latest signaling being implemented worldwide is now the
COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALING. This type of signaling is
essential for the Setting up of the ISDN network.

In this type of signaling the SIGNALING information is sent


from one exchange to other exchange (called SIGNALING
POINTS) in the form of MESSAGE coded in BINARY, which is
understandable, by the INTELLIGENT devices available in both
the exchange. The CCITT organization has recommended a
standard protocol called CCITT #7 signaling.

The signaling message travels over a single TIME SLOT of the PCM connecting
the two exchange (SIGNALING POINT SP). This TIME SLOT is called
COMMON CHANNEL for Signaling, hence the name common channel
signaling. The message over this common channel carries all relevant data for

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any of the other TIME SLOTS or CIRCUITS which carry VOICE or subscriber
data. The channels for subs are called VOICE CHANNELS.
VOICE CHANNELS

EXCHANGE EXCHANGE
A B
COMMON
CHANNEL
FOR SIGNALING

SIGNALING POINTS
EXCHANGE
C

COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALING

The OCB-283 exchange uses COMMON CHANNEL SIGNALING between


its CSNs & the common control equipments also.
Signaling is often referred to as the Glue, which holds a network
together. It provides the ability to transfer information between subscribers,
within networks & between subscribers & networks. Signaling is the
lifeblood, the vitalizing influence of telecommunications networks. Without
signaling, networks are inert. By providing effective signaling systems, a
network is transformed into a tremendously powerful medium through which
subscribers on communicate with each other using a range of
telecommunications services. Efficient data transfer highways are replacing
old signaling systems that were simple mechanisms for transferring basic
information.
It is signaling that provides the ability for the subscriber to indicate to
the exchange that a call is required. It also allows the called subscriber to be
identified e.g. by transferring the telephone number dialed by calling
subscriber.
It allows the transfer of information between exchanges in the network
to establish & release the call. It transforms the foundation of network into
an active entity that can provide the required services to the subscribers. It
consists of the instruction, which originates from the telephone user in the
form of lifting the handset in order to make a call, the transmission of dial

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pulses generated by operating a dial & replacing a receiver at the end of the
call. Instructions are also signaling by the exchange in the form of dial tone,
ringing tone etc. to indicate the progress of the call. In addition, inter-
exchange signaling takes place between a call is set-up, to control exchange
operations & check on circuit availability.

2. Type of signaling

Telephony started with the invention of magneto telephones,


which uses a magneto to generate the ringing current, the only signal,
sent over a dedicated time between two subscribers. As the switching
technology has undergone a vast change from manual switching to
Digital switching, the inter exchange signaling techniques have also
progressively changed from loop no loop signaling to MF signaling &
finally digital signaling. The first digital Switching developed was
channel associated signaling in which the signaling information is
conveyed on a separate channel, which is rigidly associated channel.
The utilization of such a dedicated channel for each speech channel is
highly inefficient, as it remains idle during the entire speech phase.
Hence a new signaling system was developed which is capable of
providing all new services & is internationally standardized is known
as Common Channel Signaling (CCS#7).

3. Signaling in Pulse code modulation


Pulse code modulation (P.C.M.) is a method of converting
information from an analogue form to a digital form for transfer over a
digital transmission systems, the technique involves sampling the
analogue waveform & coding the result in the digital format.
Successive sampling allows the analogue waveform to be represented
by a series of 8-bit code. 8 bit codes from numerous speech channels
are assembled into blocks for transmission by inserting into time slots.
The technique is called Time Division Multiplexing (TDM).
The bandwidth required to transmit signals is much less than that for
speech, so a small portion of the bandwidth can handle the signaling for
several speech channels in a PCM system. The signaling capacity can be
used for CAS or CCS, the means of identifying to whom speech channel
a particular signal refers is to divide the signaling capacity into dedicated
bit locations. Signaling pertinent to a particular speech path is always
transmitted in signaling bit locations dedicated to that speech channel.

