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Unit 1 Forces and Motion: Dynamics

(Pages 2–3)

Knowledge and Understanding

1.

2.

Scalar quantities include distance (metre, 5.0 m), time (second, 15 s), mass (kilogram, 65 kg), and frequency (hertz, 60 Hz). Vector quantities include velocity (metres per second, 15 m/s [E]), displacement (metre, 6.5 m [S]), acceleration (metres per second squared, 9.8 m/s 2 [down]), and force (newton, 25 N [forward]).

(a)

Both masses will hit the floor at the same time since the speed at which an object falls is independent of mass, and is related only to acceleration due to gravity (neglecting air resistance).

(b)

(c)

m = 20 g = 0.02 kg

F

g

= ?

F

g

=

= (0.02 kg)(9.8 N/kg [down])

mg

3.

F g = 0.2 N [down]

The weight of the 20-g mass is 0.2 N [down].

One example is the force of Earth pulling downward on the 20-g mass and the force of the 20-g mass pulling upward on Earth. GM m

(d)

F

E

Moon

G

=

2

The magnitude of the force of gravity between Earth and the Moon depends linearly on the masses of

r

Earth and the Moon, and depends inversely as the square of the distance between the centres of Earth and the Moon.

4.

(a)

Kinematics is the study of motion (e.g., analyzing motion with constant acceleration). Dynamics is the study of the

causes of motion (e.g., analyzing forces by applying Newton’s three laws of motion).

total distance

=

total time

change of position time interval

.

(b) Average speed is a scalar quantity,

(c)

. Average velocity is a vector quantity,

v

av

=

v

av

Static friction is a force that acts to prevent a stationary object from starting to move. Kinetic friction is a force that acts against a moving object. For a given situation, kinetic friction tends to be less than maximum static friction.

Helpful friction is needed in many cases (e.g., turning a doorknob, walking, and travelling around a corner on a highway). Unwanted friction usually increases the production of waste heat (e.g., friction in the moving parts of an engine).

Frequency is the number of cycles of a vibration per unit time; it is measured in hertz (Hz) or s 1 . Period is the time for one complete cycle of a vibration; it is measured in seconds (s).

Rotation is the spinning of an object on its own axis (e.g., Earth rotates daily). Revolution is the motion of one body around another (e.g., Earth revolves around the Sun once per year).

(d)

(e)

(f)

Inquiry and Communication

 5. (a) The units of acceleration are m/s 2 , so the inspector could use a metre stick to measure the distance in metres (m), and a stopwatch to measure the time in seconds (s). (b) The acceleration is the dependent variable, and the distance and time are the independent variables. (Students will discover in Chapter 3 that the distance is actually the radius of the circle and the time is the period of rotation of the ride.)

6.

Error analysis can be reviewed by referring to page 755 of the text. Note that possible error is also called uncertainty.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

The possible error is ± half of the smallest division of the measurement, or ±0.05 m/s 2 . possible error

% possible error =

×

100%

% possible error

measurement

± 0.05 m/s

2

=

= ±

9.4 m/s

0.5%

2

× 100%

The percent possible error is ±0.5%.

% error =

measured value

accepted value

accepted value

×

100%

=

9.4 m/s

2

9.8 m/s

2

9.8 m/s

2

× 100%

4.0%

The percentage error is –4.0%.

% error =

% difference =

difference in values

average of values

×

100%

=

9.7 m/s

2

9.4 m/s

2

1

2

(

9.7 m/s

2

+

9.4 m/s

2

)

× 100%

% difference = 3.0%

The percentage difference is 3.0%.

7. A prediction is a stated outcome expected from an experiment. A hypotenuse is a tentative explanation of what is expected in an experiment.

Making Connections

 8. The rapid spinning in the centrifuge would cause the liquids to separate according to their densities, with the liquid of greatest density moving farthest away, that is, toward the base of the tube. 9. (a) Let F g = force of gravity on the truck F N = normal force of the road on the truck F s = force of static friction on the truck θ = angle of the banked curve in (a) and (c) (a) (b) (c) (b) Choice (c) would be the best because the force of the road on the truck (the normal force) will help a lot in forcing the truck to the right.

Math Skills

10. (a) The equation is rearranged as follows.

d

d

=

v

i

∆= t

a =

1
2
vt ∆+
a
t
i
2
1
2
at ∆
2
d
v
i
2
2
 
t
t
 

(b) The quadratic formula is used to solve an equation in the form

+ bx +=c

2

ax

0

As shown on page 750 of the text, the quadratic equation is

−±
b
b
2 − 4
ac
x =
2 a
Solving for ∆t, we have:
1
2
d
=
vt
+∆
at
i
2
 a
t
2 = +
(
vt ∆ −∆
)
d
i
 
2
   ∆
2
−± v v
(
)
2
( )(
)
i
i
t =
a

11. (a) Using the scale indicated in the question:

 A = 29.0 m/s [35° N of E]

The north and east components of this vector are, respectively:

A (sin 35°) = 29.0 m/s (sin 35°) = 17 m/s

A (cos 35°) = 29.0 m/s (cos 35°) = 24 m/s

Notice that the answers are written to two significant digits because the angle is stated to two significant digits.

 (b) The vectors can be added by using a vector scale diagram (adding the vectors head-to-tail), by using components, or by applying trigonometry (the laws of sines and cosines). (c) Scale: 1.0 cm = 5.0 cm
 B +=A 3.9 cm × 5.0 cm = 20 cm [65° N of E]
 A −=B 3.3 cm × 5.0 cm = 17 cm [2° S of E]

Technical Skills and Safety

12. (a) The total time is 6(0.10 s) = 0.60 s.

(b)
As shown in the illustration, the x-component of each displacement vector is about 1.0 cm in the diagram, or 5.0 cm
using the scale indicated. We can conclude that the motion in the x direction is constant-speed motion.
(c)
The y-component of the displacements constantly changes, becoming smaller as the puck rises, and then becoming
larger as the puck descends.
(d)
The displacement (or change of position) from the initial position to the final position is:

∆=d

6.15 cm × 5.0 cm/cm = 31 cm [right]

t = 0.60 s

v av

= ?

v av

d

= t

=

31 cm [right]

0.60 s

v av

= 52 cm/s [right]

The average velocity of the puck is 52 cm/s [right]. 13. (a) Using a stopwatch, determine the total time for a certain number of complete revolutions of the stopper (e.g., 20 cycles). Then apply the following relationships:

frequency:

period:

T =

f =

number of cycles

total time

total time

number of cycles

 (b) The string should be strong, the stopper should be securely attached to the string, and the lab partner should hold the string securely while twirling the stopper a safe distance away from objects or people. (c) Typical sources of error are:

starting and stopping the stopwatch at the precise instant required (also called human reaction time error.)

choosing the same position to indicate both the starting and finishing locations of the motion

keeping the stopper moving at a constant speed and/or in a horizontal circle

measuring the radius of the circle of motion

CHAPTER 1 KINEMATICS

(Page 4)

1. (a)

(b)

2. (a)

(b)

(c)

Ball B will land first because it has an initial downward component of velocity. Balls A and C will land at the same instant because, as students will discover in the Try This Activity, page 5, the horizontal component of the velocity of ball C does not affect its downward acceleration. Ball D will land last because its initial velocity has an upward vertical component.

The canoeists arrive at the north shore at the same time. The motion of the canoeist in the river is perpendicular to the flow of the river, so the motion is not affected by the flow of the river.

The figure below shows that the canoeist must aim upstream in order to arrive directly north of the starting position. This trip will take longer because the component of the velocity perpendicular to the shore is less than it was previously.

Try This Activity: Choose the Winner

It is important in setting up this demonstration that the device be fixed horizontally. For an alternative suggestion to the apparatus shown in the text, refer to Section 1.4 Questions, page 51, question 10, and the corresponding solution.

 (a) Predictions may vary. Refer to the Reflect on your learning questions 1(b) above. (b) Balls A and B will land simultaneously. The horizontal motion of the ball projected horizontally is independent of its downward acceleration.

1.1 SPEED AND VELOCITY IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS

PRACTICE

(Pages 7–8)

Understanding Concepts

1.

2.

 (a) The motion of a tennis ball that falls vertically downward is in one dimension. (b) The motion of a tennis ball that falls vertically downward and then bounces is in one dimension. (c) The motion of a basketball moving through the air toward the hoop is in two dimensions. (d) The motion of a curve ball is in three dimensions. (e) The motion of a passenger seat of a Ferris wheel is in two dimensions. (f) The motion of a roller coaster is in three dimensions. (a) The force exerted by an elevator cable is a vector measurement. (b) The reading on a car’s odometer is a scalar measurement. (c) The gravitational force of Earth on you is a vector measurement. (d) The number of physics students in your class is a scalar measurement. (e) Your age is a scalar measurement.