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The means of conveying CCS is to compound the signaling capacity into
a signaling channel that is available as & when required.
The CCITT has defined PCM standards for 30 channel & 24 channel
systems. The capacity available for signaling in these two standards is
different as a result of differing constraints applied by the PCM
standards.
In 30 channel PCM system., the 8bit codes relating to 30 speech
channels are time division multiplexed into a frame. Each 8-bit code is
inserted into a timeslot within the frame. Time slot 0 is used for
alignment; time slots 1-15 and 17-31 are used for encoded speech relating
to 30 channels. Time slot 16 is dedicated for the use of signaling.
The tenet of CAS system is that dedicated signaling capacity is
available for each speech circuit. This is achieved in 30 channel PCM
systems by allocating 4 bits in each 16-frame multi-frame to signaling for
each speech channel.

Power Plant Of Exchange


• Requirement
The requirements of power plant for main OCB-283 exchange and RSU
are different because of the types of equipments. In OCB-283
equipments there is very little variation in peak hour and slack hour load
of power plant contrary to electromechanical exchanges where the load
varies with traffic. Therefore, power plants are designed for continuous
handling of constant load both at RSU and main exchange.

• Arrangement at Main Exchange:


The main exchange requires two types of supplies. The first one is –48 V
DC supply mainly for switch room and the second one is 220V AC supply
for switch room mainly for computer peripheral devices. The –48V DC
supply requirement is met by a power plant similar to all other types of
exchanges. This has essentially rectifiers on load sharing basis, two battery
sets and a switching cubicle. The operation and maintenance features are
same in other types of exchanges.

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The requirement of 220V AC power supply is met through direct
main supply and inverters, which convert –48V DC supply into 220V AC
supply. The –48V DC power is taken from rectifiers (or battery in case
of mains failure) and fed to inverters. The inverter converts the DC
supply into 220V AC supply. The reason for using inverters is, firstly,
uninterrupted power supply due to battery available as standby and
secondly, availability of stabilized power supply, free from variations in
voltages and frequency. This ensures safety of both the equipment and
the programs stored in various storage devices. The direct main 220V
AC supply is used for various testers.

• OTHER REQUIREMENTS FOR OCB


FUNCTIONING:

• AIR CONDITIONERS.

• MICROPROCESSORS.

• BATTERY AND POWER SUPPLY.

• POWER ROOM.

• GENERATORS.

• TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER.

• HUMIDITY CONTROLLER.

• FIRE DETECTORS AND EXTINGUISHERS.

• EARTHING CONDUCTORS.

• RECTIFIERS.

28
Overview of E-10B

29
The main function of a Telephone Exchange is to connect a
subscriber’s link or a trunk to any other line or trunk out of the total number
of lines and trunks connected to this exchange. The connection is brought
about in accordance with the information given by the calling line (dial) or
the incoming trunk (signaling code). In Electrochemical Exchanges, a free
physical link (2 wires or sometimes 4 wires for transit) is established
between the two junctions. This path is a voice frequency circuit like a
subscriber’s line:
• In digital time division switching systems like E-10B, the same
function is carried out but the analog circuits are first converted into
PCM links before they are brought to the switching network. The
switching network connects a time slot of any one PCM link of any
one time slot of other PCM link connected to it. In this manner, the
switching network carries only digital data.
• As a consequence of the general use of the PCM links in E10B
system, the subscriber’s connection unit can either be in the same
location as the switching network or it may be remote.

General Description:
Based on the functions carried out by different parts, an E-10B exchanges
can be divided in four blocks as shown in the figure below: -

30
E-10B Exchange Structure

Block 1: Connection Unit


Block 2: Time Division Switching Network
Block 3: Control Unit
Block 4: Operation and maintenance center. This unit is able to handle
several exchanges.
1. Connection Units: -
The connection unit’s compromise basically of equipment directly connected
to external interfaces of the system, subscriber lines and circuits and
equipment, which sends and receives audio-frequency signaling samples.
These units are of following types: -

1. Local subscriber connection unit (URAL).


2. Remote subscriber connection unit (URAD or SCED).
3. Multiplex connection unit.
4. Frequency sender/Receiver unit (ETA)
5. Auxiliary Equipment Rack (BDA).