3.

4.

A car’s speedometer indicates instantaneous speed, a scalar quantity. It does not indicate any direction.

(a) t = 6.69 h

d = 4.02 km × 200 laps = 8.04 × 10 2 km

v av = ?

v

av

=

=

d

t

8.04

× 10

2 km

6.69 h

10

=

The average speed in 1911 was 1.20 × 10 2 km/h.

v

av

1.20

×

2 km/h

(b) t = 3.32 h v av = ?

v

av

=

=

d

t

8.04

× 10

2 km

3.32 h

=

The average speed in 1965 was 2.42 × 10 2 km/h.

v

av

2.42

×

10

2

km/h

(c) t = 2.69 h v av = ?

v

av

=

=

d

t

8.04

× 10

2 km

2.69 h

5. (a)

=

The average speed in 1990 was 2.99 × 10 2 km/h.

d = 16 m

t = 21 s

v av = ?

v

av

2.99

×

10

2

km/h

d

 v av = ∆ t 16 m = 21s v av = 0.76 m/s

The swimmer’s average speed is 0.76 m/s.

(b) circumference = πD = π (16 m) = 50.26 m t = ?

d

v
av
= ∆ t
d
t
=
v
av
50.26 m
=
0.76 m/s
t
= 66s

It would take the swimmer 66 s to swim around the edge of the pool.

6. (a) v av = 342 m/s t = 3.54 × 10 2 s

d = ?

dvt

=

av

d

 = (342 m/s)(3.54 × 10 − 2 = 12.1m

s)

The distance travelled is 12.1 m.

(b) v av = 1.74 km/h t = 60.0 h

d = ?

dvt

=

av

d

= (1.74 km/h) (60.0 h)

= 104 km

The distance travelled is 104 km, or 1.04 × 10 5 m.

PRACTICE

(Page 10)

Understanding Concepts

7. Typical examples of different types of vector quantities include a displacement while walking at a constant velocity, an acceleration while on a school bus, and the force of gravity.

8. (a) It is possible for the total distance travelled to be equal to the magnitude of the displacement if the motion is all in one direction.

 (b) It is possible for the total distance travelled to exceed the magnitude of the displacement if the motion is in one dimension along a path that turns back on itself, or if the motion is in two or three dimensions. For example, if a car travels 50 km [N] and then 20 km [S], the distance travelled is 70 km, but the displacement is 30 km [N]. (c) It is not possible for the magnitude of the displacement to exceed the total distance travelled. The total distance is the sum of the magnitudes of all of the vectors. Thus, the total distance is always equal to or greater than the magnitude of the final displacement vector.

9. Yes, the average speed can equal the magnitude of the average velocity if the motion is all in one direction.

10. (a) d = 12 km + 12 km = 24 km

t = 24 min + 24 min = (48 min)

v av = ?

1 h

60 min

   = 0.80 h

v av

d

= ∆ t
24 km
=

0.80 h

×

= The average speed of the bus for the entire route is 3.0 × 10 1 km/h.

av

v

3.0

1

10 km/h

(b)

(c)

d = 12 km [E]

t = (24 min)

1 h

60 min

v av

= ?

  = 0.40 h

v av

d

= ∆ t
12
km[E]
=

0.40 h

v av

=

3.0 ×

1

10 km/h[E]

The average velocity of the bus is 3.0 × 10 1 km/h [E].

v av = ?

First we must calculate the total displacement:

d

∆=

d

12 km[E]

12 km [E]

=

= 0.0 km

+

12 km[W]

+−

(

12 km[E])

Since the total displacement is 0.0 km, the average velocity of the bus for the entire route is 0.00 km/hr.

(d) The answers in (b) and (c) are different because the average velocity is determined by the displacement, which is a vector. In (b) the bus has reached its maximum displacement, however in (c), the bus returns to its starting position, so its displacement is zero and its average velocity is zero.

11. t = 0.32 s

v av

d = ?

= 27 m/s [fwd]

∆=

dv

av

t

d

= (27 m/s [fwd])(0.32s)

= 8.6 m [fwd]

The truck is displaced 8.6 m [fwd] during the time it takes for the driver to react.

12. d = 1.6 × 10 4 km

=21 km/h [S] t = ?

v

av

∆ d
t =
v
av
4
1.6
×
10 km[S]
=
21km/h
1d
2
∆=
t
7.6
×
10 h
24h
t
=
32 d

The tern’s journey takes 7.6 × 10 2 h or 32 days.

Applying Inquiry Skills

13. (a) The windsock indicates both the approximate speed and the approximate direction of the wind. Speed with a direction is velocity, a vector quantity.

(b) Calibrating the windsock involves finding how the angle of the sock above the vertical depends on the speed of the wind. (At a wind speed of zero, the sock hangs vertically downward.) Thus, an experiment must be devised to measure the angle at various increasing speeds (e.g., at 10 km/h, 20 km/h, etc.). The easiest way to do this would be to hold the sock securely out of an open window of a car as the car travels at different speeds on a calm day. (Students are not expected to attempt such an experiment.)

Try This Activity: Graphing Linear Motion

(Page 12)

The required graphs are drawn with the assumption that the zero displacement is the location of the motion sensor, and the positive displacement direction is away from the sensor.

PRACTICE

(Pages 13–14)

Understanding Concepts

14. (a) The motion, beginning north of the zero displacement position, is southward with constant velocity to a position south of the zero displacement position.

(b) The motion begins at the zero displacement position and is upward but slowing down (downward acceleration).

(c) The motion begins west of the zero displacement position and is eastward but slowing down (westward acceleration).

15. (a)

(b)

(c)

16. The area under the velocity-time graph represents the displacement. Assume two significant digits.

Area

=+

(15m/s [N])(0.20s)

 = 3.0m [N] + 1.5m [N] Area = 4.5m [N]

Thus, the area is 4.5 m [N].

1 (15m/s [N])(0.40s
2

0.20s)

17. In each case, the initial velocity is equal to the slope of the tangent at the time indicated. The diagram with typical tangents is shown below:

Using the equation

v = slope

d

m

== ∆

t

, students should calculate approximate answers of 7 m/s [E], 0 m/s, 7 m/s [W],

13 m/s [W], and 7 m/s [W].

PRACTICE

(Page 16)

Understanding Concepts

18. Using a vector scale diagram to solve this problem, the vector sum of the displacements is found to be 5.6 m [24° E of S]. Using components would yield the same result.

19. (a)

(b) Solving Sample Problem 5 (c) using components, with +x eastward and +y northward:

d
= 22m
1
∆=
d
22 m (cos33 ° )
1, x
= 18m
d 1, x
∆=
d
22
m (sin 33 )
°
1, y
∆ = 12m
d
1, y
∆ dd =∆
+∆
d
xxx
1,
2,
=
18m
+
10m
∆ = 28m
d
x
d
= 11m
2
∆=
d
11m (cos 28 ° )
2, x
= 10m
d 2, x
∆=
d
11m (sin 28 )
°
2, y
∆ = 5m
d
2, y
∆ dd =∆
−∆
d
yyy
1,
2,
=
12 m
5.0m
∆ = 7.0m
d
y

To calculate the total displacement:

2
2
d
=
dd
+∆
x
y
2
2
=
(28m)
+
(7.0 m)
d
= 29m
∆ d
y
tan
θ
=
∆ d
x
7.0 m
− 1
θ tan
=
28 m
θ =
14 °

The total displacement is 29 m [14° N of E].

20. d

1

d

2

= 8.5 × 10 2 m [25° N of E]

= 5.6 × 10 2 m [21° E of N]

t = 4.2 min

 

60 s

1 min

 

= 252 s

Use the cosine law to find the magnitude of the resultant displacement:

222
d =∆ d
1 +∆ d
dd
cos
2 − 2
12
2
22
22
∆=
d
(8.5
×
10
m)
+
(5.6
×
10
m)
∆=
d
1.3
×
10
3 m

φ

2(8.5

×

10

2

m)(5.6

×

10

2

m)(cos136 ° )

Use the sine law to solve for the angle of the displacement’s direction:

sin
θ
sin
φ
=
d
d
2
sin
θ
sin136 °
=
2
3
5.6
×
10
m
1.3
×
10 m
2
(5.6
×
10 m)sin136
°
1
θ
= sin
3
1.3
×
10 m
  
θ =
17 °

The angle of the displacement is 17° + 25° = 42° The skater’s displacement is 1.3 × 10 3 m [42° N of E].