Local Subscriber Connection unit (URAL): -


• The unit provides for the connection of up to 1024 subscriber
Lines, and is located in the same premises as the exchange. The
equipment number ZERO is, however, not used because of
difficulty in addressing zero equipment and as such a maximum
of 1024 lines can only be connected to this unit.
• It is linked to the switching network through PCM links.
• It provides electronics space concentration of 1024 subscriber
lines on to 60, 90 or 120 digital junctions carried by 2, 3 or 4
PCM links of 2,048 Mb/s.
• It enables connection of dial telephone and P.B. telephones. A
general structure of URAL is shown below: -

31
URAL STRUCTURE

Remote subscribers connection unit (URAD)

• It is identical construction and comprises of same equipment as the


URAL except for few PCBs.
• It is connected to the subscribers exchange by two, three or four 30
channel digital PCM links.
It provides local security communication that is in the event of the failure of
active PCM links between the URAD and the main exchange; the E-10B
system switches over this unit to security call mode.
The subscriber is alerted by a short text recorded announcement followed by
special dial tone (400 Hz continuous non-modulated).
This dial tone is provided by URAD itself. The CSED subscribers can obtain
access to emergency service like police, ambulance and fire by dialing two
digits. Out of the 1024 equipments provided in the CSED, 6 equipments are
used for these emergency service. A general scheme of URAD is shown in
the figure: -

32
SCHEMATIC OF URAD

The main function of subscriber’s connection unit are given below:

1. The connection and power feed on the subscriber’s lines and sending
of ringing current.
2. The transmission of loop state change indication to the control units,
transmission of dialed digits and transmission of battery reversals or
remote metering pulses to appropriate units.
3. Cyclic scanning of equipment to identify calling subscribers.
4. Search for free outgoing routes (physical path within) when the URA
between the subscriber’s line equipment and the time slot allotted to
this subscriber.
5. Analog to digital conversion.
6. Traffic observation counters.
7. Release of connection at the end of call.
8. A subscriber connection unit is housed in a single rack. There are two
types of PCBs for subscriber’s equipment, PCBs for sixteen ordinary
subscribers and PCB for 8 discriminated subscribers (home metering-
battery reversal), These PCBs are housed in four shelves. Maximum
number of boards in a rack is 64.

Multiplex connection unit (URM)

Multiplex connection unit (URM) is connected to incoming PCM links for


satellite exchanges URADs or circuits from other electronic or
electromechanical exchanges. In this case, analog to digital conversion and
matching of signaling. Where applicable, is necessary. Each URM has a total
capacity 32 PCM systems and is housed in one standard rack. There are 8

33
modules in each URM and each module caters for 4 PCMs. The modules are
of two types: -
• MRS modules, which provides for the connection of 2,048 Mb/s PCM
links from URADs.
• MRM modules that provide for the connection of 2,048 Mb/s PCM
links carrying circuits.
VF circuits must be initially digitalized in TNE terminal before connection
to the URM. One URM rack catering for up to 32 PCM links may contain
one or both types of modules. The main functions of URM unit are: -
1. Transmission- reception of PCM links (conversion HDB3/
Binary code, reconstitution of PCM frames, resynchronization
with parent exchange clock).
2. Extraction and insertion of signaling bytes (8 bits) and
conversion into international codes understood by the control
unit.
3. The URM unit can process simultaneously 16 different
signaling codes.

A general structure of URM and its interfacing is shown in figure below: -


URM STRUCTURE

Tone Generator – Frequency sender/Receiver Unit (ETA): -

The frequency sender/receiver unit is a special type of connection unit. It has


following functions: -

• Reception of multi-frequency (MF) signaling, push button dialing


signals and circuit test frequencies in frequency receiver (RF).
• Generation of the usual exchange tones, MF signaling (R2 code etc)
and circuits test frequencies from the tone generator (GT).
• Sending up conference calls connection using the conference circuit
(CCF) devices per ETA. Each device can set up conference
connections between three or four subscribers (up to eight conference
calls per CCF device).

34
An ETA has a digital structure, which send to the switching network several
different binary codes, which, after conversion into analog in subs, and TNE
terminals, become different tones or MF codes in telephone network.
An automatic exchange (E-10B) comprises of at least two ETAs
operating on load sharing basis, the maximum number of ETAs being
sixteen.

Auxiliary equipment rack (BDA): -

This rack is regarded as a connection unit and is always given UR no. 1. It is


not involved in call processing. BDA has the following functions: -

1. Marshalling of alarms.
2. Monitoring of recorded announcement machine operation.
3. Management of general visual display (PGV).