(b) v av = ?

v

av

=

=

d

∆ t
2
2
(8.5
×
10
m)
+× (5.6
10
m)

252s

v

av

=

5.6 m/s

To calculate the average velocity:

v av

= ?

v av

=

=

d

t

1.3 ×

10

3

m [42 N of E]

°

252s

v

av

=

5.2 m/s [42 N of E]

°

The skater’s average speed is 5.6 m/s and average velocity is 5.2 m/s [42° N of E].

Section 1.1 Questions

(Page 17)

Understanding Concepts

1. (a) scalar

 (b) scalar (c) scalar (d) vector (e) vector (equal to the displacement)

2. (a) A car travelling at constant speed in one direction is at constant velocity.

 (b) A car travelling at a constant speed around a circular track has a velocity that is constantly changing. (c) A bus travelling from a station to a bus stop and then travelling back along the same route. (d) In the example in (c) above, if the bus returns to the station its average speed is greater than zero, but its average velocity is zero. (e) A car travelling around a circular track has an average speed greater than zero, but when it reaches its starting position, its average velocity is zero.

3. Measurements with different dimensions can be multiplied; for example, velocity (m/s) × time (s) = distance (m). Measurements with different dimensions cannot be added; for example, velocity cannot be added to time.

4. (a) v av = 3.00 × 10 8 m/s

(b)

d = 1.49 × 10 11 m

t = ?

t =

=

∆=

t

d

v av

1.49

× 10

11 m

3.00

4.97

×

×

8

10 m/s

10

2 s

Light takes 4.97 × 10 2 s to travel from the Sun to Earth.

d = 3.84 × 10 5 km = 3.84 × 10 8 m

t = ?

t

t

=

d

v

2 3.84

av

(

×

10

8

m

)

=

3.00

= 2.56 s

×

8

10 m/s

The laser light takes 2.56 s to travel to the Moon and back to Earth.

5.

(a)

t = 4.0 s d = 0 m v av = ?

t = 8.0 s d = 40 m v av = ?

 ∆ d ∆ d v av = ∆ t 0m v av = ∆ t 40 m = = 4.0s 8.0s v av = 0.0 m/s v av = 5.0 m/s

The average speed between 4.0 s and 8.0 s is 0.0 m/s. The average speed between 0.0 s and 8.0 s is 5.0 m/s.

(b) t = 1.0 s

d = 2.5 m [E]

v

av

= ?

t = 4.0 s

d =45 m [W]

v

av

= ?

t = 16 s

d = 5.0 [E]

v

av

= ?

 ∆ d ∆ d ∆ d

v av

v av

=

∆ t
2.5m[E]

=

1.0s

= 2.5m/s[E]

v av

v av

=
∆ t
45m[W]
=
4.0s
=
11m/s[W]

v av

v av

=
∆ t
5.0m[E]
=
16s
=
0.31m/s[E]

The average velocity between 8.0 s and 9.0 s is 2.5 m/s [E]; the average velocity between 12 s and 16 s is 11 m/s [W]; and the average velocity between 0.0 s and 16 s is 0.31 m/s [E].

(c) The instantaneous speed at t = 6.0 s and t = 9.0 s is the slope of the line at that instant. Thus,

∆ d
∆ d
v
=
slope
== ∆
m
v
=
m
t
0.0 m
= ∆ t
10 m
=
=
4.0 s
v = 0.0 m/s
4.0 s
v = 2.5 m/s

The instantaneous speed at 6.0 s is 0.0 m/s and at 4.0 s is 2.5 m/s.

(d) The instantaneous velocity at t = 14 s is the slope of the line at that instant. Thus,

v =

=

d

slope

m

== ∆

t

45 m [W]

4.0 s

v = 11 m/s [W]

The instantaneous velocity at 14 s is 11 m/s [W].

6. The slope of the line can be calculated from a position-time graph to indicate velocity. If the graph is curved, the slope of the tangent to the curve indicates the instantaneous velocity.

7. The data to draw the position-time graph are found by calculating the area under the line at several instances and adding 8.0 m [E] to the area in each case. The table shows the results.

 t (s) d (m [E]) 0.0 8.0 1.5 9.5 3.0 14 4.0 18 5.0 22

The required graph:

8.

t = 2.0 min = 120 s

d 1 = 22 m [36° N of E] d 2 = 65 m [25° E of S]

 (a) d = ? dd = 1 + d 2 = 22 m + 65 m d = 87 m Thus, the total distance travelled is 87 m. (b) v av = ? d v av = = ∆ t 87 m 120s v av = 0.73m/s The average speed is 0.73 m/s. (c) Add the vectors together as shown in the illustration:

Use the cosine law to find the magnitude of the resultant displacement:

222
∆ d
=∆ d
1 +∆ d
dd
cos
φ
2 − 2
12
2
2
2
∆=
d
(22 m)
+
(65 m)
2(22 m)(65 m)(cos79 ° )
∆ d
= 65m

Use the sine law to solve for the angle of the displacement’s direction:

sin
θ
sin
φ
=
∆ d
∆ d
2
d
sin
φ
sin
θ
=
∆ d
2
 (65m)sin 79 ° 
− 1
θ = sin
65m
θ =
79 °

The angle of the displacement is 79° − 36° = 43°. Thus, the total displacement is 65 m [43° S of E].

(d)

v

av

=

?

v av

v av

=

=

=

d

t

65 m[43 Sof E]

°

120 s

0.54 m/s[43 ° S of E]

The average velocity is 0.54 m/s [43° S of E].

Applying Inquiry Skills

 9. (a) Students can refer to the Learning Tip titled “The Image of a Tangent Line” on page 13 of the text to understand how to use a plane mirror to check the accuracy of their tangents. (b) One way to draw tangents accurately is to use the plane mirror method, as described in the Learning Tip. Another way that is useful for a displacement-time graph of uniform acceleration is to draw the tangent parallel to an imaginary line joining two points that are equal times away from the tangent time (e.g., at t = 3.5 s, draw the tangent parallel to the line joining the points at t = 2.5 s and t = 4.5 s).

Making Connections

10. Use the equation d = v av t to complete the table.

 Speed Reaction Distance no alcohol 4 bottles 5 bottles 17 m/s (60 km/h) 14 m 34 m 51 m 25 m/s (90 km/h) 20 m 50 m 75 m 33 m/s (120 km/h) 26 m 66 m 99 m

1.2 ACCELERATION IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS

PRACTICE

(Page 20)

Understanding Concepts

1. All five examples could be units of acceleration.

2. It is possible to have an eastward velocity with a westward acceleration. For example, a truck moving eastward whle slowing down has a westward acceleration.

(a)

(b) It is possible to have acceleration when the velocity is zero. For example, at the instant that a ball tossed vertically upward comes to a stop, its acceleration is still downward.

3. When the flock’s acceleration is positive, the flock is moving south with increasing velocity.

(a)

(b) When the flock’s acceleration is negative, the flock is moving south with decreasing velocity.

(c) When the flock’s acceleration is zero, the flock is moving south with constant velocity.

4.

v

i

= 0

= 9.3 m/s [fwd] t = 3.9 s

v

f

a

av

= ?

a av

a

av

=

=

v

f

v

i

t

9.3 m/s [fwd]

0

3.9 s

= 2.4 m/s

2

[fwd]

The runner’s average acceleration is 2.4 m/s 2 [fwd].

5.

v

i

f

= 0

= 26.7 m/s [fwd]

v

a = 9.52 m/s 2

(a)

t = ?

v
v
f
i
t
=
a
av
26.7 m/s
0
=
2
9.52 m/s
t
= 2.80 s

The Espace takes 2.80 s to achieve a speed of 26.7 m/s.

(b)
v = ?
m
1 km
3600 s
v
=××
26.7
s
1000 m
1 h
v = 96.1 km/h
The speed is 96.1 km/h.
?
v
− v
f
i
(c)
∆ =
t
a av
L
L
?
T
T
T
= 
L
2
 
T
 
2
?
L
T
T
=
 
T
 
L
?
T
=
T

Thus, the equation is dimensionally correct.

6. =14 (km/h)/s [fwd] t = 4.7 s

a

av

v i = 42 km/h [fwd]

7.

v

f

= ?

v

f

v

i

a av

=

t

v

f

vat

=+

i

av

= 42 km/h fwd + 14(km/h)/s fwd

[]

(

[])(

4.7s

v

f

[

=108 km/h fwd

Thus, the final velocity is 108 km/h [fwd].

= 1.37 × 10 3 m/s 2 t = 3.12 × 10 3 s

a

av

=0 m/s

v

v i = ?

f

v

f

v

i

f

av

a

av

i

=

t

vvat =−∆

v

i

0 m/s

(

−× 1.37

[

]

=

= 42.8m/s E

]

32

10 m/s

[

W

])(

3.12

×

10

2

s

)

)

The velocity of the arrow as it hits the target is 42.8 m/s [E].