2. Time Division Switching Network (cx): -

35
The time division-switching network is a 3-stage system (time space time). It
provides a 4 W switching between the time slot allocated to the called party
and the time slot allocated to the called party. For one call two sample
connections are set up. The principal in the switching network is shown
below: -

PRINCIPLE OF A CONNECTION IN THE SWITCHING NETWORK

1. Speech samples (a) from the time slot ‘L’ of the incoming network
line (LRE) associated with the calling subscriber are switched to the
time slot ‘j’ of the outgoing network line (LRS) associated with the
called subscriber,
2. Speech samples (b) from the time slot ‘j’ of the incoming network
(LRE) associated with the called subscriber are switched to the time
slot ‘I’ of the outgoing network line (LRS) associated with the calling
subscriber.
Each time switch handles 16 PCM links (LRE +LRS) and four time switches
catering 4 *16 = 64 PCMs are contained in one switching network rack.
A complete switching network comprises six identical racks for connecting
384 PCMs. A diagram showing the structure of a switching network is shown
in figure 1.

3. Control Units: -
The control units are partly based on dedicated mini-computers and are used
to carry out all the switching operations required to set up release connections
between subscribers and /or circuits. These units can be classified as follows: -

36
• Marker (MQ)
• Switching network control unit (UGCX)
• Multi register (MR)
• Translator (TR).
• Charging unit (TX)

To ensure uninterrupted telephone service, these units are duplicated and


operate on load sharing basis.

Management units: -

• Standby charge recording unit (DSF).


• Monitoring unit (OC).

Switching network diagram

Marker (MQ)

The marker is responsible for routing switching messages between the


connection units, the switching network and the multi register.

37
Switching network control unit (UGCX): -

The switching network control unit co-ordinates operations executed by the


switching network (path finding, connection marking etc.). This involves: -
• Checking the speech paths.
• Receiving transfer link status indications from each switch module.
• Connecting and disconnecting speech channels, tones, recorded
announcements and signals when ordered to do so by multi-registers
or charging units.
Checking marking operations.

Multi-register (MR): -

The multi-register is in charge of the setting up and releasing of calls. It is at


the heart of the system and is only control unit, which can take initiative and
send orders to other units in real time. It has access to all data from subscribers
and trunk circuits (E & M wires) and to all units in the exchange.

The main functions of the multi-register involve: -


• Servicing new call and on-hook conditions on subscriber lines and
circuits, detected by connection units.
• Releasing subscriber lines and circuits.
• Receiving and sending signals from/to connection units.
• Ordering the transmission of various tones.
• Requesting the characteristics of a subscriber line or circuit.
• Requesting the translator to determine the connection address of the
subscriber line or circuit at the exchange, on the basis of directory
number.
• Sending and receiving messages to/from OMC.

The multi-register uses a programmed logic. A call processing register


includes 1024 bits (extendable up to 1536 bits) stored in cyclic RAMs with a
processing time of 8ms.
Each multi-register comprises of 256 registers and can handle the setting up of
releasing of 254 calls simultaneously. The two registers (0 & 255 are assigned
to routine tasks, i.e., traffic observations. In an exchange the number of multi-

38
registers varies from 2 to 6, depending upon the traffic load. These multi-
registers are working on a traffic-sharing basis.

Translator (TR): -
The translator provides the multi-registers on request, with data on subscribers
and trunks required to setup and release of calls. Data (categories,
corresponding between directory number and subscriber or trunk equipment in
the exchange) are held in TR files. This data may be written, deleted or
modified from the operating and maintenance center with operating
requirements. The translator executes the following operations: -

• Seeking subscriber’s lines or circuit class of service data when a new


call or on-hook condition is detected.
• Translating pre-fixes or the first digits dialed by the calling party.
• Translating translation operations for chaining and overflow or circuit
number.
• Handling translation operations for chaining and overflow routing
functions.
• Managing additional services.
• Handling all management maintenance and test operations in
conjunctions with OMC.

The total capacity of the translator files is 768k words, each of sixteen bits,
i.e., 12288 Mbits.

Charging unit (TX): -

The charging unit handles the subscriber line accounts, computes the number
of basic metered units chargeable for a given telephone calls and outputs
detailed billing data for subscribers entitled to this service. Multi-registers
initiate the charging unit operations. At the start of each telephone call, on
receiving instructions form MR, the charging unit seeks and assigns a
charging register.