Try This Activity: Graphing Motion with Acceleration

(Page 23)

The required graphs are shown below, in which the position of zero displacement is located where the cart is near the bottom of the ramp but is not experiencing a push.

PRACTICE

(Pages 23–24)

Understanding Concepts

 8. (a) To determine the average acceleration from a velocity-time graph, determine the slope of the line if the acceleration is constant. (b) To determine the change in velocity from an acceleration-time graph, determine the area under the line. 9. (a) The motion starts with a westward velocity, but constant eastward acceleration. The motion then slows down to zero velocity, then accelerates westward with increasing westward velocity. The magnitude of the westward acceleration is somewhat less than the magnitude of the eastward acceleration. (b) The motion is southward with northward acceleration slowing down to zero velocity. (c) The motion is forward with constant acceleration forward. After a period of time, the motion increases to a higher constant acceleration forward. (d) The motion starts with northward acceleration then increases its northward acceleration. It starts to slow down (southward acceleration), and then decreases its southward acceleration to zero. 10. (a)

(b)

11.

12. The car’s displacement is the area under the velocity-time graph. It is determined by adding the areas of rectangles and triangles contained in each time segment. Referring to the figure in the text:

displacement = total area = A 4 (0 to 3 s) + A 5 (3 s to 5 s) +A 6 (5 s to 9 s)

A

4

A

5

A

6

=

1

(12 m/s [S])(2.0s)

=

1

=

2

= (18m/s [S])(4.0s)

2

1

(12 m/s [S])(3.0s)

18m [S]

+− (18m/s [S]

+−

2

(24 m/s [S]

 12 m/s [S])(2.0s) = 30 m [S] 18m/s [S])(4.0s) = 84 m [S]

displacement = A 4 + A 5 + A 6 = 132 m [S] The car’s displacement is 132 m [S].

Making Connections

13. (a) The word “idealized” means that the acceleration changes instantaneously from one value to another. In real situations, changes from one acceleration value to another occur over a finite time interval. (b) Calculations are much easier if idealized examples are used. For example, to find the change in velocity for an idealized acceleration graph, we can find the area of a rectangle on the graph. That is much easier than finding the area under a curved line.

(c)

14. The solution to this question depends on the software, calculator, or planimeter available. Each device is accompanied by a set of instructions that students can follow to analyze graphs.

PRACTICE

(Page 27)

Understanding Concepts

a
(
∆ t
) 2
15.
(a)
dvt
=
∆+
.
i
2
1
(b) ∆=d
(
vv+
)
∆t .
i
f
2
2
2
16. v
f
i
2
2
LL
?


L
=
+ 2
(
L
)


2
 T
 T
 
T
 
22
2
LL
?


 L
=
+ 2



TT

  T
Since the dimensions of each term are the same, the equation is dimensionally correct.
1
17. ∆=d
(a)
(
2
vv+
)
∆t
i
f
2
∆ d
t =
v
+ v
i
f
1
(b) ∆=d
(
)
∆t
i
f
2
vv+
2
∆ d
v
+ v
=
i
f
∆ t
2
d
v
=
v
f
i
t
  

18. Start with the defining equation for constant acceleration and the equation for displacement in terms of average velocity:

a

v

= t

a =

(

v

f

v

i

)

t

∆=

dv

av

t

d

∆=

(

v

i

+

v

f

)

2

t

(a) To derive the constant acceleration equation in which the final velocity has been eliminated: first solve acceleration
equation for
v
f
, then substitute into the equation for displacement.
(
v i v
+
)
f
∆=
d
t
2
(
v
+∆ at
)
v i +
v
v
i
∆= d
t
f
i
a =
2
∆ t
2
2 v
∆+ t
at ∆
v
= v
+∆
at
i
f
i
=
2
1
2
d
=
v
∆+ t
at ∆
i
2
(b) To derive the constant acceleration equation in which the initial velocity has been eliminated: first solve the
acceleration equation for
v i , then substitute into the equation for displacement.
(
v
+ v
)
i
f
∆= d
t
2
(
v − at ∆+
v
)
f
f
∆= d
t
2
=v −∆at
v i
f
2
2 v
∆− ∆
t
at
f
=
2
1
2
d
=
v
∆−
t
at
f
2
19. =18 m/s 2 [E]
∆t = 1.6 s
a
v
=73 m/s [W]
i
v
f = ?
v
− v
f
i
a
=
∆ t
+∆ at
v
=
v
f
i
2
=
73m/s[W]
+
18m/s [E](1.6s)
v
= 44 m/s[W]
f

20.