• It receives charge-metering pulses from trunk circuits.


• It orders signal transmission where required.
• It sends detailed billing messages and observation messages to
standby charge recording unit (DSF) where the OMC is down or
unavailable.

39
• It sends subscriber meter readings (periodically demand from OMC),
detailed billing messages and traffic observation messages to OMC.
• It stores traffic observation data.

Each charging unit can be configured as follows: -

1000 charging registers of 512 bits, or 2000 charging registers of 256 bits or a
combination of 256 & 512 bits charging registers. Each charging unit can
therefore handle up to 2000 calls simultaneously.
Charging registers compute the charge for a given telephone call. At the end
of the call, the subscriber meter is incremented simultaneously in both
changing units and these two values are read periodically by the OMC.

Standby charge recording unit (DSF): -

In normal conditions, detailed billing and traffic observation messages are


send from the exchange to OMC. In the event of failure of OMC or
interruption of the link between the OMC and the monitoring unit, the standby
charge-recording unit can receive these messages and record them onto
magnetic tape. This unit can also reload the translator memories, the charge
rates, and the charge-based data in the charging units. The DSF does not
participate in traffic handling functions of the exchange.

Monitoring unit (OC): -

The monitoring unit is an interface between the OMC and the other units of an
E-10B exchange. It has access to all the units and handles the transfer of all
the messages between the OMC and the exchange. The messages involve: -
Message from the OMC to the exchange units:
• Operating messages (subscriber line creations, circuit creation etc.).
• Unit positioning messages.
• Maintaining messages.
• Control messages addressed to test modules.

Messages from exchange unit to OMC:

• Detailed billing and traffic observation messages.

40
• Answer messages.
• Fault messages.
• Messages specify the number of calls in progress for each type of
traffic.
• Constant or temporary messages.
• Routine test messages.

Time base (Base Time): -

The time base supplies basic timing signals to various exchange units
synchronizing and coordinating operations, which are necessary in time
division switching system. Each exchange has its own base, which is not
duplicated and is therefore constructed from components offering high levels
of operating security. It operates independently but can be derived by an
external signal. The time base generates two sets of signals: -

• A set of four signals distributed to all exchange units except switching


network and the switching network control unit.
• A set of two signals sent to switching network and the switching
network control unit.

A basic signal sent by the time base must reach all other exchange units at
the same moment since propagation time cannot be ignored, it is essential to
use same cable length for signal distribution. For this reason the time base is
located at the center of the exchange.

4. Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC): -


The E-10B exchange management functions are carried our at the OMC using
a non-dedicated computer. The main management functions are: -
1. Operating functions – Translation memory management, charging
functions.
2. Supervision functions – Lock out condition processing subscriber line
and set tests, circuit tests, load and traffic observations.
3. Maintenance functions – Exchange equipment-positioning, anomaly
and alarm processing, fault location.

41
Subscriber facilities

The E-10B system offers a number of facilities to its subscribers. These are :

• Hotline
• Detailed billing
• Absent service
• PBX
• Barred access
• Malicious call tracing
• Free phone line
• Subscribers with home meter
• Push button telephone
• Priority line
• Outgoing only subscribers

42
• Incoming only subscribers
• Abbreviated dialing
• Temporary transfer
• Recorded call
• Conference call
• Ring back facility
• Automatic alarm call
• PABX

43
]

COMPARISON BETWEEN OCB-283


AND E-10 B:

 CAPACITY COMPARISON:

CHARACTERISTICS E 10-B OCB-283


PCMs 384 2048
Trunks 10000 60000
Subscribers 49000 200000
Traffic (Erl.) 4000 25000
CCS#7 No Yes
ISDN No Yes

 HARDWARE:

CHARACTERISTICS E 10-B OCB-283

44
Subscriber Connection Unit CSE CSN
Switching Network CX SMX
Call Processing MR+TR+TX MR+TR+
+MQ TX+MQ+
GX

 SUBSCRIBER CONNECTION UNITS:

CHARACTERISTICS E 10-B OCB-283


Name CSE CSN
Capacity (Erl.) 90 384
Connected To CS SMX

45