The velocity of the birdie is 44 m/s [W]. v = 41 m/s [S]

i

v

f

= 47 m/s [N]

t = 1.9 ms = 1.9 × 10 3 s

a = ?

a =

=

a =

v

f

v

i

t

47 m/s[N]

41m/s[S]

4.6

×

1.9

10

4

× 10

3

s

2

m/s [N]

The acceleration is 4.6 × 10 4 m/s 2 [N].

21. Note: As was described in the text, pages 24 and 25, and applied in Sample Problem 6, page 26, we can omit the vector

notation when

we have kept the vector notation in order to show what the final direction is.

v

f

2

or

v

i

2 terms are involved. However, in the solution shown here as well as the solution for question 24,

v i = 0

a = 2.3 m/s 2 [fwd] t = 3.6 s

(a) d = ?

dvt

=

i

∆+

=

0.0 m

1

2

+

a

(

(

t

)

2

2.3m/s

2

[

fwd

])

(3.6s)

2

2

The sprinter’s displacement is 15 m [fwd].

d

= 15m [fwd]

22.

(b)

v

f

= ?

a

=

v

f

v

i

t

v

= v

=

= 8.3 m/s [fwd]

i

+∆ at

0 m/s

f

v

f

+

(

2.3 m/s

2

)

[fwd] (3.6 s)

v

i

The sprinter’s final velocity is 8.3 m/s [fwd].

= 7.72 × 10 7 m/s [E]

= 2.46 × 10 7 m/s [E]

v

d = 0.478 m [E]

f

(a)

a = ?

v

v

f

=+∆

i

2

2

2

a =

v

2

v

2

f

i

2 d

(b)

(

2.46 10

×

7

m/s [E]

)(

2

−×

7.72

7

10 m/s [E]

)

2

=

a =−

a =

2(0.478m [E])

5.60 10

×

5.60 10

×

15

15

m/s

m/s

2

2

[E]

[W]

The electron’s acceleration is 5.60 × 10 15 m/s 2 [W].

t = ?

∆= d

t

=

=

1

2

(

vv +

i

f

2

d

v

i

+

v

f

)

t

2

(

0.478m [E]

)

(

7.72 10

×

7

m/s [E]

)(

2.46

7

10 m/s [E]

)

t

∆=

9.39 10

×

9

s

The acceleration occurs over 9.39 × 10 9 s.

Applying Inquiry Skills

23. The experiment can be simple. Besides the book and the desk, the only equipment required is a metre stick and a stopwatch. Slide the book along the desk at a constant speed for a predetermined distance that is long enough that the time interval to cover the distance is at least 2.0 s (e.g., slide the book at a constant speed of about 0.50 m/s for 2.0 s). Remove the pushing force from the book and determine the displacement from that instant to the stopping position. The

acceleration can be found by applying the equation

while the book is being pushed, and d is the distance the book slides after it is no longer pushed.

v

f

2

= v

i

2

+2ad , where v f = 0, v i is the measured value of the speed

Making Connections

24.

v = 75.0 km/h [N] = (

i

a = 4.80 m/s 2 [S] reaction time = ?

75.0 km/h [N]

)

 

1000 m



 

1 h

km

3600 s

   = 20.8 m/s [N]

First we must calculate the change in displacement:

v

2

f

d

=+∆

v

i

2

=

v

f

2

2

v

i

2

2 a

d

=

(

0 m/s

2

)(

20.8m/s[N]

)

2

2

2(4.80 m/s [S])

= 45.2 m[N]

Calculate reaction distance (distance before stopping) = 48.0 m – 45.2 m = 2.8 m reaction distance

reaction time =

=

v

i

2.8m

20.8 m/s

reaction time Thus, the reaction time is 0.13 s.

= 0.13s

PRACTICE

(Page 29)

Understanding Concepts

25.

v = 25 m/s [E]

i

=25 m/s [S] t = 15 s

v

f

a

av

= ?

Using components, with +x eastward and +y southward:

vv

v

=

xx

+−

fi

x

()

v

x

=− 25m/s

vv
=
+−
()
v
yy
fi
y
v
=
25 m/s
y
2
2
=
vv
+∆
x
y
 ( 25 m/s 2 )( + 25 m/s ) 2 ∆ v y ∆ v x − 1  25 m/s      25 m/s

=

=